WorldWideScience

Sample records for judged immoral behaviors

  1. Everything is permitted? People intuitively judge immorality as representative of atheists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will M Gervais

    Full Text Available Scientific research yields inconsistent and contradictory evidence relating religion to moral judgments and outcomes, yet most people on earth nonetheless view belief in God (or gods as central to morality, and many view atheists with suspicion and scorn. To evaluate intuitions regarding a causal link between religion and morality, this paper tested intuitive moral judgments of atheists and other groups. Across five experiments (N = 1,152, American participants intuitively judged a wide variety of immoral acts (e.g., serial murder, consensual incest, necrobestiality, cannibalism as representative of atheists, but not of eleven other religious, ethnic, and cultural groups. Even atheist participants judged immoral acts as more representative of atheists than of other groups. These findings demonstrate a prevalent intuition that belief in God serves a necessary function in inhibiting immoral conduct, and may help explain persistent negative perceptions of atheists.

  2. The Dark Side of Malleability: Incremental Theory Promotes Immoral Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Niwen; Zuo, Shijiang; Wang, Fang; Cai, Pan; Wang, Fengxiang

    2017-01-01

    Implicit theories drastically affect an individual's processing of social information, decision making, and action. The present research focuses on whether individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is fixed (entity theorists) and individuals who hold the implicit belief that people's moral character is malleable (incremental theorists) make different choices when facing a moral decision. Incremental theorists are less likely to make the fundamental attribution error (FAE), rarely make moral judgment based on traits and show more tolerance to immorality, relative to entity theorists, which might decrease the possibility of undermining the self-image when they engage in immoral behaviors, and thus we posit that incremental beliefs facilitate immorality. Four studies were conducted to explore the effect of these two types of implicit theories on immoral intention or practice. The association between implicit theories and immoral behavior was preliminarily examined from the observer perspective in Study 1, and the results showed that people tended to associate immoral behaviors (including everyday immoral intention and environmental destruction) with an incremental theorist rather than an entity theorist. Then, the relationship was further replicated from the actor perspective in Studies 2-4. In Study 2, implicit theories, which were measured, positively predicted the degree of discrimination against carriers of the hepatitis B virus. In Study 3, implicit theories were primed through reading articles, and the participants in the incremental condition showed more cheating than those in the entity condition. In Study 4, implicit theories were primed through a new manipulation, and the participants in the unstable condition (primed incremental theory) showed more discrimination than those in the other three conditions. Taken together, the results of our four studies were consistent with our hypotheses.

  3. The dark side of going abroad: How broad foreign experiences increase immoral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jackson G; Quoidbach, Jordi; Gino, Francesca; Chakroff, Alek; Maddux, William W; Galinsky, Adam D

    2017-01-01

    Because of the unprecedented pace of globalization, foreign experiences are increasingly common and valued. Past research has focused on the benefits of foreign experiences, including enhanced creativity and reduced intergroup bias. In contrast, the present work uncovers a potential dark side of foreign experiences: increased immoral behavior. We propose that broad foreign experiences (i.e., experiences in multiple foreign countries) foster not only cognitive flexibility but also moral flexibility. Using multiple methods (longitudinal, correlational, and experimental), 8 studies (N > 2,200) establish that broad foreign experiences can lead to immoral behavior by increasing moral relativism-the belief that morality is relative rather than absolute. The relationship between broad foreign experiences and immoral behavior was robust across a variety of cultural populations (anglophone, francophone), life stages (high school students, university students, MBA students, middle-aged adults), and 7 different measures of immorality. As individuals are exposed to diverse cultures, their moral compass may lose some of its precision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Inventing racist roads not taken: the licensing effect of immoral counterfactual behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effron, Daniel A; Miller, Dale T; Monin, Benoît

    2012-12-01

    Six experiments examined how people strategically use thoughts of foregone misdeeds to regulate their moral behavior. We tested 2 hypotheses: 1st, that people will feel licensed to act in morally dubious ways when they can point to immoral alternatives to their prior behavior, and 2nd, that people made to feel insecure about their morality will exaggerate the extent to which such alternatives existed. Supporting the 1st hypothesis, when White participants could point to racist alternatives to their past actions, they felt they had obtained more evidence of their own virtue (Study 1), they expressed less racial sensitivity (Study 2), and they were more likely to express preferences about employment and allocating money that favored Whites at the expense of Blacks (Study 3). Supporting the 2nd hypothesis, White participants whose security in their identity as nonracists had been threatened remembered a prior task as having afforded more racist alternatives to their behavior than did those who were not threatened. This distortion of the past involved overestimating the number of Black individuals they had encountered on the prior task (Study 4) and exaggerating how stereotypically Black specific individuals had looked (Studies 5 and 6). We discuss implications for moral behavior, the motivated rewriting of one's moral history, and how the life unlived can liberate people to lead the life they want.

  5. The Influence of (Dis)belief in Free Will on Immoral Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Emilie A.; Vuillaume, Laurène; Magalhães De Saldanha da Gama, Pedro A.; Cleeremans, Axel

    2017-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of human existence is that we all hold beliefs that determine how we act. Amongst such beliefs, the idea that we are endowed with free will appears to be linked to prosocial behaviors, probably by enhancing the feeling of responsibility of individuals over their own actions. However, such effects appear to be more complex that one might have initially thought. Here, we aimed at exploring how induced disbeliefs in free will impact the sense of agency over the consequences of one’s own actions in a paradigm that engages morality. To do so, we asked participants to choose to inflict or to refrain from inflicting an electric choc to another participant in exchange of a small financial benefit. Our results show that participants who were primed with a text defending neural determinism – the idea that humans are a mere bunch of neurons guided by their biology – administered fewer shocks and were less vindictive toward the other participant. Importantly, this finding only held for female participants. These results show the complex interaction between gender, (dis)beliefs in free will and moral behavior. PMID:28144228

  6. The Immoral Duchess

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi

    2016-01-01

    The essay is based on an excerpt of Hotel written by Arthur Hailey. Reader-response criticism is a theory about the connection between characters and readers. The real personalities of the characters and the inner meaning the author would like to express are actually closely related to the readers’ response. In this essay, it will focus on the Duchess, a character in Hotel, and analyse the immorality of the character.

  7. Immorally obtained principal increases investors’ risk preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiaxin; He, Guibing

    2017-01-01

    Capital derived from immoral sources is increasingly circulated in today’s financial markets. The moral associations of capital are important, although their impact on investment remains unknown. This research aims to explore the influence of principal source morality on investors’ risk preferences. Three studies were conducted in this regard. Study 1 finds that investors are more risk-seeking when their principal is earned immorally (through lying), whereas their risk preferences do not change when they invest money earned from neutral sources after engaging in immoral behavior. Study 2 reveals that guilt fully mediates the relationship between principal source morality and investors’ risk preferences. Studies 3a and 3b introduce a new immoral principal source and a new manipulation method to improve external validity. Guilt is shown to the decrease the subjective value of morally flawed principal, leading to higher risk preference. The findings show the influence of morality-related features of principal on people’s investment behavior and further support mental account theory. The results also predict the potential threats of “grey principal” to market stability. PMID:28369117

  8. The Immorality of Test Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Grant

    1994-01-01

    Argues that test security in student testing is an immoral, inefficient practice rooted in medieval views of the teacher-student relationship. Secrecy practices involving testing should be scrutinized carefully and minimized through the use of explicit principles--an Assessment Bill of Rights--that put students' rights on par with the testmaker's…

  9. Psychopathy and fear: specific impairments in judging behaviors that frighten others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail A; Cardinale, Elise M

    2012-10-01

    Psychopathy is a disorder associated with antisocial behavior and deficits in responding to emotional stimuli, particularly fear-related stimuli. This research demonstrates that these deficits extend to judgments about behaviors that cause fear in others. We assessed whether psychopathy is associated with the ability to identify the emotional consequences of social behaviors and with judgments about these behaviors' acceptability. We found that psychopathy, as indexed by the Psychopathic Personality Inventory, is associated with impairments in identifying behaviors that cause fear and in judging the moral acceptability of these behaviors. Ratings of emotional consequences and moral acceptability were also correlated, such that individuals who less accurately identified behaviors that cause fear also judged these behaviors to be more morally acceptable. Psychopathy scores mediated the relationship between these two variables. These findings suggest that understanding that frightening others is unacceptable relies on understanding this type of behavior's emotional consequences, and have significance for understanding the relationship between psychopathy, empathy, and antisocial behavior.

  10. Judging Attraction from Nonverbal Behavior: The Gain Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clore, Gerald L.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes two experiments conducted to explore non-verbal behaviors and their capacity to convey attraction between men and women. Examines in particular the gain phenomenon which is the idea that people are more attracted to a person who is initially punishing and then rewarding than to one who is always rewarding. (Author/EJT)

  11. A Study on Judges and Prosecutors’ Information Behavior for Legal Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-miin Lin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to understand judges and prosecutor’s information behavior, i.e., their information needs, seeking, and using of legal resources. Methods of questionnaire, interview, observation, and content analysis of legal forums were adopted to collect quantitative and qualitative data. The result shows that legal resources are mainly to support judges and prosecutors when conducting justice and criminal investigation, and they are mostly interested in the information being able to solve practical legal problems. The study also found 13 important characteristics of their seeking behaviors. Suggestions for improvement in publication of legal resources, legal information services, legal information system design, and law education are also provided. Finally, the study proposed an information behavior model of judges and prosecutors, which may benefit future related research. [Article Content in Chinese

  12. Judge Financial, Administrative Judge

    OpenAIRE

    Kurek, Aline

    2010-01-01

    As a specialised administrative judge, the financial judge, understood in the sense of the Auditors Court, of the regional Auditors Courts and of the Court of budgetary and financial discipline, has a ratione materiae jurisdiction. It is the judge's duty to ensure compliance with budgetary and national accounting rules. The perspective tending to view the financial judge as a administrative judge, that is to say as an ordinary administrative judge, may consequently give rise to certain object...

  13. Blind Ethics: Closing One's Eyes Polarizes Moral Judgments and Discourages Dishonest Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Eugene M.; Gino, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments demonstrate that closing one's eyes affects ethical judgment and behavior because it induces people to mentally simulate events more extensively. People who considered situations with their eyes closed rather than open judged immoral behaviors as more unethical and moral behaviors as more ethical. In addition, considering…

  14. Extraversion, neuroticism, immoral judgment and criminal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addad, M; Leslau, A

    1989-01-01

    The present study examines delinquent behaviour by integrating two approaches until now employed separately: Eysnck's theory linking delinquency to extraversion and neuroticism, and Kohlberg's theory of moral development and its connection to moral behaviour. The study analyzes the relations between extraversion, neuroticism and moral judgment, as well as their independent and/or interactive effect upon the development of anti-social behaviour. The relationships are tested by retrospective measurements of personality traits and moral judgment in three groups: delinquency (N = 203), control (N = 82) and comparative (N = 407) groups. Findings show that criminals are higher than control subjects in neuroticism and immoral judgment but not in extraversion. Similar relationships were found between criminals and the comparative group, with one exception: here extraversion was found to be positively related to delinquency, both independently and interactively with neuroticism. The implications of these results for differential development of anti-social behaviour are discussed.

  15. On immorality of terrorism and war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičovački Predrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The author first analyzes differences and similarities between war and terrorism and then argues that both are deeply immoral. Their differences are far less significant that their similarities, the main one of which consists in the denial of the view that every human life is equally worthy. This denial opens a way for an inhuman and violent treatment of those (enemies, others who are not as valuable as we are, which characterizes both terrorism and war. Besides having such unacceptable moral implications with regards to the treatment of other human beings, a further common and troubling implication of terrorism and war consists in the fact that dehumanization of others leads also to a dehumanization of ourselves. .

  16. Aspects of Verbal Behavior Cited by Listeners in Judging Speakers as Retarded or Not Retarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Keith T.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Results of asking 30 nonprofessionals for reasons speakers were judged to be retarded or not indicated that quality of speech (articulation, prosody, etc.) and the structure, content, and coherence of discourse are more important than sentence-level grammatical features in forming impressions of cognitive competence. (Author/DB)

  17. Pornography and Its Discontents: Immoral, Inviolate or Inconclusive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Larry

    1987-01-01

    To right-wing groups and some feminists pornography symbolizes immorality. The Attorney General's Commission on Pornography supported this thinking. It concluded that pornography increases aggression and it instituted a crackdown on pornography. Since no empirical evidence supports its conclusions, the commission was more concerned with censorship…

  18. Juvenile Judge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    SHANG Xiuyun was among the first sitting judges when the juvenile court was set up in Beijing 10 years ago. With enriched experience she has altered the way judges ask questions in court. She began the practice of inviting juvenile offenders, their parents, relatives, friends and teachers to the juvenile court to work hand in hand in dealing with cases: Facing their relatives and friends and hearing their heartfelt words, juvenile offenders would often be touched, thus bringing forth a positive attitude toward life.

  19. Can there be an immoral morality? Dark personality traits as predictors of moral foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Međedović Janko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous researches have shown that some aspects of Moral foundations do not correlate with indicators of immoral behavior, or even have positive correlations with them. The aim of this study was to explore the relations of Moral foundations with general (HEXACO personality model and “dark” personality traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism, narcissism and sadism. Data was gathered via on-line survey (N=402; 70% females. The results have shown that Openness is the best predictor from the set of basic personality traits: It has positive relations with Harm/Care and Fairness/Reciprocity and negative with the other three moral foundations. Psychopathy was negatively associated with Harm/Care and positively with Ingroup/Loyalty foundation. Machiavellianism was a positive predictor of Ingroup/Loyalty and Authority/ Respect. Results confirmed the existence of fundamental differences between moral foundations. Ingroup/Loyalty and Authority/Respect are partly based on immoral personal dispositions, which bring into question their conceptual status as human moral foundations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47011: Crime in Serbia: phenomenology, risks and the possibilities of social intervention

  20. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    OpenAIRE

    Peter McCormick

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summa...

  1. JUDGING SELECTION: APPOINTING CANADIAN JUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McCormick

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, the appointment of trial judges in Canada has generally involved an arms-length committee of professionals, although the structure of these committees and their role in the process has varied from province to province, as well as evolving over time. Yet these “new” structures and “new” processes did not prevent a major judicial appointment scandal in the province of Quebec in 2010, culminating in the formation of the Bastarache Committee to recommend changes. This paper summarizes the forty-year history of Canadian judicial appointment committees, identifies the major challenges that face those committees, and suggests the basic values toward which reforms to the appointment process might be directed. Depuis les années 1970, la nomination des juges de première instance au Canada a généralement mis à contribution un comité de professionnels indépendants, bien que la structure de ce comité et son rôle dans le processus de nomination aient varié d’une province à l’autre et évolué avec le temps. Ces « nouvelles » structures et « nouveaux » processus n’ont certes pas empêché l’éclatement du scandale sur la nomination des juges au Québec en 2010. Ce scandale a donné lieu à la formation de la Commission Bastarache qui avait notamment le mandat de recommander des changements. La présent document résume les quarante ans d’histoire des comités canadiens de nomination des juges, recense les principaux défis que ces comités doivent relever, et propose les valeurs fondamentales qui devraient inspirer les réformes du processus de nomination.

  2. Judging the judges' performance in rhythmic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessas, Konstantinos; Mylonas, Dimitris; Panagiotaropoulou, Georgia; Tsopani, Despina; Korda, Alexandrea; Siettos, Constantinos; Di Cagno, Alessandra; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Smyrnis, Nikolaos

    2015-03-01

    Rhythmic gymnastics (RG) is an aesthetic event balancing between art and sport that also has a performance rating system (Code of Points) given by the International Gymnastics Federation. It is one of the sports in which competition results greatly depend on the judges' evaluation. In the current study, we explored the judges' performance in a five-gymnast ensemble routine. An expert-novice paradigm (10 international-level, 10 national-level, and 10 novice-level judges) was implemented under a fully simulated procedure of judgment in a five-gymnast ensemble routine of RG using two videos of routines performed by the Greek national team of RG. Simultaneous recordings of two-dimensional eye movements were taken during the judgment procedure to assess the percentage of time spent by each judge viewing the videos and fixation performance of each judge when an error in gymnast performance had occurred. All judge level groups had very modest performance of error recognition on gymnasts' routines, and the best international judges reported approximately 40% of true errors. Novice judges spent significantly more time viewing the videos compared with national and international judges and spent significantly more time fixating detected errors than the other two groups. National judges were the only group that made efficient use of fixation to detect errors. The fact that international-level judges outperformed both other groups, while not relying on visual fixation to detect errors, suggests that these experienced judges probably make use of other cognitive strategies, increasing their overall error detection efficiency, which was, however, still far below optimum.

  3. The immoral landscape? Scientists are associated with violations of morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutjens, B.T.; Heine, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Do people think that scientists are bad people? Although surveys find that science is a highly respected profession, a growing discourse has emerged regarding how science is often judged negatively. We report ten studies (N = 2328) that investigated morality judgments of scientists and compared

  4. JudgeD: a probabilistic datalog with dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, Brend; Keulen, van Maurice; Flokstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present JudgeD, a probabilistic datalog. A JudgeD program defines a distribution over a set of traditional datalog programs by attaching logical sentences to clauses to implicitly specify traditional data programs. Through the logical sentences, JudgeD provides a novel method for the expression o

  5. JudgeD: a probabilistic datalog with dependencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanders, B.; van Keulen, Maurice; Flokstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We present JudgeD, a probabilistic datalog. A JudgeD program defines a distribution over a set of traditional datalog programs by attaching logical sentences to clauses to implicitly specify traditional data programs. Through the logical sentences, JudgeD provides a novel method for the expression

  6. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  7. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure....... However, a number of studies show that national judges experience difficulties in exercising EU competences due to their lack of knowledge in the field of EU law. In this contribution we study the differences in the level of self-evaluation of EU law knowledge among judges, which consequently influence...... the way judges approach EU law. For that purpose we question the relevance of several institutional and socio-legal factors, such as organization of the judiciary, generation, the system of legal education and judicial training and practical experience with EU law. Our analysis is based on data collected...

  8. Administrative Law Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  9. Moral-up first, immoral-down last: the time course of moral metaphors on a vertical dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han Lin; Lu, Ya Qiao; Lu, Zhong Yi

    2016-03-02

    Many abstract bipolar concepts are usually represented by metaphors on vertical dimensions (e.g. positive-up, negative-down). However, several studies have found an asymmetry in the way in which individuals process bipolar dimensions, with +polarities being stronger than -polarities. The current research focused on moral metaphors on a vertical dimension (e.g. moral-up and immoral-down) and examined the asymmetric representation of moral and immoral concepts. The first experiment showed a distinct metaphorical association between morality and vertical space, consistent with earlier research. The second experiment showed that moral and immoral words are processed differently depending on whether they are used as metaphorically congruent or incongruent vertical cues. 'Moral-up' association modulated the amplitudes of the N1, P2, and late positive-going potential during the processing of moral words, whereas the 'immoral-down' association only modulated the amplitudes of the late positive-going potential induced during the processing of immoral words. These results suggest that asymmetry in the processing of vertically represented morality metaphors is reflected in the time course of the representation of these bipolar concepts, with the 'moral-up' association having an earlier effect than the 'immoral-down' association.

  10. The Judge on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van den Hoven

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In many social realms, social media are employed by institutions to establish direct relations between ‘key agents’ and their clients or customers. In this article I explain why as yet the civil law judge cannot be expected to start using social networking sites to advance the transparency of the judicial decision-making process in a relatively open, form-free interaction with his or her ‘clients’. This explanation is grounded on the hybrid character of social networking sites. On the one hand, these sites are direct, interactive, informal, and personalized media; but on the other, they are public and basically permanent. Their direct, interactive, informal and personalized character is highly compatible with the multimodal, network-embedded, form-free self-representation of the modern judge in the courtroom. However, their public and permanent character manifests in the second performance of a judge, being held publicly and permanently accountable for what is decided. This performance is characterized by a unimodal, ‘punctualized’, formal self-representation. Referring to the work of legal sociologists as well as discourse scholars, it is underlined how much this public judicial self-representation is part of a persistent ritual that renders it incompatible with direct, interactive, informal and personalized communication. The hybrid character of social media does not allow judges to utilize them to act as key-agents: to open up the ‘backstage area’ to reveal the actual dynamics of the decision-making process, and to transparently connect the judicial performance in the courtroom session with the second performance when issuing a decision.

  11. The Moral Virtue of Authenticity: How Inauthenticity Produces Feelings of Immorality and Impurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gino, Francesca; Kouchaki, Maryam; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-07-01

    The five experiments reported here demonstrate that authenticity is directly linked to morality. We found that experiencing inauthenticity, compared with authenticity, consistently led participants to feel more immoral and impure. This link from inauthenticity to feeling immoral produced an increased desire among participants to cleanse themselves and to engage in moral compensation by behaving prosocially. We established the role that impurity played in these effects through mediation and moderation. We found that inauthenticity-induced cleansing and compensatory helping were driven by heightened feelings of impurity rather than by the psychological discomfort of dissonance. Similarly, physically cleansing oneself eliminated the relationship between inauthenticity and prosocial compensation. Finally, we obtained additional evidence for discriminant validity: The observed effects on desire for cleansing were not driven by general negative experiences (i.e., failing a test) but were unique to experiences of inauthenticity. Our results establish that authenticity is a moral state--that being true to thine own self is experienced as a form of virtue.

  12. Judging the Judges: finding value in these problematic characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L R Martin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The biblical judges are well known for their less than exemplary behaviour. In the past, these judges have been appreciated largely as examples of how a charismatic leader should not behave. In spite of the judges� questionable morals, the writer of the book of Hebrews commends four of them (Barak, Gideon, Jephthah, and Samson for their faith. This paper evaluates these judges in light of their characterisations in the book of Hebrews and in the book of Judges and suggests that our struggle with the judges parallels the contemporary integrity crisis in Christian leadership.

  13. Badness, madness and the brain - the late 19th-century controversy on immoral persons and their malfunctioning brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2013-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th-century, a group of psychiatric experts discussed the relation between brain malfunction and moral misconduct. In the ensuing debates, scientific discourses on immorality merged with those on insanity and the brain. This yielded a specific definition of what it means t

  14. The wondrous eyes of a new technology : A history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts explo

  15. The effect of construal level on unethical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamliel, Eyal; Kreiner, Hamutal; McElroy, Todd

    2017-01-01

    Construal level theory predicts that people will judge immoral events more harshly when these are presented in a way that elicits a higher construal level, relative to a lower construal level. Previous research supported this prediction using an Israeli sample but not a U.S.

  16. What makes a psychopath? Neuro-developmental pathways to immoral and antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.

    2016-01-01

    Before specific psychological and pharmacological treatments can be designed, or pre-emptive measures taken to reduce the impact of psychopathic individuals on society, it is paramount that we first reach consensus on (1) which personality styles comprise this heterogeneous group, (2) how these

  17. "The wondrous eyes of a new technology"-a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts explored its potential regarding the diagnosis, classification, etiology, and treatment of unethical and unlawful persons. This line of research yielded tentative and inconsistent findings, which the experts attributed to methodological and theoretical shortcomings. Accordingly, the scientific community discussed the reliability, validity, and utility of EEG, and launched initiatives to calibrate and standardize the novel tool. The analysis shows that knowledge production, gauging of the research tool, and attempts to establish credibility for EEG in the study of immoral persons occurred simultaneously. The paper concludes with a reflection on the similarities between EEG and neuroimaging-the prime research tool in the current neuroscience of morality-and calls for a critical assessment of their potentials and limitations in the study of immorality and crime.

  18. The wondrous eyes of a new technology – A history of the early electroencephalography (EEG of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eSchirmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts explored its potential regarding the diagnosis, classification, etiology, and treatment of unethical and unlawful persons. This line of research yielded tentative and inconsistent findings, which the experts attributed to methodological and theoretical shortcomings. Accordingly, the scientific community discussed the reliability, validity, and utility of EEG, and launched initiatives to calibrate and standardize the novel tool. The analysis shows that knowledge production, gauging of the research tool, and attempts to establish credibility for EEG in the study of immoral persons occurred simultaneously. The paper concludes with a reflection on the similarities between EEG and neuroimaging – the prime research tool in the current neuroscience of morality – and calls for a critical assessment of their potentials and limitations in the study of immorality and crime.

  19. "You Be the Judge."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1995-01-01

    Although teachers at all levels are encouraged to use role-playing and simulation, they usually overestimate role-playing's learning value. Teachers use these methods mainly to change behavior (and values), not reinforce curriculum content. Sociodramas (scenes based on typical situations facing children) are more effective role-playing activities…

  20. Internalized Impressions: The Link Between Apparent Facial Trustworthiness and Deceptive Behavior Is Mediated by Targets' Expectations of How They Will Be Judged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepian, Michael L; Ames, Daniel R

    2016-02-01

    Researchers have debated whether a person's behavior can be predicted from his or her face. In particular, it is unclear whether people's trustworthiness can be predicted from their facial appearance. In the present study, we implemented conceptual and methodological advances in this area of inquiry, taking a new approach to capturing trustworthy behavior and measuring targets' own self-expectations as a mediator between consensual appearance-based judgments and the trustworthiness of targets' behavior. Using this novel paradigm to capture 900 observations of targets' behavior (as trustworthy or untrustworthy), we found that face-based judgments predicted trustworthiness. We also found that this effect was mediated by targets' expectations of how other people would perceive them and by their intentions to act in accordance with those expectations. These results are consistent with an internalized-impressions account: Targets internalize other people's appearance-based expectations and act in accordance with them, which leads facial-appearance-based judgments to be accurate. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. HUD Administrative Law Judges Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This site contains substantive and precedential decisions issued by the Office of Administrative Law Judges. The site does not contain subsequent rulings or...

  2. Review of dissertation «School-Wide Positive Behavior Support for Individuals with Severe and Profound Disabilities» by Brittany A. Judge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The review presents a study provided to t the Faculty of psychology and Department of Graduate College of the University of Nebraska (United States by the Supervisory Commission draft Ed. S. Field Project. The Commission examined this study to assess the conformity of the rules of procedures for the award of a master's degree in the field of school psychology. Publication may be of interest to readers because of the unrelenting relevance of psycho-pedagogical problems of safety and effectiveness of educational environment for students with developmental and behavioral limitations, as well as the need to expand the arsenal of tools and school preventive intervention strategies in alternative schools. The publication helps to estimate the difficulty of psycho-pedagogical work and educational process in relation to children with severe personality disorderss

  3. A toolbox for European judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    The forthcoming instrument on European contract law, be it in the shape of an optional code for cross-border contracts or as an official toolbox for the European legislator, is likely to have a spill-over effect on private law adjudication in Europe. Judges will have no great difficulty in finding m

  4. In the CJEU Judges Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to highlight the relevance of judicial trust in international courts, focusing on national judges' trust in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). EU scholars have put a great deal of effort into explaining how legal and political factors affect the use of preliminary...... references by national courts. However, there is still a gap in the literature on the development of trust as a functional principle encouraging co-operation between national and international courts. This article explores the nature, causes and potentials of judicial trust for the EU judicial system....... A theory is offered in the article, which links national judges' trust in the CJEU to their corporatist identification and profile, to their attitudes towards the EU, and to their beliefs about the CJEU's ability to provide decisions that: 1) offer a clear guidance on European Union law, and 2...

  5. Chinese Judge At WTO Court

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China had its first judge appointed to the World Trade Organization (WTO) when the world body recently selected four senior jus- tices to its seven-people Appellate Body—top court.Lawyer Zhang Yuejiao was one of the four appointed on November 27 by the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) for a four-year term.Her tenure will commence on June 1,2008.

  6. Staff Judge Advocate Deskbook. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    eight Family Law OThirty-nine Taxation Forty Servicemember Protections Forty-one Consumer Law Forty-two Practice Aids PAWT VII ADMINSTRATIV... Consumer Law Guide; and e. L1al Asistance Officer’s Dekbook and Form Book. D. 11mlized forms 1. Simple forms Wills 2. Form letters a. Form letterto creditor...Assistance Division (Code 36) R. Consumer Law Guide, Pub JA 265, The Judge Advocate General’s School, U.S. Army Naval Justice School SJA Dekbook

  7. 4 CFR 28.22 - Administrative judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative judges. 28.22 Section 28.22 Accounts... Procedures Hearing Procedures for Cases Before the Board-General § 28.22 Administrative judges. (a) Exercise of authority. Administrative judges may exercise authority as provided in paragraph (b) of...

  8. The HEXACO and 5DPT models of personality: a comparison and their relationships with psychopathy, egoism, pretentiousness, immorality, and Machiavellianism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Reinout E; van Kampen, Dirk

    2010-04-01

    This study describes and tests two models of personality: the HEXACO model of personality, which is derived from the lexical tradition and which is rooted in "normal" psychology, and the 5DPT model of personality, which is derived from a theoretical approach and which is rooted in clinical psychology. The HEXACO and 5DPT models are compared in the prediction of antisocial and self-benefiting personality traits in a large-scale community sample study. Relative weight analyses show that HEXACO Honesty-Humility explains most of the variance in SRPIII Psychopathy, Egoism, and IPIP Pretentiousness, Immorality, and Machiavellianism. Additionally, Honesty-Humility is able to increment the amount of variance explained by the 5DPT scales in these antisocial and self-benefiting personality scales. Consequences for the 5DPT and for the choice of a dimensional axis-II personality model in the run-up of the DSM-V are discussed.

  9. A Semi-Parametric Bayesian Mixture Modeling Approach for the Analysis of Judge Mediated Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckle, Timothy Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Existing methods for the analysis of ordinal-level data arising from judge ratings, such as the Multi-Facet Rasch model (MFRM, or the so-called Facets model) have been widely used in assessment in order to render fair examinee ability estimates in situations where the judges vary in their behavior or severity. However, this model makes certain…

  10. Moral Motivation, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeff; Bock, Tonia; Narvaez, Darcia

    2013-01-01

    The link between judgment and action is weak throughout psychology, including moral psychology. That is, people often do not act in accordance with their reasoning. Might moral judgment development be better viewed as a capacity that inhibits "immoral" behavior? One model that helps account for the moral judgment-action gap is Rest's…

  11. 5 CFR 2421.9 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 2421.9 Section... Administrative Law Judge. Administrative Law Judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge or any Administrative Law Judge designated by the Chief Administrative Law Judge to conduct a hearing in cases......

  12. The differential depiction of female athletes in judged and non-judged sport magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Rebecca L; Gray, James J

    2006-12-01

    Sports magazines portrayal of female athletes over the past ten years, in terms of body size, age, and race was examined. Using the Contour Drawing Rating Scale (CDRS), estimated body size was obtained for cover models on a set of judged and non-judged sport magazines. The frequency with which the full bodies of models were depicted on the covers of these magazines was also investigated. Cover models on judged sport magazines were rated as significantly thinner than cover models on non-judged sport magazines. Judged sport magazines also displayed a higher number of full-body images than non-judged sport magazines. These findings suggest that individuals who read judged sport magazines are more likely to be exposed to thin media images than those reading non-judged sport magazines.

  13. 8 CFR 1003.10 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1003.10 Section 1003.10 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration Judge § 1003.10 Immigration...

  14. 8 CFR 1240.1 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.1 Section 1240.1 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION... Immigration judges. (a) Authority. (1) In any removal proceeding pursuant to section 240 of the Act,...

  15. 8 CFR 1240.41 - Immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judges. 1240.41 Section 1240.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION..., 1997) § 1240.41 Immigration judges. (a) Authority. In any proceeding conducted under this part...

  16. Interviewing Judges in the Transnational Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaremba, Urszula; Mak, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of qualitative interviewing in the field of legal studies, and more precisely the practice of interviewing judges. In the last five years the authors of this article conducted two different research projects which involved interviewing judges as a research method.

  17. The Value of 4-H Judging Teams--Missouri Dairy Judging Alumni Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaver, Karla; Probert, Ted

    2016-01-01

    Former Missouri 4-H Dairy Judging Team members responded to a survey about life skills development and the value of the judging team experience. Results of the survey indicate that judging team experience was highly influential in the development of communication, public speaking, and presentation skills. Respondents also indicated that judging…

  18. Judging the morality of utilitarian actions: How poor utilitarian accessibility makes judges irrational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusev, Petko; van Schaik, Paul; Alzahrani, Shrooq; Lonigro, Samantha; Purser, Harry

    2016-12-01

    Is it acceptable and moral to sacrifice a few people's lives to save many others? Research on moral dilemmas in psychology, experimental philosophy, and neuropsychology has shown that respondents judge utilitarian personal moral actions (footbridge dilemma) as less appropriate than equivalent utilitarian impersonal moral actions (trolley dilemma). Accordingly, theorists (e.g., Greene et al., 2001) have argued that judgments of appropriateness in personal moral dilemmas are more emotionally salient and cognitively demanding (taking more time to be rational) than impersonal moral dilemmas. Our novel findings show an effect of psychological accessibility (driven by partial contextual information; Kahneman, 2003) on utilitarian moral behavior and response time for rational choices. Enhanced accessibility of utilitarian outcomes through comprehensive information about moral actions and consequences boosted utility maximization in moral choices, with rational choices taking less time. Moreover, our result suggests that previous results indicating emotional interference, with rational choices taking more time to make, may have been artifacts of presenting partial information.

  19. On Justified about Communieation Behavior of Judges and Parties---Also on the Meaning about Civil Law Artiele 44,Paragraph 3%论法官与当事人沟通行为的正当化--兼谈《民事诉讼法》新增第44条第三款的制度意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 白洋

    2014-01-01

    China’s eurrent law prohibits a party eontaeted separately the judge privately,but in praetiee jud-ges,in many eases breaking the prohibitions established norms. From the perspeetive of value judgments eonsidera-tions. Judges and the parties normative eommunieation behavior does not endanger the eurrent judieial dispute reso-lution funetion,but from the program statutory standpoint,the damage to the legitimaey of the judieial proeess is an objeetive reality. The eurrent prevalenee no regulate eommunieation behavior,whieh produees mainly three reasons:First,the judge evaluation system is unreasonable,the seeond the judge existenee an entity impartial,whieh pursu-ing the eolleetive uneonseious,the three are part of the distriet eourt eases too mueh emphasis on mediation rate. Aehieving the basie path of eommunieation behaviors are threefold:First,improving the relevant laws and regula-tions,and seeond,to aehieve tune trial separation,the third is to strengthen the administration of justiee.%我国现行法律禁止法官私自单独接触一方当事人,但实务中法官在案件审理过程中与当事人多有接触,很多情况下都突破了既有规范的禁止性规定。从价值判断的角度考量,法官与当事人沟通行为的不规范性并没有危及当下的司法纠纷解决功能,但从程序法定的角度看,其对司法程序正当性的损害是客观存在的。当下普遍存在的法官与当事人不规范沟通行为,其产生的主要原因有法官考评制度不合理、法官存在追求实体公正的集体无意识以及部分地方法院过分注重案件调解率。要实现法官与当事人沟通行为的正当化,就必须完善相关法律规范,实现调审分离,加强司法行政管理。

  20. 29 CFR 102.36 - Unavailability of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unavailability of administrative law judge. 102.36 Section... Hearings § 102.36 Unavailability of administrative law judge. In the event the administrative law judge... chief administrative law judge, in Washington, DC, the associate chief judge, in San...

  1. 22 CFR 1421.8 - Administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Administrative law judge. 1421.8 Section 1421.8... TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.8 Administrative law judge. Administrative law judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge or any administrative law judge designated by the Chief...

  2. 29 CFR 457.17 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 457.17 Section 457.17 Labor... GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.17 Administrative Law Judge. Administrative Law Judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge or any Administrative Law Judge designated by the...

  3. 29 CFR 458.80 - Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges. 458.80 Section... Administrative Law Judges. In the event the Administrative Law Judge designated to conduct the hearing becomes unavailable, the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall designate another Administrative Law Judge for...

  4. 20 CFR 901.43 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 901.43 Section 901... Termination of Enrollment § 901.43 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Appointment. An administrative law judge... Administrative Law Judge. Among other powers, the Administrative Law Judge shall have authority, in...

  5. 22 CFR 128.2 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 128.2 Section 128.2... § 128.2 Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge referred to in this part is an Administrative Law Judge appointed by the Department of State. The Administrative Law Judge is authorized...

  6. Does Judge Turnover Affect Judicial Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Tagliapietra, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Italy is among the countries with the highest litigation rate and those with the highest duration of trials. This article shows that judge turnover contributes negatively to delays in Italian courts and outlines possible policies for improvement. In Italy, judges can voluntarily move from one...... office to another after three years of mandate, and the law prescribes their transfer after ten years to guarantee their independence. Flaws in the process managing the backlog of outbound judges and the existence of asynchrony between outbound and inbound transfers produce a chain of delays...... to the disposition of court cases. Using a novel dataset on Court of Appeal Districts in Italy (2008–2012), we provide evidence of a strong negative relation between high turnover rates and judicial performance. We find that marginal increases in judge turnover rates lead to a statistically significant decrease...

  7. 2009 Administrative Law Judge Initial Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The initial decisions issued by administrative law judges in 2009 that contains findings of fact, legal conclusions, and an order that often contains a sanction....

  8. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  9. 7 CFR 900.6 - Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Rules of Practice and Procedure Governing Proceedings To Formulate Marketing Agreements and Marketing Orders § 900.6 Judges....

  10. EPA Administrative Law Judge Legal Documents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains Decisions and Orders originating from EPAs Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ), which is an independent office in the Office of the...

  11. 2010 Administrative Law Judge Initial Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The initial decisions issued by administrative law judges in 2010 that contains findings of fact, legal conclusions, and an order that often contains a sanction....

  12. Training and Recruitment of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Training of German judges is part of general legal education which is the same for all regulated legal professions (judges, prosecutors, practising lawyers, lawyers in administration and private employment. This uniform qualification is acquired by passing two exams administered by the state, i.e. the Länder (not the Federation, the first exam after university studies and the second exam after state-organized practical training. The paper gives an overview of this system of legal education. Germany, as a rule, has career judges. Courts of first and second instance are administered by the Länder, therefore the Länder judicial administrations are also responsible for recruitment of young career judges. General criteria for appointment to any public office are laid down in the German constitution (Grundgesetz. Apart from this, selection proceedings differ in detail, although elaborate lists of criteria (employee profiles, competence profiles are widely used. Professional competence is judged with emphasis on exam results; personal competence and social competence are assessed in interviews with appointment commissions or staff managers of ministries of justice. The paper provides details of these proceedings and also gives the author’s personal experience with recruitment proceedings in the Court of Appeal district of Cologne.

  13. EPA Administrative Law Judge Legal Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dataset contains Decisions and Orders originating from EPAs Office of Administrative Law Judges (OALJ), which is an independent office in the Office of the Administrator of the EPA. The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws. Administrative Law Judges preside in enforcement and permit proceedings in accordance with the Administrative Procedure Act. Most enforcement actions initiated by the EPA are for the assessment of civil penalties. The Decisions and Orders are organized into three categories: (1) alphabetical listing by the respondent involved, (2) reverse chronological listing by date, and (3) Decisions and Orders under FIFRA Section 6. This dataset includes Decisions and Orders dating back to 1989 in the Reverse Chronological list, Decisions and Orders dating back to 1997 in the Alphabetical list, and a few Decisions and Orders dating back to 1974 under FIFRA Section 6.

  14. Detecting Children's Lies: Are Parents Accurate Judges of Their Own Children's Lies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…

  15. Detecting Children's Lies: Are Parents Accurate Judges of Their Own Children's Lies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…

  16. Gymnastic Judges Benefit from Their Own Motor Experience as Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzera, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Gymnastic judges have the difficult task of evaluating highly complex skills. My purpose in the current study was to examine evidence that judges use their sensorimotor experiences to enhance their perceptual judgments. In a video test, 58 judges rated 31 gymnasts performing a balance beam skill. I compared decision quality between judges who…

  17. 46 CFR 5.19 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 5.19 Section 5.19 Shipping... REGULATIONS-PERSONNEL ACTION Definitions § 5.19 Administrative Law Judge. (a) An Administrative Law Judge... has delegated to Administrative Law Judges the authority to admonish, suspend, with or...

  18. 49 CFR 386.54 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 386.54 Section 386.54... General Rules and Hearings § 386.54 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Powers of an Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge may take any action and may prescribe all necessary rules and...

  19. 28 CFR 68.26 - Designation of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of Administrative Law Judge... PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF... Designation of Administrative Law Judge. Hearings shall be held before an Administrative Law Judge...

  20. 4 CFR 28.23 - Disqualification of administrative judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disqualification of administrative judges. 28.23 Section... of administrative judges. (a) In the event that an administrative judge considers himself or herself... there is a basis for disqualification. (c) The administrative judge shall rule on the withdrawal...

  1. 5 CFR 1201.125 - Administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judge. 1201.125... § 1201.125 Administrative law judge. (a) An administrative law judge will hear a disciplinary action... administrative law judge will issue an initial decision on the complaint pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 557. The...

  2. 29 CFR 102.37 - Disqualification of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disqualification of administrative law judge. 102.37... Hearings § 102.37 Disqualification of administrative law judge. An administrative law judge may withdraw.... If, in the opinion of the administrative law judge, such affidavit is filed with due diligence and...

  3. 29 CFR 101.11 - Administrative law judge's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge's decision. 101.11 Section 101.11... Administrative law judge's decision. (a) At the conclusion of the hearing the administrative law judge prepares a... administrative law judge may recommend dismissal or sustain the complaint, in whole or in part, and...

  4. 47 CFR 0.341 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of administrative law judge. 0.341... Delegations of Authority Administrative Law Judges § 0.341 Authority of administrative law judge. (a) After an administrative law judge has been designated to preside at a hearing and until he has issued an initial...

  5. 29 CFR 18.30 - Unavailability of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unavailability of administrative law judge. 18.30 Section 18... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.30 Unavailability of administrative law judge. In the event the administrative law judge designated to conduct the hearing becomes unavailable,...

  6. 29 CFR 18.29 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority of administrative law judge. 18.29 Section 18.29... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.29 Authority of administrative law judge. (a) General powers. In any proceeding under this part, the administrative law judge shall have all...

  7. 43 CFR 4.1308 - Decision by administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision by administrative law judge. 4... Decision by administrative law judge. (a) The administrative law judge shall issue a written decision.... (b) If the administrative law judge concludes that the individual is liable for an individual...

  8. 40 CFR 209.18 - Administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge. 209.18... law judge. (a) General. The administrative law judge shall conduct a fair and impartial hearing in... form whenever in the opinion of the administrative law judge oral testimony is not necessary for...

  9. 43 CFR 4.1157 - Determination by administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination by administrative law judge... judge. (a) The administrative law judge shall incorporate in his decision concerning the civil penalty.... (b) If the administrative law judge finds that— (1) A violation occurred or that the fact...

  10. 30 CFR 44.20 - Designation of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of administrative law judge. 44.20... STANDARDS Hearings § 44.20 Designation of administrative law judge. Within 5 days after receipt of a... Judge shall designate an administrative law judge appointed under section 3105 of Title 5 of the...

  11. 29 CFR 417.6 - Powers of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Powers of Administrative Law Judge. 417.6 Section 417.6... Administrative Law Judge. The designated Administrative Law Judge shall have authority: (a) To give notice... other actions authorized by the regulations in this part. The Administrative Law Judge's authority...

  12. 28 CFR 68.29 - Unavailability of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING... FRAUD § 68.29 Unavailability of Administrative Law Judge. In the event the Administrative Law Judge... another Administrative Law Judge for the purpose of further hearing or other appropriate action....

  13. 14 CFR 13.205 - Administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judges. 13.205 Section... Administrative law judges. (a) Powers of an administrative law judge. In accordance with the rules of this subpart, an administrative law judge may: (1) Give notice of, and hold, prehearing conferences...

  14. 17 CFR 12.305 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge. 12.305 Section 12.305 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. (a) At his own request. An Administrative Law Judge may withdraw from... of a party. Any party may request an Administrative Law Judge to disqualify himself on the grounds...

  15. 29 CFR 18.25 - Designation of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Designation of administrative law judge. 18.25 Section 18.25... BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES General § 18.25 Designation of administrative law judge. Hearings shall be held before an administrative law judge appointed under 5 U.S.C. 3105 and assigned to...

  16. 20 CFR 410.635 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge... Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. No Administrative Law Judge shall conduct a hearing in a case in... Administrative Law Judge shall consider such objection and shall, in his discretion, either proceed with...

  17. 29 CFR 457.18 - Chief Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chief Administrative Law Judge. 457.18 Section 457.18 Labor... GENERAL Meaning of Terms as Used in This Chapter § 457.18 Chief Administrative Law Judge. Chief Administrative Law Judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20210....

  18. 22 CFR 1421.9 - Chief Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Chief Administrative Law Judge. 1421.9 Section... OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.9 Chief Administrative Law Judge. Chief Administrative Law Judge means the Chief Administrative Law Judge of the Authority....

  19. 27 CFR 71.95 - Responsibilities of administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative law judges. 71.95 Section 71.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... PERMIT PROCEEDINGS Administrative Law Judges § 71.95 Responsibilities of administrative law judges. Administrative law judges shall be under the administrative control of the Administrator. They shall...

  20. 28 CFR 0.117 - Office of Chief Immigration Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Chief Immigration Judge. 0.117... Executive Office for Immigration Review § 0.117 Office of Chief Immigration Judge. The Chief Immigration Judge shall provide general supervision to the Immigration Judges in performance of their duties...

  1. Gymnastic Judges Benefit from Their Own Motor Experience as Gymnasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzera, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Gymnastic judges have the difficult task of evaluating highly complex skills. My purpose in the current study was to examine evidence that judges use their sensorimotor experiences to enhance their perceptual judgments. In a video test, 58 judges rated 31 gymnasts performing a balance beam skill. I compared decision quality between judges who…

  2. 32 CFR 776.31 - Former judge or arbitrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Former judge or arbitrator. 776.31 Section 776... Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.31 Former judge or arbitrator. (a) Former judge or arbitrator: (1... substantially as a judge or other adjudicative officer, arbitrator, or law clerk to such a person, unless...

  3. Federal Judge Orders Showing of Controversial Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews a recent court decision in Nebraska regarding the cancellation of a controversial film on the University of Nebraska campus. The film was cancelled after a state senator threatened to close the theater if the movie was shown. The lawsuit alleged the university violated the First Amendment in cancelling the film; the judge ruled for the…

  4. How Do Raters Judge Spoken Vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…

  5. Harry Judge and Oxford: College and University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, A. H.

    2008-01-01

    Has Harry Judge's career reproduced in a lifetime the centuries-old history of Brasenose College and the University of Oxford? His biography and the history of his college in relation to Christian belief and modern university reform are briefly recapitulated. All tell a story of adaptation and modernisation, the man short, the college long, the…

  6. Judging the international transfer of technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, H.J.; de Bruijn, E.J.

    2000-01-01

    International transfer of technology is a widely discussed area in the scientific literature. Although many different factors are discussed in the literature that affect the transfer of technology, it is not clear how to judge the performance of companies involved in international technology

  7. 7 CFR 900.55 - Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... matter as a part of the record and decision in the proceeding, after making such investigation or holding... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and... Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.55 Judges....

  8. 7 CFR 1200.7 - Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... matter as a part of the record and decision in the proceeding, after making such investigation or holding... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Judge. 1200.7 Section 1200.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS...

  9. Judging The International Transfer Of Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2000-01-01

    International transfer of technology is a widely discussed area in the scientific literature. Although many different factors are discussed in the literature that affect the transfer of technology, it is not clear how to judge the performance of companies involved in international technology transfe

  10. 裁判员在基本体操比赛评分中的心理行为及其调控%The Psychological Behavior and Adjustment of Judges in Gymnastics Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈瑞杰

    2001-01-01

    通过对裁判员在基本体操比赛评分中各种心理活动的行为分类及分析,提出了基本的管理及调控方法。%By classifying and analysing the psychological behaviors ofjudges in gymnastics competition,this essay puts forward basic management and adjustment methods.

  11. Practical Skills of Rhythmic Gymnastics Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Villarino, Maria A.; Bobo-Arce, Marta; Sierra-Palmeiro, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the practical skills of rhythmic gymnastics judges and to identify how their degree and experience influence the assessment of these skills. Sixty one rhythmic gymnastics judges participated in the study. A questionnaire was used for data collection. This tool was composed of 28 questions and divided into six categories: identification, experience, initial training, continuing education, skills and training needs. The results suggest that the most valued skills are those related to the sport’s technical parameters and the ability to adapt to any level of competition with self-confidence and self-assuredness. Significant differences were found regarding the variables for: the ability to communicate (p = 0.002) and for the ability to observe, identify and register performance (p = 0.005). The results showed that experience was not a decisive factor in assessing skills. This study thus presents evidence that rhythmic gymnastics judges must implement and optimise a set of skills that contribute to the effectiveness of the assessment process. These findings might help in the design of programs and training models that contribute to effective professional development. PMID:24511360

  12. Striving for the moral self : The effects of recalling past moral actions on future moral behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, J.; Mullen, E.; Murnighan, J.K.

    People's desires to see themselves as moral actors can contribute to their striving for and achievement of a sense of self-completeness. The authors use self-completion theory to predict (and show) that recalling one's own (im)moral behavior leads to compensatory rather than consistent moral action

  13. Striving for the moral self : The effects of recalling past moral actions on future moral behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, J.; Mullen, E.; Murnighan, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    People's desires to see themselves as moral actors can contribute to their striving for and achievement of a sense of self-completeness. The authors use self-completion theory to predict (and show) that recalling one's own (im)moral behavior leads to compensatory rather than consistent moral action

  14. The duration of disgusted and fearful faces is judged longer and shorter than that of neutral faces: the attention-related time distortions as revealed by behavioral and electrophysiological measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandan eZhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Time perception has been shown to be altered by emotions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs to examine the effects of two threat-related emotions on the judgment of time intervals in the range of 490-910 ms. We demonstrated that disgust and fear have distinct influences on time perception. At the behavioral level, disgusted faces were estimated longer and fearful faces were estimated shorter (i.e., the generalization gradient for the disgusted faces was shifted left while the generalization gradient for the fearful faces was shifted right when compared with neutral faces. Accordingly, the contingent negative variation, an online ERP index of timing, displayed larger area in disgust and smaller area in fear conditions when compared with neutral condition (disgust = 1.94 ± 2.35 μV•s, neutral = 1.40 ± 2.5 μV•s, and fear = 1.00 ± 2.26 μV•s. These findings indicated that specific neural mechanisms may underlie the attention effects of different subtypes of threat-related emotions on timing; compared with neutral faces, fearful faces are likely to attract more attentional resources while disgusted faces may attract less attentional resources for emotional processing. The major contribution of the current study is to provide neural correlates of fear vs. disgust divergence in the aspect of time perception and to demonstrate beyond the behavioral level that the categorization of threat-related emotions should be refined so to highlight the adaptability of the human defense system.

  15. Disciplinary Responsibility Of Judges And Judicial Employees In England And Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury M. Filippov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Present article is devoted to the topical issues of the judges and judicial employees’ disciplinary responsibility in England and Wales after the adoption of the Constitutional Reform Act and creation of the new disciplinary bodies. Present article contains a short analysis of the mechanism of professional and ethical standards among judges and magistrates of England and Wales maintenance, possible conflict of interests settlement and questions of conduct in the need of disciplinary trial. Author consider features of the lord powers - chancellor in the questions of bringing judges and magistrates to the disciplinary responsibility, interaction of the Lord Chancellor with the Lord - Supreme Judge and the Ministry of Justice in the questions of the disciplinary investigations organization and conduct. At the same time author considers an aspect that responsibility before the civil society has an informal character and doesn't assume carrying out any trial. At the same time possibility of judge's and court's employees behavior discussion by public organizations and associations and also in press is a usual practice. In the conclusion author notes that to the number of features of English model of the disciplinary responsibility of judges and judicial employees it is necessary to include active participation of public authorities in the process of trial on the complaints in regard to actions of judges and judicial employees (Ministry of Justice is authorized to conduct such trials, the dual legal nature of such decision on the complaint which is taken out not only on behalf of the judicial community, but also a name of the Lord Chancellor appointed by the Parliament, general procedure of the judge's and worker's of courts, and also coroners accountability.

  16. Virginia Tech Horse Judging Team leaves its mark in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    The Virginia Tech Horse Judging Team completed a successful spring competition season with a win at the American Paint Horse Association's Spring Intercollegiate Horse Judging Sweepstakes in Fort Worth, Texas.

  17. "Judges of the Velum" and "Judges of the Hippodrome" in Thessalonike (11th c.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas GKOUTZIOUKOSTAS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on judicial officers coming from Constantinople to Thessalonike in the 11th century. The judge of the theme of Thessalonike was in charge of trying cases in the region. From the second fifth of the 11th century, however, his jurisdiction was extended to the greater financial and judicial unit of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike as well. Lead seals and documents from the archives of the monasteries of Athos prove that many of the krites of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike had been previously krites of the velum and judges of the hippodrome who performed their duties in the capital and belonged to the ranks of the “small judges”. These judicial officers tried cases that were referred to them, while they could also function as assessors of the “great” or superior judges of Constantinople, i.e. the droungarios of the vigla, the dikaiodotes, the protoasecretis, the eparchos of the city, the koiaistor and the epi ton kriseon. The latter could delegate the authority to try cases to the “small” or inferior judges. Consequently, the judges of the velum and the judges of the hippodrome could also be sent from Constantinople to the themes by the emperor or other officials, in order to examine some cases and then return to the capital. This is confirmed by the primary sources, which mention for example the case of judge of the hippodrome Michael Rhodios, who was sent by Alexios I Komnenos in 1084 from Constantinople to the region of Thessalonike, in order to examine a dispute between the Lavra monastery and the brother of the emperor, Adrian. Some years later Michael Rhodios was sent again to try cases in Thessalonike, but this time as krites of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike. Consequently, apart from the judge of Boleron, Strymon and Thessalonike, other judges delegated by the emperor or by high officers could also examine cases there, as happened in other themes. From the 14th century on, as Macedonia developed

  18. 29 CFR 501.37 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 501.37 Section 501.37... to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing filed pursuant to and... shall be filed of record in the Office of the Chief Administrative Law Judge and shall, respectively,...

  19. 31 CFR 501.740 - Decision of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of Administrative Law Judge... REGULATIONS Trading With the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.740 Decision of Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge shall prepare a decision that constitutes his or her final disposition of...

  20. 31 CFR 15.737-19 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 15.737-19... CONFLICT OF INTEREST Administrative Enforcement Proceedings § 15.737-19 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Appointment. An Administrative Law Judge appointed as provided by 5 U.S.C. 3105 (1966), shall...

  1. 29 CFR 502.37 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 502.37 Section 502.37... § 502.37 Referral to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing filed... Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. The notice...

  2. 31 CFR 8.62 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 8.62... BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO AND FIREARMS Disciplinary Proceedings § 8.62 Administrative Law Judge. (a) Appointment. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed as provided by 5 U.S.C. 3105, shall conduct...

  3. 14 CFR 302.607 - Decision by administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision by administrative law judge. 302... Proceedings Concerning Airport Fees § 302.607 Decision by administrative law judge. The administrative law judge shall issue a decision recommending a disposition of a complaint or request for...

  4. 31 CFR 501.736 - Authority of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of Administrative Law Judge... REGULATIONS Trading With the Enemy Act (TWEA) Penalties § 501.736 Authority of Administrative Law Judge. The Administrative Law Judge shall have authority to do all things necessary and appropriate to discharge his or...

  5. 43 CFR 4.439 - Action by administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action by administrative law judge. 4.439... Involving Questions of Fact § 4.439 Action by administrative law judge. Upon completion of the hearing and the incorporation of the summary or transcript in the record, the administrative law judge will...

  6. 17 CFR 200.14 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Organization § 200.14 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) Under the Administrative Procedure Act (5 U.S.C. 551-559) and the federal securities laws, the Office of Administrative Law Judges conducts hearings in proceedings instituted by the Commission. The Administrative Law Judges are responsible for the fair...

  7. 20 CFR 655.1035 - Administrative law judge proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative law judge proceedings. 655... Attestations Filed by Employers Utilizing F-1 Students in Off-Campus Work § 655.1035 Administrative law judge....1020 of this part, the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall promptly appoint an administrative...

  8. 10 CFR 706.12 - Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative Law Judges. 706.12 Section 706.12 Energy... and Procedures in National Labor Relations Board Proceedings § 706.12 Administrative Law Judges. By agreement with the National Labor Relations Board, a panel of cleared NLRB administrative law judges...

  9. 29 CFR 500.224 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 500.224 Section 500... Hearing § 500.224 Referral to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing... Administrative Law Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. The notice...

  10. 43 CFR 4.1121 - Powers of administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Powers of administrative law judges. 4... Evidentiary Hearings § 4.1121 Powers of administrative law judges. (a) Under the regulations of this part, an administrative law judge may— (1) Administer oaths and affirmations; (2) Issue subpoenas; (3) Issue...

  11. 43 CFR 4.1204 - Determination by administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination by administrative law judge... administrative law judge. Upon a finding of a violation of section 703 of the act or 30 CFR 865.11, the administrative law judge shall order the appropriate affirmative relief, including but not limited to— (a)...

  12. 43 CFR 4.1122 - Conduct of administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of administrative law judges. 4.1122 Section 4.1122 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior DEPARTMENT HEARINGS... Evidentiary Hearings § 4.1122 Conduct of administrative law judges. Administrative law judges shall adhere...

  13. 29 CFR 801.63 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 801.63 Section 801.63... § 801.63 Referral to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing filed... Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. The notice...

  14. 46 CFR 502.223 - Decisions-Administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decisions-Administrative law judges. 502.223 Section 502... PROCEDURE Briefs; Requests for Findings; Decisions; Exceptions § 502.223 Decisions—Administrative law judges. To the administrative law judges is delegated the authority to make and serve initial or...

  15. 29 CFR 458.70 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 458.70 Section 458.70 Labor... STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Hearing and Related Matters § 458.70 Administrative Law Judge. Each enforcement proceeding instituted pursuant to this part shall be conducted before an Administrative Law Judge...

  16. 29 CFR 1603.202 - Administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge. 1603.202 Section 1603.202 Labor... THE GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Hearings § 1603.202 Administrative law judge. The administrative law judge shall have all the powers necessary to conduct fair, expeditious, and impartial...

  17. 20 CFR 655.645 - Administrative law judge proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative law judge proceedings. 655.645... Alien Crewmembers for Longshore Activities in U.S. Ports § 655.645 Administrative law judge proceedings... of this part, the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall promptly appoint an administrative law...

  18. 28 CFR 68.28 - Authority of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority of Administrative Law Judge. 68... PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF... Authority of Administrative Law Judge. (a) General powers. In any proceeding under this part,...

  19. 31 CFR 10.70 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 10.70... INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE Rules Applicable to Disciplinary Proceedings § 10.70 Administrative Law Judge. (a..., firm or other entity, or appraiser will be conducted by an Administrative Law Judge appointed...

  20. 78 FR 52389 - Hearing Officer and Administrative Judge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... 1992-AA36 Hearing Officer and Administrative Judge AGENCY: Office of Hearings and Appeals, Department... nuclear material by replacing the term ``Hearing Officer'' with ``Administrative Judge.'' DATES: This rule... clearance and in other areas, are commonly referred to as ``Administrative Judges.'' To accurately...

  1. 14 CFR 302.17 - Administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative law judges. 302.17 Section... Evidentiary Hearing Proceedings § 302.17 Administrative law judges. (a) Powers and delegation of authority. (1) An administrative law judge shall have the following powers, in addition to any others specified...

  2. 43 CFR 4.474 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of administrative law judge. 4... (inside and Outside Grazing Districts) § 4.474 Authority of administrative law judge. (a) The administrative law judge is vested with the duty and general authority to conduct the hearing in an...

  3. 34 CFR 76.901 - Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Administrative Law Judges. 76.901 Section 76... Procedures Does the Secretary Use To Get Compliance? § 76.901 Office of Administrative Law Judges. (a) The Office of Administrative Law Judges, established under Part E of GEPA, has the following functions:...

  4. 22 CFR 1423.20 - Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges... RELATIONS AUTHORITY UNFAIR LABOR PRACTICE PROCEEDINGS § 1423.20 Unavailability of Administrative Law Judges. In the event the Administrative Law Judge designated to conduct the hearing becomes unavailable,...

  5. 29 CFR 6.6 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administrative Law Judge. 6.6 Section 6.6 Labor Office of... Administrative Law Judge. (a) Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the... provisions of this part 6, Administrative Law Judges shall have no power or authority to award attorney...

  6. 29 CFR 530.404 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 530.404 Section 530... Administrative Law Judge. Upon receipt of a timely request for a hearing, the request and a copy of the notice of... Law Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. The notice...

  7. 31 CFR 8.68 - Decision of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of Administrative Law Judge... Administrative Law Judge. As soon as practicable after the conclusion of a hearing and the receipt of any proposed findings and conclusions timely submitted by the parties, the Administrative Law Judge shall...

  8. 20 CFR 410.634 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative Law Judge. 410.634 Section 410... Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.634 Administrative Law Judge. The... appropriate case, the Deputy Commissioner may designate another Administrative Law Judge or a member...

  9. 20 CFR 655.435 - Administrative law judge proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative law judge proceedings. 655.435... accordance with § 655.420, the Chief Administrative Law Judge shall appoint an administrative law judge to hear the case. (b) Within 7 days following the assignment of the case, the administrative law...

  10. 24 CFR 17.153 - Determination of the Administrative Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Determination of the Administrative Judge. (a) Following the hearing or the review of the record, the Administrative Judge shall issue a written decision which includes the supporting rationale for the decision. The decision of the Administrative Judge concerning whether a debt or part of a debt is past-due and...

  11. 24 CFR 1720.145 - Disqualification of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative law judge. (a) When an administrative law judge feels disqualified from presiding in a particular proceeding, the administrative law judge shall withdraw therefrom by notice on the record and shall notify the Secretary of such withdrawal. (b) Whenever any party believes that the administrative law...

  12. 31 CFR 10.76 - Decision of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of Administrative Law Judge... Administrative Law Judge. (a) In general—(1) Hearings. Within 180 days after the conclusion of a hearing and the... adjudication. In the event that a motion for summary adjudication is filed, the Administrative Law Judge...

  13. 29 CFR 580.10 - Referral to Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to Administrative Law Judge. 580.10 Section 580.10... Referral to Administrative Law Judge. (a) Upon receipt of a timely exception to a determination of... Administrative Law Judge, for a determination in an administrative proceeding as provided herein. A copy of...

  14. 5 CFR 2421.10 - Chief Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chief Administrative Law Judge. 2421.10 Section 2421.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL... § 2421.10 Chief Administrative Law Judge. Chief Administrative Law Judge means the Chief...

  15. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating scale…

  16. 29 CFR 18.605 - Competency of judge as witness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Competency of judge as witness. 18.605 Section 18.605 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.605 Competency of judge as...

  17. THE PRE-TRIAL CHAMBER JUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Laurentiu DUMBRAVA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this work lies in important changes in the new Code of Criminal Procedure, amendments justified by the new realities of a democratic society in which criminal procedural rules must be adapted according to the daily realities in the achievement of justice. The purpose of the paper is given by the need of approaching at a theoretically level the institution of The Pre-Trial Chamber Judge, given that so far there have not been developed any works on the subject. This paper addresses both practitioners and litigants.

  18. THE PRE-TRIAL CHAMBER JUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Laurenţiu DUMBRAVĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of this work lies in important changes in the new Code of Criminal Procedure, amendments justified by the new realities of a democratic society in which criminal procedural rules must be adapted according to the daily realities in the achievement of justice. The purpose of the paper is given by the need of approaching at a theoretically level the institution of The Pre-Trial Chamber Judge, given that so far there have not been developed any works on the subject. This paper addresses both practitioners and litigants.

  19. Judging the Judges: An Analysis of Ballots in Impromptu and Extemporaneous Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronn-Mills, Daniel; Croucher, Stephen M.

    The goal of forensics is to teach students the complexity and impact of communication on the human condition. The ballot is the key to the educational process within the competitive realm of forensics. The judge is both an adjudicator and a teacher within each round, and, therefore, ballots should provide students with comments indicating reasons…

  20. On the complexity of traffic judges' decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Leiser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional judges in traffic courts sentence many hundreds of offenders per year. Using 639 case files from archives, we compared the Matching Heuristic (MH to compensatory, weighing algorithms (WM. We modeled and cross validated the models on different subsets of the data, and took several other methodological precautions such as allowing each model to select the optimal number of variables and ordering and weighing the variables in accordance to different logics. We did not reproduce the finding by Dhami (2003, who found the MH to be superior to a compensatory algorithm in modeling bail-granting decisions. These simulations brought out the inner logic of the two family of models, showing what combination of parameters works best. It remains remarkable that using only a fraction of the variables and combining them non-compensatorily, MH obtained nearly as good a fit as the weighing method.

  1. Individual Evaluation of Judges in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Riedel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Germany, with the exception of the five federal supreme courts, court organization is a responsibility of the Länder (federal states. In some of the Länder, so-called employee profiles (“Anforderungsprofile“ have been established for judicial office. These lists attempt to describe criteria for certain judicial positions. They are applied in the process of promotion but also serve as an indicator for initial appointment.The European picture with respect to individual evaluation of judges is extremely diverse. In preparation for this paper, the author attempted to ascertain the situation in the Council of Europe member states. The results of this survey (to which 23 members of the CCJE have replied are listed in Appendix I.The general difficulty of professional evaluation of judges lies in the limits that have to be observed for constitutional reasons. In Germany, the overall rule of every evaluation is that there has to be a reliable factual basis. The evaluator is under a duty not to omit relevant aspects, to consider all the facts that make part of the picture, not to select arbitrarily but to try to paint a true and full picture of the person who is being evaluated. In the case of judges, it is unacceptable to comment on the core of judicial decision-making. Evaluations may be challenged in the administrative court on grounds of fact as well as on grounds of law. En Alemania, con la excepción de las cinco cortes supremas federales, la organización judicial es responsabilidad de los Länder (estados federales. En algunos de estos Länder, se han establecido los denominados perfiles de empleados (“Anforderungsprofile” para la oficina judicial. Estas listas pretenden describir los criterios para determinados cargos judiciales. Se aplican en los procesos de promoción, pero también sirven como un indicador para el nombramiento inicial.El panorama europeo respecto a la evaluación individual de los jueces es muy diverso. Preparando

  2. Disability Case Review of Administrative Law Judge Hearing Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Disability Case Review is a post-effectuation quality review of administrative law judge (ALJ) disability hearing decisions. This dataset includes results from...

  3. On amoral sexual behaviors%非道德性行为概念初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪武

    2013-01-01

    Amoral sexual behaviors refer to the behaviors that are dissociated with moral and immoral sexual behaviors,or in other words,they neither fit in the category of moral behaviors nor in the category of immoral behaviors.The creation of amoral sexual behavior concept will provide necessary support for the transition from the traditional immoral behaviors to the modem moral sexual behaviors,or vice versa.%提出非道德性行为的概念,是指游离于性道德(道德的性行为和不道德德性行为)之外、与之并行的的性行为,它应该是与性道德无关的、即无所谓道德或不道德的性行为.这个概念的提出,可为某些传统的不道德的性行为过渡为当代道德的性行为或某些传统的道德的性行为过渡为当代不道德的性行为起到一定的支撑作用.

  4. 36 CFR 1150.53 - Disqualification of judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disqualification of judge. 1150.53 Section 1150.53 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS...) If the judge does not disqualify himself/herself, he/she shall so rule upon the record, stating the...

  5. 42 CFR 498.45 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. 498.45 Section 498.45 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... CERTAIN NFs IN THE MEDICAID PROGRAM Hearings § 498.45 Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. (a)...

  6. 42 CFR 498.74 - Administrative Law Judge's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge's decision. 498.74 Section 498.74 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... IN THE MEDICAID PROGRAM Hearings § 498.74 Administrative Law Judge's decision. (a) Timing, basis...

  7. 42 CFR 423.1068 - Administrative Law Judge's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge's decision. 423.1068 Section 423.1068 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Civil Money Penalties § 423.1068 Administrative Law Judge's decision. (a) Timing, basis and content....

  8. 29 CFR 102.6 - Administrative law judge; hearing officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge; hearing officer. 102.6 Section 102.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Definitions § 102.6 Administrative law judge; hearing officer. The term administrative law...

  9. 42 CFR 423.1026 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. 423.1026 Section 423.1026 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 423.1026 Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. (a) An ALJ...

  10. 42 CFR 422.1026 - Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. 422.1026 Section 422.1026 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Penalties § 422.1026 Disqualification of Administrative Law Judge. (a) An ALJ may not conduct a hearing in...

  11. 24 CFR 1720.525 - Decision of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PRACTICE Adjudicatory Proceedings Hearings § 1720.525 Decision of administrative law judge. (a) The administrative law judge shall make and file a decision within 30 days after the close of the taking of evidence... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision of administrative...

  12. 42 CFR 422.1068 - Administrative Law Judge's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative Law Judge's decision. 422.1068 Section 422.1068 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Penalties § 422.1068 Administrative Law Judge's decision. (a) Timing, basis and content. As soon...

  13. 49 CFR 1503.607 - Administrative law judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative law judges. 1503.607 Section 1503... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Rules of Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.607 Administrative law judges. (a) Powers...

  14. 8 CFR 235.6 - Referral to immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to immigration judge. 235.6 Section 235.6 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.6 Referral to immigration judge. (a) Notice—(1) Referral by Form...

  15. 13 CFR 134.404 - Decision by Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision by Administrative Law Judge. 134.404 Section 134.404 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF... 8(a) Program § 134.404 Decision by Administrative Law Judge. Appeal proceedings brought under...

  16. Cultivating the Possible: A Tribute to Harry Judge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    When he arrived in Oxford in the early 1970s, Harry Judge and this author were already good friends. They had spent a lot of time talking about their respective concerns--the author on how "mind" should be conceived, and Judge on how and by whom "mind" should be cultivated in the educational process. The author believed then that schools should…

  17. Judging Criteria for Intercollegiate Limited Preparation Speaking Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, C. Thomas, Jr.

    To gain insight into whether debate judges actually do treat impromptu speaking as miniextemporaneous speaking, a study compared the comments judges wrote to extemporaneous speakers with those they wrote to impromptu speakers during the first two rounds of a forensic tournament. Approximately 1,000 comments from 152 ballots (102 impromptu and 50…

  18. ProofJudge: Automated Proof Judging Tool for Learning Mathematical Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    pen and paper because no adequate tool was available. The learning problem is how to make abstract concepts of logic as concrete as possible. ProofJudge is a computer system and teaching approach for teaching mathematical logic and automated reasoning which augments the e-learning tool NaDeA (Natural......Today we have software in many artefacts, from medical devices to cars and airplanes, and the software must not only be efficient and intelligent but also reliable and secure. Tests can show the presence of bugs but cannot guarantee their absence. A machine-checked proof using mathematical logic...

  19. ProofJudge: Automated Proof Judging Tool for Learning Mathematical Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    using pen and paper because no adequate tool was available. The learning problem is how to make abstract concepts of logic as concrete as possible. ProofJudge is a computer system and teaching approach for teaching mathematical logic and automated reasoning which augments the e-learning tool Na......Today we have software in many artefacts, from medical devices to cars and airplanes, and the software must not only be efficient and intelligent but also reliable and secure. Tests can show the presence of bugs but cannot guarantee their absence. A machine-checked proof using mathematical logic...

  20. Research on Relationship between Moral Disengagement and Immoral Behavior%员工道德推脱与不道德行为的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周吉

    2013-01-01

    随着社会各领域不断有不道德新闻传出,道德问题日益受到人们的关注.以销售人员为研究被试,选取员工道德推脱为主要研究变量,从组织管理的层面出发,探讨道德推脱对不道德行为的影响.发现:性别、工作年限对道德推脱有显著影响;员工道德推脱水平与不道德行为具有显著正相关关系.

  1. 我们怎样才能走出目前的道德困境?%Making a Farewell to Various Immoral Business Behaviors in China Today

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋惠昌

    2011-01-01

    @@ 一个时期以来,媒体上揭露出来了不少一听起来就令人吃惊的问题,比如所谓"染色馒头"、"毒豆芽"之类.对这样的一些事件,不少人做了深层次的思考,提出了一些值得深思的问题;当然,也有许多人感到难以理解,陷入到深深的困惑之中,甚至发出了某种悲观的哀叹.

  2. Immoral behaviors of multinational companies in China and their supervision%在华跨国公司的不道德行为及其监管

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 田赞; 田晖

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the problems caused by morality failure in China’s multinational companies mainly include business bribery, environment pollution, inferior quality, the labor issue and so on. The causes of these problems are very complex, concerning not only profit-driven mechanism of the multinational companies themselves, but also Sino-foreign cultural differences, undesirable supervision mechanism and market environment in China. To solve the problem of corporate morality failure, it is necessary for China’s multinational companies to observe law and discipline of China, bring non-governmental organizations into full play, establish a moral autonomy mechanism based on common cultural value and strengthen the external supervision to promote the formation of moral heteronomy mechanism. Only through the double constraints of moral autonomy and heteronomy, can the multinational companies correctly deal with the relationship between economic benefits and corporate morality, so as to develop healthily and sustainably.%近年来,在华跨国公司的不道德行为主要包括有商业贿赂、污染环境、出售“问题”产品、盘剥员工、违规用工等。之所以出现这些问题,除了企业自身利益机制的驱动之外,还与中外文化差异和我国监管机制、市场环境不健全有很大关系。要加强对这些行为的监管,就必须完善我国法律法规,发挥非政府组织和媒体的作用。

  3. “不道德”的社会与公平正义——基于《道德的人与不道德的社会》的文本解读%"Immoral"Society and it's Fairness and Justice——Based on the Text Interpretation of " Moral Man and Immoral Society "

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘腾腾; 陈顺伟

    2012-01-01

    R.Niebuhr was the most influential and famous Christian philosopher and theologian in 20th-century American.In his outstanding representative works,"the moral man and immoral society",not only did he ethically analyze and research the social and political problems from the perspective of Christian ethical realism,but he also strictly distinguished between the individual morality and social group morality and pointed out the limitations of inherent causes of immoral society.On this foundation,finally he proposed solutions to social problems and the main resources to eliminate social injustice,including: religion,human reason and social force,which,nowadays,are of a certain reference value for us to objectively understand the social injustice and how to realize social equity and justice as well as building social harmony.%R.尼布尔是20世纪美国最有影响力的著名的基督教哲学家和神学家。在他的杰出代表作《道德的人与不道德的社会》一书中,他从基督教伦理现实主义这个视角,对社会问题及政治问题进行伦理分析和研究,严格区分了个体道德和群体道德,指出不道德社会产生的固有根源的局限性,并在此基础上提出解决社会问题和消除社会不公正的主要资源有:宗教信仰、人类理性和社会强制,这对我们今天客观地认识社会不公正和怎样实现社会公平正义和社会和谐具有一定的参考价值。

  4. Distributed Online Judge System for Interactive Theorem Provers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Takahisa; Nishizaki, Shin-ya

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new software design of an online judge system for interactive theorem proving. The distinctive feature of this architecture is that our online judge system is distributed on the network and especially involves volunteer computing. In volunteers' computers, network bots (software robots) are executed and donate computational resources to the central host of the online judge system. Our proposed design improves fault tolerance and security. We gave an implementation to two different styles of interactive theorem prover, Coq and ACL2, and evaluated our proposed architecture. From the experiment on the implementation, we concluded that our architecture is efficient enough to be used practically.

  5. Distributed Online Judge System for Interactive Theorem Provers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno Takahisa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new software design of an online judge system for interactive theorem proving. The distinctive feature of this architecture is that our online judge system is distributed on the network and especially involves volunteer computing. In volunteers’ computers, network bots (software robots are executed and donate computational resources to the central host of the online judge system. Our proposed design improves fault tolerance and security. We gave an implementation to two different styles of interactive theorem prover, Coq and ACL2, and evaluated our proposed architecture. From the experiment on the implementation, we concluded that our architecture is efficient enough to be used practically.

  6. 基于SIR模型的企业败德行为预防网络传播模型研究%A Study on the Enterprise Immoralities Prevention Network Propagation Model Based on SIR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚茹; 何建佳

    2016-01-01

    In thebackgroundof knowledge economy and network economy,Immoralities phenomenon such asbeing against moral principles and grabbingself-profit has become increasingly prominent among enterprises;Knowledge of enterprises propagation of moral hazard can effectively monitor the spread of harmful information. This paper,based on the enterprise Immoralities diffusion process in the network structure and the similarity of the virus diffusion process,used SIR model to build enterprise Immoralities prevention network propagation model,and with C language programming complex propagation model calculations,studied the ability to communicate in different propagation probability moral hazard in the network struc-ture,aiming to reduce moral hazard transmission rate,increase moral hazard immunization rates;the paper also suggested that with the news media and academics force of public opinion,the quality of business ethics and corporate social responsi-bility can be improvedand the administrative supervision and the legal system and other coping strategiescan be strengthened to achieve the enterprise Immoralities prevention and treatment.%在知识经济和网络经济的背景下,违悖道德原则和攫取自我利润等企业败德行为现象日益凸显,掌握企业败德行为的传播规律可以对不良信息传播进行有效监管。以企业败德行为的传播为研究对象,基于企业败德行为在网络结构中的扩散过程与病毒扩散过程的相似性,引入SIR模型,并构建企业败德行为预防网络传播模型,用C语言编程实现复杂的传播模型计算,研究在不同传播概率下败德行为在网络结构中的传播能力,并据此给出减少败德行为传播率、增加败德行为免疫率、借助新闻媒体和学者等舆论力量、提高企业道德素质和企业社会责任感以及加强行政监管和法制建设等应对性策略,以求达到对企业败德行为的防范与治理。

  7. Human Terrain Teams: An Enabler for Judge Advocates and Paralegals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dan Tanabe

    2010-01-01

      [...] the Future Concepts Directorate (FCD) offers this practice note to identify and describe an additional enabler judge advocates and paralegals can leverage to accomplish their complex missions when deployed...

  8. How to Work with Honest but Curious Judges? (Preliminary Report)

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Jun; 10.4204/EPTCS.7.3

    2009-01-01

    The three-judges protocol, recently advocated by Mclver and Morgan as an example of stepwise refinement of security protocols, studies how to securely compute the majority function to reach a final verdict without revealing each individual judge's decision. We extend their protocol in two different ways for an arbitrary number of 2n+1 judges. The first generalisation is inherently centralised, in the sense that it requires a judge as a leader who collects information from others, computes the majority function, and announces the final result. A different approach can be obtained by slightly modifying the well-known dining cryptographers protocol, however it reveals the number of votes rather than the final verdict. We define a notion of conditional anonymity in order to analyse these two solutions. Both of them have been checked in the model checker MCMAS.

  9. 29 CFR 2704.307 - Decision of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the position of the Secretary was substantially justified; if at issue, the judge shall also make... otherwise acted in bad faith or whether special circumstances make the award unjust. Under either...

  10. Harmless error analysis: How do judges respond to confession errors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, D Brian; Kassin, Saul M

    2012-04-01

    In Arizona v. Fulminante (1991), the U.S. Supreme Court opened the door for appellate judges to conduct a harmless error analysis of erroneously admitted, coerced confessions. In this study, 132 judges from three states read a murder case summary, evaluated the defendant's guilt, assessed the voluntariness of his confession, and responded to implicit and explicit measures of harmless error. Results indicated that judges found a high-pressure confession to be coerced and hence improperly admitted into evidence. As in studies with mock jurors, however, the improper confession significantly increased their conviction rate in the absence of other evidence. On the harmless error measures, judges successfully overruled the confession when required to do so, indicating that they are capable of this analysis.

  11. Judging the Capability of Search Engines and Search Terms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    .... The present study aims to judge the capability of five selected search engines and search terms on the basis of first ten results and to identify most appropriate search term and search engine...

  12. New Criteria for Judging Generalized Strictly Diagonally Dominant Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-song

    2015-01-01

    Generalized strictly diagonally dominant matrices play a wide and important role in computational mathematics, mathematical physics, theory of dynamical systems, etc. But it is difficult to judge a matrix is or not generalized strictly diagonally dominant matrix. In this paper, by using the properties of α-chain diagonally dominant matrix, we obtain new criteria for judging generalized strictly diagonally dominant matrix, which enlarge the identification range.

  13. Immoral, deviant, or just normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary research often relates driving under the influence (DUI) to alcohol addiction and young drunk drivers, in particular, to social deviance. Based on qualitative interviews with 25 convicted drunk drivers, this article studies the relationship between drinking and DUI. The article focus...... themselves and their relationship between drinking and DUI as normal. The article thus concludes that while some drunk drivers view themselves in line with popular conceptions of DUI, others distance themselves from these associations so as to present themselves as normal....

  14. Immoral, deviant, or just normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, Lars

    2014-01-01

    on three different categories of drunk drivers. In the first, drunk drivers consider addiction to be the main cause of DUI. In the second, they position themselves within subcultural groups often engaged in using illicit drugs, alcohol, and DUI. Both of these categories agree with conceptions of DUI...

  15. Judging the Past: How History Should Inform Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Barron H; Caplan, Arthur L

    2016-04-19

    Bioethics has become a common course of study in medical schools, other health professional schools, and graduate and undergraduate programs. An analysis of past ethical scandals, as well as the bioethics apparatus that emerged in response to them, is often central to the discussion of bioethical questions. This historical perspective on bioethics is invaluable and demonstrates how, for example, the infamous Tuskegee syphilis study was inherently racist and how other experiments exploited mentally disabled and other disadvantaged persons. However, such instruction can resemble so-called Whig history, in which a supposedly more enlightened mindset is seen as having replaced the "bad old days" of physicians behaving immorally. Bioethical discourse-both in the classroom and in practice-should be accompanied by efforts to historicize but not minimize past ethical transgressions. That is, bioethics needs to emphasize why and how such events occurred rather than merely condemning them with an air of moral superiority. Such instruction can reveal the complicated historical circumstances that led physician-researchers (some of whom were actually quite progressive in their thinking) to embark on projects that seem so unethical in hindsight. Such an approach is not meant to exonerate past transgressions but rather to explain them. In this manner, students and practitioners of bioethics can better appreciate how modern health professionals may be susceptible to the same types of pressures, misguided thinking, and conflicts of interest that sometimes led their predecessors astray.

  16. Towards a More Responsive Judge: Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machteld W. de Hoon

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the changes that have taken place in the attitude of judges towards their role and tasks as well as actual judicial practices. The result of this exploration is a reflection upon the challenges and opportunities for a new, more responsive judge. The main characteristic of this new judge is that he or she looks beyond the purely legal coordinates of the dispute, in order to discuss which method of dispute resolution (a settlement, a referral to mediation or a court decision is most likely to result in a viable and sustainable solution. These changes in attitude are part of broader developments that have taken place in actual judicial practices. The context in which these changes have occurred helps us to gain a better understanding of the changes, the barriers to change and the opportunities to overcome these challenges. The leading assumption in this research is that during the past ten years there has been an extensive change in the way judges think about their role in dispute resolution and at the same time many judges experience difficulties in applying their new-found understanding to their work in the courts. Our data have been gathered through court observations, interviews and expert meetings. In addition, our analyses are based on relevant literature in the field of judicial dispute resolution (JDR as well as insights from our own previous research projects. We primarily focus on civil and administrative disputes in the Netherlands. Occasionally, we also point to trends and challenges elsewhere.

  17. A contabilidade e a imoralidade no Estado Novo (años 30 e 40 = Accounting and immorality in the New State, years 30 and 40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim A. Calado Cochicho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El Archivo de Torre de Tombo nos lleva a un encuentro con la Historia. Un nombre desconocido para las Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades, José Barata Júnior, preso político en las décadas de los años 30 y 40 del siglo XX, renace sin una vida pasada en el contexto político, económico y social del tiempo en el que fue prisionero. Y también, el concepto de Historia Contemporánea –Estado Nuevo.Un régimen político y dos discursos: uno el que difunde la propaganda, otro el que el pueblo siente. Salazar establece el rigor y la disciplina en la Contabilidad Pública e invoca la ley y una moral superior para el Estado. El mismo Estado, reprime, censura, arresta, tortura y practica la inmoralidad en la “contabilidad” del número de presos políticos muertos en el Penal de Tarrafal, en Cabo Verde.The Archive of Torre do Tombo leads us to an encounter with History - a name unknown to the Social Sciences and Humanities, José Barata Jr., a political prisoner in the 30s and 40s of the twentieth century. When he was a prisoner, a past without life reborn in the political, economic and social time. And, also, the concept of Contemporary History - "New State".A political regime and two speeches: One that propaganda broadcasts, other that the people feel. Salazar establishing rigor and discipline in the Public Accounts and invokes the Law and a Moral superior to the State. The same State represses, censorships, arrests, tortures and practices immorality in the "Accounting" of the number of political prisoners killed in the Penal Colony Tarrafal in Cape Verde.O Arquivo da Torre do Tombo leva-nos a um encontro com a História – Um nome desconhecido das Ciências Sociais e Humanas, José Barata Júnior, preso político nas décadas de 30 e 40, do Século XX. Renasce um passado sem vida no contexto político, económico e social do tempo em que foi prisioneiro. E, também, o conceito de História Contemporânea – “Estado Novo”.Um Regime pol

  18. Judges Awareness, Understanding, and Application of Digital Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C Kessler

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As digital evidence grows in both volume and importance in criminal and civil courts, judges need to fairly and justly evaluate the merits of the offered evidence. To do so, judges need a general understanding of the underlying technologies and applications from which digital evidence is derived. Due to the relative newness of the computer forensics field, there have been few studies on the use of digital forensic evidence and none about judges’ relationship with digital evidence.This paper describes a recent study, using grounded theory methods, into judges’ awareness, knowledge, and perceptions of digital evidence. This study is the first in the U.S. to examine judges and digital forensics, thus opening up a new avenue of research. It is the second time that grounded theory has been employed in a published digital forensics study, demonstrating the applicability of that methodology to this discipline.

  19. A judging principle of crucial vibrational transmission paths in plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Dong-Xu; Jiang, Jian-Ping; Liao, Yi-Huan

    2016-10-01

    This paper developed a judging principle of crucial vibrational transmission path (VTP) in plates. Novel generalized definitions of VTPs are given referred to the meaning of streamlines. And by comparing governing equations, the similarity between energy flow and fluid motion is firstly found so that an analytic method of VTPs in plates is proposed by analogy with fluid motion. Hereafter, the crucial VTP is defined for energy flows at objective points and relative judging criteria is given. Finally, based on two numerical experiments of passive control, the judging principle is indirectly verified by comparing the reduction effects of energy flows at focused points and relative judgment results of crucial VTPs. This paper is meaningful for analyzing and applying the VTPs in plates to guide the control design in future.

  20. 29 CFR 801.67 - Decision and Order of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision and Order of Administrative Law Judge. 801.67... Procedures Before Administrative Law Judge § 801.67 Decision and Order of Administrative Law Judge. (a) The Administrative Law Judge shall prepare, as promptly as practicable after the expiration of the time set...

  1. Judging Amy: Automated legal assessment using OWL 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, S.; Hoekstra, R.; Breuker, J.; Wortel, L.; El-Ali, A.

    2008-01-01

    One of the most salient tasks in law is legal assessment, and concerns the problem of determining whether some case is allowed or disallowed given an appropriate body of legal norms. In this paper we describe a system and Protégé 4 plugin, called OWL Judge, that uses standard OWL 2 DL reasoning for

  2. Bias on the Bench: Sex, Judges, and Mock Trial Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Lynnette S.; Zeigler, Sara L.; Westbrook, Miranda N.

    2011-01-01

    Given substantial evidence of sex discrimination in the legal profession and the role of attorneys and judges in perpetuating gender stereotypes, educators have an obligation to prepare female students for the challenges they will face, educate students of both sexes about the role of bias in litigation, and seek to mitigate the influence of…

  3. The judge on Facebook; neglecting a persistent ritual?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    In many social realms, social media are employed by institutions to establish direct relations between their representatives and their clients or customers. In this article I explain why the civil law judge cannot be expected to begin using social networking sites to advance the transparency of the

  4. 8 CFR 1240.50 - Decision of the immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision of the immigration judge. 1240.50 Section 1240.50 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Proceedings...

  5. 8 CFR 1240.31 - Authority of immigration judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of immigration judges. 1240.31 Section 1240.31 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion...

  6. 8 CFR 1240.12 - Decision of the immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Decision of the immigration judge. 1240.12 Section 1240.12 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES...

  7. 8 CFR 1235.6 - Referral to immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to immigration judge. 1235.6 Section 1235.6 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.6 Referral to immigration...

  8. The judge on Facebook; neglecting a persistent ritual?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, P.J.

    In many social realms, social media are employed by institutions to establish direct relations between their representatives and their clients or customers. In this article I explain why the civil law judge cannot be expected to begin using social networking sites to advance the transparency of the

  9. Mephisto vor den Richtern – Mephisto before the judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czarnikow Marie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mephisto before the judges: The Mephisto trials – how the reader was discovered, and then denied any decision‐making capacity Mephisto vor den Richtern – Von der Entdeckung zur Entmündigung des Lesers in den Mephisto‐Prozessen

  10. Integrating an Automatic Judge into an Open Source LMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgouli, Katerina; Guerreiro, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the successful integration of the evaluation engine of Mooshak into the open source learning management system Claroline. Mooshak is an open source online automatic judge that has been used for international and national programming competitions. although it was originally designed for programming competitions, Mooshak has also…

  11. Conceptions of Creativity and Relations with Judges' Intelligence and Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storme, Martin; Lubart, Todd

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe naive conceptions of creativity and offer some explanation for their variability. Two methods are used to analyze conceptions of creativity. The first one consists of analyzing adjectives that are associated by naive judges with the notion of creativity of an advertisement. The second one consists of predicting…

  12. Multicultural conflicts and national judges: A general approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Hoekema

    2008-01-01

    This article queries what judges and legal actors in general do as a matter of fact in multicultural conflicts brought before them. When, to what extent and why do they take minority legal sensibilities into account? Portraying the present living together of "communities" with different world views,

  13. OJPOT: Online Judge & Practice Oriented Teaching Idea in Programming Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui Ping; Chen, Shu Yu; Yang, Xin; Feng, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Practical abilities are important for students from majors including Computer Science and Engineering, and Electrical Engineering. Along with the popularity of ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest (ACM/ICPC) and other programming contests, online judge (OJ) websites achieve rapid development, thus providing a new kind of programming…

  14. 7 CFR 900.60 - Oral hearings before judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Practice Governing Proceedings on Petitions To Modify or To Be Exempted From Marketing Orders § 900.60 Oral... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... proceeding is guilty of unethical or unprofessional conduct, the judge may order that such person be...

  15. Civil Justice: Lay Judges in the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Machura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lay judges fulfill important functions for the justice system of a country. In the European Union member states, scholars have analysed the use of lay judges in criminal cases. However, little is known about lay participation in civil justice. The paper introduces commonly cited reasons to have lay judges as well as the principal forms of lay participation and then surveys the EU countries for its implementation in civil cases. Mixed tribunals, involving lay judges under the leadership of a professional judge, are relatively frequent. Several countries have special labour courts or commercial courts with lay members and others have single lay judges, or all-lay judge panels. Roughly a third of the 28 EU member states have no lay participation in civil justice but only three of those have no lay judges in any branch of the courts. Almost all the reasons for including lay decision makers are served somehow by the existing forms, including providing different experiences and perhaps expert knowledge. The article concludes, citing non-EU states and lay participation in criminal and administrative courts as further evidence, that lay judges in one form or another are an element of European legal systems. Los jueces legos cumplen funciones importantes para el sistema de justicia de un país. En los Estados miembro de la Unión Europea, académicos han analizado el uso de jueces legos en casos criminales. Sin embargo, se sabe poco acerca de la participación de los legos en la justicia civil. El artículo presenta las razones que habitualmente se citan para tener jueces legos, así como las formas principales de la participación de legos, para a continuación medir su implementación en casos civiles en los países de la Unión Europea. Son relativamente frecuentes los tribunales mixtos, en los que participan jueces legos, bajo la dirección de un juez profesional. Varios países tienen tribunales laborales especiales o tribunales comerciales con

  16. MANAGERIAL APPROACH ON THE ROLE AND RESPONSABILITY OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE COURT AND THE INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE OF JUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Muscalu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understans how the quality of the court is bound to the role of the court presidents in Romania, who, for the proper administration of the departments and the divisions of the court, must assume a leadership role. Efficiency depends on how they use their knowledge, their behavior and attitudes as personal example to create an environment in which subordinates, judges and court personnel, are fully involved in achieving the objectives of the institution.

  17. OJPOT: online judge & practice oriented teaching idea in programming courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gui Ping; Chen, Shu Yu; Yang, Xin; Feng, Rui

    2016-05-01

    Practical abilities are important for students from majors including Computer Science and Engineering, and Electrical Engineering. Along with the popularity of ACM International Collegiate Programming Contest (ACM/ICPC) and other programming contests, online judge (OJ) websites achieve rapid development, thus providing a new kind of programming practice, i.e. online practice. Due to fair and timely feedback results from OJ websites, online practice outperforms traditional programming practice. In order to promote students' practical abilities in programming and algorithm designing, this article presents a novel teaching idea, online judge & practice oriented teaching (OJPOT). OJPOT is applied to Programming Foundation course. OJPOT cultivates students' practical abilities through various kinds of programming practice, such as programming contests, online practice and course project. To verify the effectiveness of this novel teaching idea, this study conducts empirical research. The experimental results show that OJPOT works effectively in enhancing students' practical abilities compared with the traditional teaching idea.

  18. Design and implementation of online automatic judging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haohui; Chen, Chaojie; Zhong, Xiuyu; Chen, Yuefeng

    2017-06-01

    For lower efficiency and poorer reliability in programming training and competition by currently artificial judgment, design an Online Automatic Judging (referred to as OAJ) System. The OAJ system including the sandbox judging side and Web side, realizes functions of automatically compiling and running the tested codes, and generating evaluation scores and corresponding reports. To prevent malicious codes from damaging system, the OAJ system utilizes sandbox, ensuring the safety of the system. The OAJ system uses thread pools to achieve parallel test, and adopt database optimization mechanism, such as horizontal split table, to improve the system performance and resources utilization rate. The test results show that the system has high performance, high reliability, high stability and excellent extensibility.

  19. Judge upholds jury award over employer's HIV disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-30

    A Federal judge has refused to overturn or reduce a jury's $125,000 award to a Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) employee who said his privacy was invaded when his superiors learned he was taking an AIDS medication. The employee, known as John Doe, charged that Judith Pierce, the chief administrative officer of SEPTA, looked at the records of the agency's prescription drug plan to confirm her suspicions that he had HIV. Pierce, who claimed drug report review was part of her job in controlling costs, contended that she wanted to make sure the plan's new administrator, Rite-Aid Corp., was charging the right prices for prescriptions. The judge agreed with the jury that Pierce went far beyond her role as auditor of the drug plan when she asked Rite-Aid to link individuals' names to specific prescriptions and then informed Doe's supervisor, associate, and another employee about Doe's AIDS medication.

  20. Behaviorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, J

    2011-01-01

    .... Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the observational methods common to all sciences...

  1. Layman versus Professional Musician: Who Makes the Better Judge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrouy-Maestri, Pauline; Magis, David; Grabenhorst, Matthias; Morsomme, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of casting shows and talent contests in the media over the past years suggests a public interest in rating the quality of vocal performances. In many of these formats, laymen alongside music experts act as judges. Whereas experts' judgments are considered objective and reliable when it comes to evaluating singing voice, little is known about laymen's ability to evaluate peers. On the one hand, layman listeners-who by definition did not have any formal training or regular musical practice-are known to have internalized the musical rules on which singing accuracy is based. On the other hand, layman listeners' judgment of their own vocal skills is highly inaccurate. Also, when compared with that of music experts, their level of competence in pitch perception has proven limited. The present study investigates laypersons' ability to objectively evaluate melodies performed by untrained singers. For this purpose, laymen listeners were asked to judge sung melodies. The results were compared with those of music experts who had performed the same task in a previous study. Interestingly, the findings show a high objectivity and reliability in layman listeners. Whereas both the laymen's and experts' definition of pitch accuracy overlap, differences regarding the musical criteria employed in the rating task were evident. The findings suggest that the effect of expertise is circumscribed and limited and supports the view that laypersons make trustworthy judges when evaluating the pitch accuracy of untrained singers.

  2. Layman versus Professional Musician: Who Makes the Better Judge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Larrouy-Maestri

    Full Text Available The increasing number of casting shows and talent contests in the media over the past years suggests a public interest in rating the quality of vocal performances. In many of these formats, laymen alongside music experts act as judges. Whereas experts' judgments are considered objective and reliable when it comes to evaluating singing voice, little is known about laymen's ability to evaluate peers. On the one hand, layman listeners-who by definition did not have any formal training or regular musical practice-are known to have internalized the musical rules on which singing accuracy is based. On the other hand, layman listeners' judgment of their own vocal skills is highly inaccurate. Also, when compared with that of music experts, their level of competence in pitch perception has proven limited. The present study investigates laypersons' ability to objectively evaluate melodies performed by untrained singers. For this purpose, laymen listeners were asked to judge sung melodies. The results were compared with those of music experts who had performed the same task in a previous study. Interestingly, the findings show a high objectivity and reliability in layman listeners. Whereas both the laymen's and experts' definition of pitch accuracy overlap, differences regarding the musical criteria employed in the rating task were evident. The findings suggest that the effect of expertise is circumscribed and limited and supports the view that laypersons make trustworthy judges when evaluating the pitch accuracy of untrained singers.

  3. Grounds for the Specialization of Courts and Judges in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Terekhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article touches upon the different ways of specialization of courts and judges that exist under the legislation of the Russian Federation. The lack of a unified and circumspect approach is noted. The formation of specialized courts, according to the national legislation, takes the form of their establishing within the existing subsystems of regular and arbitration courts. As for the specialization of judges, it is more diversified and is presented by either creation of separate types of procedure (special proceedings, proceedings on cases arising from public relations and some other, or by introduction of special rules on jurisdiction that establish competence of specific courts to consider cases of a particular category: on the compensation for the excessive time taken to consider a case, on the adoption of a child by a foreign national and others.An analysis of existing literature on the issue in question shows that Russian scholars support the idea of judges’ specialization. Against specialization of courts the following arguments are brought: significant material costs, not being in accordance with the small number of cases decided by specialized courts; problems with access to justice; and the necessity to give special training to narrowly specialized judges.

  4. Judging strangers’ trustworthiness is associated with theory of mind skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie ePrevost

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Trusting people requires evaluating them to assess their trustworthiness. Evaluating a stranger’s intentions is likely to be one method of assessing trustworthiness. The present study tested the hypothesis that judgments of trustworthiness are associated with mindreading skills, also called theory of mind (ToM. We tested a group of healthy participants and a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Both groups made theory of mind judgments and judged the trustworthiness of strangers. Participants were also assessed for their disposition to trust as well as levels of paranoid belief. As anticipated, healthy participants had normal ToM scores and patients with paranoid schizophrenia had poor ToM scores. In paranoid patients, better ability to read others' minds tended to be associated with judging others as more trustworthy, while the reverse was found in the healthy participants (better mind reading was associated with judging others as less trustworthy, suggesting a non-linear relationship between trust in others and being able to read their intentions.

  5. Judging Strangers’ Trustworthiness is Associated with Theory of Mind Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Marie; Brodeur, Mathieu; Onishi, Kristine H.; Lepage, Martin; Gold, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Trusting people requires evaluating them to assess their trustworthiness. Evaluating a stranger’s intentions is likely to be one method of assessing trustworthiness. The present study tested the hypothesis that judgments of trustworthiness are associated with mind reading skills, also called theory of mind (ToM). We tested a group of healthy participants and a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Both groups made ToM judgments and judged the trustworthiness of strangers. Participants were also assessed for their disposition to trust as well as levels of paranoid belief. As anticipated, healthy participants had a normal ToM scores and patients with paranoid schizophrenia had poor ToM scores. In paranoid patients, better ability to read others’ minds was associated with judging others as more trustworthy, while the reverse was found in the healthy participants (better mind reading was associated with judging others as less trustworthy), suggesting a non-linear relationship between trust in others and being able to read their intentions. PMID:25941495

  6. Judging Strangers' Trustworthiness is Associated with Theory of Mind Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Marie; Brodeur, Mathieu; Onishi, Kristine H; Lepage, Martin; Gold, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Trusting people requires evaluating them to assess their trustworthiness. Evaluating a stranger's intentions is likely to be one method of assessing trustworthiness. The present study tested the hypothesis that judgments of trustworthiness are associated with mind reading skills, also called theory of mind (ToM). We tested a group of healthy participants and a group of patients with paranoid schizophrenia. Both groups made ToM judgments and judged the trustworthiness of strangers. Participants were also assessed for their disposition to trust as well as levels of paranoid belief. As anticipated, healthy participants had a normal ToM scores and patients with paranoid schizophrenia had poor ToM scores. In paranoid patients, better ability to read others' minds was associated with judging others as more trustworthy, while the reverse was found in the healthy participants (better mind reading was associated with judging others as less trustworthy), suggesting a non-linear relationship between trust in others and being able to read their intentions.

  7. Behavioral Cues in the Judgment of Marital Satisfaction: A Linear Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, W. Stephen; Weiss, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    Forty undergraduate judges watched videotaped interactions of couples and rated their marital satisfaction based on certain behavioral cues. Results indicate: untrained judges were able to discriminate marital satisfaction/distress with significant validity; judges' ratings were correlated with couples' aversive behavior; and the actuarial…

  8. Behavioral Cues in the Judgment of Marital Satisfaction: A Linear Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, W. Stephen; Weiss, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    Forty undergraduate judges watched videotaped interactions of couples and rated their marital satisfaction based on certain behavioral cues. Results indicate: untrained judges were able to discriminate marital satisfaction/distress with significant validity; judges' ratings were correlated with couples' aversive behavior; and the actuarial…

  9. 29 CFR 1981.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... person's former position, together with the compensation (including back pay), terms, conditions, and... law judge determines that a complaint was frivolous or was brought in bad faith, the judge may...

  10. 43 CFR 4.433 - Authority of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of the administrative law judge... Appeals Involving Questions of Fact § 4.433 Authority of the administrative law judge. The administrative law judge is vested with general authority to conduct the hearing in an orderly and judicial...

  11. 12 CFR 509.5 - Authority of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of the administrative law judge. 509... Authority of the administrative law judge. (a) General rule. All proceedings governed by this part shall be... administrative law judge shall have all powers necessary to conduct a proceeding in a fair and impartial...

  12. 12 CFR 263.5 - Authority of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of the administrative law judge. 263... Authority of the administrative law judge. (a) General rule. All proceedings governed by this part shall be... administrative law judge shall have all powers necessary to conduct a proceeding in a fair and impartial...

  13. 14 CFR 385.10 - Authority of Chief Administrative Law Judge, Office of Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of Chief Administrative Law Judge... Assignment of Functions to Staff Members § 385.10 Authority of Chief Administrative Law Judge, Office of Hearings. The Chief Administrative Law Judge has authority to: (a) Consolidate, upon recommendation of...

  14. 14 CFR 385.11 - Authority of the Administrative Law Judges, Office of Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of the Administrative Law Judges... Assignment of Functions to Staff Members § 385.11 Authority of the Administrative Law Judges, Office of Hearings. The Administrative Law Judges, Office of Hearings, have authority to take the following...

  15. 12 CFR 19.5 - Authority of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of the administrative law judge. 19.5... AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 19.5 Authority of the administrative law judge... provisions of chapter 5 of title 5 of the United States Code. The administrative law judge shall have...

  16. 43 CFR 4.452-4 - Authority of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of administrative law judge. 4... Appeals Involving Questions of Fact § 4.452-4 Authority of administrative law judge. The administrative law judge is vested with general authority to conduct the hearing in an orderly and judicial...

  17. 41 CFR 60-30.14 - Designation of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Law Judges. 60-30.14 Section 60-30.14 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... EXECUTIVE ORDER 11246 Hearings and Related Matters § 60-30.14 Designation of Administrative Law Judges. Hearings shall be held before an Administrative Law Judge of the Department of Labor who shall...

  18. 29 CFR 801.72 - Responsibility of the Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility of the Office of Administrative Law Judges... Proceedings Modification Or Vacation of Decision and Order of Administrative Law Judge § 801.72 Responsibility of the Office of Administrative Law Judges. Upon receipt of the Secretary's Notice of Intent...

  19. 29 CFR 500.266 - Responsibility of the Office of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibility of the Office of Administrative Law Judges... Proceedings Modification Or Vacation of Order of Administrative Law Judge § 500.266 Responsibility of the Office of Administrative Law Judges. Upon receipt of the Secretary's Notice of Intent to Modify or...

  20. 76 FR 50769 - Submission for Review: Application for Senior Administrative Law Judge (OPM Form 1655), and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Application for Senior Administrative Law Judge (OPM Form 1655), and Geographic Preference Statement for Senior Administrative Law Judge Applicant (OPM Form 1655-A) AGENCY: U.S..., and OPM 1655-A. These forms are used by retired Administrative Law Judges seeking ] reemployment on...

  1. 8 CFR 246.4 - Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal... IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS RESCISSION OF ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS § 246.4 Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution. In any proceeding conducted under this part, the immigration judge shall...

  2. 5 CFR 1201.140 - Judge; requirement for finding of good cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... cause. 1201.140 Section 1201.140 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION... Administrative Law Judges § 1201.140 Judge; requirement for finding of good cause. (a) Judge. (1) An... part. (b) Requirement for finding of good cause. A decision on a proposed agency action under...

  3. The impact of judges' perceptions of credibility in fibromyalgia claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Judy A; Iverson, Grant L; Collins, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a confusing and controversial diagnosis, characterized by widespread pain and tenderness at specific anatomical sites. The cause of this syndrome is unknown, and the course of the condition is difficult to predict. Without a known cause, predictable course, or effective treatment, it is not surprising that FM is a contentious diagnosis from a medical perspective, as well as a civil litigation and disability insurance industry perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate judges' perceptions of credibility in litigated cases involving FM claims in the Canadian courts, and the relation between perceived credibility and awards granted. A systematic review was conducted of every trial-by-judge litigated FM claim in Canada (N=194 cases) up to 2003. The cases were examined in relation to credibility factors. The role and responsibility of the plaintiff was central in claims involving issues of misrepresentation, fraud, non-disclosure, failure to mitigate, and contributory negligence. The presence of these issues suggested a possible decrease or loss in the claim as a result of the plaintiff's conduct. In regards to the actions of defendants, the presence of investigative and surveillance information alone did not affect the awards granted. However, the credibility of that information had a large effect on the amount of award granted. Plaintiff credibility played a similar role, indicating that plaintiffs perceived as more credible were typically granted greater awards. An examination of medical expert credibility revealed that judges appear to perceive experts as more credible overall than plaintiffs, regardless of the expert's role in the case.

  4. The role of the judge in a democratic society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Duquelsky Goméz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The debate on the role of judiciary in a society and the foundations of the democratic legitimacy of its power has recently acquired a singular relevance. This article aims to bring clarity to the discussion, showing how legal theories have followed a pendulum, swinging between those who think the judicial role and hermeneutical task as an intellectual activity -an act of knowledge-and those who see it as a creative activity-an act of will. Reflecting on the role of judges today raises questions about false dichotomies and encourages to collectively build a new legal and political common sense abandoning traditional legal paradigms.

  5. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  6. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  7. Brazilian abortion law: the opinion of judges and prosecutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Graciana Alves; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Faúndes, Anibal; Sousa, Maria Helena de

    2010-06-01

    To analyze the opinion of judges and prosecutors concerning Brazilian abortion law and situations in which the abortion should be allowed. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,493 judges and 2,614 prosecutors in Brazil between 2005 and 2006. Participants completed a structured questionnaire approaching sociodemographic characteristics, opinions about abortion law, and circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of data were carried out through Poisson regression. The majority of participants (78%) found that the circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful should be broadened, or even that abortion should not be criminalized. The highest rates of pro-abortion opinions resulted from: risk to the life of the mother (84%), anencephaly (83%), severe congenital malformation of fetus (82%), and pregnancy resulting from rape (82%). Variables related to religion were strongly associated to the opinion of participants. There is a trend in considering the need of changing the current abortion law, in the sense of widening the circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful, or even toward decriminalizing abortion, regardless of the circumstances in which it takes place.

  8. Judges as Fiscal Activists: Can Constitutional Review Shape Public Finance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantorowicz Jarosław

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The judicialization of politics, or alternatively, politization of the judiciary has been much discussed over the last twenty years. Despite this, the way judges influence fiscal policy outcomes remains, to a large extent, unexplored. This paper attempts, at least partially, to fill this research gap. A judicial (constitutional review constitutes the central element of the current analysis since it is considered as a key institutional device through which Constitutional (Supreme Courts intervene in politics, including public finance. Specifically, this paper seeks to investigate empirically whether there is any systematic pattern according to which judges executing judicial review shape fiscal outcomes. The conceptual framework is based on the strategic interaction model and the assumption that the Constitutional Courts reflect public opinion (i.e. the Court as a majoritarian institution. Some preliminary results for a panel of 24 EU countries in the period 1995–2005 suggest that a strong judicial review correlates with a smaller size of government, measured as government income to GDP.

  9. Creating EU law judges: the role of generational differences, legal education and judicial career paths in national judges' assessment regarding EU law knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias; Mayoral, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure. H

  10. Judging nursing information on the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cader, Raffik

    2013-02-01

    The World Wide Web is increasingly becoming an important source of information for healthcare professionals. However, finding reliable information from unauthoritative Web sites to inform healthcare can pose a challenge to nurses. A study, using grounded theory, was undertaken in two phases to understand how qualified nurses judge the quality of Web nursing information. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and focus groups. An explanatory framework that emerged from the data showed that the judgment process involved the application of forms of knowing and modes of cognition to a range of evaluative tasks and depended on the nurses' critical skills, the time available, and the level of Web information cues. This article mainly focuses on the six evaluative tasks relating to assessing user-friendliness, outlook and authority of Web pages, and relationship to nursing practice; appraising the nature of evidence; and applying cross-checking strategies. The implications of these findings to nurse practitioners and publishers of nursing information are significant.

  11. The Hungarian court system with special emphasis on the principle of the independence of judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heka Laslo L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of ensuring the independence and impartiality of judges is one of the basic principles of justice, and basic principles of state functioning in general. Successful functioning of justice and the realization of this principle is largely linked to the method of selection of judges, which is, nowdays, an important issue in the world's major legal systems. They all aim to find a solution for the selection of judges that could implement reinforcement of the principle of independence of judges and their impartial trial. Regarding this, significant differences are noticeable between countries which apply civil law and ones that judge by the principle of common law, especially bearing in mind that certain political cultures exist in which there are no limits that the court involve even an external factor to the trial verdict. In this thesis we present the Hungarian justice system and methods of selection of the judges, comparing it with the Serbian model, and then presenting solutions in English, American, German and French judiciary, trying to display current prevailing international trends in countries that apply the legal system of Common law, or in those who judge by Civil law. Finally, by the method of comparative analysis, we present our own view on this issue, being aware that the problem of selection of the judges should be cautiously regulated, given the experience of some other countries, which is especially reflected in post-communist countries in which, up to the 1990s, only one-party system existed, characterized by the fact the judges were selected by the communist Party personnel, that in former Yugoslavia used to be called 'socio-politically suitable'. Nowdays in Hungary, Serbia and many other countries, judicial councils represented by judges, prosecutors, lawyers and law professors have a central role in the selection of the judges (in Serbia there are special judge and prosecutor councils. In France, the election of

  12. Effects of setting creative goals of different specificity on judged creativity of the product

    OpenAIRE

    Čorko, Irena; Vranić, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    The study examined the effect of setting creative goals of different specificity on judged creativity of the product. Female psychology students (N=47) were divided in 3 groups. Experimental task was to make a collage. Groups differed in the level of specificity of the given goal. Collages were judged by 11 judges using the consensual assessment technique. Factor analysis of these judgments confirmed 2 orthogonal factors: creativity and technical goodness. Results show that setting a specific...

  13. Applying 4-H Judging Strategies to Board, Dice, and Card Games: Developing Skills in Urban and Suburban Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Brian; Stowe, James

    2017-01-01

    Most 4-H judging events involve livestock or other traditional 4-H projects. Consequently, many urban and suburban youths miss out on building life skills developed through judging. In a nontraditional approach to 4-H judging, such youths play board, dice, and card games and then judge the games using the practice of giving oral reasons. The…

  14. Gender and Judging in Portugal: Opinions and Perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Duarte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In Portugal, the phenomenon of feminization of the legal professions is quite recent compared to other countries. The increasing predominance of women among magistrates – judges and public prosecutors – since 2006 has been overwhelming though. If, until 1974, the judiciary was forbidden to women, in 2015, from a total of 1990 judges in first instance courts, Appeal Courts and the Judicial Supreme Court and the Administrative Supreme Court, 1175 were women (59%. Within the Public Prosecution, 61% were women. The weight of women in the legal professions is visible, even, at the Centre for Judicial Studies, where 67,5% of the justice auditors, in 2014, were women. In this scenario, the aim of this article is to discuss the representations of the legal professionals, on the repercussions of this change to the judiciary and to the legal culture in Portugal. En Portugal, el fenómeno de la feminización de las profesiones jurídicas es bastante reciente en comparación con otros países. Sin embargo, el creciente predominio de mujeres entre los magistrados -jueces y fiscales- desde el año 2006 ha sido abrumador. Si, hasta 1974, las mujeres tenían prohibido el acceso al poder judicial, en 2015, de un total de 1990 jueces en los tribunales de primera instancia, tribunales de apelación y la Corte Suprema de Justicia y el Tribunal Supremo Administrativo, 1175 eran mujeres (59%. Dentro de la fiscalía, el 61% eran mujeres. El peso de las mujeres en las profesiones jurídicas es visible, incluso, en el Centro de Estudios Judiciales, donde el 67,5% de los auditores de justicia, en 2014, eran mujeres. En este escenario, el objetivo de este artículo es analizar las representaciones de los profesionales del derecho sobre las consecuencias de este cambio en el poder judicial y en la cultura jurídica de Portugal. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2831939

  15. Judges in judo conform to the referee because of the reactive feedback system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boen, Filip; Ginis, Pieter; Smits, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This experiment tested whether the conformism observed among panels of judges in aesthetic sports also occurs among judges in judo. Similar to aesthetic sports, judo judging relies upon a form of open feedback. However, in judo, this system is reactive (i.e. two judges have to publicly 'correct' the score given by the higher-status referee), whereas it is active in aesthetic sports (i.e. judges with equal status report their score simultaneously and can use the feedback about the scores of their colleagues for evaluating later performances). In order to test whether such reactive open-feedback system leads to conformism among judges in judo, we designed an experiment in which this feedback was manipulated. Participants were 20 certified Flemish judges, who had to score two sets of 11 ambiguous video sequences that are used during formation and training of judo judges: one set with feedback about the referee's score and one set without feedback. The results revealed that when participants knew the referee's score, their scores were significantly more in line with this score than when they did not know this score. More specifically, for both sets of sequences at least 10% less deviations from the referee were observed when participants were given feedback about the score of the referee. These results suggest that preventable conformism can occur in typical judo judging, that is with reactive open feedback.

  16. Persistent Reliance on Facial Appearance Among Older Adults When Judging Someone's Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Atsunobu

    2016-03-30

    When judging someone's trustworthiness, facial appearance is a salient but nondiagnostic cue. Such judgments should ideally be based on the memory of that person's past behaviors during social interaction. Aging may impair memory-based decision making, predicting an age-related decline in individuals' adjustment of trustworthiness judgment using such behavioral information. However, aging may also facilitate the use of diagnostic information for social inference, predicting an age-related improvement. I tested these competing predictions to obtain insight into the effects of aging on fraud victimization. Thirty-six older adults (OAs) and 36 younger adults (YAs) played four rounds of a trust game wherein they were the truster and had to learn the distinction between "good" and "bad" trustees who always cooperated with and cheated participants, respectively. The trustee's facial appearance (trustworthy- and untrustworthy looking) and character (good and bad) were manipulated orthogonally. A memory test of the trustees' characters revealed that even after four rounds of the game, OAs, but not YAs, were biased to guess that trustworthy-looking persons were good trustees. Persistent reliance on facial trustworthiness could increase one's risk of repeated fraud victimization among OAs, because fraudulent people can pretend to look trustworthy to acquire another's trust. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-18

    Almost daily, Americans receive reports from the mass news media about some new and frightening risk to health and welfare. Most such reports emphasize the newsworthiness of the risks -- the possibility of a crisis, disagreements among experts, how things happened, who is responsible for fixing them, how much will it cost, conflict among parties involved, etc. As a rule, the magnitudes of the risks, or the difficulty of estimating those magnitudes, have limited newsworthiness, and so they are not mentioned. Because of this emphasis in the news media, most people outside the risk assessment community must judge the relative significance of the various risks to which we all are exposed with only that information deemed newsworthy by reporters. This information is biased and shows risks in isolation. There is no basis for understanding and comparing the relative importance of risks among themselves, or for comparing one risk, perhaps a new or newly-discovered one, in the field of all risks. The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which we are routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies.

  18. The compulsion to confess and the compulsion to judge in the analytic situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrajzen, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    In this paper the author shows that human beings have two quasi-instinctual primitive tendencies - namely, the compulsion to confess and the compulsion to judge (to condemn or to absolve). These compulsions are originally unconscious and become conscious during the course of the analytic process. The compulsion to judge is a natural consequence of the compulsion to confess. These two tendencies are intensified by the analytic situation. The patient has a compulsion to confess to the analyst and to himself, and likewise the analyst has a compulsion to confess to himself and to the patient. The patient therefore has a compulsion to judge himself as good or bad and to judge the analyst as good or bad while, on the other hand, the analyst has a compulsion to judge himself as good or bad and to judge the patient as good or bad. The task of analysis is to make both patient and analyst conscious of their compulsions to confess and to judge (to condemn or to absolve). The compulsion to judge in the analyst, particularly if unconscious, may give rise to mistakes in diagnosis, technique, treatment, and the assessment of analysability. The requirement of analytic neutrality in the analyst constantly conflicts with his compulsion to judge. If we are profoundly involved in our patient's dramatic conflict, we are bound to pass a judgement (condemnation or absolution); however, when we judge, we are not neutral and therefore become incapable of intellectual consciousness of the patient's conflict. Conversely, if we do not judge, we are neutral, but are then relatively uninvolved in the patient's conflict and are hence virtually unable to achieve emotional consciousness. The author attempts to show that neutrality cannot and must not be a preconstituted attitude in the analyst, but can and must be a point of arrival following a profound, intensely felt existential experience based on an attitude of non-condemnation and non-absolution.

  19. 5 CFR 2423.31 - Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge at the hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... review will cause undue harm to a party or the public. (2) If the motion is granted, the Judge or... Law Judge at the hearing. 2423.31 Section 2423.31 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL...

  20. 76 FR 70529 - Designation of Administrative Judges and Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Administrative Judges for all matters within the ODRA's jurisdiction and hereby delegate authority to the ODRA... Federal Aviation Administration Designation of Administrative Judges and Delegation of Authority AGENCY... matters within the ODRA's jurisdiction; and delegated authority to the ODRA that supersedes and replaces...

  1. 12 CFR 747.5 - Authority of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of the administrative law judge. 747... UNIONS ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS, ADJUDICATIVE HEARINGS, RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE, AND INVESTIGATIONS Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 747.5 Authority of the administrative law judge. (a)...

  2. 20 CFR 498.204 - Authority of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authority of the administrative law judge..., ASSESSMENTS AND RECOMMENDED EXCLUSIONS § 498.204 Authority of the administrative law judge. (a) The ALJ will... proceeding is made. (b) The ALJ has the authority to: (1) Set and change the date, time, and place of...

  3. 33 CFR 148.236 - What authority does an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Formal Hearings § 148.236 What authority does an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) have? When assigned to a... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What authority does an Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) have? 148.236 Section 148.236 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  4. 12 CFR 308.5 - Authority of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authority of the administrative law judge. 308... PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.5 Authority of the administrative law judge. (a) General rule. All proceedings governed by this part shall be conducted...

  5. 42 CFR 93.506 - Authority of the Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Authority of the Administrative Law Judge. 93.506... Administrative Actions Hearing Process § 93.506 Authority of the Administrative Law Judge. (a) The ALJ assigned... Federal statutes and regulations, Secretarial delegations of authority, and applicable HHS policies...

  6. 5 CFR 2430.13 - Exceptions to Administrative Law Judge's decision; briefs; action of Authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to Administrative Law Judge's decision; briefs; action of Authority. 2430.13 Section 2430.13 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR... administrative law judge's decision rendered pursuant to § 2430.12, and action by the Authority, shall be...

  7. 14 CFR 302.208 - Petitions for oral presentation or judge's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Petitions for oral presentation or judge's... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS Rules Applicable to... Applications § 302.208 Petitions for oral presentation or judge's decision. (a) Any person may file a...

  8. Judging Children's Participatory Parity from Social Justice and the Political Ethics of Care Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalek, Vivienne

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…

  9. 29 CFR 2570.68 - Decision of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision of the administrative law judge. 2570.68 Section 2570.68 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EMPLOYEE BENEFITS SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... Civil Penalties Under ERISA Section 502(c)(2) § 2570.68 Decision of the administrative law judge....

  10. So You're Planning a Science Fair: Comments from a Judge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechard, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    After judging and evaluating four science fairs during a two week period, the author moved to put down some thoughts and suggestions. His comments fell into three major categories: 1) purposes of science fairs, 2) types of science fair projects, and 3) judging the projects. (Author/RK)

  11. Who decides? The decision-making process of juvenile judges concerning minors with mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappon, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on juvenile judges' decision-making process has neglected the role of the different actors involved in judicial procedures. The decision can be considered as a result of information exchange between the different actors involved. The process of making a decision is equally important as the decision itself, especially when the decision considers minors with mental disorders. The presence and the type of interaction determine the information available to the juvenile judges to make their final decision. The overall aim of this study is to gain insight into the role of all actors, including the juvenile judge, in the juvenile judge's decision-making process in cases relating to minors with mental disorders. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with professional actors (n=32), minors (n=31) and parents (n=17). The findings indicated that the judge's decision is overall the result of an interaction between the juvenile judge, the social services investigator and the youth psychiatrist. The other professional actors, the minors and the parents had only a limited role in the decision-making process. The research concludes that the judge's decision-making process should be based on dialogue, and requires enhanced collaboration between the juvenile court and youth psychiatrists from mental health services. Future decision-making research should pay more attention to the interactions of the actors that guide a juvenile judge's decision.

  12. Judging Children's Participatory Parity from Social Justice and the Political Ethics of Care Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozalek, Vivienne

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a model for judging children's participatory parity in different social spaces. The notion of participatory parity originates in Nancy Fraser's normative theory for social justice, where it concerns the participatory status of adults. What, then, constitutes participatory parity for children? How should we judge the extent to…

  13. 31 CFR 501.742 - Secretary's designee's consideration of decisions by Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....742 Secretary's designee's consideration of decisions by Administrative Law Judges. (a) Scope of... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Secretary's designee's consideration of decisions by Administrative Law Judges. 501.742 Section 501.742 Money and Finance:...

  14. An economic approach on countering the misuse of the right to challenge judges : an experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, Joep; van Dijk, Frans; Donders, Bart; Bauw, Eddy

    2016-01-01

    Parties can challenge a judge (request a recusal) when they have reasons to believe that a judge is not impartial. In practice this procedure is sometimes abused by lawyers who, for example, want to delay proceedings. Countries have taken different measures to deter the improper use of the procedure

  15. 28 CFR 68.52 - Final order of the Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judge's consideration, the filing party shall submit to the Administrative Law Judge a copy of the... occurred on or after March 15, 1999. In determining the amount of the penalty, due consideration shall be... substantially justified or special circumstances make the award unjust. (d) Contents of final order with...

  16. 5 CFR 2423.24 - Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge during prehearing proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powers and duties of the Administrative Law Judge during prehearing proceedings. 2423.24 Section 2423.24 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL... Administrative Law Judge shall regulate the course and scheduling of prehearing matters, including...

  17. Effect of User’s Judging Power on the Recommendation Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yu Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In most B2Cs, such as 5-star Amazon, users’ rating capability is nonhomogeneous, which make it necessary to distinguish different users' profiles. Besides, recommender systems sometimes overlook differences among users’ judging power and simply recommend for the target users based on the preferences of his/her neighbors, leading to unsatisfactory recommendation performances. In this paper, we firstly propose a natural extension of the YZLM algorithm to get users’ judging power. Then we equally divide the users into some groups so that the intra-group users have close judging power. Through experiments on three benchmark datasets, namely MovieLens, Netflix and Amazon, we can find the interesting phenomenon which indicates a positive correlation between groups’ judging power and group’s recommendation performance. By analyzing this phenomenon in detail, we put forward some guidance to improve recommendation algorithm according to different users' judging power.

  18. (Im)moral Education in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    Moral relativism, spearheaded by values clarification techniques, has transformed the ethos of South Australian schools. The theory and practice of innovative pedagogy in the realm of moral values is critiqued. Suggestions as to how a secular system of education can avoid moral anarchy without relapsing into ideological indoctrination are made.…

  19. Judges' views of child sexual abuse: evaluating beliefs against research findings in a Finnish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkman, Julia; Svanbäck, Jatta; Finnilä, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Beliefs impact our decision-making and different professionals have been shown to have beliefs about child sexual abuse (CSA) that do not coincide with scientific findings. In the present study, judges' beliefs regarding CSA were explored. Finnish judges (N = 104) answered a questionnaire about CSA related issues as well as questions regarding their professional experience of CSA cases. The judges held both correct and incorrect beliefs; while their CSA prevalence estimates were rather well in line with research findings, half of the participants estimated that no professionals use suggestive methods when interviewing children and more than 40% thought suggestive methods can be useful when trying to get a child to tell about real events. Judges correctly assumed symptoms cannot be used to assess a CSA case, however, the majority thought play observations were appropriate means for evaluating such suspicions. Experience seemed to lead to more confidence in their own expertise but not in an actual increase in knowledge, namely, judges thought themselves more expert when more experienced although their expertise as measured by the questionnaire did not improve. Overall, the judges had both correct and erroneous beliefs but while experience did not improve the situation, gaining information about CSA did. More research about the beliefs of judges and how such beliefs impact legal decision-making is needed.

  20. A Method for Judging Decay or Growth of the Magnetic Field of Pulsar

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lin-Sen Li

    2009-09-01

    This paper provides a method for judging growth or decay of the magnetic field of pulsar by using pulse period , or frequency , and its first and second derivatives $\\dot{P}$, $\\ddot{P}$ or $\\dot{v}$, $\\ddot{v}$. The author uses this method to judge the growth or decay of the magnetic field of Crab pulsar. The judged result for Crab pulsar is that the magnetic field of Crab pulsar is growing now, but it is not decaying. The result corresponds with the actual case of Crab pulsar.

  1. "Am I Famous Yet?" Judging Scholarly Merit in Psychological Science: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to consider new ways of judging merit in academia, especially with respect to research in psychological science. First, I discuss the importance of merit-based evaluation and the purpose of this symposium. Next, I review some previous ideas about judging merit-especially creative merit-and I describe some of the main criteria used by institutions today for judging the quality of research in psychological science. Finally, I suggest a new criterion that institutions and individuals might use and draw some conclusions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Recognition and Analysis on Overtaking Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study has a research of HMM and recognizes current driving intention, Moreover, using time to judge whether the behavior is overtaking behavior or not. Next, MSS was used to judge whether the overtaking conditions met or not. In addition, if they do not meet there will be a warning for driver. Use Gauss density functions to improve P-2D-HMM and discriminate driving intention, then identify the overtaking behavior. Based on vehicle kinematics theory, judge whether the overtaking behavior is normal by SMM. Warn the drivers whose overtaking behavior is abnormal to expect to reduce the traffic accident caused by overtaking. The result of experiment confirms that the model can accurately recognize overtaking behavior and the abnormal overtaking can be effective identified.

  3. The Accuracy with Which Children Judge the Composition of Their Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Elizabeth Kelly; Lange, Garrett

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-four children at each of 3 grade levels (preschool, 2, and 5) were asked to judge which of a presented set of stimulus items they could recall in a subsequent period of verbal free recall. (Author/JMB)

  4. 29 CFR 1979.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., reinstatement of the complainant to that person's former position, together with the compensation (including... brought in bad faith, the judge may award to the named person a reasonable attorney's fee, not...

  5. 29 CFR 1980.109 - Decision and orders of the administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that person's former position with the seniority status that the complainant would have had but for the... brought in bad faith, the judge may award to the named person a reasonable attorney's fee, not...

  6. 76 FR 60806 - Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Panel of Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... the fields of quality, innovation, and performance management and appointed by the Secretary of... & Industry Services. BILLING CODE 3510-13-P ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Panel of Judges...

  7. A Conversation with his Honour Chief Judge Michael Rozenes AO County Court of Victoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rozenes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available VULJ Editors and invited students interviewed the Chief Judge of the County Court of Victoria, His Honour Michael Rozenes AO QC, on Tuesday 19 August 2014 at the College of Law & Justice, Victoria University.

  8. 28 CFR 68.53 - Review of an interlocutory order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. 68.53 Section 68.53 Judicial Administration... ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS, UNFAIR IMMIGRATION... Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. (a) Authority. In a case arising under...

  9. 29 CFR 102.45 - Administrative law judge's decision; contents; service; transfer of case to the Board; contents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Transfer of Case to the Board § 102.45 Administrative law judge's decision; contents; service... administrative law judge's decision and of the order transferring the case to the Board shall be complete upon... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge's decision; contents; service...

  10. 29 CFR 102.153 - Administrative law judge's decision; contents; service; transfer of case to the Board; contents...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Expenses § 102.153 Administrative law judge's decision; contents; service; transfer of case to the Board... administrative law judge's decision and of the order transferring the case to the Board shall be complete upon... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administrative law judge's decision; contents; service...

  11. 28 CFR 68.54 - Administrative review of a final order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. 68.54 Section 68.54 Judicial... BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS, UNFAIR... an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274A or 274C. (a) Authority of the Chief...

  12. 20 CFR 416.1448 - Deciding a case without an oral hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 416.1448 Deciding a case without an oral hearing before an administrative law judge. (a) Decision... the administrative law judge must be based on this record. (c) Case remanded for a revised determination. (1) The administrative law judge may remand a case to the appropriate component of our office for...

  13. 20 CFR 404.948 - Deciding a case without an oral hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....948 Deciding a case without an oral hearing before an administrative law judge. (a) Decision wholly... is based. (b) Parties do not wish to appear. (1) The administrative law judge may decide a case on... the administrative law judge must be based on this record. (c) Case remanded for a revised...

  14. The fan-judges: Clues to a jurisculture of Sherlockian fandom [symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. Davies

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available American judges sometimes encourage other participants in the legal system to behave like Sherlock Holmes. They are relying on a shared culture that both appreciates a literary figure and recognizes a human capacity to emulate an imaginary creature (here, Sherlock outside the context in which it was created. Consciously or not, the judges are tapping into classic fandom, but do they think of it that way, and should they?

  15. Congress, Ex Parte Young, and the Fate of the Three-Judge District Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Solimine

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1908 the Supreme Court held in Ex parte Young that a federal judge could enjoin a state attorney general from enforcing an unconstitutional state statute, notwithstanding sovereign immunity doctrines, which would normally bar such relief. The case was sharply criticized at the time as another example of an activist federal judiciary striking down Progressive Era regulatory legislation. Congress enacted legislation requiring that Ex parte Young injunctions only be issued by a specially convened three-judge district court. Despite the initial hostility, as has been recounted by Owen Fiss, William Ross, and other scholars, the injunctive power recognized in the case came to be regarded as a powerful and necessary tool to enforce federal civil rights laws, especially in the face of recalcitrant state authorities. In contrast, the history of the three-judge district court has received less attention and has had a different arc. During the Civil Rights era, some federal judges, particularly in the Deep South, were perceived as being hostile to the enforcement of federal law, and a three-judge court was considered by many to be a necessary tool to marginalize such judges and optimize enforcement of federal legal norms. The federal judiciary itself later questioned the court’s usefulness due to the administrative burdens of convening such courts, and the perception that their role in enforcing federal law was no longer necessary. Responding to those concerns, and over the opposition of the NAACP, Congress in 1976 sharply restricted the jurisdictional coverage of the court. The changes in the three-judge district court demonstrate the importance of appreciating the motivations and effects of Congressional regulation of the institutional structures of the federal courts and that of interest groups in influencing Congress.

  16. The Everyday Moral Judge - Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, André; Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.

  17. Judging a Book by Its Cover: Children's Facial Trustworthiness as Judged by Strangers Predicts Their Real-World Trustworthiness and Peer Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinggong; Heyman, Gail D; Mei, Jing; Lee, Kang

    2017-08-03

    This longitudinal research examined whether children's facial trustworthiness as judged by strangers can predict their real-world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. Adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) judged the facial trustworthiness of 8- to 12-year-old children (N = 100) solely based on their photographs. The children's classmates were asked to report their real-world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. Children's facial trustworthiness reliably predicted these outcomes both initially when the photographs were taken, as well as 1 year later, and this effect was mediated by the initial ratings of real-world trustworthiness and peer acceptance. These results provide evidence for a long-lasting linkage between children's facial and real-world trustworthiness. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  18. Is the Quality of Judging in Women Artistic Gymnastics Equivalent at Major Competitions of Different Levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajek, Maja Bučar; Čuk, Ivan; Pajek, Jernej; Kovač, Marjeta; Leskošek, Bojan

    In the present study, the reliability and validity of judging at the European championship in Berlin 2011 were analysed and the results were compared to a different level gymnastic competition – Universiade 2009 in Belgrade. For reliability and consistency assessment, mean absolute judge deviation from final execution score, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, intra-class correlations (ICC) and Armor’s theta coefficient were calculated. For validity assessment mean deviations of judges’ scores, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance W and ANOVA eta-squared values were used. For Berlin 2011 in general Cronbach’s alpha was above 0.95, minima of item-total correlations were above 0.8, and the ICC of average scores and Armor’s theta were above 0.94. Comparison with Universiade 2009 identified vault and floor scores at both competitions to have inferior reliability indices. At both competitions average deviations of judges from the final E score were close to zero (p=0.84) but Berlin 2011 competition showed a higher number of apparatuses with significant Kendall’s W (5 vs. 2 for Universiade 2009) and higher eta-squared values indicating higher judge panel bias in all-round and apparatus finals. In conclusion, the quality of judging was comparable at examined gymnastics competitions of different levels. Further work must be done to analyse the inferior results at vault and floor apparatuses. PMID:24146718

  19. Procedural justice and the judge-probationer relationship in a co-occurring disorders court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Myesa Knox

    2014-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of research has been conducted on treatment-based courts, there is little quantitative evidence that describes the relationship between the judge and the probationer. The present study examines perceptions of the judge-probationer relationship (JPR), procedural justice, and outcome satisfaction within a co-occurring disorders court (CODC) in Orange County, California. Based on interview and survey data from a sample of probationers within the CODC (n=24), this article argues that perceptions of procedural justice are linked to perceptions of relationship quality between the judge and probationer. Analysis of the data found that probationers in the CODC have very positive views of their relationships with the judge, and elements of relationship quality are significantly linked with perceptions of procedural justice. Procedural justice is also a predictor of satisfaction with outcome in this sample. The results show promise that procedural justice and the quality of the judge-probationer relationship can positively affect probationers with co-occurring disorders in specialty courts.

  20. Let’s Talk About Same Sex: How Social Workers Can Make Judges Listen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Boys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have created a diverse toolbox of literature reporting that same sex cohabitating relationships are strikingly similar to heterosexual marriages in amicus curiae briefs submitted to the courts. However, judges are trained to fit information into legal frameworks and to ignore data that does not fit the rhetoric of a case. The following article aims to fit existing data on same sex relationships into the framework judges will use to decide whether same sex marriage can be prohibited. The primary precedent used to support same sex marriage is based on the analogy of a case prohibiting marriage discrimination based on race. The legal framework created by this case requires social work policy practitioners to frame research in terms of the evolution that has occurred in scientific understanding of same sex attraction and public opinion. A simple shift in the discourse used to frame the data can significantly impact whether judges listen.

  1. Behind the Judges' desk: An Ethnographic Study on the Italian Courts of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Verzelloni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of the written law, far from being a cognitive activity, it's a concrete and material practice, which is created, recreated and reinforced through experience and through continuous individual and collective learning occasions. This process isn't based on perennial and immutable axioms, but is an activity built in practice, through subsequent "translations" of formal and abstract rules into "concrete" lawsuits. Being a magistrate doesn't mean acquiring a body of abstract knowledge on how to interpret the written laws; rather it signifies an ability to practice as a judge in a court of justice. In order to study the logics that characterize the " fabrique du droit", it is necessary to go "behind the judges' desk"so as to investigate the "real doings" of the practitioners. In light of these reflections, this article tries to reflect on the activities of the Italian judges. The data presented were drawn from several periods of ethnographic research conducted over two years in four Italian courts specialized in legal arguments at first instance related to Labor relationships, Assistance and Welfare. Tribunals were chosen on the basis of two criteria: dimension and geographical location. The research has considered 16 judges (novices, experienced and presidents of section. The conclusion of this paper is that interpretation of the written law, while remaining a prerogative of the single Italian magistrate, is linked to the organizational context in which each judge operates and to the occasions for comparison with the colleagues of section. Some Italian tribunals look like "condominiums", where magistrates appear as "monads" andother, instead, can be described as "communities of practitioners", in which judges discuss common "translations" of the written law and put the results of this dialogue into practice.

  2. The impact of juveniles' ages and levels of psychosocial maturity on judges' opinions about adjudicative competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Jennifer Mayer; Goldstein, Naomi E S; Dolores, John; Zelechoski, Amanda D; Messenheimer, Sharon

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated whether defendants' ages and levels of psychosocial maturity would affect judges' ratings of juveniles' adjudicative competence in juvenile and criminal court. Three hundred forty two judges reviewed a forensic psychological report about a hypothetical defendant; only the defendant's age (12-17) and maturity level (mature, immature) varied across reports. Results revealed a main effect of age, with older juveniles generally deemed more competent, and a main effect of maturity, with mature juveniles generally deemed more competent. No interaction was found. Results suggest that age and maturity play major roles in judicial determinations of juvenile competency.

  3. Behavioral Cues of Interpersonal Warmth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Marjorie A.

    1972-01-01

    The results of this study suggest, first, that interpersonal warmth does seem to be a personality dimension which can be reliably judged and, second, that it was possible to define and demonstrate the relevance of a number of behavioral cues for warmth. (Author)

  4. 13 CFR 134.709 - When will a Judge dismiss an appeal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When will a Judge dismiss an appeal? 134.709 Section 134.709 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF...-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB) Protests §...

  5. 13 CFR 134.711 - Will the Judge permit discovery and oral hearings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appeals From Women-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Will the Judge permit discovery and oral hearings? 134.711 Section 134.711 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  6. 13 CFR 134.714 - When must the Judge issue his or her decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appeals From Women-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When must the Judge issue his or her decision? 134.714 Section 134.714 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS...

  7. 13 CFR 134.715 - Can a Judge reconsider his decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can a Judge reconsider his decision? 134.715 Section 134.715 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RULES OF...-Owned Small Business Concern (WOSB) and Economically Disadvantaged WOSB Concern (EDWOSB) Protests §...

  8. Wittgenstein's Contextualist Approach to Judging "Sound" Teaching: Escaping Enthrallment in Criteria-Based Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeff Alan

    2009-01-01

    Comparing the early, analytic attempt to define "sound" teaching with the current use of criteria-based rating schemes, Jeff Stickney turns to Wittgenstein's holistic, contextualist approach to judging teaching against its complex "background" within our "form of life." To exemplify this approach, Stickney presents cases of classroom practice…

  9. The Freedom of the Judge to Express his Personal Opinions and Convictions under the ECHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske Dijkstra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The freedom of the judge to express his personal opinions and convictions is limited by his special position. The question arises where these limits lie: what are the possibilities for judges to express their personal views on religious, political or other subjects, whether it is through speech, writing, wearing religious symbols or membership of an association or church? In this article the limits of the freedom of the judge will be studied as they appear from the case law of the ECtHR. Two types of cases from this case law are relevant for this subject: cases based on complaints from judges about a violation of their rights under Article 9-11 ECHR and cases based on complaints from litigants and suspects about a violation of their right to a fair trial under Article 6(1 ECHR. The question is asked how the limits of judicial freedom are defined in the case law of the ECtHR and where these limits lie.

  10. 20 CFR 410.660 - Right to request review of Administrative Law Judge's decision or dismissal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Right to request review of Administrative Law...- ) Determinations of Disability, Other Determinations, Administrative Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.660 Right to request review of Administrative Law Judge's decision or...

  11. 40 CFR 164.40 - Qualifications and duties of Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Qualifications and duties of Administrative Law Judge. 164.40 Section 164.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE,...

  12. 17 CFR 200.30-10 - Delegation of authority to Chief Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delegation of authority to Chief Administrative Law Judge. 200.30-10 Section 200.30-10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Organization and Program Management General Organization § 200.30-10 Delegation of authority to...

  13. 41 CFR 60-30.15 - Authority and responsibilities of Administrative Law Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Authority and responsibilities of Administrative Law Judges. 60-30.15 Section 60-30.15 Public Contracts and Property Management... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 30-RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS TO...

  14. The Judge as Linguist: Linguistic Principles as a Rule of Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solan, Lawrence

    The role of court judges as linguists is discussed. Linguistic issues arise in courts when lawyers attempt to convince a court that a statute, insurance policy, or contract should be interpreted as favoring their own client's interests, with respect to resolving a dispute that depends on the proper construal of a particular document. An…

  15. Hearings by administrative law judges of certain Medicare claims--HCFA, SSA. General notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    This notice is to advise the public that the Social Security Administration's Office of Hearings and Appeals (SSA, OHA) has recently been given temporary jurisdiction over Medicare Part B, Supplementary Medical Insurance, Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearings. Medicare Part A, Hospital Insurance, ALJ hearings and Medicare entitlement matters continue under SSA, OHA's jurisdiction.

  16. When the Victim Is a Child: Issues for Judges and Prosecutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Debra; And Others

    This report is intended as a guide to judges, prosecutors, legislators, and other involved professionals who are interested in implementing strategies or modifying existing practices to improve the treatment of child victims and witnesses in their jurisdictions. Part I of this document provides an overview of the literature and a preliminary…

  17. 8 CFR 1246.4 - Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Immigration judge's authority; withdrawal and substitution. 1246.4 Section 1246.4 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS RESCISSION OF ADJUSTMENT OF STATUS § 1246.4 Immigration...

  18. 8 CFR 1003.24 - Fees pertaining to matters within the jurisdiction of an immigration judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... jurisdiction of an immigration judge. 1003.24 Section 1003.24 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.24 Fees pertaining to matters within the jurisdiction of...

  19. 8 CFR 1003.9 - Office of the Chief Immigration Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of the Chief Immigration Judge. 1003.9 Section 1003.9 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Office of the Chief Immigration...

  20. 20 CFR 901.49 - Decision of the Administrative Law Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision of the Administrative Law Judge. 901.49 Section 901.49 Employees' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL SERVICES UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF...

  1. 20 CFR 655.1315 - Administrative review and de novo hearing before an administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that the hearing is scheduled to take place within 5 calendar days after the ALJ's receipt of the ETA..., the CO will send a certified copy of the ETA case file to the Chief Administrative Law Judge by means... of the ETA case file the ALJ will, on the basis of the written record and after due consideration...

  2. An explicit model for learning to structure and analyze decisions by judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Muntjewerff

    2011-01-01

    Legal practitioners and legal scientists need to have knowledge of the general rules that apply in the legal system. This involves both knowledge of the legislation and knowledge of the decisions by judges that function as general rules of law. Law students preparing themselves for the legal profess

  3. A conceptual model for judging the truthfulness of a young child's allegation of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Young, Mary

    1986-10-01

    Because of the increased number of allegations of sexual abuse made by young children and the often severe legal penalties given to adult perpetrators, there is reason for concern about false or mistaken accusations. This paper develops a conceptual model for judging the truthfulness of such allegations by a young child.

  4. An explicit model for learning to structure and analyze decisions by judges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntjewerff, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Legal practitioners and legal scientists need to have knowledge of the general rules that apply in the legal system. This involves both knowledge of the legislation and knowledge of the decisions by judges that function as general rules of law. Law students preparing themselves for the legal

  5. Making Decisions for Other People: The Problem of Judging Acceptable Levels of Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Harvey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available People often make judgments about the risk preferences of others. Doctors do so for patients, lawyers for clients, finance managers for investors, parents for children, carers for dependants. How are these judgments made? How do they relate to people's judgments about their own risk preferences? Research in other areas of social judgment has revealed that people are egocentric: they judge others in the same way that they judge themselves. In the domain of financial risk-taking, HSEE and WEBER (1997 found egocentrism when the judges could empathise with the other people. When they could not, judges assessed others' preferences to be much closer to risk neutrality. Our results for four non-financial domains (recreation, drug-taking, modes of transport, occupations replicate HSEE and WEBER only for activities for which people show risk aversion. We discuss reasons for this and identify various factors that influence the size of self-other differences in judgments of risk acceptability. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0601266

  6. Adjudication and Justification: To What Extent Should the Exluded Be Included in the Judge's Decision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klink, van B.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    As follows from the Rule of Law, the judge has to justify herdecision. In contemporary legal and social theory, it is arguedthat she should somehow give recognition to arguments andviewpoints that have been excluded from the final decision. Inmy paper, I will address the question why, to what extent

  7. Offenders, Judges, and Officers Rate the Relative Severity of Alternative Sanctions Compared to Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nathan T.; May, David C.; Wood, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    Recent work suggests that offenders rate several alternatives as more severe than imprisonment. We build on this literature by comparing punishment exchange rates generated by criminal court judges with rates generated by offenders and their supervising officers. Findings reveal that none of the three groups rates prison as the most severe…

  8. Wittgenstein's Contextualist Approach to Judging "Sound" Teaching: Escaping Enthrallment in Criteria-Based Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Jeff Alan

    2009-01-01

    Comparing the early, analytic attempt to define "sound" teaching with the current use of criteria-based rating schemes, Jeff Stickney turns to Wittgenstein's holistic, contextualist approach to judging teaching against its complex "background" within our "form of life." To exemplify this approach, Stickney presents cases of classroom practice…

  9. 20 CFR 655.1040 - Decision and order of administrative law judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Process for Attestations Filed by Employers Utilizing F-1 Students in Off-Campus Work § 655.1040 Decision... materially false, the judge shall order that the employer be disqualified from employing F-1 students. (e) In... circumstances shall source data obtained in confidence by ETA, or the names of establishments contacted by...

  10. Judges and lawmaking at the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Mia

    2006-01-01

    In this study the author examines the question of whether the judges at the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda are entitled to make law. Instances of substantive and procedural lawmaking at the tribunals are analysed. The context within which tribunal law is made a

  11. Rater Behaviour When Judging Language Learners' Pragmatic Appropriateness in Extended Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydorenko, Tetyana; Maynard, Carson; Guntly, Erin

    2014-01-01

    The criteria by which raters judge pragmatic appropriateness of language learners' speech acts are underexamined, especially when raters evaluate extended discourse. To shed more light on this process, the present study investigated what factors are salient to raters when scoring pragmatic appropriateness of extended request sequences, and which…

  12. Boundaries of the Speeches of Judges%论法官言论的边界

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高一飞

    2015-01-01

    法官像其他公民一样享有言论自由,但法官在行使该项权利时应当注意方式,要能够维护司法尊严、司法公正和司法独立性。法官言论应当受到限制的方面包括:法官不应当评论即将和正在办理的案件;法官不应当泄露司法秘密;法官不应当兼任媒体记者或者通讯员。但是,法官享有与职业无关言论的自由权。法官违反职业道德发表言论,应当受到相应的惩戒。%Judges are entitled to freedom of speeches, but they should pay special attention to the above-mentioned rights, so as to maintain the dignity, fairness and independence of justice. There are many restrictions on the speeches of judges, such as no comments on the coming cases, no disclosure of judicial secrets, and no concurrent posts as journalists or correspondents. However, like common people, judges are entitled to freedom of speeches irrelevant to their positions. In cases of breaches of these restrictions, judges should be punished.

  13. The Freedom of the Judge to Express his Personal Opinions and Convictions under the ECHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske Dijkstra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The freedom of the judge to express his personal opinions and convictions is limited by his special position. The question arises where these limits lie: what are the possibilities for judges to express their personal views on religious, political or other subjects, whether it is through speech, writing, wearing religious symbols or membership of an association or church? In this article the limits of the freedom of the judge will be studied as they appear from the case law of the ECtHR. Two types of cases from this case law are relevant for this subject: cases based on complaints from judges about a violation of their rights under Article 9-11 ECHR and cases based on complaints from litigants and suspects about a violation of their right to a fair trial under Article 6(1 ECHR. The question is asked how the limits of judicial freedom are defined in the case law of the ECtHR and where these limits lie.

  14. Diagnostic Labeling in Juvenile Court: How Do Descriptions of Psychopathy and Conduct Disorder Influence Judges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrie, Daniel C.; Boccaccini, Marcus T.; McCoy, Wendy; Cornell, Dewey G.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the influence of diagnostic criteria and diagnostic labels for psychopathy or conduct disorder on judicial decisions. A national sample of judges (N = 326) rendered hypothetical dispositions based on 1 of 12 mock psychological evaluations. The evaluations varied the presence of 2 sets of diagnostic criteria (antisocial…

  15. On Judges Avoidance System%论法官回避制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨尧凯

    2014-01-01

    我国法官回避制度还不完整和规范,对“关系”一词应具体规定,扩大回避亲属范围,公示法官个人情况。当事人申请回避缺乏可操作性,对回避申请的保障和救济措施不完善,审委会和二审回避问题没有得到合理解决。在法官非诉讼回避制度中,院长籍贯回避未严格执行,法官任职回避也应出台具体操作办法。运用巡回审判和网络审判方式以确保法官中立,进而探索以新型审判方式为基础的,法官非诉讼回避和法官诉讼回避为补充的,保障“法官中立”的新路子。%Domestic judges avoidance system is still in complete and lack of standardization. The word “relationship” in judges avoidance system should be specified, expand the scope of avoidance of relatives and publicize the judge's personal circumstances. The measures are taken as follows, the application of the client is lacking in maneuverability; to avoid the application of the protection and relief measures is not perfect. the second trial, the judicial committee to avoid problems have not been solved reasonably. In the litigation avoidance system, the native avoidance of the president is not strictly enforced;Judges avoidance should also introduce specific operation method. Using the circuit trial way and applying the network mode of trial proceedings ensure the neutrality of the judge; exploring a new form of trial judge as a basis;guaranteeing the real way to protect the neutrality of the judges as for the non litigation avoidance and the litigation avoidance as supplement.

  16. "It's Always the Judge's Fault": Attention, Emotion Recognition, and Expertise in Rhythmic Gymnastics Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bokhorst, Lindsey G; Knapová, Lenka; Majoranc, Kim; Szebeni, Zea K; Táborský, Adam; Tomić, Dragana; Cañadas, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In many sports, such as figure skating or gymnastics, the outcome of a performance does not rely exclusively on objective measurements, but on more subjective cues. Judges need high attentional capacities to process visual information and overcome fatigue. Also their emotion recognition abilities might have an effect in detecting errors and making a more accurate assessment. Moreover, the scoring given by judges could be also influenced by their level of expertise. This study aims to assess how rhythmic gymnastics judges' emotion recognition and attentional abilities influence accuracy of performance assessment. Data will be collected from rhythmic gymnastics judges and coaches at different international levels. This study will employ an online questionnaire consisting on an emotion recognition test and attentional test. Participants' task is to watch a set of videotaped rhythmic gymnastics performances and evaluate them on the artistic and execution components of performance. Their scoring will be compared with the official scores given at the competition the video was taken from to measure the accuracy of the participants' evaluations. The proposed research represents an interdisciplinary approach that integrates cognitive and sport psychology within experimental and applied contexts. The current study advances the theoretical understanding of how emotional and attentional aspects affect the evaluation of sport performance. The results will provide valuable evidence on the direction and strength of the relationship between the above-mentioned factors and the accuracy of sport performance evaluation. Importantly, practical implications might be drawn from this study. Intervention programs directed at improving the accuracy of judges could be created based on the understanding of how emotion recognition and attentional abilities are related to the accuracy of performance assessment.

  17. The need for scientists and judges to work together: regarding a new European network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosuosso Amedeo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Is it always true to say that science is, by definition, universal whilst laws and the courts which apply them are a classic state and national expression? Yes and no. In recent years a new scenario has opened all over the world. Courts intervene more and more in disputes on matters related to scientific procedures in the biological field. In doing so the courts' decisions are affected by scientific issues and ways of reasoning and, on the other hand, affect the scientific field and its way of reasoning. While the old matter of bioethics was still alive and while judges were improving their skill in dealing with hard matters, like refusal of medical treatments, abortion, euthanasia et cetera, a new challenge appeared on the horizon, the challenge of biological sciences, and especially of the most troubled field of human genetics. A completely new awareness is developing among judges that they belong to an international judiciary community, as informal as it is real. Such a community is, even at an embryonic stage, sufficiently universal to be able to come together with the international scientific community. The authors maintain we are in urgent need for new interaction between judges and scientists and of new international means in the light of such cooperation. Judges and jurists need to become better acquainted with scientific questions and learn to exchange ideas with scientists. They also need to set themselves against the latters' conceptual systems and be willing to put their own up for discussion. A European Network for Life Sciences, Health and the Courts is taking its first steps, and judges and scientists are working side by side to tackle the new challenges. The provisional headquarters are located at the University of Pavia (I, Laboratorio di Biologia dello Sviluppo and Collegio Ghislieri (e-mail:. enlsc@unipv.it. ENLSC activity is inspired by the following idea: to be against science is as much antiscientific as to be

  18. COMPARED LAW ISSUES REGARDING THE JUDGE SUPERVISING THE LIMITATION OF FREEDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela-Nicoleta CHIHAIA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Law no. 254/2013 regarding the execution of sentences and custodial measures ordered by the court during the criminal trial, the judge that oversees the limitation of freedom process to monitor and control the execution of sentences and ensures the legality of custodial measures. Although Spanish and Italian law systems influenced the institution of this judge it did not copy the regulation from this countries, but continues the line started in our country by Law no. 275/2006, which regulated the judge delegated for the execution of custodial sentences. This study aims without trying to be exhaustive, to present different models adopted by European countries in the matter of justices that control the activity during the execution of custodial sentences. Thus we analyzed the laws of Italy, Spain and Germany. Without trying to prioritize these European regulations, the paper aims to present the legal nature of the activity of this type of justice in relation to the regulated activity of the Romanian legislation, which mentions that his or hers responsibilities are administrative and also administrative jurisdictional. We also note the similarities between the powers of this type of judge in the European countries presented, regarding, for example, the complaints of inmates against prison conditions or infringements of their rights, but at the same time the difference which will be highlighted in particular in relation to the status of these judges. In the last part of the paper we present a number of problems and we propose possible solutions to their law by adopting new legal provisions taken from the laws of the European countries analyzed in this study.

  19. The need for scientists and judges to work together: regarding a new European network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosuosso, Amedeo; Redi, Carlo Alberto

    2003-07-01

    Is it always true to say that science is, by definition, universal whilst laws and the courts which apply them are a classic state and national expression? Yes and no. In recent years a new scenario has opened all over the world. Courts intervene more and more in disputes on matters related to scientific procedures in the biological field. In doing so the courts' decisions are affected by scientific issues and ways of reasoning and, on the other hand, affect the scientific field and its way of reasoning. While the old matter of bioethics was still alive and while judges were improving their skill in dealing with hard matters, like refusal of medical treatments, abortion, euthanasia et cetera, a new challenge appeared on the horizon, the challenge of biological sciences, and especially of the most troubled field of human genetics. A completely new awareness is developing among judges that they belong to an international judiciary community, as informal as it is real. Such a community is, even at an embryonic stage, sufficiently universal to be able to come together with the international scientific community. The authors maintain we are in urgent need for new interaction between judges and scientists and of new international means in the light of such cooperation. Judges and jurists need to become better acquainted with scientific questions and learn to exchange ideas with scientists. They also need to set themselves against the latters' conceptual systems and be willing to put their own up for discussion. A European Network for Life Sciences, Health and the Courts is taking its first steps, and judges and scientists are working side by side to tackle the new challenges. The provisional headquarters are located at the University of Pavia (I), Laboratorio di Biologia dello Sviluppo and Collegio Ghislieri (e-mail: enlsc@unipv.it). ENLSC activity is inspired by the following idea: to be against science is as much antiscientific as to be acritically pro-science.

  20. Resolving the Meat-Paradox: A Motivational Account of Morally Troublesome Behavior and Its Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Brock; Loughnan, Steve

    2017-08-01

    A majority of people the world over eat meat, yet many of these same people experience discomfort when the meat on their plate is linked to the death of animals. We draw on this common form of moral conflict-the meat-paradox-to develop insights into the ways in which morally troublesome behaviors vanish into the commonplace and every day. Drawing on a motivational analysis, we show how societies may be shaped by attempts to resolve dissonance, in turn protecting their citizens from discomfort associated with their own moral conflicts. To achieve this, we build links between dissonance reduction, habit formation, social influence, and the emergence of social norms and detail how our analysis has implications for understanding immoral behavior and motivations underpinning dehumanization and objectification. Finally, we draw from our motivational analysis to advance new insights into the origins of prejudice and pathways through which prejudice can be maintained and resolved.

  1. 78 FR 29781 - Before Administrative Judges: Ronald M. Spritzer, Chairman, Dr. Anthony J. Baratta, Dr. Randall J...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Before Administrative Judges: Ronald M. Spritzer, Chairman, Dr... submitted to: Mail: Administrative Judge Ronald M. Spritzer, Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, Mail... statement should be sent to the Chairman of this Licensing Board as follows: Mail: Administrative...

  2. Mapping Judicial Dialogue across National Borders: An Exploratory Network Study of Learning from Lobbying among European Intellectual Property Judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Lazega

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at dialogue and collective learning across borders through personal networks of judges. We focus on judges participating in the Venice Forum, bringing together European patent judges involved in institutional lobbying for the construction of a European Patent Court. Empirical observation shows that personal networks of discussion with foreign judges, reading of their work and references to their decisions do exist in this milieu and can be mapped. Our network study shows that judges from some European countries are more active in this dialogue than judges from other countries. The learning process is driven, to some extent, by a small subset of super-central judges who frame this dialogue and can be considered to be opinion leaders in this social milieu. We measure a strong level of consensus among the judges on several controversial issues surrounding the procedure of a possible future European Patent Court. But strong differences between them remain. Dialogue and collective learning do not, by themselves, lead to convergence towards a uniform position in these controversies.

  3. Methodology for Naturalistic Observation of Therapist Behavior in Group Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Leslie Bloch

    This paper presents a research method derived from the functional analysis of behavior currently common among operant behavior therapists. Naturalistic observation, the method used, encompasses behavioral-level description of events, systematic observation and recording by means of codes, assessment of inter-judge reliability, as well as targeting…

  4. The effect of uniform color on judging athletes' aggressiveness, fairness, and chance of winning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenn, Bjoern

    2015-04-01

    In the current study we questioned the impact of uniform color in boxing, taekwondo and wrestling. On 18 photos showing two athletes competing, the hue of each uniform was modified to blue, green or red. For each photo, six color conditions were generated (blue-red, blue-green, green-red and vice versa). In three experiments these 108 photos were randomly presented. Participants (N = 210) had to select the athlete that seemed to be more aggressive, fairer or more likely to win the fight. Results revealed that athletes wearing red in boxing and wrestling were judged more aggressive and more likely to win than athletes wearing blue or green uniforms. In addition, athletes wearing green were judged fairer in boxing and wrestling than athletes wearing red. In taekwondo we did not find any significant impact of uniform color. Results suggest that uniform color in combat sports carries specific meanings that affect others' judgments.

  5. The Prominent Role of National Judges in Interpreting the International Definition of Human Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luuk B Esser

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although there has been much discussion of the scope of the concept of human trafficking in international literature, the part played by national courts in interpreting definitions based on the international definition of human trafficking in the UN Trafficking Protocol has received little attention. When a judge interprets an offence, he or she clarifies or adds new meaning to it. The space for this is even greater when the underlying definition is broadly formulated, as in the case of the international definition of human trafficking. This article demonstrates that, although this international definition establishes the outer parameters within which conduct must be made a criminal offence, domestic courts still have room to flesh out the definition in national contexts. The role of national judges needs more consideration in today’s discourse on the legal definition of human trafficking.

  6. Process of Judging Significant Modifications for Different Transportation Systems compared to the Approach for Nuclear Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Petrek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the CSM regulation by the European Commission in 2009 which harmonizes the risk assessment process and introduces a rather new concept of judging changes within the European railway industry. This circumstance has risen the question how other technology sectors handle the aspect of modifications and alterations. The paper discusses the approaches for judging the significance of modifications within the three transport sectors of European railways, aviation and maritime transportation and the procedure which is used in the area of nuclear safety. We will outline the similarities and differences between these four methods and discuss the underlying reasons. Finally, we will take into account the role of the European legislator and the fundamental idea of a harmonization of the different approaches.

  7. New judging model of fuzzy cluster optimal dividing based on rough sets theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yun; Liu Qinghong; Mu Yong; Shi Kaiquan

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the judging problem of optimal dividing matrix among several fuzzy dividing matrices in fuzzy dividing space, correspondingly, which is determined by the various choices of cluster samples in the totality sample space, two algorithms are proposed on the basis of the data analysis method in rough sets theory: information system discrete algorithm (algorithm 1) and samples representatives judging algorithm (algorithm 2).On the principle of the farthest distance, algorithm 1 transforms continuous data into discrete form which could be transacted by rough sets theory.Taking the approximate precision as a criterion, algorithm 2 chooses the sample space with a good representative.Hence, the clustering sample set in inducing and computing optimal dividing matrix can be achieved.Several theorems are proposed to provide strict theoretic foundations for the execution of the algorithm model.An applied example based on the new algorithm model is given, whose result verifies the feasibility of this new algorithm model.

  8. Personal standards for judging aggression by a relationship partner: How much aggression is too much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga, Ximena B; Capezza, Nicole M; Daly, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    What determines whether people tolerate partner aggression? This research examined how norms, relationship experiences, and commitment predict personal standards for judging aggressive acts by a partner. Studies 1a and 1b (n = 689) revealed that experiencing aggression in a current relationship and greater commitment predicted greater tolerance for common partner aggression. Study 2 longitudinally tracked individuals who had never experienced partner aggression (n = 52). Once aggression occurred, individuals adopted more tolerant standards, but only if they were highly committed. Study 3 involved experimentally manipulating the relevance of partner aggression among individuals who reported current partner aggression (n = 73); they were more tolerant of aggressive acts imagined to occur by their partner (vs. the same acts by a stranger), but only if they were highly committed. Personal standards for judging partner aggression are dynamic. They shift toward greater tolerance when committed people experience aggression in a current relationship.

  9. Judging trustworthiness from faces: Emotion cues modulate trustworthiness judgments in young children

    OpenAIRE

    Caulfield, Frances; Ewing, Louise; Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    By adulthood, people judge trustworthiness from appearances rapidly and reliably. However, we know little about these judgments in children. This novel study investigates the developmental trajectory of explicit trust judgments from faces, and the contribution made by emotion cues across age groups. Five-, 7-, 10-year-olds, and adults rated the trustworthiness of trustworthy and untrustworthy faces with neutral expressions. The same participants also rated faces displaying overt happy and ang...

  10. Patient advocacy: one agency's positive results with the administrative law judge process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaid, Y; Votava, K M; Myers, E

    1994-01-01

    The Visiting Nurse Service of Rochester and Monroe County, Inc., is a progressive, certified home health agency that is committed to providing a broad range of specialized high-quality care services. To assist in meeting this goal, the Visiting Nurse Service has developed a Network of Support to maximize the patients' access to Medicare home care benefits. This commitment as a patient advocate follows through to the process of dealing with Medicare denials up to the level of the Administrative Law Judge.

  11. ISSUES REGARDING THE ADMISSIBILITY OF THE PRESIDING JUDGE'S ORDER IN CONTENTIOUS-ADMINISTRATIVE LITIGATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Gratian URECHIATU-BURIAN

    2014-01-01

    The research aims to clarify the issues regarding the admissibility of the presiding judge's order in contentious-administrative litigations. As we know, the public administration activity is governed by the principle of legality. According to this principle, public authorities operate within the powers given by the law. Therefore the administrative acts issued by central or local government authorities are presumed to be legal. Of course, the presumption is relative. An interesting problem t...

  12. Predictive Models to Determine Imagery Strategies Employed by Children to Judge Hand Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Steffie Spruijt; Marijtje L A Jongsma; John van der Kamp; Bert Steenbergen

    2015-01-01

    A commonly used paradigm to study motor imagery is the hand laterality judgment task. The present study aimed to determine which strategies young children employ to successfully perform this task. Children of 5 to 8 years old (N = 92) judged laterality of back and palm view hand pictures in different rotation angles. Response accuracy and response duration were registered. Response durations of the trials with a correct judgment were fitted to a-priori defined predictive sinusoid models, repr...

  13. Together Everyone Achieves More: Leadership Networks and Interagency Relationships of the Judge Advocate Generals Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    leadership networks may be formal or informal in nature, but share the trait that all of the nodes of the network create products or perform services ...information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information...Together Everyone Achieves More: Leadership Networks and Interagency Relationships of the Judge Advocate General’s Corps SSG Kenneth Conklin and SSG

  14. Officiating Role Influences the Physical Match Activity Profiles of Rugby League Touch Judges and Referees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearce Leesa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of the officiating role on physical activity profiles of rugby league match officials during match-play. Physical performance indicators were collated from 23 match officials, resulting in 78 observations. Match officials were categorised into two groups: referees and touch judges. Microtechnology facilitated the quantification of total distance (m, relative distance (m⋅min-1, maximum velocity (m⋅s-1, the percentage of high intensity running distance (% total > 3.01 m⋅s-1, walking distance (5 m⋅s-1. Multivariate analysis modelled the main effect of the officiating role with follow up univariate analyses identifying significant differences. A significant effect was noted (V = 750; F(8, 66 = 24.71; p < 0.05 with referees covering a greater total distance (7767 ± 585 vs. 7022 ± 759 m, relative distance (90 ± 6 vs. 82 ± 8 m⋅min-1, jogging distance (3772 ± 752 vs. 3110 ± 553 m, and fast jogging distance (2565 ± 631 vs. 1816 ± 440 m compared to touch judges. Touch judges covered greater distances while sprinting (1012 ± 385 vs. 654 ± 241 m. Results provide important guidance in the development of training programs for match officials.

  15. Estimating the Standard Error of the Judging in a modified-Angoff Standards Setting Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. MacCann

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available For a modified Angoff standards setting procedure, two methods of calculating the standard error of the..judging were compared. The Central Limit Theorem (CLT method is easy to calculate and uses readily..available data. It estimates the variance of mean cut scores as a function of the variance of cut scores within..a judging group, based on the independent judgements at Stage 1 of the process. Its theoretical drawback is..that it is unable to take account of the effects of collaboration among the judges at Stages 2 and 3. The..second method, an application of equipercentile (EQP equating, relies on the selection of very large stable..candidatures and the standardisation of the raw score distributions to remove effects associated with test..difficulty. The standard error estimates were then empirically obtained from the mean cut score variation..observed over a five year period. For practical purposes, the two methods gave reasonable agreement, with..the CLT method working well for the top band, the band that attracts most public attention. For some..bands in English and Mathematics, the CLT standard error was smaller than the EQP estimate, suggesting..the CLT method be used with caution as an approximate guide only.

  16. Putting judging situations into situational judgment tests: evidence from intercultural multimedia SJTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockstuhl, Thomas; Ang, Soon; Ng, Kok-Yee; Lievens, Filip; Van Dyne, Linn

    2015-03-01

    Although the term situational judgment test (SJT) implies judging situations, existing SJTs focus more on judging the effectiveness of different response options (i.e., response judgment) and less on how people perceive and interpret situations (i.e., situational judgment). We expand the traditional SJT paradigm and propose that adding explicit assessments of situational judgment to SJTs will provide incremental information beyond that provided by response judgment. We test this hypothesis across 4 studies using intercultural multimedia SJTs. Study 1 uses verbal protocol analysis to discover the situational judgments people make when responding to SJT items. Study 2 shows situational judgment predicts time-lagged, peer-rated task performance and interpersonal citizenship among undergraduate seniors over and above response judgment and other established predictors. Study 3 shows providing situational judgment did not affect the predictive validity of response judgment. Study 4 replicates Study 2 in a working adult sample. We discuss implications for SJT theory as well as the practical implications of putting judging situations back into SJTs.

  17. Detection of Illegal Race Walking: A Tool to Assist Coaching and Judging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Lee

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Current judging of race walking in international competitions relies on subjective human observation to detect illegal gait, which naturally has inherent problems. Incorrect judging decisions may devastate an athlete and possibly discredit the international governing body. The aim of this study was to determine whether an inertial sensor could improve accuracy, monitor every step the athlete makes in training and/or competition. Seven nationally competitive race walkers performed a series of legal, illegal and self-selected pace races. During testing, athletes wore a single inertial sensor (100 Hz placed at S1 of the vertebra and were simultaneously filmed using a high-speed camera (125 Hz. Of the 80 steps analyzed the high-speed camera identified 57 as illegal, the inertial sensor misidentified four of these measures (all four missed illegal steps had 0.008 s of loss of ground contact which is considerably less than the best possible human observation of 0.06 s. Inertial sensor comparison to the camera found the typical error of estimate was 0.02 s (95% confidence limits 0.01–0.02, with a bias of 0.02 (±0.01. An inertial sensor can thus objectively improve the accuracy in detecting illegal steps (loss of ground contact and, along with the ability to monitor every step of the athlete, could be a valuable tool to assist judges during race walk events.

  18. Officiating Role Influences the Physical Match Activity Profiles of Rugby League Touch Judges and Referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Leesa; Woods, Carl; Sinclair, Wade; Leicht, Anthony

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the effect of the officiating role on physical activity profiles of rugby league match officials during match-play. Physical performance indicators were collated from 23 match officials, resulting in 78 observations. Match officials were categorised into two groups: referees and touch judges. Microtechnology facilitated the quantification of total distance (m), relative distance (m⋅min(-1)), maximum velocity (m⋅s(-1)), the percentage of high intensity running distance (% total > 3.01 m⋅s(-1)), walking distance (5 m⋅s-1). Multivariate analysis modelled the main effect of the officiating role with follow up univariate analyses identifying significant differences. A significant effect was noted (V = 750; F(8, 66) = 24.71; p referees covering a greater total distance (7767 ± 585 vs. 7022 ± 759 m), relative distance (90 ± 6 vs. 82 ± 8 m⋅min(-1)), jogging distance (3772 ± 752 vs. 3110 ± 553 m), and fast jogging distance (2565 ± 631 vs. 1816 ± 440 m) compared to touch judges. Touch judges covered greater distances while sprinting (1012 ± 385 vs. 654 ± 241 m). Results provide important guidance in the development of training programs for match officials.

  19. Unawareness of Self-interest Bias in Moral Judgments of Others’ Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocian Konrad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies (Bocian & Wojciszke, 2014 showed that self-interest biases moral perception of others’ unethical actions. Moreover, affective changes in attitudinal responses towards the perpetrator of an immoral act drives the bias. In the present studies, we attempted to answer the question whether people are aware of the self-interest bias in their judgments of others’ behavior. We conducted two experiments showing that moral judgments of verbally described and imagined actions were dominated by norms rather than self-interest (Study 1 and that people were not aware that self-interest distorted their moral judgment (Study 2. The unawareness of the self-interest bias among the participants was attributable to omission of their own emotional responses when forecasting their moral judgments. We discuss the importance of emotions presence in studies on moral judgments as well as contribution of the present research to the intuitionist approach to moral judgment.

  20. NEITHER FISH NOR FOWL: ADMINISTRATIVE JUDGES IN THE MODERN ADMINISTRATIVE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell L. Weaver

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of administrative adjudication in the United States constitutional system. It begins by noting that such adjudication fits uncomfortably within a system of divided powers. Administrative judges, including administrative law judges [ALJs] (who have the highest level of protection and status, are considerably more circumscribed than ordinary Article III judges. Indeed, administrative judges are usually housed in the agencies for which they decide cases, rather than in independent adjudicative bodies, and they do not always have the final say regarding the cases they decide. In many instances, the agency can appeal an adverse administrative judge’s decision directly to the head of the agency, and the agency head retains broad power to overrule the administrative judge’s determinations. In other words, the agency can substitute its judgment for that of the administrative judge regarding factual determinations, legal determinations, and policy choices. As a result, many administrative adjudicative structures involve difficult tradeoffs between independence, political control, and accountability. This article examines issues related to the status and power of administrative judges, as well as the constraints that have been imposed on administrative adjudicative authority, and explores whether those constraints continue to serve the purposes for which they were originally imposed. Cet article examine le rôle du règlement de différends dans le domaine administratif dans le cadre du système constitutionnel des États-Unis. Il note d’abord qu’une telle façon de régler les différends cadre difficilement avec un système où les pouvoirs sont divisés. Les juges administratifs, y inclus les juges de droit administratif (qui jouissent du niveau le plus élevé de protection et de statut, sont considérablement plus restreints que les juges ordinaires sous l’Article III. En effet, les juges administratifs sont

  1. Combining colour and temperature: A blue object is more likely to be judged as warm than a red object

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ho, Hsin-Ni; Iwai, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Watanabe, Junji; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2014-01-01

    .... Experiment 1 found that a red object, relative to a blue object, raises the lowest temperature required for an object to feel warm, indicating that a blue object is more likely to be judged as warm...

  2. 28 CFR 68.57 - Judicial review of the final agency order of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274B. 68.57 Section 68.57 Judicial... BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS, UNFAIR... of an Administrative Law Judge in cases arising under section 274B. Any person aggrieved by a final...

  3. 20 CFR 404.984 - Appeals Council review of administrative law judge decision in a case remanded by a Federal court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Council review of administrative law judge decision in a case remanded by a Federal court. (a) General. In... final decision in your case or subsequently considered by the administrative law judge in the... of the Commissioner after remand, or it will remand the case to an administrative law judge for...

  4. What is "Normative" at Cooling Water Intakes? Defining Normalcy Before Judging Adverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1998-09-23

    Judgments of adverse environmental impact from cooling water intake structures need to be preceded by an appreciation of what is normal. In its repo~ Return to the River, the Independent Scientd5c Group (now called the Independent Scientfilc Advisory Board) --the scientific peer review arm of the Northwest Power Planning Council-- advanced the notion of a "normative river ecosystem" as a new conceptual foundation for salrnonid recovery in the Columbia River basin. With this perspective, the sum of the best scientific understanding of how organisms and aquatic ecosystems function should be the norm or standard of measure for how we judge the effects of human activities on aquatic systems. ,For the best likelihood of recovery, key aspects of altered systems should be brought back toward nonnative (although not necessarily fully back to the historical or pristine state); new alterations should be judged for adversity by how much they move key attributes away from normative or what might be considered normal. In this presentation, I ask what "normative" is for the setting of cooling water intake structures and how this concept could help resolve long-standing disputes between groups interested in avoiding darnage to all organisms that might be entrained or impinged and those who take a more population or community perspective for judging adverse environmental impact. In essence, I suggest that if a water intake does not move the aquatic ecosystem outside the "normative" range, based on expressions of norrrdcy such as those discussed, then no adverse impact has occurred. Having an explicit baseline in normal or normative would place 316(b) analyses on the same conceptual foundation as 316(a) analyses, which strive to demonstrate the continuation of a balanced, indigenous community of aquatic organisms at the power station Iocation.

  5. THE JUDGE'S PROBATIVE INITIATIVE: CONTRASTS AND LIMITATIONS FROM THE LEGAL-CONSTITUTIONAL PARADIGM OF LAWFUL DEMOCRATIC STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Alves Noberto Soares

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article will reflect on the production of proof by the judge, in the context of Criminal Procedure, according to the rules presents in the brazilian legal system. Therefore, the critcial incursions will take into account the technical constructions expressed from the legal and constitutional paradigm of Lawful Democratic State, in order to counter the currently permissive system that confers, to judging agent, the probative initiative.

  6. Comprehensive database of wellbore temperatures and drilling mud weight pressures by depth for Judge Digby field, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Lauri

    2010-01-01

    This document serves as the repository for the unprocessed data used in the investigation of temperature and overpressure relations within the deep Tuscaloosa Formation in Judge Digby field. It is a compilation of all the publicly accessible wellbore temperature and pressure data for Judge Digby field, a prolific natural gas field producing from the Upper Cretaceous lower part of the Tuscaloosa Formation in the Gulf Coast region. This natural gas field is in Pointe Coupee Parish in the southern part of onshore Louisiana.

  7. Justice, Accountability and Social Reconstruction: An Interview Study of Bosnian Judges and Prosecutors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree; Fletcher, Laurel; Weinstein, Harvey

    2000-01-01

    This study of judges and prosecutors in Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter "BiH") is the first report in a multi-year study undertaken by the University of California, Berkeley, Human Rights Center regarding the relationship between justice, accountability and reconstruction in the former...... Yugoslavia. ... (c) Domestic effects of the ICTY: legal definitions of accountability and the rule of law; social reconstruction and war crimes; genocide; the role of the Dayton Accords and international law; and perceptions of the ICTY, including its goals, choice of those indicted, knowledge of specific...

  8. The creative powder of the judge within the mix of constitucional procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bernal-Cano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an explanatory summary of the judicial creativity so as to combine elements of constitutional processes to strengthen fundamental rights. It then presents an analysis of the sources of law and their equivalents in constitutional reasoning. To underline equity in the importance of sources, this article seeks to encourage the conciliatory work of the judges and creation of law within the limits of a coherent jurisprudence. The article then examines those areas in which the jurisprudence may change and the advantages of this for the evolution of constitutional law. One of the most important jurisprudential changes is the trend towards articulating the constitutional procedures.

  9. Setting the time and place for a hearing before an administrative law judge. Final rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    We are amending our rules to state that our agency is responsible for setting the time and place for a hearing before an administrative law judge (ALJ). This change creates a 3-year pilot program that will allow us to test this new authority. Our use of this authority, consistent with due process rights of claimants, may provide us with greater flexibility in scheduling both in-person and video hearings, lead to improved efficiency in our hearing process, and reduce the number of pending hearing requests. This change is a part of our broader commitment to maintaining a hearing process that results in accurate, high-quality decisions for claimants.

  10. Judge-Jury Interaction in Deliberation: Enhancement or Obstruction of Independent Jury Decision-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hyup Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Korean jury system, jurors deliberate without interference of anyone, except when they cannot reach a unanimous verdict, in which case they must hear the judge’s opinion. If jurors convict the defendant, they also deliberate with the judge on sentencing and provide their opinions. This unique feature of the Korean jury system provides rare opportunities to examine the interaction of the lay people and judges in deliberation. Through direct observation and the content analysis of the shadow jury deliberations on actual cases in Korea, we will examine whether the judge’s intervention was helpful in jury decision-making or hampers the independent judgment of the jury. The result shows the collaborative deliberation amongst jurors and judges in sentencing, and in some cases in conviction, will mutually benefit both. In turn, jurors will retain the credibility of the judiciary while the judges will reflect upon their decisions in accordance with the legal consciousness of the lay people. En el sistema de jurados de Corea, los miembros del jurado deliberan sin interferencia de nadie, excepto cuando no pueden llegar a un veredicto unánime, en cuyo caso deben escuchar la opinión del juez. Si los miembros del jurado condenan al acusado, también deliberan con el juez a la hora de dictar sentencia y expresan sus opiniones. Esta característica única del sistema de jurados de Corea ofrece pocas oportunidades para examinar la interacción del jurado popular y los jueces durante su deliberación. A través de la observación directa y el análisis del contenido de las deliberaciones del jurado en la sombra sobre casos reales en Corea, se analizará si la intervención del juez fue útil en la toma de decisiones del jurado o dificulta su independencia de criterio. El resultado demuestra que la deliberación entre los miembros del jurado y los jueces a la hora de dictar sentencia, y en algunos casos al declarar culpable al acusado, beneficia a

  11. In the CJEU judges trust: A new approach in the judicial construction of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral, Juan A.

    2016-01-01

    This articles aims to highlight the relevance of judicial trust in international courts, focusing on national judges’ trust in the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU). EU Scholars have put a great deal of effort into explaining how legal and political factors affect the use of preliminary...... judicial system. A theory is offered in the article, which links national judges’ trust in the CJEU to their corporatist identification, their profile as EU law judge, their attitudes to the European Union and to their beliefs about the CJEU’s ability to provide decisions that: 1) offer a clear guidance...

  12. Polish pseudo-words list: dataset of 3023 stimuli with competent judges' ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K; Spustek, Tomasz; Żygierewicz, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Pseudo-words are stimuli, which are useful in research concerning lexical processing. As in the case of existing words, they are language dependent; thus, they should be generated for each language separately. The Polish Pseudo-words List (PPwL) is a dataset presenting a set of 3023 stimuli (words of 4-13 letters long). They were generated using an algorithm substituting random letters in existing words with respect to the frequency of letters in certain positions. We put out the raw set for a competent judges' assessment and included the responses in the dataset. PPwL allows the choice of suitable control stimuli for experiments concerning lexical processing.

  13. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  14. 道德推理与道德行为关系的元分析%Association between Moral Reasoning and Moral Behavior:A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏; 刘华山

    2014-01-01

    According to the theory of Piaget and Kohlberg, whose focuses were the role of moral reasoning in morality, some researchers are inclined to identify moral reasoning as a key factor in predicting moral behavior, moral judgment or moral decision. Over the past decade, some moral psychologists put forward that cognitive factors played a trivial role in morality, while non-cognitive and unconscious factors having great impacts on morality. The controversy of whether moral reasoning can affect moral behavior remained in both theoretical researches and empirical studies. A systematic review was conducted to synthesize empirical results about relationship between moral reasoning and ethical behavior or immoral behavior. Through literature retrieval and selection, in terms of the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis, 83 independent effect sizes (50 studies, 16738 participants) were pick out as meta-analysis unit. After coding of data, independent effect sizes were analyzed by CMA 2.2 program. There are four analyses in this research, including heterogeneity test, publication bias test, main effect analysis and moderation effect analysis. In addition, in terms of tentative review analysis and research hypotheses, random effects model was used as meta-analysis model. The test for heterogeneity illustrated that there was significant heterogeneity in 83 independent effect sizes, and also random effects model was a appropriate model for subsequent meta-analysis. The publication bias test indicated that the impact of publication bias was modest but the major finding remained still valid. The research revealed that a positive association between moral reasoning and ethical behavior was found out (r = 0.238) and contrarily a negative relationship between moral reasoning and immoral behavior (r=-0.188) was disclosed. The m oderator analysis revealed that the standardization of moral reasoning measurements affected the relationship between moral reasoning and moral behavior

  15. Can Observers Judge Future Circular Path Relative to a Target from Retinal Flow?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A. Saunders

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of observers to judge whether they will pass left or right of a visible target from simulated motion along a circular path. Strategies based on optic flow would generally require compensation for pursuit eye movements. Wann & Swapp (2000 proposed an alternative strategy that requires only retinal flow. The experiments compared three conditions that provide the same retinal flow but different observer-relative optic flow. In the heading-relative view condition, simulated view direction rotated with change in heading, as naturally occurs when driving a car. In target-relative view condition, simulated view direction rotated to keep the direction of the target constant. In world-relative view condition, the simulated view direction was fixed relative to the environment. If an observer fixates the target, these conditions produce the same retinal flow. The initial heading direction of simulated motion was varied across trials, and responses were used to compute PSEs representing perceptual bias. Judgments were most accurate in the heading-relative condition. In the target-relative and world-relative view conditions, PSEs indicated large biases consistent with underestimation of path curvature. The large biases suggest that retinal flow is not sufficient to judge future circular path relative to a target.

  16. An Apparent Descriptive Method for Judging the Synchronization of Rotation of Binary Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li Lin-sen

    2004-09-01

    The problem of the synchronous rotation of binary stars is judged by using a synchronous parameter introduced in an apparent descriptive method. The synchronous parameter is defined as the ratio of the rotational period to the orbital period. The author suggests several apparent phenomenal descriptive methods for judging the synchronization of rotation of binary stars. The first method is applicable when the orbital inclination is well-known. The synchronous parameter is defined by using the orbital inclination and the observable rotational velocity (1,2 sin ). The method is mainly suitable for eclipsing binary stars. Several others are suggested for the cases when the orbital inclination is unknown. The synchronous parameters are defined by using 1,2 sin , 1,2 sin3 , the mass function () and semi-amplitudes of the velocity curve, 1,2 given in catalogue of parameters of spectroscopic binary systems and (1,2 sin ). These methods are suitable for spectroscopic binary stars including those that show eclipses and visual binary stars concurrently. The synchronous parameters for fifty-five components in thirty binary systems are calculated by using several methods. The numerical results are listed in Tables 1 and 2. The statistical results are listed in Table 3. In addition, several apparent descriptive methods are discussed.

  17. The Urgency Of Ijtihad By Judges In Effort Law Invention At The Religion Court In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiljamilawati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of renewals in Islamic law resulting in the emergence of various changes in the social order of Muslims either in relation to ideology political social cultural and so on. It later brings new challenges that must be answered and therefore ijtihad must be continuously made to find a solution to the various problems of new law which is required by Muslims. The type of research is a normative-juridical and empirical research. Normative research is trying to examine the problem of law invention by the judge in the Religion Courts with a case approach. Ijtihad has a very urgent role in efforts to carry out duties as law enforcer and justice by digging follow and understand the legal values that live and develop in the peoples and accommodate the developments of Islamic law. The method of ijtihad by judges in the Religion Court use maqashid al-sharia and maslahah and istihsan method. At the practical level so characteristic inherent in the religion courts persists then should any verdict must include argument of Islamic law sources.

  18. Eager feelings and vigilant reasons: Regulatory focus differences in judging moral wrongs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, James F. M.; Higgins, E. Tory

    2015-01-01

    For over a decade, moral psychologists have been actively researching the processes underlying moral judgments that are made intuitively without reference to an action’s concrete harms or injustice, such as the well-known case of non-procreative, consensual incest. We suggest that the reason some judge this scenario as wrong (using intuitive feelings) and others do not (using deliberative reasons) is due to an important motivational distinction. Consistent with this view, across seven studies, we demonstrate that negative judgments of such intuitive moral scenarios are more intense when processed in the promotion focus compared to the prevention focus, and that this is due to differences in whether eager (intuitive) versus vigilant (deliberative) means are employed in judging these moral wrongs. By examining various boundary conditions for this phenomenon and foundations for these judgments, we learn about the overall differences between promotion and prevention regarding how proscriptive judgments are processed, and begin to integrate these differences with existing theories in moral psychology. PMID:26726912

  19. Value of thyroid nodule ultrasonic strain elastography quantitative analysis in judging benignancy or malignancy of nodules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Yun Zhao; Hai-Xia Liu; Wei Tong; Jin-Zhong Huang; Chun Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the value of thyroid nodule ultrasonic strain elastography quantitative analysis in judging benignancy or malignancy of nodules.Methods: Patients diagnosed with thyroid nodule and receiving ultrasonic strain elastography quantitative analysis in our hospital were selected for study and divided into benign group and malignant group according to fine needle biopsy or the pathological results after surgical resection; mean strain values of quantitative indicators, blue region area and disorder of ultrasonic strain elastography, expression levels of malignant biological molecules in nodule tissue as well as the contents of serum tumor markers were detected.Results:Mean strain value of malignant group was lower than that of benign group, blue region area and disorder were higher than those of benign group, and standard deviation, complexity, kurtosis, skewness, contrast, equality, consistency and correlation were without significant differences; mRNA contents ofFascin-1, S100A4, STAT3, TC-1, MUC1 andMUC15 in thyroid nodules as well as serum Midkine, Galectin-3, CEACAM1 and TFF3 contents of malignant group were significantly higher than those of benign group, negatively correlated with mean strain value and positively correlated with blue region area and disorder.Conclusions:Mean strain values of quantitative indicators, blue region area and disorder of thyroid nodule ultrasonic strain elastography can judge benign or malignant nodules and assess the malignant degree.

  20. Imago iudicis, Four Images from the History of Ideas on Judging (Imago iudicis, štiri podobe iz idejne zgodovine sojenja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Novak

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article traces the developing image of a judge in Western legal thought. It starts with the famous Montesquieu’s characterisation of a judge as “the mouth that pronounces the words of the law”. Despite our common intuition (that he was describing a Continental judge, he was, the author argues, in fact offering his best understanding of an English judge. His portrayal has to a large extent corresponded with the self-understanding an English judge of that time (and long afterwards surely held. Gradually, Montesquieu’s image of a judge became synonymous with formalistic approach to judging, triggering a backlash. The German Free Law Movement is perhaps the most influential embodiment of such a reaction. Arguing for the recognition of a creative aspect of judging, they relied on their understanding of a common law judge, which was then still at odds with the official self-image cultivated by English judges. In the next decades, the same disillusion with a mechanistic image of judging prevalent also in the United States gave rise to American Legal Realism. The Realists adopted the Free Law Movement agenda to an important extent, part and parcel with the conviction that judicial creativity is an innate characteristic of a judge’s role. It is this conviction that still occupies the centre of all modern theories on judicial decision-making.

  1. Thinking about Judges and Judicial Performance: Perspective of the Public and Court Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rottman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the courts, conducted primarily in the United States, suggest that the way legal professionals think about judging underpins nearly all official evaluations of judicial performance. The general public has a different view than lawyers of judging that merits consideration along with the type of criteria emphasized by the legal community. Research demonstrates that the public places the greatest importance on the extent to which a judge reaches decisions through a process that meets the public's expectations of fairness. Surveys of California residents and California attorneys are used to demonstrate the importance of procedural justice for explaining whether people have trust in the courts and regard court decisions as legitimate. The article describes and critiques existing judicial performance evaluation programs that incorporate procedural justice principles as a dimension for measuring judicial quality through both survey and observational methods. Los estudios sobre tribunales llevados a cabo principalmente en Estados Unidos, sugieren que la opinión sobre el hecho de juzgar de los profesionales del derecho están detrás de casi todas las evaluaciones del rendimiento judicial oficiales. El público general tiene una visión del hecho de juzgar diferente a la de los abogados, que debe tenerse en cuenta junto con los criterios destacados por la comunidad jurídica. La investigación demuestra que el público da mayor importancia a que un juez tome una decisión a través de un proceso que cumpla con sus expectativas de justicia. Se emplean encuestas a residentes de California y abogados de California para demostrar la importancia de la justicia procesal, a la hora de explicar si la gente tiene confianza en los tribunales y perciben las decisiones judiciales como legítimas. El artículo describe y critica los programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial que incorporan principios de justicia procesal como una dimensión para

  2. Ethical aspects of judging the alternative treatment of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enskär, K

    1995-03-01

    In recent decades the improved treatment of childhood cancer has increased the proportion of children being cured. However, the intensive treatment required also implies a heavy burden for the children and their families. The purpose of this article is to judge the ethical aspects of different treatment regimens used for children with cancer by means of a case study. The analysis is based on the ethical model by Beauchamp and Childress. The assessment is based on every person, or group of persons, involved and is on the principles of autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence and justice. The analysis shows that intensification of treatment of children with cancer is ethically justified from a deontological point of view. The consequences are more difficult to anticipate from a utilitarian perspective.

  3. Passage number affects the pluripotency of mouse embryonic stem cells as judged by tetraploid embryo aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yun; Jia, Qing; Di, Ke-Qian; Gao, Shu-Min; Wen, Xiao-Hui; Zhou, Rong-Yan; Wei, Wei; Wang, Li-Ze

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the number of passages affected the developmental pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells as measured by the attainment of adult fertile mice derived from embryonic stem (ES) cell/tetraploid embryo complementation. Thirty-six newborns were produced by the aggregation of tetraploid embryos and hybrid ES cells after various numbers of passages. These newborns were entirely derived from ES cells as judged by microsatellite DNA, coat-color phenotype, and germline transmission. Although 15 survived to adulthood, 17 died of respiratory failure, and four were eaten by their foster mother. From the 15 mice that reached adulthood and that could reproduce, none arose from ES cells at passage level 15 or more. All 15 arose from cells at passages 3-11. Our results demonstrate that the number of passages affects the developmental pluripotency of ES cells.

  4. Judging the pleasantness of contour-rhythm-pitch-timbre musical combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Ioannis; Mullet, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    The way people with various degrees of musical training integrate timbre, melodic contour, rhythm, and pitch information in an overall pleasantness judgment for musical excerpts was investigated. The theoretical and methodological framework of the study was the functional theory of cognition. In 2 experiments, participants were asked to attribute an overall pleasantness value to combinations of these factors. In Experiment 1, timbre, contour, rhythm, and overall pitch were manipulated. In Experiment 2, timbre and theme (a pattern of pitch and rhythm) were manipulated. Both experiments showed that in judging the pleasantness of musical combinations, participants apply a simple, additive rule in which the weight attributed to one element does not depend of the value of the other elements. Very few differences in regard to the combination rule were observed between participants with and without musical training. These results are discussed in reference to the controversy over pitch and rhythm interaction.

  5. Evaluation of Helical CT Scanning in Judging the Invasion and Metastasis of Gastric Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAOJianbo; KONGXiangquan; GUOHua; LIShuxin; YANGXuehua; LIYintai; ZHANGZhixu

    2004-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of triphase enhanced helical CT in judging the invasion and metastasis of gastric carcinoma, and to discuss the relation between imaging signs and pathological findings. Methods: Triphase enhanced helical CT scanning was performed in 46 patients with gastric carcinoma. Imaging findings were compared with postoperative pathologic results. Results: (1) The accuracy of helical CT for diagnosing involvement of tunica serosa, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis was 84.8%, 87.0% and 100~ respectively. (2) CT signs of serosal involvement, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis were in good accordance with pathological findings (P<0.05). Conclusion: Triphase enhanced helical CT scans can comprehensively and precisely reflect the pathologic characteristics of gastric carcinoma, thus it is a reliable technique for the diagnosis of this disease.

  6. [Dentistry and healthcare legislation 11. The dentist and the civil law judge: claims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, W G; van der Ven, J M; Eijkman, M A J

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the law governing complaints and to disciplinary law, a civil law judge can sentence dentists to the restoration of all damages to patients. For this to happen, there has to be evidence of damage, responsibility and a causal connection. For the assumption of responsibility as well as a causal connection, an important question is whether a dentist has violated a relevant guideline or protocol. Moreover, dentists are not only responsible for their own mistakes, but also, in principle, for those of their employees. Depending on the situation, dentists can also be held accountable for the mistakes of a dentist who is working in their practice on a self-employed basis. Dutch dentists do not yet have to fear American situations', because damages awarded in The Netherlands are still relatively low.

  7. Nationalism, Secularism and Liberal Neutrality: The Danish Case of Judges and Religious Symbols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Holtug

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, a law was passed in the Danish parliament, according to which judges cannot wear religious symbols in courts of law. First, I trace the development of this legislation from resistance to Muslim religious practices on the nationalist right to ideas in mainstream Danish politics about secularism and state neutrality – a process I refer to as ‘liberalization’. Second, I consider the plausibility of such liberal justifications for restrictions on religious symbols in the public sphere and, in particular, for the ban on the wearing of religious symbols by judges. I argue that such justifications are flawed and so are not plausible corollaries of anti-Islamic justifications originating on the nationalist right.En 2009, le Parlement danois a voté une loi qui stipule que l’interdiction pour les de porter des signes religieux dans les tribunaux. Dans ce texte, je retrace en premier lieu le développement de cette législation, depuis la résistance aux pratiques musulmanes de la droite nationaliste jusqu’aux idées répandues dans la politique danoise à propos du sécularisme et de la neutralité d’État – un processus que je qualifie de « libéralisation ». En second lieu, je considère la plausibilité de telles justifications libérales en ce qui concerne les restrictions sur la présence de symboles religieux dans la sphère publique et, en particulier, l’interdiction faite aux juges de porter des signes religieux. Je défends l’idée que de telles justifications sont déficientes et ne constituent pas des corolaires plausibles des justifications antimusulmanes en provenance de la droite nationaliste.

  8. Do Tele-Operators Learn to Better Judge Whether a Robot Can Pass Through an Aperture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Elizabeth A; Jones, Keith S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment examined whether tele-operators learn to better judge a robot's ability to pass through an aperture, hereafter referred to as pass-ability judgments, and detailed the nature of such learning. Jones, Johnson, and Schmidlin reported that tele-operators' pass-ability judgments did not improve over the course of their experiment, which was surprising. In each of seven blocks, tele-operators made pass-ability judgments about 10 apertures whose width varied. During each trial, participants drove the robot toward the aperture, answered yes or no to whether it could pass through that aperture, and then attempted to drive the robot through the aperture. Pass-ability judgments were analyzed in terms of percentage correct and absolute thresholds; the latter mimicked how Jones et al. analyzed their data. Learning was revealed when judgments were analyzed in terms of percentage correct and not when analyzed in terms of absolute thresholds. Further analyses revealed that tele-operators only improved their pass-ability judgments for impassable apertures, and tele-operators' perceptual sensitivity and response bias changed over the course of the experiment. The percentage correct-based analyses revealed that tele-operators learned to make better pass-ability judgments. Jones et al.'s decision to analyze their data in terms of absolute thresholds obscured learning. The present results suggested that researchers should employ percentage correct when studying learning in this domain, training protocols should focus on improving tele-operators' abilities to judge the pass-ability of impassable apertures, and tele-operators truly learned to better discriminate passable and impassable apertures. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  9. The agreeableness asymmetry in first impressions: perceivers' impulse to (mis)judge agreeableness and how it is moderated by power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Daniel R; Bianchi, Emily C

    2008-12-01

    Prior research shows that perceivers can judge some traits better than others in first impressions of targets. However, questions remain about which traits perceivers naturally do infer. Here, the authors develop an account of the "agreeableness asymmetry": Although perceivers show little ability to accurately gauge target agreeableness in first impressions, they find that agreeableness is generally the most commonly inferred disposition among the Big Five dimensions of personality (agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability). Using open-ended impressions based on photographs, videos, and face-to-face encounters, three studies show agreeableness as the most prevalently judged of the Big Five, although it is also poorly judged in both absolute and relative terms. The authors use interpersonal power to reveal an underlying mechanism. Manipulating the power of perceivers relative to targets substantially shifts impression content, suggesting that habitual interaction and relational concerns may partially explain perceiver's chronic interest in assessing agreeableness despite their limited ability to do so.

  10. Patients with epilepsy and doctors judge the severity of impairments differently : Findings from an internet-survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Erwin; Reitsma, Ben; van de Wiel, Harry

    We investigated how patients with epilepsy (n = 225) and doctors of patients with epilepsy (n = 70) judge the severity of epilepsy-related impairments. The impairments that patients experience depended on the age of the debut but not on the patient's age or gender. Patients and doctors differ in

  11. Identification of Children's Stuttered and Nonstuttered Speech by Highly Experienced Judges: Binary Judgments and Comparisons with Disfluency-Types Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were (a) to determine whether highly experienced clinicians and researchers agreed with each other in judging the presence or absence of stuttering in the speech of children who stutter and (b) to determine how those binary stuttered/nonstuttered judgments related to categorizations of the same speech based on…

  12. 42 CFR 422.1074 - Right to request Departmental Appeals Board review of Administrative Law Judge's decision or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right to request Departmental Appeals Board review of Administrative Law Judge's decision or dismissal. 422.1074 Section 422.1074 Public Health CENTERS... MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Appeal procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 422.1074 Right to...

  13. 42 CFR 423.1074 - Right to request Departmental Appeals Board review of Administrative Law Judge's decision or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right to request Departmental Appeals Board review of Administrative Law Judge's decision or dismissal. 423.1074 Section 423.1074 Public Health CENTERS... VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Appeal Procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 423.1074 Right...

  14. 42 CFR 498.80 - Right to request Departmental Appeals Board review of Administrative Law Judge's decision or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Appeals Board Review § 498.80 Right to request Departmental Appeals Board review of Administrative Law... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Right to request Departmental Appeals Board review of Administrative Law Judge's decision or dismissal. 498.80 Section 498.80 Public Health CENTERS...

  15. 5 CFR 2430.12 - Administrative Law Judge's decision; contents; service; transfer of case to the Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AWARDS OF ATTORNEY FEES AND OTHER EXPENSES § 2430.12 Administrative Law... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative Law Judge's...

  16. 42 CFR 422.1090 - Basis, timing, and authority for reopening an Administrative Law Judge or Board decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis, timing, and authority for reopening an Administrative Law Judge or Board decision. 422.1090 Section 422.1090 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... PROGRAM Appeal procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 422.1090 Basis, timing, and authority for...

  17. 42 CFR 423.1090 - Basis, timing, and authority for reopening an Administrative Law Judge or Board decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basis, timing, and authority for reopening an Administrative Law Judge or Board decision. 423.1090 Section 423.1090 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Appeal Procedures for Civil Money Penalties § 423.1090 Basis, timing, and...

  18. 8 CFR 1337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 1337.2 Section 1337.2 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 1337.2...

  19. 8 CFR 337.2 - Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oath administered by the Immigration and Naturalization Service or an Immigration Judge. 337.2 Section 337.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY NATIONALITY REGULATIONS OATH OF ALLEGIANCE § 337.2 Oath administered by the Immigration...

  20. Bananas Can't Talk: Young Children Judging the Reality of Big Bird, Bugs and the Banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Used a Piagetian model to examine five 4-year-olds' perceptions of the reality of television characters. Found that children understand that television images are representations with varying degrees of relationship to reality and that children used a number of strategies for judging the extent to which characters were "real," such as the presence…

  1. On Image of Judge in Written Judgment%判决书中的法官形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴月秋; 李真真

    2013-01-01

    全面看待法官是公民的权利和公民责任,全面展示法官形象则是法官的本分。于法官或公民而言,全面的法官形象应该在判决书中。在一份全面、充分说理的严格意义的判决书中,法官是法律信用的督察者、法律解释中的立法者、道德与普法教育中的教师、法律服务中的售货员、合议博弈中的商人以及学者。%It is a right and responsibility for a citizen to treat a judge comprehensively, while it is a duty to Show the image of the judge in an all-round way. For both of them, the image of the judge should be displayed in the written judgment. In such a comprehensive written judgment with the sufficient reason and meaning, a judge is a legal credit supervisor, a legislator for legal interpretation, a teacher of the moral and legal education, a salesman of legal service, a collegiate game businessman and a scholar.

  2. 34 CFR 222.157 - What procedures apply for issuing or appealing an administrative law judge's decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What procedures apply for issuing or appealing an administrative law judge's decision? 222.157 Section 222.157 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE OF ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION IMPACT...

  3. Can rapid assessment protocols be used to judge sediment impairment in gravel-bed streams? A commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Lisle; John M. Buffington; Peter R. Wilcock; Kristin Bunte

    2015-01-01

    Land management agencies commonly use rapid assessments to evaluate the impairment of gravel-bed streams by sediment inputs from anthropogenic sources. We question whether rapid assessment can be used to reliably judge sediment impairment at a site or in a region. Beyond the challenges of repeatable and accurate sampling, we argue that a single metric or protocol is...

  4. Summary of Work Performed Pursuant to the Development of Training Manuals for a Highway Safety Workshop for Traffic Court Judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The report summarizes the work involved in developing a highway safety workshop for traffic court judges. It describes the testing of previously developed workshop materials and their evaluation, resulting in a contract modification to redesign and refocus the workshop. The report identifies the resources and procedures used in this development…

  5. Justice as Told by Judges: The Case of Litigation over Local Anti-Immigrant Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Marie Provine

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of comprehensive immigration reform at the federal level, many American states and localities are undertaking their own legal reforms. The new state and local laws have been challenged by immigrant-rights organizations and individuals on the grounds that the federal government has already pre-empted the field. The lawsuits bring a new narrative voice—that of judges—into the boiling U.S. immigration debate. Judges engage the controversy over local enforcement of immigration enforcement, as they have other contentious disputes, both as pragmatic decision-makers and as spokespersons for justice. The tensions this dual role entails are explored here in the context of a single, controversial case. Close-up analysis of the judge’s narrative strategy reveals a range of specific techniques to create moral distance from a decision, combined, ironically, with the enlistment of moral themes to justify the ruling. The inter-twining of rule-of-law and justice rhetoric mirrors and also shapes a broader politics of justice in the United States.

  6. Judging trustworthiness from faces: Emotion cues modulate trustworthiness judgments in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Frances; Ewing, Louise; Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian

    2016-08-01

    By adulthood, people judge trustworthiness from appearances rapidly and reliably. However, we know little about these judgments in children. This novel study investigates the developmental trajectory of explicit trust judgments from faces, and the contribution made by emotion cues across age groups. Five-, 7-, 10-year-olds, and adults rated the trustworthiness of trustworthy and untrustworthy faces with neutral expressions. The same participants also rated faces displaying overt happy and angry expressions, allowing us to investigate whether emotion cues modulate trustworthiness judgments similarly in children and adults. Results revealed that the ability to evaluate the trustworthiness of faces emerges in childhood, but may not be adult like until 10 years of age. Moreover, we show that emotion cues modulate trust judgments in young children, as well as adults. Anger cues diminished the appearance of trustworthiness for participants from 5 years of age and happy cues increased it, although this effect did not consistently emerge until later in childhood, that is, 10 years of age. These associations also extended to more subtle emotion cues present in neutral faces. Our results indicate that young children are sensitive to facial trustworthiness, and suggest that similar expression cues modulate these judgments in children and adults. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  7. A contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group: who is the best judge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Kyongboon; Kim, Elizabeth Moorman; Sheridan, Susan M

    2012-09-01

    Using a contextual approach to social skills assessment in the peer group, this study examined the criterion-related validity of contextually relevant social skills and the incremental validity of peers and teachers as judges of children's social skills. Study participants included 342 (180 male and 162 female) students and their classroom teachers (N = 22) from rural communities. As expected, contextually relevant social skills were significantly related to a variety of social status indicators (i.e., likability, peer- and teacher-assessed popularity, reciprocated friendships, clique centrality) and positive school functioning (i.e., school liking and academic competence). Peer-assessed social skills, not teacher-assessed social skills, demonstrated consistent incremental validity in predicting various indicators of social status outcomes; peer- and teacher-assessed social skills alike showed incremental validity in predicting positive school functioning. The relation between contextually relevant social skills and study outcomes did not vary by child gender. Findings are discussed in terms of the significance of peers in the assessment of children's social skills in the peer group as well as the usefulness of a contextual approach to social skills assessment.

  8. Health risks in perspective: Judging health risks of energy technologies. Revision 5/94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.D.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide perspective on the various risks to which man is routinely exposed. It serves as a basis for understanding the meaning of quantitative risk estimates and for comparing new or newly-discovered risks with other, better-understood risks. Specific emphasis is placed on health risks of energy technologies. This report is not a risk assessment; nor does it contain instructions on how to do a risk assessment. Rather, it provides background information on how most of us think about risks and why it is difficult to do it rationally, it provides a philosophy and data with which to do a better job of judging risks more rationally, and it provides an overview of where risks of energy technologies fit within the spectrum of all risks. Much of the quantitative information provided here is on relative risk of dying of various causes. This is not because risk of dying is seen as the most important kind of risk, but because the statistics on mortality rates by cause are the highest quality data available on health risks in the general population.

  9. Optimization of Online Judge Systems%Online Judge系统的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄奇东; 王键闻; 张楠; 张爽; 任娜

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the application and performance optimization of Online Judge Systems in terms of web page and database caching, server architecture, testing and processing rules in multi-core environment, front-end asynchronous response, data table design, cross-platform support, source code plagiarism detection, automatic generation of test cases, etc., which enhances the evaluation efficiency while reducing the number of servers, saving operating coses. And then, it discusses the general idea on die implementation of a unified test platform for intelligent optimization algorithms.%从Web页面和数据库缓存、服务器架构、多核评测处理规则、前端异步响应、数据表设计、跨平台支持、源代码抄袭检测、测试用例自动生成等方面优化了Online Judge系统,使得评测效率提高的同时减少了服务器数量,节约了运行成本.最后讨论了基于Online Judge系统实现智能优化算法的统一测试平台的方法.

  10. Judging where a ball will go: the case of curved free kicks in football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Cathy M.; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume; Fernandez, Laure; Bootsma, Reinoud J.

    2006-02-01

    This study examined whether adding spin to a ball in the free kick situation in football affects a professional footballer’s perception of the ball’s future arrival position. Using a virtual reality set-up, participants observed the flight paths of aerodynamically realistic free kicks with (±600 rpm) and without sidespin. With the viewpoint being fixed in the centre of the goal, participants had to judge whether the ball would have ended up in the goal or not. Results show that trajectories influenced by the Magnus force caused by sidespin gave rise to a significant shift in the percentage of goal responses. The resulting acceleration that causes the ball to continually change its heading direction as the trajectory unfolds does not seem to be taken into account by the participants when making goal judgments. We conclude that the visual system is not attuned to such accelerated motion, which may explain why goalkeepers appear to misjudge the future arrival point of such curved free kicks.

  11. Sex differences in accuracy and precision when judging time to arrival: data from two Internet studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Geoff; Sinclair, Kamila

    2011-12-01

    We report two Internet studies that investigated sex differences in the accuracy and precision of judging time to arrival. We used accuracy to mean the ability to match the actual time to arrival and precision to mean the consistency with which each participant made their judgments. Our task was presented as a computer game in which a toy UFO moved obliquely towards the participant through a virtual three-dimensional space on route to a docking station. The UFO disappeared before docking and participants pressed their space bar at the precise moment they thought the UFO would have docked. Study 1 showed it was possible to conduct quantitative studies of spatiotemporal judgments in virtual reality via the Internet and confirmed reports that men are more accurate because women underestimate, but found no difference in precision measured as intra-participant variation. Study 2 repeated Study 1 with five additional presentations of one condition to provide a better measure of precision. Again, men were more accurate than women but there were no sex differences in precision. However, within the coincidence-anticipation timing (CAT) literature, of those studies that report sex differences, a majority found that males are both more accurate and more precise than females. Noting that many CAT studies report no sex differences, we discuss appropriate interpretations of such null findings. While acknowledging that CAT performance may be influenced by experience we suggest that the sex difference may have originated among our ancestors with the evolutionary selection of men for hunting and women for gathering.

  12. Beliefs About the Malleability of Immoral Groups Facilitate Collective Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Halperin, Eran; Saguy, Tamar; van Zomeren, Martijn

    Although negative out-group beliefs typically foster individuals' motivation for collective action, we propose that such beliefs may diminish this motivation when people believe that this out-group cannot change in its very essence. Specifically, we tested the idea that believing in the malleability

  13. Neonatal euthanasia: A claim for an immoral law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Eijnden, Serge; Martinovici, Dana

    2013-06-01

    Active ending of the life of a newborn baby is a crime. Yet its clandestine practise is a reality in several European countries. In this paper, we defend the necessity to institute a proper legal frame for what we define as active neonatal euthanasia. The only legal attempt so far, the Dutch Groningen protocol, is not satisfactory. We critically analyse this protocol, as well as several other clinical practises and philosophical stances. Furthermore, we have tried to integrate our opinions as clinicians into a law project, with the purpose of pinpointing several issues, specific of perinatality that should be addressed by such a law. In conclusion, we argue that the legalisation of neonatal euthanasia under exceptional circumstances is the only way to avoid all the "well-intentioned" malpractices associated with ending life at the very dawn of it.

  14. Understanding Immoral Conduct in Business Settings: A Behavioural Ethics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. van Dijke (Marius)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In the past decades, the world has observed a large variety of business scandals, such as those at ENRON, WorldCom, AHOLD, Lehman Brothers, and News of the World. These scandals caused economic damage and undermined the trust that governments, shareholders, and citizens

  15. Neonatal euthanasia: A claim for an immoral law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinovici, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Active ending of the life of a newborn baby is a crime. Yet its clandestine practise is a reality in several European countries. In this paper, we defend the necessity to institute a proper legal frame for what we define as active neonatal euthanasia. The only legal attempt so far, the Dutch Groningen protocol, is not satisfactory. We critically analyse this protocol, as well as several other clinical practises and philosophical stances. Furthermore, we have tried to integrate our opinions as clinicians into a law project, with the purpose of pinpointing several issues, specific of perinatality that should be addressed by such a law. In conclusion, we argue that the legalisation of neonatal euthanasia under exceptional circumstances is the only way to avoid all the “well-intentioned” malpractices associated with ending life at the very dawn of it. PMID:24068880

  16. Beliefs About the Malleability of Immoral Groups Facilitate Collective Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Chen, Smadar; Halperin, Eran; Saguy, Tamar; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2014-01-01

    Although negative out-group beliefs typically foster individuals' motivation for collective action, we propose that such beliefs may diminish this motivation when people believe that this out-group cannot change in its very essence. Specifically, we tested the idea that believing in the malleability

  17. Understanding Immoral Conduct in Business Settings: A Behavioural Ethics Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. van Dijke (Marius)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In the past decades, the world has observed a large variety of business scandals, such as those at ENRON, WorldCom, AHOLD, Lehman Brothers, and News of the World. These scandals caused economic damage and undermined the trust that governments, shareholders, and citizens

  18. Are Secrets Immoral? The Construction of Secrets in Everyday Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunthner, Susanne; Luckmann, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the communicative treatment of secrets, presenting examples from recorded communicative interactions in a wide range of social milieus and settings in which the participants revealed knowledge of secrets, tried to dig out old secrets without appearing to be doing so, and occasionally, appeared to be hiding some items of knowledge from…

  19. 20 CFR 416.1484 - Appeals Council review of administrative law judge decision in a case remanded by a Federal court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 416.1484 Appeals Council review of administrative law judge decision in a case remanded by a Federal... proceedings leading to the final decision in your case or subsequently considered by the administrative law... reversing the decision of the administrative law judge, or it will remand the case to an administrative law...

  20. Creating EU law judges, the role of generational differences, legal education and career paths in national judges’ assessment regarding EU law knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayoral, Juan A.; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure. H

  1. Joint ventures win the draw. Judge's ruling to revive tax exemption for Texas system spells good news for investor-owned systems, not-for-profits seeking deals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark

    2002-06-17

    A ruling by a federal judge reinstating the tax exemption of St. David's Health Care System in Austin, Texas, has taught the Internal Revenue Service a hard lesson about the toughness of Texas. No one was happier with the judge's decision than St. David's President and Chief Executive Officer.

  2. Judging hardness of an object from the sounds of tapping created by a white cane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunokawa, K; Seki, Y; Ino, S; Doi, K

    2014-01-01

    The white cane plays a vital role in the independent mobility support of the visually impaired. Allowing the recognition of target attributes through the contact of a white cane is an important function. We have conducted research to obtain fundamental knowledge concerning the exploration methods used to perceive the hardness of an object through contact with a white cane. This research has allowed us to examine methods that enhance accuracy in the perception of objects as well as the materials and structures of a white cane. Previous research suggest considering the roles of both auditory and tactile information from the white cane in determining objects' hardness is necessary. This experimental study examined the ability of people to perceive the hardness of an object solely through the tapping sounds of a white cane (i.e., auditory information) using a method of magnitude estimation. Two types of sounds were used to estimate hardness: 1) the playback of recorded tapping sounds and 2) the sounds produced on-site by tapping. Three types of handgrips were used to create different sounds of tapping on an object with a cane. The participants of this experiment were five sighted university students wearing eye masks and two totally blind students who walk independently with a white cane. The results showed that both sighted university students and totally blind participants were able to accurately judge the hardness of an object solely by using auditory information from a white cane. For the blind participants, different handgrips significantly influenced the accuracy of their estimation of an object's hardness.

  3. Clinical value analysis of routine ultrasound combined with endoscopic ultrasonography in judging ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Mei Tuo; Zhi-Hong Han

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical value of routine ultrasound combined with endoscopic ultrasonography in judging ulcerative colitis.Methods: A total of 60 cases of patients with ulcerative colitis were collected as observation group of research and 60 cases of healthy volunteers were collected as control group of research. Intestinal wall thickness was detected by white light endoscopy, abdominal intestinal ultrasound and endoscopic ultrasonography; TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4 and IL-10 contents were detected by Elisa kit; Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg ratios were detected by flow cytometry.Results: (1) intestinal wall thickness: intestinal wall thickness of both active UC patients and quiescent UC patients was significantly higher than that of control group, intestinal wall thickness of active UC patients was significantly higher than that of quiescent UC patients and the higher the degree of activity, the higher the intestinal wall thickness; (2) inflammatory mediators: TNF-α and IL-1β contents in intestinal mucosa of active UC patients were higher than those of quiescent UC patients and positively correlated with intestinal wall thickness; IL-4 and IL-10 contents were lower than those of quiescent UC patients and negatively correlated with intestinal wall thickness; (3) T cell contents: Th1 and Th17 cell contents in intestinal mucosa of active UC patients were higher than those of quiescent UC patients and positively correlated with intestinal wall thickness; Th2 and Treg cell contents in intestinal mucosa of active UC patients were lower than those of quiescent UC patients and negatively correlated with intestinal wall thickness.Conclusion: Routine ultrasound combined with endoscopic ultrasonography can accurately determine the severity of ulcerative colitis; measured intestinal wall thickness is closely correlated with the degree of inflammation and abnormal immune response.

  4. Comparison study of judged clinical skills competence from standard setting ratings generated under different administration conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, William L; Boulet, John; Sandella, Jeanne

    2017-02-21

    When the safety of the public is at stake, it is particularly relevant for licensing and credentialing exam agencies to use defensible standard setting methods to categorize candidates into competence categories (e.g., pass/fail). The aim of this study was to gather evidence to support change to the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing-USA Level 2-Performance Evaluation standard setting design and administrative process. Twenty-two video recordings of candidates assessed for clinical competence were randomly selected from the 2014-2015 Humanistic domain test score distribution ranging from the highest to lowest quintile of performance. Nineteen panelists convened at the same site to receive training and practice prior to generating judgments of qualified or not qualified performance to each of the twenty videos. At the end of training, one panel remained onsite to complete their judgments and the second panel was released and given 1 week to observe the same twenty videos and complete their judgments offsite. The two one-sided test procedure established equivalence between panel group means at the 0.05 confidence level, controlling for rater errors within each panel group. From a practical cost-effective and administrative resource perspective, results from this study suggest it is possible to diverge from typical panel groups, who are sequestered the entire time onsite, to larger numbers of panelists who can make their judgments offsite with little impact on judged samples of qualified performance. Standard setting designs having panelists train together and then allowing those to provide judgments yields equivalent ratings and, ultimately, similar cut scores.

  5. How do people judge risks: availability heuristic, affect heuristic, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachur, Thorsten; Hertwig, Ralph; Steinmann, Florian

    2012-09-01

    How does the public reckon which risks to be concerned about? The availability heuristic and the affect heuristic are key accounts of how laypeople judge risks. Yet, these two accounts have never been systematically tested against each other, nor have their predictive powers been examined across different measures of the public's risk perception. In two studies, we gauged risk perception in student samples by employing three measures (frequency, value of a statistical life, and perceived risk) and by using a homogeneous (cancer) and a classic set of heterogeneous causes of death. Based on these judgments of risk, we tested precise models of the availability heuristic and the affect heuristic and different definitions of availability and affect. Overall, availability-by-recall, a heuristic that exploits people's direct experience of occurrences of risks in their social network, conformed to people's responses best. We also found direct experience to carry a high degree of ecological validity (and one that clearly surpasses that of affective information). However, the relative impact of affective information (as compared to availability) proved more pronounced in value-of-a-statistical-life and perceived-risk judgments than in risk-frequency judgments. Encounters with risks in the media, in contrast, played a negligible role in people's judgments. Going beyond the assumption of exclusive reliance on either availability or affect, we also found evidence for mechanisms that combine both, either sequentially or in a composite fashion. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications of our results, including how to foster people's risk calibration and the success of education campaigns.

  6. Exaggerated pain behavior: by what standard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Mark

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a philosophical, historical, and clinical analysis of exaggerated pain behavior, focusing on the nature of the standards used to judge behavior as exaggerated. Malingering is understood as a special case of exaggerated pain behavior. Drawing upon the work of philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein and psychiatrist-anthropologist Horacio Fabrega, I argue that these standards are primarily moral rather than scientific in nature. Pain behavior is not validated by matching public pain behavior with private pain experience. If this pain experience is truly private, it is not available to scientific investigation. Rather, pain behavior is judged as appropriate or exaggerated through complex assessments of the function of this behavior in its social context. As human social contexts have become more complex through history, so have the accommodations made for sick and disabled members of the group. Criteria for legitimate entry to the sick role have evolved with society, with only modern industrial society placing heavy emphasis on tissue damage demonstrated on medical tests. The highly variable relation between clinical pain and tissue damage, as well as the common problem of medically unexplained physical symptoms in primary care, pose serious challenges to this strategy of illness behavior validation. It will remain necessary to triage suffering presented to health care providers into that which should be addressed in the medical setting and that which is better addressed elsewhere. But we need to discard pseudoscientific reliance on medical tests and develop new standards that are openly acknowledged to be moral and social in nature.

  7. Race of Student and Nonverbal Behavior of Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.

    White and black subjects, playing the role of teacher, were led to praise verbally a white or black student. It was hypothesized that the race of the student would affect the nonverbal behavior of the teacher. White and black judges, blind to the race of the students and to the hypothesis of the study, rated how pleased the facial expressions of…

  8. Personality assessment and behavioral prediction at first impression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vartanian, O.; Stewart, K.; Mandel, D.R.; Pavlovic, N.; McLellan, L.; Taylor, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has demonstrated high levels of consensus and self-other agreement for extraversion and conscientiousness. However, the mechanisms whereby these assessments contribute to accuracy in behavioral predictions remain unclear. In this study, two judges rated targets on Big Five personality facto

  9. Conscience accounting: emotion dynamics and social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gneezy, U.; Imas, A.; Madarász, K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents theory and experiments where people's prosocial attitudes fluctuate over time following the violation of an internalized norm. We report the results of two experiments in which people who first made an immoral choice were then more likely to donate to charity than those who did

  10. Administrative judge control over the activities of the tax administration: between the need for taxation and protection of tax payers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Michell

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Among the main principles of constitutional values of taxation law (the principle of freedom, legality, equality, annual postulate the principle of necessity of taxation can be found in the fundamentals of the great powers of the Taxation Department responsible for establishing and charging all legally founded taxes. Due to the declarative principle of numerous taxes (income tax, tax on profit, VAT tax, administration justifiably has at its disposal a range of methods for controlling the honesty of taxpayers and repressive powers to combat taxation fraud in any form. In a state with the rule of law, the judge for taxation has two tasks: to combat fraud or tax evasion and to protect the taxpayer from misuse of powers by public administration authorities. In this sense, the judge for taxation is constantly seeking to achieve a balance, given the current legal regulations, between (1 the contradictory imperatives regarding the efficiency of taxation controls on the one hand, and (2 respecting guarantees for the taxpayer on the other. After that, the judge controls the loyalty of Taxation Department activity and whether it respects the fundamentals of the rule of law.

  11. The Study of the Relation between Students' Anxiety and How They Judge their Ability to Learn Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Mohammad Jafari

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The relation between ability and self-judgment has always drawn the attention of parents and teachers. Obviously, students lose their ability and fail to gain much from good education if they lack necessary motives. Learning mathematical concepts and the ability to solve mathematical questions is highly influenced by judgments, beliefs and anxiety of students. The present research attempts to study the relation between anxiety of students and how they judge their ability to learn mathematics. A number of 30 girl and boy students studying the third grade of high school in the field of mathematics were chosen by correlation research and quasi-cluster sampling method and their anxiety and self-judgment was studied by means of two questionnaires (anxiety and judgment. Descriptive and inferential statistics and the results of Pearson correlation test revealed that there is a meaningful relation between anxiety of students and how they judge their ability to learn mathematics. Therefore, students with high anxiety may judge their ability positively or negatively.

  12. Heterogeneidade entre Leitores Julgados Competentes pelas Professoras Heterogeneity among Readers Judged as Competent by the Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Vieira Pinheiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O desempenho de leitura de um grupo de crianças de quarta série, julgadas pela professora como leitoras com desenvolvimento normal, foi investigado. Uma medida de desempenho deficiente/competente - baixos níveis de erros e tempos de reação rápidos para as respostas corretas para a leitura em voz alta de palavras reais (variando em familiaridade, regularidade e comprimento e não-palaras (com a mesma estrutura ortográfica das palavras reais e variando em comprimento - foi obtida com o objetivo de estabelecer uma definição de desempenho eficiente de leitura que, por sua vez, serviu de base para a identificação de deficiências, em crianças do mesmo grupo, cujos resultados situaram-se fora da amplitude estabelecida como normal. Dentre esses participantes houve um exemplo de dislexia fonológica e vários casos apresentando danos que afetaram ambos os processos, lexical e fonológico, com uma tendência para o padrão fonológico. A discrepância entre a avaliação da professora e a avaliação cognitiva de leitura conduzida é discutida.The reading performance of a group of fourth graders, judged by the teacher, as having normal development was investigated. A measure of efficient performance - low error rates and fast vocal reaction-times for correct responses to words (of varying familiarity, regularity and length and non-words (formed with the same orthographic structure and length of the words - was obtained and used as a basis for the identification of inefficiencies among the subjects whose results were outside the main range. Within these subjects there was an example of phonological dyslexia and many cases presenting impairments affecting both lexical and non-lexical processes with a bias to the phonological pattern. The discrepancy between the assessment of the teacher and the cognitive assessment conducted is discussed.

  13. The Book of Ruth in the time of the Judges and Ruth, the Moabitess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda de Villiers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses two issues in the Book of Ruth that have not yet received much scholarly attention: why is the narrative plotted in the time of the judges, whilst the time of narration dates to the postexilic period, and why is one of the protagonists Ruth, the Moabitess, whilst the law in Deuteronomy 23:3�4 (HB 4�5 clearly forbids the presence of Moabitess and Ammonites in the community of YHWH? A suggestion is made that a possible explanation to both these questions may be found in tensions regarding Israel�s identity in the Second Temple period. Two different yet not completely opposite viewpoints are illuminated: that of the Books of Ezra and Nehemiah who envisioned an exclusive Israel that is construed along genealogical and religious lines, and that of the Book of Ruth where solidarity with the people of Israel and the worship of YHWH are embraced by foreigners. Both sides are concerned about the identity of Israel and loyalty to YHWH, yet they employ a different jargon in order to argue for the inclusion or exclusion of foreigners. Furthermore, Ezra and Nehemiah consider mixed marriages as a serious threat to Israel�s identity, and they justify the expulsion of foreign wives on the basis of the Book of Moses. According to the Book of Deuteronomy, Moses interpreted the Torah for the children of Israel at Mount Nebo in Moab: Moab thus functioned as an interpretive space for the Torah. The Book of Ruth proposes an alternative interpretation of the Torah, also from the plains of Moab and the exegesis comes in the person of Ruth, the Moabitess.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This article challenges the point of view that the Book of Ruth is a charming narrative of loyalty and love. Research reveals that this Book is a polemic document and its main contribution is to the intradisciplinary field of biblical hermeneutics that requests a re-interpretation of texts for changing circumstances.

  14. Irrational evaluations and antisocial behavior of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević-Gvozden Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The principles of the Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy point out to the role of irrational beliefs in the occurrence of aggressive and antisocial behavior. The goal of this research is to determine whether there are links between irrational beliefs and self-assessment of antisocial behavior and whether there are differences with respect to irrational beliefs between the young who were sentenced by juvenile court judges compared to the control group. The research was conducted on two subsamples - the first consisted of male adolescents (N=116, aged 16 to 19, and the second comprised male adolescents 50 out of whom were sentenced by juvenile court judges, aged averagely 17 and a half, and 50 members of the control group. The modified version of the General Attitude and Belief Scale (GABS (Marić, 2002, 2003 and Antisocial Behavior Scale (ABS (Opačić, 2010, in print were used. Multiple regression analysis showed that the best predictor of the score on antisocial behavior scale was “the demand for absolute correctness of others and their devaluation”, followed by the aspiration towards perfectionism and success which acts as the factor that reduces the probability of antisocial behavior. Almost identical results were obtained by group comparison. The obtained results provide guidelines for designing preventive programs (sketched in the discussion that would be able to reduce the frequency of aggressive and antisocial behavior at adolescent age.

  15. Judging Mental Disorder in Youths: Effects of Client, Clinician, and Contextual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottick, Kathleen J.; Kirk, Stuart A.; Hsieh, Derek K.; Tian, Xin

    2007-01-01

    Using a vignette-based, mailed survey of 1,401 experienced psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers, the authors examined how clients' race/ethnicity and clinicians' professional and social characteristics affect their judgment of mental disorder among antisocially behaving youths. Vignettes described problematic behaviors meeting the …

  16. The choices judges make - Court rulings, personal values, and legal constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M; Steunenberg, B.

    In this paper we focus on the way in which courts affect public policy. We present a model of judicial behavior that combines insights from theories emphasizing the importance of policy preferences with those suggesting that courts are only motivated by formal-legal criteria. By embedding our model

  17. Judging Mental Disorder in Youths: Effects of Client, Clinician, and Contextual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottick, Kathleen J.; Kirk, Stuart A.; Hsieh, Derek K.; Tian, Xin

    2007-01-01

    Using a vignette-based, mailed survey of 1,401 experienced psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers, the authors examined how clients' race/ethnicity and clinicians' professional and social characteristics affect their judgment of mental disorder among antisocially behaving youths. Vignettes described problematic behaviors meeting the …

  18. Judging risk behaviour and risk preference: the role of the evaluative connotation of risk terms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, E.C.M.; van der Pligt, J.; van Baaren, K.

    1993-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the impact of the evaluative connotation of risk terms on the judgment of risk behavior and on risk preference. Exp 1 focused on the evaluation congruence of the risk terms with a general risk norm and with Ss' individual risk preference, and its effects on the extremity

  19. The choices judges make - Court rulings, personal values, and legal constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M; Steunenberg, B

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the way in which courts affect public policy. We present a model of judicial behavior that combines insights from theories emphasizing the importance of policy preferences with those suggesting that courts are only motivated by formal-legal criteria. By embedding our model

  20. The miscarriages of Justice in late Qing Dynasty——analysis focused on the original trial Judge Liu Xitong In the case of Yang Naiwu and Xiao Baicai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Ding; YANG Ang

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the case of Yang Naiwu and Xiao Baicai,a famous case in late imperial China,and its important value for the study of legal history of the Qing Dynasty.Based on the analysis of this case,this article focuses on the issue of the responsibility of the magistrate Liu xitong,the judge of this ease,who analyzed the mentation of his miscarriage under the pressure of the rules about judges responsibilities in their judgment through which reveal the stimulation and passive infection of the judgment of the judges.

  1. Default and rational persuasion of the judge Revelia e persuasão racional do juiz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival José de Oliveira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available It checks the borders of the presumption of facts contained in the initial petition when lacks seasonable contestation with the observance of legal formalities. Seen as an objective fact, the default will occur when the defendant stays inert at the processual moment offered to him to adduce his reasons to resist the request of the prosecutor, what doesn’t necessary implies in its procedure. However, the default not always unleashes its effects, that are classified as material or processual, consisting in the presumption of the veracity of the facts pleaded by the prosecutor in his initial petition and the lack of need of notification the default for the processual acts that follows. The presumption in default is relative, it means that, its effects circumscribing verisimilar facts and consistent with the other evidences that lie in the lawsuit, what goes to the need of the material direction and not only the formal side by the judge as a way to find the fair composition of the litigation, there so attending the social finalities of the process effectively inserted in the Democratic State of Law. Coming to the conclusion that shall exteriorized in the explaining of the decision the coherence of fatidic bases and juridical ones, containing all the prominent points of the suit, therefore attending the principle of the rational persuasion, resulting in a full jurisdictional tutelage, under the penalty of nullity of the law suit due to the lack of motivation of the sentence.Verifica os limites da presunção dos fatos contidos na petição inicial quando da ausência de contestação tempestiva e com a observância das formalidades legais. Vista como um fato objetivo, a revelia ocorrerá quando o réu queda-se inerte no momento processual em que lhe é facultado aduzir suas razões de resistência à demanda do autor, o que não implica necessariamente na sua procedência. Contudo, a revelia nem sempre desencadeia os seus efeitos, que s

  2. Face of Justice in USA. Administrative Judges%美国的正义之脸:行政法官

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    官继慧

    2012-01-01

    法律是实现正义的重要手段,法院的法官则代表着正义。随着行政机关被赋予了行政裁决的准司法权力,主持行政裁决的行政官员们也日趋受到关注,因为他们职责的履行同样也决定着正义是否能被真正实现。美国行政法官在社会中扮演着越来越重要的角色,虽然他们没有普通法院的法官地位显赫,但由于其在实现正义上有着不可替代的作用,行政法官越来越倍受人们的尊重。%Law is the significant means for realization of justice and the judges represent justice. The ad ministrative agencies are authorized with the quasijudicial power to make administrative adjudication. The officials presiding the administrative adjudications are increasingly attracting the public's attention, since the true realization of justices also depends on these officials performance of their duties. The administra tive judges in the United States are playing an increasingly significant role in the society. Although they are not as prominent as their counterparts in the court, the administrative judges win more respect than be fore.

  3. Judging complex movement performances for excellence: a principal components analysis-based technique applied to competitive diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Cole; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2014-08-01

    Athletes rely on subjective assessment of complex movements from coaches and judges to improve their motor skills. In some sports, such as diving, snowboard half pipe, gymnastics, and figure skating, subjective scoring forms the basis for competition. It is currently unclear whether this scoring process can be mathematically modeled; doing so could provide insight into what motor skill is. Principal components analysis has been proposed as a motion analysis method for identifying fundamental units of coordination. We used PCA to analyze movement quality of dives taken from USA Diving's 2009 World Team Selection Camp, first identifying eigenpostures associated with dives, and then using the eigenpostures and their temporal weighting coefficients, as well as elements commonly assumed to affect scoring - gross body path, splash area, and board tip motion - to identify eigendives. Within this eigendive space we predicted actual judges' scores using linear regression. This technique rated dives with accuracy comparable to the human judges. The temporal weighting of the eigenpostures, body center path, splash area, and board tip motion affected the score, but not the eigenpostures themselves. These results illustrate that (1) subjective scoring in a competitive diving event can be mathematically modeled; (2) the elements commonly assumed to affect dive scoring actually do affect scoring (3) skill in elite diving is more associated with the gross body path and the effect of the movement on the board and water than the units of coordination that PCA extracts, which might reflect the high level of technique these divers had achieved. We also illustrate how eigendives can be used to produce dive animations that an observer can distort continuously from poor to excellent, which is a novel approach to performance visualization.

  4. Relationships between suicidal behavior and personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, S; Kromrey, J D

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that introversion in general and the introverted-intuitive-feeling-perceiving (INFP) type as measured by the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator are related to suicidal ideation and behaviors. Analyses of data from 330 university students found four interactive suicidal behavior risk models: introverted-perceiving (IP) (females); introverted-sensing-feeling (ISF) (males); introverted-intuitive-perceiving (INP) (males); extraverted-intuitive-judging (ENJ) (males). Study findings were interpreted in terms of implications for risk assessment and intervention.

  5. Phenomenon of Judge Loss and its Solutions%法官流失现象及其应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国平

    2015-01-01

    T he attrition of judges exists in the people ’ s court in some areas for various reasons , which has caused some negative impact .The reasons include high work pressure ,low position and salary ,narrow development space ,little security assurance ,etc .All these involve in administrative systems of the courts ,law enforcement environment ,as well as inside management ,judgment power operation and job security of judges .The government should attach great importance to the problem and make an effort to resolve it comprehensively ,giving a combined measures of raising the judges ’ treatment ,improving their job security ,increasing their reward satisfaction ,improving the internal management ,promoting their work pleasure ,strengthening their professional faith ,cultivating their professional honor and so on .Only in these ways can the judge position be one that excellent law students desire and respect .%由于种种原因,我国一些地方法院出现了法官流失现象,产生了一些负面影响。产生这一现象的原因包括法官工作压力大、地位待遇低、发展空间小、保障措施少等多个方面,既涉及法院管理体制、执法环境问题,也涉及内部人员管理、审判权力运行和法官职业保障问题。国家有关部门应高度重视这一问题,从提高法官待遇,激发职业成就感、完善职业保障,增强回报满足感、改善内部管理,提升工作愉悦感、强化职业理想教育,培养职业尊荣感等方面多管齐下,综合加以解决,使法官职业成为优秀法律人才向往和尊敬的职业。

  6. Judging the Judges: Journalists and Standpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Linda

    1995-01-01

    Examines 80 news stories and news analyses published in "The New York Times" from October 7-28, 1991, regarding the allegations of Anita Hill that she had been sexually harassed by Clarence Thomas. Finds that reporters framed all parties in ways that were directly determined by different identity variables, which the reporters took up one at a…

  7. Nicole Matthews & Nickianne Moody, eds., Judging a Book by Its Cover: Fans, Publishers, Designers, and the Marketing of Fiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Van Parys

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available

     

    Judging a Book by Its Cover: Fans, Publishers, Designers, and the Marketing of Fiction

    Nicole Matthews & Nickianne Moody, eds.,

     

    Judging a Book by Its Cover: Fans, Publishers, Designers, and the Marketing of Fiction. Aldershot/Burlington: Ashgate, 2007.

    ISBN: 978-0-7546-5731-6

  8. Adolescent reproductive behavior: an international comparison of developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J D

    1990-01-01

    A comparative study of adolescent reproductive behavior in the 1980s examined difference in pregnancy, birth, and abortion levels among teenagers in developed countries especially in the US, Canada, the UK, France, the Netherlands, and Sweden. Only 6 of 37 countries with total fertility rates 3.5 and per capita income US$2000/year, and at least 1 million people had adolescent birth rates higher than the US (Bulgaria, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Romania, Hungary, and Chile). The US had the highest abortion rate (42/1000) followed by Hungary (27/1000). Thus the US had the highest adolescent pregnancy rate (96/1000) as well as Hungary (96/1000). The 6 country analysis showed that reducing the level of sexual activity among teenagers is not necessarily needed to achieve lower pregnancy rates. For example, Sweden had the highest levels of sexual activity but its pregnancy rate were 33% as high as those of the US. The rates of sexual activity among teenagers in the Netherlands equaled those of the US, but its pregnancy rates were 14% as high as those of the US. All countries had earlier, more extensive, and better contraceptive use among sexually active teenagers than the US which accounted for their lower pregnancy rates. The more realistic acceptance of sexual activity among teenagers and provision of contraceptives in all the countries except the US differed from the societal ambivalence in the US. Thus ambivalence about sexuality and the appropriateness of contraceptive use results in lower contraceptive use and greater adolescent pregnancy rates. US adolescents constantly receive conflicting messages that sex is romantic, thrilling, and arousing but it is also immoral to have premarital sex. Thus adults need to be more candid about sexuality so they can clearly convey to adolescents their expectations for responsible behavior and to provide the information and services needed to make effective use of contraceptives when sexually active.

  9. Look who's judging-Feedback source modulates brain activation to performance feedback in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterburs, Jutta; Sandrock, Carolin; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    It is as yet unknown if behavioral and neural correlates of performance monitoring in socially anxious individuals are affected by whether feedback is provided by a person or a computer. This fMRI study investigated modulation of feedback processing by feedback source (person vs. computer) in participants with high (HSA) (N=16) and low social anxiety (LSA) (N=16). Subjects performed a choice task in which they were informed that they would receive positive or negative feedback from a person or the computer. Subjective ratings indicated increased arousal and anxiety in HSA versus LSA, most pronounced for social and negative feedback. FMRI analyses yielded hyperactivation in ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula for social relative to computer feedback, and in mPFC/ventral ACC for positive relative to negative feedback in HSA as compared to LSA. These activation patterns are consistent with increased interoception and self-referential processing in social anxiety, especially during processing of positive feedback. Increased ACC activation in HSA to positive feedback may link to unexpectedness of (social) praise as posited in social anxiety disorder (SAD) psychopathology. Activation in rostral ACC showed a reversed pattern, with decreased activation to positive feedback in HSA, possibly indicating altered action values depending on feedback source and valence. The present findings corroborate a crucial role of mPFC for performance monitoring in social anxiety.

  10. 中外法官职业伦理比较磁%Comparison of Chinese and Foreign Occupation Ethics of Judges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 陈淑萍

    2013-01-01

    All the countries in the world have their own characteristics of the need to comply with judge oc-cupation .The United States occupation ethics of judges are Knowledge ,independent and fair .Britain requires judge’ s judicial independence , the ethical requirement qualifications . T he judge occupation standard German asked the judge to clean and neutral .To the judge occupation ethics in China ,judicial administration is not di-vided ,occupation level is not high .%  世界各国对法官在其职业的运作中所需要遵守的职业伦理有自己的特色,美国法官职业规范对法官的伦理提出独立、学识、公平的要求,英国则对法官的司法独立、任职资格提出了伦理要求,德国法官职业规范主要要求法官廉洁和中立。我国法官职业伦理存在着司法行政体制不分、职业化程度不高的问题。

  11. Macedonian Small Investors’ Behavior Towards Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovska Julijana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Convenience sample survey was fielded to the Macedonian individual stock market investors to find out whether their investment behavior can be explained by some underlying factors grounded in the behavioral approach to the study of financial markets. Descriptive statistics technique has been used to analyze the investors’ attitude about the market’s efficiency and to test different theories of behavioral finance. The results have indicated that investors are not completely rational individuals as supposed by theories of traditional finance. Also in the theoretical framework of behavioral finance Macedonian investors use heuristics, or rules of thumb, when judging information and forming beliefs, but Macedonian investors do not behave as suggested within prospect theory and regret aversion.

  12. Judged and Remembered Trustworthiness of Faces Is Enhanced by Experiencing Multisensory Synchrony and Asynchrony in the Right Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Hugo; Schubert, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    This work builds on the enfacement effect. This effect occurs when experiencing a rhythmic stimulation on one's cheek while seeing someone else's face being touched in a synchronous way. This typically leads to cognitive and social-cognitive effects similar to self-other merging. In two studies, we demonstrate that this multisensory stimulation can change the evaluation of the other's face. In the first study, participants judged the stranger's face and similar faces as being more trustworthy after synchrony, but not after asynchrony. Synchrony interacted with the order of the stroking; hence trustworthiness only changed when the synchronous stimulation occurred before the asynchronous one. In the second study, a synchronous stimulation caused participants to remember the stranger's face as more trustworthy, but again only when the synchronous stimulation came before the asynchronous one. The results of both studies show that order of stroking creates a context in which multisensory synchrony can affect the trustworthiness of faces.

  13. The European Judicial Training Network and its Role in the Strategy for the Europeanization of National Judges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Benvenuti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the building of a European Judicial Training Framework (EJT, notably the establishment, organization and functioning of the European Judicial Training Network (EJTN. After describing the EJTN and retracing its distinctive features – co-operation, decentralization, complementarity, targeting –, the article underlines its peculiar function within EJT, which reflects the role of EJT itself in the strategy for Europeanization of national judges. It then concludes by pointing out and situating other strategic areas where important synergies with EJT for the purpose of judicial Europeanization can be strengthened, notably enhancement of transnational judicial networks and introduction of knowledge management tools in national systems. The article is based on the analysis of documents and scientific literature as well as on empirical research and semi-structured interviews conducted by the author in 2013 and 2014.

  14. The Professional Careers of Judges on the Criminal Court of Catalonia in the First Third of the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel MARTÍNEZ RODRÍGUEZ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia underwent profound changes at the beginning at the eighteenth century. the Succession War put and end to the typical Catalan institutions under the Austria. At the end of this political conflict, the main royal institution, that’s to say the Real Audiencia, was awarded a new structure in 1716. this new one bears no resemblance to the previous period. And one of the major changes was the new sala penal. As a result of this fact, we’ve been interested in knowing their social background. We have been able to find useful data on their university studies, and the jobs they were offered before being well-known judges. These data have been intertwined with their family origins because in this way we can appreciate better why they had such interesting careers.

  15. Verification of TREX1 as a promising indicator of judging the prognosis of osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jinyi; Lan, Ruilong; Cai, Guanxiong; Lin, Jinluan; Wang, Xinwen; Lin, Jianhua; Han, Deping

    2016-11-24

    The study aimed to explore the correlation between the expression of TREX1 and the metastasis and the survival time of patients with osteosarcoma as well as biological characteristics of osteosarcoma cells for the prognosis judgment of osteosarcoma. The correlation between the expression of TREX1 protein and the occurrence of pulmonary metastasis in 45 cases of osteosarcoma was analyzed. The CD133(+) and CD133(-) cell subsets of osteosarcoma stem cells were sorted by the flow cytometry. The tumorsphere culture, clone formation, growth curve, osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, tumor-formation ability in nude mice, sensitivity of chemotherapeutic drugs, and other cytobiology behaviors were compared between the cell subsets in two groups; the expressions of stem cell-related genes Nanog and Oct4 were compared; The expressions of TREX1 protein and mRNA were compared between the cell subsets in two groups. The data was statistically analyzed. The measurement data between the two groups were compared using t test. The count data between the two groups were compared using χ (2) test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. A P value osteosarcoma in the metastasis group was significantly lower than that in the non-metastasis group. The difference was statistically significant (P osteosarcoma CD133(+) cell subsets was significantly lower than that in CD133(-) cell subsets. Stemness-related genes Nanog and Oct4 were highly expressed in human osteosarcoma CD133(+) cell subsets with lower expression of TREX1; the biological characteristics identification experiment showed that human CD133(+) cell subsets with low TREX1 expression could form tumorspheres, the number of colony forming was more, the cell proliferation ability was strong, the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential was big, the tumor-forming ability in nude mice was strong, and the sensibility of chemotherapeutics drugs on cisplatin was low. The expression of TREX1 may be related to metastasis

  16. 基于专家系统的导弹异常实时监控系统%Real-time fault judging system based on expert system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘昶

    2012-01-01

    针对人工判读导弹遥测关键参数安控异常的特点,提出了一种基于专家系统的导弹遥测的关键参数的异常实时监控系统,实现导弹安控异常的实时自动判别、监控,该系统的研制将对导弹试验的自动化和信息化作战产生深远影响.%According to the manual verdict characteristics of missile fault judging , the application of fault diagnosis expert system for missile real-time fault judging system is put forward, which can implemente the fault judging for missile security automatically, which is a new way to realize the automatization and informatization of missile test.

  17. Forced Displacement and State Council. The Judge who Had a Wide Range of Arguments but not a Broad Extent of Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Andrés López Martínez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available People in forced displacement can receive reparations through the State liability declarations by a judge. Judgment could involve some disadvantages but it is still probably to overcome them if the judge attends experts’ recommendations. Theorists were inspired in unconstitutional statu quo showed by Constitutional Court in T-025 case in 2004. We attempt to identify the proposals that influenced the State liability area and specifically the way in which they changed the frame of administrative judge’s decisions. First, we identified 18 theoretical scape lines, as alternatives to understand in a wider sense the damage, its imputation and reparation in a judicial landscape. Second, we attempt to establish if the State Council was influenced by the theorists’ suggestions, by studying four decisions published from 2004 until 2010. The evidence has shown that the administrative judge was far from the theorists’ proposals, although his attempts to offer better conditions to the victims.

  18. "Macanas”, "tragedies" and "dramas". Judges and their presentation of past state terrorism in the Trials for the Truth of Bahia Blanca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Andriotti Romanin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to investigate the different manifestations about the recent past of state terrorism carried out by the judges during the audiences of so-called "truth trials" held in the city of Bahia Blanca, Argentina, between 1999 and 2000. To carry out this study we worked with a methodology of qualitative analysis and different sources of information, such as interviews with judges, lawyers of human rights organizations, and all the videos of the audiences of the Truth trial of Bahia Blanca. As a result, it´s noted the way in which judges interpreted state terrorism, confronting the position taken by the military of failing to provide information and to claim the "anti-subversive war", establishing different responsibilities among members of the Armed Forces

  19. THE LAY JUDGE IN THE SMALL CLAIMS COURTS AND IN THE SMALL CLAIMS AGAINST THE EXCHEQUER COURTS: EFFICIENCY VERSUS ACCESS TO JUSTICE AND TO LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gomes de Queiroz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lay judges that work at small claims courts and at small claims against the Exchequer courts don’t have the necessary legitimacy to take discretionary or solely based in equity decisions, because they are not directly elected by the people. Thus, they must base their decisions in the present Law. For this purpose, the selection process of them must demand the necessary legal knowledge and degree for the exercise of the function. The lay judge is submitted to the reasons of impediment or suspicion of the judge, because he is an assistant of the justice, so the law must recognize the citizen’s right to know the individual that exercises the function in his process.

  20. Cultural diversity for virtual characters investigating behavioral aspects across cultures

    CERN Document Server

    Endrass, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Culture plays a crucial role in our lives. Depending on our cultural background, we judge on and react to everything that we encounter. Subtle differences in behavior can lead to misunderstandings or even culture shock. In a similar manner, virtual characters can be declined by certain user groups when showing culturally inappropriate behavior. But how can social aspects such as culture be integrated into the behavioral models of virtual characters Birgit Endrass addresses this question by carrying out a hybrid approach that is based on theoretical background from the social sciences as well a

  1. Image Schemas in Verb-Particle Constructions: Evidence from a Behavioral Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive linguists claim that verb-particle constructions are compositional and analyzable, and that the particles contribute to the overall meaning in the form of image schemas. This article examined this claim with a behavioral experiment, in which participants were asked to judge the sensibility of short sentences primed by image-schematic…

  2. Judging arrival times of incoming traffic vehicles is not a prerequisite for safely crossing an intersection: Differential effects of vehicle size and type in passive judgment and active driving tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Julie; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Berthelon, Catherine; Montagne, Gilles

    2017-02-01

    Using a fixed-base driving simulator we compared the effects of the size and type of traffic vehicles (i.e., normal-sized or double-sized cars or motorcycles) approaching an intersection in two different tasks. In the perceptual judgment task, passively moving participants estimated when a traffic vehicle would reach the intersection for actual arrival times (ATs) of 1, 2, or 3s. In line with earlier findings, ATs were generally underestimated, the more so the longer the actual AT. Results revealed that vehicle size affected judgments in particular for the larger actual ATs (2 and 3s), with double-sized vehicles then being judged as arriving earlier than normal-sized vehicles. Vehicle type, on the other hand, affected judgments at the smaller actual ATs (1 and 2s), with cars then being judged as arriving earlier than motorcycles. In the behavioral task participants actively drove the simulator to cross the intersection by passing through a gap in a train of traffic. Analyses of the speed variations observed during the active intersection-crossing task revealed that the size and type of vehicles in the traffic train did not affect driving behavior in the same way as in the AT judgment task. First, effects were considerably smaller, affecting driving behavior only marginally. Second, effects were opposite to expectations based on AT judgments: driver approach speeds were smaller (rather than larger) when confronted with double-sized vehicles as compared to their normal-sized counterparts and when confronted with cars as compared to motorcycles. Finally, the temporality of the effects was different on the two tasks: vehicle size affected driver approach speed in the final stages of approach rather than early on, while vehicle type affected driver approach speed early on rather than later. Overall, we conclude that the active control of approach to the intersection is not based on successive judgments of traffic vehicle arrival times. These results thereby question the

  3. Judging media -articles on health- related issues: a new kind of biochemistry exam for biomedical undergrad students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Oliveira

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Health-relatedpopular articlesissues  and medical tips (or “Dr Google” have taken over the  i nternet.  Misconception sare very common ly found among these sources, butrecognizing them may require  good biomedical knowledge.   The ability to judge knowledge is, according to Bloom’s scale,a very advanced step in the learning process. In this sense, we decided to use  fragments of articles from the  i nternet as part of a formal exam to evaluate students' overall learning of Clinical and Applied Biochemistry (CAB . This tes t, known as the True -or-False (T -or-F exam, is made up of statements found online that are judged by  freshman  medical and nutrition  students taking Basic Biochemistry (BioBio. In the last  4 semesters, students' acceptance and responses to  BioBio´s T -or -F  exam were evaluated through questionnaires(using a 5-point Likert scale . Results from 258 students indicate dthat 69% of them felt the exa m was difficult,  87% thought the exam was of good quality, and 69% believed that using media-questions is relevant  for learning CAB. However, only 64% thought the exam evaluated satisfactorily what  they  learned in class. Also, the average grade obtained was 5. 85(out of 10 . This is probably because students are not familiarized with this examination,  which  requires more than only memorization of biochemical  pathways and reactions   –  it evaluates the  application of knowledge.  Thus, BioBio´s  T-or-F  exam is an innovative way of evaluating knowledge and of enabling students to be critic about information receive d. The major ity of students acknowledged the  exam´s relevance  f or learning purposes and, so, it could be well-applied to other fields of science.

  4. 20 CFR 667.820 - What authority does the Administrative Law Judge have in ordering relief as an outcome of an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What authority does the Administrative Law... What authority does the Administrative Law Judge have in ordering relief as an outcome of an administrative hearing? In ordering relief, the ALJ has the full authority of the Secretary under the Act....

  5. Individual Assessment of Judges in Albania - A General Overview and Comparative Analysis of Career Advancement and Reward Systems Based on Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaudin Malaj

    2015-07-01

    In the following the article is focused on a comparative view of the assessment criteria, according to the Italian model. Analysis of the Italian system of individual assessment of judges may highlight on some the practical aspects of the most suitable model of assessment to be implemented in Albania.

  6. A List of Currently Credible Biology Concepts Judged by a National Panel To Be Important for Inclusion in K-12 Curricula, Parts 1, 2, and 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Benjamin Edwin

    This three-part document identified 114 currently credible biology concepts judged important for inclusion in the K-12 curriculum. The literature related to the production of lists of scientific concepts was reviewed, emphasizing the techniques available for such studies. The technique for this study was to ask individual biological scientists at…

  7. Combining colour and temperature: A blue object is more likely to be judged as warm than a red object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsin-Ni; Iwai, Daisuke; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Watanabe, Junji; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2014-07-03

    It is commonly believed that reddish colour induces warm feelings while bluish colour induces cold feelings. We, however, demonstrate an opposite effect when the temperature information is acquired by direct touch. Experiment 1 found that a red object, relative to a blue object, raises the lowest temperature required for an object to feel warm, indicating that a blue object is more likely to be judged as warm than a red object of the same physical temperature. Experiment 2 showed that hand colour also affects temperature judgment, with the direction of the effect opposite to object colours. This study provides the first demonstration that colour can modulate temperature judgments when the temperature information is acquired by direct touch. The effects apparently oppose the common conception of red-hot/blue-cold association. We interpret this phenomenon in terms of "Anti-Bayesian" integration, which suggests that the brain integrates direct temperature input with prior expectations about temperature relationship between object and hand in a way that emphasizes the contrast between the two.

  8. Don't judge a book by its cover, revisited: perceived and reported traits and values of attractive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Caspi, Lihi; Roccas, Sonia; Sagiv, Lilach

    2012-10-01

    Research has documented a robust stereotype regarding personality attributes related to physical attractiveness (the "what is beautiful is good" stereotype). But do physically attractive women indeed possess particularly attractive inner attributes? Studying traits and values, we investigated two complementary questions: how perceived attractiveness relates to perceived personality, and how it relates to actual personality. First, 118 women reported their traits and values and were videotaped reading the weather forecast. Then, 118 judges rated the traits, values, and attractiveness of the women. As hypothesized, attractiveness correlated with attribution of desirable traits, but not with attribution of values. By contrast, attractiveness correlated with actual values, but not actual traits: Attractiveness correlated with tradition and conformity values (which were contrasted with self-direction values) and with self-enhancement values (which were contrasted with universalism values). Thus, despite the widely accepted "what is beautiful is good" stereotype, our findings suggest that the beautiful strive for conformity rather than independence and for self-promotion rather than tolerance.

  9. High-frequency video capture and a computer program with frame-by-frame angle determination functionality as tools that support judging in artistic gymnastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omorczyk, Jarosław; Nosiadek, Leszek; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Nosiadek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of selected simple methods of recording and fast biomechanical analysis performed by judges of artistic gymnastics in assessing a gymnast's movement technique. The study participants comprised six artistic gymnastics judges, who assessed back handsprings using two methods: a real-time observation method and a frame-by-frame video analysis method. They also determined flexion angles of knee and hip joints using the computer program. In the case of the real-time observation method, the judges gave a total of 5.8 error points with an arithmetic mean of 0.16 points for the flexion of the knee joints. In the high-speed video analysis method, the total amounted to 8.6 error points and the mean value amounted to 0.24 error points. For the excessive flexion of hip joints, the sum of the error values was 2.2 error points and the arithmetic mean was 0.06 error points during real-time observation. The sum obtained using frame-by-frame analysis method equaled 10.8 and the mean equaled 0.30 error points. Error values obtained through the frame-by-frame video analysis of movement technique were higher than those obtained through the real-time observation method. The judges were able to indicate the number of the frame in which the maximal joint flexion occurred with good accuracy. Using the real-time observation method as well as the high-speed video analysis performed without determining the exact angle for assessing movement technique were found to be insufficient tools for improving the quality of judging.

  10. Judging Fairs Fairly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, John W.; Silverman, Fredrick L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses some of the problems associated with winners and losers at science fairs. Presents two alternatives to the traditional prize system: "The Scouting Concept" and "The County Fair Concept." Stresses the values and learnings that are associated with successful fairs. (CW)

  11. Kierkegaard - le Philosophe, le Juge et le Droit (Kierkegaard – the Philosopher, the Judge and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Le fameux théologien et philosophe Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855 dans son oeuvre souvnt utilize expressions et metaphors pris du monde judiciare. Il pare, quíl est bien au courant quant´au monde des jurists de son age et place. La plupart des expressions sont pris du droit penal et de la procédure pénale. Le criminel comme individu ou l’objet de línterrogation et comme coupable es tun des ses images favorites. Dans ses oeuvres Ou-bien … Ou bien et Etapes su la chemin de la vie nous encontrons un juge danois avec la possibilité de suivre ses reflections sur son travail et l’éthique d’un repésentant de la justice locale. Le juge est une des masques sous lesquelles Kierkegaard s’adresse a nous. Les oeuvres de Kierkegaard et l’utilisation des expressions prises du monde du droit sont ici présentées dans un contexte contemporaire du doit et vie á Copenhague dans les années entre 1840 et 1855 en contrastant les différances entre le narrative de Kierkegaard selon lequel le doit peut server comme example et sur l’autre côté son concept transcendental de l’être coupable. The famous Danish theologian and existentialist philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855 in his work often used expressions or metaphors taken from judicial life, which reveals him as familiar with the legal world of his time and place. Most expressions are taken from penal law and penal procedure. The criminal as individual or the object of interrogation and guilt is one of his favorite images. In his Enten-Eller (Either/or and Stadier paa Livets Vej (Stages on Life’s Way we even meet a Danish judge and follow his reflections on his work and the ethics of a representative of local Justice. The judge is one of the masks under which Kierkegaard presents his thinking. Kierkegaard’s works and his use of expressions taken from the legal world are presented in the contemporary context of law and life in Copenhagen in the 1840ies however contrasting the

  12. Kierkegaard - le Philosophe, le Juge et le Droit (Kierkegaard – the Philosopher, the Judge and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ditlev Tamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Le fameux théologien et philosophe Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855 dans son oeuvre souvnt utilize expressions et metaphors pris du monde judiciare. Il pare, quíl est bien au courant quant´au monde des jurists de son age et place. La plupart des expressions sont pris du droit penal et de la procédure pénale. Le criminel comme individu ou l’objet de línterrogation et comme coupable es tun des ses images favorites. Dans ses oeuvres Ou-bien … Ou bien et Etapes su la chemin de la vie nous encontrons un juge danois avec la possibilité de suivre ses reflections sur son travail et l’éthique d’un repésentant de la justice locale. Le juge est une des masques sous lesquelles Kierkegaard s’adresse a nous. Les oeuvres de Kierkegaard et l’utilisation des expressions prises du monde du droit sont ici présentées dans un contexte contemporaire du doit et vie á Copenhague dans les années entre 1840 et 1855 en contrastant les différances entre le narrative de Kierkegaard selon lequel le doit peut server comme example et sur l’autre côté son concept transcendental de l’être coupable. The famous Danish theologian and existentialist philosopher Søren Kierkegaard (1813-1855 in his work often used expressions or metaphors taken from judicial life, which reveals him as familiar with the legal world of his time and place. Most expressions are taken from penal law and penal procedure. The criminal as individual or the object of interrogation and guilt is one of his favorite images. In his Enten-Eller (Either/or and Stadier paa Livets Vej (Stages on Life’s Way we even meet a Danish judge and follow his reflections on his work and the ethics of a representative of local Justice. The judge is one of the masks under which Kierkegaard presents his thinking. Kierkegaard’s works and his use of expressions taken from the legal world are presented in the contemporary context of law and life in Copenhagen in the 1840ies however contrasting the

  13. 论基层法官的法律续造%On the Continuous Law-making of Grassroots Judges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石东洋

    2015-01-01

    The statute law has a hysteretic nature. The content of the legal text sometimes may not cover the specific case,which determining the process of justice essentially a creative activity,and should actively participate in the development of law system. Compared with the urban environment,local grassroots courts are more special. The rules primary judges used in specific cases are not statutory rules themselves,but are regulations formed in accordance with the law and referred to the circumstances of specific cases. In the process of forming and developing the regulations of specific cases,grassroots judges must accept the aims and the evaluation law agreed,the limitation of law system and its thinking modes. What's more,they should be sure of the range they can surpass the regulations;publicize the methods applied in specific cases which surpass the regulations;and mark the psychological proving process. Usually,the realization of continuous law-making is embodied in earlier accumulation,legal items recognition,legal interests measure,and the continuous development of referees.%成文法具有天然的滞后性,法律文字有时不能涵括被寻求的个案规范,其本质上决定了司法裁判必须是有创意的活动,并积极参与逐步自我实现的法秩序之发展及续造。乡土基层法院司法环境相较于城市环境更为特殊,基层法官凭以涵摄个案的规范部分并非法定规则本身,而是由基层法官依据法定规则,考量个案的情况而形成的规范。在形成及发展个案规范时,基层法官必须接受法律所确定的目的、法律所包含的评价、法律的体系及其思考模式的拘束,逾越抑或扩张法律规定条款概念的界限、范围,应明示准备应用超越法律的,寻求个案规范的方法,并标示具体个案价值判断的心证进路。通常情况下,法律续造在法律前见积累、法律条款识别、法益预拟衡量、裁判续造规则过程中实现。

  14. Experience in judging intent to harm modulates parahippocampal activity: an fMRI study with experienced CCTV operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Karin; McAleer, Phil; Neary, Catherine; Gillard, Julia; Pollick, Frank E

    2014-08-01

    Does visual experience in judging intent to harm change our brain responses? And if it does, what are the mechanisms affected? We addressed these questions by studying the abilities of Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) operators, who must identify the presence of hostile intentions using only visual cues in complex scenes. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess which brain processes are modulated by CCTV experience. To this end we scanned 15 CCTV operators and 15 age and gender matched novices while they watched CCTV videos of 16 sec, and asked them to report whether each clip would end in violence or not. We carried out four separate whole-brain analyses including 3 model-based analyses and one analysis of intersubject correlation to examine differences between the two groups. The three model analyses were based on 1) experimentally pre-defined clip activity labels of fight, confrontation, playful, and neutral behaviour, 2) participants' reports of violent outcomes during the scan, and 3) visual saliency within each clip, as pre-assessed using eye-tracking. The analyses identified greater activation in the right superior frontal gyrus for operators than novices when viewing playful behaviour, and reduced activity for operators in comparison with novices in the occipital and temporal regions, irrespective of the type of clips viewed. However, in the parahippocampal gyrus, all three model-based analyses consistently showed reduced activity for experienced CCTV operators. Activity in the anterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus (uncus) was found to increase with years of CCTV experience. The intersubject correlation analysis revealed a further effect of experience, with CCTV operators showing correlated activity in fewer brain regions (superior and middle temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule and the ventral striatum) than novices. Our results indicate that long visual experience in action observation, aimed to predict harmful behaviour

  15. Supporting evaluation and implementation of musculoskeletal Models of Care: A globally-informed framework for judging 'readiness' and 'success'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew M; Jordan, Joanne E; Jennings, Matthew; Speerin, Robyn; Bragge, Peter; Chua, Jason; Woolf, Anthony D; Slater, Helen

    2016-06-06

    Objective To develop a globally-informed framework to evaluate 'readiness' for implementation and 'success' after implementation of musculoskeletal Models of Care (MoCs). Methods Three-phases were undertaken: 1) qualitative study with 27 Australian subject matter experts (SMEs) to develop a draft Framework; 2) eDelphi study with an international panel of 93 SMEs across 30 nations to evaluate face validity, refine and establish consensus on the Framework components; and 3) translation of the Framework into a user-focused resource and evaluation of its acceptability with the eDelphi panel. Results A comprehensive evaluation framework was developed for judging 'readiness' and 'success' of musculoskeletal MoCs. The Framework consists of nine domains, with each domain containing a number of themes underpinned by detailed elements. In the first Delphi round, scores of 'partly agree' or 'completely agree' with the draft Framework ranged from 96.7-100%. In the second round, 'essential' scores ranged from 58.6-98.9%, resulting in 14 of 34 themes being classified as essential. SMEs strongly agreed or agreed that the final Framework was useful (98.8%), usable (95.1%), credible (100%) and appealing (93.9%). Overall, 96.3% strongly supported or supported the final structure of the Framework as it was presented, while 100%, 96.3% and 100% strongly supported or supported the content within the readiness, initiating implementation and success streams, respectively. Conclusions An empirically-derived framework to evaluate the readiness and success of musculoskeletal MoCs was strongly supported by an international panel of SMEs. The Framework provides an important internationally-applicable benchmark for the development, implementation and evaluation of musculoskeletal MoCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. [Influence of the Nuremberg physicians' trials--beginning a new era in the ethical judging of human experiments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerpel-Fronius, Sándor

    2008-02-03

    This short historical review attempts to shed light on the tortuous road on which society moved toward the general acceptance of the idea of experimenting on human beings. Unfortunately people had to realize that under antihuman or lenient political leadership, some physicians might apply their knowledge against their fellow beings, or might endanger them while pursuing their scientific goals. For this reason, it became necessary to codify the ethical requirements of medical experiments. This was done first by the Prussian government in 1900. The historical significance of the Nuremberg physicians' trials is that, by recognizing the enormous scientific importance of human experiments, they led to the formulation of general ethical principles governing human studies, which became known as the Nuremberg Code. Broad, international regulations were developed as the consequence of the trial. Unfortunately human experiments performed on prison inmates were judged at the trial as ethically acceptable, provided an informed consent was signed. Misusing this possibility many unethical experiments were done primarily in the US after the war. The great indignation due to ethical misconduct in prison trials and the highly unethical Tuskegee experiments performed on black Americans' suffering from syphilis, led much later to the organization of independent ethics committees. Through these committees, society exercises supervision of human trials. However, in case of severely ill patients the physician might be left alone to make a quick, and ethically correct, decision corresponding to the situation. In the final analysis the safety and ethical protection of research subjects remain the joint responsibility of society and of the experimenting physicians.

  17. The localization of Western Judges Training Methods%西方法官培训方法的本土化探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 薛琪

    2014-01-01

    There are the indicators in the judicial practice, that judge ’s judicial ability needs to be reinforced by training. Howev-er, the traditional unidirectional judge training methods are difficult to effectively improve the judge ’s judicial ability and reforming the current judge training mode and teaching methods have become a top priority. At present, learning from the countries of Anglo American law system of case teaching method to innovate the training mode of our country judge, has become a kind of training thought. In view of the western case teaching method to transplant into our mainland, there are some steps as follows, improve and better selection criteria of teaching cases, unify our actual segmentation; compress training time through the distance teaching method, improve the judge training efficiency by teachers’ participation in group discussion;strengthen the trainees homogeneity selection.%司法实践中的种种现状表明,法官司法能力亟须通过培训加以补强。然而,传统单向性的法官培训方式难以有效提高法官司法能力,改革现有法官培训模式及教学方法成为当务之急。目前,借鉴英美法系国家案例教学法来创新我国法官培训方式,已成为法学界较为认同的一种思路。针对西方案例教学法移植到中国本土的融合问题,应改造与完善教学案例的选择标准,结合我国法官实际进行细分;通过远程教学方式压缩课前课后环节所占培训时间、教师参加并引导固定的小组讨论以及变通课堂分析与讨论环节以提高法官培训效率;加强受训学员的同质性选择。

  18. Perspectives from the Bench: Patent Law in Pittsburgh An Interview with the Honorable Joy Flowers Conti, District Judge for the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Angliss

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Judge Joy Flowers Conti has served as a district judge for the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania since 2002, when she was nominated by President George W. Bush. Prior to her service as a district judge, Judge Conti served as a law clerk to a Pennsylvania Supreme Court Justice, was a partner in private practice at Kirkpatrick & Lockhart, LLP, and a shareholder at Buchanan Ingersoll. She also served as a member of the faculty at Duquesne University School of Law. Judge Conti is a member of the Allegheny County Bar Association, the Pennsylvania Bar Association, the American Bar Association, the Women’s Bar Association of Western Pennsylvania, the Federal Bar Association and the American Inns of Court. She received a Bachelor of Arts Degree from Duquesne University in 1970, and a JD degree summa cum laude from Duquesne University School of Law in 1973.

  19. Impression formation: the role of expressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggio, R E; Friedman, H S

    1986-02-01

    This research examined the effects of personality/social skills and individual differences in expressive style on impression formation. Particular attention was given to the role of nonverbal behaviors in the formation of initial impressions. Sixty-two subjects were measured on self-report personality and communication skill scales, on posed emotional sending ability, and on physical attractiveness. Subjects were then videotaped while giving a spontaneous "explanation." Trained coders measured five separate nonverbal cue factors displayed by the subjects in the videotapes. Groups of untrained judges viewed the tapes and rated their impressions of the subjects on scales of likability, speaking effectiveness, and expressivity-confidence. Male subjects who were nonverbally skilled and extraverted tended to display more outwardly focused and fluid expressive behaviors, and made more favorable impressions on judges, than did males who scored low on the measures of nonverbal skills and extraversion. Females who were nonverbally skilled displayed more facial expressiveness, which led to more favorable initial impressions. Sex differences may reflect basic differences in the acquisition and use of expressive nonverbal cues by males and females.

  20. Behavioral coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniuk, Holly A; Witts, Benjamin N; Williams, W Larry; Ghezzi, Patrick M

    2013-01-01

    The term behavioral coaching has been used inconsistently in and outside the field of behavior analysis. In the sports literature, the term has been used to describe various intervention strategies, and in the organizational behavior management literature it has been used to describe an approach to training management personnel and staff. This inconsistency is problematic in terms of the replication of behavioral coaching across studies and aligning with Baer, Wolf, and Risley's (1968) technological dimension of applied behavior analysis. The current paper will outline and critique the discrepancies in the use of the term and suggest how Martin and Hrycaiko's (1983) characteristics of behavioral coaching in sports may be used to bring us closer to establishing a consistent definition of the term. In addition, we will suggest how these characteristics can also be applicable to the use of the term behavioral coaching in other domains of behavior analysis.

  1. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  2. Verbal behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, Jack

    1984-01-01

    The recent history and current status of the area of verbal behavior are considered in terms of three major thematic lines: the operant conditioning of adult verbal behavior, learning to be an effective speaker and listener, and developments directly related to Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Other topics not directly related to the main themes are also considered: the work of Kurt Salzinger, ape-language research, and human operant research related to rule-governed behavior.

  3. Periodic behaviors

    CERN Document Server

    Napp, Diego; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R^n. These properties - in particular the Nullstellensatz describing the Willems closure - are closely related to integral and rational points on affine algebraic varieties.

  4. PERIODIC BEHAVIORS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napp, Diego; Put, Marius van der; Shankar, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies behaviors that are defined on a torus, or equivalently, behaviors defined in spaces of periodic functions, and establishes their basic properties analogous to classical results of Malgrange, Palamodov, Oberst et al. for behaviors on R(n). These properties-in particular the Nullste

  5. Behaviorally Speaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Elias H.; Dutton, Darell W. J.

    1987-01-01

    Consists of two articles focusing on (1) a modern behavioral model that takes cues from Hippocrates' Four Temperaments and (2) use of a behavioral approach to improve the effectiveness of meetings. Lists positive and negative behaviors within the meeting context. (CH)

  6. Extension of expiration date for temporary pilot program setting the time and place for a hearing before an administrative law judge. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-18

    We are extending for one year our pilot program that authorizes the agency to set the time and place for a hearing before an administrative law judge (ALJ). Extending the pilot program continues our commitment to improve the efficiency of our hearing process and provide accurate, high-quality decisions for claimants. The current pilot program will expire on August 9, 2014. In this final rule, we are extending the expiration date to August 10, 2015. We are making no other substantive changes.

  7. Event-related repetitive TMS reveals distinct, critical roles for right OFA and bilateral posterior STS in judging the sex and trustworthiness of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhelyova, Milena P; Ellison, Amanda; Atkinson, Anthony P

    2011-10-01

    Judging the sex of faces relies on cues related to facial morphology and spatial relations between features, whereas judging the trustworthiness of faces relies on both structural and expressive cues that signal affective valence. The right occipital face area (OFA) processes structural cues and has been associated with sex judgments, whereas the posterior STS processes changeable facial cues related to muscle movements and is activated when observers judge trustworthiness. It is commonly supposed that the STS receives inputs from the OFA, yet it is unknown whether these regions have functionally dissociable, critical roles in sex and trustworthiness judgments. We addressed this issue using event-related, fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twelve healthy volunteers judged the sex of individually presented faces and, in a separate session, whether those same faces were trustworthy or not. Relative to sham stimulation, RTs were significantly longer for sex judgments when rTMS was delivered over the right OFA but not the right or left STS, and for trustworthiness judgments on male but not female faces when rTMS was delivered over the right STS or left STS but not the right OFA. Nonetheless, an analysis of the RT distributions revealed a possible critical role also for the right OFA in trustworthiness judgments, limited to faces with longer RTs, perhaps reflecting the later, ancillary use of structural cues related to the sex of the face. On the whole, our findings provide evidence that evaluations of the trustworthiness and sex of faces rely on functionally dissociable cortical regions.

  8. Key motion characteristics of side-step movements in hip-hop dance and their effect on the evaluation by judges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Nahoko; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    In hip-hop dance, the elements of motion that discriminate the skill levels of dancers and that influence the evaluations by judges have not been clearly identified. This study set out to extract these motion characteristics from the side-step movements of hip-hop dancing. Eight expert and eight non-expert dancers performed side-step movements, which were recorded using a motion capture system. Nine experienced judges evaluated the dancers' performances. Several parameters, including the range of motion (ROM) of the joint angles (neck, trunk, hip, knee, and face inclination) and phase delays between these angular motions were calculated. A quarter-cycle phase delay between the neck motion and other body parts, seen only in the expert dancers, is highlighted as an element that can distinguish dancers' skill levels. This feature of the expert dancers resulted in a larger ROM during the face inclination than that for the non-expert dancers. In addition, the experts exhibited a bottom-to-top segmental sequence in the horizontal direction while the non-experts did not demonstrate any such sequential motion. Of these kinematic parameters, only the ROM of the face inclination was highly correlated to the judging score and is regarded as being the most appealing element of the side-step movement.

  9. The "Akopian" vault performed by elite male gymnasts: Which biomechanical variables are related to a judge's score?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Farana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A vaulting performance takes a short time and it is influenced by and affects the quantity of mechanical variables. The significant relationships between the vaulting score and specific aspects of the gymnast's vault should conduct coaches to monitor these variables as a part of training or routine testing. Objective: The aim of the current study was to determine the biomechanical variables that are related to a successful performance of the Akopian vaults performed by top level male gymnasts during the World Cup competition. Methods: Fifteen top-level male gymnasts participated in this study. For the 3D analysis, two digital camcorders with a frame rate of 50 Hz were used. The data were digitized by the Simi motion software. The Hay and Reid method was used to identify the biomechanical variables that determine the linear and angular motions of the handspring and front somersault vaults. A correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship between the biomechanical variables and the judges' scores. The level of statistical significance was determined at the value of p < .05. Results: In the Akopian vaults, in five out of 24 variables arising from the deterministic model showed a significant relationship to the score. A significant correlation was found in the maximum height of the body center of mass in the second flight phase, in the height of the body center of mass at the mat touchdown, in the change of the vertical velocity during the take-off from the vaulting table, and in the duration of the second flight phase. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that a successful execution of Akopian vaults and the achievement of a higher score required: to maximize the change in vertical velocity in the table contact phase and maximize vertical velocity in the table take-off phase; to maximize the amplitude of the second flight phase, which is determined by the duration of the second flight phase, by the maximum

  10. Kinematic analysis of "Lou Yun" vaults performed by top level male gymnasts: Relationship between kinematic variables and judges' score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Farana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In gymnastics judging, evaluation of routines in their execution is based on form and technique displayed during the performance. A vaulting performance takes a short time and is affected by the quantity of biomechanical variables. The significant relationships between the vault score and specific aspects of the gymnast’s vault should motivate coaches to monitor these variables as a part of training or routine testing. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to determine the biomechanical variables that are related to a successful performance of Lou Yun vaults performed by top level male gymnasts during the World Cup competition. METHODS: Ten top-level male gymnasts participated in this study. For the 3D kinematic analysis, two digital camcorders with a frame rate of 50 Hz were used. The data was digitized by Simi Motion software. The Hay and Reid method (1988 was used to identify the biomechanical variables that determine the linear motions of the Lou Yun vaults. A correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship between the biomechanical variables and the judges’ scores. The level of statistical significance was determined at the value of p RESULTS: Six out of 24 examined variables showed significant correlations with the scores. A significant correlation was found in the maximum height of the body centre of mass in the second flight phase (r = .68, in the height of centre of mass at mat touchdown (r = .75, in the relative height from table take-off to mat touchdown (r = –.85, in the duration of the table contact phase (r = –.71, in the duration of the second flight phase (r = .62 and in the vertical velocity of body centre of mass at table take-off (r = .70. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study suggest that a successful execution of Lou Yun vaults and the achievement of a higher score required: to minimize duration of table support phase; to maximize the vertical velocity in the table take-off phase; to

  11. Can old-world and new-world monkeys judge spatial above/below relations to be the same or different? Some of them, but not all of them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roger K R; Flemming, Timothy M; Hagmann, Carl Erick

    2016-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with the aid of token training can achieve analogical reasoning, or the ability to understand relations-between-relations (e.g., Premack, 1976; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). However, extraordinarily few numbers of old- and new-world monkeys have demonstrated this ability in variants of relational matching to sample tasks. Moreover, the rarity of replications leaves open the question of whether the results are normative for other captive colonies of the same species. In experiment one we attempted to replicate whether old world rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) might demonstrate the same level of proficiency on a spatial above/below relational matching task as reported for old world baboons (Papio papio). None of the rhesus monkeys attained above chance performances over 10,000 training trials. In experiment two we attempted to replicate results demonstrating that new-world capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) match above/below relations. The capuchin monkeys performed above chance only in the absence of 'Clever Hans' controls for cuing of the correct choice by the experimenters. These failures to replicate previously reported results demonstrate that some, but definitely not all monkeys can judge the equivalence of abstract 'relations between relations' and warrant further investigations into the behavioral and cognitive characteristics that underlie these similarities and differences within population and between individuals of different primate species.

  12. Political Cynicism and Kynicism of Croatian Citizens. Profiles of Political Thinking and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Blanuša

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last thirty years uneasiness among scholars and political actors has been growing larger as more citizens demonstrate cynical attitudes. These citizens feel that politicians are immoral and incompetent, have less faith in democracy, and show lower levels of political participation. However, Peter Sloterdijk points out that the dominant view of cynicism is simplified. He divides cynical reason into two separate ways of thinking: cynicism and kynicism. The main difference between them is in individual’s reaction to the cleavage between public ideological mask and individual’s idea of social reality. Cynics persist in keeping the ideological mask on and have an “enlightened false consciousness”, while kynics highlight this cleavage, oppose the dominant ideology and point out misuses of political power. This research was conducted with the goal of creating cynicism and kynicism scales. Their validity was tested for two samples – a smaller sample of students and later on the representative sample of Croatian citizens (N=1002. Also, connection of cynical and kynical thought with an array of relevant political attitudes and political behavior was tested. Results indicate that cynicism and kynicism are relatively separated and coherent types of political thought. Kynicism is primarily related to low trust in political institutions, but also to lower support of democracy. Specific combinations of these two types of thought have a highly negative potential for abandoning the democratic way of thinking. This work offers an empirical confirmation for Sloterdijk’s model, and confirms usefulness of it in understanding political thought and behavior of Croatian citizens.

  13. Political Cynicism and Kynicism of Croatian Citizens. Profiles of Political Thinking and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanuša, Nebojša

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last thirty years uneasiness among scholars and political actors has been growing larger as more citizens demonstrate cynical attitudes. These citizens feel that politicians are immoral and incompetent, have less faith in democracy, and show lower levels of political participation. However, Peter Sloterdijk points out that the dominant view of cynicism is simplified. He divides cynical reason into two separate ways of thinking: cynicism and kynicism. The main difference between them is in individual’s reaction to the cleavage between public ideological mask and individual’s idea of social reality. Cynics persist in keeping the ideological mask on and have an “enlightened false consciousness”, while kynics highlight this cleavage, oppose the dominant ideology and point out misuses of political power. This research was conducted with the goal of creating cynicism and kynicism scales. Their validity was tested for two samples – a smaller sample of students and later on the representative sample of Croatian citizens (N=1002. Also, connection of cynical and kynical thought with an array of relevant political attitudes and political behavior was tested. Results indicate that cynicism and kynicism are relatively separated and coherent types of political thought. Kynicism is primarily related to low trust in political institutions, but also to lower support of democracy. Specific combinations of these two types of thought have a highly negative potential for abandoning the democratic way of thinking. This work offers an empirical confirmation for Sloterdijk’s model, and confirms usefulness of it in understanding political thought and behavior of Croatian citizens.

  14. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  15. Was that cheating? Perceptions vary by sex, attachment anxiety, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fisher, Maryanna L; Edelstein, Robin S; Chopik, William J; Fitzgerald, Carey J; Stout, Sarah L

    2013-02-13

    We generated an inventory of 27 interpersonal behaviors and examined the extent to which participants judged each behavior as cheating on a long-term partner. We predicted variation in these judgments based on participant sex and attachment insecurity. Ratings for items ranged considerably; participants rated sexual behaviors as most indicative of cheating, then erotic behaviors, followed by behaviors consistent with a romantic relationship, and then behaviors related to financial support. Women rated ten items higher than did men, and men's ratings were higher on a minor financial support item. Higher attachment anxiety was associated with higher ratings for 18 of 27 behaviors; higher attachment avoidance was associated with lower scores on five items and higher scores on one item. Principle Axis Factoring identified three dimensions; sexual interaction, behaviors indicating close relationships, and casual social interaction. We discuss these results using the framework of attachment theory and sex-specific mating strategies.

  16. The effect of abstract versus concrete framing on judgments of biological and psychological bases of behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nancy S; Johnson, Samuel G B; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung; Knobe, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is frequently described both in abstract, general terms and in concrete, specific terms. We asked whether these two ways of framing equivalent behaviors shift the inferences people make about the biological and psychological bases of those behaviors. In five experiments, we manipulated whether behaviors are presented concretely (i.e. with reference to a specific person, instantiated in the particular context of that person's life) or abstractly (i.e. with reference to a category of people or behaviors across generalized contexts). People judged concretely framed behaviors to be less biologically based and, on some dimensions, more psychologically based than the same behaviors framed in the abstract. These findings held true for both mental disorders (Experiments 1 and 2) and everyday behaviors (Experiments 4 and 5), and yielded downstream consequences for the perceived efficacy of disorder treatments (Experiment 3). Implications for science educators, students of science, and members of the lay public are discussed.

  17. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Arthur W.

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism. PMID:22478175

  18. Psychological behaviorism and behaviorizing psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, A W

    1994-01-01

    Paradigmatic or psychological behaviorism (PB), in a four-decade history of development, has been shaped by its goal, the establishment of a behaviorism that can also serve as the approach in psychology (Watson's original goal). In the process, PB has become a new generation of behaviorism with abundant heuristic avenues for development in theory, philosophy, methodology, and research. Psychology has resources, purview and problem areas, and nascent developments of many kinds, gathered in chaotic diversity, needing unification (and other things) that cognitivism cannot provide. Behaviorism can, within PB's multilevel framework for connecting and advancing both psychology and behaviorism.

  19. 论法官的依法裁判——兼论法教义学方法对法官裁判的意义%On Judge's Adjudication under Law: Also on the Significance of Judge's Adjudication for Dogmatics of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春业; 张忱子

    2012-01-01

    在司法实践中,法官裁判工作屡屡遭遇社会舆论、民意导向和政策要求的严重干扰,影响了司法公正。法教义学强调法律文本的权威,强调对现有法律的执行,是法官裁判过程中摆脱困境的一条根本出路。法教义学方法并不否定法官自由裁量权,而是对其进行合理的控制与规范。为达到以法教义学方法进行依法裁判的目的,必须在法官思维的养成、促使法官严格依法解释上下功夫,同时为法官创造良好的适用法教义学方法裁判的外部环境。%In judicial practice, the judge's adjudication was seriously interfered by public opinion, public opinion orientation and policy requirements repeatedly and the judicial fairness was affected. The dogmatics of law emphases on the authority of the legal text and the emphasizing on the enforcement of existing laws was a fundamental way out of the predicament in the process of adjudication. The dogmat- ics of law does not negate the discretion of the judge while it was controlled and regulated reasonably. In order to achieve the purpose of carrying out the adjudication under law with the dogmatics of law, it must try to cultivate the judge's thinking, promote the judges to explain with law strictly and create an external environment for the judges to adjudicate with the dogmatics of law.

  20. Teleological behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, H

    1992-11-01

    A psychological science of efficient causes, using internal mechanisms to explain overt behavior, is distinguished from another psychological science, based on Aristotelian final causes, using external objects and goals to explain overt behavior. Efficient-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of how a particular act is emitted; final-cause psychology is designed to answer the question of why a particular act is emitted. Physiological psychology, modern cognitive psychology, and some parts of behaviorism including Skinnerian behaviorism are efficient-cause psychologies; final-cause psychology, a development of Skinnerian behaviorism, is here called teleological behaviorism. Each of these two conceptions of causality in psychology implies a different view of the mind, hence a different meaning of mental terms.