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Sample records for juba south sudan

  1. Risk Factors for Sustained Cholera Transmission, Juba County, South Sudan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujjiga, Thomas T A; Wamala, Joseph F; Mogga, Juma J H; Othwonh, Thabo O; Mutonga, David; Kone-Coulibaly, Asta; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Mpairwe, Allan M; Abdinasir, Abubaker; Abdi, Mohamed A; Yoti, Zabulon; Olushayo, Olu; Nyimol, Pinyi; Lul, Riek; Lako, Richard L; Rumunu, John

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for the 2014 cholera outbreak in Juba County, South Sudan. Illness was associated with traveling or eating away from home; treating drinking water and receiving oral cholera vaccination were protective. Oral cholera vaccination should be used to complement cholera prevention efforts.

  2. Causes and consequences of rural-urban migration: The case of Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babi Moses, Lomoro Alfred; Guogping, Xiong; Celestino Ladu John, Leju

    2017-08-01

    Migration is the movement of people from one ecological region to another; it may be on temporary or permanent basis. This research studies focused on the causes and consequences of rural-urban migration in Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan as a case study. The stratified random sampling method on the basis of existing payam (districts) was used to divide the study area into three zones of Juba, Kator and Munuku. Data were generated through primary and secondary sources. The data generated were analyzed using SPSS. The findings of the study show that Munuki payam covers most of the migrants. The study also reveals that males migrate more than the females in Juba and migration is high within the age cohorts of 30-39 years and 40-49 years old. Furthermore, the study revealed that the propensity to migrate is directly related to educational attainment. It can be inferred from the findings of the study that the majority of migrants in Juba Metropolitan migrated in search of employment while others migrated to continue their education while others migrated in search for basic amenities, to join relatives and get married. This means, until the imbalance or disparity in socio-economic development between the rural and urban areas are removed, no amount of persuasion or force can put a stop to rural-urban migration and its’ multiplying effects in Juba Metropolitan, Republic of South Sudan.

  3. Willingness to pay for National Health Insurance Fund among public servants in Juba City, South Sudan: a contingent evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaza, Robert; Alier, Paul Kon; Kirabira, Peter; Ogubi, David; Lako, Richard Lino Loro

    2017-08-30

    This study assessed willingness to pay for National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) among public servants in Juba City. NHIF is the proposed health insurance scheme for South Sudan and aims at achieving universal health coverage for the entire nation's population. One compounding issue is that over the years, governments' spending on healthcare has been decreasing from 8.4% of national budget in 2007 to only 2.2% in 2012. A cross-sectional study design using contingent evaluation was employed; data on willingness to pay was collected from 381 randomly selected respondents and 13 purposively selected key informants working for the national, state and Juba County in September 2015. Qualitative data were analysed using conceptual content analysis. T-tests and linear regressions were performed to determine association between WTP for NHIF and independent variables. Up to 381 public servants were interviewed, of which 68% indicated willingness to pay varying percentages of total monthly individual income for NHIF. Over two-thirds (67.8%) of those willing to pay could pay up to 5% of their total monthly income, 22.9% could pay up to 10% and the rest could pay 25%. Over 80% were willing to pay up to 50 SSP (1 USD = 10 SSP) premiums for medical consultation, laboratory services and drugs. The main factors influencing the respondents' decisions were awareness, alternative sources of income, household size, insurance cover and religion. Willingness to pay is mainly influenced by awareness, alternative sources of individual income, household size, insurance cover and religion. Most of the public servants were aware of and willing to pay for NHIF and prefer a premium of up to 5% of total monthly income. There is need to create awareness and reach out to those who do not know about the scheme in addition to a detailed analysis of other stakeholders. Consideration could be made by the Government of South Sudan to start the scheme at the earliest opportunity since the majority of

  4. Applying spatial regression to evaluate risk factors for microbiological contamination of urban groundwater sources in Juba, South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Emma; Mörtberg, Ulla; Karlström, Anders; Mangold, Mikael

    2016-12-01

    This study developed methodology for statistically assessing groundwater contamination mechanisms. It focused on microbial water pollution in low-income regions. Risk factors for faecal contamination of groundwater-fed drinking-water sources were evaluated in a case study in Juba, South Sudan. The study was based on counts of thermotolerant coliforms in water samples from 129 sources, collected by the humanitarian aid organisation Médecins Sans Frontières in 2010. The factors included hydrogeological settings, land use and socio-economic characteristics. The results showed that the residuals of a conventional probit regression model had a significant positive spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I = 3.05, I-stat = 9.28); therefore, a spatial model was developed that had better goodness-of-fit to the observations. The most significant factor in this model (p-value 0.005) was the distance from a water source to the nearest Tukul area, an area with informal settlements that lack sanitation services. It is thus recommended that future remediation and monitoring efforts in the city be concentrated in such low-income regions. The spatial model differed from the conventional approach: in contrast with the latter case, lowland topography was not significant at the 5% level, as the p-value was 0.074 in the spatial model and 0.040 in the traditional model. This study showed that statistical risk-factor assessments of groundwater contamination need to consider spatial interactions when the water sources are located close to each other. Future studies might further investigate the cut-off distance that reflects spatial autocorrelation. Particularly, these results advise research on urban groundwater quality.

  5. Applying spatial regression to evaluate risk factors for microbiological contamination of urban groundwater sources in Juba, South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Emma; Mörtberg, Ulla; Karlström, Anders; Mangold, Mikael

    2017-06-01

    This study developed methodology for statistically assessing groundwater contamination mechanisms. It focused on microbial water pollution in low-income regions. Risk factors for faecal contamination of groundwater-fed drinking-water sources were evaluated in a case study in Juba, South Sudan. The study was based on counts of thermotolerant coliforms in water samples from 129 sources, collected by the humanitarian aid organisation Médecins Sans Frontières in 2010. The factors included hydrogeological settings, land use and socio-economic characteristics. The results showed that the residuals of a conventional probit regression model had a significant positive spatial autocorrelation (Moran's I = 3.05, I-stat = 9.28); therefore, a spatial model was developed that had better goodness-of-fit to the observations. The most significant factor in this model ( p-value 0.005) was the distance from a water source to the nearest Tukul area, an area with informal settlements that lack sanitation services. It is thus recommended that future remediation and monitoring efforts in the city be concentrated in such low-income regions. The spatial model differed from the conventional approach: in contrast with the latter case, lowland topography was not significant at the 5% level, as the p-value was 0.074 in the spatial model and 0.040 in the traditional model. This study showed that statistical risk-factor assessments of groundwater contamination need to consider spatial interactions when the water sources are located close to each other. Future studies might further investigate the cut-off distance that reflects spatial autocorrelation. Particularly, these results advise research on urban groundwater quality.

  6. South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abiy Chelkeba

    South Sudan; State Succession; 1929 and 1959 Nile Water Agreements; ..... bilateral nature.47 The 1959 Agreement represents the backbone of the hydro ...... minimize any negative trade-offs while maximizing the positive benefits.154.

  7. “Experimental study on water pollution tendencies around Lobuliet, Khor bou and Luri streams in Juba, South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leju Celestino Ladu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and population demand for resources in Juba has led to pollution of aquatic ecosystems and deteriorated water quality. The streams water samples in Juba, central equatoria state, were collected in sterile 500ml plastic containers and instantaneously experimented. The pH, total solids, total dissolved solids, alkalinity and nitrate were used for evaluation. The results were then compared with standard permissible limits. The pH for Khor bou and Luri streams ranges from 6.1 to 6.7. Lobuliet stream showed abnormal pH value ranging from 9.7 to 9.9. Alkalinity ranges from 106.67 to 1060.33 mg/l. Total dissolved solids (TDS ranges from 0.002mg/ml to 20.00mg/l. Statistical analysis using ANOVA indicated that TDS was insignificantly different (p>0.05 among the sites sampled. The nitrite level was low ranging from 0.04mg/l to 0.09mg/l. The cadmium and lead concentration ranges from 0.86mg/l to 1.92mg/l and 0.29mg/l to 0.95mg/l respectively. Analysis of variance showed the concentration of cadmium and lead were significantly different (P<0.05 among the sites sampled. Lobuliet stream had the highest concentration of heavy metals. The study concluded that pollution tendencies were attributed to the discharge of municipal and industrial effluent to the streams and if not properly tackled, may pose adverse impacts to the biogeochemical cycle.

  8. Assessment of the Municipal Solid Waste Pollution Problem in the Newest Country: Case Study of Juba, South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kajokare Loboka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many cities and towns of the developing countries face serious municipal solid waste pollution resulting from the indiscriminate waste disposal. The situation is even more critical and pervasive in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs. This study highlights the current pollution situation in Juba, with specific focus on waste management system. Brief investigation of some causative factors is also discussed. The study was purely quantitatively descriptive, including various data collection techniques (interviews, field observation and systematic literature reviews. The study revealed that average household municipal solid waste generated was 2.88 kg/day and the/capita/day was 0.38 kg. Thus, the entire city, with a population of about 231,776, generates approximately 667.5 tons/day. Plastic dominates the composition making up 72.75%, wood 19.98%, worn out textile 2.36%, metal 1.84% and organic (mostly food waste 3.13%. Illegal dumping was also observed as well as open air burning. The wastes were disposed of in river bank/streambeds, especially at night and burnt on the road sides, open spaces and near the houses. All these malpractices pose a serious health and environmental hazard to the water bodies. The same water being used for household purposes by the majority of the city’s residents. The study also noticed that 69% of the wastes were disposed of randomly by the householders themselves, 22% by Juba city respective waste management units and 9% by private companies. The conclusion of this assessment showed that the municipal solid waste pollution poses high risk to human health and the environment.

  9. Hypertension in Juba, South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of hypertension in these countries is of fundamental importance ... screening, prevention and control measures. Method. This is a retrospective cohort study of routine one- off blood ... 2012 were reviewed and data including age, sex, infection.

  10. Seroprevalence of East Coast fever in Central Equatoria State, South Sudan

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    Wani L. Marcellino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 in different cattle camps in Juba, Mangalla and Terekeka localities of Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. Serum samples were collected from 514 cattle of different age groups. Samples were analysed using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with commercially available polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM ELISA kits. The overall serological prevalence of Theileria parva was 70.8% (364/514. The highest rate of prevalence was observed in Mangalla (91.2% and the lowest in Juba (61.8%, with Terekeka recording 71.8%. Regarding the age groups, older cattle (over four years of age showed a significantly higher rate of prevalence (p>0.001 than calves (below one year of age. The implications of these results in the overall epidemiology of East Coast fever in South Sudan are discussed and possible recommendations for future implementation of disease control measures are outlined.

  11. Post-conflict mental health needs: a cross-sectional survey of trauma, depression and associated factors in Juba, Southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bayard; Damundu, Eliaba Yona; Lomoro, Olivia; Sondorp, Egbert

    2009-03-04

    The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005 marked the end of the civil conflict in Sudan lasting over 20 years. The conflict was characterised by widespread violence and large-scale forced migration. Mental health is recognised as a key public health issue for conflict-affected populations. Studies revealed high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst populations from Southern Sudan during the conflict. However, no studies have been conducted on mental health in post-war Southern Sudan. The objective of this study was to measure PTSD and depression in the population in the town of Juba in Southern Sudan; and to investigate the association ofdemographic, displacement, and past and recent trauma exposure variables, on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. A cross-sectional, random cluster survey with a sample of 1242 adults (aged over 18 years) was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version), and levels of depression measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association ofdemographic, displacement and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression was also conducted to investigate which demographic and displacement variables were associated with exposure to traumatic events. Over one third (36%) of respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD and half (50%) of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed strong associations of gender, marital status, forced displacement, and trauma exposure with outcomes of PTSD and depression. Men, IDPs, and refugees and persons displaced more than once were all significantly more likely to have experienced eight or more traumatic events. This study provides evidence of high

  12. Nairobi fly (Paederus) dermatitis in South Sudan: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserson, Kenneth V; Walton, Emily K

    2012-09-01

    A 28-year-old nursing student working in Juba, South Sudan, suddenly developed a rash over her mid-right clavicle. Beginning as a 10-cm-diameter erythematous patch with an irregular border, within 24 hours it had developed an increasingly gray, necrotic center, appearing similar to a burn. The patient was seen by 2 local physicians without a diagnosis being made. Ultimately, it was diagnosed as being caused by the toxic hemolymph, pederin, from the Nairobi fly (Paederus). The rash usually affects body parts not covered by clothing; healing time ranges from 7 to 28 days, usually with permanent skin discoloration. Preventive measures include typical antivector precautions, including bed nets, long-sleeve clothing, and avoiding fluorescent lights. If the beetles are found on the skin, brushing them off, rather than crushing them, avoids producing dermatitis. Treatment includes rapidly washing the affected area, applying cold, wet compresses, and possibly treating with antibiotics, steroids, and antihistamines.

  13. Return of the Lost Boys to South Sudan: A Strategy to Building a Stronger South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    indicate their widespread interest in returning to South Sudan to help with the reconstruction efforts. In 2004, Leslie Coffe asserted, “All hoped...of Lost Boys, also supports their return to South Sudan. In 2007, Representative Frank Wolf of Virginia introduced a bill in the House of...Have you made any investment in Southern Sudan? Yes _______ No. _______ Q 5.4 If yes, please specify the type of investment. 1. House 2. Land 3

  14. Post-conflict mental health needs: a cross-sectional survey of trauma, depression and associated factors in Juba, Southern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sondorp Egbert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005 marked the end of the civil conflict in Sudan lasting over 20 years. The conflict was characterised by widespread violence and large-scale forced migration. Mental health is recognised as a key public health issue for conflict-affected populations. Studies revealed high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD amongst populations from Southern Sudan during the conflict. However, no studies have been conducted on mental health in post-war Southern Sudan. The objective of this study was to measure PTSD and depression in the population in the town of Juba in Southern Sudan; and to investigate the association ofdemographic, displacement, and past and recent trauma exposure variables, on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Methods A cross-sectional, random cluster survey with a sample of 1242 adults (aged over 18 years was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Levels of exposure to traumatic events and PTSD were measured using the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (original version, and levels of depression measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse the association ofdemographic, displacement and trauma exposure variables on the outcomes of PTSD and depression. Multivariate logistic regression was also conducted to investigate which demographic and displacement variables were associated with exposure to traumatic events. Results Over one third (36% of respondents met symptom criteria for PTSD and half (50% of respondents met symptom criteria for depression. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed strong associations of gender, marital status, forced displacement, and trauma exposure with outcomes of PTSD and depression. Men, IDPs, and refugees and persons displaced more than once were all significantly more likely to have experienced eight or more

  15. Maternal and Child Health in South Sudan

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    Ngatho Mugo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of South Sudan continues to face considerable challenges in meeting maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH care needs and improving health outcomes. Ongoing instability and population displacement undermine scope for development, and damaged infrastructure, low coverage of health services, and limited government capacity and a human resource base have resulted in a fragmented health system. Despite considerable attention, effort and support, the issues and challenges facing South Sudan remain deep and sustained, and urban–rural disparities are considerable. There is a need to maintain investments in MNCH care and to support developing systems, institutions, and programs. This review of the literature offers a commentary and appraisal of the current MNCH situation in South Sudan. It explores the barriers and challenges of promoting MNCH gains, and identifies priorities that will contribute to addressing the Millennium Development Goals and the emerging health priorities for the post-2015 development agenda.

  16. Onchocerciasis control in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the body of the blackfly and are transmitted to humans when the fly bites ... African Program for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) in collaboration with the Southern Sudan Onchocerciasis. Task Force carried out Rapid Epidemiological Mapping .... body length. (cm). IVm Dose. Route. 15-25. 90-119. 1 tablet (3mg). Oral once.

  17. Malaria in South Sudan 3: laboratory diagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microscopy including thick and thin blood films (best. • method for ... You can prepare thick and thin blood films on separate slides or ... See a full explanation in “Malaria in South. Sudan: 1. ... the parasitic DNA (mostly for detecting the resistant.

  18. Linking Satellite Derived Land Surface Temperature with Cholera: A Case Study for South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldaach, H. S. V.; Jutla, A.; Akanda, A. S.; Colwell, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    A sudden onset of cholera in South Sudan, in April 2014 in Northern Bari in Juba town resulted in more than 400 cholera cases after four weeks of initial outbreak with a case of fatality rate of CFR 5.4%. The total number of reported cholera cases for the period of April to July, 2014 were 5,141 including 114 deaths. With the limited efficacy of cholera vaccines, it is necessary to develop mechanisms to predict cholera occurrence and thereafter devise intervention strategies for mitigating impacts of the disease. Hydroclimatic processes, primarily precipitation and air temperature are related to epidemic and episodic outbreak of cholera. However, due to coarse resolution of both datasets, it is not possible to precisely locate the geographical location of disease. Here, using Land Surface Temperature (LST) from MODIS sensors, we have developed an algorithm to identify regions susceptible for cholera. Conditions for occurrence of cholera were detectable at least one month in advance in South Sudan and were statistically sensitive to hydroclimatic anomalies of land surface and air temperature, and precipitation. Our results indicate significant spatial and temporal averaging required to infer usable information from LST over South Sudan. Preliminary results that geographically location of cholera outbreak was identifiable within 1km resolution of the LST data.

  19. CONTEMPORARY BRITISH RESEARCHES ON SOUTH SUDAN

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    Evgeniy V. MIGUNOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author attempts to study and analyze contemporary theories of the British scientists, related to South Sudan. The explored conceptions embrace different aspects of the process of its formation as independent state and include works on the following issues: development of legal basis for secession from parent state; formation and effective work of governmental institutions; settlement of internal social and political conflicts, especially interethnic collisions; assurance of internal political stability and security, including fight against corruption; elaboration of economic development strategy; support of local social and political structures, including NGOs; settlement of disputes and establishment of constructive relations with parent state before and after secession; exercising of pressure on the authorities of parent state and territory, claiming for independence, with a view of its secession from the parent state; interaction with third countries and international institutions; assurance of extensive international participation. The conducted analysis allows getting a basic idea about the actual progress of scientific debates on South Sudan in Britain, associate them with the British foreign policy in regard to this particular country and formulate strategy of the Western European states on assistance of new states formation.

  20. Cystic echinococcosis in Sudan and South Sudan: research history of a neglected zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, Rihab A; Daugschies, Arwid; Romig, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease affecting mainly various species of livestock and humans. This study aims at highlighting the course of research on cystic echinococcosis in different animals and humans in Sudan (including the recently independent state of South Sudan) since the disease was first reported in 1908. Recent data about the genetic identification of the parasite in the countries in both humans and animals and its importance for future control programs is discussed.

  1. Famine and its effects on health in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... MAIN ARTICLE. Famine and its effects on health in South Sudan. A Commentary ... World Food Programme (WFP), UNICEF and the Food and Agriculture .... increased risk of psychological disorders [11]. There are likely to be ...

  2. Is myocardial infarction common in the South Sudan?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment with thrombolysis is not available at JMC. Standard treatment for acute ... tobacco, obesity, hypertension and diabetes are all likely to lead to a rising ... Ideally the candidate will be a senior South Sudan clinician, but applicants from ...

  3. Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    The Sudan's population characteristics, geographical features, history, political conditions, and foreign relations are profiled. The 1984 population of Sudan has been estimated at 21.1 million, with an estimated annual growth rate of 3.0%. Approximately 25% of the Sudanese population resides in urban areas. Major religions are Islam, indigenous beliefs (in southern Sudan), and Christianity. The official language is Arabic, although English and tribal languages are also spoken. Education is compulsory for 9 years, but the attendance rate is only 48%. The infant mortality rate is 118.0/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 47 years. 78.4% of the work force is engaged in agriculture, 9.8% in industry and commerce, and 6% in government. The estimated gross national product for 1981-83 was $27.36 billion, with an estimated annual growth rate of 2.7% in 1982-83. Per capit income was approximately $361 in 1982, with an average annual inflation rate of 20-30%. Sudan's population is composed of 2 distinct cultures, Arab and black African, and effective collaboration between them poses one of the nation's principal internal problems. The 5 northern regions cover almost 2/3 of Sudan and include most urban centers. Most of the 13 million Sudanese who live in this area are Arabic-speaking Muslims of several distinct tribal groups. The southern region has a population of about 5.5 million and a predominantly rural, subsistence economy. The south also contains many tribal groups and uses many more languages than the north. Sudan's primary resources are agricultural. Although the country is trying to diversify its cash crops, cotton and cottonseed account for more than 50% of export earnings. Another large export crop is gum arabic. Grain sorghum is the principal food crop, and wheat is grown for domestic consumption. Livestock production has vast potential and many animals, particularly camels and sheep, are exported to other Arab countries. The inadequate transportation

  4. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera.

  5. Mapping the potential risk of mycetoma infection in Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samy, Abdallah M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A Townsend

    2014-10-01

    In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM). For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease.

  6. Mapping the potential risk of mycetoma infection in Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling.

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    Abdallah M Samy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available on the epidemiology and transmission cycle of the causative agents. Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions. Here, we map risk of mycetoma infection across Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling (ENM. For this study, records of mycetoma cases were obtained from the scientific literature and GIDEON; Acacia records were obtained from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. We developed ENMs based on digital GIS data layers summarizing soil characteristics, land-surface temperature, and greenness indices to provide a rich picture of environmental variation across Sudan and South Sudan. ENMs were calibrated in known endemic districts and transferred countrywide; model results suggested that risk is greatest in an east-west belt across central Sudan. Visualizing ENMs in environmental dimensions, mycetoma occurs under diverse environmental conditions. We compared niches of mycetoma and Acacia trees, and could not reject the null hypothesis of niche similarity. This study revealed contributions of different environmental factors to mycetoma infection risk, identified suitable environments and regions for transmission, signaled a potential mycetoma-Acacia association, and provided steps towards a robust risk map for the disease.

  7. Security Promotion Seen from Below: Experiences from South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, R.C.; Rouw, H.

    2011-01-01

    The report is based on 8 weeks of field research in South Sudan between March and April 2011, and looks at the linkages between security interventions such as DDR, SALW control and SSR in relation to community security. It opens with an analysis of what security constitutes and assesses what various

  8. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  9. Sudan PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The development of this system was awarded to MSI in May 2013 to design and help USAID/South Sudan manage a web-based PIMS that is customized to USAID/South Sudan's...

  10. Wages in the food chain in South Sudan: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in South Sudan, conducted between the 1st of June and the 19th of July 2013 in the southern and eastern regions of South Sudan. In total 1,329 persons were interviewed; 71% were men, 29% women and 37% were u

  11. Wages in the food chain in South Sudan: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in South Sudan, conducted between the 1st of June and the 19th of July 2013 in the southern and eastern regions of South Sudan. In total 1,329 persons were interviewed; 71% were men, 29% women and 37% were u

  12. Gender relations and women's reproductive health in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kane

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Sudan, women disproportionately bear the burden of morbidity and mortality related to sexual and reproductive health, with a maternal mortality ratio of 789 deaths per 100,000 live births. Design: A qualitative study was conducted to analyze how gendered social relations among the Fertit people affect women's ability to exercise control over their reproductive lives and thereby their sexual and reproductive health. Transcripts of 5 focus group discussions and 44 semi-structured interviews conducted with purposefully selected community members and health personnel were analyzed using Connell's relational theory of gender. Results: Women across all age groups report that they have little choice but to meet the childbearing demands of husbands and their families. Women, both young and old, and also elders, are frustrated about how men and society are letting them down and how they are left to bear the reproductive burden. The poverty and chronic insecurity in South Sudan mean that many men have few sources of pride and achievement; conformity and complicity with the hegemonic practices accord both security and a sense of belonging and privilege to men, often at the expense of women's reproductive health. Conclusions: Inequalities in the domestic, social, and economic spheres intersect to create social situations wherein Fertit women's agency in the reproductive realm is constrained. In South Sudan, as long as economic and social opportunities for women remain restricted, and as long as insecurity and uncertainty remain, many women will have little choice but to resort to having many children to safeguard their fragile present and future. Unless structural measures are taken to address these inequalities, there is a risk of both a widening of existing health inequalities and the emergence of new inequalities.

  13. Adapting to the global shortage of cholera vaccines: targeted single dose cholera vaccine in response to an outbreak in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lucy A; Rumunu, John; Jamet, Christine; Kenyi, Yona; Lino, Richard Laku; Wamala, Joseph F; Mpairwe, Allan M; Ciglenecki, Iza; Luquero, Francisco J; Azman, Andrew S; Cabrol, Jean-Clement

    2017-01-18

    Shortages of vaccines for epidemic diseases, such as cholera, meningitis, and yellow fever, have become common over the past decade, hampering efforts to control outbreaks through mass reactive vaccination campaigns. Additionally, various epidemiological, political, and logistical challenges, which are poorly documented in the literature, often lead to delays in reactive campaigns, ultimately reducing the effect of vaccination. In June 2015, a cholera outbreak occurred in Juba, South Sudan, and because of the global shortage of oral cholera vaccine, authorities were unable to secure sufficient doses to vaccinate the entire at-risk population-approximately 1 million people. In this Personal View, we document the first public health use of a reduced, single-dose regimen of oral cholera vaccine, and show the details of the decision-making process and timeline. We also make recommendations to help improve reactive vaccination campaigns against cholera, and discuss the importance of new and flexible context-specific dose regimens and vaccination strategies.

  14. On the state of business: trade, entrepreneurship and real economic governance in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twijnstra, R.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides an insight into the everyday realities of economic life and regulation in the Republic of South Sudan for the period between 2010 and 2013, encompassing its independence from the Sudan in July 2011 and the period of economic austerity following the January 2012 oil shutdown . By

  15. HIV and TB co-infection in South Sudan: a three year retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal ... Private Diagnostic Laboratory ... This was a retrospective study using data abstracted from the registration book in the HIV clinic. ..... be an easy task to build this hitherto neglected pillar of our healthcare system.

  16. Response to the cholera outbreak in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As we go to press, the cholera has spread to other parts of the country and the cases are ... Cholera is a disease of poor sanitation and hygiene, with a short incubation ... Cholera Treatment Centers (CTC) have been set up in Juba Teaching ...

  17. Human African trypanosomiasis in South Sudan: how can we prevent a new epidemic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Ruiz-Postigo

    Full Text Available Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT has been a major public health problem in South Sudan for the last century. Recurrent outbreaks with a repetitive pattern of responding-scaling down activities have been observed. Control measures for outbreak response were reduced when the prevalence decreased and/or socio-political crisis erupted, leading to a new increase in the number of cases. This paper aims to raise international awareness of the threat of another outbreak of sleeping sickness in South Sudan. It is a review of the available data, interventions over time, and current reports on the status of HAT in South Sudan. Since 2006, control interventions and treatments providing services for sleeping sickness have been reduced. Access to HAT diagnosis and treatment has been considerably diminished. The current status of control activities for HAT in South Sudan could lead to a new outbreak of the disease unless 1 the remaining competent personnel are used to train younger staff to resume surveillance and treatment in the centers where HAT activities have stopped, and 2 control of HAT continues to be given priority even when the number of cases has been substantially reduced. Failure to implement an effective and sustainable system for HAT control and surveillance will increase the risk of a new epidemic. That would cause considerable suffering for the affected population and would be an impediment to the socioeconomic development of South Sudan.

  18. Facing frontiers : everyday practice of state-building in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates daily performance of power in a post-conflict society and argues that the overall process of state-building in South Sudan cannot be properly understood in separation from the ways in which state power is locally exercised. It specifically analyzes South Sudan’s political

  19. Observations on White Grubs Affecting Sugar Cane at the Juba Sugar Project, South-Western Somalia, in the 1980s, and Implications for Their Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Matthew J W; Allard, Gillian B

    2013-01-01

    The authors made two visits to the Juba Sugar Project in south-west Somalia, at the beginning of the minor rains in October 1986, and at the beginning of the main rains in March 1987. Observations were made on morphospecies of scarabaeid white grub larvae, the adults, and the two associated for the key economic species, Cochliotis melolonthoides and Brachylepis werneri. Sampling larvae and adults by digging soil quadrats and adults by light trapping gave useful information on their biology and phenology. Sampling methods were evaluated and economic thresholds were extrapolated based on earlier work. Natural enemies were surveyed, and entomopathogenic nematodes and a cordyceps fungus (Ophiocordyceps barnesii) were considered to have potential to be used as biological control interventions.

  20. Interethnic conflict in Jonglei State, South Sudan: Emerging ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    grazing. The migrations due to the influence of climate change were a trigger ... body that provides scientific assessment of risks of climate change, identified ..... dilemma was clearly an essential source of resistance to disarmament. Thus, the .... from the SPLA and the Sudan Armed Force (SAF) who sell their arms to local.

  1. Malaria in South Sudan 4: treatment of uncomplicated P. Falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Sudan Medical Journal Vol 4. No 2. May 2011 ... spread of resistance to anti-malarial medicines. Anti-malarial drugs ... Separate medicines packaged together (co-. • packaged or co-blistered). .... temperatures ≥ 38.5ºC. Paracetamol ...

  2. Population-Level Effect of Cholera Vaccine on Displaced Populations, South Sudan, 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Azman, AS; Rumunu, J; Abubakar, A.; West, H.; Ciglenecki, I; Helderman, T; Wamala, JF; Vázquez, OR; W Perea; Sack, DA; Legros, D; Martin, S; Lessler, J; Luquero, FJ

    2016-01-01

    Following mass population displacements in South Sudan, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera vaccine to stop cholera transmission in vulnerable populations.

  3. Post-conflict mental health in South Sudan: Overview of common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Sudan Medical Journal. Vol 5. No 2. May 2012 ... Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, and Harvard Medical. School, 25 ... questions to assess risk, and treatment suggestions for anxiety ... Due to the life-threatening nature of alcohol withdrawal, we .... Trying to understand what motivates someone to drink or do ...

  4. 76 FR 63629 - Designation of Republic of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... on the right for further information. You can also contact the TPS Operations Program Manager by mail... Commissioner for Refugees. UNMISS--United Nations Mission in the Republic of South Sudan. USAID--U.S. Agency... and harassment of the opposition, including widespread human rights abuses. The January 2011...

  5. Population-Level Effect of Cholera Vaccine on Displaced Populations, South Sudan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Andrew S; Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; West, Haley; Ciglenecki, Iza; Helderman, Trina; Wamala, Joseph Francis; Vázquez, Olimpia de la Rosa; Perea, William; Sack, David A; Legros, Dominique; Martin, Stephen; Lessler, Justin; Luquero, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    Following mass population displacements in South Sudan, preventive cholera vaccination campaigns were conducted in displaced persons camps before a 2014 cholera outbreak. We compare cholera transmission in vaccinated and unvaccinated areas and show vaccination likely halted transmission within vaccinated areas, illustrating the potential for oral cholera vaccine to stop cholera transmission in vulnerable populations.

  6. South Sudan: Stakeholders' Views of Technical and Vocational Education and Training and a Framework for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atari, Dominic Odwa; McKague, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of South Sudan, recently emerging from the longest civil war in contemporary African history, has set goals towards post-conflict reconstruction in many areas of social services. However, the educational infrastructure continues to struggle, and many stakeholders in government and international and local organisations are not…

  7. Blind Spots: Domestic Entrepreneurship and Private-sector Development in South-Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Twijnstra (Rens); D.J.M. Hilhorst (Thea)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPolicy discourse on private sector development in fragile states has started attributing great importance to domestic entrepreneurship. This chapter follows Dutch initiatives to support entrepreneurs in South Sudan between 2009 and 2015. Despite the rhetoric, support for entrepreneurs di

  8. 78 FR 8360 - Addition of South Sudan to the Restricted Destinations List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... materials, Nuclear power plants and reactors, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements, Scientific equipment... (42 U.S.C. 5841); Solar, Wind, Waste, and Geothermal Power Act of 1990 sec. 5 (42 U.S.C. 2243... power program; however, South Sudan does have the need for radioactive sources for legitimate industrial...

  9. Confederation: A better tool for good neighborliness and prosperous relationships between Sudan and South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Akec

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende renovar el debate sobre la confederación como una herramienta prometedora para una mejor gestión de las relaciones entre los dos Sudanes después de la independencia de Sudán del Sur en julio de 2011 ante la creciente preocupación sobre el modelo único unidad-separación, insuficiente a la hora de abordar las complejas relaciones en la era post-independencia. Basado en un trabajo original del autor presentado en noviembre de 2010 en el St Antony's College, Oxford, el artículo analiza la literatura actual sobre el tema de la confederación en Sudán y en otros lugares, examina el Acuerdo General de Paz (AGP y sus implicaciones para el futuro de Sudán, y traza la evolución histórica de la confederación como concepto en el vocabulario político de Sudán -especialmente en lo que concierne a las relaciones Norte-Sur. El artículo examina además su utilidad como herramienta potencial para construir una relación más próspera y duradera entre los dos Sudanes, al mismo tiempo que subraya los desafíos en el caso de su adopción, y evalúa los factores de éxito existentes.

  10. Malaria control in South Sudan, 2006–2013: strategies, progress and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background South Sudan has borne the brunt of years of chronic warfare and probably has the highest malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. However, effective malaria control in post-conflict settings is hampered by a multiplicity of challenges. This manuscript reports on the strategies, progress and challenges of malaria control in South Sudan and serves as an example epitome for programmes operating in similar environments and provides a window for leveraging resources. Case description To evaluate progress and challenges of the national malaria control programme an in-depth appraisal was undertaken according to the World Health Organization standard procedures for malaria programme performance review. Methodical analysis of published and unpublished documents on malaria control in South Sudan was conducted. To ensure completeness, findings of internal thematic desk assessments were triangulated in the field and updated by external review teams. Discussion and evaluation South Sudan has strived to make progress in implementing the WHO recommended malaria control interventions as set out in the 2006–2013 National Malaria Strategic Plan. The country has faced enormous programmatic constraints including infrastructure, human and financial resource and a weak health system compounded by an increasing number of refugees, returnees and internally displaced people. The findings present a platform on which to tailor an evidence-based 2014–2018 national malaria strategic plan for the country and a unique opportunity for providing a model for countries in a post-conflict situation. Conclusions The prospects for effective malaria control and elimination are huge in South Sudan. Nevertheless, strengthened coordination, infrastructure and human resource capacity, monitoring and evaluation are required. To achieve all this, allocation of adequate local funding would be critical. PMID:24160336

  11. South Sudan Negotiated Independence: A Critique of African Union’s Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubkar o. Sulaiman

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of South Sudan on the 9th of July 2011 as the world's 195th independentState, 54th Member State of the African Union (AU and 209th Federation of InternationalFootball Association member (FIFA marks the final stage of a six year peace agreementending decades of protracted civil war. According to BBC between 1983 and the peaceagreement signed in January 2005, Sudan's civil war took nearly two million lives and leftmillions more displaced. It is reputed as Africa's longest-running civil war. The Sudanesecivil war took roots from its colonial experience, which led to forceful cohabitation ofArabic (North and African (South ethnic groups into a single state.

  12. Analysis of trauma care education in the South Sudan community health worker training curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunniyi, Adedamola; Clark, Melissa; Donaldson, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with the majority occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Allied health workers are often on the front lines of caring for trauma patients; this is the case in South Sudan, where a system of community health workers (CHWs) and clinical officers (COs) form an essential part of the health care structure. However, curricula for these workers vary, and it is unclear how much these training programs include trauma education. HYPOTHESIS/METHODS: The CHW training curriculum in South Sudan was reviewed to evaluate the degree to which it incorporates trauma education, according to established guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first formal comparison of a CHW curriculum with established WHO trauma guidelines. The curriculum incorporated a number of essential components of the WHO guidelines; however, the concepts taught were limited in scope. The curriculum only covered about 50% of the content required for basic providers, with major deficiencies being in the management of head and spinal injuries, safety protocols for health care personnel, and in the management of pediatric patients. The CHW training curriculum lacks the requisite content to provide adequately a basic level of trauma care and requires amending to ensure that all South Sudan citizens receive appropriate treatment. It is recommended that other LMICs review their existing training curricula in order to improve their ability to provide adequate trauma care and to ensure they meet the basic WHO guidelines.

  13. Perceptions of oral cholera vaccine and reasons for full, partial and non-acceptance during a humanitarian crisis in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peprah, Dorothy; Palmer, Jennifer J; Rubin, G James; Abubakar, Abdinasir; Costa, Alejandro; Martin, Stephen; Perea, William; Larson, Heidi J

    2016-07-19

    Oral cholera vaccination (OCV) campaigns were conducted from February to April 2014 among internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the midst of a humanitarian crisis in Juba, South Sudan. IDPs were predominantly members of the Nuer ethnic group who had taken refuge in United Nations bases following the eruption of violence in December 2013. The OCV campaigns, which were conducted by United Nations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) at the request of the Ministry of Health, reached an estimated 85-96% of the target population. As no previous studies on OCV acceptance have been conducted in the context of an on-going humanitarian crisis, semi-structured interviews were completed with 49 IDPs in the months after the campaigns to better understand perceptions of cholera and reasons for full, partial or non-acceptance of the OCV. Heightened fears of disease and political danger contributed to camp residents' perception of cholera as a serious illness and increased trust in United Nations and NGOs providing the vaccine to IDPs. Reasons for partial and non-acceptance of the vaccination included lack of time and fear of side effects, similar to reasons found in OCV campaigns in non-crisis settings. In addition, distrust in national institutions in a context of fears of ethnic persecution was an important reason for hesitancy and refusal. Other reasons included fear of taking the vaccine alongside other medication or with alcohol. The findings highlight the importance of considering the target populations' perceptions of institutions in the delivery of OCV interventions in humanitarian contexts. They also suggest a need for better communication about the vaccine, its side effects and interactions with other substances.

  14. 77 FR 3371 - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... January 10, 2012 Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan... of the United States in certain United Nations peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations, I hereby certify that members of the U.S. Armed Forces participating in the United Nations Mission in...

  15. Cultural Considerations for Security Cooperation Operations in South Sudan: Understanding the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    identified to accomplish the mission of AFRICOM in its fact sheet , three of those objectives can only be realized through security cooperation. Those...papayas, bananas , sweet potatoes, sunflowers, cotton, sesame, cassava, beans, peanuts, cattle, and sheep. Trade: Major trading partner--Sudan...2010, 11. 2 President, National Security Strategy 2010, 3. 3 United States Africa Command, Fact Sheet : United States Africa Command: U.S

  16. Notes from the field: malnutrition and elevated mortality among refugees from South Sudan - Ethiopia, June-July 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Ellen; Bilukha, Oleg O; Menkir, Zeray; Gayford, Megan; Kavosa, Millicent; Wtsadik, Mulugeta; Maina, Gidraf; Gose, Mesfin; Nyagucha, Irene; Shahpar, Cyrus

    2014-08-15

    As a result of armed civil conflict in South Sudan that started in mid-December of 2013, an estimated 1.1 million persons were internally displaced, and approximately 400,000 refugees fled South Sudan to neighboring countries (primarily to Ethiopia, Uganda, Sudan, and Kenya). Refugees from South Sudan arriving in Ethiopia are sheltered in three refugee camps located in Gambella region: Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi. The camps were established during January-May 2014 and have estimated refugee populations of 47,000, 51,000, and 50,000, respectively. Reports from health clinics and humanitarian agencies providing assistance to refugees suggested poor nutritional status of arriving refugees and elevated mortality rates. To assess the nutritional status of refugee children aged 6-59 months and mortality rates (crude [all ages] and aged Refugee and Returnee Affairs (an Ethiopian government aid agency), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, World Food Programme, and United Nations Children's Fund, in collaboration with CDC, conducted cross-sectional population-representative surveys in Leitchuor, Kule, and Tierkidi camps during June-July 2014. Anthropometric measurements in children were taken using standard procedures, and nutritional status was classified based on 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) growth standards. Hemoglobin was measured using HemoCue Hb 301. Anemia was diagnosed according to WHO thresholds. Retrospective mortality rates in Leitchuor and Kule were measured using a household census method.

  17. Lay perceptions of malaria and therapeutic itinerary of resettled pregnant women in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Background Approximately 95% of South Sudan is malaria-endemic and transmission is high throughout the year. Annually, 2.3 million people are at risk of malarial infection, but children under 5 years, pregnant women and their unborn children are particularly at high risk. Appropriate policies...... The study showed that the therapeutic itinerary was prompted by fever and composed of five steps that were simultaneously or successively explored. The household and community constitute the first-line treatment options for fever. Interviewees relied on homemade remedies and concoctions, traditional healers......' cures, magician's rituals and private formal and informal medicine vendors at the local market before seeking malarial diagnosis and treatment at the health centre. Conclusions Improving capacities for proper identification and management of malarial fever at household and community level is a priority...

  18. Torture by Cieng: ethical theory meets social practice among the Dinka Agaar of south Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Jeffery L

    2010-01-01

    Here I detail violence in South Sudan by first discussing a specific Dinka Agaar practice alongside existing discourses on the social aspects of violence and universal human rights, then I show how these acts had meaning and purpose using data from personal accounts of violence. I posit that the violence described was consistent with Dinka Agaar concepts of justice and basic human rights and that it cannot be judged against any universal human rights standard, devoid of local context or of an overarching metanarrative. These events highlight conflicting subjectivities, ethical norms, and the painful difficulties inherent to advocacy in areas of conflict. Viewed from the perspective of the larger social unit, it is easy to see how violence was required to end violence. However, witnessing punitive violence purposefully enacted on innocent individuals to achieve peace has the potential to create conflicting positions that modern anthropological discourse cannot reconcile.

  19. Utilizing Remote Sensing to Explore Hydrological and Climatic Factors of Visceral Leishmaniasis in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruczkiewicz, A.; Sweeney, A.; Reid, C.; Seaman, J.; Abubakar, A.; Ritmeijer, K.; Jensen, K.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K. C.; Lessel, J.; Thomson, M. C.; Elnaiem, D.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Recent epidemics of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Sudan and South Sudan (locally known as Kala Azar) have caused an estimated 100,000 deaths and have renewed the impetus for defining the ecological boundaries of this vector borne disease. In the past 30 years outbreaks have occurred cyclically within this country, but recent shifts in endemicity have necessitated a more robust understanding of the drivers of the disease. Previous work (e.g. Gebre-Michael et al., 2004; Ashford & Thomson, 1991; Hoogstraal & Heyneman, 1969) has suggested that the primary biological vector in this region, the female sand fly Phlebotomus orientalis, exhibits sensitivities to environmental and climatic variables. Results of this study showed a relationship between precipitation and inundation during months of the transmission season (April-July) and the number of confirmed cases in the following September-January period. Particular months of the transmission season with below-average precipitation were better indicators of lagged reports of VL than others. During VL epidemics (2009, 2010, 2011) the month of June exhibited below average precipitation. The two largest epidemics (2010, 2011) were associated with years of below average precipitation in the month of April. Inundation during April-July (AMJJ) also exhibited a strong inverse relationship with reported VL cases in the following September- January (SONDJ). This relationship was best explored when comparing the VL case data of a specific medical center to the inundation anomalies. Results are typified by the Lankien Medical Center analysis where below average inundation during April displays an inverse relationship with VL cases in the following SONDJ. Drought may lead to below average inundation, which could allow for soils to maintain their fissures, thus maintaining the sand fly breeding habitat, resulting in a sustained breeding season for the sandflies (Quate, 1964). Above-average precipitation and inundation might have the

  20. Investigation of hepatitis E outbreak among refugees - Upper Nile, South Sudan, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    During the week of July 2, 2012, the deaths of two pregnant women and one child were reported by household mortality surveillance in Jamam refugee camp, Maban County, Upper Nile State, South Sudan. All were reported to have yellow eyes before death. During July 27-August 3, 2012, three adult males with acute onset jaundice were admitted to the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) hospital in Jamam camp; two died within 4 days of admission. The Republic of South Sudan Ministry of Health, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), CDC, and humanitarian organizations responded through enhanced case surveillance, a serosurvey investigation, and targeted prevention efforts. As of January 27, 2013, a total of 5,080 acute jaundice syndrome (AJS) cases had been reported from all four Maban County refugee camps (Doro, Gendrassa, Jamam, and Yusuf Batil). Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection was confirmed in a convenience sample of cases in each camp. A cross-sectional serosurvey conducted in Jamam camp in November 2012 indicated that 54.3% of the population was susceptible to HEV infection. Across all camps, an AJS case-fatality rate (CFR) of 10.4% was observed among pregnant women. The outbreak response has focused on improving safe drinking water availability, improving sanitation and hygiene, conducting active case finding, and optimizing clinical care, especially among pregnant women. Sustaining these improvements, along with strengthening community outreach, is needed to improve outbreak control. Further investigation of the potential role for the newly developed HEV vaccine in outbreak control also is needed.

  1. A climate trend analysis of Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Eilerts, Gary; Verdin, Jim; Rowland, Jim; Marshall, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Summer rains in western and southern Sudan have declined by 10-20 percent since the mid-1970s. Observed warming of more than 1 degree Celsius is equivalent to another 10-20 percent reduction in rainfall for crops. The warming and drying have impacted southern Darfur and areas around Juba. Rainfall declines west of Juba threaten southern Sudan's future food production prospects. In many cases, areas with changing climate are coincident with zones of substantial conflict, suggesting some degree of association; however, the contribution of climate change to these conflicts is not currently understood. Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a more variable climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Sudan over the next 20 years.

  2. Determination of optimum tapping date for gum arabic production South Kordofan State, Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idris Musa Adam; Kamal E.M. Fadl

    2011-01-01

    Acacia senegal,the gum arabic producing tree,is the most important tree species for the livelihood of the people in South Kordofan State,Sudan.The objective of this study was to determine the optimum tapping date for gum arabic production in the study area.A randomized complete block design experiment with three replications was conducted at (Meari) area for two continuous growing seasons 2008/2009 -2009/2010.The treatments comprised six tapping dates (1 Oct,15 Oct,1Nov,15 Nov,1 Dec,and 15 Dec).Results showed highly significant differences (p < 0.001) in gum arabic yield (g\\tree) in all pickings and in the total gum yield between the tapping dates.The results also showed that tapping of trees on 15 October and 1 November gave a higher yield compared to the other dates.The highest gum yield of 1086.6 and 661.2g/tree was recorded on 15 October and 15 November,while the lowest gum yield of 297.9 g/tree was recorded when the trees were tapped on 1 October.The two highest-yield dates of tapping (15 Oct and 1 Nov) are recommended as the best time for tapping for gum arabic production in South Kordofan State.These results can be used to increase gum arabic production and farmer income in South Kordofan State.

  3. The Disintegration of the Military Integration Process in South Sudan (2006–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Anne Warner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that military integration served a critical purpose in 2006, arguably preventing large-scale conflict within South Sudan and ensuring a level of stability prior to the CPA-mandated referendum on self-determination in 2011. Nonetheless, integration was poorly-conceived and implemented, and received limited support from third party actors that were more focused on rightsizing the SPLA and transforming it into a conventional, professional military. The de facto open-door nature of South Sudan’s integration process created incentives for armed rebellion, while failed rightsizing initiatives increased pressure on the military integration process as the most expedient way of mitigating the threat these groups posed to stability. Integration thus became an end in and of itself rather than a transitional measure to contain former combatants while the government worked out a more long-term solution for South Sudan’s security sector. Consequently, the SPLA was in a state of arrested development, preventing efforts to transform the military from gaining traction, and making the force more likely to fragment along factional lines during periods of heightened political competition.

  4. [Accepted Manuscript] Building the nation's body: The contested role of abortion and family planning in post-war South Sudan.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, J.J.; Storeng, K.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of public health policies and interventions targeting unwanted pregnancy (family planning and abortion) in contemporary South Sudan as part of wider 'nation-building' after war, understood as a process of collective identity formation which projects a meaningful future by redefining existing institutions and customs as national characteristics. The paper shows how the expansion of post-conflict family planning and abortion policy and services are par...

  5. Building the nation's body: The contested role of abortion and family planning in post-war South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jennifer J; Storeng, Katerini T

    2016-11-01

    This paper offers an ethnographic analysis of public health policies and interventions targeting unwanted pregnancy (family planning and abortion) in contemporary South Sudan as part of wider 'nation-building' after war, understood as a process of collective identity formation which projects a meaningful future by redefining existing institutions and customs as national characteristics. The paper shows how the expansion of post-conflict family planning and abortion policy and services are particularly poignant sites for the enactment of reproductive identity negotiation, policing and conflict. In addition to customary norms, these processes are shaped by two powerful institutions - ethnic movements and global humanitarian actors - who tend to take opposing stances on reproductive health. Drawing on document review, observations of the media and policy environment and interviews conducted with 54 key informants between 2013 and 2015, the paper shows that during the civil war, the Sudan People's Liberation Army and Movement mobilised customary pro-natalist ideals for military gain by entreating women to amplify reproduction to replace those lost to war and rejecting family planning and abortion. International donors and the Ministry of Health have re-conceptualised such services as among other modern developments denied by war. The tensions between these competing discourses have given rise to a range of societal responses, including disagreements that erupt in legal battles, heated debate and even violence towards women and health workers. In United Nations camps established recently as parts of South Sudan have returned to war, social groups exert a form of reproductive surveillance, policing reproductive health practices and contributing to intra-communal violence when clandestine use of contraception or abortion is discovered. In a context where modern contraceptives and abortion services are largely unfamiliar, conflict around South Sudan's nation

  6. A hospital-centered approach to improve emergency obstetric care in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppi, Lavinia; Somigliana, Edgardo; Pisani, Vincenzo; Ika, Michelina; Mabor, Joseph L; Akec, Henry N; Nhial, John A; Mading, Michel S; Scanagatta, Chiara; Manenti, Fabio; Putoto, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    To assess provision of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in Greater Yirol, South Sudan, after implementation of a hospital-centered intervention with an ambulance referral system. In a descriptive study, data were prospectively recorded for all women referred to Yirol County Hospital for delivery in 2012. An ambulance referral system had been implemented in October 2011. Access to the hospital and ambulance use were free of charge. The number of deliveries at Yirol County Hospital increased in 2012 to 1089, corresponding to 13.3% of the 8213 deliveries expected to have occurred in the catchment area. Cesareans were performed for 53 (4.9%) deliveries, corresponding to 0.6% of the expected number of deliveries in the catchment area. Among 950 women who delivered a newborn weighing at least 2500 g at the hospital, 6 (0.6%) intrapartum or very early neonatal deaths occurred. Of 1232 women expected to have major obstetric complications in 2012 in the catchment area, 472 (38.3%) received EmOC at the hospital. Of 115 expected absolute obstetric indications, 114 (99.1%) were treated in the hospital. A hospital-centered approach with an ambulance referral system effectively improves the availability of EmOC in underprivileged remote settings. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flea outbreak at United Nations base in South Sudan: A public health challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuj Bhatnagar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number Indian troops are deployed in International Peacekeeping Missions Worldwide and are exposed to emerging and re-emerging vectors and diseases in unfamiliar terrain. This article describes the experience of a flea outbreak among Indian UN Peacekeepers in a remote part of South Sudan. Methods: Health visits to the area confirmed presence of dog fleas. Flea bites disrupted daily routine of the unit and many troopers reported to medical facilities with severe dermatitis. Death of a field rat in the immediate vicinity along with detection of rat fleas was cause for worry as Plague and other flea-borne diseases are known to occur in the country in sylvatic form. Result: Conventional vector control measures had limited impact and unconventional measures had to be devised due to limited capacity in the inaccessible area. Severity of the problem, potential to cause flea-borne diseases and unavailability of conventional insecticides prompted the author to use Aviation Turbine Fuel (ATF for area spray in the UN base. Conclusion: Healthcare providers in fast-evolving operational situations such as Peacekeeping Missions need to maintain high index of suspicion and often adopt innovative methods to ensure effective public health cover to troops.

  8. A Mathematical Study to Control Visceral Leishmaniasis: An Application to South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Indrajit; Sardar, Tridip; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2017-05-01

    In this manuscript, we propose and analyze a compartmental model of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). We model the human population with six compartments including asymptomatic, symptomatic and PKDL-infected, animal population as second host and sandfly population as the vector. Furthermore, the non-adult stage of the sandfly population is introduced in the system, which was not considered before in the literature. We show that the increase in the number of host of sandfly population generates a backward bifurcation. Thus, multiple hosts will cause disease persistence even if the basic reproduction number ([Formula: see text]) is below unity. We perform a sensitivity analysis of important model parameters with respect to some epidemiologically significant responses. We validate our model by calibrating it to weekly VL incidence data from South Sudan for the year 2013. We perform cost-effectiveness analysis on different interventions: treatment, non-adult control, adult control and their different layered combinations based on their implementation cost (in USD) and case reduction. We also use a global sensitivity analysis technique to understand the effect of important parameters of our model on the implementation cost of different controls. This cost-effectiveness study and cost-sensitivity analysis are relatively new in existing literature of this disease.

  9. Immune Responses to an Oral Cholera Vaccine in Internally Displaced Persons in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Anita S; Bouhenia, Malika; Rumunu, John; Abubakar, Abdinasir; Gruninger, Randon J; Pita, Jane; Lino, Richard Lako; Deng, Lul L; Wamala, Joseph F; Ryan, Edward T; Martin, Stephen; Legros, Dominique; Lessler, Justin; Sack, David A; Luquero, Francisco J; Leung, Daniel T; Azman, Andrew S

    2016-10-24

    Despite recent large-scale cholera outbreaks, little is known about the immunogenicity of oral cholera vaccines (OCV) in African populations, particularly among those at highest cholera risk. During a 2015 preemptive OCV campaign among internally displaced persons in South Sudan, a year after a large cholera outbreak, we enrolled 37 young children (1-5 years old), 67 older children (6-17 years old) and 101 adults (≥18 years old), who received two doses of OCV (Shanchol) spaced approximately 3 weeks apart. Cholera-specific antibody responses were determined at days 0, 21 and 35 post-immunization. High baseline vibriocidal titers (>80) were observed in 21% of the participants, suggesting recent cholera exposure or vaccination. Among those with titers ≤80, 90% young children, 73% older children and 72% adults seroconverted (≥4 fold titer rise) after the 1(st) OCV dose; with no additional seroconversion after the 2(nd) dose. Post-vaccination immunological endpoints did not differ across age groups. Our results indicate Shanchol was immunogenic in this vulnerable population and that a single dose alone may be sufficient to achieve similar short-term immunological responses to the currently licensed two-dose regimen. While we found no evidence of differential response by age, further immunologic and epidemiologic studies are needed.

  10. The cost of antibiotic mass drug administration for trachoma control in a remote area of South Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H Kolaczinski

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration (MDA of antibiotics is a key component of the so-called "SAFE" strategy for trachoma control, while MDA of anthelminthics provides the cornerstone for control of a number of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Simultaneous delivery of two or more of these drugs, renowned as "integrated NTD control," is being promoted to reduce costs and expand intervention coverage. A cost analysis was conducted alongside an MDA campaign in a remote trachoma endemic area, to inform budgeting for NTD control in South Sudan. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A first round of antibiotic MDA was conducted in the highly trachoma endemic county of Mayom, Unity state, from June to August 2010. A core team of seven staff delivered the intervention, including recruitment and training of 44 supervisors and 542 community drug distributors. Using an ingredients approach, financial and economic costs were captured from the provider perspective in a detailed costing database. Overall, 123,760 individuals were treated for trachoma, resulting in an estimated treatment coverage of 94%. The economic cost per person treated was USD 1.53, excluding the cost of the antibiotic azithromycin. Ninety four per cent of the delivery costs were recurrent costs, with personnel and travel/transport costs taking up the largest share. CONCLUSIONS: In a remote setting and for the initial round, MDA of antibiotics was considerably more expensive than USD 0.5 per person treated, an estimate frequently quoted to advocate for integrated NTD control. Drug delivery costs in South Sudan are unlikely to decrease substantially during subsequent MDA rounds, as the major cost drivers were recurrent costs. MDA campaigns for delivery of one or more drugs in South Sudan should thus be budgeted at around USD 1.5 per person treated, at least until further costing data for delivery of other NTD drugs, singly or in combination, are available.

  11. The cost of antibiotic mass drug administration for trachoma control in a remote area of South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaczinski, Jan H; Robinson, Emily; Finn, Timothy P

    2011-10-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) of antibiotics is a key component of the so-called "SAFE" strategy for trachoma control, while MDA of anthelminthics provides the cornerstone for control of a number of other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Simultaneous delivery of two or more of these drugs, renowned as "integrated NTD control," is being promoted to reduce costs and expand intervention coverage. A cost analysis was conducted alongside an MDA campaign in a remote trachoma endemic area, to inform budgeting for NTD control in South Sudan. A first round of antibiotic MDA was conducted in the highly trachoma endemic county of Mayom, Unity state, from June to August 2010. A core team of seven staff delivered the intervention, including recruitment and training of 44 supervisors and 542 community drug distributors. Using an ingredients approach, financial and economic costs were captured from the provider perspective in a detailed costing database. Overall, 123,760 individuals were treated for trachoma, resulting in an estimated treatment coverage of 94%. The economic cost per person treated was USD 1.53, excluding the cost of the antibiotic azithromycin. Ninety four per cent of the delivery costs were recurrent costs, with personnel and travel/transport costs taking up the largest share. In a remote setting and for the initial round, MDA of antibiotics was considerably more expensive than USD 0.5 per person treated, an estimate frequently quoted to advocate for integrated NTD control. Drug delivery costs in South Sudan are unlikely to decrease substantially during subsequent MDA rounds, as the major cost drivers were recurrent costs. MDA campaigns for delivery of one or more drugs in South Sudan should thus be budgeted at around USD 1.5 per person treated, at least until further costing data for delivery of other NTD drugs, singly or in combination, are available.

  12. Syndromic algorithms for detection of gambiense human African trypanosomiasis in South Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer J Palmer

    Full Text Available Active screening by mobile teams is considered the best method for detecting human African trypanosomiasis (HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense but the current funding context in many post-conflict countries limits this approach. As an alternative, non-specialist health care workers (HCWs in peripheral health facilities could be trained to identify potential cases who need testing based on their symptoms. We explored the predictive value of syndromic referral algorithms to identify symptomatic cases of HAT among a treatment-seeking population in Nimule, South Sudan.Symptom data from 462 patients (27 cases presenting for a HAT test via passive screening over a 7 month period were collected to construct and evaluate over 14,000 four item syndromic algorithms considered simple enough to be used by peripheral HCWs. For comparison, algorithms developed in other settings were also tested on our data, and a panel of expert HAT clinicians were asked to make referral decisions based on the symptom dataset. The best performing algorithms consisted of three core symptoms (sleep problems, neurological problems and weight loss, with or without a history of oedema, cervical adenopathy or proximity to livestock. They had a sensitivity of 88.9-92.6%, a negative predictive value of up to 98.8% and a positive predictive value in this context of 8.4-8.7%. In terms of sensitivity, these out-performed more complex algorithms identified in other studies, as well as the expert panel. The best-performing algorithm is predicted to identify about 9/10 treatment-seeking HAT cases, though only 1/10 patients referred would test positive.In the absence of regular active screening, improving referrals of HAT patients through other means is essential. Systematic use of syndromic algorithms by peripheral HCWs has the potential to increase case detection and would increase their participation in HAT programmes. The algorithms proposed here, though promising, should be

  13. Assessing the quality of care in a new nation: South Sudan's first national health facility assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, Sima; Lako, Richard L; Whitson, Donald; Gould, Simon; Valadez, Joseph J

    2014-10-01

    We adapted a rapid quality of care monitoring method to a fragile state with two aims: to assess the delivery of child health services in South Sudan at the time of independence and to strengthen local capacity to perform regular rapid health facility assessments. Using a two-stage lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) design, we conducted a national cross-sectional survey among 156 randomly selected health facilities in 10 states. In each of these facilities, we obtained information on a range of access, input, process and performance indicators during structured interviews and observations. Quality of care was poor with all states failing to achieve the 80% target for 14 of 19 indicators. For example, only 12% of facilities were classified as acceptable for their adequate utilisation by the population for sick-child consultations, 16% for staffing, 3% for having infection control supplies available and 0% for having all child care guidelines. Health worker performance was categorised as acceptable in only 6% of cases related to sick-child assessments, 38% related to medical treatment for the given diagnosis and 33% related to patient counselling on how to administer the prescribed drugs. Best performance was recorded for availability of in-service training and supervision, for seven and ten states, respectively. Despite ongoing instability, the Ministry of Health developed capacity to use LQAS for measuring quality of care nationally and state-by-state, which will support efficient and equitable resource allocation. Overall, our data revealed a desperate need for improving the quality of care in all states. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Barriers to Institutional Childbirth in Rumbek North County, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilunda, Calistus; Scanagatta, Chiara; Putoto, Giovanni; Takahashi, Risa; Montalbetti, Francesca; Segafredo, Giulia; Betrán, Ana Pilar

    2016-01-01

    South Sudan has one of the world's poorest health indicators due to a fragile health system and a combination of socio-cultural, economic and political factors. This study was conducted to identify barriers to utilisation of institutional childbirth services in Rumbek North County. Data were collected through 14 focus group discussions with 169 women and 45 men, and 18 key informant interviews with community leaders, staff working in health facilities, traditional birth attendants, and the staff of the County Health Department. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. The barriers to institutional childbirth were categorised under four main themes: 1) Issues related to access and lack of resources: long distance to health facilities, lack of transportation means, referral problems, flooding and poor roads, and payments in health facilities; 2) Issues related to the socio-cultural context and conflict: insecurity, influence of the husband, lack of birth preparedness, domestic chores of women, influence of culture; 3) Perceptions about pregnancy and childbirth: perceived benefit of institutional childbirth, low childbirth risk perception, and medicalisation of childbirth including birth being perceived to be natural, undesirable birth practices, privacy concerns, and fear of caesarean section; and 4) Perceptions about the quality of care: inadequate health facility infrastructure and perceived neglect during admission. Multiple factors hinder institutional childbirth in Rumbek North. Some of the factors such as insecurity and poor roads are outside the scope of the health sector and will require a multi-sectoral approach if childbirth services are to be made accessible to women. Detailed recommendations to increase utilisation of childbirth services in the county have been suggested.

  15. Barriers to Institutional Childbirth in Rumbek North County, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilunda, Calistus; Scanagatta, Chiara; Putoto, Giovanni; Takahashi, Risa; Montalbetti, Francesca; Segafredo, Giulia; Betrán, Ana Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Background South Sudan has one of the world’s poorest health indicators due to a fragile health system and a combination of socio-cultural, economic and political factors. This study was conducted to identify barriers to utilisation of institutional childbirth services in Rumbek North County. Methods Data were collected through 14 focus group discussions with 169 women and 45 men, and 18 key informant interviews with community leaders, staff working in health facilities, traditional birth attendants, and the staff of the County Health Department. Data were analysed using inductive content analysis. Results The barriers to institutional childbirth were categorised under four main themes: 1) Issues related to access and lack of resources: long distance to health facilities, lack of transportation means, referral problems, flooding and poor roads, and payments in health facilities; 2) Issues related to the socio-cultural context and conflict: insecurity, influence of the husband, lack of birth preparedness, domestic chores of women, influence of culture; 3) Perceptions about pregnancy and childbirth: perceived benefit of institutional childbirth, low childbirth risk perception, and medicalisation of childbirth including birth being perceived to be natural, undesirable birth practices, privacy concerns, and fear of caesarean section; and 4) Perceptions about the quality of care: inadequate health facility infrastructure and perceived neglect during admission. Conclusions Multiple factors hinder institutional childbirth in Rumbek North. Some of the factors such as insecurity and poor roads are outside the scope of the health sector and will require a multi-sectoral approach if childbirth services are to be made accessible to women. Detailed recommendations to increase utilisation of childbirth services in the county have been suggested. PMID:27977745

  16. Social and traditional practices and their implications for family planning: a participatory ethnographic study in Renk, South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Byrne, Elaine; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2017-01-17

    Understanding what determines family size is crucial for programmes that aim to provide family planning services during and after conflicts. Recent research found that development agents in post conflict settings do not necessarily take time to understand the context adequately, translate their context understanding into programming, or adjust programming in the light of changes. South Sudan, a country that has been suffering from war for almost 50 years, has one of the highest maternal death rates and the lowest contraceptive utilization rates in the world. This research used Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research (PEER) to provide a contextualised understanding of social and traditional practices and their implications for family planning. Fourteen women were recruited from 14 villages in Renk County in South Sudan in the period 2010-2012. They were trained to design research instruments, conduct interviews, collect narratives and stories and analyse data to identify, prioritize and address their maternal health concerns. As a result of wars, people are under pressure to increase their family sizes and thus increase the nation's population. This is to compensate for the men perished in war and the high child death rates. Large family size is regarded as a national obligation. Women are caught up in a vicious cycle of high fertility and a high rate of child mortality. Determinants of large family size include: 1) Social and cultural practices, 2) Clan lineage and 3) Compensation for loss of family members. Three strategies are used to increase family size: 1) Marry several women, 2) Husbands taking care of women, and 3) Financial stability. Consequences of big families include: 1) Financial burden, 2) Fear of losing children, 3) Borrowing children and 4) Husband shirking responsibility. The desire to have a big family will remain in South Sudan until families realise that their children will live longer, that their men will not be taken by the war

  17. Childhood eye care services in South Darfur State of Sudan: Learner and parent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif H. Alrasheed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Most causes of childhood visual impairment are either treatable or preventable. Eye health education plays an important role in reducing avoidable causes of visual impairment as well as to help ensure a healthy and educated community. The main objective of this study was to assess the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of the students and their parents on childhood eye services and barriers for accessing child eye care.Methods: The study was conducted in South Darfur State of Sudan between January and February 2015. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to collect data from eight secondary schools. Four schools for boys and four schools for girls were randomly selected from a list of 21 districts of South Darfur State and the Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices surveys were conducted with the students to collect quantitative data. In addition, seven focus group discussions were conducted with the children’s parents to collect qualitative data.Results: The majority (57.5% of the students reported that they knew about refractive error; however, 33.07% reported never hearing about refractive error. About 70.3% of the respondents believed that uncorrected refractive error leads to visual impairment, 21% believed refractive error did not cause visual impairment and 30.5% reported that wearing spectacles was not effective in the treatment of refractive error. With regard to the information about eye healthcare, 88.1% of the participants reported they did not have enough information about eye care. The reported need for more information about prevention, treatment and symptoms was 34.0%, 31.4% and 17.5%, respectively. With regard to barriers, 80.6% of the students reported never having had their eyes tested. The most cited barriers were cost, fear of wearing spectacles and fear of an eye examination. In addition, 72.6% of students reported that their health insurance did not cover eye care services. Most (53.6% of the parents

  18. The Fragility of the Liberal Peace Export to South Sudan: Formal Education Access as a Basis of a Liberal Peace Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngambouk Vitalis Pemunta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the disjuncture between the policy transposition of the Liberal Peace Project (LPP in South Sudan from the country's local context. It underlines how deep rooted historical exclusion from social welfare services reinforces political exclusion and exacerbates poor civic engagement among different ethnicities in the country causing a constant relapse to violence. The study combines a qualitative review of data from Afrobarometer, the National Democratic Institute, international NGOs, and South Sudan's government reports within depth interviews and participants' observation. The research finds that restricted access to formal education alongside the conservative and orthodox approaches to peacebuilding, which broadly focus on centralised urban political institutions and exclude diverse local needs and preferences, limit citizenship participation to elections and preclude an equitable social order in South Sudan, establishing a continuum of fragile authoritarian peace, institutional peace and constitutional peace. In an emancipatory approach, the study proposes a framework that prioritizes an extended access to primary and post-primary vocational education as a more credible establishment for sustainable civil peace in the country. The LPP by the international community needs to be tailored to enhance the political will of the South Sudan government to extend free primary education access, incentivize primary education with school feeding programmes and to invigorate vocational training curricula. These will yield civil peace dividends, which avert South Sudan's structural source of relapse into violence with sustainable disincentives. Apart from women's empowerment through education and in all spheres of life, the government needs to ensure sustainability by guaranteeing a sustainable future for the present and for returning refugees by reducing the effects of climate change so as to cope with the increasing pressure on natural

  19. Use of Mobile Information Technology during Planning, Implementation and Evaluation of a Polio Campaign in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskew, John; Kenyi, Veronica; William, Juma; Alum, Rebecca; Puri, Anu; Mostafa, Yehia; Davis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Use of mobile information technology may aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making for polio programming and response. We utilised Android-based smartphones to collect data electronically from more than 8,000 households during a national round of polio immunisation in South Sudan. The results of the household surveys are presented here, together with discussion of the application of mobile information technology for polio campaign planning, implementation and evaluation in a real-time setting. Electronic questionnaires were programmed onto Android-based smartphones for mapping, supervision and survey activities during a national round of polio immunisation. National census data were used to determine the sampling frame for each activity and select the payam (district). Individual supervisors, in consultation with the local district health team, selected villages and households within each payam. Data visualisation tools were utilised for analysis and reporting. Implementation of mobile information technology and local management was feasible during a national round of polio immunisation in South Sudan. Red Cross visits during the polio campaign were equitable according to household wealth index and households who received a Red Cross visit had significantly higher odds of being aware of the polio campaign than those who did not. Nearly 95% of children under five were reported to have received polio immunisation (according to maternal recall) during the immunisation round, which varied by state, county and payam. A total of 11 payams surveyed were identified with less than 90% reported immunisation coverage and the least poor households had significantly higher odds of being vaccinated than the most poor. More than 95% of households were aware of the immunisation round and households had significantly higher odds of being vaccinated if they had prior awareness of the campaign taking place. Pre-campaign community education

  20. Use of Mobile Information Technology during Planning, Implementation and Evaluation of a Polio Campaign in South Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Haskew

    Full Text Available Use of mobile information technology may aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making for polio programming and response. We utilised Android-based smartphones to collect data electronically from more than 8,000 households during a national round of polio immunisation in South Sudan. The results of the household surveys are presented here, together with discussion of the application of mobile information technology for polio campaign planning, implementation and evaluation in a real-time setting.Electronic questionnaires were programmed onto Android-based smartphones for mapping, supervision and survey activities during a national round of polio immunisation. National census data were used to determine the sampling frame for each activity and select the payam (district. Individual supervisors, in consultation with the local district health team, selected villages and households within each payam. Data visualisation tools were utilised for analysis and reporting.Implementation of mobile information technology and local management was feasible during a national round of polio immunisation in South Sudan. Red Cross visits during the polio campaign were equitable according to household wealth index and households who received a Red Cross visit had significantly higher odds of being aware of the polio campaign than those who did not. Nearly 95% of children under five were reported to have received polio immunisation (according to maternal recall during the immunisation round, which varied by state, county and payam. A total of 11 payams surveyed were identified with less than 90% reported immunisation coverage and the least poor households had significantly higher odds of being vaccinated than the most poor. More than 95% of households were aware of the immunisation round and households had significantly higher odds of being vaccinated if they had prior awareness of the campaign taking place

  1. Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    aircraft and helicopters.13 In July 2008, a BBC Televison report presented evidence of Chinese army trucks and several A5 Fantan fighter planes in...Security Council resolutions or has influenced the Council either to withdraw or amend statements. In July 2008, a British-drafted Presidential...purpose of the campaign is to “shame” China into using its influence over Sudan in order to bring an end to the crisis in Darfur. The campaign does not

  2. Opportunities and Challenges in Petroleum Cooperation between China and South Sudan%中国与南苏丹石油合作的机遇与挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振发

    2012-01-01

    The Republic of South Sudan, the world' s most oil - dependent country, is facing bleak prospect of oil exploration, lack of inconsistent oil industry and oil infrastructure, limited spaces for modifying the oil contracts taken over from the Republic of Sudan and problem of cross - border oil field management. The Re- public of South Sudan has not established its oil industry management system at pres- ent. Chinese oil company, on the basis of fully understanding of environmental and social justice problems in South Sudan, shall actively negotiate with government of South Sudan for recognition and modification of the existing oil contracts, consoli- date oil investments at a time when the United States continues to maintain restric- tions on oil investments in South Sudan. Relying on multilateral reputation mecha- nisms and formal System of third- party mechanisms, Chinese government should balance its oil interests in Sudan and South Sudan, improve bilateral energy cooper- ation mechanism between China and South Sudan, and safeguard legal oil interests in South Sudan.%南苏丹是世界上最依赖石油收入和出口的国家,还面临着石油勘探前景黯淡,缺乏配套石油工业和石油基础设施、对从苏丹继承的石油合同的修改空间有限,以及与苏丹的跨界油田的管理问题尚未理顺等诸多困境。目前,在南苏丹的石油产业管理体系还尚未形成的背景下,中国石油企业应当在充分理解南苏丹的环境与社会公平等问题的基础上,积极与南苏丹商议石油合同的继承与修改问题,抓住美国继续维持对南苏丹石油投资限制的机遇,巩固在南苏丹的石油投资。中国政府应当协调与南苏丹及苏丹关系中的石油利益,依托多边声誉机制和具有正式制度的第三方机制,改善中国与南苏丹能源合作机制的单一性,维护中国在南苏丹合法的石油利益。

  3. Prevalence of Malaria and Use of Malaria Risk Reduction Measures among Returning Pregnant Women in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania Aase; Gueth Kueil, Bill; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Background The study assessed aspects of malaria infection, prevention and treatment in a population of resettled pregnant women in South Sudan. Methods During April and May 2008, a cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate malaria prevalence and to assess the use of malaria risk reduction...... measures and their associations with selected background characteristics. Two hundred and twenty women were tested for malaria parasitaemia and questioned about their malaria prevention and treatment practices. Results The results showed a prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia of 9.......1%. No statistically significant associations were observed between selected background characteristics and malaria infection status. However, school attendance was significantly associated with insecticide-treated net ownership (OR = 6.52, 95% CI 2.37–17.94; p = 0.001) and access to malaria diagnosis and treatment...

  4. Prevalence of malaria and use of malaria risk reduction measures among resettled pregnant women in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2013-01-01

    ¼ 3.20, 95% CI 1.26–8.16; p ¼ 0.015). Conclusions: The results suggest that educational attainment need not be very advanced to affect practices of malaria prevention and treatment. Primary school attendance was a stronger predictor for use of malaria risk reduction measures than any of the other...... selected background characteristics. Educational attainment, information and communication about malaria prevention and control play a pivotal role in increasing and improving use of malaria risk reduction measures.......Background: The study assessed aspects of malaria infection, prevention and treatment in a population of resettled pregnant women in South Sudan. Methods: During April and May 2008, a cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate malaria prevalence and to assess the use of malaria risk...

  5. A retrospective analysis of oral cholera vaccine use, disease severity and deaths during an outbreak in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekolo, Cavin Epie; van Loenhout, Joris Adriaan Frank; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Rumunu, John; Ramadan, Otim Patrick; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether pre-emptive oral cholera vaccination reduces disease severity and mortality in people who develop cholera disease during an outbreak. The study involved a retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data from 41 cholera treatment facilities in South Sudan on patients who developed cholera disease between 23 April and 20 July 2014 during a large outbreak, a few months after a pre-emptive oral vaccination campaign. Patients who developed severe dehydration were regarded as having a severe cholera infection. Vaccinated and unvaccinated patients were compared and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with developing severe disease or death. In total, 4115 cholera patients were treated at the 41 facilities: 1946 (47.3%) had severe disease and 62 (1.5%) deaths occurred. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who received two doses of oral cholera vaccine were 4.5-fold less likely to develop severe disease than unvaccinated patients (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 0.22; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.11-0.44). Moreover, those with severe cholera were significantly more likely to die than those without (aOR: 4.76; 95% CI: 2.33-9.77). Pre-emptive vaccination with two doses of oral cholera vaccine was associated with a significant reduction in the likelihood of developing severe cholera disease during an outbreak in South Sudan. Moreover, severe disease was the strongest predictor of death. Two doses of oral cholera vaccine should be used in emergencies to reduce the disease burden.

  6. Iuba (Juba) II de Maur??tanie

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Rojo, Jos?? Mar??a; Fuentes Gonz??lez, Pedro Pablo

    2000-01-01

    Recorrido cr??tico por la figura y la obra de Juba de Mauritania (ca. 50-23/24 d.C.), autor pol??grafo (en griego), rey n??mida de Mauritania (Juba II) entre el 25 y el 23/24 d.C., m??s c??lebre como erudito que como soberano, al decir de Plinio el Viejo (Historia natural V 16). Esquema del estudio: Nombre. Testimonios y fragmentos. Estudios generales. Biograf??a. Obra: Compilaciones de car??cter geogr??fico-hist??rico. Escritos sobre Bot??nica. Escritos sobre Historia de la cultura y del art...

  7. An approach to integrate spatial and climatological data as support to drought monitoring and agricultural management problems in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetto, Sabrina; Facello, Anna; Camaro, Walther; Isotta Cristofori, Elena; Demarchi, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Drought is a natural hazard characterized by an abnormally dry event in the hydrological cycle caused by insufficient precipitation over an extended period of time, which affects more people than any other natural disaster and results in social, economic and environmental costs. In Africa, the economic system is based primarily on natural resources for example farming. For this reason, climate variability and events such as drought are phenomena that can represent significant disturbances and threats in the agricultural systems. In particular, this study concerns the monitoring of environmental changes in the south sector of South Sudan. The climate and environment in the South Sudan have shown localised changes during the course of this century and recurrent wars and droughts in the last years determined a large food-crisis. Actually, the security situation is stabilised with sporadic fighting concentrated in Jonglei, Unity and Upper Nile States. With the stabilisation of the conflict, many refugees have returned to their regions, trying to recover the economic structure based mainly on agriculture. For this reason, it is important to monitoring and analysis the vegetation and drought trend over the last years to support agricultural development and food security, in particular in post-conflict areas. This study focuses on the analysis of the relationship between the temporal variations of state of vegetation and the precipitation patterns. A historical analysis of the vegetation behaviour (NDVI) and the drought during the year is developed. In addition, with the aim to identify the wet and dry seasons, an analysis of precipitation is performed. Based on the vegetation and precipitation trends obtained, it is possible to characterize the best areas to start an agricultural system, giving priority to certain areas in order to plan the land use for agricultural purposes and programming crop (which and where). Consequently, with the aim to identify possible

  8. Influences of sex, age and education on attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p forced marriage (p = 0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and by age. The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices.

  9. Influences of sex, age, and education on attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M.; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age, and education to inform programming. Methods Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age, and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e. early marriage, forced marriage, and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all pforced marriage (p=0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and age. Conclusion The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household, but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices. PMID:25026024

  10. Community attitudes and social distance towards the mentally ill in South Sudan: a survey from a post-conflict setting with no mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Touraj; Lien, Lars; Eide, Arne; Shadar, Elizabeth Joseph Shadar; Hauff, Edvard

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates attitudes and social distance towards the mentally ill in a post-conflict, low-income country. A cross-sectional community survey (n = 1,200) was conducted in South Sudan. Associations between various sociodemographic variables and attitudes toward/social distance from the mentally ill were investigated. The regression analysis showed that lower levels of education were positively associated with social distance, and Christian or Muslim beliefs, compared with traditional beliefs, were negatively associated with social distance. Familiarity with mental illness or psychological distress was not significantly associated with social distance. Participants who endorsed community-oriented attitudes (rather than hospital/drug-oriented attitudes) about health care for the mentally ill were more likely show a decreased social distance. Participants who believed that the mentally ill were dangerous had higher scores on the social distance scale. A high level of stigma towards the mentally ill exists in South Sudan, especially in the rural areas. Alongside efforts to build up mental health services in South Sudan, the existing stigma needs to be addressed. Information regarding the role of the community both in preventing mental illnesses and in service delivery should be prioritised.

  11. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B virus and Hepatitis C virus among blood donors in Nyala, South Dar Fur, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltahir Yassir

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections and the possible risk factors among blood donors in Nyala, South Dar Fur State of western Sudan, which has never been studied before. A total of 400 male blood donors were tested for the detection of HBsAg and anti-HCV antibodies, (6.25% were found reactive for HBsAg and (0.65% were reactive for anti-HCV antibodies. The highest seroprevalence (30.8% was found in those between 19-24 and 37-42 years for HBsAg, whereas it was (50% in those between 31-36 years for anti-HCV antibodies. Unprotected sexual activities (20% was the most apparent predisposing risk factor for both HBV and HCV seroreactors, followed by razor sharing (13.3%, parenteral drug injections (10%, history of migration to Egypt and alcoholism (6.6% for each, tattooing and surgical procedures (3.3% for each and (36.6% were not aware for their condition. Serum alanine aminotansferase (ALT was elevated in (30.7% of HBV seroreactors and in (50% of HCV seroreactors. Serum albumin was reduced in (23.1% HBV and in (50% HCV seroreactors. The study concluded that the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV was in an intermediate and low rates respectively and unprotected sexual activities was the major risk factor for infection in the population studied.

  12. Epidemiological and clinical features of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in united nations personnel in Western Bahr el Ghazal State, South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dengming; Zhang, Yuqi; Liu, Xiaofeng; Guo, Shimin; Zhao, Donghong; Zhu, Yunjie; Li, Huaidong; Kong, Li

    2013-01-01

    Western Bahr el Ghazal State is located in northwestern South Sudan, which is a tropical area subject to Plasmodium falciparum malaria epidemics. The aim of this study is to explore the epidemiological and clinical features of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in United Nations personnel stationed in this area. From July 2006 to June 2009, epidemiological data and medical records of 678 patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria at the U.N. level 2 hospital were analyzed. The U.N. personnel were divided into individuals not immune to Plasmodium falciparum and individuals semi-immune to Plasmodium falciparum. The patients were divided into a chemoprophylaxis group (non-immune individuals who complied with the chemoprophylaxis regimen, 582 cases) and a no/incomplete chemoprophylaxis group (non-immune individuals who either did not fully comply with chemoprophylaxis or did not use it at all and semi-immune individuals who did not use chemoprophylaxis, 96 cases). Overall morbidity was about 11.3%. There was a significant difference in the morbidity of semi-immune and non-immune individuals (1.3% vs. 15.1%, PPlasmodium falciparum malaria mainly occurred in rainy season. Gastrointestinal symptoms are an important precursor of malaria. Blood smears and rapid diagnostic tests should be performed after the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms. Appropriate chemoprophylaxis is necessary for reducing the severity of malaria.

  13. 78 FR 1866 - Extension and Redesignation of South Sudan for Temporary Protected Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ...--Department of State EAD--Employment Authorization Document Government--U.S. Government HRW--Human Rights...--United Nations UNHCR--UN High Commissioner for Refugees USAID--U.S. Agency for International Development... to continued internal displacement and refugee flight into neighboring countries, even as South...

  14. Governance, violence and the struggle for economic regulation in South Sudan: the case of Budi County (Eastern Equatoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walraet, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how Budi County in Eastern Equatoria State (South Sudan was governed during the 1990s and up to mid-2007. Because its capital Chukudum was the SPLM/A headquarters almost throughout that period, it provides us with an interesting case from which to explore how the SPLM/A governed during the war and how this impacts on the post-war peace. One observation is that the war, besides a period of devastation and human suffering, was also a time of economic opportunities and social differentiation. For that reason this article will also explore livestock trade as a new mode of wealth appropriation and the changing nature of cattle raiding, and how this interferes with the struggle for regulatory power and governable “spaces”. This means that we comprehend the economy as a political terrain. At the same time we leave room for sociological perspectives, to complement the more restricted “competition for resources and gains” approach to conflict and violence. The article is written in three sections. In the first section we briefly clarify why in 1999 there was an uprising in Budi County against SPLM/A rule and why it engendered massive local support. In the second section we examine one of the most destructive manifestations of violence that affect Budi county: cattle raiding. We look at it from a perspective that has been under-researched in the field: that of trans-border trade. In the last section we look at how, after the peace of 2005, newly appointed local government authorities are (reclaiming domains of state regulation that previously lay firmly in the hands of the military. Particular attention is given to the capacity of the local authorities to guarantee security and provide protection.

  15. Epilepsy in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consequent increased perinatal brain injury, high levels of head ... classified. Some cases having nodding in isolation (possibly a form of tic rather than a seizure disorder) but in others there is a ... tests like EEG and MR ... set up a network of.

  16. Factors associated with different types of birth attendants for home deliveries: an analysis of the cross-sectional 2010 South Sudan household survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugo, Ngatho S.; Agho, Kingsley E.; Zwi, Anthony B.; Dibley, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background In South Sudan, birth deliveries attended by unskilled birth attendants put the mothers and their newborns at increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with delivery by unskilled birth attendants or by unassisted delivery. Design We examined data for 2,767 (weighted total) women aged 15–49 years who delivered at home 2 years prior to the South Sudan Household Health Survey 2010. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with delivery by unskilled birth attendants or by unassisted delivery. Results The prevalence of delivery by unskilled birth attendants was 19% [95% confidence interval (CI) 17.0, 20.5], by skilled birth attendants (SBAs) was 45% (95% CI 42.4, 47.0), and by unassisted delivery was 36% (95% CI 34.2, 38.6). After adjusting for potential confounders, the following factors were associated with the increased odds for unassisted delivery or delivery by an unskilled birth attendant: mothers with no schooling, who did not attend antenatal care (ANC) during pregnancy, who had lower quality of ANC services, from poor households, or who had no prior knowledge about obstetric danger signs. Conclusions We found that non-utilization of maternal health care services, such as ANC, was significantly associated with unattended birth delivery or delivery by unskilled health providers. The increased uptake of SBAs at delivery will require easier access to ANC services, health promotion on the importance and benefits of SBAs for delivery, targeting both mothers and their families, and the training and deployment of more SBAs across the country. PMID:27473675

  17. Spatial distribution and deployment of community-based distributors implementing integrated community case management (iCCM): Geographic information system (GIS) mapping study in three South Sudan states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Abigail; Dale, Martin; Olivi, Elena; Miller, Jane

    2014-12-01

    In late 2012 and in conjunction with South Sudan's Ministry of Health - National Malaria Control Program, PSI (Population Services International) conducted a comprehensive mapping exercise to assess geographical coverage of its integrated community case management (iCCM) program and consider scope for expansion. The operational research was designed to provide evidence and support for low-cost mapping and monitoring systems, demonstrating the use of technology to enhance the quality of programming and to allow for the improved allocation of resources through appropriate and need-based deployment of community-based distributors (CBDs). The survey took place over the course of three months and program staff gathered GPS (global positioning system) data, along with demographic data, for over 1200 CBDs and 111 CBD supervisors operating in six counties in South Sudan. Data was collated, cleaned and quality assured, input into an Excel database, and subsequently uploaded to geographic information system (GIS) for spatial analysis and map production. The mapping results showed that over three-quarters of CBDs were deployed within a five kilometer radius of a health facility or another CBD, contrary to program planning and design. Other characteristics of the CBD and CBD supervisor profiles (age, gender, literacy) were more closely matched with other regional programs. The results of this mapping exercise provided a valuable insight into the contradictions found between a program "deployment plan" and the realities observed during field implementation. It also highlighted an important need for program implementers and national-level strategy makers to consider the natural and community-driven diffusion of CBDs, and take into consideration the strength of the local health facilities when developing a deployment plan.

  18. Factors associated with different types of birth attendants for home deliveries: an analysis of the cross-sectional 2010 South Sudan household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngatho S. Mugo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Sudan, birth deliveries attended by unskilled birth attendants put the mothers and their newborns at increased risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with delivery by unskilled birth attendants or by unassisted delivery. Design: We examined data for 2,767 (weighted total women aged 15–49 years who delivered at home 2 years prior to the South Sudan Household Health Survey 2010. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with delivery by unskilled birth attendants or by unassisted delivery. Results: The prevalence of delivery by unskilled birth attendants was 19% [95% confidence interval (CI 17.0, 20.5], by skilled birth attendants (SBAs was 45% (95% CI 42.4, 47.0, and by unassisted delivery was 36% (95% CI 34.2, 38.6. After adjusting for potential confounders, the following factors were associated with the increased odds for unassisted delivery or delivery by an unskilled birth attendant: mothers with no schooling, who did not attend antenatal care (ANC during pregnancy, who had lower quality of ANC services, from poor households, or who had no prior knowledge about obstetric danger signs. Conclusions: We found that non-utilization of maternal health care services, such as ANC, was significantly associated with unattended birth delivery or delivery by unskilled health providers. The increased uptake of SBAs at delivery will require easier access to ANC services, health promotion on the importance and benefits of SBAs for delivery, targeting both mothers and their families, and the training and deployment of more SBAs across the country.

  19. China, Sudan Expand Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) signed an agreement with the Ministry of Energy and Mining, the Public of Sudan on jointly conducting petroleum exploration and development with huge investment for block 1,2,4 in Sudan in March 1997.

  20. Prevalence of trachoma in unity state, South Sudan: results from a large-scale population-based survey and potential implications for further surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansy Edwards

    Full Text Available Large parts of South Sudan are thought to be trachoma-endemic but baseline data are limited. This study aimed to estimate prevalence for planning trachoma interventions in Unity State, to identify risk factors and to investigate the effect of different sampling approaches on study conclusions.The survey area was defined as one domain of eight counties in Unity State. Across the area, 40 clusters (villages were randomly selected proportional to the county population size in a population-based prevalence survey. The simplified grading scheme was used to classify clinical signs of trachoma. The unadjusted prevalence of trachoma inflammation-follicular (TF in children aged 1-9 years was 70.5% (95% CI: 68.6-72.3. After adjusting for age, sex, county and clustering of cases at household and village level the prevalence was 71.0% (95% CI: 69.9-72.1. The prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT in adults was 15.1% (95% CI: 13.4-17.0 and 13.5% (95% CI: 12.0-15.1 before and after adjustment, respectively. We estimate that 700,000 people (the entire population of Unity State require antibiotic treatment and approximately 54,178 people require TT surgery. Risk factor analyses confirmed child-level associations with TF and highlighted that older adults living in poverty are at higher risk of TT. Conditional simulations, testing the alternatives of sampling 20 or 60 villages over the same area, indicated that sampling of only 20 villages would have provided an acceptable level of precision for state-level prevalence estimation to inform intervention decisions in this hyperendemic setting.Trachoma poses an enormous burden on the population of Unity State. Comprehensive control is urgently required to avoid preventable blindness and should be initiated across the state now. In other parts of South Sudan suspected to be highly trachoma endemic, counties should be combined into larger survey areas to generate the baseline data required to initiate interventions.

  1. High concentrations of lead and barium in hair of the rural population caused by water pollution in the Thar Jath oilfields in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragst, Fritz; Stieglitz, Klaus; Runge, Hella; Runow, Klaus-Dietrich; Quig, David; Osborne, Robert; Runge, Christian; Ariki, John

    2016-12-23

    In the oil fields of Thar Jath, South Sudan, increasing salinity of drinking water was observed together with human incompatibilities and rise in livestock mortalities. Hair analysis was used to characterize the toxic exposure of the population. Hair samples of volunteers from four communities with different distance from the center of the oil field (Koch 23km, n=24; Leer 50km, n=26; Nyal 110km, n=21; and Rumbek 220km, n=25) were analyzed for altogether 39 elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Very high concentrations and a toxic health endangerment were assessed for lead and barium. The concentration of lead increased steadily with decreasing distance from the oil field from Rumbek (mean 2.8μg/g) to Koch (mean 18.7μg/g) and was there in the same range as in highly contaminated mining regions in Kosovo, China or Bolivia. The weighting materials in drilling muds barite (BaSO4) and galena (PbS) were considered to be the sources of drinking water pollution and high hair values. The high concentrations of lead and barium in hair demonstrate clearly the health risk caused by harmful deposition of toxic industrial waste but cannot be used for diagnosis of a chronic intoxication of the individuals.

  2. Inclusion and human rights in health policies: comparative and benchmarking analysis of 51 policies from Malawi, Sudan, South Africa and Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm MacLachlan

    Full Text Available While many health services strive to be equitable, accessible and inclusive, peoples' right to health often goes unrealized, particularly among vulnerable groups. The extent to which health policies explicitly seek to achieve such goals sets the policy context in which services are delivered and evaluated. An analytical framework was developed--EquiFrame--to evaluate 1 the extent to which 21 Core Concepts of human rights were addressed in policy documents, and 2 coverage of 12 Vulnerable Groups who might benefit from such policies. Using this framework, analysis of 51 policies across Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Sudan, confirmed the relevance of all Core Concepts and Vulnerable Groups. Further, our analysis highlighted some very strong policies, serious shortcomings in others as well as country-specific patterns. If social inclusion and human rights do not underpin policy formation, it is unlikely they will be inculcated in service delivery. EquiFrame facilitates policy analysis and benchmarking, and provides a means for evaluating policy revision and development.

  3. A retrospective analysis of oral cholera vaccine use, disease severity and deaths during an outbreak in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekolo, C.E.; Loenhout, J.A. van; Rodriguez-Llanes, J.M.; Rumunu, J.; Ramadan, O.P.; Guha-Sapir, D.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pre-emptive oral cholera vaccination reduces disease severity and mortality in people who develop cholera disease during an outbreak. METHODS: The study involved a retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data from 41 cholera treatment facilities in South

  4. A retrospective analysis of oral cholera vaccine use, disease severity and deaths during an outbreak in South Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekolo, C.E.; Loenhout, J.A. van; Rodriguez-Llanes, J.M.; Rumunu, J.; Ramadan, O.P.; Guha-Sapir, D.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether pre-emptive oral cholera vaccination reduces disease severity and mortality in people who develop cholera disease during an outbreak. METHODS: The study involved a retrospective analysis of demographic and clinical data from 41 cholera treatment facilities in South Su

  5. Feasibility of a preventive mass vaccination campaign with two doses of oral cholera vaccine during a humanitarian emergency in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta, M Ilaria; Lenglet, Annick; de Weerdt, Silvia; Crestani, Rosa; Sinke, Renate; Frawley, Mary Jo; Van Herp, Michel; Zachariah, Rony

    2014-12-01

    As an adjunct to cholera prevention measures, WHO advises the use of oral cholera vaccine through mass vaccination campaigns in high-risk areas and for vulnerable population groups. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a mass vaccination campaign using 1) a predominantly fixed and 2) a mobile door-to-door strategy. Vaccination included administration of two doses (given 2 weeks apart) of oral cholera vaccine to individuals older than 1 year of age, in four refugee camps: Jamam, Doro, Batil and Gendrassa, and the host population in Maban County, South Sudan, from December 2012 to February 2013. A total of 258 832 doses were administered to a population of 166 000 (126 000 refugees and 40 000 host population). The first round coverage for the refugees was above 84% for Doro, Jamam and Batil and 104% for Gendrassa. The second dose reached the same coverage as the first dose. For the host population, the coverage for the first dose was above 90% in Doro and Jamam and 53% in Gendrassa and Batil. For the second round, the coverage was above 79% in Doro and Jamam and above 70% in Batil and Gendrassa. The vaccination of a large population in an emergency context proved to be feasible and acceptable and achieved high coverage. This is encouraging and is a way forward for reducing cholera related morbidity and mortality among vulnerable populations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Legitimising the Juba Peace Agreement on Accountability and Reconciliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the Juba peace negotiations on accountability and reconciliation. It advances a new interpretation of the Agreement on Accountability and Reconciliation, focusing on five justice features: National proceedings, restorative accountability, alternative sentencing, individual...... in internationally judicialised peace processes: The need for peace agreement legitimation combined with the legitimacy requirements in such peace processes structurally constitutes the ICC as metaphorically present in the negotiation room and thus akin to a third-party actor....

  7. Notes from the field: hepatitis E outbreak among refugees from South Sudan - Gambella, Ethiopia, April 2014-January 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Lauren B; Menkir, Zeray; Kahi, Vincent; Maina, Gidraf; Asnakew, Solomon; Tubman, Michelle; Elyas, Hajir Z; Nigatu, Alemayehu; Dak, David; Maung, U Aye; Nakao, Jolene H; Bilukha, Oleg; Shahpar, Cyrus

    2015-05-22

    In early April 2014, two South Sudanese refugees in the Gambella region of western Ethiopia experienced acute onset of jaundice, accompanied by fever. One patient was a pregnant woman aged 24 years evaluated at a routine prenatal clinic visit in Leitchour refugee camp. The second patient was a malnourished boy aged 1 year who resided in Tierkidi refugee camp. The boy died despite hospitalization. During the last 2 weeks of May, four more cases of acute jaundice syndrome (AJS), defined as yellow discoloration of the eyes, were detected in Leitchuor. By mid-June, an additional 50 AJS cases were reported across three large camps in the region, Kule, Leitchuor, and Tierkidi, with 45 (90%) of these cases reported in Leitchuor. Sera collected from a convenience sample of 21 AJS cases were sent to Addis Ababa and Nairobi for real-time polymerase chain reaction testing; 12 (57%) were positive for hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA. By January 2015, a total of 1,117 suspected cases of hepatitis E meeting the case definition of AJS were reported among refugees in camps across Gambella.

  8. The Partition of Sudan and Its Impact on China's Oil Interests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin

    2011-01-01

    After over half a century of war, South Sudan declared independence .on July 9, 2011, setting up the Republic of South Sudan andcomplying with a Comprehensive North and the South in 2005. As Peace Agreement reached between the well as competition for oil resources, there are ethnic and religious causes behind the division between the north and south. Independence for Southern Sudan however did not resolve these problems. On the contrary, it complicated the existing situation. Consequently, China's oil interests in the region are threatened.

  9. Developing healthcare in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of human resources, and in addition to nurses, midwives, technicians and managers, there is ... secondary care; developing the teaching practice of a faculty of clinical ... skills, mentoring, and leadership – see Figure 1. Over the course of 2015 ...

  10. Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy…

  11. Games, Social Simulations, and Data--Integration for Policy Decisions: The "Sudan" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, Peter; Spraragen, Marc; Ranganathan, Balki; Carley, Kathleen M.; Zyda, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the development of the "Sudan Game," an interactive model of the country in the time period leading up to the Sudanese referendum on the secession of the South. While many simulations are designed to educate about their subjects, the "Sudan Game" is intended to be a prototype for policy making via gameplay. It…

  12. Dialysis and transplantation in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, S M; Beliela, M H; Hamza, H

    1995-01-01

    In this report we present the current status of the renal replacement therapy in Sudan. Sudan is a large country with 30 million inhabitants. Peritoneal Dialysis was started in 1968, while hemodialysis was started in 1973. At present, there are only 16 hemodialysis machines serving 56 patients in two centers in Sudan. There are also 15 peritoneal dialysis beds for 70 intermittent peritoneal dialysis patients in three centers. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is not being practiced in Sudan. The first renal transplant was in 1974, and till now more than 30 transplants have been performed in two transplant centers. All the transplants have been from living donors. The scholars of Islam in Sudan oppose to donation from cadavers. There are 200 renal transplant patients being followed up in Sudan and the majority had their renal transplants abroad. We conclude that there is a tremendous shortage of renal services in Sudan. There are more efforts being made to improve these services.

  13. Crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    El Tahir, N

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tectonophysics Vol. 593 (2013) 151–160 Crustal structure of the Khartoum Basin, Sudan Nada El Tahir a,b,*, Andrew Nyblade a,b, Jordi Julià c, Raymond Durrheim a,d a School of Geosciences, The University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South... Centre for Mining Innovation, Johannesburg, South Africa *Corresponding author: nada_ahmed99@hotmail.com Abstract The crustal structure of the northern part of the Khartoum Basin has been investigated using data from 3 permanent seismic stations...

  14. Top Toursi kohal rippus juba mõnda aega kahtluse vari / Gert D. Hankewitz ; Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2010-01-01

    Reisibüroo Top Tours omanik Ibrahim Khaled nimetab oma firma makseraskuste põhjuseks Euroopa lennunduses kaose tekitanud Islandi tuhapilve, turismifirmade liidul oli juba ammu kahtlus, et Top Tours ei ole jätkusuutlik

  15. Top Toursi kohal rippus juba mõnda aega kahtluse vari / Gert D. Hankewitz ; Sirje Niitra

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hankewitz, Gert D.

    2010-01-01

    Reisibüroo Top Tours omanik Ibrahim Khaled nimetab oma firma makseraskuste põhjuseks Euroopa lennunduses kaose tekitanud Islandi tuhapilve, turismifirmade liidul oli juba ammu kahtlus, et Top Tours ei ole jätkusuutlik

  16. Sudão: entre a promessa de paz no sul e a incerteza da guerra no Darfur Sudan: between the promise of peace in the south and the uncertainty of war in Darfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Nascimento

    2009-12-01

    Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed in 9 January, 2005. Putting an end to an equally long and complex peace process, this Agreement is an ambitious one, including several protocols on power and wealth-sharing and allowing, for the first time, for a possible secession of the south, through a referendum to be held at the end of a six-year interim period, during which there will be a govern of national unity. But peace in Sudan is still uncertain, made difficult by the many obstacles to the implementation of the Agreement and challenged by a genocidal violence in Darfur and an increasing instability in the eastern regions. Through a more rigorous analysis of the complexities of war and peace in Sudan, this paper aims at evaluating the recent developments of the peace process and understanding the challenges posed to the prospects of a more peaceful and prosperous future in the country.

  17. What are the risk factors for the comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in a war-affected population? a cross-sectional community study in South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayazi Touraj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited data exists on the association of war trauma with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD-depression in the general population of low-income countries. The present study aimed to evaluate socioeconomic and trauma-related risk factors associated with PTSD, depression, and PTSD-depression comorbidity in the population of Greater Bahr el Ghazal States, South Sudan. Methods In this cross-sectional community study (n=1200 we applied the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ and MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI to investigate the prevalence of PTSD, depression, and PTSD-depression comorbidity. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between these disorders, previous trauma exposure, sociodemographic, and socioeconomic factors. Results PTSD only was found in 331 (28% and depression only in 75 (6.4% of the study population. One hundred and twelve (9.5% of the participants had PTSD-depression comorbid diagnosis. Exposure to traumatic events and socioeconomic disadvantage were significantly associated with having PTSD or PTSD-depression comorbidity but not with depression. Participants with a comorbid condition were more likely to be socioeconomic disadvantaged, have experienced more traumatic events, and showed higher level of psychological distress than participants with PTSD or depression alone. Conclusions In individuals exposed to war trauma, attention should be given to those who may fulfill criteria for a diagnosis of both PTSD and depression.

  18. Petrographic of Northwestern Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nafi M; Abdullatif O M

    2003-01-01

    The sedimentology of the Northwestern Sudan consists of lower, middle and upper cycles.The lower and upper cycles are composed of intercalated fluvial and shallow marine facies, whereas the middle cycle consists entirely of fluvial and glaciofluvial facies. The petrographic analysis shows that the lower and upper cycles consist of quartz and lithic arenite sandstones, whereas the middle cycle consists of arkosic and lithic arenite sandstones. The lower and upper cycle sandstones reflect derivation mainly from recycled orogens with minor contribution from craton interior provenances. However, the middle cycle sandstones indicate derivation from basement uplift, transitional and mainly recycled orogens provenances.

  19. Nutrition and child feeding patterns in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, G G

    1992-12-01

    Only 14% of the 208 million potentially cultivable acres in the Sudan are being cultivated. Insufficient infrastructure keeps the Sudan from reaching its socioeconomic potential. Recurring localized drought, agricultural pests, and environmental degradation plague the country. Studies estimate that moderate to severe undernutrition ranges from 15% to 75% in the Sudan. Geographical location of residence and age of child were the most significant predictors of malnutrition. Geographic differences were due to local food availability and differential availability of food aid in different regions at different times. Chronic and acute malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies in children are endemic in the Sudan. Some relatively common micronutrient deficiencies include vitamin A deficiency, iodine deficiency, and scurvy. Child eating patterns depend largely on the cereal staple in the region. Wheat is an important cereal staple in Northern Province, while millet is important in North and South Darfour and in Kordofan. Men and older boys eat meals before women and young children. In wealthy traditional households, the two groups eat in separate areas of the house. Almost every mother breast feeds her infant. In fact, traditional breast feeding is the single most important factor protecting the health of Sudanese children. Children are breast fed for 15-21 months. A 1987 study shows that 62% of mothers in rural Khartoum supplemented breast milk with bottle feeding as early as the first few days of life. Mothers tend to directly introduce children to a household diet without transitional weaning foods at around 9 months. Mothers tend to withhold breast milk during illness. The Sudan has some taboos against some foods. For example, pregnant women should avoid fattening foods to keep the fetus small and to make for an easier delivery. These findings should be used to strengthen the nutrition communications project in the Sudan.

  20. The Contribution of the Diaspora to the Reconstruction of Education in South Sudan: The Challenge of Being Involved from a Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Josje; Blaak, Marit; Andrew, Florence Aate

    2013-01-01

    Conflicts all over the world result in people living in diaspora, usually maintaining strong ties with their countries of origin. As many of them are well educated and dedicated to their country, expectations of the role they can play in the development of their home country are high. This article reflects on the contribution of the South Sudanese…

  1. Prevalence of protozoa species in drinking and environmental water sources in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanan, Salah; Abd, Hadi; Bayoumi, Magdi; Saeed, Amir; Sandström, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani) in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8%) amoebae, 17 (25.7%) Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9%) ciliates, and 5 (7.6%) flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health.

  2. Prevalence of Protozoa Species in Drinking and Environmental Water Sources in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Shanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protozoa are eukaryotic cells distributed worldwide in nature and are receiving increasing attention as reservoirs and potential vectors for the transmission of pathogenic bacteria. In the environment, on the other hand, many genera of the protozoa are human and animal pathogens. Only limited information is available on these organisms in developing countries and so far no information on their presence is available from Sudan. It is necessary to establish a molecular identification of species of the protozoa from drinking and environmental water. 600 water samples were collected from five states (Gadarif, Khartoum, Kordofan, Juba, and Wad Madani in Sudan and analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing. 57 out of 600 water samples were PCR positive for protozoa. 38 out of the 57 positive samples were identified by sequencing to contain 66 protozoa species including 19 (28.8% amoebae, 17 (25.7% Apicomplexa, 25 (37.9% ciliates, and 5 (7.6% flagellates. This study utilized molecular methods identified species belonging to all phyla of protozoa and presented a fast and accurate molecular detection and identification of pathogenic as well as free-living protozoa in water uncovering hazards facing public health.

  3. Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research: Reflections on the Research Approach Used to Understand the Complexity of Maternal Health Issues in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmusharaf, Khalifa; Byrne, Elaine; Manandhar, Mary; Hemmings, Joanne; O'Donovan, Diarmuid

    2017-07-01

    Many methodological approaches have been used to understand cultural dimensions to maternal health issues. Although a well-designed quantitative survey with a representative sample can provide essential information on trends in behavior, it does not necessarily establish a contextualized understanding of the complexity in which different behaviors occur. This article addresses how contextualized data can be collected in a short time and under conditions in which participants in conflict-affected zones might not have established, or time to establish, trust with the researchers. The solution, the Participatory Ethnographic Evaluation and Research (PEER) approach, is illustrated through a study whereby South Sudanese marginalized women were trained to design research instruments, and collect and analyze qualitative data. PEER overcomes the problem that many ethnographic or participatory approaches face-the extensive time and resources required to develop trusting relationships with the community to understand the local context and the social networks they form.

  4. Legitimising the Juba Peace Agreement on Accountability and Reconciliation: The International Criminal Court as a Third-party Actor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the Juba peace negotiations on accountability and reconciliation. It advances a new interpretation of the Agreement on Accountability and Reconciliation, focusing on five justice features: National proceedings, restorative accountability, alternative sentencing, individual r...

  5. Tunnel Vision or Kaleidoscope Competing Concepts on Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the context of Sudan (and Africa in general), concepts of integration and unity are .... a different perspective of Sudan identity and national integration. ...... Sudan, Institute of African and Asian Studies, University of Khartoum, Sudan, 69-101. Ibrahim, A.A. 1985. Regional Inequality and Underdevelopment in Western Sudan.

  6. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Sodium Stibogluconate Monotherapy to Sodium Stibogluconate and Paromomycin Combination for the Treatment of Severe Post Kala Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in South Sudan – A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abongomera, Charles; Gatluak, Francis; Buyze, Jozefine; Ritmeijer, Koert

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a common dermatological complication following successful treatment of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania donovani. PKDL presents as macular, papular, nodular or mixed skin rash on sun-exposed body parts. Patients are not ill unless there are complications due to mucosal involvement or ulceration. As PKDL in East Africa is typically self-healing, and treatment is long and with significant adverse events, only severe and complicated cases are treated. Studies to determine optimal treatment of PKDL are rare and based on small cohorts. Since 1989, Médecins Sans Frontières is treating severe PKDL within VL treatment programmes in South Sudan. Treatment was initially with sodium stibogluconate (SSG) monotherapy and since 2002 with a combination of SSG and paromomycin (PM). SSG monotherapy (20 mg/kg/day for a minimum of 30 days) was provided in primary health units, and the combination of PM (15 mg sulphate/kg/day for 17 days) plus SSG (30 mg/kg/day for a minimum of 17 days) was provided in secondary health facilities. Methodology/Principal Findings By retrospective analysis of routinely collected programme data we compared the effectiveness (outcome and treatment duration) of both regimens. Between 2002 and 2008, 422 patients with severe PKDL were treated; 343 received SSG and 79 SSG/PM combination. The cure rate was significantly better with combination treatment when compared to monotherapy (97% vs. 90%; odds ratio [OR], 7.6; p = 0.02), treatment duration was shorter (mean 34 days vs. 42 days; p = 0.005), and defaulter rate was lower (3% vs. 9%; OR, 0.3; p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in death rate (0% vs. 1%; p = 0.5). Conclusions/Significance We found that SSG/PM combination therapy resulted in more favourable outcomes than SSG monotherapy. An additional advantage is the lower cost of the combination therapy, due to the shorter treatment duration. A combination of SSG and PM is

  7. Savisaare suvemaja maksis juba kaheksa aasta eest üle poole miljoni / Sigrid Laev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laev, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    Riigikantselei lasi juba kaheksa aasta eest hinnata muinsuskaitse all olevad suvilakompleksid, mis majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Edgar Savisaarele kuuluv firma Fixor Holding ja Kristiina Ojulandi elukaaslase Raimo Kägu ettevõte Marriot OÜ ostsid paari aasta eest 500 000 krooni eest. Tookord pakuti majade turuväärtusesks 520 000 ja 530 000 krooni. Vt. samas: Keila-Joale on igaüks teretulnud. Intervjuu riigi peaprokuröri Norman Aasaga

  8. Olie skaber fred i Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Sydsudan forventes formelt at erklære sin uafhængighed den 9. juli 2011. Men hvad sker der, når Sudan nu deles i Nordsudan og Sydsudan? Oliekilderne ligger i Sydsudan, men den helt nødvendige infrastruktur der skal transformere olie til dollars har man i nord. Da op imod 90% af Sydsudans indtægter...

  9. Potential impacts of damming the Juba Valley, western Somalia: Insights from geomorphology and alluvial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martin

    2014-05-01

    In 1988 plans were well advanced to dam the Juba River in western Somalia. The aims of the Baardheere Dam Project were to generate hydroelectric power for the capital Mogadishu, and to provide water for irrigation in the Juba Valley. A reconnaissance survey on foot along 500 km of the river upstream of the proposed dam site at Baardheere and detailed geomorphic mapping from air photos provided a basis for reconstructing the late Quaternary alluvial history of the river and for assessing the potential impact of the proposed dam. The Juba River rises in the Ethiopian Highlands and is the only river in Somalia that flows to the sea. Its history reflects climatic events in Ethiopia, where the Rift Valley lakes were very low during the LGM (21±2 ka), and high for about 5, 000 years before and after then. Cave deposits in Somalia indicate wetter conditions at 13, 10, 7.5 and 1.5 ka. Alluvial terraces in the Juba Valley range in age from late Pleistocene to late Holocene but only attain a few metres above the present floodplain. This is because the dry tributary valleys contain limestone caves and fissures that divert any high flows from the parent river underground, a process not known when the project was first approved. The oldest preserved terrace was cemented by calcrete by 40 ka. Alluvial gravels were deposited at the outlet of dry tributary valleys during times of episodic high-energy flow between 26 ka and 28 ka. Finely laminated shelly sands accumulated at 10 ka to form the 5 m terrace. The 2 m terrace was laid down 3.2 ka ago as a slackwater deposit. The lack of high-level alluvial terraces raises doubts over plans to dam the river, since rapid leakage would occur from side valleys and the reservoir would not attain the height needed to generate hydroelectric power. It would submerge all existing arable land along the river. Finally, the presence in the late Holocene alluvium of the sub-fossil gastropods Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, which are

  10. The potential of telemedicine in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the use of new technologies for the delivery of healthcare at a ... number of health challenges. The rationale for ... and infectious diseases notably malaria, tuberculosis and. HIV. [5]. ... Services showed that cost-effective telemedicine initiatives .... Smartphones loaded with point-of-care tools are effectively utilized by.

  11. The potential of telemedicine in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A ship with passengers infected with bubonic plaque had to fly a yellow flag ... where distance is a critical factor, by all healthcare professionals using information and ... questionnaires and global positioning systems (GPS) [10,. 11]. Where to ...

  12. Earth Science Education in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullatif, Osman M.; Farwa, Abdalla G.

    1999-05-01

    This paper describes Earth Science Education in Sudan, with particular emphasis on the University of Khartoum. The first geological department in Sudan was founded in 1958 in the University of Khartoum. In the 1980s, six more geological departments have been added in the newer universities. The types of courses offered include Diploma, B.Sc. (General), B.Sc. (Honours), M.Sc. and Ph.D. The Geology programmes are strongly supported by field work training and mapping. Final-year students follow specialised training in one of the following topics: hydrogeology, geophysics, economic geology, sedimentology and engineering geology. A graduation report, written in the final year, represents 30-40% of the total marks. The final assessment and grading are decided with the help of internal and external examiners. Entry into the Geology programmes is based on merit and performance. The number of students who graduate with Honours and become geologists is between 20% to 40% of the initial intake at the beginning of the second year. Employment opportunities are limited and are found mainly in the Government's geological offices, the universities and research centres, and private companies. The Department of Geology at the University of Khartoum has long-standing internal and external links with outside partners. This has been manifested in the training of staff members, the donation of teaching materials and laboratory facilities. The chief problems currently facing Earth Science Education in Sudan are underfunding, poor equipment, laboratory facilities and logistics. Other problems include a shortage of staff, absence of research, lack of supervision and emigration of staff members. Urgent measures are needed to assess and evaluate the status of Earth Science Education in terms of objectives, needs and difficulties encountered. Earth Science Education is expected to contribute significantly to the exploitation of mineral resources and socio-economic development in the Sudan.

  13. They Own This: Mother Tongue Instruction for Indigenous Kuku Children in Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguarda, Ana Isabel; Woodward, Walter Pierce

    2013-01-01

    This article details a pilot program of mother tongue instruction in five primary schools for classes one through three, in Kajokeji County, Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. The program was launched by teachers and volunteers with the support of the Jesuit Refugee Service, an international non-governmental organization. The research examines…

  14. Comparison of the binding of the dyes Sudan II and Sudan IV to bovine hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Haoyu; Xia, Qing; Liu, Rutao, E-mail: rutaoliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2014-04-15

    Sudan dyes are widely used in industry, and sometimes illegally used as food additives despite their potential toxicity. In this work, the interactions of Sudan II and Sudan IV with bovine hemoglobin (BHb) were investigated by fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, resonance light scattering (RLS), UV–vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), and molecular modeling techniques. Binding of Sudan dyes to BHb could cause static quenching of the fluorescence, indicating changes in the microenvironment of tryptophan and tyrosine residues. The binding constants estimated for Sudan II and IV were 1.84×10{sup 4} L mol{sup −1} and 2.54×10{sup 4} L mol{sup −1}, respectively, at 293 K (20 °C). Each protein molecule bound one Sudan molecule approximately. Sudan II and IV were held at the hydrophobic cavity of BHb mainly by hydrophobic interaction. The decrease of α-helix and the increase of β-sheet seen in the CD spectra revealed a conformational alteration of the protein. From all the results, we conclude that Sudan IV has a stronger impact on the structure and function of BHb than that of Sudan II. -- Highlights: • Spectroscopic results show interaction details of Sudan II and IV with BHb. • The interaction of BHb with Sudan dyes is spontaneous with a 1:1 stoichiometry. • Sudan II and IV are located at the hydrophobic cavity of the BHb, and form complexes via hydrophobic interaction. • A stronger influence of bovine hemoglobin is caused by Sudan IV than that of Sudan II.

  15. Sudan and the Not so Comprehensive Peace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curless, Gareth; Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    2013-01-01

    This special section examines the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the Government of the Republic of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Army. It focuses on why the agreement was possible, the challenges involved in reaching and implementing it, and the issues that now...

  16. The politics of language planning in the Sudan: the case of the Naivasha language policy

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelhay, Ashraf K

    2008-01-01

    The National Congress Party (NCP), representing the government of the Sudan, and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) signed key peace protocols on the 26th May 2004 in the Kenyan town of Naivasha. The Protocol on Power–sharing contains a significant section on language policy. Having a language policy interwoven within the very discoursal fabric of the Protocol on Power–sharing is an arena of intense power struggle between the south and the north. Indeed, it ha...

  17. Briti üldvalimised võivad tulla juba sügisel / Jürgen Tamme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tamme, Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    Ajalehe Guardian küsitluse järgi on leiboristliku partei toetus Suurbritannias tõusnud 41 protsendini, kasutades partei praegust populaarsust võib peaminister Gordon Brown alamkoja valimised määrata juba oktoobrisse. Lisa: Leiboristlik partei

  18. Mycetoma in children in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahal, A H; Sabaa, A H Abu

    2010-02-01

    We report on 722 children with confirmed mycetoma seen at the Mycetoma Research Centre, Khartoum, Sudan during May 1991 to March 2009. There were 531 males (73.5%) and 191 females (26.5%) with an age range of 4-17 years (mean 13.7+/-2.9 years); most were students. The majority of patients were from Central and Western Sudan. The disease duration ranged between 6 months and 14 years (mean 2.27+/-2.12 years). Most of the patients had eumycetoma (79.1%). The clinical course was typical in the majority of the patients. Family history of mycetoma was reported in 15% of patients. The foot was affected most, followed by knee, hand, head and neck, chest wall and buttocks. In the foot, the metatarsal bones and calcaneum were affected most. Cytological and ultrasonic examinations of the lesions and histological examination of the surgical biopsies were the cornerstone in the diagnosis of mycetoma. Combined medical treatment and surgical excision was the standard treatment. Disease recurrence after surgical excision was reported in 17.9% of patients. The morbidity rate in this study was high, and it had led to high school dropout and many socioeconomic impacts on patients, families and community. Children with mycetoma need psychological support to identify and to treat their psychosocial problems. Copyright 2009 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Training traditional birth attendants in southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsager, Mary

    2008-01-01

    Traditional birth attendants are currently the principal service providers to pregnant women in southern Sudan. A training program provides education to promote maternal and newborn health as well as birth preparedness and establishes mechanisms for supportive supervision.

  20. Area Handbook Series: Sudan: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    was the Tijaniyah, a sect begun by Ahmad at Tijani in Morocco, which eventually penetrated Sudan in about 1810 via the western Sahel (see Glossary...rainfall in the usually productive regions of the Sahel (see Glossary) and southern Sudan added to the country’s economic problems. Refugees, both Sudanese...be irrigated for the first time. Heavy silting as well as serious problems of drainage and salinity occurred. As a result, by the late 1970s the

  1. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-15

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.  Created: 4/15/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections (proposed).   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  2. Tuberculosis awareness in Gezira, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suleiman, M M A; Sahal, N; Sodemann, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This case-control study aimed to assess tuberculosis (TB) awareness and its associated sociodemographic characteristics in Gezira, Sudan. New smear-positive TB patients registered in Gezira in 2010 (n = 425) and age-matched controls who attended the same health facilities for other reasons (n = 850......) formed the study sample. Awareness was measured using a modified standard World Health Organization TB knowledge, attitude and practice instrument. There was no significant difference between TB cases and the controls in overall levels of TB awareness. About two-thirds of TB cases and controls had good...... TB awareness. Respondents' sex was associated with awareness among the controls. Age, level of education, type of residence and type of occupation were significantly associated with TB awareness, whereas marital status had no effect. The good level of TB awareness found among TB cases and controls...

  3. 76 FR 68037 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sudan Waiver Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Operations in Sudan and Imports from Burma, in the Federal Register at 74 FR 40463 on August 11, 2009... that conducts restricted business operations in Sudan. In addition, the waiver request must address any... prohibition on contracting with entities that conduct restricted business operations in Sudan. This rule...

  4. Obstetric fistula in Southern Sudan: situational analysis and Key Informant Method to estimate prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Alma J; Fox, Samantha; Campbell, Oona M R; Kuper, Hannah

    2013-03-12

    Obstetric fistula is a severe condition which can have devastating consequences for a woman's life. Despite a considerable literature, very little is known about its prevalence. This project was conducted to carry out a situational analysis of fistula services in South Sudan and to pilot test the Key Informant Method (KIM) to estimate the prevalence of fistula in a region of South Sudan. Key stakeholder interviews, document reviews and fistula surgery record reviews were undertaken. A KIM survey was conducted in a district of Western Bahr-el-Ghazal in January 2012. One hundred sixty-six community-based distributors, traditional birth attendants and village midwives were trained as key informants to identify women with fistula in the community. Women identified were subsequently examined by an obstetrician and nurse to verify whether they had a fistula. There were limited fistula repair services in South Sudan. Approximately 50-80 women per year attend periodic campaigns, with around half having a fistula and receiving a repair. On average a further 5 women a year received fistula repair from hospital services. Ten women with potential fistula were identified via KIM; all confirmed by the obstetrician. Of these, three were from the survey area, which had 8,865 women of reproductive age (15-49 years). This gives a minimal estimated prevalence of at least 30 fistulas per 100,000 women of reproductive age (95% CI 10-100). Routine fistula repair services available do not meet the population's needs. The pilot study suggests that KIM can be used to identify women with fistula in the community. Data on fistula are generally poor; the KIM methodology we used in South Sudan yielded a lower fistula prevalence than estimates reported previously in the region.

  5. A nosocomial transmission of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever to an attending physician in north kordufan, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbashir Mustafa I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF, a tick-borne disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, is a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Recently, CCHFV has been reported as an important emerging infectious viral pathogen in Sudan. Sporadic cases and multiple CCHF outbreaks, associated with nosocomial chain of transmission, have been reported in the Kordufan region of Sudan. Aims To confirm CCHF in an index patient and attending physician in North Kordufan region, Sudan, and to provide some information on virus genetic lineages. Methods Antibody captured ELISA, reverse transcription PCR, partial S segment sequences of the virus and subsequent phylogenetic analysis were used to confirm the CCHFV infection and to determine the virus genetic lineages. Results CCHF was confirmed by monitoring specific IgM antibody and by detection of the viral genome using RT-PCR. Treatment with oral ribavirin, replacement with fluid therapy, blood transfusion and administration of platelets concentrate resulted in rapid improvement of the health condition of the female physician. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial S segment sequences of the 2 CCHFV indicates that both strains are identical and belong to Group III virus lineage, which includes viruses from Africa including, Sudan, Mauritania, South Africa and Nigeria. Conclusion Further epidemiologic studies including, CCHFV complete genome analysis and implementation of improved surveillance are urgently needed to better predict and respond to CCHF outbreaks in the Kordufan region, Sudan.

  6. Fatty liver disease in Sudan is not alcohol related | Nail | Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatty liver disease in Sudan is not alcohol related. ... Objectives: The aim of this study is to find out the prevalence, clinical ... Data was collected using a well designed questionnaire and results were analyzed by using SPSS computer system.

  7. Mental Health Services in Southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siegal_D

    Major mental illness exists all over the world with a remarkably similar prevalence. ... Physical health suffers in this environment with malaria and dysentery ... working in the. Southern Sudan or those Healthcare. Professionals in other parts of the world seeking ... return from internal and external displacement. Drugs and ...

  8. Uranium reconnaissance survey in southern Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Civetta, L.; De Vivo, B.; Lima, A.; Orsi, G.; Perrone, V.; Zupetta, A.; Giunta, G.; Ippolito, F.

    1981-09-01

    The southern provinces of Sudan (Equatoria, Bahr el Ghazal and el Buheyrat) have been investigated by geological and geochemical methods for uranium and thorium. Results of radiometric measurements permitted the identification of a target area for follow-up work, favourable to host a roll-type uranium deposit.

  9. Enduring crisis : refugee problems in eastern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, H.J.; Kuhlman, T.

    1990-01-01

    The Free University in Amsterdam has undertaken several research projects in the Sudan. One programme (1983-1986) was aimed at comparing spontaneous and organized settlement of refugees as roads towards integration; the locations studied were in the region of Gedaref, in the southern part of the Eas

  10. Tuberculosis stigma in Gezira State, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suleiman MM, Ahmed; Sahal, Nagla; Sodemann, Morten

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) stigma and to determine the relation between socio-demographic characteristics and TB stigma among TB cases and their controls in Gezira State, Sudan. METHODS: A case-control study design was used. New smear-positive TB patients registered...

  11. Multiple Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains are associated with disease outbreaks in Sudan, 2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imadeldin E Aradaib

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF activity has recently been detected in the Kordufan region of Sudan. Since 2008, several sporadic cases and nosocomial outbreaks associated with high case-fatality have been reported in villages and rural hospitals in the region. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we describe a cluster of cases occurring in June 2009 in Dunkop village, Abyei District, South Kordufan, Sudan. Seven CCHF cases were involved in the outbreak; however, clinical specimens could be collected from only two patients, both of whom were confirmed as acute CCHF cases using CCHF-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete S, M, and L segment sequences places the Abyei strain of CCHF virus in Group III, a virus group containing strains from various countries across Africa, including Sudan, South Africa, Mauritania, and Nigeria. The Abyei strain detected in 2009 is genetically distinct from the recently described 2008 Sudanese CCHF virus strains (Al-fulah 3 and 4, and the Abyei strain S and L segments closely match those of CCHF virus strain ArD39554 from Mauritania. CONCLUSIONS: The present investigation illustrates that multiple CCHF virus lineages are circulating in the Kordufan region of Sudan and are associated with recent outbreaks of the disease occurring during 2008-2009.

  12. 15 CFR 742.10 - Anti-terrorism: Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Sudan. 742.10 Section...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.10 Anti-terrorism: Sudan. (a) License requirements. (1) If AT column 1 or AT... ECCN, a license is required for export to Sudan for anti-terrorism purposes. 1 AT column 1 refers to...

  13. Humanitarian Aid, Internal Displacement and Social Impacts in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.; Osman, Kamal M.

    2011-01-01

    The study presented here reviews activities of NGOs in Sudan by surveying and studying the activities of Save the Children of United Kingdom. Activities of NGOs in Sudan were always a controversial issue that resulted in the expulsion of many in 2009. There were also precedents of such expulsions in previous and following years. The paper discusses humanitarian work in Sudan, positive and negative sides. The case study's activities of the Save the Children efforts in Jebel Aulia Internally Di...

  14. Humanitarian aid, internal displacement and social impacts in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.; Osman, Kamal M.

    2011-01-01

    The study presented here reviews activities of NGOs in Sudan by surveying and studying the activities of Save the Children of United Kingdom. Activities of NGOs in Sudan were always a controversial issue that resulted in the expulsion of many in 2009. There were also precedents of such expulsions in previous and following years. The paper discusses humanitarian work in Sudan, positive and negative sides. The case study's activities of the Save the Children efforts in Jebel Aulia Internally Di...

  15. Decoding Hermitian Codes with Sudan's Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    1999-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of Sudan's algorithm for list decoding Hermitian codes beyond half the minimum distance. The main ingredients are an explicit method to calculate so-called increasing zero bases, an efficient interpolation algorithm for finding the Q-polynomial......, and a reduction of the problem of factoring the Q-polynomial to the problem of factoring a univariate polynomial over a large finite field....

  16. A class of Sudan-decodable codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2000-01-01

    In this article, Sudan's algorithm is modified into an efficient method to list-decode a class of codes which can be seen as a generalization of Reed-Solomon codes. The algorithm is specialized into a very efficient method for unique decoding. The code construction can be generalized based...... on algebraic-geometry codes and the decoding algorithms are generalized accordingly. Comparisons with Reed-Solomon and Hermitian codes are made....

  17. Cointegration growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Hassan, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    This analytical review explores the links between growth, poverty and inequality in Sudan for the period 1956-2003. This paper build upon different models to investigate empirically the relationship between economic growth - as measured by GDP per capita growth- and inequality as measured by Gini coefficient (the growth, inequality and poverty triangle hypotheses), using data from the national and international sources. The paper tries to answer the following questions: i) whether growth, ine...

  18. Using Transformative Models of Adult Literacy in Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding Processes at Community Level: Examples from Guinea, Sierra Leone and Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffery, Juliet

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on the experience in Guinea, Sierra Leone and South Sudan, to explore how the methodology and modalities of community based participatory literacy can interrelate and combine with those of conflict resolution and peacebuilding. The paper considers how transformative models of literacy, such as those of Freire, REFLECT, the…

  19. The Game of Peace and Justice in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    Den internationale strafferetsdomstol udsendte i marts 2009 en arrestordre på Sudans præsident Omar al-Bashir. Det internationale samfund har siden været delt på spørgsmålet om arrestordrens konsekvenser og betydning i forhold til at skabe fred og stabilitet i Sudan. I dette brief analyserer majo...

  20. Structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the Fi

  1. Reasons behind the Failure of Teaching Sudan Practical Integrated National English (SPINE 5) in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamad, Mona M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the development of English language learning and curriculum design, English language series became a very important issue that affects education globally and in Sudan. In specific, this study reports reasons behind the failure of teaching SPINE 5 (which is one of SPINE series) from the teachers' point of view. In Bahry Locality in…

  2. Mapping the Potential Risk of Mycetoma Infection in Sudan and South Sudan Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Samy (Abdallah M.); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); A.T. Peterson (A. Townsend)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available

  3. Mapping the potential risk of mycetoma infection in Sudan and South Sudan using ecological niche modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samy, Abdallah M; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Peterson, A Townsend

    2014-01-01

    .... Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions...

  4. Mapping the Potential Risk of Mycetoma Infection in Sudan and South Sudan Using Ecological Niche Modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Samy (Abdallah M.); W.W.J. van de Sande (Wendy); A.H. Fahal (Ahmed); A.T. Peterson (A. Townsend)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIn 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) recognized mycetoma as one of the neglected tropical conditions due to the efforts of the mycetoma consortium. This same consortium formulated knowledge gaps that require further research. One of these gaps was that very few data are available

  5. Prehospital emergency care and injury prevention in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Elbashir

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: Due to an absence of published literature in Sudan, much of the data have been recorded from paper records and empirical observations. Prehospital care and injury prevention in the Sudan is a recent initiative, but it is developing into a promising model with many opportunities for improvement. This momentum should be nurtured and requires a purposive, collective collaboration to draw a blueprint for a locally relevant, effective and efficient prehospital system in Sudan. It is hoped that this article will highlight and encourage further progress.

  6. The Comprehensive Peace Agreement and the Dynamics of Post-Conflict Political Partnership in Sudan Das Umfassende Friedensabkommen im Sudan und die Dynamik politischer Partnerschaft in der Nachkriegsphase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einas Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the researches on peace agreements conclude that powersharing arrangements included in these are mostly to the detriment of longterm democratic transformation. The basic argument of these studies is that peace deals consolidate mainly the power of the signatories to the detriment of other major political forces. This article illustrates that, in contrast to many cases, the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA, which was signed in 2005 between the government of Sudan represented by the ruling party, the National Congress Party (NCP and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A, has led to an important political transformation in state structure as well as in power relations. Although the CPA enhanced the legitimacy of the SPLM and the NCP and consolidated their political domination, it, nevertheless, contributed to a significant political opening for other political forces in the North and in the South. The CPA put an end to the historically exclusive political hegemony of the North. This article focuses on the dynamics of relations between the SPLM and the NCP during the transitional period and illustrates how these dynamics have impacted upon the process of political transformation. Untersuchungen zu Friedensvereinbarungen kommen zumeist zu dem Schluss, dass die enthaltenen Machtteilungsklauseln einer langfristigen demokratischen Transformation abträglich sind. Als wichtigstes Argument wird dabei angeführt, dass Friedensvereinbarungen vor allem die Position der unterzeichnenden Partner stärken – zum Schaden anderer bedeutender politischer Kräfte. Der vorliegende Beitrag zeigt auf, dass – im Gegensatz zu vielen anderen Fällen – das Umfassende Friedensabkommen (Comprehensive Peace Agreement, CPA, das 2005 von der Regierung des Sudan, repräsentiert durch die Regierungspartei National Congress Party (NCP und die Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A, unterzeichnet wurde, zu einem erheblichen Wandel sowohl

  7. The Historical and religious conditions of the split of Sudan ... in the context of Christian-Muslim relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Cisło

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The split into the predominantly Muslim Northern Sudan, and Southern Sudan with a Christian and animist majority, had been emerging in the course of many centuries. Without any doubt, one is bound to mention the natural and geographical boundaries, the ethnical diversity of the regions, the influence exercised during the centuries by the Egyptians, Arabs and later on by the British. According to the opinions of some experts on the subject, there can be two distinct matters that have contributed to the split of the North and the South. These were education and religion. Apart from education, also the issue of religion was dividing the Sudan. After the declaration of independence on January 1, 1954 all the Christian private schools in the South were closed down. There remained only state schools with Arabic as the language of instruction and with the upbringing model based on the Koran teaching. Having obtained political independence, the fears of the British administration and Christian missionaries became a reality: Islam was made the state religion. The only way to attain an occupational and social status was to convert to Islam. Frequently, this took place according to the rule of an already accomplished fact or by pressure. In the context of Sudan, one of the biggest country in Africa, with its population of over 37 million, made up of 70 per cent Muslim believers , 14 per cent of Christians, and 12 per cent of animists, it is of great importance for the perception of fundamentalism to be familiar with the history of this country.

  8. The youth and post-war recovery in southern Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    youth and access their potential in Southern Sudan, post-conflict recovery will have limited success. ... Whatever the method used, children ended up armed with .... Long-term effects of war on children have been documented. Levy and.

  9. Currency Crisis in Sudan in 2012: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamedin Bannaga, Dr.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sudan currency crisis in 2012 occurred when the Sudanese pound lost 66 percent of its value against the US dollar. In this article we adopt statistical methods such as the signal approach and econometric methods such as the Probit Model for identifying and evaluating the currency crisis. We utilize some economic indicators that have the ability to predict the crisis. We examined the capability of these indicators in generating an early warning system for Sudan currency crisis. The study confirms that the incidence of currency crisis in Sudan increases by increase in inflation rate, increase in import percentage of GDP, rise in claims against the central government, reduction in external reserves and existence of political crisis. Moreover, the study finds that the most important predictor of currency crisis in Sudan is decline in external reserves.

  10. Obstacles to health care: a nurse's experience in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Whitney C

    2007-10-01

    Sudan is a country known for its long history of wars, poverty, and disease. These factors combine to cause a high incidence of morbidity and mortality and the inability of the population to seek and receive medical care.

  11. Generalized Sudan's List Decoding for Order Domain Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2007-01-01

    We generalize Sudan's list decoding algorithm without multiplicity to evaluation codes coming from arbitrary order domains. The number of correctable errors by the proposed method is larger than the original list decoding without multiplicity.......We generalize Sudan's list decoding algorithm without multiplicity to evaluation codes coming from arbitrary order domains. The number of correctable errors by the proposed method is larger than the original list decoding without multiplicity....

  12. The Domestic Origins of Sudan's External Debt Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel Rahman Ahmed Abdel Rahman

    1995-01-01

    Domestic factors played a significant role in Sudan's external debt crisis which emerged in the early 1980's. Personal rule and related political survival considerations undermined on-going economic adjustment programmes and prompted heavy external borrowing. Borrowing from abroad went unchecked because of the absence of an effective debt management system. It was also fuelled by economic corruption and the decline of cotton, Sudan's principal export crop. The absence of an effective debt man...

  13. Generalized Sudan's List Decoding for Order Domain Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geil, Hans Olav; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2007-01-01

    We generalize Sudan's list decoding algorithm without multiplicity to evaluation codes coming from arbitrary order domains. The number of correctable errors by the proposed method is larger than the original list decoding without multiplicity.......We generalize Sudan's list decoding algorithm without multiplicity to evaluation codes coming from arbitrary order domains. The number of correctable errors by the proposed method is larger than the original list decoding without multiplicity....

  14. Conflict devastates health service delivery in South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The return to conflict in December 2013 has set the country back and reversed the many gains ... environment for the worst humanitarian and health crisis in the country [2]. ... medical supplies looted and several health workers have lost their lives ... The trauma of war can also have devastating consequences on the mental.

  15. Malaria in South Sudan 2: clinical features and diagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fever) (3). This clinical presentation is due to red blood cell rupture ... abdominal pain and on rare occasions may suggest an ... especially in children. .... those who have had training in IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness). One.

  16. Care Groups in Emergencies in Unity State, South Sudan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-02

    May 2, 2017 ... order improve infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and are usually one ... (from U.S. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance) being limited to one year. ... handling, preparation and benefits of foods for nutrition. • Carried out ...

  17. Fragility and State-Society Relations in South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    subjected to forced displacement, slavery , and cattle raiding by northern militias. The LRA in northern Uganda conducted regular attacks and kidnappings... sexual violence with impunity.”34 Increasing accountability for violent crimes through public prosecutions and trials, especially for rural

  18. Childbirth in South Sudan: Preferences, practice and perceptions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants were adult women of reproductive age (18-49 years) and adult men ... give birth in a health facility and overwhelmingly desire a facility birth next time. ... in changing public perception and decision-making about facility deliveries.

  19. Motorcycle-Related Trauma in South Sudan: a cross sectional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    2009-04-15

    Apr 15, 2009 ... injuries involved drivers, whereas the majority of female injuries were to pedestrians. ... Significant injuries to the head and face were recorded, but no .... Injury Prevention 12.4 ... Physiotherapy service is not equipped with.

  20. Assessment of knowledge of hand washing among health care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    among health care providers in Juba Teaching. Hospital, South Sudan ... workers at JHT using a validated self-administered ... Medical Students. 89. 43.6. Other ... was: primary and secondary (36, 17.7%), college (116,. 56.9%) .... Efficacy of Soap and Water and. 4. Alcohol-based Hand-rub Preparations Against Live H1N1.

  1. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in Eastern Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tajeldin M Abdallah; Abdel Aziem A Ali

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological factors of tuberculosis (TB) in eastern Sudan. Methods:The socio-demographic and clinical data was retrieved from the database at Kassala hospital during the year of 2011. The medical file of consequent patients who was discharged from the same ward in the hospital was reviewed to act as control for the TB patients. Results:A total of 670 patients were registered at Kassala hospital with clinical, laboratory and radiological evidence proven TB. Pulmonary TB accounted for 73.4%while extra-pulmonary TB was reported in 26.6%of all TB patients. The mean age (SD) was not significantly different between the cases and controls (670 in each arm). TB patients were those who had less education, and the infection more likely common among male patients. Conclusions: Intervention from outside the health field in particular awareness of associated risk factors and improvement of the educational level potentially will strengthen TB control.

  2. Soap Industry In Sudan Challenges And Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Tag Elsir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify relationship between the working situation of soap industries in Sudan and their engineering management strategies considering number of samples of soap industries which facing a problem of misunderstanding of applying the total quality management systems in Sudanese soap factories which are almost owned by famous rich families as a one of the total profit indicators when taking into consideration the competition and consumer satisfaction beside the long term conservation of energy and machinery life. To discover the fact behind this clear links have been establish between the evaluation of strategies and the summary of findings derived from the raw data by using the inductive method represented by observation data collection pattern of data hypothesis and generalization a theory which confirms the prediction that the chosen samples were suffering directly from engineering management strategies execution either for energy management or materials management systems because of lacking or not applying the proper strategy.

  3. Application of Raman spectroscopy technology to studying Sudan I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Guoping; Chen, Chen

    2006-06-01

    Being an industrial dye, the Sudan I may have a toxic effect after oral intake on the body, and has recently been shown to cause cancer in rats, mice and rabbits. Because China and some other countries have detected the Sudan I in samples of the hot chilli powder and the chilli products, it is necessary to study the characteristics of this dye. As one kind of molecule scattering spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is characterized by the frequency excursion caused by interactions of molecules and photons. The frequency excursion reflects the margin between certain two vibrational or rotational energy states, and shows the information of the molecule. Because Raman spectroscopy can provides quick, easy, reproducible, and non-destructive analysis, both qualitative and quantitative, with no sample preparation required, Raman spectroscopy has been a particularly promising technique for analyzing the characteristics and structures of molecules, especially organic ones. Now, it has a broad application in biological, chemical, environmental and industrial applications. This paper firstly introduces Sudan I dye and the Raman spectroscopy technology, and then describes its application to the Sudan I. Secondly, the fingerprint spectra of the Sudan I are respectively assigned and analyzed in detail. Finally, the conclusion that the Raman spectroscopy technology is a powerful tool to determine the Sudan I is drawn.

  4. Sudan: the human price of oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-03

    This series of eight information bulletins by Amnesty International is intended to draw attention to the link between the massive human rights violations by the security forces of the Government of Sudan and various government-allied militia forces, and the oil operations by foreign companies (which include Canada's Talisman Energy, Denim Pipeline Construction Ltd., and Roll'n Oil Field Industries). The human rights violations cited by Amnesty International include atrocities and the forcible internal displacement of large populations of local people living in the oil fields and surrounding areas. It is alleged that the foreign oil companies involved in this lucrative operation expect the Sudanese government to provide a secure environment and protect oil company staff and assets, and turn a blind eye to human rights violations by the government security forces in the name of protecting the security of the oil-producing areas. In raising awareness of the problem, Amnesty International hopes to establish a dialogue with the foreign oil companies and sensitize them to their responsibilities to promote a better human rights environment in the areas where they are active in oil exploration and extraction. The information bulletins provide a background to the problem; detail the human rights violations committed in the name of oil; establish the link between oil, weapons purchases by the Sudanese government and human rights violations; describe the oil companies and their responsibilities and international standards on internal displacement of populations; and makes recommendations to the Government of Sudan, to the armed opposition groups, to the oil companies and to the international community at large to bring an end to the human rights violations that over the last three decades have cost tens of thousands of lives and displaced hundreds of thousands of people.

  5. Hypospadias in Sudan, clinical and surgical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y.H Abdelrahman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypospadias is one of the commonest penile abnormalities in new born males, and occurs as a result of a birth defect resulting in a urethral opening anywhere from the glans penis along the ventral aspect of the shaft of the penis up to the scrotum or the perineum in extreme cases. The condition has a huge impact on the patient′s psychological, emotional and sexual well being. This study aimed to evaluate the current trend in the treatment of hypospadias in Sudan. Materials and Methods: The was a retrospective study done in Elribat university hospital, department of Paediatrics surgery, for patients who underwent hypospadias surgical repair in the period January 2006 to June 2007. Results: There were 50 patients in this study. Regional distribution of the patients showed that 52% of the patients live in Khartoum state, the capital, while 48% were from the peripheries; 12% of patients had family history of similar condition (Hypospadias and 54% were of low socioeconomic status. Anterior hypospadias was the commonest type (46%, and associated chordee occurred in most of the patients (88%. The most common associated anomalies found were undescended testicles (20% and inguinal hernia only in 2%. The most common type of repair was MAGPI (meatal advancement and glanuloplasty with 42% of cases, anterior hypospadias commonest type with 46% of cases, 12% of cases had a family history of the condition and an overall complication rate of 26%. Chordee was the most prevalent association in 88% of cases. Conclusion: There is a high familial tendency for hypospadias in Sudan. Associated chordee and other anomalies are in keeping with other reports. Corrective surgery for hypospadias is associated with high complication rate in our setting. Collaboration between surgical specialties such as plastic surgeons, paediatrics urologist and general surgeons may improve the present complication scenario.

  6. The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Bayard

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 1228 adults was conducted in November 2007 in the town of Juba, the capital of Southern Sudan. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to investigate the associations and relative influence of variables in three models of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure, on general physical and mental health status. These models were run separately and also as a combined model. Data quality and the internal consistency of the health status instrument (SF-8 were assessed. Results The variables in the multivariate analysis (combined model with negative coefficients of association with general physical health and mental health (i.e. worse health, respectively, were being female (coef. -2.47; -2.63, higher age (coef.-0.16; -0.17, absence of soap in the household (physical health coef. -2.24, and experiencing within the past 12 months a lack of food and/or water (coef. -1.46; -2.27 and lack of medical care (coef.-3.51; -3.17. A number of trauma variables and cumulative exposure to trauma showed an association with physical and mental health (see main text for data. There was limited variance in results when each of the three models were run separately and when they were combined, suggesting the pervasive influence of these variables. The SF-8 showed good data quality and internal consistency. Conclusions This study provides evidence on the pervasive influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on the general physical and

  7. Sources of Sahelian-Sudan moisture: Insights from a moisture-tracing atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Tjernström, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The summer rainfall across Sahelian-Sudan is one of the main sources of water for agriculture, human, and animal needs. However, the rainfall is characterized by large interannual variability, which has attracted extensive scientific efforts to understand it. This study attempts to identify the source regions that contribute to the Sahelian-Sudan moisture budget during July through September. We have used an atmospheric general circulation model with an embedded moisture-tracing module (Community Atmosphere Model version 3), forced by observed (1979-2013) sea-surface temperatures. The result suggests that about 40% of the moisture comes with the moisture flow associated with the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and originates from Guinea Coast, central Africa, and the Western Sahel. The Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Peninsula, and South Indian Ocean regions account for 10.2%, 8.1%, and 6.4%, respectively. Local evaporation and the rest of the globe supply the region with 20.3% and 13.2%, respectively. We also compared the result from this study to a previous analysis that used the Lagrangian model FLEXPART forced by ERA-Interim. The two approaches differ when comparing individual regions, but are in better agreement when neighboring regions of similar atmospheric flow features are grouped together. Interannual variability with the rainfall over the region is highly correlated with contributions from regions that are associated with the ITCZ movement, which is in turn linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Our result is expected to provide insights for the effort on seasonal forecasting of the rainy season over Sahelian Sudan.

  8. The question of Sudan: a hydro-economic optimization model for the Sudanese Blue Nile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Satti, S; Zaitchik, B; Siddiqui, S

    2015-01-01

    .... Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications for the region...

  9. From emergency to social security in Sudan - part I: the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, M

    1990-09-01

    This is the first part of a two-part article which stresses the need to move away from short term emergency measures to a more general system of social security. A weakness in much of the thinking on food security in Sudan is its conception of a normally self-provisioning peasantry which is pushed into distress only as a consequence of exceptional external conditions. Food catastrophes are therefore seen as, essentially, temporary phenomena requiring emergency interventions. This article proposes a different view: that the commercial development of Sudan has engendered a crisis of subsistence synonymous with the collapse of indigenous support systems, the spread of absolute poverty and the erosion of the country's resource base. In the North this situation has come about through economic means and in the South through war. The spread of absolute poverty and the resulting vicious struggle for scarce resources cannot, however, be separated from the decay in governance. Part I of the article attempts to establish the interconnections between these elements and thereby to indicate the problems which a system of social security would have to overcome. Part II will examine the institutional consequences of the crisis, namely the imposition of a donor-led system of social security.

  10. Space Radar Image of Sudan Collision Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of a region in northern Sudan called the Keraf Suture that reveals newly discovered geologic features buried beneath layers of sand. This discovery is being used to guide field studies of the region and has opened up new perspectives on old problems, such as what controls the course of the Nile, a question that has perplexed geologists for centuries. The Nile is the yellowish/green line that runs from the top to the bottom of the image. A small town, Abu Dis, can be seen as the bright, white area on the east (right) bank of the Nile (about a third of the way down from the top) at the mouth of a dry stream valley or 'wadi' that drains into the river. Wadis flowing into the Nile from both east and west stand out as dark, reddish branch-like drainage patterns. The bright pink area on the west (left) side of the Nile is a region where rocks are exposed, but the area east (right) of the Nile is obscured by layers of sand, a few inches to several feet thick. Virtually everything visible on the right side of this radar image is invisible when standing on the ground or when viewing photographs or satellite images such as the United States' Landsat or the French SPOT satellite. A sharp, straight fault cuts diagonally across the image, to the right of the Nile river. The area between the fault and the Nile is part of the collision zone where the ancient continents of East and West Gondwana crashed into each other to form the supercontinent Greater Gondwana more than 600 million years ago. On this image, the Nile approaches but never crosses the fault, indicating that this fault seems to be controlling the course of the Nile in this part of Sudan. The image is centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude, 33.35 degrees east longitude, and shows an area approximately 18 km by 20 km (10 miles by 12 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: Red is L-band, vertically transmitted and vertically

  11. Talisman Energy Inc : corporate social responsibility report 2001 : Sudan operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Talisman Energy Inc. is a large independent Canadian oil and gas producer with operations worldwide, including operations in Sudan, Malaysia, Trinidad and Colombia. This report includes a discussion on seismic exploration in the Acevedo block in Colombia, but most of the report focuses on operations in Sudan because that is the primary concern of many stakeholders, particularly the impact of the long-running civil war in that country and the way in which oil revenues will be used. The report describes Talisman Energy's compliance with the International Code of Ethics for Canadian Business which Talisman adopted in December 1999. The report evaluates Talisman's progress towards achieving objectives in the areas of human rights, community participation, employee rights, ethical business conduct, health, safety and the environment. Talisman will continue to advocate peace and the fair distribution of oil revenues. It was noted that the funding provided by the Sudan oil project consortium Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC) for community development was increased for 2002. Talisman and GNPOC funding helps in community development initiatives such as the provision of water wells, health clinics and schools in Sudan. PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) was asked by Talisman to gather comments on the company's operations in Sudan from a range of stakeholder groups. This report presents audit statements by PwC regarding Talisman's social responsibility. The report also included an independent opinion regarding the challenge of facing ethical dilemmas in business. tabs., figs.

  12. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of dengue in PortSudan, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elbashir Hagir M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim To investigate maternal and perinatal outcomes (maternal death, preterm delivery, low birth weight and perinatal mortality of dengue at PortSudan and Elmawani hospitals in the eastern Sudan. Method This was a retrospective Cohort study where medical files of women with dengue were reviewed. Results There were 10820 deliveries and 78 (0.7% pregnant women with confirmed dengue IgM serology at the mean (SD gestational age of 29.4(8.2 weeks. While the majority of these women had dengue fever (46, 58.9%, hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome were the presentations in 18 (23.0% and 12, (15.3% of these women, respectively. There were 17(21.7% maternal deaths. Fourteen (17.9% of these 78 women had preterm deliveries and 19 (24.3% neonates were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit. Nineteen (24.3% women gave birth to low birth weight babies. There were seven (8.9% perinatal deaths. Eight (10.2% patients delivered by caesarean section due to various obstetrical indications. Conclusion Thus dengue has poor maternal and perinatal outcomes in this setting. Preventive measures against dengue should be employed in the region, and more research on dengue during pregnancy is needed.

  13. Anaemia among adults in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Tajeldin M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increased heterogeneity in the distribution of social and biological risk factors makes the epidemiology of anaemia a real challenge. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Kassala, Eastern Sudan during the period of January — March 2011 to investigate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia among adults (> 15 years old. Findings Out of 646, 234 (36.2% adults had anaemia; 68 (10.5%; 129 (20.0% and 37 (5.7% had mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In logistic regression analyses, age (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.9–1, P = 0.7, rural vs. urban residency (OR = 0.9, CI = 0.7–1.3, P = 0.9, female vs. male gender (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1.1, P = 0.3, educational level ≥ secondary level vs. P = 0.8 and Hudandawa vs. non-Hudandawa ethnicity (OR = 0.8, CI = 0.6–1, P = 0.1 were not associated with anaemia. Conclusion There was a high prevalence of anaemia in this setting, anaemia affected adults regardless to their age, sex and educational level. Therefore, anaemia is needed to be screened for routinely and supplements have to be employed in this setting.

  14. Mod en aktivistisk udenrigspolitik? - Et casestudie af Kina i Sudan & Sydsudan

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper concerns Chinese presence in Sudan and Southern Sudan. China has had difficul-ties balancing their economic interests in Sudan with matters of politics, security and ideolo-gy. Sudan is of economic interest to China because of their large oil reserves. China’s economic growth following market reforms in the late seventies has caused a boom in Chinese demand for foreign oil, and China has bought a significant amount of oil from Sudan, and invested heavily in the country’s oil infras...

  15. The Domestic Origins of Sudan's External Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahman Ahmed Abdel Rahman

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Domestic factors played a significant role in Sudan's external debt crisis which emerged in the early 1980's. Personal rule and related political survival considerations undermined on-going economic adjustment programmes and prompted heavy external borrowing. Borrowing from abroad went unchecked because of the absence of an effective debt management system. It was also fuelled by economic corruption and the decline of cotton, Sudan's principal export crop. The absence of an effective debt management mechanism and economic corruption were a product of the lack of political and fiscal accountability in the context of personal rule.

  16. Optimization of Field Development Scheduling, East Unity Oil Field, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagwa A. Musa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the reservoir performance in East Unity oil field Sudan, the studies focused on characterization, modeling and simulation of the actual performance and future development. A model was constructed using a three-phase, three dimensional, black oil simulator (ECLIPSE. In this study a data from East Unity oil field Sudan started production at July 1999 was used to perform the optimal oil rate and designing the best location of the new operating wells. Cumulative oil production, oil production rate, Water cut and recovery factor were used as key criteria to see if adding new wells in the area under study are economic risk.

  17. Sudan research says listen to what people really want in emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, C

    1998-03-01

    A recent Oxfam study in south Sudan indicates that reproductive health care (RHC) remains important to communities during crisis situations. RHC involves emergency obstetrics, family planning, prenatal care, prevention and management of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)/HIV infection, treatment of unsafe abortions, and prevention of female genital mutilation. A needs assessment revealed that all of the respondents were concerned about STDs and about infertility. Service providers and community members targeted different needs. For example, service providers maintained that induced abortion did not occur, but people reported deaths from self-induced abortion. The findings led to the recommendations that service provision be changed to prevent and treat STDs, that needs assessments be conducted among different age and sex groups, and that RHC be addressed in emergency situations.

  18. Mycetoma in the Sudan: an update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fahal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991-2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old males (76%. The majority (68% were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%. In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%. History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76% and hand (8% were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%, thigh (2%, buttock (2% and arm and forearm (1%. Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2% of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7% had postoperative recurrence. Different types of

  19. Mycetoma in the Sudan: an update from the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed M; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh

    2015-03-01

    This communication reports on the Mycetoma Research Centre of the University of Khartoum, Sudan experience on 6,792 patients seen during the period 1991-2014.The patients were predominately young (64% under 30 years old) males (76%). The majority (68%) were from the Sudan mycetoma belt and 28% were students. Madurella mycetomatis eumycetoma was the most common type (70%). In 66% of the patients the duration of the disease was less than five years, and 81% gave a history of sinuses discharging mostly black grains (78%). History of trauma at the mycetoma site was reported in 20%. Local pain was reported in 27% of the patients, and only 12% had a family history of mycetoma. The study showed that 57% of the patients had previous surgical excisions and recurrence, and only 4% received previous medical treatment for mycetoma. Other concomitant medical diseases were reported in 4% of the patients. The foot (76%) and hand (8%) were the most commonly affected sites. Less frequently affected sites were the leg and knee (7%), thigh (2%), buttock (2%) and arm and forearm (1%). Rare sites included the chest wall, head and neck, back, abdominal wall, perineum, oral cavity, tongue and eye. Multiple sites mycetoma was recorded in 135 (2%) of cases. At presentation, 37% of patients had massive lesions, 79% had sinuses, 8% had local hyper-hydrosis at the mycetoma lesion, 11% had regional lymphadenopathy, while 6% had dilated tortuous veins proximal to the mycetoma lesions. The diagnosis of mycetoma was established by combined imaging techniques and cytological, histopathological, serological tests and grain culture. Patients with actinomycetoma received a combination of antimicrobial agents, while eumycetoma patients received antifungal agents combined with various surgical excisions. Surgical excisions in the form of wide local excision, debridement or amputation were done in 807 patients, and of them 248 patients (30.7%) had postoperative recurrence. Different types of amputations

  20. The Role of Education in Sudan's Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidlid, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the role that education plays in conflict, with specific reference to the civil war in Sudan. It analyses the ideological basis of the Sudanese government (GoS) during the civil war, with special reference to the role of religion and ethnicity. It shows how the primary education system was based on the Islamist ideology of…

  1. Poverty and inequality in urban Sudan. Policies, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the conditions facing the urban poor in Khartoum, Sudan and explores the opportunities and constraints people of different genders, ages, wealth and social origins face in the pursuant of their livelihoods. Using an in-depth analysis, it argues that the livelihoods

  2. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omer, A.Y.A.; Ali, Y.S.A.; Roelvink, J.A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the vast upper river catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir has already lost more than one-third of its storage capacity due to sedi

  3. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (discussion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omer, A.Y.A.; Ali, Y.S.A.; Roelvink, J.A.; Dastgheib, A.; Paron, P.; Crosato, A.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion paper. Roseires Reservoir, located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan, is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its 5 storage capacity due t

  4. Modelling of sedimentation processes inside Roseires Reservoir (Sudan) (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Y.S.A.; Omer, A.Y.A.; Crosato, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roseires Reservoir is located on the Blue Nile River, in Sudan (figure 1). It is the first trap to the sediments coming from the upper catchment in Ethiopia, which suffers from high erosion and desertification problems. The reservoir lost already more than one third of its storage capacity due to se

  5. Poverty and inequality in urban Sudan. Policies, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the conditions facing the urban poor in Khartoum, Sudan and explores the opportunities and constraints people of different genders, ages, wealth and social origins face in the pursuant of their livelihoods. Using an in-depth analysis, it argues that the livelihoods

  6. 31 CFR 538.305 - Government of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Central Bank of Sudan; (2) Any entity owned or controlled by the foregoing; (3) Any person to the extent... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SUDANESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions... appendices at the end of this chapter for listings of persons determined to fall within this definition who...

  7. The Impacts of Water Pollution on Economic Development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Issam A.W.

    2010-01-01

    Water pollution is a chronic crisis in Sudan that is rarely researched. However, it is combined with scarcity, disputes and uncertainty. In The current paper we introduce its concepts with emphasis on the growing problems of pollution combined with scarcity. A Case study of the growing problem of pollution is introduced and analyzed using economic parameters.

  8. Encampment at Abu Rakham in Sudan: a personal account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Misbah Yousif

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores camp policy as embodied in the rural settlement approach which has characterised the work of UNHCR and its implementing partners in their search for a durable solution to Eritrean/Ethiopian refugee issues in eastern Sudan.

  9. Poverty and inequality in urban Sudan : policies, institutions and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, Muna Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the conditions facing the urban poor in Khartoum, Sudan and explores the opportunities and constraints people of different genders, ages, wealth and social origins face in the pursuant of their livelihoods. Using an in-depth analysis, it argues that the livelihoods

  10. Reemerging Sudan Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Trevor; Balinandi, Stephen; Campbell, Shelley; Wamala, Joseph Francis; McMullan, Laura K.; Downing, Robert; Lutwama, Julius; Mbidde, Edward; Ströher, Ute; Rollin, Pierre E.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2012-01-01

    Two large outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever occurred in Uganda in 2000 and 2007. In May 2011, we identified a single case of Sudan Ebola virus disease in Luwero District. The establishment of a permanent in-country laboratory and cooperation between international public health entities facilitated rapid outbreak response and control activities. PMID:22931687

  11. Polar and low polar solvents media effect on dipole moments of some diazo Sudan dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakerhamidi, M S; Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh; Shamkhali, A N

    2014-06-05

    Absorption and fluorescence spectra of three Sudan dyes (SudanIII, SudanIV and Sudan black B) were recorded in various solvents with different polarity in the range of 300-800nm, at room temperature. The solvatochromic method was used to investigate dipole moments of these dyes in ground and excited states, in different media. The solvatochromic behavior of these substances and their solvent-solute interactions were analyzed via solvent polarity parameters. Obtained results express the effects of solvation on tautomerism and molecular configuration (geometry) of Sudan dyes in solvent media with different polarity. Furthermore, analyze of solvent-solute interactions and value of ground and excited states dipole moments suggests different forms of resonance structures for Sudan dyes in polar and low-polar solvents.

  12. Ground-water geology of Kordofan Province, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Harry G.; Hassan, Abdulla; Wahadan, Lutfi

    1968-01-01

    For much of Kordofan Province, surface-water supplies collected and stored in hafirs, fulas, and tebeldi trees are almost completely appropriated for present needs, and water from wells must serve as the base for future economic and cultural development. This report describes the results of a reconnaissance hydrogeologic investigation of the Province and the nature and distribution of the ground-water resources with respect to their availability for development. Kordofan Province, in central Sudan, lies within the White Nile-Nile River drainage basin. The land surface is largely a plain of low relief; jebels (hills) occur sporadically, and sandy soils are common in most areas except in the south where clayey soils predominate. Seasonal rainfall, ranging from less than 100 millimeters in the north to about 800 millimeters in the south, occurs almost entirely during the summer months, but little runoff ever reaches the Nile or White Nile Rivers. The rocks beneath the surficial depsits (Pleistocene to Recent) in the Province comprise the basement complex (Precambrian), Nawa Series (upper Paleozoic), Nubian Series (Mesozoic), laterite (lower to middle Tertiary), and the Umm Ruwaba Series (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Perennial ground-water supplies in the Province are found chiefly in five hydrologic units, each having distinct geologic or hydrologic characteristics. These units occur in Nubian or Umm Ruwaba strata or both, and the sandstone and conglomerate beds form the :principal aquifers. The water is generally under slight artesian head, and the upper surface of the zone of saturation ranges from about 50 meters to 160 meters below land surface. The surficial deposits and basement rocks are generally poor sources of ground water in most of the Province. Supplies from such sources are commonly temporary and may dissipate entirely during the dry season. Locally, however, perennial supplies are obtained from the surficial deposits and from the basement rocks. Generally

  13. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY, A RECOVERY SCHEME IN PERIPHERIES: THE PETRONAS AND CNPC ENTERPRISES IN SUDAN

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the accuracy and mainly the impact of multinational corporations on performing construction, as well as the basic services supply in fragile social economic conditions in Sudan. It reveals that within Sudan state weakness and poor conditions in peripheries, war zone areas in particular, reflect invasive challenges facing the country, and thus, applying corporations’ helps to meet and increase the supply of public needs and recovery in instable Sudan. Through a qualitative ...

  14. Tylenchida associated with different crops in Sennar State (Sudan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbadri, G A; Bert, W; Geraert, E

    2001-01-01

    A study was done on the taxonomy and morphology of plant parasitic nematodes (Tylenchida) found in Sennar State (Sudan). Sixty samples of different crops were collected in the sugarcane area. Thirty samples originated from soil around the roots of Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane) from different ratoons and thirty samples were collected from other crops (Mangifera indica; Citrus limon; Citrus aurantifolia; Citrus paradisi; Citrus sinensis, Phoenix dactylifera, Musa sapentium; Cassia italica, Capsicum annuum, Sorghum bicolor, Sorghum sudanensis, Gossypium barbadense, Ficus nitida, Khaya senegalensis, Eucalyptus microtheca, Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, Azardichta indica, Cajanus cajana, Caltropsis spp. and Liguster ovalifolium). Seven species belonging to seven different genera of Tylenchida were identified: Paratrophurus lobatus, Scutellonema clathricaudatum, Hoplolaimus aegypti and Filenchus cylindricus. Helicotylenchus plumariae, Pratylenchus thornei and Malenchus andrassyi are new records for Sudan. These seven species were compared with the descriptions given in the literature and differences and variations were discussed. Additional morphological data were described by means of SEM microscopy.

  15. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values....../119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  16. Measuring drought and drought impacts in Red Sea Province, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, R.

    1989-01-01

    Metadata only record The report assesses the 1987 and 1988 drought in Red Sea Province, Sudan putting it in the wider context of other droughts and floods, and the impact of food aid on the province. There are three major coping strategies employed in times of drought, which are essentially intensification of activities already performed. The first of these involves food consumption reduction, the consumption of bush foods, borrowing, the sale of livestock, and herd splitting. The medial r...

  17. The 2007 Rift Valley fever outbreak in Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ahmed Hassan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is a neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health and economy. RVF is caused by RVF virus (RVFV affecting humans and a wide range of animals. The virus is transmitted through bites from mosquitoes and exposure to viremic blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals. During 2007 a large RVF outbreak occurred in Sudan with a total of 747 confirmed human cases including 230 deaths (case fatality 30.8%; although it has been estimated 75,000 were infected. It was most severe in White Nile, El Gezira, and Sennar states near to the White Nile and the Blue Nile Rivers. Notably, RVF was not demonstrated in livestock until after the human cases appeared and unfortunately, there are no records or reports of the number of affected animals or deaths. Ideally, animals should serve as sentinels to prevent loss of human life, but the situation here was reversed. Animal contact seemed to be the most dominant risk factor followed by animal products and mosquito bites. The Sudan outbreak followed an unusually heavy rainfall in the country with severe flooding and previous studies on RVF in Sudan suggest that RVFV is endemic in parts of Sudan. An RVF outbreak results in human disease, but also large economic loss with an impact beyond the immediate influence on the directly affected agricultural producers. The outbreak emphasizes the need for collaboration between veterinary and health authorities, entomologists, environmental specialists, and biologists, as the best strategy towards the prevention and control of RVF.

  18. Talisman Energy Inc : corporate social responsibility report 2000 : Sudan operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Talisman Energy Inc., the largest independent Canadian oil and gas producer with operations worldwide, owns a subsidiary Talisman (Greater Nile) B.V., which is in turn a 25 per cent owner in the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC) whose share of oil production accounted for 11 per cent of Talisman's worldwide production in 2000. GNPOC operates three exploration and two development blocks encompassing 12,200,000 acres of land in Sudan. Production began in 1999 and is currently at 200,000 barrels per day. This report describes Talisman Energy's operations in Sudan and measures compliance with the International Code of Ethics for Canadian Business that Talisman adopted in December 1999. The report evaluates Talisman's progress towards achieving objectives in the areas of human rights, community participation, employee rights, ethical business conduct, health, safety and the environment. In addition, Talisman will continue to advocate peace and the fair distribution of oil revenues. Talisman's community development initiatives include the provision of water wells, health clinics and schools in Sudan. tabs., figs.

  19. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  20. Adsorption behavior of Sudan I-IV on a coastal soil and their forecasted biogeochemical cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yong; Zhou, Qixing

    2017-04-01

    Sudan I-IV as synthetic azo dyes have been concerned worldwide and ever caused a panic on food safety because of illegal addition into foodstuffs. In the past decades, various methods are being developed to identify and determine Sudan dyes in foodstuffs. However, relevant studies about their biogeochemical behaviors and potential environmental effects are rarely reported, although it is of great importance and necessity accounting for their potential environmental contamination from various sources. In this work, the experimental studies on adsorption behavior of Sudan I-IV acting on soil (10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) were carried out, and their transport in soil compartments and between soil-water, and air-soil interfaces were discussed. Results showed that the amount of Sudan I-IV adsorbed on soil increased accordingly with the increasing concentration of Sudan dyes in aqueous solution, and Sudan II and IV were more likely adsorbed on the tested soils than Sudan I and III based on their maximum adsorption amount. However, for Sudan I, III, and IV, in some high concentrations (under the treatment of 75 mg/L for Sudan III, 100 mg/L for Sudan I and IV), the adsorption was significantly increased, and then came back to the "normal" level (under the treatment of 100 mg/L for Sudan III). It is expected that relevant researches on their biogeochemical behaviors in soil compartments, and between soil-water and air-soil interfaces would be concerned and addressed.

  1. Mapping the Potential Risk of Mycetoma Infection in Sudan and South Sudan Using Ecological Niche Modeling: e3250

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abdallah M Samy; J van de Sande; Ahmed Hassan Fahal; A Townsend Peterson

    2014-01-01

    .... Previous work suggested a soil-borne or Acacia thorn-prick-mediated origin of mycetoma infections, but no studies have investigated effects of soil type and Acacia geographic distribution on mycetoma case distributions...

  2. "Mul ei ole, ega saagi olla kogu selle välisasjade rahvakomissariks "saamise" ja selle võrdlemisi haleda lõpu puhul kellegi vastu mingit kibestustunnet" : miks Hans Kruusist ei saanud Eesti NSV välisasjade rahvakomissari juba 1944. aasta kevadel?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tannberg, Tõnu, 1961-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti NSV Välisasjade Rahvakomissariaat loodi ametlikult 1944. aasta sügisel, kuid vastavate ettevalmistustega alustati juba 1944. aasta varakevadel. Hans Kruusi kandidatuur oli soovitatud koguni NSV Liidu välisasjade rahvakomissari asetäitjaks.

  3. Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan by S. Nour [abstract] This paper discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for competence building and financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. We find that Chinese

  4. Giving Reconciliation a Chance in Sudan: Seeking an Alternative Response to the Darfur Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    independent Sultanate longer than any other region of Sudan, first coming under foreign rule in 1874 ( Turco -Egyptian) and later succumbing to the Anglo...United States of Africa” with himself at the center. G. EGYPT Egypt has twice had legal sovereignty over Sudan first during the Turco -Egyptian

  5. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  6. The Cultural Politics of Language in Sudan: Against the Racialising Logic of Language Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhay, Ashraf; Eljak, Nada; Mugaddam, AbdelRahim; Makoni, Sinfree

    2017-01-01

    The sociolinguistic repertoires of individuals in Sudan are products of institutionalised orders of normalisation. The visibility of language in popular and official discourses in Sudan is always linked with wider cultural and political projects. This paper intends to engage with and explicate this observation by, first, examining how the dominant…

  7. Viewing the Reconstruction of Primary Schooling in Southern Sudan through Education Data, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyeJin; Moses, Kurt D.; Jang, Bosun; Wils, Annababette

    2011-01-01

    After one of the longest wars in the history of Africa, Southern Sudan accomplished one of the world's quickest education reconstruction programmes. Once the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) was signed in 2005, the international donor community and the government and people of Southern Sudan united under a common goal: to increase access to…

  8. Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of effectiveness of Chinese aid in competence building and financing development in Sudan by S. Nour [abstract] This paper discusses the effectiveness of Chinese aid for competence building and financing development in Sudan using new primary data at the micro level. We find that Chinese

  9. Role of the domestic dog as a reservoir host of Leishmania donovani in eastern Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Hassan; O.F. Osman; F.M.A. El-Raba'a; H.D.F.H. Schallig; D.E.A. Elnaiem

    2009-01-01

    Background: The study aims to determine the role of domestic dogs in transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Sudan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 10 villages along the River Rahad in eastern Sudan to elucidate the role of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris, Linnaeus, 1758) as a re

  10. Determination of Sudan I and a newly synthesized Sudan III positional isomer in the color additive D&C Red No. 17 using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Adrian; James, India C; Tae, Christian J; Ridge, Clark D; Ito, Yoichiro

    2017-07-12

    Specifications in the Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Red No. 17 (Colour Index 26100) limit the levels of two subsidiary colors, 1-(phenylazo)-2-naphthol (Sudan I) and 1-[[2-(phenylazo)phenyl]azo]-2-naphthalenol (Sudan III o-isomer), to 3% and 2%, respectively. The present work reports the development of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitative determination of these subsidiary colors. Since Sudan III o-isomer needed to be synthesized for use as a reference material, a two-step procedure was devised: (i) preparative-scale synthesis of the intermediate 2-aminoazobenzene (2AAB) and its purification by counter-current chromatography and (ii) diazotization of 2AAB and coupling with 2-naphthol. Characterization of the newly synthesized Sudan III o-isomer is also reported. Sudan I and Sudan III o-isomer were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points ranging from 0.108 to 3.240% and 0.077 to 2.227% by weight, respectively. The HPLC method is rapid (14 min for the total analysis cycle) and simple to implement. It was applied to the analysis of test portions from 25 batches of D&C Red No. 17 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for certification, and it has recently been implemented by USFDA for routine batch certification of that color additive.

  11. Availability, affordability, and prescribing pattern of medicines in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Idries, Amjad Mohammed

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate availability, affordability and prescribing pattern of medicines in both public and private health sectors of Sudan. Availability, affordability, and rational use of medicines were evaluated in primary health care centers in six states of Sudan. The survey followed the WHO guidelines for monitoring and assessing the pharmaceutical situation in countries. For this survey, a total of 36 public health facilities selected from the six geographic areas were identified. The survey confirmed the good availability and acceptable affordability of essential medicines in the public health centers and private pharmacies. Despite acceptable stocking of the medicines in these facilities, storage quality of medicines was low. On average, 82% of the core medicines monitored were available in the centers and 85% of the medicines prescribed by the physician were dispensed to the patients. The average score for quality of storage in store room and dispensing were 56% and 65%, respectively. On average, a complete course of treatment of malaria in public centers costs 0.62 and for treatment of pneumonia in adults and children costs 3.13 and 0.57 days of the lowest government salary, respectively. The average number of medicines per prescription was 2.3. On average, the number of prescriptions containing at least one antibiotic was 66% and 27% of the prescriptions containing an injectable medicine. Adherence of prescribers to standard treatment guidelines for treating uncomplicated diarrhea and diarrhea was 45% and 64%, respectively. The acceptable medicine labeling criteria were met only in 50% of the prescriptions. The overall availability of essential medicines in the public health centers and private pharmacies of Sudan was acceptable. Although affordability of medicines for some common diseases such as malaria and child pneumonia could be considered acceptable, it was much higher for some other conditions including adult pneumonia. Prescription of antibiotics was high

  12. Geodetic surveying as part of archaeological research in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pacina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surveying is an important part of any archaeological research. In this paper we focus on the archaeological research in north Sudan (6th Nile cataract and the surveying methods applicable under the local conditions. Surveying in the Third World countries is affected by the political situation (limited import of surveying tools, local conditions (lack of fixed points, GNSS correction signal, inaccessible basemaps and fixed point network. This article describes the methods and results obtained during the three archaeological seasons (2011-2014. The classical surveying methods were combined with KAP (Kite Aerial Photography to obtain the desired results in form of archaeological maps, detailed orthophoto images and other analyses results.

  13. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah; Maiga, Abdou; Moussa, Ibrahim Bouzou; Barbier, Bruno; Diouf, Awa; Diallo, Drissa; Da, Evariste Dapola; Dabi, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic changes and their perceptions were compared across north-south and west-east rainfall gradients. More than 80% of all households found that rainfall had decreased, especially in the wettest areas. Increases in wind speeds and temperature were perceived by an overall 60-80% of households. Contrary to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500-900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region, especially in the 500-900 mm zones and the western part of SSWA.

  14. Local justice and power of an official nature in Southern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Leonardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author examines the growing ambiguity that characterises the administration of justice in southern Sudan since an autonomous government was set up, thanks to the 2005 peace agreement. While the State was a distant, separate body owing to the monopoly exerted over it by the peoples of the North, its courts of justice, precarious though they might be, could be viewed in the South as an agent that is neutral, albeit distant from local power networks: it was considered to be the hakuna sphere of power, to which people would only resort after the closest systems of conflict resolution (based on family ties had failed. However, the creation of an autonomous government has brought the hakuna sphere closer to local reality, creating interferences between two realities that had become accustomed to functioning in a parallel manner. This new situation has generated new dynamics as regards how to react to local conflicts and also, logically, with respect to how to go about resolving them.

  15. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari : Ixodidae on cattle in northern Sudan

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    D.A. Salih

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan

  16. Oxytetracycline residues in Sheep meat in Khartoum State, Sudan

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    Ahmed El Rayah Yousif Hussein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, the chemical and biological contaminants in livestock and livestock products worldwide have been considered as one of the causes that threatens life of both man and animals. In Sudan very little work has been done in this field. This study was carried out to detect Oxytetracycline (OTC residues in sheep liver and muscle samples in Khartoum State, Sudan. A total of 150 samples comprising of liver (n=75 and muscle (n=75 of sheep were collected from three different localities in Khartoum State during the period from March to September 2013. The OTC residues were detected using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and one plate test (OPT. The results of HPLC showed that the level of OTC residues in liver samples above maximum residue limit (MRL was 4% (n=3/75 and under MRL was 96%. Regard to muscle samples, the level of OTC residues above MRL was 60.3% (n=35/58, whereas, under MRL was 39.7%. Using OPT, 14.7% (n=11/75 and 6.7% (n=5/75 of liver and muscle samples showed inhibition zone, respectively. It is concluded that OTC residues are detected in sheep liver and muscle sample with different levels in Khartoum state. Further investigation on level of OTC residues in other farm animals and other organs throughout the country is recommended. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 321-325

  17. Use of family planning methods in Kassala, Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoun Mona

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigating use and determinants of family planning methods may be instructive in the design of interventions to improve reproductive health services. Findings Across sectional community-based study was conducted during the period February-April 2010 to investigate the use of family planning in Kassala, eastern Sudan. Structured questionnaires were used to gather socio-demographic data and use of family planning. The mean ± SD of the age and parity of 613 enrolled women was 31.1 ± 7 years and 3.4 ± 1.9, respectively. Only 44.0% of these women had previously or currently used one or more of the family planning methods. Combined pills (46.7% and progesterone injection (17.8% were the predominant method used by the investigated women. While age, residence were not associated with the use of family planning, parity (> five, couple education (≥ secondary level were significantly associated with the use of family planning. Husband objection and religious beliefs were the main reasons of non-use of family planning. Conclusion Education, encouragement of health education programs and involvement of the religious persons might promote family planning in eastern Sudan.

  18. Statistical Methods for Predicting Malaria Incidences Using Data from Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadalla, Khidir E.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is the leading cause of illness and death in Sudan. The entire population is at risk of malaria epidemics with a very high burden on government and population. The usefulness of forecasting methods in predicting the number of future incidences is needed to motivate the development of a system that can predict future incidences. The objective of this paper is to develop applicable and understood time series models and to find out what method can provide better performance to predict future incidences level. We used monthly incidence data collected from five states in Sudan with unstable malaria transmission. We test four methods of the forecast: (1) autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA); (2) exponential smoothing; (3) transformation model; and (4) moving average. The result showed that transformation method performed significantly better than the other methods for Gadaref, Gazira, North Kordofan, and Northern, while the moving average model performed significantly better for Khartoum. Future research should combine a number of different and dissimilar methods of time series to improve forecast accuracy with the ultimate aim of developing a simple and useful model for producing reasonably reliable forecasts of the malaria incidence in the study area.

  19. A climate distribution model of malaria transmission in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Mohammed I; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Hashim, Nor R; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy

    2012-11-01

    Malaria remains a major health problem in Sudan. With a population exceeding 39 million, there are around 7.5 million cases and 35,000 deaths every year. The predicted distribution of malaria derived from climate factors such as maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity was compared with the actual number of malaria cases in Sudan for the period 2004 to 2010. The predictive calculations were done by fuzzy logic suitability (FLS) applied to the numerical distribution of malaria transmission based on the life cycle characteristics of the Anopheles mosquito accounting for the impact of climate factors on malaria transmission. This information is visualized as a series of maps (presented in video format) using a geographical information systems (GIS) approach. The climate factors were found to be suitable for malaria transmission in the period of May to October, whereas the actual case rates of malaria were high from June to November indicating a positive correlation. While comparisons between the prediction model for June and the case rate model for July did not show a high degree of association (18%), the results later in the year were better, reaching the highest level (55%) for October prediction and November case rate.

  20. [Simultaneous determination of canthaxanthin and Sudan Red in salted duck egg yolk by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanlin; Shi, Pingping; Zhang, Shufen; Shen, Jian; Fu, Xiao

    2007-11-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of canthaxanthin, Sudan Red I , Sudan Red II , Sudan Red III and Sudan Red IV in salted duck egg yolk has been developed. These canthaxanthin and Sudan Red dyes were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol, and chloroform (1 : 0.5 : 0.5, v/v). The extract was dried by a rotary evaporator. The residue was transferred to a graduated tube and diluted to 10 mL with acetonitrile. The canthaxanthin and Sudan Red dyes were separated on a XDB-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm), with acetonitrile-water (95:5, v/v) as mobile phase. They were then detected at 478 nm - 520 nm - 471 nm at different retention times by UV/Vis spectrophotometer. The recoveries of sudan I , sudan II, sudan II, sudan IV, and canthaxanthin were 97.34%, 89.56%, 90.98%, 93.63% and 95.15% respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 4.7%, 4.3%, 5.1%, 4.9% and 3.1%, respectively. The method is simple, rapid and accurate.

  1. Peste des petits ruminants infection in domestic ruminants in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intisar, K S; Ali, Y H; Haj, M A; Sahar, M A T; Shaza, M M; Baraa, A M; Ishag, O M; Nouri, Y M; Taha, K M; Nada, E M; Ahmed, A M; Khalafalla, A I; Libeau, G; Diallo, A

    2017-04-01

    The existence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in domestic ruminants and camels in Sudan during 2008-2012 was investigated. Lung tissues and serum samples were randomly collected from sheep, goats, cattle, and camels at different areas of Sudan. A total of 12,384 serum samples were collected from clinically healthy 7413 sheep, 1988 camels, 1501 cattle, 1459 goats, and 23 gazelles at different areas in the Sudan. They were examined for PPR antibodies using competitive ELISA (cELISA). The overall detected seroprevalence of PPR in tested sera was 49.4%; seroprevalence values within species were 67.1, 48.2, 25.8, 2.1, and 21.7% in sheep, goat, cattle, camels, and gazelles, respectively. The highest seroprevalence (68.1%) was observed in sera collected from Darfur states, then the central states (54.3%). A total of 1276 lung tissue samples (623 sheep, 324 cattle, 220 camels, and 109 goats) were collected. The majority of lung samples were collected from clinically healthy animals that showed lesions on PM in slaughterhouses (95%) and during PPR outbreaks; samples were tested for PPR antigen using immunocapture ELISA (IcELISA). PPR antigen was detected in 233 out of the 1276 tested samples (18.3%). Positive results were observed in samples collected from clinically healthy and diseased animals. The observed prevalence values in each species were 33.6, 21.1, 15.4, and 12.3% in camel, goat, sheep, and cattle, respectively. PPR antigen was detected in samples from different areas; however, the highest prevalence (63.9%) was found in samples collected from the eastern states, then Khartoum state (28%). Trials for virus isolation were done in different cell cultures. Out of 30 IcELISA-positive samples inoculated in primary bovine and ovine kidney cells, Vero cells, the PPR virus was successfully isolated from 15 (eight sheep, five camels, and two goats) samples in the three cell culture types. Using RT-PCR, PPRV nucleic acid was detected in all 25 IcELISA-positive tested

  2. An Appraisal of the Crisis in Darfur in Western Sudan and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    ideology, foreign policy, the constitution, and ultimately power itself. Al-Turabi was said ... major stake in Sudan's national oil consortia and maintains extensive operations ... Russia still sell arms to Khartoum which technically are not for use in.

  3. Two new species of Afroarabiella Yakovlev, 2008 (Lepidoptera, Cossidae from Sudan and Ethiopia

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    Roman V. Yakovlev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes two new species of Afroarabiella (Cossidae: A. sulaki sp. nov. from Sudan and A. strohlei sp. nov. from Ethiopia. For all the species of the genus Afroarabiella images and distribution maps are given.

  4. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum Collected from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Ryo; Qiu, Yongjin; Salim, Bashir; Hassan, Shawgi Mohamed; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2015-05-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of the importance of emerging vector-borne diseases, human tick-borne diseases, particularly rickettsial infections, are overlooked, especially in the countries such as Sudan with limited resources to perform molecular-based surveys. This study aimed at detection and genetic characterization of Rickettsia spp. in ticks collected from Sudan. The samples were first screened for the presence of rickettsial agents by gltA real-time PCR and subsequently characterized by gltA and ompA PCR and size-based multispacer typing. The results demonstrated the wide distribution of Rickettsia africae and/or closely related species across Sudan. The results of this report highlight the need for careful consideration of rickettsial infections in patients with nonmalarial febrile illness in this country. Nationwide surveillance on ticks associated with human rickettsial infections in Sudan is warranted.

  5. Two-dimensional numerical assessment of the hydrodynamics of the Nile swamps in southern Sudan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, G; Fohrer, N

    2010-01-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic assessment of the Nile swamps in southern Sudan has been carried out using DHI MIKE 21 software based on a ground referenced and corrected Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM...

  6. An Empirical Study Evaluating the Adoption of Mobile Banking in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WISAL TINGARI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is about the revolution of information and communication technology (ICT. It deals with the evolution of banking technology (BT, electronic banking (e-banking and mobile banking (m-banking in Sudan. It intends to explore the practice of m-banking in Sudan. The focus is on the availability of adequate infrastructure and on the challenges and risks that face m-banking services in Sudan. The findings showed that although mbanking is believed to be essential, still the services provided are at an infant stage. It is also found that concerned parties are not fully cooperating. This raises risks and constitutes challenges that hinder full utilization of m-banking in Sudan. Based on these results, the main recommendation of the researchers was that regulatory policies should be stated clearly to ensure full collaboration between all concerned parties. This is to support bank managers and decision makers in formulating their strategic plans to deliver competitive services.

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to deal with the unusual and extraordinary threat to the... in Sudan's Darfur region posed an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security...

  8. Yam (Dioscorea spp.) responses to the environmental variability in the Guinea Sudan zone of Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannou, Afio; Struik, P.C.; Richards, P.; Zoundjihékpon, J.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the morphological characteristics and agronomic potentials of yam varieties (Dioscorea spp.) collected across the Guinea Sudan transition zone of Benin. Dioscorea cayenensis - D. rotundata varieties were characterized as wingless; some varieties were spineless, others had few or

  9. Schistosomiasis as a disease and its prevalence in Sudan: An overview

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    Yassir Sulieman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is the most prevalent parasitic disease after malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in the developing world. In Sudan, since the year 1919, the disease has been discovered in the northern part of the country, and later it was reported from different parts including Eastern and Western Sudan, Lake Nasser area, and many agricultural schemes such as Gezira Scheme, Rahad Scheme and Gunaid Sugar Cane Scheme.

  10. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama M. Ishag

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54% were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  11. A case of Cornelia de Lange syndrome from Sudan

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    Elagib Atif

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brachmann de Lange syndrome (BDLS is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, psychomotor delay, behavioral problems, and malformations of the upper extremities. Case presentation Here we present for the first time a case of BDLS from Sudan, a 7-month-old female infant, who was referred as a case of malnutrition. The patient was from a Sudanese western tribe. Clinical investigation showed that the child was a classical case of BDLS, but with some additional clinical findings not previously reported including crowded ribs and tied tongue. Conclusion Reporting BDLS cases of different ethnic backgrounds could add nuances to the phenotypic description of the syndrome and be helpful in diagnosis.

  12. Peste des petits ruminants outbreaks in White Nile State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishag, Osama M; Saeed, Intisar K; Ali, Yahia H

    2015-08-21

    Eight outbreaks of peste des petits ruminants in sheep and goats were reported in White Nile State, Sudan, between 2008 and 2009. A mortality rate of 4.2% was reported across the different outbreaks. Clinically the disease was characterised by high fever, ocular and nasal discharge, pneumonia, ulceration of the mucous membranes, diarrhoea and death. The postmortem findings included necrotic lesions in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract, and swollen, oedematous lymph nodes associated with the lungs and intestine. Of the 209 serum samples tested by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 113 (54%) were found positive. Peste des petits ruminants virus was confirmed in tissues, nasal swabs and blood samples by immunocapture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and isolation of the virus in culture of lamb testicle cells.

  13. Carbonization of some fast-growing species in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P.; Khalifa, A.W. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan). Forestry Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Four wood species, indigenous Acacia seyal (talh) and exotic fast-growing Conocarpus lancifolius (damas), Eucalyptus microtheca (kafur) and Prosopis chilensis (mesquite) grown in Sudan, were assessed and compared as raw materials for charcoal making. The effects of production method (traditional earth mound and improved metal kiln) and the physical and chemical properties of the wood and bark on the yield and quality of charcoal produced were assessed. Regression analyses of wood properties and heat value data indicated high negative correlations of the wood heat value with halocellulose and ash, and high positive correlations with wood density, lignin, and alcohol-benzene and hot-water solubles. Carbonization with the Tropical Products Institute metal kiln produced higher yields (33%) than the traditional earth mound (27%), although the difference in energy transformation yields was found to be insignificant both between appliances and species. (author)

  14. Distribution of (226)Ra-(210)Pb-(210)Po in marine biota and surface sediments of the Red Sea, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirelkhatim, D A; Sam, A K; Hassona, R K

    2008-12-01

    Activity concentration levels and ratios of (226)Ra, (210)Pb and (210)Po are presented in multicellular marine algae, molluscs, coral as well as in surface marine sediments collected from the shallower waters of the fringing reefs area extending towards north and south (Flamingo bay) of PortSudan harbour, Sudan. The analyses were performed adopting alpha-spectrometry, liquid scintillation and Cerenkov counting techniques. Surface sediments from this coastal region are poor in their radioactivity content in contrast to similar data reported from different coastal areas around the globe. There is surface enrichment of (210)Pb and (210)Po with respect to their progenitor (226)Ra as it is evident from the activity ratios of (210)Pb/(226)Ra (3.03+/-1.79) and (210)Po/(226)Ra (2.23+/-1.56). Among marine plants and animals investigated, the green algae species, Halimeda, and coral species, Favites, show substantial concentration of radium at 8.2Bq/kg and 21.9Bq/kg dry weight, respectively. Similarly, the highest concentration of (210)Po was met in Favites at 38.7Bq/kg followed by brown algae, Cystoseria sp., at 32.6Bq/kg. There is no variation seen among algal species for (210)Pb uptake, however, converse to radium and polonium, Favites (coral) was found to contain the minimum concentration of lead (3.88Bq/kg). In most species there is preferential accumulation of polonium over its parent radium as indicated by (210)Po:(226)Ra activity ratio with Cystoseria (brown algae) showing the highest value at 8.81. On the other hand, (210)Po:(210)Pb activity concentration ratio revealed that coral species Favites (9.97) and the brown algae Sargassum (1.85) have a greater tendency to accumulate (210)Po over (210)Pb, while in the rest of species; this ratio is less than unity.

  15. Flood pulsing in the Sudd wetland: analysis of seasonal variations in 2 inundation and evapotranspiration in Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Rebelo, L-M.; McCartney, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    Located on the Bahr el Jebel in South Sudan, the Sudd is one of the largest floodplain wetlands in the world. Seasonal inundation drives the hydrologic, geomorphological, and ecological processes, and the annual flood pulse is essential to the functioning of the Sudd. Despite the importance of the flood pulse, various hydrological interventions are planned upstream of the Sudd to increase economic benefits and food security. These will not be without consequences, in particular for wetlands where the biological productivity, biodiversity, and human livelihoods are dependent on the flood pulse and both the costs and benefits need to be carefully evaluated. Many African countries still lack regional baseline information on the temporal extent, distribution, and characteristics of wetlands, making it hard to assess the consequences of development interventions. Because of political instability in Sudan and the inaccessible nature of the Sudd, recent measurements of flooding and seasonal dynamics are inadequate. Analyses of multitemporal and multisensor remote sensing datasets are presented in this paper, in order to investigate and characterize flood pulsing within the Sudd wetland over a 12-month period. Wetland area has been mapped along with dominant components of open water and flooded vegetation at five time periods over a single year. The total area of flooding (both rain and river fed) over the 12 months was 41 334 km2, with 9176 km2 of this constituting the permanent wetland. Mean annual total evaporation is shown to be higher and with narrower distribution of values from areas of open water (1718 mm) than from flooded vegetation (1641 mm). Although the exact figures require validation against ground-based measurements, the results highlight the relative differences in inundation patterns and evaporation across the Sudd.

  16. Factors affecting unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdel Aziem A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the developing countries millions of women in the reproductive age who don’t use contraceptives prefer to postpone or limit their birth. This indicates their failure to take necessary decision to prevent and avoid unwanted pregnancy. Methods A community-based cross sectional household survey was conducted to investigate unmet need for family planning and associated factors and total demand for family planning in Kassala, Eastern Sudan between 1st May and 31st July 2012. Results A total of 812 married women were enrolled in this study. Their mean age and parity was 31.8 (7.3 and 3.4 (1.8 respectively. Ever use of contraception was 25.4% (206/812 and 26.2% (213/812 were currently using contraception. Unmet need for spacing was 15.1% while unmet need for limiting was 0.7%. The pregnant and amenorrheic women whose the pregnancy or birth was unwanted and mistimed were 105 (13% and 130 (16% respectively. Using Westoff model the total unmet need was estimated as 44.8%. The total demand for family planning was 71%. In logistic regression model, while age, age at marriage, parity, residence and experience of child death were not associated with total unmet need for family planning, women education P=0.00, husband education P = 0.00 and woman’s occupation; housewife (OR=4.3; CI=2.5-7.2; P=0.00 were associated with the total unmet need. Conclusions Unmet need for family planning in Eastern Sudan was significantly higher among women with less than secondary education. Also; it is influenced by couple’s educational status and woman’s occupation. The results of this study necessitate the need for the programme managers to take into account the concept of reproductive health education.

  17. Epidemiology of extra pulmonary tuberculosis in Eastern Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taj; Eldin; Mohammedein; Abdallah; Fatah; Elrahman; Mohmmed; Toum; Osman; Habeeb; Bashir; Tajedin; Ibrahim; mansoor; Mona; Mamoun; Yuosif; Mustafa; Awad-Elseed; Elkhawad; Idris; Osman; Okud; Abbashar; Osman; Mohammed; Abdel; Aziem; Abdalla; Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the epidemiological factors associated with extra pulmonary tuberculosis(EPTB) in Kassala, Eastern Sudan.Methods: Patients infected with TB(pulmonary and extra-pulmonary) documented at the hospital were interviewed with a structured questionnaire used to gather socio-demographic information. The diagnosis of EPTB cases was based on presence of tuberculous granulomas in the histological samples, positive PCR to DNA of mycobacterium tuberculosis, radiological i ndings and l uid analysis suggestive of EPTB and clinical diagnosis with adequate response to anti-tuberculous therapy.Results: A total of 985 patients with TB were enrolled in the study, including 761(77.3%) with PTB and 224(22.7%) with EPTB. The mean age(SD) of patients with PTB and EPTB was 33.2(15.4) and 34.7(14.6) years respectively. The prevalence of EPTB was at(22.7%), with TB lymphadenitis 79(35.3%), marking the frequent form of EPTB followed by peritoneal TB 27(12.05%). While residence and occupation were not associated with EPTB, those with lower level of education(OR = 0.3; coni dence intervals(CI) = 0.2-0.5; P < 0.001), female(OR = 8.7, CI = 4.9-15.1, P < 0.001), non vaccination(OR=70.3, CI = 34.2-144.3, P < 0.001), and non smoker(OR = 0.1; CI = 0.06-0.20; P < 0.001), were associated with high prevalence of EPTB. Conclusions: Around one quarter of patients with TB in this study were more likely to have EPTB. Therefore, ef ective strategic plans regarding diagnostic procedures and control measures are needed to reduce the burden of the disease in Sudan.

  18. Hydrological studies in the White Nile State in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahim A.M. Salih

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to study the hydrological system in the arid areas of White Nile State, Sudan using remote sensing and GIS tools. Information on topography and soils had been extracted using ASTR, Digital Elevation Model (DEM, with 90 m horizontal resolution and Sudan General Soil Map with scale 1:25,000 using digitized method to form the GIS database. Land use/cover information was derived from remotely sensed data of Land sat Thematic Mapper of the year 2014. The vegetation cover was estimated using the normalized different vegetation index (NDVI. One sub-basin was delineated using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM and the total acreage in different slope classes was estimated. These maps were used as input variables to derive a modified Soil Conservation Service (SCS runoff curve number. The SCS runoff curve number model was applied to estimate the runoff depth for individual storm as (return period event and summed up to derive the annual runoff potential for the sub-basin. All morphometric and hydrological characteristics for the elected sub-basin were extracted and illustrated and given in different tables, which include the stream numbers, the shape factor of the basin, the slope condition of the basin, the streams lengths, and the basin area and so on. The total surface water (runoff in depth and volume potential for harvesting is 1.507 mm (depth and 309,078.09 vol m3. The results demonstrate the capability of GIS and its application for water harvesting planning over larger semiarid areas.

  19. Antibody Treatment of Ebola and Sudan Virus Infection via a Uniquely Exposed Epitope within the Glycoprotein Receptor Binding Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    1 Antibody treatment of Ebola and Sudan virus infection via a uniquely exposed epitope within the glycoprotein receptor-binding site Katie A...interaction with the endosomal receptor NPC-1, cross neutralizes Ebola (EBOV), Sudan (SUDV), and Bundibugyo viruses, and protects mice and guinea pigs...Filoviridae include two marburgviruses: Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV), and five ebolaviruses: Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV

  20. Factors for success in collaboration between high- and low-income countries: Developing a physiotherapy education programme in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background This study presents an example of collaboration between two higher education institutions: one in Norway, a high-income country, and one in Sudan, a low-income country, in developing an entry-level physiotherapy education programme in Sudan. The institution in Sudan had minimal theoretical and practical knowledge in physiotherapy. The study examined the factors important for the success of the bilateral collaboration. Material and methods We analysed written documents produced in t...

  1. Evaluation of impact of exposure of Sudan azo dyes and their metabolites on human intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongmiao; Feng, Jinhui; He, Gui-Xin; Cerniglia, Carl E; Chen, Huizhong

    2012-08-01

    Sudan azo dyes are banned for food usage in most countries, but they are illegally used to maintain or enhance the color of food products due to low cost, bright staining, and wide availability of the dyes. In this report, we examined the toxic effects of these azo dyes and their potential reduction metabolites on 11 prevalent human intestinal bacterial strains. Among the tested bacteria, cell growth of 2, 3, 5, 5, and 1 strains was inhibited by Sudan I, II, III, IV, and Para Red, respectively. At the tested concentration of 100 μM, Sudan I and II inhibited growth of Clostridium perfringens and Lactobacillus rhamnosus with decrease of growth rates from 14 to 47%. Sudan II also affected growth of Enterococcus faecalis. Growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, C. perfringens, E. faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Peptostreptococcus magnus was affected by Sudan III and IV with decrease in growth rates from 11 to 67%. C. perfringens was the only strain in which growth was affected by Para Red with 47 and 26% growth decreases at 6 and 10 h, respectively. 1-Amino-2-naphthol, a common metabolite of the dyes, was capable of inhibiting growth of most of the tested bacteria with inhibition rates from 8 to 46%. However, the other metabolites of the dyes had no effect on growth of the bacterial strains. The dyes and their metabolites had less effect on cell viability than on cell growth of the tested bacterial strains. Clostridium indolis and Clostridium ramosum were the only two strains with about a 10 % decrease in cell viability in the presence of Sudan azo dyes. The present results suggested that Sudan azo dyes and their metabolites potentially affect the human intestinal bacterial ecology by selectively inhibiting some bacterial species, which may have an adverse effect on human health.

  2. 78 FR 68500 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as Ansaru Also Known... Africa Also Known as JAMBS Also Known as Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan as a Specially... determine that the entity known as Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan, also known as Ansaru,...

  3. Conflicts in the Horn of Africa and their Consequences on Sudan's Stability and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfatih Abdullahi Abdel Salam

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Armed conflicts in the Horn of Africa have been raging in that region for the last forty years with tragic consequences for human life and for economic advancement. These conflicts have three different, but overlapping dimensions: the intrastate, the interstate, and the global levels. The conflicts are of a decided relevance for the Sudan, and particularly to the rebellion in the southern Sudan. The lack of security and stability in southern Sudan forced hundreds of thousand southerners into neighbouring countries, especially Ethiopia and Uganda. Likewise, the Sudan hosted hundreds of thousands Eritreans, Ethiopians, and Ugandans caught in the crossfire of their national conflicts. This development not only created a heavy economic burden on these relatively poor and economically underdeveloped communities, but led to strained political relations among governments. The Sudan has deep-seated security concerns emanating from the tragic developments in that part of the world. It is argued that one practical step to defuse the situation is to look for political solutions for essentially political problems. The next step that follows logically from the first step is to establish economic cooperation arrangements with a view to creating a future economic community in that African region.

  4. Sudan dyes in adulterated saffron (Crocus sativus L.): Identification and quantification by (1)H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Eleftherios A; Cagliani, Laura R; Tarantilis, Petros A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Consonni, Roberto

    2017-02-15

    Saffron, the dried red stigmas of Crocus sativus L., is considered as one of the most expensive spices worldwide, and as such, it is prone to adulteration. This study introduces an NMR-based approach to identify and determine the adulteration of saffron with Sudan I-IV dyes. A complete (1)H and (13)C resonance assignment for Sudan I-IV, achieved by two-dimensional homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments, is reported for the first time. Specific different proton signals for the identification of each Sudan dye in adulterated saffron can be utilised for quantitative (1)H NMR (qHNMR), a well-established method for quantitative analysis. The quantification of Sudan III, as a paradigm, was performed in varying levels (0.14-7.1g/kg) by considering the NMR signal occurring at 8.064ppm. The high linearity, accuracy and rapidity of investigation enable high resolution (1)H NMR spectroscopy to be used for evaluation of saffron adulteration with Sudan dyes.

  5. A review of analytical techniques for determination of Sudan I-IV dyes in food matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebane, Riin; Leito, Ivo; Yurchenko, Sergei; Herodes, Koit

    2010-04-23

    Sudan dyes are a family of lipophilic azo dyes, extensively used in industrial and scientific applications but banned for use as food colorants due to their carcinogenicity. Due to the continuing illicit use of Sudan dyes as food colorants their determination in different food matrices--especially in different chilli and tomato sauces and related products--has during the recent years received increasing attention all over the world. This paper critically reviews the published determination methods of Sudan I-IV dyes. LC-UV-vis and LC-MS are the dominating methods for analysis of Sudan I-IV dyes. Sudan dyes are usually found in food at mg kg(-1) levels at which it may be necessary to use a preconcentration step in order to attain the desired detection limits. Liquid-solid extraction is the dominating sample preparation procedure. In recent years it has been supplemented by ultrasonic-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction. Various solid phase extraction types have been used for sample cleanup. The large majority of works use conventional C18 columns and conventional LC eluents. Traditionally the UV-vis absorbance detection has been the most frequently used. In the recent years MS detection is applied more and more often as it offers more reliable identification possibilities.

  6. Collective representations, discourses of power, and personal agency: three incommensurate histories of a collaborator's rebellion in the colonial Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, G.

    2012-01-01

    Scattered sources left in Sudan, Britain, and some private archives allow the reconstruction of an anti-colonial rebellion in the Sudan's Nuba Mountains, as well as some insights into the manufacture of tailor-made discourses of history mixed with contending mythologies. British Army archives tell a

  7. The role of hepatitis B and hepatitis C viral infections in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omer, R.E.; Veer, van 't P.; Kadaru, A.M.Y.; Kampman, E.; Khidir, I.M.E.; Fedail, S.S.; Kok, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Sudan, the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is high and increasing. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important risk factors of HCC. This study aims to assess the role of HBV and HCV infections in the incidence of HCC in 2 regions of Sudan. A case-control study wa

  8. Method for the Determination of Sudan Dyes in Foods-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Jointly Issued by AQSIQ and SAC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Sudan Red are the chemosynthesis dyes of series of azo, which are mainly used as coloring additives in manufacturing of some products, such as the wax, the oil-dyes, the petrol, and etc. In the process of food production, Sudan Dyes are banned to be used as food dyes in our country.

  9. Collective representations, discourses of power, and personal agency: three incommensurate histories of a collaborator's rebellion in the colonial Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, G.

    2012-01-01

    Scattered sources left in Sudan, Britain, and some private archives allow the reconstruction of an anti-colonial rebellion in the Sudan's Nuba Mountains, as well as some insights into the manufacture of tailor-made discourses of history mixed with contending mythologies. British Army archives tell a

  10. Constraints of camel pastoralists in Gedarif state, eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Abdalatif,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This field study was conducted between Oct 2005 and Aug 2008 in Gedarif state, eastern Sudan. The objective was to provide knowledge on constraints faced by camel herders, and to identify the solutions as an essential step towards the development of camel herding in this state. A set of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from camel herders. The results showed that, nomadic tribes in the study area (58.8% represented by Lahaween and Rofaah tribes and their dwelling type is tents made from (Hair & wool. Semi nomadic tribes (30.9% represented by Kenana and Rashaida tribes and their dwelling type is cottage made from branches of trees and sorghum stalk and the sedentary tribe (10.3% represented by Shokria tribes and their dwelling type are buildings made from either mud or bricks with cement. There was a high percent of family members who are illiterate. It was clear that the level of provision of most services needed by the herders and owners is relatively very low. The camel owners annually need to sell 5 to 6 camels to feed 100 camels on sorghum stalks in the dry season. The serious livelihood constraints were education, electricity, water supply and veterinary services. More care from the government and non government organizations is recommended.

  11. Women's experiences in the armed conflict situation in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The negative impact of war is apparent at various levels of the Sudanese society. Economic, social, and political instability is occurring on a large scale and the most vulnerable groups are women and children. This report aimed to document women's human rights violations in the ongoing armed conflict situation in Sudan, with the emphasis on rape; investigate the forms of violence against women in a situation of armed conflict; present testimonies of women survivors; and use the document for advocacy. A total of 20 testimonies were obtained, which clearly indicated that rape is a systematic practice in areas of conflict regardless of whether the Sudanese People's Liberation Army, the Khartoum government, or bandit groups that take advantage of the chaos, have attacked civilians. In view of this, regional agencies should show more seriousness in finding solutions for the war, and perpetrators of rape should be brought to justice so as to change the perception of rape as an unfortunate but inevitable side effect of war.

  12. Epidemiology of Substance Use among University Students in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Osman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Youth populations are vulnerable to substance use particularly in developing countries where circumstances may be favorable for it. There is no published data on substance use among the youth in Sudan other than on tobacco use. Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, circumstances, and factors associated with substance use. Methods. An institution-based survey was conducted on a sample of 500 students. Data was collected using a questionnaire designed by the WHO for student drug surveys and analyzed using IBM SPSS version 20. Results. The overall prevalence of substance use is 31%. The current prevalence of tobacco, cannabis, alcohol, amphetamines, tranquilizers, inhalants, opiates, cocaine, and heroin use was 13.7%, 4.9%, 2.7%, 2.4%, 3.2%, 1%, 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0.5%, respectively. Curiosity (33.1% was the main reason for initiation of substance use. The main adverse effects reported were health problems (19.7% and theft (19.7%. Peers (40.9% were the prime source of substance use. On multivariate analysis, male sex was the principle predictor for substance use (AOR: 5.55; 95% CI: 3.38, 9.17. Conclusion. Strategies to control substance use should encompass the role of the university and parents in observing and providing education to improve awareness of substances and their consequences.

  13. Human rights barriers for displaced persons in southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlish, Carol; Ho, Anita

    2009-01-01

    This community-based research explores community perspectives on human rights barriers that women encounter in a postconflict setting of southern Sudan. An ethnographic design was used to guide data collection in five focus groups with community members and during in-depth interviews with nine key informants. A constant comparison method of data analysis was used. Atlas.ti data management software facilitated the inductive coding and sorting of data. Participants identified three formal and one set of informal community structures for human rights. Human rights barriers included shifting legal frameworks, doubt about human rights, weak government infrastructure, and poverty. The evolving government infrastructure cannot currently provide adequate human rights protection, especially for women. The nature of living in poverty without development opportunities includes human rights abuses. Good governance, protection, and human development opportunities were emphasized as priority human rights concerns. Human rights framework could serve as a powerful integrator of health and development work with community-based organizations. Results help nurses understand the intersection between health and human rights as well as approaches to advancing rights in a culturally attuned manner.

  14. Ocular disorders among schoolchildren in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushood, A A; Azmat, S; Shariq, M; Khamis, A; Lakho, K A; Jadoon, M Z; Sial, N; Rushood, A A; Kamil, E A

    2013-03-01

    From December 2005 to June 2007, a total screening of all 1418 government primary schools in Khartoum State, Sudan, was performed to estimate ocular problems among children aged 6-15 years. We screened 671,119 children (56.7% males) for significant refractive error and other eye ailments. Ocular problems were found in 20,321 (3.03%) children. The 3 localities with highest ocular pathology were Karary (26.2%), Ummbada (21.0%) and Jabal Awlia (15.7%). The overall prevalence of refractive error was 2.19%. Myopia was found in 10,064 (1.50%) children while 4661 (0.70%) were hyperopic. Other ocular problems included vernal keratoconjunctivitis, vitamin A deficiency, microbial conjunctivitis, strabismus and corneal opacity. Only 288 (0.04%) children were diagnosed with active trachoma: 86.5% of these were from Ummbada locality, on the periphery ofthe State, where transportation facilities are poor and poverty is widespread. Overall, 99% of the eye ailments identified are either treatable or preventable. To reduce these and to achieve the goals of Vision 2020, an effective and efficient school health programme is needed.

  15. Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major of different zymodemes in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Fadl, A; el Kadaro, A Y

    1994-01-01

    Sporotrichoid cutaneous leishmaniasis is due to dissemination of amastigotes via the lymphatics to the subcutaneous tissues. A comparison was made between the potential to disseminate by this route of 2 parasites of different zymodemes in Sudan and Saudi Arabia. In Sudan cutaneous leishmaniasis...... is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON-1, and in Saudi Arabia by L. major LON-4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis was significantly more common in Sudan, occurring in 23% of patients compared with 10% in Saudi Arabia. Lymph node involvement was slightly more prevalent in the Sudan. Clinical and pathological...... differences between subcutaneous nodules, particularly when they ulcerate, and multiple primary cutaneous lesions are described and treatment of localized and sporotrichoid leishmaniasis is discussed. The pathological features of the primary lesions in the Sudan and Saudi Arabia were similar....

  16. Natural infection rates and transmission of Theileria annulata by Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Salih

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum nymphs were collected from two localities in the Sudan: Eddamer in Northern Sudan and Wad-Medani in Central Sudan. They were allowed to moult to adult ticks, which were assessed for Theileria infection in their salivary glands using Feulgen stain. At Eddamer, 49.6 % of 123 ticks examined were infected with Theileria and the mean intensity of infection was 1.3 (i.e. the number of infected acini / number of infected ticks. At Wad-Medani, 8.6 % of 162 ticks were infected and the mean intensity of infection was 7.9. The prevalence of infection was higher in female than in male ticks at both localities. When adult H. a. anatolicum were applied onto two susceptible calves, both animals developed the severe form of theileriosis.

  17. Molecular identification of different Theileria and Babesia species infecting sheep in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Imam, Ahmed H; Hassan, Shawgi M; Gameel, Ahmed A; El Hussein, Abdelrahim M; Taha, Khalid M; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiological aspects of sheep piroplasmosis in Sudan are poorly studied, and further investigations using sensitive and precise techniques are required. In this study, the Reverse Line Blot (RLB) hybridization assay was used to detect and simultaneously differentiate between Theileria and Babesia species. DNA was extracted from blood collected on filter paper (n=219) from apparently healthy sheep from six different geographical localities in Sudan. Results indicated that Theileria ovis (88.6%), T. separata (20.1%), T. lestoquardi (16.4%) and T. annulata (16.4%) DNA could be detected in the blood samples. Single and mixed Theileria infections were detected in 74 (33.8%) and 124 (56.6%) respectively and T. ovis being the most prevalent species in the country. T. ovis and T. separata were reported for the first time in sheep in Sudan.

  18. [Rapid determination of Sudan dyes adulterated in natural paprika red by FTIR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-wei; Liu, Ling-ling; Wu, Yan-wen; Ouyang, Jie; Sun, Su-qin

    2012-04-01

    How to rapidly determine synthesized pigments or dyes adulterated in natural pigments is a difficult problem for food analysts. Natural paprika red is widely used in foods because of its coloration and pharmaceutical effect, but it is sometimes adulterated with Sudan dyes for its poor stability under light or heat treatment. In the present paper, the macro-fingerprint characteristic of infrared spectroscopy was utilized to identify Sudan dyes adulterated in paprika red. The strong peaks at 1 621, 1 500 and 751 cm(-1) in FTIR spectra and at the fingerprint region of 753, 684 and 496 cm(-1) in the secondary deriative FTIR spectra were remarkable characteristics for Sudan dyes adulterated in paprika red, of which the limit of determination was about 1%.

  19. Preliminary study on some productive and reproductive traits of Saanen goats under Sudan conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tag Eldin sabil,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to investigate the difference in performance of pure Saanen goats reared in Sudan and Swiss the origin of the animal considering birth weight, twining, puberty, mating age, gestation period, motility rate, milk production and quality. 200 does from Goat Research Centre (GRC at Khartoum were used for the study for three consecutive years (2008-2010. The results show that hot climate (Sudan delayed the reproductive parameters of the goat and increased the mortality rate. On the other hand milk production decreased but no change in the quality was observed. The research concluded that keeping pure Saanen in Sudan is not beneficial and it is recommended to cross the animal with local breeds. Moreover, improve the environment for better performance and welfare of the animals.

  20. The Merowe dam and its hydropower plant in Sudan; Der Merowe-Staudamm und dessen Wasserkraftwerk im Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Failer, Egon [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Bad Vilbel (Germany); El-Hadari, Mohamed Hassan; Mutaz, Musa Abdalla Salim [Ministry of Electricity and Dams, Khartoum (SD). Dams Implementation Unit (DIU)

    2011-07-01

    The Merowe Dam and its hydropower plant is located on the Nile about 350 km north of Khartoum and about 550 km upstream of the Aswan High Dam in Egypt. This project has been designed to serve several purposes, namely: the generation of electricity by the ten generating units of its 1250 MW hydropower plant, the supply of water to centralized agricultural irrigation schemes (about 380000 ha) and the protection against the high floods of the Nile. In 2010 the Merowe hydropower plant generated more than 60% of Sudan's electricity consumption. Furthermore, the Merowe Dam will act as a sediment trap, reducing the sedimentation of the Aswan High Dam further downstream in Egypt. Due to the fact that more than 90% of the reservoir area is desert land, ''only'' about 6000 ha of agricultural land has been submerged. Therefore, there is only a very limited amount of biomass in the reservoir area, which results in the very low CO{sub 2} emissions. (orig.)

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax isolates from Sudan, Madagascar, French Guiana and Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, Michela; Durand, Patrick; Menard, Didier; Legrand, Eric; Picot, Stéphane; Nour, Bakri; Davidyants, Vladimir; Santi, Flavia; Severini, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Polymorphic genetic markers and especially microsatellite analysis can be used to investigate multiple aspects of the biology of Plasmodium species. In the current study, we characterized 7 polymorphic microsatellites in a total of 281 Plasmodium vivax isolates to determine the genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax populations from Sudan, Madagascar, French Guiana, and Armenia. All four parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-32 alleles per locus. Mean genetic diversity values was 0.83, 0.79, 0.78 and 0.67 for Madagascar, French Guiana, Sudan, and Armenia, respectively. Significant genetic differentiation between all four populations was observed.

  2. Spectrophotometric determination of Sudan Blue II in environmental samples after dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Emre Unsal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure coupled to spectrophotometry is described for the determination of the trace levels of Sudan Blue II. Analytical parameters, such as pH, volume of extraction solvent (carbon tetrachloride, volume of dispersant (ethanol, volume of sample, and extraction time, were optimized. Matrix effects were also investigated. Preconcentration factor was found to be 200. Detection limit and relative standard deviation (RSD were 0.55 µg L-1 and 3.9%, respectively. The procedure was successfully used for the determination of trace levels of Sudan Blue II in food, ink, antifreeze, and industrial waste-water samples.

  3. The state of emergency care in the Republic of the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nada Hassan A. A-Rahman; Gabrielle A. Jacquet

    2014-01-01

    Sudan is one of the largest African countries, covering an area of 1.9 million km2—approximately one fifth of the geographic area of the United States. The population is 30 million people, the majority of whom (68%) live in rural areas, as compared with the sub-Saharan African average of approximately 62%. Sudan is considered a lower-middle income country—with 47% of the population living below the poverty line and a gross domestic product (GDP) of US $62 billion in 2010. In addition to exces...

  4. Application of Standard Penetration Test(SPT)in Hydro-power Projects in Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang xiaoqiang; Wanglei

    2010-01-01

    For the Past two years,our institute has accomplished the Geo-technical investigation of Kajbar,Shereik,Sabaloka,Dal,Dagash,and Mograt Hydro-power Project etc.in Republic of Sudan.Based on the experiences in Dagash Hydro-power Project,this article elaborates on the operation & application of SPT in above mentioned 6projects and points out the differences from domestic operation of the test,by which,we hope to contribute to the sharing and communication of knowledge.[Kew Words]Sudan,Dam,Standard Penetration Test(SPT),differences.

  5. Uranium recovery from Uro area phosphate ore, Nuba Mountains, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmajid A. Adam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in a laboratory scale to recover uranium from Uro area phosphate ore in the eastern part of Nuba Mountains in Sudan. Phosphate ore samples were collected, and analyzed for uranium abundance. The results showed that the samples contain a significant concentration of uranium with an average of 310.3 μg/g, which is 2.6 times higher than the world average of phosphate. The green phosphoric acid obtained from the samples was found to contain uranium in the range of 186–2049 μg/g, with an average of 603.3 μg/g, and about 98% of uranium content of the phosphate ore was rendered soluble in the phosphoric acid. An extraction process using 25% tributylphosphate, followed by stripping process using 0.5 M sodium carbonate reported that more than 98% of uranium in the green phosphoric acid exists as uranyl tricarbonate complex, moreover, sodic decomposition using 50% sodium hydroxide showed that about 98% of the uranium was precipitated as sodium diuranate concentrate that is known as the yellow cake (Na2U2O7. Further purification and calcinations of the yellow cake led to the formation of the orange powder of uranium trioxide (UO3. The chemical analysis of the obtained uranium concentrates; yellow cake and uranium trioxide proved their nuclear purity and that they meet the standard commercial specification. The obtained results proved that uranium from Uro phosphate ore was successfully recovered as uranium trioxide with an overall recovery percentage of 93%.

  6. A new model for management of mycetoma in the Sudan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fahal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Patients with mycetoma usually present late with advanced disease, which is attributed to lack of medical and health facilities in endemic areas, poor health education and low socio-economic status. With this background, an integrated patient management model at the village level was designed to address the various problems associated with mycetoma. The model was launched in an endemic village in the Sudan, between 2010 and 2013. This model is described in a prospective, descriptive, community-based study, aimed to collect epidemiological, ecological, and clinical data and to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP in order to design effective and efficient management measures. In this study, the prevalence of mycetoma was 14.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. The patients were farmers, housewives and children of low socio-economic status, and no obvious risk group was detected. All had surgery performed in a mobile surgical unit in the village which encouraged patients to present early with small early lesion leading to a good clinical outcome. The close contact with the Acacia tree thorns, animals and animal dung, walking bare footed and practising poor hygiene may all have contributed to the development of mycetoma in the village. Knowledge of mycetoma was poor in 96.3% of the study population, 70% had appropriate attitudes and beliefs towards interaction with mycetoma patients and treatment methods, and 49% used satisfactory or good practices in the management of mycetoma. Knowledge and practices on mycetoma were found to be significantly associated with age. Based on the KAP and epidemiological data, several health education sessions were conducted in the village for different target groups. The integrated management approach adopted in this study is unique and appeared successful and seems suitable as an immediate intervention. While for the longer term, establishment of local health facilities with trained health staff remains a priority.

  7. A new model for management of mycetoma in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahal, Ahmed; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; El Hassan, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdel-Rahman, Manar Elsheikh; Alshambaty, Yassir; Hashim, Ahmed; Hago, Ali; Zijlstra, Eduard E

    2014-10-01

    Patients with mycetoma usually present late with advanced disease, which is attributed to lack of medical and health facilities in endemic areas, poor health education and low socio-economic status. With this background, an integrated patient management model at the village level was designed to address the various problems associated with mycetoma. The model was launched in an endemic village in the Sudan, between 2010 and 2013. This model is described in a prospective, descriptive, community-based study, aimed to collect epidemiological, ecological, and clinical data and to assess knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in order to design effective and efficient management measures. In this study, the prevalence of mycetoma was 14.5 per 1,000 inhabitants. The patients were farmers, housewives and children of low socio-economic status, and no obvious risk group was detected. All had surgery performed in a mobile surgical unit in the village which encouraged patients to present early with small early lesion leading to a good clinical outcome. The close contact with the Acacia tree thorns, animals and animal dung, walking bare footed and practising poor hygiene may all have contributed to the development of mycetoma in the village. Knowledge of mycetoma was poor in 96.3% of the study population, 70% had appropriate attitudes and beliefs towards interaction with mycetoma patients and treatment methods, and 49% used satisfactory or good practices in the management of mycetoma. Knowledge and practices on mycetoma were found to be significantly associated with age. Based on the KAP and epidemiological data, several health education sessions were conducted in the village for different target groups. The integrated management approach adopted in this study is unique and appeared successful and seems suitable as an immediate intervention. While for the longer term, establishment of local health facilities with trained health staff remains a priority.

  8. Mycetoma herbal treatment: the Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshraga A Ezaldeen

    Full Text Available It is still challenging and difficult to treat patients with eumycetoma; the current treatment has many side effects and has proven to be expensive and characterized by high recurrence rate, hence the poor patients' treatment compliance. Most of the patients are of low socio-economic status, have many financial constraints and hence, many of them rely on alternative and herbal medicine for the treatment of their disease. With this background, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine usage among patients with eumycetoma. This cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study was conducted at the Mycetoma Research Center, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. A convenience cohort of 311 patients with confirmed eumycetoma was invited to participate in the study after informed consent. The study showed that 42.4% of the study population used herbal medicine for the treatment of eumycetoma at some stage of their illness. The commonly used herbs were Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuminum cyminum. Most of the patients claimed no benefits from the herbal treatment. Ninety one patients (29.3% had encountered complications with herbal treatment. The high prevalence of herbal treatment encountered in the study can be explained by the patients' dissatisfaction with the current medical therapeutic modalities. To reduce the high prevalence of herbal medicine usage, governmental control and health policies are mandatory; likewise, native healers need to be educated in that. Moringa oleifera was the commonly used herb in this study and many reports claimed medicinal properties of this tree; hence, further in-depth studies to determine the active ingredients in the different parts of the tree and its effect are required.

  9. Mycetoma herbal treatment: the Mycetoma Research Centre, Sudan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaldeen, Eshraga A; Fahal, Ahmed Hassan; Osman, Anjom

    2013-01-01

    It is still challenging and difficult to treat patients with eumycetoma; the current treatment has many side effects and has proven to be expensive and characterized by high recurrence rate, hence the poor patients' treatment compliance. Most of the patients are of low socio-economic status, have many financial constraints and hence, many of them rely on alternative and herbal medicine for the treatment of their disease. With this background, the current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of herbal medicine usage among patients with eumycetoma. This cross-sectional, observational, questionnaire-based study was conducted at the Mycetoma Research Center, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan. A convenience cohort of 311 patients with confirmed eumycetoma was invited to participate in the study after informed consent. The study showed that 42.4% of the study population used herbal medicine for the treatment of eumycetoma at some stage of their illness. The commonly used herbs were Moringa oleifera, Acacia nilotica, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuminum cyminum. Most of the patients claimed no benefits from the herbal treatment. Ninety one patients (29.3%) had encountered complications with herbal treatment. The high prevalence of herbal treatment encountered in the study can be explained by the patients' dissatisfaction with the current medical therapeutic modalities. To reduce the high prevalence of herbal medicine usage, governmental control and health policies are mandatory; likewise, native healers need to be educated in that. Moringa oleifera was the commonly used herb in this study and many reports claimed medicinal properties of this tree; hence, further in-depth studies to determine the active ingredients in the different parts of the tree and its effect are required.

  10. Oral health of visually impaired schoolchildren in Khartoum State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although oral health care is a vital component of overall health, it remains one of the greatest unattended needs among the disabled. The aim of this study was to assess the oral health status and oral health-related quality of life (Child-OIDP in 11-13-year-old) of the visually challenged school attendants in Khartoum State, the Sudan. Methods A school-based survey was conducted in Al-Nour institute [boys (66.3%), boarders (35.9%), and children with partial visual impairment (PVI) (44.6%)]. Two calibrated dentists examined the participants (n=79) using DMFT/dmft, Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S), dental care index, and traumatic dental injuries (TDI) index. Oral health related quality of life (C-OIDP) was administered to 82 schoolchildren. Results Caries experience was 46.8%. Mean DMFT (age≥12, n=33) was 0.4 ± 0.7 (SiC 1.6), mean dmft (age<12, n=46) was 1.9 ±2.8 (SiC 3.4), mean OHIS 1.3 ± 0.9. Care Index was zero. One fifth of the children suffered TDI (19%). Almost one third (29%) of the 11–13 year old children reported an oral impact on their daily performances. A quarter of the schoolchildren (25.3%) required an urgent treatment need. Analysis showed that children with partial visual impairment (PVI) were 6.3 times (adjusted) more likely to be diagnosed with caries compared to children with complete visual impairment (CVI), and children with caries experience were 1.3 times (unadjusted) more likely to report an oral health related impact on quality of life. Conclusions Visually impaired schoolchildren are burdened with oral health problems, especially caries. Furthermore, the 11-13 year olds' burden with caries showed a significant impact on their quality of life. PMID:23866155

  11. LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION IN THE IRRIGATED AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM IN SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. ELZAKI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of the 1990’s a significant decline in the areas sown to various crops and a sharp drop in productivity have been witnessed in Sudan's irrigated agriculture. At the same time feed shortages formed a main constraint on livestock production in the country. Under such a situation integration of fodder production activities within the existing crop rotations in irrigated agriculture seems plausible. Based on an optimization economic model, namely linear programming, this paper aims at investigating such prospects. The objective function in the basic model was to maximize farm returns. The analysis was based on primary data collected in the irrigated Gezira Scheme, generated through a comprehensive field survey in addition to supportive secondary data. The results showed the feasibility of introducing the fodder legume Dolichos lablab in the rotation for various reasons, such as no fertilizer needs and low demands for water and labour. A number of scenarios analyses of fodder-introducing were conducted around the results of the basic model run. All scenarios demonstrated tangible increases in farm returns, indicating that fodder cultivation would be profitable. Farmers’ income would be enhanced, either directly through fodder returns or indirectly by raising livestock products. Furthermore, fodder introduction would be conducive to reducing irrigation water requirements. Under the present and suggested changes in resource availability tomato, sorghum and cotton production would yield superior profitability to that of wheat, groundnut and onions. With the optimal production plan returns were higher than in the present situation by about 24%, while water requirement was 32% less.

  12. Maternal near-miss in a rural hospital in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gamal K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of maternal near-miss is a useful complement to the investigation of maternal mortality with the aim of meeting the United Nations' fifth Millennium Development Goal. The present study was conducted to investigate the frequency of near-miss events, to calculate the mortality index for each event and to compare the socio-demographic and obstetrical data (age, parity, gestational age, education and antenatal care of the near-miss cases with maternal deaths. Methods Near-miss cases and events (hemorrhage, infection, hypertensive disorders, anemia and dystocia, maternal deaths and their causes were retrospectively reviewed and the mortality index for each event was calculated in Kassala Hospital, eastern Sudan over a 2-year period, from January 2008 to December 2010. Disease-specific criteria were applied for these events. Results There were 9578 deliveries, 205 near-miss cases, 228 near-miss events and 40 maternal deaths. Maternal near-miss and maternal mortality ratio were 22.1/1000 live births and 432/100 000 live births, respectively. Hemorrhage accounted for the most common event (40.8%, followed by infection (21.5%, hypertensive disorders (18.0%, anemia (11.8% and dystocia (7.9%. The mortality index were 22.2%, 10.0%, 10.0%, 8.8% and 2.4% for infection, dystocia, anemia, hemorrhage and hypertensive disorders, respectively. Conclusion There is a high frequency of maternal morbidity and mortality at the level of this facility. Therefore maternal health policy needs to be concerned not only with averting the loss of life, but also with preventing or ameliorating maternal-near miss events (hemorrhage, infections, hypertension and anemia at all care levels including primary level.

  13. The Holocene Geoarchaeology of the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek; Dalton, Matthew; Hay, Sophie; Hardy, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Invited Paper Forty years ago Colin Renfrew declared that "every archaeological problem starts as a problem in geoarchaeology" (Renfrew, 1976 p. 2). With this assertion in mind, this paper draws upon the findings from field research in two sectors of the Nile Valley of Northern Sudan dedicated to the exploration of human-environment interactions during the middle and late Holocene. This part of the Nile corridor contains a rich cultural record and an exceptionally well preserved Holocene fluvial archive. A distinctive feature of these records is the variety of evidence for interaction between desert and river over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This interaction presented both challenges and opportunities for its ancient inhabitants. This paper will present evidence for large-scale landscape changes driven by shifts in global climate. It will also show how we have integrated the archaeological and geological records in the Northern Dongola Reach and at Amara West - where long-term field projects led by archaeologists from the British Museum have recognised the importance of a sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research to achieve a fully integrated geoarchaeological approach across a range of scales. The former project is a large-scale landscape survey with multiple sites across an 80 km reach of the Nile whilst the latter has a strong focus on a single New Kingdom town site and changes in its environmental setting. By combining multiple archaeological and geological datasets - and pioneering the use of OSL dating and strontium isotope analysis in the Desert Nile - we have developed a new understanding of human responses to Holocene climate and landscape change in this region. Renfrew, C. (1976) Archaeology and the earth sciences. In: D.A. Davidson and M.I. Shackley (eds) Geoarchaeology: Earth Science and the Past, Duckworth, London, 1-5.

  14. Análise florística e estrutural de sistemas agroflorestais das várzeas do rio Juba, Cametá, Pará Floristic and structural analysis of agroforestry floodplain systems of the Juba river, Cametá, Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Roberto Miranda dos Santos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a composição florística e a estrutura de sistemas agroflorestais (SAF nas várzeas do rio Juba, Município de Cametá-PA. Utilizou-se sete parcelas de 0,25 ha (50 m x 50 m em SAF tradicionais. Cada parcela foi dividida em 25 sub-parcelas de 10 m x 10 m. As espécies foram classificadas quanto aos tipos de usos e em três níveis de comercialização. Nos sete SAF foram inventariados 21060 indivíduos/ha com CAP e" 10 cm ou (média de 3009 indivíduos/ha, pertencentes a 27 famílias, 53 gêneros e 61 espécies. Cinco espécies (8 % são comuns aos sete SAF. O uso energético (lenha e carvão foi o mais freqüente (63 %. Os SAF apresentaram maior percentual de espécies comerciais (46 %. Espécies comumente encontradas nas várzeas da Amazônia brasileira foram importantes nesse estudo: Euterpe oleracea Mart., Theobroma cacao L., Virola surinamensis (Rol. Warb., Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. e Carapa guianensis Aubl. Euterpe oleracea e Theobroma cacao, juntas apresentaram Dr média de 80 % e IVImédio de 48 %. Os valores médios de abundância, área basal e IVI, bem como os percentuais de espécies potenciais e comerciais indicam grandes possibilidades de sustentabilidade se adotado manejo adequado e racional nesses importantes ecossistemas antrópicos da Amazônia Oriental.This study analyzed the floristic composition and the structure of traditional agroforestry systems (SAF in the floodplains of the river Juba, Cametá, Pará. The survey was made on seven plots of 0.25 ha (50 m x 50 m. Each plot was divided into 25 sub-plots of 10 m x 10 m. The species were classified in types of use and levels of commercialization. In seven SAF were surveyed 21060 individuals/ha with CAP e" 10 cm or (average of 3009 individuals/ha, belonging to 27 families, 53 genera and 61 species. Five species (8% were common to the seven SAF. The most frequent (63 % use of species was energy (firewood and coal. Most species were commercial (46%. Species

  15. Indirect Speculative Attacks and the Black Market for Foreing Exchange: The Example of Sudan Indirect Speculative Attacks and the Black Market for Foreing Exchange: The Example of Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Indirect Speculative Attacks and the Black Market for Foreing Exchange: The Example of Sudan The paper extends the recent literature on collapsing exchange roles and balance of payment crises to the case when currency inconvertibility gives rise to the emergence of an "illegal" black market. The presence of the black market generates indirect speculative attacks on the official reserves because, due to inconvertibility, agents cannot directly buy official reserves. The paper derives several c...

  16. The question of Sudan: a hydroeconomic optimization model for the Sudanese Nile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Satti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in East Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications within the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS. A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resources infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  17. The question of Sudan: a hydro-economic optimization model for the Sudanese Blue Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2015-05-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in eastern Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications for the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resource infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  18. The question of Sudan: a hydroeconomic optimization model for the Sudanese Nile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of a changing climate in East Africa pose myriad challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. Sudan's large irrigation potential, hydroelectric dams, and prime location within the basin mean that Sudan's water management decisions will have great social, economic and political implications within the region. At the same time, Sudan's water use options are constrained by tradeoffs between upstream irrigation developments and downstream hydropower facilities as well as by the country's commitments under existing or future transboundary water sharing agreements. Here, we present a model that can be applied to evaluate optimal allocation of surface water resources to irrigation and hydropower in the Sudanese portion of the Blue Nile. Hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to formulate an optimization model within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). A sensitivity analysis is performed by testing model response to a range of economic conditions and to changes in the volume and timing of hydrologic flows. Results indicate that changing hydroclimate inputs have the capacity to greatly influence the productivity of Sudan's water resources infrastructure. Results also show that the economically optimal volume of water consumption, and thus the importance of existing treaty constraints, is sensitive to the perceived value of agriculture relative to electricity as well as to changing hydrological conditions.

  19. The impact of ICT in public and private universities in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of ICT in public and private Sudanese universities. We verify the first and third hypotheses that the use of ICT facilitates connection, networks and collaboration within public and private universities in Sudan, with local, regional and international institutions. We

  20. Quantitative analysis of Sudan dye adulteration in paprika powder using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    The presence of Sudan dye used illegally for coloring in food stuffs has become a point of food safety concern, especially in paprika- and chili-containing food products. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been extensively used as an analytical method for quality control and safety m...

  1. Multi-Trial Guruswami–Sudan Decoding for Generalised Reed–Solomon Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde; Zeh, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    An iterated refinement procedure for the Guruswami–Sudan list decoding algorithm for Generalised Reed–Solomon codes based on Alekhnovich’s module minimisation is proposed. The method is parametrisable and allows variants of the usual list decoding approach. In particular, finding the list...

  2. Civic Education and Peacebuilding: Examples from Iraq and Sudan. Special Report 254

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Daniel H.; Bishai, Linda S.

    2010-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2010, the United States Institute of Peace developed several civic education programs for Iraq and Sudan as part of broader efforts to promote postconflict stability and development and help prevent a return to violence. This report describes those programs after first examining the conceptual bases for civic education and how…

  3. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  4. First report of 16SrII subgroup D phytoplasma in alfalfa in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) plants from four commercial fields in Sudan, each about 60 ha, were observed with leaf yellowing symptoms and stunted growth. Total nucleic acid was extracted from leaves of 14 symptomatic samples by a CTAB protocol and used as the template in PCR assays with the u...

  5. A first report and complete genome sequence of alfalfa enamovirus from Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    A full genome sequence of a viral pathogen, provisionally named alfalfa enamovirus 2 (AEV-2), was reconstructed from short reads obtained by Illumina RNA sequencing of alfalfa sample originating from Sudan. Ambiguous nucleotides in the resultant consensus assembly and identity of the predicted virus...

  6. Nitrite in processed meat products in Khartoum, Sudan and dietary intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, Aziza Hussein Bakheit; Mustafa, Nazik Eltayeb Musa; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrite intake from locally processed meat in Khartoum, Sudan was estimated and compared to established safety levels. For this purpose, 90 locally processed meat samples were collected randomly from retail outlets and analysed for nitrite levels according to the British standard 1992 protocol and 3

  7. The efficacy of artemether in the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elhassan, I M; Satti, G H; Ali, A E

    1994-01-01

    The efficacy of artemether (a qinghaosu derivative) administered intramuscularly for the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria was compared to quinine in an open randomized trial including 54 patients in eastern Sudan, where chloroquine resistance is common. The artemether treatment (5 d...

  8. Reconstructing Southern Sudan in the post-war era : challenges and prospects of 'Quick Impact Programmes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2004-01-01

    This report gives a personal assessment of the local needs of the Southern Sudanese population in the period of societal reconstruction envisaged in the likely event of a meaningful peace agreement being realized in 2004 between the SPLM/A and the government of Sudan. In particular, the report exami

  9. Climate and Food Production: Understanding Vulnerability from Past Trends in Africa’s Sudan-Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesis T. Yengoh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Just how influential is rainfall on agricultural production in the Sudan-Sahel of Africa? And, is there evidence that support for small-scale farming can reduce the vulnerability of crop yields to rainfall in these sensitive agro-ecological zones? These questions are explored based on a case study from Cameroon’s Sudan-Sahel region. Climate data for 20 years and crop production data for six major food crops for the same years are used to find patterns of correlation over this time period. Results show a distinction of three periods of climatic influence of agriculture: one period before 1989, another between 1990 and 1999 and the last from 2000 to 2004. The analysis reveals that, while important in setting the enabling biophysical environment for food crop cultivation, the influence of rainfall in agriculture can be diluted by proactive policies that support food production. Proactive policies also reduce the impact of agriculturally relevant climatic shocks, such as droughts on food crop yields over the time-series. These findings emphasize the extent of vulnerability of food crop production to rainfall variations among small-holder farmers in these agro-ecological zones and reinforce the call for the proactive engagement of relevant institutions and support services in assisting the efforts of small-scale food producers in Africa’s Sudan-Sahel. The implications of climate variability on agriculture are discussed within the context of food security with particular reference to Africa’s Sudan-Sahel.

  10. Study of Characteristics, Attitudes and Opinions of the Students in the College of Agriculture in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannaga, Ali Mohayad

    In examining characteristics, attitudes, and opinions of the students in the College of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, in the Sudan, this study focused on eight independent variables: years in the College of Agriculture, location of permanent home, size of home town, length of hostel living experience, father's occupation, number of living…

  11. Investigation of caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in Sudan using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa H. Halfawi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This seroprevalence study was carried out to detect anti Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus (CAEV antibodies in goat sera in five States in the Sudan during 2009 and 2010. Materials and Methods: In this study, four hundred and thirty two sera samples collected from five States in the Sudan were screened for anti-CAE virus antibodies using a commercial competitive ELISA (cELISA kit. Results: Out of 432 samples, 25 (5.8% tested positive using ELISA. The highest prevalence was recorded in El-gazira State (19%, whereas in Kassala State the prevalence was 10.7%, Khartoum State (0.92% and no positive antibodies were found in Northern and River Nile. Conclusion: The information obtained in this study showed that the disease spread to other states in the Sudan beside Khartoum state. Therefore, further epizootiological investigation on CAEV and Maedi Visna Virus at the country level is important to monitor its spread and determine its economic impact in the Sudan, while better control on imported animals for genetic improvement must be instituted. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 558-562

  12. Literacy in the Southern Sudan: A Case Study of Variables Affecting Literacy Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, J. Ronayne

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Local Languages Literacy Project in the Southern Sudan; delineates the most important educational, socioeconomic, and linguistic variables affecting the success of large-scale literacy programs in Africa; and questions the widely held assumption that indigenous language literacy is essential to subsequent literacy in the prestige…

  13. The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; el Kadaro, A Y; Theander, T G

    1995-01-01

    The pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Sudan, where the disease is caused by Leishmania major, was studied by light and electron microscopy. Lesions were classified into four distinct groups based on the ratio of different cell types, especially lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells...

  14. E-learning Sudan, formal learning for out-of-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, H.; Badri, A.; Telford, R.; Hulst, A. van der; Joolingen, W. van

    2016-01-01

    E-Learning Sudan (ELS) is a custom-built computer/tablet game that provides alternative learning opportunities to Sudanese children who are excluded from education. Unique in ELS is that children can learn mathematics, in their own remote village, without a teacher. This research study assessed the

  15. A Basic Hybrid Library Support Model to Distance Learners in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Omer Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Distance learning has flourished in Sudan during the last two decades; more and more higher education institutions offer distance learning programmes to off-campus students. Like on-campus students, distance learners should have access to appropriate library and information support services. They also have specific needs for library and…

  16. Application of Rapid Drilling Optimization Technology in P Oilfield of Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Mingzhang; Qi Mingming; Li Ying

    2009-01-01

    @@ P Oilfield is situated in the southeast of Sudan. Up to 100 wells have been completed since 2003. Due to the complex formation lithology, the oilfield at the initial stage of development encountered several problems,involving hole shrinkage, hole instability, well deviation,lost circulation, bit bailing, blockage during tripping and large section of reaming.

  17. ""Sudan Red I"" and China's Food Safety

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAOTIANBI

    2005-01-01

    FIVE days after the UK Food Standards Agency announced the recall of food contaminated with the carcinogenic dye Sudan Red I, China's food safety authorities demanded a comprehensive examination of all domestically produced food. Evidence suggests that Cbina's Food Safety Administration acts in accordance with international practices, and has the ability to deal with emergencies.

  18. First report of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus antigen from pneumonic cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intisar Kamil Saeed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To explore the expected role of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV in pneumonia in cattle, cattle lungs (n=242 showing signs of pneumonia were collected from slaughter houses of three different localities located at Northern, Central and Western Sudan during 2010–2013. The collected samples were tested for the presence of BVDV antigen using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA, and Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT. Twenty six (10.7% out of 242 samples were found to be positive for BVDV. Positive results were seen in all the three studied areas, with the highest prevalence (16.7%; n=4/24 at Gezira State in Central Sudan. BVDV genome could be detected in all ELISA positive samples. The results indicated the existence of BVDV infection in cattle in different areas in Sudan, and its possible association with respiratory infections in cattle. Analysis using BLAST indicated that the sequence was identical to the previously reported BVDV-1 (GenBank accession AF220247.1.; nucleotide A was found in our study at position 9 of our sequence, whereas T was present instead in the reference virus. This is the first report of detecting BVDV antigen, genome, and its sequence analysis collected from cattle lungs in Sudan.

  19. The economic burden of visceral leishmaniasis in Sudan: an assessment of provider and household costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meheus, F.; Abuzaid, A.A.; Baltussen, R.M.; Younis, B.M.; Balasegaram, M.; Khalil, E.A.; Boelaert, M.; Musa, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if left untreated and is endemic in eastern Sudan. We estimated the direct and indirect costs of treatment of VL from the perspective of the provider and the household at three public hospitals in Gedaref State. The

  20. E-learning Sudan, formal learning for out-of-school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stubbé, Hester; Badri, Aiman; Telford, Rebecca; van der Hulst, Anja; van Joolingen, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    E-Learning Sudan (ELS) is a custom-built computer/tablet game that provides alternative learning opportunities to Sudanese children who are excluded from education. Unique in ELS is that children can learn mathematics, in their own remote village, without a teacher. This research study assessed the

  1. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  2. Changing forest management strategies in Sudan : a challenge for forestry educational systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahir, S.S.

    1996-01-01


    This study is an effort to understand the way various categories of social actors go about their interaction with the management of forest resources in Sudan. By providing an overview and description of the motives, perceptions, and management objectives and strategies of social actors,

  3. The impact of ICT in public and private universities in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impacts of ICT in public and private Sudanese universities. We verify the first and third hypotheses that the use of ICT facilitates connection, networks and collaboration within public and private universities in Sudan, with local, regional and international institutions. We

  4. Residential dynamics: the co-existence of formal and informal systems in Khartoum, Sudan

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osman, A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the residential dynamics in Khartoum, Sudan. Some patterns demonstrate that formal and informal systems co-exist and are mutually supportive. There are also particular spatial manifestations that have resulted from a unique socio...

  5. Post-Conflict Returnee Reintegration: A Case Study of South Sudan and the Livelihood Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    element of successful reintegration programs for returnees in a post-conflict society. Contrary to the standard short-term emergent aid and...that successful reintegration is imperative for national reconciliation and for the prevention of reoccurring violence.18 Elizabeth Colson has...effectively address the root causes of violence in order to ensure successful reintegration so as to not revert back to the same cycles of conflict. In

  6. Sudan: The Crisis in Darfur and Status of the North-South Peace Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    factor triggering the civil war. The National Islamic Front ( NIF ) government, which ousted the democratically elected civilian government in 1989...Islamic Front ( NIF ), agreed on a cabinet. At the core of the dispute was the distribution of key economic ministerial portfolios. The NCP insisted on...against successive central governments in Khartoum, albeit unsuccessfully. In the early 1990s, the National Islamic Front ( NIF ) government, which came

  7. Assessment of the Government of South Sudan’s Potential for Survival as an Independent Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    l)..t’tK ;J.t’ja ; moe..- tfo"..;n\\l)nthfe’PC’log·-:tt~rn:(.:~ Pfr "~h U~c Itt ~(lu•et’ r~ .;~r ~to":~:~1t:po..~:c.~ ht"!e, f,7Urn ~~~~ t1t v~ ~mM

  8. South Sudan Secession: Modelling the Fiscal Shock and Its Spillover Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Onour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo utilizamos un modelo macroeconómico diseñado para describir cómo economías de pequeña escala y abiertas al exterior se enfrentan a la incertidumbre política derivada de la separación de un país en dos partes independientes. Según nuestros resultados en este artículo, la estabilización del mercado de activos en cualquiera de los dos países dependerá de la estabilidad política, la cual impacta en los flujos de divisas extranjeras en ambos países. Nuestro modelo predice que si la inestabilidad política se mantiene tras la división, las reservas de divisas extranjeras de ambos bancos centrales se deteriorarán progresivamente, lo cual posiblemente llevará a una depreciación doméstica de la divisa local en términos de divisas extranjeras. El modelo también predice que un déficit fiscal en expansión y un declive de las reservas oficiales forzará en último término a abandonar cualquier sistema cambiario fijo a favor de sistemas más flexibles, lo cual resultará en una mayor aceleración tanto de la tasa de inflación doméstica y de la tasa de crecimiento del dinero a nivel local. Como resultado, el periodo post-secesión probablemente estará caracterizado por la inestabilidad económica y política en ambos países a no que se mantenga la cooperación económica.

  9. The Five Point Plan: Foundational Transformation of the South Sudan Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    of the Five Point Plan is improving education levels in the SSAF. Eradicating illiteracy in the SSAF should be a national priority. As the...Studies in Education, (1998) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, Mahwah, NJ it targeted “225,000 workers for adult education programs.” Singapore’s...6 Houole, Cyril, Burr Elbert, Hamilton, Thomas, The Armed Service and Adult Education, (1947), Washington D.C., The

  10. Post-conflict mental health in South Sudan: overview of common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 50% for depression. (4). Another study ... assess risk, signs and symptoms, and treatment suggestions are provided for each ..... speech, weakness. •Forgetfulness ... •Involuntary movements. • Heat stroke.

  11. Baseline Survey for an Impact Evaluation of the Greenbelt Transformation Initiative in South Sudan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This data set is derived from a 2013 household baseline survey in the country's Greenbelt region as part of an impact evaluation of the Food, Agribusiness, and Rural...

  12. Hepatitis C Virus Epidemiology in Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Chaabna

    Full Text Available To characterize hepatitis C virus (HCV epidemiology and assess country-specific population-level HCV prevalence in four countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region: Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan, and Yemen.Reports of HCV prevalence were systematically reviewed as per PRISMA guidelines. Pooled HCV prevalence estimates in different risk populations were conducted when the number of measures per risk category was at least five.We identified 101 prevalence estimates. Pooled HCV antibody prevalence in the general population in Somalia, Sudan and Yemen was 0.9% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 0.3%-1.9%, 1.0% (95%CI: 0.3%-1.9% and 1.9% (95%CI: 1.4%-2.6%, respectively. The only general population study from Djibouti reported a prevalence of 0.3% (CI: 0.2%-0.4% in blood donors. In high-risk populations (e.g., haemodialysis and haemophilia patients, pooled HCV prevalence was 17.3% (95%CI: 8.6%-28.2% in Sudan. In Yemen, three studies of haemodialysis patients reported HCV prevalence between 40.0%-62.7%. In intermediate-risk populations (e.g.. healthcare workers, in patients and men who have sex with men, pooled HCV prevalence was 1.7% (95%CI: 0.0%-4.9% in Somalia and 0.6% (95%CI: 0.4%-0.8% in Sudan.National HCV prevalence in Yemen appears to be higher than in Djibouti, Somalia, and Sudan as well as most other MENA countries; but otherwise prevalence levels in this subregion are comparable to global levels. The high HCV prevalence in patients who have undergone clinical care appears to reflect ongoing transmission in clinical settings. HCV prevalence in people who inject drugs remains unknown.

  13. Towards a sterile insect technique field release of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Sudan: Irradiation, transportation, and field cage experimentation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helinski, M; Hassan, M; El-Motasim, W; Malcolm, C; Knols, B.G.J; El-Sayed, B

    2008-01-01

    Background - The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique...

  14. Follow-up on commitments at the Third Global Forum on Human Resources for Health: Indonesia, Sudan, Tanzania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilles Dussault; Elsheikh Badr; Hartiah Haroen; Martin Mapunda; Achmad Soebagja Tancarino Mars; Kirana Pritasari; Giorgio Cometto

    2016-01-01

      This study sought to assess actions which Indonesia, Sudan, and Tanzania took to implement the health workforce commitments they made at the Third Global Forum on Human Resources for Health (HRH) in November 2013...

  15. Enzymes oxidizing the azo dye 1-phenylazo-2-naphthol (Sudan I) and their contribution to its genotoxicity and carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborova, Marie; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Frei, Eva; Hodek, Petr; Martinek, Vaclav

    2014-01-01

    Sudan I [1-(phenylazo)-2-naphthol, C.I. Solvent Yellow 14] is an industrial dye, which was found as a contaminant in numerous foods in several European countries. Because Sudan I has been assigned by the IARC as a Category 3 carcinogen, the European Union decreed that it cannot be utilized as food colorant in any European country. Sudan I induces the malignancies in liver and urinary bladder of rats and mice. This carcinogen has also been found to be a potent mutagen, contact allergen and sensitizer, and exhibits clastogenic properties. The oxidation of Sudan I increases its toxic effects and leads to covalent adducts in DNA. Identification of enzymatic systems that contribute to Sudan I oxidative metabolism to reactive intermediates generating such covalent DNA adducts on the one hand, and to the detoxification of this carcinogen on the other, is necessary to evaluate susceptibility to this toxicant. This review summarizes the identification of such enzymes and the molecular mechanisms of oxidation reactions elucidated to date. Human and animal cytochrome P450 (CYP) and peroxidases are capable of oxidizing Sudan I. Of the CYP enzymes, CYP1A1 is most important both in Sudan I detoxification and its bio-activation. Ring-hydroxylated metabolites and a dimer of this carcinogen were found as detoxification products of Sudan I generated with CYPs and peroxidases, respectively. Oxidative bio-activation of this azo dye catalyzed by CYPs and peroxidases leads to generation of proximate genotoxic metabolites (the CYP-catalyzed formation of the benzenediazonium cation and the peroxidase-mediated generation of one-electron oxidation products), which covalently modify DNA both in vitro and in vivo. The predominant DNA adduct generated with the benzenediazonium cation was characterized to be 8-(phenylazo)guanine. The Sudan I radical species mediated by peroxidases reacts with the -NH2 group in (deoxy)guanosine, generating the 4-[(deoxy)guanosin-N(2)-yl]Sudan I product. Sudan I

  16. Pneumonia Case Management in Children Under-Five: A Study in First Referral Hospitals in Khartoum, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Al Mubarak, Renas Fadlallah

    2006-01-01

    Background: Pneumonia is a major cause of under-five morbidity and mortality in Sudan. Pneumonia standard case management has been followed in Sudan through the National ARI Programme. No studies have thus far looked at the inpatient case management of children admitted with pneumonia. Objectives: The study aims to describe the health care that children under five receive before reaching a first referral hospital, and the case management they receive when admitted as inpatients. Methods...

  17. Peanut butter consumption and hepatocellular carcinoma in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Hadi Omer, R.

    2001-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world with 80% of cases occurring in developing countries in sub-Saharan regions in Africa, South-East Asia and China. The cancer is highly fatal and survival is generally less than 1 year from diagnosis. Clinical records suggest

  18. Peanut butter consumption and hepatocellular carcinoma in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadi Omer, El R.

    2001-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world with 80% of cases occurring in developing countries in sub-Saharan regions in Africa, South-East Asia and China. The cancer is highly fatal and survival is generally less than 1 year from diagnosis. Clinical records

  19. Towards SERS based applications in food analytics: Lipophilic sensor layers for the detection of Sudan III in food matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Martin; Patze, Sophie [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bocklitz, Thomas [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Weber, Karina [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Cialla-May, Dana, E-mail: dana.cialla-may@uni-jena.de [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Popp, Jürgen [Friedrich-Schiller University Jena, Institute of Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, Helmholtzweg 4, 07743 Jena (Germany); Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology (IPHT) Jena, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • A lipophilic sensor layer was applied to enzymatically grown SERS substrates. • Sudan III molecules could be detected in presence of water-insoluble competitors. • The carcinogenic food dye Sudan III was detected in a relevant concentration range. • Multivariate statistics allows quantitative measurements of Sudan III. • Sudan III contaminations were successfully detected out of spiked paprika powder. - Abstract: Food safety is a topic of great importance for our society which places high demands on analytical methods. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) meets the requirements for a rapid, sensitive and specific detection technique. The fact that metallic colloids, one of the most often used SERS substrates, are usually prepared in aqueous solution makes the detection of water-insoluble substances challenging. In this paper we present a SERS based approach for the detection of water-insoluble molecules by applying a hydrophobic surface modification onto the surface of enzymatic generated silver nanoparticles. By this approach the detection of the illegal water-insoluble food dyes, such as Sudan III in presence of riboflavin, as water-soluble competitor, is possible. Moreover, we demonstrate the usability of this kind of SERS substrates for determination of Sudan III out of spiked paprika extracts.

  20. Method development and survey of Sudan I–IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I–IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml−1. Low concentrations (adulteration. PMID:26824489

  1. Indirect Speculative Attacks and the Black Market for Foreing Exchange: The Example of Sudan Indirect Speculative Attacks and the Black Market for Foreing Exchange: The Example of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Elbadawi

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Indirect Speculative Attacks and the Black Market for Foreing Exchange: The Example of Sudan The paper extends the recent literature on collapsing exchange roles and balance of payment crises to the case when currency inconvertibility gives rise to the emergence of an "illegal" black market. The presence of the black market generates indirect speculative attacks on the official reserves because, due to inconvertibility, agents cannot directly buy official reserves. The paper derives several conditional probability statements regarding the likelihood of successful devaluation as a way to unify the official and black market exchange rates and achieve economic stabilization.

  2. Collaborative evaluation and market research converge: an innovative model agricultural development program evaluation in Southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, John M; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-11-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A partnership of local officials, agricultural development staff, and students worked with the outside team to craft a survey of agricultural traders working between northern Uganda and Southern Sudan the steps approach of a collaborative model. The goal was to create a market directory of use to producers, government officials and others interested in stimulating agricultural trade. The directory of agricultural producers and distributors served as an agricultural development and promotion tool as did the collaborative process itself.

  3. MINERALS PROFILE IN PRE-AND POST FED DESERT SHEEP IN THE SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. BABEKER

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the changes in serum minerals profile in desert sheep in Sudan in relation to feed interval; pre feeding (fasting overnight, post feeding (3hrs after feeding. Twenty one yearling unsaturated males of Sudan desert sheep with an average body weight of 31.11kg were used in this study.The serum level of (Cu and Mn was significantly high (P<0.05 in post feeding than pre feeding, while serum level of (Zn was high in pre feeding when compared with the post feeding with percentage of changes amounting for (15%. However the serum level of (Na was significantly (P<0.05 higher during pre feeding than post feeding whereas serum level of (Mg was higher, while serum level of (K was lower during pre feeding than post feeding with percentage of changes (8% and (10%, respectively.

  4. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for flood forecasting at Dongola Station in the River Nile, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulafa Hag Elsafi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy seasonal rains cause the River Nile in Sudan to overflow and flood the surroundings areas. The floods destroy houses, crops, roads, and basic infrastructure, resulting in the displacement of people. This study aimed to forecast the River Nile flow at Dongola Station in Sudan using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN as a modeling tool and validated the accuracy of the model against actual flow. The ANN model was formulated to simulate flows at a certain location in the river reach, based on flow at upstream locations. Different procedures were applied to predict flooding by the ANN. Readings from stations along the Blue Nile, White Nile, Main Nile, and River Atbara between 1965 and 2003 were used to predict the likelihood of flooding at Dongola Station. The analysis indicated that the ANN provides a reliable means of detecting the flood hazard in the River Nile.

  5. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A.A.; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Suda...

  6. Mediation Outcomes from the Second Sudan Civil War: An Analysis of Abuja and Igad Peace Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    however, were far more complex.74 The fracture within Sudanese society began with Turco -Egyptian rule, and splintered further during the Anglo-Egyptian...a privileged few.76 Modern Sudanese history began with the Turco -Egyptian conquest of the northern and central regions of Sudan by Muhammad ‘Ali in...1821 and expanded in 1870 when annexation extended to the southern regions.77 Turco -Egyptian rule ended in 1882 when Muhammad Ahmad, a man claiming

  7. The Impact of Human Capital on Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Khalafalla Ahmed Mohamed Arabi; Suliman Zakaria Suliman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the impact of human capital on economic growth in Sudan for the period 1982-2009 by using a simultaneous equation model that links human capital i.e. school attainment; and investment in education and health to economic growth, total productivity, foreign direct investment, and human development index. Based on three-stage least squares technique, the empirical results of the paper show that quality of the education has a determinant role in the economic gr...

  8. The state of emergency care in the Republic of the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Hassan A. A-Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sudan is one of the largest African countries, covering an area of 1.9 million km2—approximately one fifth of the geographic area of the United States. The population is 30 million people, the majority of whom (68% live in rural areas, as compared with the sub-Saharan African average of approximately 62%. Sudan is considered a lower-middle income country—with 47% of the population living below the poverty line and a gross domestic product (GDP of US $62 billion in 2010. In addition to excessive burden of communicable diseases such as malaria, tuberculosis, and schistosomiasis, Sudan is particularly susceptible to both natural and manmade disasters. Drought and flood are quite common due to Sudan’s proximity to and dependency on the Nile, and throughout history Sudan has also been plagued with internal conflicts and outbreaks of violence, which bring about a burden of traumatic disease and demand high quality emergency care. The purpose of this paper is to describe the state of emergency care and Emergency Medicine education, and their context within the Sudanese health care system. As is the case in most African countries, emergency care is delivered by junior staff: new graduates from medical schools and unsupervised medical officers who handle all types of case presentations. In 2001, increased mortality and morbidity among unsorted patients prompted the Ministry of Health to introduce a new triage-based emergency care system. In late 2005, twenty-one Emergency physicians delivered these new Emergency Services. In 2011, following a curriculum workshop in November 2010, the Emergency Medicine residency program was started in Khartoum. Currently there are 27 rotating registrars, the first class of whom is expected to graduate in 2015.

  9. Aspects of Oral Health Care Services in the context of HIV and AIDS in the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Elwalid Fadul

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Sub-Saharan Africa is a home to 67% of all people living with HIV-infection. War and the resulting population movements, Sudan's long borders with countries which have high HIV-prevalence, all these conditions beside others interacted to provide an enabling environment for rapid spread of HIV infection. As the increase of the epidemic, the demand for care rises for those living with HIV and AIDS, with no exception among health workers. Objectives: the overall aim of this ...

  10. Climate change, conflict and development in Sudan: global neo-Malthusian narratives and local power struggles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Dystopian accounts of climate change posit that it will lead to more conflict, causing state failure and mass population movements. Yet these narratives are both theoretically and empirically problematic: the conflict–environment hypothesis merges a global securitization agenda with local manipulations of Northern fears about the state of planetary ecology. Sudan has experienced how damaging this fusion of wishful thinking, power politics and top-down development can be. In the 1970s, global resource scarcity concerns were used locally to impose the fata morgana of Sudan as an Arab-African breadbasket: in the name of development, violent evictions of local communities contributed to Sudan's second civil war and associated famines. Today, Darfur has been labelled ‘the world's first climate change conflict’, masking the long-term political-economic dynamics and Sudanese agency underpinning the crisis. Simultaneously, the global food crisis is instrumentalized to launch a dam programme and agricultural revival that claim to be African answers to resource scarcity. The winners, however, are Sudan's globalized Islamist elites and foreign investors, whilst the livelihoods of local communities are undermined. Important links exist between climatic developments and security, but global Malthusian narratives about state failure and conflict are dangerously susceptible to manipulations by national elites; the practical outcomes decrease rather than increase human security. In the climate change era, the breakdown of institutions and associated violence is often not an unfortunate failure of the old system due to environmental shock, but a strategy of elites in wider processes of power and wealth accumulation and contestation.

  11. Parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables sold at central markets in Khartoum state, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Mona Ali; Siddig, Emmanuel Edwar; Elaagip, Arwa Hassan; Edris, Ali Mahmoud Mohammed; Nasr, Awad Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Background Fresh vegetables are considered as vital nutrients of a healthy diet as they supply the body with essential supplements. The consumption of raw vegetables is the main way for transmission of intestinal parasitic organisms. This study was aimed at detecting the parasitic contamination in fresh vegetables sold in two central open-aired markets in Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods In this prospective cross-sectional study, a total of 260 fresh vegetable samples and 50 water samples used ...

  12. Camel Owners And Perception Towards Management Practices At Butanaarea Gaderif State Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Amir .M. Osman; Mohammed Abdelkreim; S.M.A. Abukashawa; M. T. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The current study was conducted at different locations in Butanaarea Gaderif state Sudan.60 questionnaires were used to collect information from camel owners .The study aims to assess perception of camel owners towards rangelands management practices .65 of camel owners rearing camels as life manner.The results revealed about 66 of the respondents are profession in camels rearing. On the other hand about 46 of camel owners adopted the nomadic system.Moreover 63 bred camel for mil...

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of the Spontaneous Volunteer Response to the 2013 Sudan Floods: Changing the Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahari, Amin; Schultz, Carl H

    2017-03-08

    Introduction While the concept of community resilience is gaining traction, the role of spontaneous volunteers during the initial response to disasters remains controversial. In an attempt to resolve some of the debate, investigators examined the activities of a spontaneous volunteer group called Nafeer after the Sudan floods around the city of Khartoum in August of 2013. Hypothesis Can spontaneous volunteers successfully initiate, coordinate, and deliver sustained assistance immediately after a disaster?

  14. MY EXPERIENCE OF TEACHING PHACOSURGERY ON VISALIS 100 IN SUDAN AND NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dnyanmote, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    At the invitation of the director of The National Eye Center, Kaduna, Nigeria and The Makkah Eye Hospital of Khartoum, Sudan I visited both these institutions to teach phacoemulsification surgery to their aspiring surgeons on Visalis 100 (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany). This article highlights the experience of teaching phacoemulsification surgery in foreign African countries like Nigeria and Sudan. In Nigeria I had the opportunity to give training in both wet lab and live surgery settings whereas in Sudan only hands-on live surgery. Sudan being an Islamic nation pigs are not slaughtered there and hence no pig eyes. Goat eyes differ significantly from human eyes and hence have almost no value in wet lab teaching. The training program included theoretical discussions, wet lab, surgery and finally discussions related to the days' surgery. It became clear that quality of learning depends on three main factors. Thorough understanding of theory and observation of senior surgeons in operation room Good wet lab and finally doing the surgery oneself in step by step manner. Dedicated teachers and instructors can make all the difference. The learning curve also significantly shortens if the trainees are exposed to all types of cataract surgery like ECCE, SICS and phacoemulsification surgery. The main problem faced by those surgeons who have done only ECCE/SICS is that they are not used to handling microscope and instruments in both hands at the same time. Hence I strongly recommend them wet lab where they can sit and practice using both hands and feet and microscope simultaneously and in coordinated fashion.

  15. Elemental analysis of soils from central Sudan by energy dispersive XRF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousif, A. A.; Kunzendorf, Helmar

    1986-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is employed to determine the concentration of nineteen elements in seven profiles representing the aridisols and vertisols groups from agricultural plains of Sudan. A significant variation in the concentration of alkaline and alkaline earth elements...... in the different regions is observed, which is discussed in relation to the texture of the soil and climatic factors. Uranium, determined by the delayed neutron technique, is observed to increase with depth in one area....

  16. Prevalence of dental caries and toothbrushing habits among preschool children in Khartoum State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elidrissi, Sitana M; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2016-08-01

    Dental caries in preschool children remains a major dental public health problem and affects significant numbers of children in developed and developing countries. The incidence is increasing in developing countries, such as Sudan, because of lifestyle changes, absence of oral health-preventive services and inadequate access to oral health care. This study assessed the prevalence of dental caries and toothbrushing habits among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children in Khartoum State, Sudan, and described the correlation between the mean decayed, missing and filled tooth (dmft) score for primary teeth with toothbrushing and sugar consumption. The subjects were 553 preschool children with their mothers/guardians, selected by random sampling from the kindergartens of the seven localities of Khartoum State, Sudan. Data were obtained through clinical examination using a modified World Health Organization (WHO) examination data-capture sheet and through structured administered interviews with mothers/guardians. The prevalence of dental caries was 52.4%, with a mean dmft score of 2.3. There was an increase in the dmft scores with increasing age. The frequency of children who brushed their teeth regularly at least once a day was high (83.4%), lower dmft scores were associated with starting toothbrushing earlier in life and with increased frequency of brushing per day. Eating sugar-containing food was significantly associated with dmft score. The prevalence of dental caries was found to be high among 3- to 5-year-old preschool children, and caries experience increased with age. This was mostly associated with sugar consumption and therefore calls for educational interventions to control sugar intake. The toothbrushing habit is well established in Khartoum State, Sudan, as a large number of children were found to be brushing their teeth regularly. No significant association was found between feeding habits and dmft score. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  17. High mortality associated with an outbreak of hepatitis E among displaced persons in Darfur, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Boccia, Delia; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Klovstad, Hilde; Hamid, Nuha; Tatay, Mercedes; Ciglenecki, Iza; Nizou, Jacques-Yves; Nicand, Elisabeth; Guerin, Philippe Jean

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute onset of jaundice and a high case-fatality ratio in pregnant women. We provide a clinical description of hospitalized case patients and assess the specific impact on pregnant women during a large epidemic of HEV infection in a displaced population in Mornay camp (78,800 inhabitants), western Darfur, Sudan. METHODS: We reviewed hospital records. A sample of 20 clinical cases underwent laboratory confirmation. These patients were tested for immun...

  18. Phlebotomus Sandflies of the Paloich Area in the Sudan (Diptera, Psychodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-10-01

    and other arthropods of pUblic health and veterinary significance. DECK 2 PHLEBOTOMUS SANDFLIES OF THE PALOICH AREA IN THE SUDAN (DIPTERA...species was collected at Tir on oiled paper in December 1962. Nothing is known of its habits. Phlebotomus (Sergentomyia) clydei Sinton . This...39: 103. Kirk & Lewis, 1951, Trans. R. En!. Soc. Lond.l02: 413. Type species: Phlebotomus hospitii Sinton , by orig. desig. New synonymy

  19. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Camel Piroplasmosis in Gadarif State, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyingilili, Hamisi Said

    2017-01-01

    The socioeconomic importance of camels (Camelus dromedarius) could not be neglected in the Sudan. The present study was planned to confirm the presence of piroplasmosis in camels from the Eastern region of the Sudan (Gedarif State) using microscopical (blood film) and molecular technique (PCR). A total of 55 camels of different sexes (34 females and 21 males) were sampled from four localities of the state between January 2011 and January 2012. The prevalence rates using parasitological and molecular examinations were 43.6% and 74.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates significantly vary between the localities (p = 0.011) but not between the different sexes (p = 0.515). PCR technique showed higher sensitivity than microscopy. The present paper was to be the first report investigating camel piroplasmosis using both parasitological and molecular methods in the Eastern region of the Sudan. Further studies in the phylogenetic sequencing are to be continued for parasite speciation. Moreover, studies on the clinical and economic consequences of camel piroplasmosis are recommended. PMID:28293445

  20. Experimental and ab initio DFT calculated Raman Spectrum of Sudan I, a Red Dye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Liu, Chuan

    2011-01-01

    The red dye Sudan I was investigated by Raman spectroscopy using different excitation wavelengths (1064, 532 and 244 nm). A calculation of the Raman spectrum based on quantum mechanical ab initio density functional theory (DFT) was made using the RB3LYP method with the 3-21G and 6-311+G(d,p) basis....... Comparison was made with other azo dyes in the literature on natural, abundant plant pigments. The results show that there is a possibility in foodstuff analysis to distinguish Sudan I from other dyes by using Raman spectroscopy with more than one laser wavelength for resonance enhancement of the different...... of the Sudan I molecule was involved in the majority of the vibrations through N N and C–N stretching and various bending modes. Low-intensity bands in the lower wavenumber range (at about 721, 616, 463 and 218 cm−1) were selectively enhanced by the resonance Raman effect when using the 532 nm excitation line...

  1. The role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade: Case study of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azharia Abdelbagi Elbushra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available African countries have created many regional trade agreements with the economic objectives of reducing trade barriers and encouraging economic growth. The COMESA is an example of regional integration singed on 1993 by 19 African countries including Sudan. COMESA represents a chance for member countries to enhance their economic and social relations through increasing intra-trade. The objective of this paper is to assess the role of COMESA in promoting intra-regional agricultural trade between Sudan and COMESA countries. A multi-market model with Armington non-linear specification was applied. The paper results showed that there is a great potential for Sudan to increase its agricultural exports to other COMESA countries. The domestic agricultural markets are expected to be hampered by imports surge and increase in competition, while the producers of agricultural export commodities will be better off. In order to compete and benefit from potential in the COMESA markets, the paper recommended improving efficiency in the Sudanese agricultural sector through increasing productivity, lowering cost of production, enhancing marketing services, attaining economies of scale and attracting foreign investment.

  2. Analysis of water footprints of rainfed and irrigated crops in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamseddin Musa Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Water rather than land is the limiting factor for crop production in Sudan. This study attempts to use the water footprint (WFP and virtual water concepts to account for crops water consumption under the Sudanese rainfed and irrigated conditions. The general average of the green WFP of sorghum and millet were found to be about 7700 and 10700 m3 ton-1, respectively. According to experimental results at three different climates, in-situ rainwater harvesting techniques could reduce the WFP of rainfed sorghum by 56% on the average. The blue component (surface water shows the highest contribution to the total WFP of irrigated crops: 88% for cotton, 70% for sorghum, 68% for groundnut and 100% for wheat. However, the role of the green water (rainwater is not marginal since it largely influences the operation and maintenance (silt clearance of the gravity-fed irrigation system. Under normal conditions, the annual total virtual water demand of sorghum (the dominant food crop in Sudan is found to be 15 km3, of which 91% is green water. During a dry year, however, Sudan could experience a deficit of 2.3 km3 of water, necessitating the adoption of a wise food stocking-exporting policy.

  3. Building a National Heritage Registry for the Sudan: the Friedrich W. Hinkel Archive Digitization Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, S.

    2017-08-01

    The Republic of the Sudan is home to outstanding and diverse cultural heritage ranging from Neolithic sites of human activity and settlement to historic sites of the 19th and 20th century. While certain phases of the Sudan's cultural heritage such as the period of Egyptian influence during the second and first millennium B.C. have been the focus of archaeological research since the 19th century, other aspects of the country's rich history have remained largely unknown locally and internationally due to a lack of documentation and registration of such sites. Since 2014, the German Archaeological Institute (DAI) has been engaged in an effort to support the creation of a national heritage registry in close cooperation with the National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums (NCAM) by digitizing the archive of German architect Friedrich W. Hinkel and engaging in capacity building measures focusing on analog and digital data curation. The archive contains structured information (photos, drawings, maps and assembled written documentation) regarding over 14,000 archaeological and historical sites in the Sudan using an alphanumeric coding system that allows for easy integration of data in a digital environment such as the DAI's IT infrastructure, the iDAI.world. As such the data assembled by Hinkel will serve as the basis of the national heritage registry currently in development.

  4. Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine as a treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Tajeldin M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT is the treatment of choice for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in most areas of the world, where malaria is endemic, including Sudan. However, few published data are available on the use of ACT for treatment of P. vivax malaria. Methods This study was conducted at a health centre in Kassala, eastern Sudan, from October to December 2011. Patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria received artemether-lumefantrine (AL tablets (containing 20mg artemether and 120 mg lumefantrine and were monitored for 28 days. Results Out of the 43 cases enrolled in this study, 38 completed the 28-day follow-up. Their mean age was 25.1 years (SD: 1.5. On day 3 following AL treatment, all of the patients were afebrile and aparasitaemic. By day 28, all 38 patients exhibited adequate clinical and parasitological responses to AL treatment. The cure rate was 100% and 88.4% for the per protocol analysis andfor the intention to treat analysis, respectively. Mild adverse effects (nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness and/or rash that resolved spontaneously were observed in four (10.5% of the patients. Conclusion AL combination therapy was fully effective for treatment of P. vivax malaria in the study in eastern Sudan. Trial registration Trial. Gov: NCT01625871

  5. Quantitative analysis of Sudan dye adulteration in paprika powder using FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohumi, Santosh; Joshi, Ritu; Kandpal, Lalit Mohan; Lee, Hoonsoo; Kim, Moon S; Cho, Hyunjeong; Mo, Changyeun; Seo, Young-Wook; Rahman, Anisur; Cho, Byoung-Kwan

    2017-05-01

    As adulteration of foodstuffs with Sudan dye, especially paprika- and chilli-containing products, has been reported with some frequency, this issue has become one focal point for addressing food safety. FTIR spectroscopy has been used extensively as an analytical method for quality control and safety determination for food products. Thus, the use of FTIR spectroscopy for rapid determination of Sudan dye in paprika powder was investigated in this study. A net analyte signal (NAS)-based methodology, named HLA/GO (hybrid linear analysis in the literature), was applied to FTIR spectral data to predict Sudan dye concentration. The calibration and validation sets were designed to evaluate the performance of the multivariate method. The obtained results had a high determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.98 and low root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.026% for the calibration set, and an R(2) of 0.97 and RMSE of 0.05% for the validation set. The model was further validated using a second validation set and through the figures of merit, such as sensitivity, selectivity, and limits of detection and quantification. The proposed technique of FTIR combined with HLA/GO is rapid, simple and low cost, making this approach advantageous when compared with the main alternative methods based on liquid chromatography (LC) techniques.

  6. Research problems and trends of the pharmaceutical market Sudan as social oriented structure of the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олена Миколаївна Євтушенко

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The research object was the definition of problems and tendencies of pharmaceutical market development of Sudan as the country which in recent years tries to pull through the consequence of political and economic crisis and to build the socially oriented model of the state.Methods: In the researches it has been used the marketing and economic analysis methods as well as the historical, logical, comparative and graphic methods.Results: The authors represented the marketing analysis results of pharmaceutical market of Sudan. It has been identified the main problems and tendencies of it development. It has been made the macroeconomic indexes analysis which has the influence to the availability level of the pharmaceutical assistance to the population of the country. It has been studied the spending dynamics of the medical and pharmaceutical provision per capita in the country, the tendencies of the amounts changes in the pharmaceutical market, the branded market structure. It has been established the position of Sudan according to the national systems division of the public health and pharmaceutical assistance of population depending on the macroeconomic indexes of region development.Conclusions: It has been established the positive and negative tendencies indicative to the modern state of the county. After the research results it has been distinguished the further development directions especially the actions for the rational model creation for the population assistance in public health

  7. Phylogenetic analysis of some Newcastle disease virus isolates from the Sudan

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    N.A. Elmardi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was used to amplify 1412 bp of the fusion protein gene (F gene of four Newcastle disease virus (NDV isolates; two velogenic (TY-1/90 and DIK-90 and two lentogenic isolates (Dongla 88/1 and GD.S.1. Following sequencing, nucleotide sequences were annotated and 894 bp were compared phylogenetically with those from strains previously reported in the Sudan and the virus strains published on the GenBank. It could be demonstrated that TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains belong to the genotype VI of NDV and are in close genetic relationship to sub- genotype VIb. TY-1/90 and DIK-90 strains were observed to be genetically unrelated to the earlier Sudanese isolates of 1970/80s and the late of 2000s suggesting a different origin. The close genetic relationship to the European and African pigeon paramyxovirus type 1 (PPMV-1 suggests a common ancestor. Dongola, GD.S.1 strains were classified into genotype II that comprises non-pathogenic lentogenic NDV strains. The present genetic classification of NDV isolates of the Sudan provides valuable information on genotypes of NDV. Further molecular epidemiological investigations of the recent outbreaks of Newcastle disease in the Sudan are needed in order to improve the efficiency of control strategies and vaccine development.

  8. Awakening in Sudan: women seek to bridge the gap between traditional customs and modern needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernush, K

    1979-04-26

    The point was strongly made at the opening session of the symposium to celebrate the 75th anniversary of the Ahfad University College in Sudan - the 1st secular school for girls and the beginning of women's education in Sudan - that in Africa the woman is unrecognized and oppressed by both traditional and modern society. Even when education is available, women must contend with prevailing attitudes that often make it impossible for them to use their special knowledge and skills. The program itself was divided into 2 parts - formal presentations and discussion of some 50 scholarly papers and an informal workshop for rural women leaders and trainers from various government ministries. The point was made that illiteracy among women is about 92%, far greater than among men. Some speakers provided insights into the impact of customs and traditions on women and into the impact of the women's movement on Sudanese law and politics. 1 speaker traced women's inferior status to discrepancies between Sudanese constitutional law and personal or religious laws. The most well-attended session focused on female circumcision, widely practiced in Sudan but never before openly discussed in public, with both women and men present. Sudanese doctors, sociologists, and a clinical psychologist repeatedly refuted accepted notions about the practice's supposedly religious basis and physical benefits. Male and female attitudes toward circumcision were also analyzed. At the symposium's end it was concluded that Sudanese women still lagged very much behind men in education, legal and political rights, health and nutrition and social matters.

  9. Para influenza virus 3 infection in cattle and small ruminants in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intisar Kamil Saeed

    2016-09-01

    Results: Positive results were found in 29 (12.8% cattle, 31 (9.8% sheep and 11 (47.8% goat samples. All the studied areas showed positive results. Highest prevalence (66.7% was detected in the sheep and goats in Khartoum, followed by in goats in Nyala (33.3% at western Sudan. Sequence analyses of PIV3 of different regions of Sudan indicated that these were similar in sequence and length. The BLAST analysis indicated that the test sequences were closely related to the available annotated sequences at the GenBank. All these sequences matched with Bovine parainfluenza virus 3 except two those were matching with Swine parainfluenza virus 3. Conclusion: The results prove the existence of PIV3 infection in cattle, sheep and goats in the studied areas in Sudan and suggest its possible role in the respiratory infections. Genetic analysis indicate that the virus is mostly similar with bovine PIV3. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 236-241

  10. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Camel Piroplasmosis in Gadarif State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The socioeconomic importance of camels (Camelus dromedarius could not be neglected in the Sudan. The present study was planned to confirm the presence of piroplasmosis in camels from the Eastern region of the Sudan (Gedarif State using microscopical (blood film and molecular technique (PCR. A total of 55 camels of different sexes (34 females and 21 males were sampled from four localities of the state between January 2011 and January 2012. The prevalence rates using parasitological and molecular examinations were 43.6% and 74.5%, respectively. The prevalence rates significantly vary between the localities (p=0.011 but not between the different sexes (p=0.515. PCR technique showed higher sensitivity than microscopy. The present paper was to be the first report investigating camel piroplasmosis using both parasitological and molecular methods in the Eastern region of the Sudan. Further studies in the phylogenetic sequencing are to be continued for parasite speciation. Moreover, studies on the clinical and economic consequences of camel piroplasmosis are recommended.

  11. Ebola hemorrhagic fever under scope, view of knowledge, attitude and practice from rural Sudan in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed M G; Shwaib, Hussam M; Fahim, Monica M; Ahmed, Elhamy A; Omer, Mawadda K; Monier, Islam A; Balla, Siham A

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is an emerging threat to public health. The last epidemic in West Africa had a great effect on the affected communities. Timely and effective interventions were necessary in addition to community participation to control the epidemic. The knowledge, attitude and practices of vulnerable communities remain unknown, particularly in Sudan. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge, attitude and practices of rural residents in Sudan regarding Ebola hemorrhagic fever. We conducted a cross sectional, community-based large-scale study in Al Gaziera state in rural Sudan in eight localities. In total, 1500 random adult participants were selected. The participants were assessed by a predesigned pretested questionnaire regarding their knowledge, attitude and practices regarding Ebola. Their sources of information were determined, and we assessed demographic factors as predictors of knowledge. We found poor knowledge, a fair attitude and suboptimal practices among the participants. The main sources of information were the press and media. Education was the only predictor of knowledge regarding Ebola. A lack of knowledge and suboptimal preventive practices mandates orientation and education programs to raise public awareness. Health care providers are advised to engage more in educating the community. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The spatial-temporal clustering of Plasmodium falciparum infection over eleven years in Gezira State, The Sudan

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    Snow Robert W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria infection and disease exhibit microgeographic heterogeneity which if predictable could have implications for designing small-area intervention. Here, the space-time clustering of Plasmodium falciparum infections using data from repeat cross-sectional surveys in Gezira State, a low transmission area in northern Sudan, is investigated. Methods Data from cross-sectional surveys undertaken in January each year from 1999-2009 in 88 villages in the Gezira state were assembled. During each survey, about a 100 children between the ages two to ten years were sampled to examine the presence of P. falciparum parasites. In 2009, all the villages were mapped using global positioning systems. Cluster level data were analysed for spatial-only and space-time clustering using the Bernoulli model and the significance of clusters were tested using the Kulldorff scan statistic. Results Over the study period, 96,022 malaria slide examinations were undertaken and the P. falciparum prevalence was 8.6% in 1999 and by 2009 this had reduced to 1.6%. The cluster analysis showed the presence of one significant spatial-only cluster in each survey year and one significant space-time cluster over the whole study period. The primary spatial-only clusters in 10/11 years were either contained within or overlapped with the primary space-time cluster. Conclusion The results of the study confirm the generally low malaria transmission in the state of Gezira and the presence of spatial and space-time clusters concentrated around a specific area in the south of the state. Improved surveillance data that allows for the analysis of seasonality, age and other risk factors need to be collected to design effective small area interventions as Gezira state targets malaria elimination.

  13. Maturation history modeling of Sufyan Depression, northwest Muglad Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Luofu; An, Fuli; Wang, Hongmei; Pang, Xiongqi

    2016-08-01

    The Sufyan Depression is located in the northwest of Muglad Basin and is considered as a favorable exploration area by both previous studies and present oil shows. In this study, 16 wells are used or referred, the burial history model was built with new seismic, logging and well data, and the thermal maturity (Ro, %) of proved AG source rocks was predicted based on heat flow calculation and EASY %Ro modeling. The results show that the present heat flow range is 36 mW/m2˜50 mW/m2 (average 39 mW/m2) in 13 wells and 15 mW/m2˜55 mW/m2 in the whole depression. Accordingly, the geothermal gradient is 20 °C/km˜26 °C/km and 12 °C/km˜30 °C/km, respectively. The paleo-heat flow has three peaks, namely AG-3 period, lower Bentiu period and Early Paleogene, with the value decreases from the first to the last, which is corresponding to the tectonic evolution history. Corresponding to the heat flow distribution feature, the AG source rocks become mature earlier and have higher present marurity in the south area. For AG-2_down and AG-3_up source rocks that are proved to be good-excellent, most of them are mature with Ro as 0.5%-1.1%. But they can only generate plentiful oil and gas to charge reservoirs in the middle and south areas where their Ro is within 0.7%-1.1%, which is consistent with the present oil shows. Besides, the oil shows from AG-2_down reservoir in the middle area of the Sufyan Depression are believed to be contributed by the underlying AG-3_up source rock or the source rocks in the south area.

  14. Application of DNA (RAPD and ultrastructure to detect the effect of cadmium stress in Egyptian clover and Sudan grass plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina A. Aly

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn recent years, several plant species have been used as bioindicators to evaluate the toxicity of environmental contaminants on vegetal organisms. In this study, Egyptian clover and Sudan grass seedlings were grown in four cadmium (Cd concentration levels (0.0, 25, 50 and 100 µM in MS media to analyze growth responses, Cd accumulation in the shoots and roots of plantlets, proline contents, chlorophylls content and MDA levels of both plantlets. As well as RAPD analysis and leaves ultrastructure were detected.ResultsThe results showed that there was a significant decrease in root and shoot lengths, Chl a, Chl b, total Chl and carotenoids contents for both Egyptian clover and Sudan grass. However, there was a significant increase in Cd accumulation, proline and malondialdehyde (MDA levels. The genetic variation between Egyptian clover and Sudan grass were evaluated using random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR markers to establish specific DNA markers associated with Cd stress. The results of transimssion electron microscopy (TEM showed a clear disorder in the Cd treated Egyptian clover and Sudan grass seedlings.ConclusionIn conclusion, biochemical, molecular and ultrastructure changes in Egyptian clover and Sudan grass could be used as a useful biomarker assay for the detection of genotoxic effects of Cd stress on plants. However, it is necessary to be further confirmed and optimized in the future research.

  15. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in food adulteration determination: the example of Sudan dye I in paprika powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaxi; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Shenlin; Lu, Xiaonan

    2017-06-01

    Carcinogenic Sudan I has been added illegally into spices for an apparent freshness. (1)H solution and solid-state (SS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were applied and compared for determination of Sudan I in paprika powders (PPs). For solution NMR, PPs spiked with Sudan I were extracted with acetonitrile, centrifuged, rotor-evaporated, and re-dissolved in DMSO-d6 for spectral collection. For SSNMR, Sudan I contaminated PPs were mixed with DMSO-d6 solution and used for spectral collection. Linear regression models constructed for quantitative analyses resulted in the average accuracies for unknown samples as 98% and 105%, respectively. Limits of detection for the solution NMR and SSNMR spectrometers were 6.7 and 128.6 mg kg(-1), while the limits of quantification were 22.5 and 313.7 mg kg(-1). The overall analysis time required by both methods was similar (35 and 32 min). Both NMR techniques are feasible for rapid and accurate determination of Sudan I adulteration in PPs.

  16. Amperometric detection of Sudan I in red chili powder samples using Ag nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabakaran, E; Pandian, K

    2015-01-01

    A simple and sensitive electrochemical method was developed to determine the concentration of Sudan I in chili powder based on silver nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide modified glassy carbon electrode (AgNPs@GO/GCE). The voltammetry behaviour of Sudan I on modified GCE was investigated in phosphate buffer medium (PBS) with various pH ranges and the electron transfer properties were studied. It is found that the AgNPs@GO/GCE can catalyse the reduction of azo group, -N=N- followed by electrochemical oxidation of (-)OH group present in Sudan I dye molecule. Quantitative detection of Sudan I present in food products was carried out by amperometry method in which reduction potential was fixed at -0.77 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The amperometry method showed an excellent performance with a sensitivity of 6.83 μA mM(-1) and a detection limit of 11.4 × 10(-7)ML(-1). A linear calibration graph was constructed in the ranging 3.90 × 10(-6) to 3.19 × 10(-5)ML(-1). The method was successfully applied for the determination of Sudan I in red chili powder samples.

  17. Determining the adulteration of spices with Sudan I-II-II-IV dyes by UV-visible spectroscopy and multivariate classification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Anibal, Carolina V; Odena, Marta; Ruisánchez, Itziar; Callao, M Pilar

    2009-08-15

    We propose a very simple and fast method for detecting Sudan dyes (I, II, III and IV) in commercial spices, based on characterizing samples through their UV-visible spectra and using multivariate classification techniques to establish classification rules. We applied three classification techniques: K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN), Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). A total of 27 commercial spice samples (turmeric, curry, hot paprika and mild paprika) were analysed by chromatography (HPLC-DAD) to check that they were free of Sudan dyes. These samples were then spiked with Sudan dyes (I, II, III and IV) up to a concentration of 5 mg L(-1). Our final data set consisted of 135 samples distributed in five classes: samples without Sudan dyes, samples spiked with Sudan I, samples spiked with Sudan II, samples spiked with Sudan III and samples spiked with Sudan IV. Classification results were good and satisfactory using the classification techniques mentioned above: 99.3%, 96.3% and 90.4% of correct classification with PLS-DA, KNN and SIMCA, respectively. It should be pointed out that with SIMCA, there are no real classification errors as no samples were assigned to the wrong class: they were just not assigned to any of the pre-defined classes.

  18. 78 FR 68499 - In the Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... Matter of the Designation of Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi Biladis-Sudan Also Known as Ansaru Aso Known... Africa Also Known as JAMBS Also Known as Jama'atu Ansaril Muslimina Fi Biladis Sudan as a Foreign... amended (hereinafter ``INA'') (8 U.S.C. 1189), exist with respect to Jama'atu Ansarul Muslimina Fi...

  19. Method development and survey of Sudan I-IV in palm oil and chilli spices in the Washington, DC, area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genualdi, Susie; MacMahon, Shaun; Robbins, Katherine; Farris, Samantha; Shyong, Nicole; DeJager, Lowri

    2016-01-01

    Sudan I, II, III and IV dyes are banned for use as food colorants in the United States and European Union because they are toxic and carcinogenic. These dyes have been illegally used as food additives in products such as chilli spices and palm oil to enhance their red colour. From 2003 to 2005, the European Union made a series of decisions requiring chilli spices and palm oil imported to the European Union to contain analytical reports declaring them free of Sudan I-IV. In order for the USFDA to investigate the adulteration of palm oil and chilli spices with unapproved colour additives in the United States, a method was developed for the extraction and analysis of Sudan dyes in palm oil, and previous methods were validated for Sudan dyes in chilli spices. Both LC-DAD and LC-MS/MS methods were examined for their limitations and effectiveness in identifying adulterated samples. Method validation was performed for both chilli spices and palm oil by spiking samples known to be free of Sudan dyes at concentrations close to the limit of detection. Reproducibility, matrix effects, and selectivity of the method were also investigated. Additionally, for the first time a survey of palm oil and chilli spices was performed in the United States, specifically in the Washington, DC, area. Illegal dyes, primarily Sudan IV, were detected in palm oil at concentrations from 150 to 24 000 ng ml(-1). Low concentrations (spices and are most likely a result of cross-contamination during preparation and storage and not intentional adulteration.

  20. Binding of Sudan II and IV to lecithin liposomes and E. coli membranes: insights into the toxicity of hydrophobic azo dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jian-Fu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudan red compounds are hydrophobic azo dyes, still used as food additives in some countries. However, they have been shown to be unsafe, causing tumors in the liver and urinary bladder in rats. They have been classified as category 3 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. A number of hypotheses that could explain the mechanism of carcinogenesis have been proposed for dyes similar to the Sudan red compounds. Traditionally, investigations of the membrane toxicity of organic substances have focused on hydrocarbons, e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and DDT. In contrast to hydrocarbons, Sudan red compounds contain azo and hydroxy groups, which can form hydrogen bonds with the polar head groups of membrane phospholipids. Thus, entry may be impeded. They could have different toxicities from other lipophilic hydrocarbons. The available data show that because these compounds are lipophilic, interactions with hydrophobic parts of the cell are important for their toxicity. Lipophilic compounds accumulate in the membrane, causing expansion of the membrane surface area, inhibition of primary ion pumps and increased proton permeability. Results This work investigated the interactions of the amphiphilic compounds Sudan II and IV with lecithin liposomes and live Escherichia coli (E. coli. Sudan II and IV binding to lecithin liposomes and live E. coli corresponds to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the Sudan red compounds – lecithin liposome solutions, the binding ratio of Sudan II to lecithin is 1/31 and that of Sudan IV to 1/314. The binding constant of the Sudan II-lecithin complex is 1.75 × 104 and that of the Sudan IV-lecithin complex 2.92 × 105. Besides, the influences of pH, electrolyte and temperature were investigated and analyzed quantitatively. In the Sudan red compounds – E.coli mixture, the binding ratios of Sudan II and Sudan IV to E.coli membrane phospholipid are 1/29 and 1

  1. CYP-450 isoenzymes catalyze the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after reaction with the azo dye Sudan III

    OpenAIRE

    Zanoni, Thalita Boldrin; Lizier, Thiago M. [UNESP; Assis,Marilda das Dores; Zanoni, Maria Valnice Boldrin; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the mutagenic response of Sudan III, an adulterant food dye, using Salmonella typhimurium assay and the generation of hazardous aromatic amines after different oxidation methods of this azo dye. For that, we used metabolic activation by S9, catalytic oxidation by ironporphyrin and electrochemistry oxidation in order to simulate endogenous oxidation conditions. The oxidation reactions promoted discoloration from 65% to 95% of Sudan III at 1×10-4molL-1 and generation of 7.6×...

  2. Performance of Sorghum Recombinant Inbred Lines (RIL developed for rain-fed areas of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El Tayieb Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L Moench is the most widely produced and consumed cereal crop in Sudan. However, productivity is low since the crop is produced in favorable and unfavorable environments where the crop suffers from drought stresses at different growth stages. In the present study, six sorghum inbred lines developed by local breeding program and two commercial checks were evaluated for grain yield potential, yield stability, some important agronomic characters and grain quality properties. Series variety trials were conducted at Elobeid and Suki, Damazin areas of Sudan, during three consecutive rainy seasons. The selected locations represent low, medium and high rainfall areas of Sudan. The trial was laid out in a randomized complete block design. The results revealed that mean squares of genotypes, seasons, locations, location x season, location x genotypes, season x genotypes and season x location x genotype interactions were highly significant (P=0.01 for grain yield. The sorghum genotypes Edo 34-23-4, Edo 26-18 and Edo 16-dwarf produced substantially higher grain yields than commercial checks and the trial mean. Their percentage yield increase ranged from 5% to 75% over commercial checks. The stability analysis revealed that the above mentioned Edo-genotypes had high yield potentials and were stable across a wide range of agricultural conditions. Moreover, the same Edo-lines showed early maturing compared to selected commercial checks and also the Edo-lines possessed good food grains and were market preferred and acceptable for making quality kisra (fermented sorghum pancake-like flatbread. The Edo developed lines also possess the acceptable grain quality in addition to moderate physical grain characteristics such as protein content, fat acidity and moisture content.

  3. Analysis of pedestrian accident costs in Sudan using the willingness-to-pay method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofadal, Adam I A; Kanitpong, Kunnawee; Jiwattanakulpaisarn, Piyapong

    2015-05-01

    The willingness-to-pay (WTP) with contingent valuation (CV) method has been proven to be a valid tool for the valuation of non-market goods or socio-economic costs of road traffic accidents among communities in developed and developing countries. Research on accident costing tends to estimate the value of statistical life (VOSL) for all road users by providing a principle for the evaluation of road safety interventions in cost-benefit analysis. As in many other developing countries, the economic loss of traffic accidents in Sudan is noticeable; however, analytical research to estimate the magnitude and impact of that loss is lacking. Reports have shown that pedestrians account for more than 40% of the total number of fatalities. In this study, the WTP-CV approach was used to determine the amount of money that pedestrians in Sudan are willing to pay to reduce the risk of their own death. The impact of the socioeconomic factors, risk levels, and walking behaviors of pedestrians on their WTP for fatality risk reduction was also evaluated. Data were collected from two cities-Khartoum and Nyala-using a survey questionnaire that included 1400 respondents. The WTP-CV Payment Card Questionnaire was designed to ensure that Sudan pedestrians can easily determine the amount of money that would be required to reduce the fatality risk from a pedestrian-related accident. The analysis results show that the estimated VOSL for Sudanese pedestrians ranges from US$0.019 to US$0.101 million. In addition, the willingness-to-pay by Sudanese pedestrians to reduce their fatality risk tends to increase with age, household income, educational level, safety perception, and average time spent on social activities with family and community.

  4. Deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions associated with fuelwood consumption of the brick making industry in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Syed Ashraful; Starr, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the role of the fired clay brick making industry (BMI) on deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Sudan. The BMI is based on numerous kilns that use biomass fuel, mainly wood which is largely harvested unsustainably. This results in potential deforestation and land degradation. Fuelwood consumption data was collected using interviews and questionnaires from 25 BMI enterprises in three administrative regions, namely Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. Annual fuelwood consumption data (t dm yr(-1)) was converted into harvested biomass (m(3)) using a wood density value of 0.65 t dm m(-3). For annual GHG estimations, the methodological approach outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used. According to our results, the annual deforestation associated with the BMI for the whole of Sudan is 508.4x10(3) m(3) of wood biomass, including 267.6x10(3) m(3) round wood and 240.8x10(3) m(3) branches and small trees. Total GHG emissions from the Sudanese BMI are estimated at 378028 t CO(2), 15554 t CO, 1778 t CH(4), 442 t NO(X), 288 t NO and 12 t N(2)O per annum. The combined CO(2)-equivalent (global warming potential for 100-year time horizon) of the GHG emissions (excluding NO(X) and NO) is 455666 t yr(-1). While these emissions form only a small part of Sudan's total GHG emissions, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern and effort should be made for greater use of sustainable forest resources and management.

  5. Deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions associated with fuelwood consumption of the brick making industry in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Syed Ashraful [Viikki Tropical Resources Institute (VITRI), Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 (Finland)], E-mail: ashraful.alam@helsinki.fi; Starr, Mike [Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27, FI-00014 (Finland)

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the role of the fired clay brick making industry (BMI) on deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Sudan. The BMI is based on numerous kilns that use biomass fuel, mainly wood which is largely harvested unsustainably. This results in potential deforestation and land degradation. Fuelwood consumption data was collected using interviews and questionnaires from 25 BMI enterprises in three administrative regions, namely Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. Annual fuelwood consumption data (t dm yr{sup -1}) was converted into harvested biomass (m{sup 3}) using a wood density value of 0.65 t dm m{sup -3}. For annual GHG estimations, the methodological approach outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was used. According to our results, the annual deforestation associated with the BMI for the whole of Sudan is 508.4 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} of wood biomass, including 267.6 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} round wood and 240.8 x 10{sup 3} m{sup 3} branches and small trees. Total GHG emissions from the Sudanese BMI are estimated at 378 028 t CO{sub 2}, 15 554 t CO, 1778 t CH{sub 4}, 442 t NO{sub X}, 288 t NO and 12 t N{sub 2}O per annum. The combined CO{sub 2}-equivalent (global warming potential for 100-year time horizon) of the GHG emissions (excluding NO{sub X} and NO) is 455 666 t yr{sup -1}. While these emissions form only a small part of Sudan's total GHG emissions, the associated deforestation and land degradation is of concern and effort should be made for greater use of sustainable forest resources and management.

  6. Insecticide resistance in the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi from Khartoum State, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mo'awia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomus papatasi the vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is the most widely spread sand fly in Sudan. No data has previously been collected on insecticide susceptibility and/or resistance of this vector, and a first study to establish a baseline data is reported here. Methods Sand flies were collected from Surogia village, (Khartoum State, Rahad Game Reserve (eastern Sudan and White Nile area (Central Sudan using light traps. Sand flies were reared in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute laboratory. The insecticide susceptibility status of first progeny (F1 of P. papatasi of each population was tested using WHO insecticide kits. Also, P. papatasi specimens from Surogia village and Rahad Game Reserve were assayed for activities of enzyme systems involved in insecticide resistance (acetylcholinesterase (AChE, non-specific carboxylesterases (EST, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs and cytochrome p450 monooxygenases (Cyt p450. Results Populations of P. papatasi from White Nile and Rahad Game Reserve were sensitive to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, permethrin, malathion, and propoxur. However, the P. papatasi population from Surogia village was sensitive to DDT and permethrin but highly resistant to malathion and propoxur. Furthermore, P. papatasi of Surogia village had significantly higher insecticide detoxification enzyme activity than of those of Rahad Game Reserve. The sand fly population in Surogia displayed high AChE activity and only three specimens had elevated levels for EST and GST. Conclusions The study provided evidence for malathion and propoxur resistance in the sand fly population of Surogia village, which probably resulted from anti-malarial control activities carried out in the area during the past 50 years.

  7. Determining the effect of climate change and development on water resources management in the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satti, S.; Zaitchik, B.; Siddiqui, S.

    2013-12-01

    The effects of development and the uncertainty of climate change in East Africa provide a myriad of challenges for water managers along the Blue Nile. The construction of the Grand renaissance dam (GRD), as well as the unknown trajectory of precipitation trends in the Ethiopian highlands may greatly affect the countries that rely on the Nile. Sudan's huge irrigation potential and dams that feed multiple current irrigation schemes as well as its location within the basin means that Sudan's water management decisions may reverberate and have social, economic and political implications within the east African sub-region. Here, we apply a suite of state-of-the-art hydrology and climate analysis tools to evaluate the sensitivity of Sudan's optimal hydropower and irrigation development pathways to hydrologic variability and climate change. Present day hydrologic conditions are derived from a gridded implementation of the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM) that includes representation of typical irrigation practices in the region. Noah is implemented using the NASA Land Information System (LIS), and draws forcing data from a combination of reanalysis and satellite meteorological products. Additional satellite inputs are used to provide a constraint on Noah evapotranspiration estimates and to acquire parameters such as crop water requirements that are crucial in determining yield and agricultural production. Future climate conditions are projected using statistical downscaling techniques trained to historical meteorological records and projected forward using inputs from the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) simulation database. These climatic and hydrologic inputs are combined with agronomic and economic inputs to drive an optimization model developed within the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS). By using output and results from climate, hydrologic and optimization models this research aims to show how these models can be integrated to aid decision

  8. Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vector mediates postexposure protection against Sudan Ebola hemorrhagic fever in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbert, Thomas W; Daddario-DiCaprio, Kathleen M; Williams, Kinola J N; Geisbert, Joan B; Leung, Anders; Feldmann, Friederike; Hensley, Lisa E; Feldmann, Heinz; Jones, Steven M

    2008-06-01

    Recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) vectors expressing homologous filoviral glycoproteins can completely protect rhesus monkeys against Marburg virus when administered after exposure and can partially protect macaques after challenge with Zaire ebolavirus. Here, we administered a VSV vector expressing the Sudan ebolavirus (SEBOV) glycoprotein to four rhesus macaques shortly after exposure to SEBOV. All four animals survived SEBOV challenge, while a control animal that received a nonspecific vector developed fulminant SEBOV hemorrhagic fever and succumbed. This is the first demonstration of complete postexposure protection against an Ebola virus in nonhuman primates and provides further evidence that postexposure vaccination may have utility in treating exposures to filoviruses.

  9. Roseires Dam Heightening Project in Sudan Works of Pre-tensioned Pre-stressed Concrete Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志敏

    2014-01-01

    Works of pre-tensioned and pre-stressed concrete beams at dam crest of Roseires Dam Heightening Project located on Nile Riv-er in the Country of Sudan was in a big quantity, complexity and tight completion time. For pre-tensioning operation, frame type pedestal was built. Strict work method statement and applicable work procedure were also developed to assure high work quality and timely completion. All these have become precious experience in the field of pre-tensioning and pre-stressing beams.

  10. Chronic Plasmodium falciparum infections in an area of low intensity malaria transmission in the Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamad, A A; El Hassan, I M; El Khalifa, A A

    2000-01-01

    Chronic Plasmodium falciparum malaria infections in a Sudanese village, in an area of seasonal and unstable malaria transmission, were monitored and genetically characterized to study the influence of persistent infection on the immunology and epidemiology of low endemicity malaria. During...... the October-December malaria season of 1996, 51 individuals out of a population of 420 had confirmed and treated P. falciparum malaria in the village of Daraweesh in eastern Sudan. In a cross-sectional survey carried out in December 1996, an additional 6 individuals were found to harbour a microscopically...

  11. Abdominal Wall Mycetoma Presented as Obstructed Incisional Hernia of Cesarean Section in Eastern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhardello, Osama A.; Adam, Elsadig S.; Adam, Ishag

    2007-01-01

    Mycetoma a worldwide disease frequently occurs in the tropics with the highest prevalence being in Africa. Madurella mycetomatis is the main causative organism of human eumycetoma in Sudan. The legs and feet were commonly the sites of the infection. A 22-year-old lady was presented with painful abdominal swelling around a previous caesarian section scar. A provisional diagnosis of obstructed incisional hernia was put. Histopathological examination revealed macroscopically four masses of soft tissue. Microscopic sections showed grains of Madurella mycetomatis. PMID:17485822

  12. Abdominal Wall Mycetoma Presented as Obstructed Incisional Hernia of Cesarean Section in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A. Elhardello

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma a worldwide disease frequently occurs in the tropics with the highest prevalence being in Africa. Madurella mycetomatis is the main causative organism of human eumycetoma in Sudan. The legs and feet were commonly the sites of the infection. A 22-year-old lady was presented with painful abdominal swelling around a previous caesarian section scar. A provisional diagnosis of obstructed incisional hernia was put. Histopathological examination revealed macroscopically four masses of soft tissue. Microscopic sections showed grains of Madurella mycetomatis.

  13. Exposure to pesticides in agriculture: a survey of spraymen using dimethoate in the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copplestone, J. F.; Fakhri, Z. I.; Miles, J. W.; Mitchell, C. A.; Osman, Y.; Wolfe, H. R.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need for objective data on the exposure of spraymen to pesticides in agriculture in order to assess minimum requirements for practicable protection in tropical areas. To provide data, a survey was carried out in the Sudan on spraymen using dimethoate. No cholinesterase depressions were found and the calculated dose received by each man per day was within safe limits in the circumstances of this survey. Respiratory exposure was only a minor part of total exposure. The methodology of such surveys is discussed and the need for the use of a standard protocol is emphasized. PMID:1088104

  14. An epidemiological survey of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in Sahafa Town, Sudan.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim was to determine the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease and to initiate a programme of secondary prophylaxis in Sahafa Town, Sudan. DESIGN--The study was a prospective case finding survey, carried out by a specially trained team headed by a cardiologist. SETTING--The study involved high risk school children (5-15 years of age) from Sahafa Town in the period 1986-1989. SUBJECTS--A total of 13,332 children on the school registers (7892 boys and 54...

  15. Oxidation of the carcinogenic non-aminoazo dye 1-phenylazo-2-hydroxy-naphthalene (Sudan I) by cytochromes P450 and peroxidases: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborová, Marie; Martínek, Václav; Semanská, Marcela; Hodek, Petr; Dračínský, Martin; Cvačka, Josef; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Frei, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Sudan I [1-(phenylazo)-2-hydroxynaphthalene, C.I. Solvent Yellow 14, CAS No: 842-07-9] is used as the compound employed in chemical industry and to color materials such as hydrocarbon solvents, oils, fats, waxes, plastics, printing inks, shoe and floor polishes and gasoline. Such a wide used could result in a considerable human exposure. Sudan I is known to cause developments of tumors in the liver or urinary bladder in rats, mice, and rabbits, and is considered a possible weak human carcinogen and mutagen. This carcinogen is also a potent contact allergen and sensitizer. Here, we compare the data concerning the Sudan I oxidative metabolism catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) and peroxidase enzymes, which has been investigated in our laboratory during the last two decades. These two types of enzymes are responsible both for Sudan I detoxication and activation. Among the Sudan I metabolites, C-hydroxylated derivatives and a dimer of Sudan I are suggested to be the detoxication metabolites formed by CYPs and peroxidases, respectively. Metabolic activation of Sudan I by both types of enzymes leads to formation of reactive species (the benzenediazonium ion by CYP and Sudan I radicals by peroxidase) that bind to DNA and RNA, generating covalent adducts in vitro and in vivo. Whereas the structure of the major adduct formed by the benzenediazonium ion in DNA has already been identified to be the 8-(phenylazo)guanine adduct, the structures of adducts formed by peroxidase, have not been characterized as yet. Biological significance of the DNA adducts of Sudan I activated with CYP and peroxidase enzymes and further aims of investigations in this field are discussed in this study. PMID:21217854

  16. Yield and quality attributes of faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Seif; Hamad, Solafa A A; Abdelmula, Awadalla; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A

    2015-11-01

    Faba beans (Vicia faba L.) represent an essential source of food protein for many people in Sudan, especially those who cannot afford to buy animal meat. The demand for faba bean seeds is greatly increased in recent years, and consequently its production area was extended southward where the climate is marginally suitable. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate seed yield and nutritional quality of five faba bean inbred lines grown under marginal environmental conditions of Sudan. The inbred lines have considerable (P ≤ 0.05) variability in yield and yield components, and seed chemical composition. The mean carbohydrate content was very high (501.1 g kg(-1)) and negatively correlated with seed yield, whereas the average protein content was relatively high (253.1 g kg(-1)) and positively correlated with seed yield. Globulin was the significant fraction (613.5 g kg(-1)protein) followed by albumin (200.2 g kg(-1)protein). Biplot analysis indicates that inbred lines Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 outscore other lines in terms of seed yield and nutritional quality. This study demonstrates that Hudeiba/93-S5 and Ed-damar-S5 are useful candidates in faba bean breeding program to terminate the protein deficiency malnutrition and provide healthy and nutritious meal for people living in subtropical areas.

  17. The experience of Chinese physicians in the national health diplomacy programme deployed to Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Gimbel, Sarah; Malik, Elfatih; Hassen, Sara; Hagopian, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Chinese Medical Teams have been working in developing countries since 1963 as a health diplomacy strategy. In 2010, 1252 Chinese medical personnel were assigned to 48 countries. We conducted a review of Chinese literature and governmental websites to describe the history and current distribution of Chinese Medical Teams around the world. In addition, we interviewed members of a 36-member Chinese Medical Team deployed to Sudan (primarily about their motivations to join the programme and the challenges and benefits they face), along with their Sudanese hosts. The most significant challenge health workers described was homesickness. Most members said they were able to maintain motivation through their curiosity and the doctor-friendly environment. All but two rated their own working performance as 'good' or 'very good', while their Sudanese colleagues consistently rated them even higher. Participants reported conflicting beliefs regarding the perceived responsibilities of the team and challenges around communication. Three pillars support the Chinese Medical Team programme in Sudan: bilateral government commitment, the professionalism of the Medical Teams, and the welcoming medical environment. Future success of this or similar Chinese programmes depend on the willingness of both governments to participate, the ongoing commitment of younger Chinese doctors, and the hospitality of physicians in the host country. There are also some threats to the programme, including a potentially diminishing need for Chinese doctors to support increasingly well-trained host country physicians.

  18. Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection during pregnancy at Gadarif hospital, Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Gamal K; Ahmed, Mohammed Ahmed A; Ali, AbdelAziem A

    2016-10-01

    This was a prospective study conducted on all pregnant and parturient women attending Gadarif Maternity Hospital, Sudan from January 2009 to December 2013 to investigate the maternal characteristics, pregnancy outcomes and estimate of maternal to child transmission of HIV among HIV infected women. During the study period, there were 26 HIV positive mothers among 6420 tested women yielding an incidence rate of 0.4%. The majority of these 26 infected women were of urban residence (69.2%), presented with normal CD4+ T cell count; ? 350\\cu. mm3 (96.2%), had less than secondary education (57.7%) and housewives (84.6%). The mean age (SD) was significantly varied between the sero-positive and sero-negative women, 25.9 (5.7) vs. 36.1 (5.7), p = <0.001. More proportion of infected women had maternal anaemia and gave preterm birth, and none of the newborn babies was HIV infected until the age of 96 weeks. It is thus HIV infected women in eastern Sudan were young and likely desire more children.

  19. BUILDING A NATIONAL HERITAGE REGISTRY FOR THE SUDAN: THE FRIEDRICH W. HINKEL ARCHIVE DIGITIZATION PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lawrenz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of the Sudan is home to outstanding and diverse cultural heritage ranging from Neolithic sites of human activity and settlement to historic sites of the 19th and 20th century. While certain phases of the Sudan’s cultural heritage such as the period of Egyptian influence during the second and first millennium B.C. have been the focus of archaeological research since the 19th century, other aspects of the country’s rich history have remained largely unknown locally and internationally due to a lack of documentation and registration of such sites. Since 2014, the German Archaeological Institute (DAI has been engaged in an effort to support the creation of a national heritage registry in close cooperation with the National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums (NCAM by digitizing the archive of German architect Friedrich W. Hinkel and engaging in capacity building measures focusing on analog and digital data curation. The archive contains structured information (photos, drawings, maps and assembled written documentation regarding over 14,000 archaeological and historical sites in the Sudan using an alphanumeric coding system that allows for easy integration of data in a digital environment such as the DAI’s IT infrastructure, the iDAI.world. As such the data assembled by Hinkel will serve as the basis of the national heritage registry currently in development.

  20. Naturally occurring infections of cattle with Theileria lestoquardi and sheep with Theileria annulata in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, K M; Salih, D A; Ali, A M; Omer, R A; El Hussein, A M

    2013-01-16

    Theileria annulata is endemic in northern Sudan, hindering all efforts at upgrading cattle for milk production. T. lestoquardi clinical cases occur throughout the year and causes annual outbreaks that result in substantial losses in sheep. In the northern Sudan both cattle and small ruminants are frequently raised together and/or share common grazing grounds at river banks. In an attempt to evaluate field cross infectivity of Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata in cattle and sheep respectively, a PCR analysis was carried out on samples collected from closely reared sheep and cattle using both T. annulata and T. lestoquardi specific primers. A total of 19 sheep out of 51 (37.3%) were positive for T. lestoquardi while four sheep (7.8%) showed T. annulata specific amplicons. A total of 38 out of 52 (73.1%) surveyed cattle were PCR positive for T. annulata and only two (3.8%) showed T. lestoquardi specific bands. These findings indicate complex epidemiology of both infections in areas where both parasites are transmitted by the same vector and call for further investigations of this phenomenon.

  1. A black sun in a white mind: In memory of Sudan mission 1848–1858

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Frelih

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ignacij Knoblehar (1819–1858 worked as a Catholic missionary in southern Sudan, in particular among the Bari people. He sent regular reports home about his work and many newspapers also published his letters. Above all, he became known when he sailed beyond 4° north latitude. He was the first European to carry out systematic measurements of the White Nile and his discoveries were reported in both Europe and America. While he lived there, Slovenians became acquainted for the first time in their history with a part of Africa. In 1850 he brought a large collection of diverse artifacts from the Nilotic peoples back to Ljubljana. These artifacts are preserved in the Slovene Ethnographic Museum today, and part of the collection was put on display in a temporary exhibition entitled “Sudan Mission 1848–1858” at the museum in May 2009. The arrival of a number of African children in Ljubljana arguably constituted the highpoint of this early Slovenian contact with Africa. Missionaries bought the children at a slave market and brought them back to Europe with the intention of training the boys to be priests and the girls to be nuns. However, the plan fell through because the children all died of pneumonia and tuberculosis. The public baptism of the African children and the relationship of the general public to them in the mid-nineteenth century helped shape stereotypical representations of Africans as well as certain forms of racial discrimination that are still present today.

  2. Serological survey of canine leptospirosis in three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan, Gabon and Ivory Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqueplo, Cédric; Marié, Jean-Lou; André-Fontaine, Geneviève; Kodjo, Angeli; Davoust, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted to estimate the presence of leptospiral antibodies among 475 dogs from three countries of tropical Africa: Sudan (n=62), Gabon (n=255) and Ivory Coast (n=158). Sixteen reference strains belonging to seven serogroups were used as antigen in the microscopic agglutination test. Overall, considering titres ≥1:40, 453 samples were positive towards one or several serovars of pathogenic leptospires. Focusing on high titres, i.e. ≥1:320, the seroprevalence was 40.8%. In Gabon, the seroprevalence was higher in rural areas than in an urban environment (pIvory Coast, the seroprevalence for serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Canicola was not statistically different according to the vaccinal status. Predominant serogroups varied according to the countries but Grippotyphosa and Sejroë were the most common, while Icterohaemorragiae and Canicola were dominant in Sudan. In these three countries, dogs are heavily exposed to pathogenic Leptospira and humans living in the same environment are also at risk of infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Rift Valley fever among febrile patients at New Halfa hospital, eastern Sudan

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    Saeed El najeeb S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the first isolation of the Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV in 1930s, there have been several epizootics outbreaks in the tropic mainly in Africa including Sudan. Recognition of cases and diagnosis of RVF are critical for management and control of the disease. Aims To investigate the seroprevalence and risk factors for seropostive to RVFV IgG among febrile patients. Methods All febrile patients presented to New Halfa hospital in eastern Sudan during September through November 2007 were investigated to identify the cause of their fever including malaria and RFV. Results Out of 290 feverish patients presented to the hospital, malaria was diagnosis in 94 individuals. Fevers of unknown origin were diagnosed in 149 patients. Seropostive to RVFV IgG was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 122 (81.8% of the sera from these 149 patients with fever of unknown origin. While socio-demographic characteristics (age, Job, education and residency were not associated with seropostive to RVFV IgG, male (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.0-7.6; P = 0.04 were at three times higher risk for seropostive to RVFV IgG. Conclusion There was a high seropostive to RVFV IgG in this setting, more research is needed perhaps using other methods like PCR and IGM.

  4. Haemophilia Laboratory diagnosis training and care in Rural communities in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathelrahman M. Hassan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty nine per cent of people with hemophilia symptoms in rural areas were accessed to laboratory diagnosis and care support in Sudan, where technical expertise and health care facilities was less than optimal. There were many reasons for the inadequate care of hemophilic patients: the perception of rarity of the disease; lacked of laboratory facilities to diagnose the disorder; lacked of understanding of the disorder by patients, their relatives, and even healthcare providers; poorly developed blood bank facilities; and lacked of adequate factor supply were just some examples. The Sudanese Hemophilia Care Association (SHCA was attempted to address many of these issues by establishing hemophilia care programs and by educating and training healthcare practitioners so that a healthcare team could be organized that attempts to ameliorate these problems and provides treatment options. However, it was possible to manage hemophiliac’s patients with limited resources. Strategies for conserving factor concentrates were included education of doctors and patients, prenatal diagnosis, increasing the use of anti fibrinolytic agents, physiotherapy, the use of fibrin glue, and simple orthotics and prosthetic measures. An outreach program would be initiated to ensure that hemophilia care and diagnosis was available outside the capital city. Official recognition of hemophilia laboratory diagnosis and treatment centers and designated centers by the government could also be very beneficial in ensuring adequate care in rural areas in Sudan.

  5. Mesozoic palynology and continental sediments in NE Africa (Egypt and Sudan) - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, E.

    In Egypt and Sudan most palynogical data are derived from predominantly clastic sequences in research wells for oil, water and other sedimentary deposits. The partly coal-bearing Middle Jurassic is characterized by dominance of pteridophytes while increasing percentages of gymnosperms may be noted in the Late Jurassic. The Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary is difficult to define, but Ischyosporites-Cicatricosisporites assemblages have been interpreted as Late Jurassic and overlying assemblages with Impardecispora, Geicheniidites, Classopollis etc. as Neocomian. The appearance of rare early angiosperms and their subsequent rise is documented e.g. in the Six Hills (Barremian) and in the shallow marine Abu Ballas Formation (Aptian). More advanced angiosperm types (tricolpates, tricolporates, triporates) occur in the post-Aptian. Elater-bearing spores ( Elaterosporites) associated with Afropollis form a distinctive element of the Albian (to Early Cenomanian) palynofloras known from Northern Egypt and recently discovered in Northern Sudan. In the Coniacian-Santonian, the spinose tetrads of Droseridites senonicus and large tricolpate pollen of the Foveotricolpites giganteus group become the most characteristic members of the terrestrial palynofloras. Distinctly marine palynomorphs reach the middle latitudes of Egypt for the first time with the Campanian-Maastrichtian transgression. Reduced salinity in the Phosphate Formation is reflected by peridinoid (e.g. Andalusiella, Senegalinium) communities interfingering with pollen and spores dominated associations. More open marine conditions in the overlying Dakhla Shale are documented by the rise of cosmopolitan gonyaulacoids such as Spiniferites, Glaphyrocysta and Florentinia.

  6. Re-engineering the state, awakening the nation: Dams, islamist modernity and nationalist politics in Sudan

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    Maimuna Mohamud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how and why dam building has fulfilled a crucial role in hegemonic projects of elite consolidation and nation-building. By drawing on the case of Sudan’s Dam Programme and the associated propaganda the Khartoum government has produced, we show how the dams have not just served to materially restructure the Sudanese political economy but have also been essential in the attempted rekindling of the identity of both the regime and the country. Massive investment in hydro-infrastructure dovetailed with the political rebalancing of an authoritarian system in crisis, turning dam-builders into nation-builders: the message of the dams as midwife to a pious, prosperous and revitalised Sudan allowed it to reconcile the nationalism of its military and security wing with the enduring ambitions for transformation of its Islamist base. Dam building in Sudan, as elsewhere, has thus meant a physical redrawing of the landscape and intensified rent creation and seeking but also embodies a high modernist narrative that matches the interests and worldviews of very different constituencies. This, we argue, helps explain its salience in earlier periods of state-building and nation-building, as well as contemporarily

  7. A cross sectional study on reproductive health disorders in dairy cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Mohamed Elhassan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional survey was carried out in dairy farms in four States of Sudan to determine prevalence of reproductive health disorders that affect dairy cattle industries in the country. A total of 575 adult female cows in dairy farms located in Khartoum, Gezira, Sennar, and White Nile States were investigated using questionnaire survey and face-to-face interviews with the owners. The results indicated that 24.4% of the animals were affected with one or more reproductive health disorders. Abortion (57.1% represented the major health problem affecting calf yield, followed by infertility (34.3% and neonatal death (8.6%. Other health problems included stillbirth, vaginitis and retained placenta, anomalies, metritis and repeat breeder. Most of the abortion cases were detected during third trimester (76.25% followed by first (12.5% and second (11.25% trimesters. Finally, countrywide investigations of reproductive disorders and increasing awareness to the owners are recommended for designing successful control strategies of reproductive disorders in Sudan.

  8. Gender inequality in acute coronary syndrome patients at Omdurman Teaching Hospital, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyder O Mirghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gender differences among patients with the acute coronary syndrome is still being debated, no research has been done on gender inequality among coronary syndrome patients in Sudan. Objectives: To study gender differences in presentation, management, and outcomes of acute coronary syndrome in Sudan. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive longitudinal study was conducted in Omdurman Teaching Hospital between July 2014 and August 2015. Patients were invited to sign a written informed consent form, were interviewed and examined by a physician, and then followed during their hospital stay. Information collected includes coronary risk factors, vital signs, echocardiography findings, arrhythmias, heart failure, cardiogenic shock, and death. The Ethical Committee of Omdurman Teaching Hospital approved the research. Results: A total of 197 consecutive acute coronary syndrome patients were included, 43.1% were females. A significant statistical difference was evident between males and females regarding the type of acute coronary syndrome, its presentation, and time of presentation to the hospital, smoking, and receipt of thrombolysis (P 0.05. Conclusion: Women were less likely to receive thrombolytic therapy, present with chest pain, and diagnosed with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. No gender differences were found in acute coronary syndrome risk factors apart from smoking, which was more common in males, and there were no differences between males and females as regards in-hospital complications.

  9. Synthesis of TiO2 /CNT Composites and its Photocatalytic Activity Toward Sudan (I) Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miribangul, Amat; Ma, Xiaoli; Zeng, Chen; Zou, Huan; Wu, Yahui; Fan, Tengpeng; Su, Zhi

    2016-07-01

    Semiconductor photocatalysis has the potential for achieving sustainable energy generation and degrading organic contaminants. In TiO2 , the addition of carbonaceous nanomaterials has attracted extensive attention as a means to increase its photocatalytic activity. In this study, composites of TiO2 and carbon nanotubes (CNT) in various proportions were synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The crystalline structures, morphologies, and light absorption properties of the TiO2 /CNT photocatalysts were characterized by PXRD, TEM and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The photocatalytic efficiency of the composites was evaluated by the degradation of Sudan (I) in UV-Vis light. Introducing 0.1-0.5 wt% CNT was shown to substantially improve the photoactivity of TiO2 . The composite with 0.3 wt% CNT showed the best catalytic activity, and its reaction activation energy was calculated as 39.57 kJ mol(-1) from experimental rates. The degradation products of Sudan (I) with different irradiation durations were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and a degradation reaction process was proposed. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  10. Do grain reserves necessarily contribute to prices stability and food security in Sudan? An assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E. Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Most governments in Africa implement policies aiming to stabilize the prices of staple foods, which often include building up grain reserves, besides other trade measures insulating their domestic market from the world market. The mechanism should ideally work as follows, grains should be bought and stored from areas, during the surplus seasons (after harvest so as to assure fair prices to producers and should be distributed during deficit seasons, in deficit areas besides in cases of emergencies. However, ideal approaches are not necessarily followed in many developing countries due to different constraints and situations. The Strategic Reserve Corporation (SRC is an institution that is established ten years ago to play such a role in Sudan. This paper tries to assess the performance of the SRC against the overall goals and to study the related obstacles if any. We use a sample of 112 respondents from the SRC staff, related and grain farmers as our data source. Results of the research revealed numerous financial and administrative constraints that obstruct SRC from playing the intended role, which need to be considered so as to contribute to price stability and food security in Sudan.

  11. Poor practice and knowledge among traditional birth attendants in Eastern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A A; Siddig, M F

    2012-11-01

    To identify and understand knowledge and practice among traditional birth attendants (TBAs), a total of 111 TBAs were interviewed at Kassala, Eastern Sudan between March and April 2011. Hand-washing prior to the delivery was a universal practice but only 25.2% of the interviewed TBAs used sterilised equipment. TBAs in this study appeared to have a low level of awareness about when a mother should be referred to hospital, and lacked basic information on family planning and HIV/AIDS. None of these 111 TBAs knew or used equipment for neonatal resuscitation (such as bag, tube and mask) or knew neonatal signs that needed extra attention such as change in skin colour, weak suckling and respiratory distress, and nearly one-third (28.8%) of the respondents believed in a few days delay in milk production. Thus, substantial effort is needed to improve the knowledge and practice among TBAs in Eastern Sudan, including training programmes, and this might be the best hope to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

  12. Intestinal protozoa and intestinal helminthic infections among schoolchildren in Central Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdel-aziz M Ahmed; Azam A Afifi; Elfatih M Malik; Ishag Adam

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) among primary schoolchildren in El dhayga, Central Sudan.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, three fresh faecal samples were collected from each child, which were examined by direct wet mount, brine flotation, formalin–ether and Kato–Katz techniques. The intensity of each STH infection was expressed as the mean of eggs per gram counts of the three samples.Results: In total, 142 (90.4%) of 157 children harboured at least one type of intestinal parasite.Ascaris lumbricoides,Hymenolepis nana,Entamoeba histolytica andGiardia lamblia were the most common parasites found, with prevalence rates of 32.5%, 30.6%, 33.1% and 19.7%, respectively. Out of these 157 children, 29(18.5%) harboured more than two intestinal parasitic infections. No cases ofSchistosoma mansoni orEnterobius vermicularis were identified. Conclusions: The study demonstrates significant burden of intestinal protozoa and STH infections in this part of Sudan and highlights the need for preventive and intervention measures.

  13. Awareness and practice of patients' rights among hospitalized patients at Wad-Medani Teaching Hospital, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Abobaker A H; Hassan, Amal H A; Dmyatti, Eylaph M E H; Elmubarak, Mehad A H; Alterife, Rahma A A; Salim, Rawan E O; Mohamed, Samar A B; Ahmed, Wefag S A M

    2017-03-30

    Patients' rights are a fundamental human right and an important part of modern health care practice. This is a cross-sectional descriptive analytic study, conducted amongst 263 patients at Wadi-Medani Teaching Hospital, Sudan, in March-April 2015. Most patients (95.2%) did not know about the Bill of Rights and most of them (92.8%) were not able to mention any of the patients' rights. The most practiced rights were: the right to be asked for permission before examination (88.1%), proper handling (87.8%), safety of the hospital (87%), presence of a third person when examining a female by a male doctor (85.6%), and admission file confidentiality (75.5%). The awareness of Sudan FMOH Patients' Bill of Rights was very low among patients at Wad-Medani Teaching Hospital, yet they showed a high satisfaction rate probably due to their low socioeconomic status, educational level and expectations. Therefore, awareness of patients' rights must be increased.

  14. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever during an outbreak in Yambio, Sudan, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Clayton O; Opoka, Martin L; Ksiazek, Thomas G; Formenty, Pierre; Ahmed, Abdullahi; Tukei, Peter M; Sang, Rosemary C; Ofula, Victor O; Konongoi, Samson L; Coldren, Rodney L; Grein, Thomas; Legros, Dominique; Bell, Mike; De Cock, Kevin M; Bellini, William J; Towner, Jonathan S; Nichol, Stuart T; Rollin, Pierre E

    2007-11-15

    Between the months of April and June 2004, an Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreak was reported in Yambio county, southern Sudan. Blood samples were collected from a total of 36 patients with suspected EHF and were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G and M antibodies, antigen ELISA, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of a segment of the Ebolavirus (EBOV) polymerase gene. A total of 13 patients were confirmed to be infected with EBOV. In addition, 4 fatal cases were classified as probable cases, because no samples were collected. Another 12 patients were confirmed to have acute measles infection during the same period that EBOV was circulating. Genetic analysis of PCR-positive samples indicated that the virus was similar to but distinct from Sudan EBOV Maleo 1979. In response, case management, social mobilization, and follow-up of contacts were set up as means of surveillance. The outbreak was declared to be over on 7 August 2004.

  15. Production of charcoal briquettes from cotton stalk in malawi: methodology for feasibility studies using experiences in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onaji, P.B.; Siemons, R.V.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of charcoal production from cotton stalks in Malawi was studied based on experience from Sudan. The country relies considerably on biomass fuels. Of the total energy consumption in Malawi of 2.376 MTOE in 1989, 92% was met by biomass (fuelwood: 83.6% and charcoal: 8.3% Petroleum fuel

  16. Spatial distribution of populations of solitarious adult desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsk.) on the coastal plain of Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldewahid, G.; Werf, van der W.; Huis, van A.; Stein, A.

    2004-01-01

    1 Densities of solitarious adult desert locusts were measured on regular grids of up to 126 sample sites in the southern part of the coastal plain of Sudan during the winters of 1999/2000 and 2000/2001. Geostatistical procedures were used to characterize spatial dependence of locust density, to eval

  17. 76 FR 63635 - Extension of the Designation of Sudan for Temporary Protected Status and Automatic Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... page, you can select the Sudan TPS Questions & Answers Section from the menu on the right for further... displaced, and approximately 280,000 refugees have fled to neighboring Chad. Fighting in Darfur includes... to unconfirmed estimates. Violations of human rights and international humanitarian law have been...

  18. Towards a sterile insect technique field release of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Sudan: Irradiation, transportation, and field cage experimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helinski, M.; Hassan, M.; El-Motasim, W.; Malcolm, C.; Knols, B.G.J.; El-Sayed, B.

    2008-01-01

    Background - The work described in this article forms part of a study to suppress a population of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis in Northern State, Sudan, with the Sterile Insect Technique. No data have previously been collected on the irradiation and transportation of anopheline mosquitoes

  19. 76 FR 35507 - Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... Assistance to Southern Sudan and the United States Contribution to the Global Fund To Fight AIDS... Waiver Determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership against HIV/AIDS... determination under Section 202(d)(4)(A)(ii) of the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis,...

  20. Prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis along the Nile River north of Khartoum (Sudan) in the aftermath of an epidemic in 1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadaro, A Y; Ghalib, H W; Ali, M S

    1993-01-01

    Based on a pilot clinical study of the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) among school children in villages on both banks of the Nile River north of Khartoum, Sudan in the aftermath of a 1985 epidemic, we studied a random sample (303 individuals) from one of these villages to determine...

  1. "Juba õhtu on käes..." : [luuletused] / Sergei Jessenin ; tlk. Helvi Jürisson, Artur Alliksaar, Muia Veetamm, Linda Ruud, Jaan Kross, Ellen Niit, Debora Vaarandi, Venda Sõelsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jessenin, Sergei, 1895-1925

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: "Juba õhtu on käes..." ; "Seal, kus koit valab kapsaste vahel..." ; "Tulvavesi suitsev..." ; "Tegin oja kaldal vene..." ; "Laia taevaliua sinal..." ; "Kallis kodu! Näen kui unes..." ; "Olen karjus; minu valdus..." ; Venemaa ; Joobumus ; Hobused ; Laul koerast ; "Milleks punakuldseis põõsais nuuksed..." ; "Teispool jõge lõkkeread..." ; "Mind väsitand on kodunurk..." ; "See on mu kodu, mõtlik-hell..." ; Sinendus ; "Õhtul, kui kõik jooned nõrgemad..." ; "Homme varakult üles mind aja..." ; "Isamaja, kuhu jäid..." ; "Paljad põllud, metsaveered..." ; "Su juus on roheline..." ; "Laulud, laulud, kuhu te viite..." ; "Õnn, sina rumal! Mu aknad..." ; "Valged teed kinni tuiskab..." ; "Taas kiindumust ma vajan uut..." ; "Tiigipinnale kuldlehti liibub..." ; "Tuuled, tuuled, oo lund tooge, tuuled..." ; "Olen viimane külapoeet ma..." ; "Pole tarvis palvet, kurtmist, nuttu..." ; "Jah! Nüüd kindel on küll, et ei iial..." ; "Samasugune lihtne kui muud..." ; "Mingi troika on värava taga..." ; Kiri emale ; "Kõik me vähehaaval kaome sinna..." ; "Shagane, minu hea Shagane..." ; "Elurõõmus maailm, sinine ja lai..." ; "Koju ma ei leia teed..." ; "Sinav mai. Eha punerdav joom..." ; "Magab stepp. Koirohu tinast värskust..." ; "Meretäis sädinat õues..." ; "Elu pettus on, mis kestab päevast päeva..." ; "Mängi, lõõtspill, julgelt, mängi, lõõtspill, valju..." ; "Pole näinud ma kaunimat sinust..." ; "Laula nüüd mõnda laulukest, mida..." ; "Selle maailma kiiresti läbin..." ; "Sinistkirja pluus ja sinisilmadki..." ; "Tukub heledas kuuvalges..." ; "Küll on tuisk, tont võtaks, taevas ära kaob..." ; "Kes ma olen? Ainult unistaja..." ; "Sõber, hüvasti, mul ees on minek...". Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 821

  2. "Juba õhtu on käes..." : [luuletused] / Sergei Jessenin ; tlk. Helvi Jürisson, Artur Alliksaar, Muia Veetamm, Linda Ruud, Jaan Kross, Ellen Niit, Debora Vaarandi, Venda Sõelsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jessenin, Sergei, 1895-1925

    2006-01-01

    Sisu: "Juba õhtu on käes..." ; "Seal, kus koit valab kapsaste vahel..." ; "Tulvavesi suitsev..." ; "Tegin oja kaldal vene..." ; "Laia taevaliua sinal..." ; "Kallis kodu! Näen kui unes..." ; "Olen karjus; minu valdus..." ; Venemaa ; Joobumus ; Hobused ; Laul koerast ; "Milleks punakuldseis põõsais nuuksed..." ; "Teispool jõge lõkkeread..." ; "Mind väsitand on kodunurk..." ; "See on mu kodu, mõtlik-hell..." ; Sinendus ; "Õhtul, kui kõik jooned nõrgemad..." ; "Homme varakult üles mind aja..." ; "Isamaja, kuhu jäid..." ; "Paljad põllud, metsaveered..." ; "Su juus on roheline..." ; "Laulud, laulud, kuhu te viite..." ; "Õnn, sina rumal! Mu aknad..." ; "Valged teed kinni tuiskab..." ; "Taas kiindumust ma vajan uut..." ; "Tiigipinnale kuldlehti liibub..." ; "Tuuled, tuuled, oo lund tooge, tuuled..." ; "Olen viimane külapoeet ma..." ; "Pole tarvis palvet, kurtmist, nuttu..." ; "Jah! Nüüd kindel on küll, et ei iial..." ; "Samasugune lihtne kui muud..." ; "Mingi troika on värava taga..." ; Kiri emale ; "Kõik me vähehaaval kaome sinna..." ; "Shagane, minu hea Shagane..." ; "Elurõõmus maailm, sinine ja lai..." ; "Koju ma ei leia teed..." ; "Sinav mai. Eha punerdav joom..." ; "Magab stepp. Koirohu tinast värskust..." ; "Meretäis sädinat õues..." ; "Elu pettus on, mis kestab päevast päeva..." ; "Mängi, lõõtspill, julgelt, mängi, lõõtspill, valju..." ; "Pole näinud ma kaunimat sinust..." ; "Laula nüüd mõnda laulukest, mida..." ; "Selle maailma kiiresti läbin..." ; "Sinistkirja pluus ja sinisilmadki..." ; "Tukub heledas kuuvalges..." ; "Küll on tuisk, tont võtaks, taevas ära kaob..." ; "Kes ma olen? Ainult unistaja..." ; "Sõber, hüvasti, mul ees on minek...". Eluloolisi andmeid autori kohta lk. 821

  3. Challenges to implementation of the WHO Global Code of Practice on International Recruitment of Health Personnel: the case of Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuagla, Ayat; Badr, Elsheikh

    2016-06-30

    The WHO Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel (hereafter the WHO Code) was adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2010 as a voluntary instrument to address challenges of health worker migration worldwide. To ascertain its relevance and effectiveness, the implementation of the WHO Code needs to be assessed based on country experience; hence, this case study on Sudan. This qualitative study depended mainly on documentary sources in addition to key informant interviews. Experiences of the authors has informed the analysis. Migration of Sudanese health workers represents a major health system challenge. Over half of Sudanese physicians practice abroad and new trends are showing involvement of other professions and increased feminization. Traditional destinations include Gulf States, especially Saudi Arabia and Libya, as well as the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland. Low salaries, poor work environment, and a lack of adequate professional development are the leading push factors. Massive emigration of skilled health workers has jeopardized coverage and quality of healthcare and health professional education. Poor evidence, lack of a national policy, and active recruitment in addition to labour market problems were barriers for effective migration management in Sudan. Response of destination countries in relation to cooperative arrangements with Sudan as a source country has always been suboptimal, demonstrating less attention to solidarity and ethical dimensions. The WHO Code boosted Sudan's efforts to address health worker migration and health workforce development in general. Improving migration evidence, fostering a national dialogue, and promoting bilateral agreements in addition to catalysing health worker retention strategies are some of the benefits accrued. There are, however, limitations in publicity of the WHO Code and its incorporation into national laws and regulatory frameworks for ethical recruitment. The

  4. A need for One Health approach – lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Ahmed Hassan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rift Valley fever (RVF is an emerging viral zoonosis that impacts human and animal health. It is transmitted from animals to humans directly through exposure to blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals or via mosquito bites. The disease is endemic to Africa but has recently spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Our aim was to compare two major outbreaks of RVF in Saudi Arabia (2000 and Sudan (2007 from a One Health perspective. Methods: Using the terms ‘Saudi Arabia’, ‘Sudan’, and ‘RVF’, articles were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and web pages of international organizations as well as local sources in Saudi Arabia and Sudan. Results: The outbreak in Saudi Arabia caused 883 human cases, with a case fatality rate of 14% and more than 40,000 dead sheep and goats. In Sudan, 698 human cases of RVF were recognized (case fatality, 31.5%, but no records of affected animals were available. The ecology and environment of the affected areas were similar with irrigation canals and excessive rains providing an attractive habitat for mosquito vectors to multiply. The outbreaks resulted in livestock trade bans leading to a vast economic impact on the animal market in the two countries. The surveillance system in Sudan showed a lack of data management and communication between the regional and federal health authorities, while in Saudi Arabia which is the stronger economy, better capacity and contingency plans resulted in efficient countermeasures. Studies of the epidemiology and vectors were also performed in Saudi Arabia, while in Sudan these issues were only partly studied. Conclusion: We conclude that a One Health approach is the best option to mitigate outbreaks of RVF. Collaboration between veterinary, health, and environmental authorities both on national and regional levels is needed.

  5. Research Progress in Toxicity of Sudan%苏丹红的毒性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏明; 侯进

    2012-01-01

    苏丹红是人工合成的偶氮化合物,属工业染料,不能用作食品添加剂.苏丹红在体内能够代谢成相应的胺类物质,主要包括苯胺、萘酚等,均为有毒的有机化合物.食品中的苏丹红给人类健康构成了潜在的严重威胁.大量毒理学研究证实,苏丹红有致癌性,遗传毒性,代谢产物毒性,致敏性等毒性作用.苏丹红与食品安全及人类健康息息相关,只有加强对苏丹红的认识研究及卫生监督,才能更好地保障食品卫生安全和人类健康.%Sudan is synthetic azo compound and a kind of industrial dye, which is not allowed to be used as food additives. Sudan can be metabolized in vivo into corresponding amines such as aniline and naphthol, which are all toxic organic compounds. Current study shows sudan in food poses a potential serious threat to human health. A large number of toxicological studies confirmed that sudan has carcinogenicity, genotoxicity, metabolite toxicity and allergenicity. In order to protect the safety of food hygiene and human health, the government should strengthen the knowledge, study and health supervision of sudan.

  6. A molecular survey on cystic echinococcosis in Sinnar area,Blue Nile state (Sudan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Ibrahim; Romig Thomas; Kern Peter; Rihab All Omer

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the cestodes of the Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involves dogs and other canids as definitive hosts for the intestinal tapeworm, as well as domestic and wild ungulates as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. The disease has a special impact on disadvantaged pastoralist communities and is listed now among the three top priority neglected tropical disease (NTD).Therefore, CE is a neglected disease even in high endemicity regions. This study aimed at investigation of the prevalence of CE in different animals slaughtered for food consumption in Sinnar area, Blue Nile states in Sudan.Methods A survey of CE in livestock was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state in Sudan. Location, parasitological status and fertility conditions were determined. In addition, 120 hydatid cysts (30 from camels, 62 from cattle and 28 from sheep) were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mitochondrial gene sequencing for the genetic allocation of Echinococcus strains or species Results The prevalence of CE was 29.7% (30/101) in camels, 2.7% (62/2310) in cattle and 0.6% (26/4378) in sheep. It was shown that infection rates increased with age in camels, cattle and sheep. In camels, 67% (20/30) of the infected animals were aged between 2-5 years whereas 58% (36/62) of the infected cattle were >5 years. In sheep, the prevalence rate was distributed equally between animals ranging 2-5 years and >5 years. Even though multiple cysts were found in some animals, the average number of cysts per animal was close to 1 in all examined species. Lungs were found to be the predilection sites for the parasite in both camels and cattle, while most of the cysts found in sheep were located in the liver. About 63.4% of cysts encountered in camels were considered as large (5-7 cm), whereas those in cattle and sheep were medium (2-4 cm) and small (<2

  7. Arabicization in high education: The case of medical colleges in the Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadni Suliman, Issameldin

    This thesis explores language policies, language conflict and language-user attitudes toward arabicization which refers to the use of Arabic as a medium of instruction in teaching medicine in universities in the Sudan. It follows up these objectives: (1) To highlight the roots of arabicization and implemented language planning activities through document analysis. (2) To report on the advantages and disadvantages of both Arabic and English as media of instruction in teaching medicine in the Sudan. (3) To survey the attitudes of students and their instructors in the colleges of Khartoum, Omdurman and Gezira universities towards arabicization using two similar developed questionnaires and an interview for faculty members. The questionnaires were distributed to the students and faculty members in the three colleges to probe six factors: (I) The extent of use of languages of instruction (2) Readiness of the students to receive medical studies in English (3) The difficulties they face (4) English as a medium of instruction in medical colleges (5) Arabic as a medium of instruction in medical colleges (6) Students' preference of a language of instruction. The study utilized tables, charts and chi square tests to illustrate the attitudes of students and their faculty members. The study has revealed that the attitude of most of the students and their faculty members were in favor of arabicization in principle. In fact, students showed support for the pedagogical benefits of Arabic like they can prepare and study in Arabic in less time than English. They can take more notes in Arabic than in English. The study has highlighted that Arabic as a native language of the students offers them a mighty and indispensable support for the ability to convey ideas, capacity for imaginative or creative thinking than the limited capacity given by the foreign language. Notwithstanding, English is reported to be very important for students' current medical studies and future career. The

  8. Self-reported fever, treatment actions and malaria infection prevalence in the northern states of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelgadir Tareg M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The epidemiology of fevers and their management in areas of low malaria transmission in Africa is not well understood. The characteristics of fever, its treatment and association with infection prevalence from a national household sample survey in the northern states of Sudan, an area that represents historically low parasite prevalence, are examined in this study. Methods In October-November 2009, a cluster sample cross-sectional household malaria indicator survey was undertaken in the 15 northern states of the Sudan. Data on household assets and individual level information on age, sex, whether the individual had a fever in the last 14 days and on the day of survey, actions taken to treat the fever including diagnostic services and drugs used and their sources were collected. Consenting household members were asked to provide a finger-prick blood sample and examined for malaria parasitaemia using a rapid diagnostic test (RDT. All proportions and odds ratios were weighted and adjusted for clustering. Results Of 26,471 respondents 19% (n = 5,299 reported a history of fever within the last two weeks prior to the survey and 8% had fever on the day of the survey. Only 39% (n = 2,035 of individuals with fever in last two weeks took any action, of which 43% (n = 875 were treated with anti-malarials. About 44% (n = 382 of malaria treatments were done using the nationally recommended first-line therapy artesunate+sulphadoxine-pryrimethamine (AS+SP and 13% (n = 122 with non-recommended chloroquine or SP. Importantly 33.9% (n = 296 of all malaria treatments included artemether monotherapy, which is internationally banned for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. About 53% of fevers had some form of parasitological diagnosis before treatment. On the day of survey, 21,988 individuals provided a finger-prick blood sample and only 1.8% were found positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Infection prevalence was higher among individuals who

  9. Follow-up on commitments at the Third Global Forum on Human Resources for Health: Indonesia, Sudan, Tanzania : "A commitment is a promise, a promise is a debt"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dussault, Gilles; Badr, Elsheikh; Haroen, Hartiah; Mapunda, Martin; Mars, Achmad Soebagja Tancarino; Pritasari, Kirana; Cometto, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to assess actions which Indonesia, Sudan, and Tanzania took to implement the health workforce commitments they made at the Third Global Forum on Human Resources for Health (HRH) in November 2013...

  10. Sudan; Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Debt Sustainability Analysis; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; Statement by the Executive Director

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    Sudan has been adversely affected by the global crisis through a sharp decline in oil receipts. Executive Directors welcomed the Staff-Monitored Program (SMP), which aimed to reduce the fiscal deficit, tighten monetary stance, and increase exchange rate flexibility. Directors urged the authorities to maintain prudent macroeconomic policies and to accelerate fiscal and financial sectors as well as structural reforms. Directors agreed that progress on debt relief under HIPC for Sudan is essenti...

  11. A marked seasonality of malaria transmission in two rural sites in eastern Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamad, Amel A; Nugud, Abd El Hamid D; Arnot, David E;

    2002-01-01

    . The entomological inoculation rate (EIR) was estimated to be around two to three infective bites per person per year, although heterogeneity in the transmission indices of malaria between the two villages was observed. The implications of these patterns of anopheline population dynamics for the epidemiology......The ecology of Anopheles arabiensis and its relationship to malaria transmission was investigated in two villages in eastern Sudan. Seasonal malaria case incidence was compared with the number of vectors detected and with climatic variables. Following the end of the short rainy season in October...... season between February and May, sporadic asymptomatic malaria infections were detected in the two villages. The low endemicity of malaria in the area was reflected by the relatively low total September-December parasite and sporozoite rates (15 and 1.4%, respectively) measured in the villages...

  12. A survey of antimicrobial residues in table eggs in Khartoum State, Sudan, 2007–2008

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    Mohamed M. Sirdar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The risk to consumers of antimicrobial residues in table eggs produced in Khartoum State, Sudan, was studied. All producing layer farms (n = 175 in the state were sampled in April, June and August 2008. A total of 933 eggs from 335 layer houses were screened for antimicrobial residues by using the growth inhibition of Geobacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis in-house test. A high proportion of layer farms (72% in April, 61% in June and 66% in August and layer houses (63% April, 59% in June and 61% in August were found to have antimicrobial residues, with no significant difference in prevalence (p = 0.57 between study periods. The study showed that the consumer was at constant risk of exposure to antimicrobial residues in table eggs. The paper discusses reasons for the high prevalence of antimicrobial residues in Sudanese eggs and its implications, and makes recommendations to address this important public health problem.

  13. Using System Dynamic Model and Neural Network Model to Analyse Water Scarcity in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Tang, C.; Xu, L.; Ye, S.

    2017-07-01

    Many parts of the world are facing the problem of Water Scarcity. Analysing Water Scarcity quantitatively is an important step to solve the problem. Water scarcity in a region is gauged by WSI (water scarcity index), which incorporate water supply and water demand. To get the WSI, Neural Network Model and SDM (System Dynamic Model) that depict how environmental and social factors affect water supply and demand are developed to depict how environmental and social factors affect water supply and demand. The uneven distribution of water resource and water demand across a region leads to an uneven distribution of WSI within this region. To predict WSI for the future, logistic model, Grey Prediction, and statistics are applied in predicting variables. Sudan suffers from severe water scarcity problem with WSI of 1 in 2014, water resource unevenly distributed. According to the result of modified model, after the intervention, Sudan’s water situation will become better.

  14. Pastoralists at War: Violence and Security in the Kenya-Sudan-Uganda Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonah Leff

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of those living in the border region of Kenya, Sudan, and Uganda are pastoralists, whose livelihoods are dictated by the upkeep and size of their herds. Harsh environmental conditions force pastoralists to migrate in search of water and pasturelands during the dry season. With limited access to water and competing rights to land, intertribal conflict arises when pastoralists from one tribe enter the territory of another. The increased availability of small arms in the region from past wars increasingly makes ordinary clashes fatal. Governments in the region have responded with heavy-handed coercive disarmament operations. These have led to distrust and subsequent violent clashes between communities and security providers. This report reviews the scale, consequences of, and responses to the many pastoral conflicts, utilizing methodological tools such as key informant interviews, retrospective analysis, and a thorough review of available literature.

  15. Assesment of Vegetation Cover Status in Dry Lands of The Sudan Using Social and Terrestrial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hamed Mohammed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted in 2015 in Bara Locality, North Kordofan, Sudan. The study area has experienced recurrent drought spells since 1970s of the past century. The main objective of this study was to assess and map the vegetation cover in the area using social, terrestrial and remotely sensed data. To accomplish the above mentioned objective, the study was based on qualitative and quantitative data. In qualitative data, household survey was conducted in which 100 respondents were randomly interviewed. Quantitative data was collected using terrestrial inventory and satellite imageries. In terrestrial inventory, 22 ground control points (GCPs were randomly registered using GPS in order to get general overview of the land cover of the study area. In each GCP, tree species by number was inventoried within an area of 1 ha. Remote sensing data, covering the target study area, were acquainted using LANDSAT5 imageries (2014 with spatial resolution of 30×30 m. Results of the household survey revealed that only 13 shrub/tree species mentioned by 45% of the respondents, while only 9 woody species were identified, belonging to 8 families from terrestrial inventory. The results of the household survey, 45% of the respondents, indicated that vegetation cover was very good 20 years ago. The study categorized the present land cover as woody vegetation (19%, Acacia senegal stands (5%, shrubs i.e. Leptadenia pyrotechnica and Acacia nubica (18%, small scale farms and grasses (19% and sandy soil and dunes (39%. The results of the land cover distribution indicated that vegetation cover decreased by 24% while sand/sand dunes was increased by 21% from 1985 to 2015. The study concluded that the study area is under threat of land degradation that may lead to depletion of vegetation cover and decline land productivity. Keywords: Acacia senegal, land cover, remote sensing, sand dune, Sudan.   Pengukuran Status Penutupan Vegetasi di Lahan Kering

  16. Allometric models and aboveground biomass stocks of a West African Sudan Savannah watershed in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabi, Adéyèmi; Lautenbach, Sven; Orekan, Vincent Oladokoun Agnila; Kyei-Baffour, Nicholas

    2016-12-01

    The estimation of forest biomass changes due to land-use change is of significant importance for estimates of the global carbon budget. The accuracy of biomass density maps depends on the availability of reliable allometric models used in combination with data derived from satellites images and forest inventory data. To reduce the uncertainty in estimates of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation, better information on allometric equations and the spatial distribution of aboveground biomass stocks in each land use/land cover (LULC) class is needed for the different ecological zones. Such information has been sparse for the West African Sudan Savannah zone. This paper provides new data and results for this important zone. The analysis combines satellite images and locally derived allometric models based on non-destructive measurements to estimate aboveground biomass stocks at the watershed level in the Sudan Savannah zone in Benin. We compared three types of empirically fitted allometric models of varying model complexity with respect to the number of input parameters that are easy to measure at the ground: model type I based only on the diameter at breast height (DBH), type II which used DBH and tree height and model type III which used DBH, tree height and wood density as predictors. While for most LULC classes model III outperformed the other models even the simple model I showed a good performance. The estimated mean dry biomass density values and attached standard error for the different LULC class were 3.28 ± 0.31 (for cropland and fallow), 3.62 ± 0.36 (for Savanna grassland), 4.86 ± 1.03 (for Settlements), 14.05 ± 0.72 (for Shrub savanna), 45.29 ± 2.51 (for Savanna Woodland), 46.06 ± 14.40 (for Agroforestry), 94.58 ± 4.98 (for riparian forest and woodland), 162 ± 64.88 (for Tectona grandis plantations), 179.62 ± 57.61 (for Azadirachta indica plantations), 25.17 ± 7.46 (for Gmelina arborea plantations

  17. Mycetoma of the Foot Caused by Madurella Mycetomatis in Immigrants from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brufman, Tamar; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Mizrahi, Michal; Bash, Edna; Paran, Yael

    2015-07-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic and destructive infection caused by either fungus or bacteria. Mycetoma has a characteristic clinical presentation of a triad of tumor-like swelling, draining sinuses, and macroscopic grains. Mycetoma infection is extremely rare in Israel; however, in view of the recent immigration from mycetoma-hyperendemic regions of Africa to Israel, physicians in Israel may encounter this infection. To present two cases of mycetoma caused by Madurella mycatomatis in immigrants from endemic regions in Sudan treated at our hospital, and review the current literature. Health care professionals in Israel should suspect mycetoma in patients from endemic countries who present with tumor-like swelling especially in the lower extremity. Health care workers should be able to recognize mycetoma and provide the optimal treatment before the lesion progresses to an advanced and disabling disease.

  18. Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in rural communities in Sudan: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, S K M; Bushara, S O E; Sulaiman, A A; Elmadhoun, W M Y; Ahmed, M H

    2015-05-19

    Undiagnosed diabetes constitutes a challenge for health providers, especially in rural areas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and glucose intolerance among adults in rural communities in River Nile State, north Sudan. In a cross-sectional community-based study, blood glucose, anthropometric, demographic and clinical history data were obtained from 1111 individuals from 35 villages. The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes was 2.6% (29 individuals); glucose intolerance was detected in 1.3% (14 individuals). Classic symptoms (polydipsia, polyuria and weight loss) were present in around half of the participants but were not more prevalent in those with diabetes. Lower educational level, increasing age, hypertension and unexplained weight loss were significant risk factors for diabetes. Other variables (obesity, sex, occupation, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking) were not significant risk factors. There is a low prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and glucose intolerance in the rural population of River Nile State.

  19. Transitional coordination in Sudan (2006-08): lessons from the United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John N

    2013-07-01

    With the increase in internal conflicts following the end of the Cold War, the scale and scope of the United Nations' work in conflict and post-conflict environments grew markedly. As a result, the coordination of programming and policy in the transition from relief to recovery has been a central preoccupation of academics and practitioners alike. Intergovernmental bodies such as the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) have made these topics a subject of regular discussion, while some countries have altered their bureaucratic structures to respond more effectively in post-crisis settings, particularly in cases involving the deployment of national troops. The United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office in Sudan provides a model for other transitional countries and is a useful case study of the broader challenges of post-crisis programming. Effective coordination structures and planning/programming processes are identified as interdependent prerequisites for ensuring a successful transition from relief to recovery.

  20. Climate variability and environmental stress in the Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; D'haen, Sarah Ann Lise; Maiga, Abdou

    2012-01-01

    Environmental change in the Sudan-Sahel region of West Africa (SSWA) has been much debated since the droughts of the 1970s. In this article we assess climate variability and environmental stress in the region. Households in Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and Nigeria were asked about climatic...... to household perceptions, observed rainfall patterns showed an increasing trend over the past 20 years. However, August rainfall declined, and could therefore potentially explain the contrasting negative household perceptions of rainfall trends. Most households reported degradation of soils, water resources......, vegetation, and fauna, but more so in the 500–900 mm zones. Adaptation measures to counter environmental degradation included use of manure, reforestation, soil and water conservation, and protection of fauna and vegetation. The results raise concerns for future environmental management in the region...

  1. A new strategy for determination of bisphenol A in the presence of Sudan I using a ZnO/CNTs/ionic liquid paste electrode in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Maryam; Khalilzadeh, Mohammad A; Karimi-Maleh, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    The electrochemistry of bisphenol A (BPA) was studied by voltammetric methods at a surface of carbon paste electrode modified by a ZnO/CNTs nanocomposite and room-temperature ionic liquid of 1,3-dipropylimidazolium bromide. The ratio of ZnO/CNTs and ionic liquid (IL) on the surface of the electrode has to be controlled carefully because the charging currents. The anodic peaks of BPA and Sudan I in their mixture can be well separated. At pH 7.0 the two peaks are separated ca. 0.47 and 0.70 V, respectively; hence BPA can be determined in the presence of Sudan I and more than 8.7 times current excess of BPA. The peaks current of square wave voltammograms (SWV) of BPA and Sudan I increased linearly with their concentration in the ranges of 0.002-700 μmol L(-1)BPA and 0.2-800 μmol L(-1) Sudan I. The detection limits for BPA and Sudan I were 9.0 nmol L(-1) and 80 nmol L(-1), respectively. The modified electrode has been successfully applied for the assay of BPA in food samples. This study provides a simple and easy approach to selectively detect BPA in the presence of Sudan I.

  2. In-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction for simultaneous separation and extraction of Sudan dyes in different spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Maryam; Sabzalian, Sedigheh; Barfi, Behruz; Arghavani-Beydokhti, Somayeh; Asghari, Alireza

    2015-12-18

    A novel, simple, fast, and miniaturized method, termed in-line micro-matrix solid-phase dispersion (in-line MMSPD), coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the simultaneous extraction and determination of Sudan dyes (i.e. Sudan I-IV, Sudan orange G, Sudan black B, and Sudan red G) with the aid of an experimental design strategy. In this method, a matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) column including a suitable mixture of polar sorbents was inserted in the mobile phase pathway, and while the interfering compounds were retained, the analytes were eluted and entered into the analytical column. In this way, the extraction, elution, and separation of the analytes were performed sequentially. Under the optimal experimental conditions (including the amount of sample, 0.0426g; amount of dispersant phase, 0.0216g of florisil, 0.0227g of silica, 0.0141g of alumina; and blending time, 112s), the limits of detection (LODs), limits of quantification, linear dynamic ranges, and recoveries were obtained to be 0.3-15.3μgkg(-1), 1-50μgkg(-1), 50-28,000μgkg(-1), and 94.5-99.1%, respectively. The results obtained showed that determination of the selected Sudan dyes in food samples using an enough sensitive and a simple analytically validated method like in-line MMSPD may offer a suitable screening method, which could be useful for food analysis and adulteration.

  3. Simultaneous determination of four Sudan dyes in rat blood by UFLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhu; Yijun Chen; Changshun Huanga; Yangyang Han; Yiwei Zhang; Shucan Xie; Xiaohong Chen; Micong Jin

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Sudan Ⅰ, Sudan Ⅱ, Sudan Ⅲ, and Sudan Ⅳ levels in rat whole blood. Cleanert C18 mixed-mode polymeric sorbent was used for effective solid-phase extraction cleanup. Separation was carried out on a reversed-phase C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid in water/0.1% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile as the mobile phase in gradient elution. Quantification was performed by an electrospray ionization source in the positive multiple reaction monitoring mode using D5-Sudan I as the internal standard. Calibration curves showed good linearity between 0.2 and 20.0 μg/L, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9990. The average recovery rates were between 93.05% and 114.98%. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviations were within 6.2%. The lower limit of quantification was 0.2 μg/L. All the analytes were found to be stable in aseries of stability studies. The proposed method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of four Sudan dyes after oral administration to rats.

  4. South-South, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovutor Owhoeli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 213 faecal samples were collected from four abattoirs and households to determine the prevalence of helminthes infections in exotic and indigenous goats in Port Harcourt, South-South, Nigeria. The study revealed that out of 153 exotic goats (Red Sokoto Capra hircus, 112 were infected with various species of gastrointestinal helminths; out of 60 indigenous goats (West African dwarf Capra hircus, 49 were also infected with various types of gastrointestinal helminths. The formol-ether concentration method was used to analyse the specimens. The study revealed that an overall prevalence of (75.5% was recorded, out of which 57 (76.0%, 55 (70.5%, and 49 (81.6% were recorded for exotic goat in the months of May–September, 2010, exotic goat in the months October 2010–February, 2011 and for indigenous goats, respectively. The overall prevalence amongst the infected animals was not statistically significant (P>0.05. Species of helminthes revealed from the study were, Haemonchus, Strongyloides, Chabertia, Trichuris, Ostertagia, Bunostomum, Trichostrongyloida, Ascaris, Tenia, Avitelina, Fasciola, Eurytrema, Gastrothylax, Schistosoma, and Dicrocoelium.

  5. Quaternized chitosan/silver nanoparticles composite as a SERS substrate for detecting tricyclazole and Sudan I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kaihang; Shen, Zuguang [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Jiwen, E-mail: holdit@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Xiaoying, E-mail: xyw@scut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Sun, Runcang [State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Institute of Biomass Chemistry and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Synthesis optimization of Ag NPs with quaternized chitosan (QCS) was studied. • The size of Ag NPs was tuned by changing the DS and Mw of QCS. • QCS/Ag NPs exhibited much better SERS performance than Ag NPs without free QCS. • QCS/Ag NPs as SERS substrate detected tricyclazole in low concentration of 50 ppb. • QCS/Ag NPs as SERS substrate detected Sudan I with the detection limit of 10 ppm. - Abstract: There is an urgent need to develop a highly sensitive detection system for detecting trace amounts of food contaminants. In this study, optimal synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with stable and narrow size distribution in the range of 15–25 nm was performed under microwave irradiation, using quaternized chitosan (QCS) as reducing and stabilizing agent. The results showed that the ratio of QCS to [Ag(NH{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup +}, reaction temperature, irradiation time, the degree of substitution (DS) and molecular weight (Mw) of QCS had obvious effects on the formation, particle size and size distribution of Ag NPs. In addition, utilizing QCS/Ag NPs composite as SERS substrate, tricyclazole and Sudan I could be rapidly and sensitively detected with the limit of detection (LOD) as low as 50 ppb and 10 ppm, respectively. Compared with previously reported works, our detection system are of great stability and operability. The QCS was coated on the surface of Ag core, avoiding aggregation of Ag NPs and creating hot spots, in turn, providing superior amplification of SERS. Thus, it is believed that the QCS/Ag NPs composite could be considered as an ideal SERS-active substrate for detection of food contaminants.

  6. First record and bionomics of the mycophagous ladybird Psyllobora bisoctonotata (Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildews caused by several fungi, particularly of the genera Erysiphe, Sphaerotheca and Leveillula, are destructive diseases of various cultivated and wild plants during winter season (December–March in Sudan. Application of synthetic fungicides is the only control measure practiced. Fortuitously, during a field survey, congregations of coccinellid adults and grubs were found associated with powdery mildews on a wild plant, Xanthium brasilicum Vell., locally known as “Ramtouk”, at Shambat area/Khartoum North. Therefore, the insect was subjected to some bionomical studies conducted during winter season 2011/12. Emphasis was devoted to morphometric investigations, supported with life cycle durations and seasonal trend on the foregoing host. Accordingly, the species was recognized as Psyllobora bisoctonotata (Muls., a well known powdery mildew feeder in several countries. This is the first record of a mycophagous insect in Sudan. Hence, the important morphological features of the different stages were presented. The rearing of the insect on powdery mildew infected Ramtouk leaves in the laboratory (27.50 ± 3.75 °C and 15.83 ± 3.82% R.H. revealed that the mean total lifecycle from egg to adult was 25.28 ± 1.57 days. The insect appeared on X. brasilicum in a very small number in December, peaked in February, and then gradually declined thereafter coinciding with an increase in temperature and a decrease in powdery mildew infection. So far, the real distribution of this mycophagous species and its host range are waiting for more investigations. Meticulous bio-ecological studies are important to ascertain the proper habitat for such insect throughout the year, and to evaluate its potential role as a biocontrol agent for the powdery mildews.

  7. Studies on biology and ecology of Galeatus scrophicus Saunders (Hemiptera: Tingidae in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Among insect fauna reported in Sudan, Galeatus scrophicus Saunders, was detected earlier in last century, and known as a pest of sunflower. Nevertheless, very limited research works have yet been conducted on this pest. Therefore, this study was proposed to cover certain bio-ecological aspects of G. scrophicus, including host range, geographical and intra-host distributions, seasonal abundance and life cycle of pre-adult stages. Such parameters were fulfilled through surveys, field experiments and laboratory works. The results revealed seven host plants for the pest under the family Compositae, viz., Helianthus annus L., Lactuca sativa L., Lactuca taraxifolia (Willd. Schumach, Sonchus cornutus Hochst. Ex Oliv.+ Hiern, Sonchus oleraceus L., Xanthium brasilicum Vell. and Pluchea diosecoridis (L. DC., all of them, except the former species, were new records. Higher numbers of nymphs and adults were reported on the upper surfaces than on the lower sides of plant leaves. However, the pest was found in all sunflower areas in central Sudan. The seasonal counts showed that the highest population of the pest occurred in winter as compared with autumn season. On the other hand, the mean total durations of pre-imaginal stages were shorter in autumn (14.12 ± 0.15 days than in winter (25.27 ± 0.26 season. Therefore, some detrimental factors that seem to suppress the pest population buildup in autumn were suggested, and recommended for additional studies so as to design appropriate ecologically sound control measures.

  8. Occupational safety of different industrial sectors in Khartoum State, Sudan. Part 1: Safety performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gehan R; El-Marakby, Fadia A; H Deign El-Nor, Yasser; Nofal, Faten H; Zakaria, Adel M

    2012-12-01

    Safety performance evaluation enables decision makers improve safety acts. In Sudan, accident records, statistics, and safety performance were not evaluated before maintenance of accident records became mandatory in 2005. This study aimed at evaluating and comparing safety performance by accident records among different cities and industrial sectors in Khartoum state, Sudan, during the period from 2005 to 2007. This was a retrospective study, the sample in which represented all industrial enterprises in Khartoum state employing 50 workers or more. All industrial accident records of the Ministry of Manpower and Health and those of different enterprises during the period from 2005 to 2007 were reviewed. The safety performance indicators used within this study were the frequency-severity index (FSI) and fatal and disabling accident frequency rates (DAFR). In Khartoum city, the FSI [0.10 (0.17)] was lower than that in Bahari [0.11 (0.21)] and Omdurman [0.84 (0.34)]. It was the maximum in the chemical sector [0.33 (0.64)] and minimum in the metallurgic sector [0.09 (0.19)]. The highest DAFR was observed in Omdurman [5.6 (3.5)] and in the chemical sector [2.5 (4.0)]. The fatal accident frequency rate in the mechanical and electrical engineering industry was the highest [0.0 (0.69)]. Male workers who were older, divorced, and had lower levels of education had the lowest safety performance indicators. The safety performance of the industrial enterprises in Khartoum city was the best. The safety performance in the chemical sector was the worst with regard to FSI and DAFR. The age, sex, and educational level of injured workers greatly affect safety performance.

  9. A new way to carcinogenicity of azo dyes: the benzenediazonium ion formed from a non-aminoazo dye, 1-phenylazo-2-hydroxynaphthalene(Sudan I) by microsomal enzymes binds to deoxyguanosine residues of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiborová, M; Asfaw, B; Anzenbacher, P; Hodek, P

    1988-06-30

    1-Phenylazo-2-hydroxynaphthalene (Sudan I) activated by pre-incubation with microsomal enzymes of rat livers covalently binds to DNA from calf thymus. Benzenediazonium ion formed from Sudan I by activation with microsomal enzymes is the principal active metabolite, which binds to DNA. Enzymatic hydrolysis of modified (14C-labelled) DNA, followed by separation of deoxynucleosides on a Sephadex G-10 column revealed that deoxyguanosine is the principal target for the binding of activated Sudan I. The high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis indicate that probably more than one radioactive adduct of activated Sudan I with deoxyguanosine is formed.

  10. Types of trematodes infecting freshwater snails found in irrigation canals in the East Nile locality, Khartoum, Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed, Nidal A. I.; Madsen, Henry; Ahmed, Abdel Aziz A. R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The planorbid freshwater snails of the two genera, Biomphalaria and Bulinus -have been vigorously studied due to the role they play as intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis. In Sudan specifically, most studies have focused on the chemical and ecological control of the two genera......, but few studies have looked at their biological control. This study explored the coexistence of other species of freshwater snails and the two genera along with their trematode infections in relation to a number of environmental factors in the East Nile locality, Khartoum state, Sudan. Methods: Freshwater...... snails from irrigation canals (abueshreens) were sampled monthly from January 2004 to December 2005. The snails were examined for trematode infections by cercarial emergence immediately after collection and then weekly for an additional four weeks to allow for the maturation of prepatent infections...

  11. Foreign awakenings: rig work in war-torn Sudan convinces Canadians their civilized version of industry is needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-05-01

    Experiences of some Canadian geologists working in Sudan are described. Glad to be back in Canada after several years of exploration work for various international exploration companies, they have fond memories of the people, who for the most part live under very primitive conditions, and constant exposure to the ravages of tribal wars. They characterize the attitude of Canadians working in Sudan towards the native population as one that puts high values on human rights, safety, work ethics, and individual responsibility. They defend Canadian presence in these far-off regions as beneficial to the native population, by bringing Canadian standards and a civilized version of industry to an area that has seen very little of that in the past. In contrast to the situation on Canadian rigs, on Chinese oil rigs favoritism and racism are the rule; the Chinese do not see that humanitarian issues are any of their concerns.

  12. Seroprevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus-1, Bovine Herpes Virus-4 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Dairy Cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1, Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4 and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in Khartoum state (51.7 and 50.4%, respectively while in central Sudan BoHv-1 (32.7% antibodies were the most prevalent followed by, BVD (25.7% and BoHv-4 (19.3%. The highest prevalence of antibodies against the three viruses in both areas was found during the rainy season (July to October. The prevalence of antibodies to viruses studied was significantly associated with female sex except for BoHv-1. Prevalence of antibodies to BoHv-4 was significantly associated with breed while those of BoHv-1 and BVD were not. The present results indicated that older cattle were more likely to be seropositive in case of BoHv-4 but to BoHv-1 or BVD viruses. Furthermore, it was found that BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in aborted dams. While, infertility problems were highly associated with BoHv-1 antibodies. BVD antibodies showed the highest prevalence in case of death after birth. The results of this study provide better understanding of viral epidemics of reproductive disorders and represent the first report of BoHv-4 antibodies in cattle in Sudan.

  13. Antioxidant activity, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential and phytochemical analysis of Sarcocephalus latifolius Sm. bark used in traditional medicine in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Osama, Alsiddig; Awadelkarim, Sufyan; Ali, Amna

    2017-01-01

    Background Sarcocephalus latifolius is used as a traditional medicine for curing many diseases in Sudan. The main objective of the current study was to determine the antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChEI) of S. latifolius, and to estimate its total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Methods Antioxidant activity of the tested plant extracts was carried out by determining their ability to scavenge the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. On the other hand,...

  14. Determination of Sudan Residues in Sausage by Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yujuan; Cheng, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    A method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion and high-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the determination of four Sudan red residues in sausage. The proposed method required only 0.5 g sample. The neutral alumina was used as the dispersant sorbent while n-hexane containing 10% (v/v) acetone was used as the eluting solvent. The recoveries in samples ranged from 76.4 to 111.0% and relative standard deviations were sausage.

  15. Treatment-Based Strategy for the Management of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis Patients in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Musa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL is a dermatosis that affects more than 50% of successfully treated visceral leishmaniasis (VL patients in Sudan. PKDL is considered an important reservoir for the parasite and its treatment may help in the control of VL. Currently, treatment is mainly with sodium stibogluconate (SSG, an expensive and fairly toxic drug and without universally in treatment protocols used. A literature review, a consensus of a panel of experts, and unpublished data formed the basis for the development of guidelines for the treatment of PKDL in the Sudan. Six treatment modalities were evaluated. Experts were asked to justify their choices based on their experience regarding of drug safety, efficacy, availability, and cost. The consensus was defined by assigning a categorical rank (first line, second line, third line to each option. Regarding the use of AmBisome the presence of the drug in the skin was confirmed in smears from PKDL lesions. Recommendations: AmBisome at 2.5 mg/kg/day/20 days or SSG at 20 mg/kg/day/40 days plus four/weekly intradermal injection of alum-precipitated autoclave L. major vaccine are suggested as first- and second-treatment options for PKDL in the Sudan, respectively. SSG at 20 mg/Kg/day/60 or more days can be used if other options are not available.

  16. When community reintegration is not the best option: interethnic violence and the trauma of parental loss in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Brigitte; Munslow, Barry; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The magnitude of violence and human loss in conflict settings often exceeds the caring capacity of traditional support systems for orphans. The aim of this study is to understand the developmental context for children experiencing armed conflict, parental loss, extreme poverty, violence and social exclusion in a setting affected by interethnic violence. This article challenges the received wisdom that community reintegration is always better than institutional provision. Using a case study employing interviews, focus groups, workshops and observations, we examined how children's experiences of armed violence and parental loss affected their mental well-being, and their relationships within their community. Emerging findings such as experienced violence and psychological distress were further investigated using a cross-sectional survey design to explore the generalisability or transferability of theories or conclusions drawn from qualitative data. Findings showed that parental loss had a major impact on children's lives in the context of armed violence. Four main outcomes of orphanhood emerged: (i) facing the situation and evading harm (feelings of rejection and stigmatisation); (ii) trauma exposure and mental health effects (associations of orphanhood with adverse mental health outcomes and the number and type of experienced trauma); (iii) dealing with psychological distress (seeking caring connections and decreased feelings of isolation); and (iv) education and acceptance (increasing knowledge, skills and attitude and being respected in their community). We discuss the role that contexts such as armed violence, parental loss and social exclusion play for children's mental well-being and their implications for psychosocial interventions and orphan care in humanitarian settings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Meeting the Challenge of Reconstruction and Development in Fragile States: Lessons from Aceh, Haiti, and South Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Leitmann, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Reconstruction and development in poor, fragile countries present a double challenge: tackling the issues of poverty and underdevelopment as well as the constraints posed by instability, poor governance, and weak capacity. This context generates a range of problems that include: insecurity, insufficient planning, inadequate implementation capacity, poor financial management, misprocurement, corruption, a volatile fiscal environment, ineffective donor coordination, and negative environmental a...

  18. Water Security and Hydropolitics of the Nile River: South Sudan’s National Security in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    92. 84Cirino H. Ofuho, “Security Concerns in the Horn of Africa,” in African Regional Security in the Age of Globalisation , ed. Makumi Mwagiru...analyses are involved at this stage .99 The first step in is to quantitatively determine potential for conflict as it applies to the Nile basin water...

  19. 76 FR 41046 - Addition of the New State of the Republic of South Sudan to the Export Administration Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... support for international terrorism. Consistent with the state sponsor of terrorism designation, the... Liberation Movement signed the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) ending the 22-year civil war, and in... FR 50681, August 16, 2010), has continued the EAR in effect under the International...

  20. Disability associated with exposure to traumatic events: results from a cross-sectional community survey in South Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general lack of knowledge regarding disability and especially factors that are associated with disability in low-income countries. We aimed to study the overall and gender-specific prevalence of disability, and the association between exposure to traumatic events and disability in a post-conflict setting. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional community based study of four Greate...

  1. Factors Affecting Utilization of Family Planning Services in a Post-Conflict Setting, South Sudan: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waled Amen Mohammed Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore and examine the conjectures surrounding the utilization of family planning services among currently married couples of childbearing age in Renk County.This study has adopted a qualitative method to collect data on factors affecting the utilization of family planning services through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, in rural and urban areas of Renk County. It targeted married women, men as well as unmarried men and women. The researchers conducted nine focus group discussions and nine interviews at both Jelhak (rural setting and Renk (urban setting. The results suggested that the people of Renk County prefer to have large families and therefore choose not to use family planning methods. The data collected was analyzed by means of thematic analysis. This included the construction of a thematic framework, coding, editing and categorization of available data as well as the creation of sub-themes.The result also suggested that perception is a main factor that affects utilization of family planning services with a majority of the people in Renk and Jelhak preferring to have many children in order to increase the family size for some reasons. These are linked to religion, social stigma and taboo that are attached to childless people or users of family planning methods for birth control purposes.The responses revealed some variation in perception between rural (Jelhak and urban (Renk areas. Respondents from Renk area reported that some people use family planning services for economic reasons that involve alleviation of financial difficulties and provision of better education when the family size is small. On the other hand, rural people from Jelhak perceive family planning to be socially un-acceptable. Furthermore, men and women of Jelhak reported that after each birth of a child, married couples avoid sexual relationship for a period of two years as means of family planning. Women of both Urban and Rural settings reported intentions to use conventional methods of family planning without the knowledge of their spouses.

  2. Estimation of Some Bio-Physical Indicators for Sustainable Crop Production in the Eastern Nile Basin of Sudan Using Landsat-8 Imagery and SEBAL Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guma Biro Turk, Khalid

    2016-07-01

    Crop production under modern irrigation systems require unique management at field level and hence better utilization of agricultural inputs and water resources. This study aims to make use of remote sensing (RS) data and the surface energy balance algorithm for land (SEBAL) to improve the on-farm management. The study area is located in the Eastern part of the Blue Nile River about 60 km south of Khartoum, Sudan. Landsat-8 data were used to estimate a number of bio-physical indicators during the growing season of the year 2014/2015. Accordingly, in-situ weather data and SEBAL model were applied to calculate: the reference (ET0), actual (ETa) and potential (ETp) evapotranspiration, soil moisture (SM), crop factor (kc), nitrogen (N), biomass production (BP) and crop water productivity (CWP). Results revealed that ET0 showed steady variation throughout the year, varying from 5 to 7 mm/day. However, ETa and ETp showed clear temporal variation attributed to frequent cutting of the alfalfa, almost monthly. The BP of the alfalfa was observed to be high when there is no cutting activates were made before the image acquisition date. Nevertheless the CWP trends are following the biomass production ones, low when there is no biomass and high when the biomass is high. The application of SEBAL model within the study area using the Landsat-8 imagery indicates that it's possible to produce field-based bio-physical indicators, which can be useful in monitoring and managing the field during the growing season. However, a cross-calibration with the in-situ data should be considered in order to maintain the spatial variability within the field. Keywords: Bio-physical Indicators; Remote Sensing; SEBAL; Landsat-8; Eastern Nile Basin

  3. Dispersive liquid-phase microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of Sudan dyes in foodstuffs and water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Huang, Yuming

    2014-06-25

    Dispersive liquid-phase microextraction with solidification of floating organic drop (SFO-DLPME) is one of the most interesting sample preparation techniques developed in recent years. In this paper, a new, rapid, and efficient SFO-DLPME coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was established for the extraction and sensitive detection of banned Sudan dyes, namely, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, and Sudan IV, in foodstuff and water samples. Various factors, such as the type and volume of extractants and dispersants, pH and volume of sample solution, extraction time and temperature, ion strength, and humic acid concentration, were investigated and optimized to achieve optimal extraction of Sudan dyes in one single step. After optimization of extraction conditions using 1-dodecanol as an extractant and ethanol as a dispersant, the developed procedure was applied for extraction of the target Sudan dyes from 2 g of food samples and 10 mL of the spiked water samples. Under the optimized conditions, all Sudan dyes could be easily extracted by the proposed SFO-DLPME method. Limits of detection of the four Sudan dyes obtained were 0.10-0.20 ng g(-1) and 0.03 μg L(-1) when 2 g of foodstuff samples and 10 mL of water samples were adopted, respectively. The inter- and intraday reproducibilities were below 4.8% for analysis of Sudan dyes in foodstuffs. The method was satisfactorily used for the detection of Sudan dyes, and the recoveries of the target for the spiked foodstuff and water samples ranged from 92.6 to 106.6% and from 91.1 to 108.6%, respectively. These results indicated that the proposed method is simple, rapid, sensitive, and suitable for the pre-concentration and detection of the target dyes in foodstuff samples.

  4. Use of biomass fuels in the brick-making industries of Sudan: Implications for deforestation and greenhouse gas emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S.A.

    2006-07-01

    The study focuses on the potential roles of the brick making industries in Sudan in deforestation and greenhouse gas emission due to the consumption of biofuels. The results were based on the observation of 25 brick making industries from three administrative regions in Sudan namely, Khartoum, Kassala and Gezira. The methodological approach followed the procedures outlined by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). For predicting a serious deforestation scenario, it was also assumed that all of wood use for this particular purpose is from unsustainable sources. The study revealed that the total annual quantity of fuelwood consumed by the surveyed brick making industries (25) was 2,381 t dm. Accordingly, the observed total potential deforested wood was 10,624 m3, in which the total deforested round wood was 3,664 m3 and deforested branches was 6,961 m3. The study observed that a total of 2,990 t biomass fuels (fuelwood and dung cake) consumed annually by the surveyed brick making industries for brick burning. Consequently, estimated total annual emissions of greenhouse gases were 4,832 t CO{sub 2}, 21 t CH{sub 4}, 184 t CO, 0.15 t N{sub 2}0, 5 t NO{sub x} and 3.5 t NO while the total carbon released in the atmosphere was 1,318 t. Altogether, the total annual greenhouse gases emissions from biomass fuels burning was 5,046 t; of which 4,104 t from fuelwood and 943 t from dung cake burning. According to the results, due to the consumption of fuelwood in the brick making industries (3,450 units) of Sudan, the amount of wood lost from the total growing stock of wood in forests and trees in Sudan annually would be 1,466,000 m3 encompassing 505,000 m3 round wood and 961,000 m3 branches annually. By considering all categories of biofuels (fuelwood and dung cake), it was estimated that, the total emissions from all the brick making industries of Sudan would be 663,000 t CO{sub 2}, 2,900 t CH{sub 4}, 25,300 t CO, 20 t N{sub 2}O, 720 t NO{sub x} and 470 t NO per

  5. Genes encoding two Theileria parva antigens recognized by CD8+ T-cells exhibit sequence diversity in South Sudanese cattle populations but the majority of alleles are similar to the Muguga component of the live vaccine cocktail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelle, Roger; Mwacharo, Joram M.; Njahira, Moses N.; Marcellino, Wani L.; Kiara, Henry; Malak, Agol K.; EL Hussein, Abdel Rahim M.; Bishop, Richard; Skilton, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    East Coast fever (ECF), caused by Theileria parva infection, is a frequently fatal disease of cattle in eastern, central and southern Africa, and an emerging disease in South Sudan. Immunization using the infection and treatment method (ITM) is increasingly being used for control in countries affected by ECF, but not yet in South Sudan. It has been reported that CD8+ T-cell lymphocytes specific for parasitized cells play a central role in the immunity induced by ITM and a number of T. parva antigens recognized by parasite-specific CD8+ T-cells have been identified. In this study we determined the sequence diversity among two of these antigens, Tp1 and Tp2, which are under evaluation as candidates for inclusion in a sub-unit vaccine. T. parva samples (n = 81) obtained from cattle in four geographical regions of South Sudan were studied for sequence polymorphism in partial sequences of the Tp1 and Tp2 genes. Eight positions (1.97%) in Tp1 and 78 positions (15.48%) in Tp2 were shown to be polymorphic, giving rise to four and 14 antigen variants in Tp1 and Tp2, respectively. The overall nucleotide diversity in the Tp1 and Tp2 genes was π = 1.65% and π = 4.76%, respectively. The parasites were sampled from regions approximately 300 km apart, but there was limited evidence for genetic differentiation between populations. Analyses of the sequences revealed limited numbers of amino acid polymorphisms both overall and in residues within the mapped CD8+ T-cell epitopes. Although novel epitopes were identified in the samples from South Sudan, a large number of the samples harboured several epitopes in both antigens that were similar to those in the T. parva Muguga reference stock, which is a key component in the widely used live vaccine cocktail. PMID:28231338

  6. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Ibrahim1, Vibeke Rasch2, Eero Pukkala3, Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 3Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki, FinlandObjectives: To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.Methods: A cross-sectional prospective pilot study of 100 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum State in Sudan was carried out from December 2008 to January 2009. The study was performed at the screening center in Khartoum. Six nurses and two physicians were trained by a gynecologic oncologist. The patients underwent a complete gynecological examination and filled in a questionnaire on risk factors and feasibility and acceptability. They were screened for cervical cancer by application of 3%–5% VIA. Women with a positive test were referred for colposcopy and treatment.Results: Sixteen percent of screened women were tested positive. Statistically significant associations were observed between being positive with VIA test and the following variables: uterine cervix laceration (odds ratio [OR] 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.64–74.8, assisted vaginal delivery (OR 13.2; 95% CI: 2.95–54.9, parity (OR 5.78; 95% CI: 1.41–23.7, female genital mutilation (OR 4.78; 95% CI: 1.13–20.1, and episiotomy (OR 5.25; 95% CI: 1.15–23.8. All these associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, educational level, employment, and potential confounding factors such as smoking, number of sexual partners, and use of contraceptive method. Furthermore, the VIA screening method was found to be feasible and acceptable to participants.Conclusion: This pilot study showed that women who have uterine

  7. Knowledge and attitudes of female genital mutilation among midwives in Eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdel Aziem A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female Genital Mutilation (FGM or cutting caries legal and bioethical debates and it is practiced in many developing countries. Methods Random selection of 154 midwives was used for the study during June 2012 and through July 2012 aiming to assess knowledge and attitudes of the midwives towards FGM in Eastern Sudan. Results A total of 157 midwives enrolled in this study. They had been practicing for 3 – 44 years (mean SD 19.2 ± 10.3. More than two third of them experienced practicing FGM sometime in their life (127/157, 80.9%. There was low level of awareness of types of FGM practice since only 7% (11/157 identified the four types correctly. 53.5% (84/157 identified type 1 correctly while 18.5% (29/157, 17.8% (28/157 and 15.9% (25/157 identified type 2, 3 and 4 as correct respectively. While 30 (19.1% of the midwives claimed that all types of FGM are harmful, 76.4% (120/157 were of the opinion that some forms are not harmful and 7 (4.5% reported that all types of FGM are not harmful. Likewise while 74.5% (117/157 of the interviewed midwives mentioned that the FGM is a legal practice only 25.5% (40/117 were of the opinion that FGM is illegal practice. The vast majority of the respondents (64.3%, 101/157 have an opinion that FGM decreases the sexual pleasure. More than half (53.5%, 84/157 of the participants affirmed that FGM does not increase the risk of HIV transmission. High proportion of the respondents (71.3%, 112/157 did not know whether or not infertility could complicate FGM. Conclusions Thus a substantial effort should be made to discourage the continuation of FGM practice among midwives in Sudan. This might be achieved by improving knowledge and awareness among the midwives and the community

  8. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  9. Juba teine "1+1 = 1"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    15. III Okupatsioonimuuseumis toimuva "1+1=1" teise ürituse kavast. Presentatsioonide õhtu keskendub konkreetse ruumikogemuse vahendamisele kunstis (helis, slaidi-installatsioonis, tänava-aktsioonis, skulptuuris, videos, filmis). Esinevad Cevdet Erek, Andres Lõo, Andres Kurg (arhitektuur ja interjöörid Marko Raadi filmis "Agent Sinikael") jt.

  10. Pensionikasv juba uuest aastast / Maret Maripuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maripuu, Maret, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Harju Ekspress, 28. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Võrumaa Teataja, 29. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 29. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 1. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 2. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 2. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 2. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Sakala, 3. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 2. okt. 2007, lk. 6; Vooremaa, 2. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Türi Rahvaleht, 5. okt. 2007, lk. 4; Sõnumitooja, 10. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 12. okt. 2007, lk. 11; Valgamaalane, 16. okt. 2007, lk. 2. Sotsiaalminister Maret Maripuu tutvustab kavandatavat muudatust pensionide indekseerimisel

  11. Tapkem poliitiline korrektsus juba eos / Priit Pullerits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pullerits, Priit, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    Sõnavabadust, vaba väitlust ja arvamuste paljusust ahistav poliitiline korrektsus on imbunud Euroopa kaudu ka Eesti mõttelaadi ja ajakirjandusse. Autori arvates peab just meedia poliitilise korrektsuse pealetungile vastu seisma, sest poliitiline korrektsus kehtestab üldsuses hoiaku, et probleemiks ei ole mitte probleem ise, vaid selle käsitlus ja kajastamine

  12. Pensionikasv juba uuest aastast / Maret Maripuu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maripuu, Maret, 1974-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Harju Ekspress, 28. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Võrumaa Teataja, 29. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Lääne Elu, 29. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Meie Maa, 1. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Harjumaa, 2. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Järva Teataja, 2. sept. 2007, lk. 2; Hiiu Leht, 2. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Sakala, 3. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Koit, 2. okt. 2007, lk. 6; Vooremaa, 2. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Türi Rahvaleht, 5. okt. 2007, lk. 4; Sõnumitooja, 10. okt. 2007, lk. 2; Virumaa Teataja, 12. okt. 2007, lk. 11; Valgamaalane, 16. okt. 2007, lk. 2. Sotsiaalminister Maret Maripuu tutvustab kavandatavat muudatust pensionide indekseerimisel

  13. Juba teine "1+1 = 1"

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    15. III Okupatsioonimuuseumis toimuva "1+1=1" teise ürituse kavast. Presentatsioonide õhtu keskendub konkreetse ruumikogemuse vahendamisele kunstis (helis, slaidi-installatsioonis, tänava-aktsioonis, skulptuuris, videos, filmis). Esinevad Cevdet Erek, Andres Lõo, Andres Kurg (arhitektuur ja interjöörid Marko Raadi filmis "Agent Sinikael") jt.

  14. Mixed infection of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) and other respiratory viruses in dromedary camels in Sudan, an abattoir study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Intisar Kamil; Ali, Yahia Hassan; AbdulRahman, Magdi Badawi; Mohammed, Zakia Abas; Osman, Halima Mohammed; Taha, Khalid Mohammed; Musa, Mohammed Zain; Khalafalla, AbdelMelik Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    This study was intended to determine the role played by peste des petits ruminants (PPR) in causing respiratory infections in camels and its association with other respiratory viruses. A total of 474 lung specimens showing pneumonia were collected from clinically healthy camels in slaughterhouses at five different areas in Sudan. Using immunocapture ELISA (IcELISA), 214 specimens (45.1 %) were found to be positive for PPR antigen. The highest prevalence was found in central Sudan (59.9 %) then northern Sudan (56.6 %) and eastern Sudan (26.6 %). Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV 3), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), and adenovirus were detected in 4.4, 2.9, 2.0, 9.0, and 1.3 % of the specimens, respectively. PPR antigen was found in about 50 % of specimens that showed positive result for other viral antigens. Twenty-five of 28 BVD, 15 of 16 PIV3, 8 of 12 RSV, 4 of 4 adenovirus, and 4 of 5 BHV-1 were found in association with other respiratory antigens. Results revealed the existence of PPRV infection in dromedary camels in Sudan and present evidence for mixed virus infection, suggesting that respiratory infections in camels might be exacerbated by PPRV.

  15. INCIDENCE AND TREATMENT OF CAMEL TRYPANOSOMOSIS (GUFFAR IN WEST OMDURMAN IN SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. BABEKER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of camel trypanosomosis (Guffar caused by Trypanosoma evansi (T.evansi in Omdurman west plain, western Sudan was surveyed using direct smear, Micro Hematocrit Centrfugation Technique (MHCT and Card Agglutination Test for T.evansi (CATT/T.evansi. In a total of 220 blood and serum samples, 115 (52.2% were positive by CATT, 72 (32.7% were positive by the MHCT and 31 (14.1% were positive by the wet smear preparation. Contingency tables and parcel Chi2 – test revealed that CATT/T.evansi was statistically the most sensitive technique for T.evansi followed by the MHCT and lastly the wet smear technique. The percentage packed cell volume (PCV % differed significantly between the diagnostic techniques used. Thus wet smear technique detected positive camels with the lowest PCV%. Camels infection rate with T.evansi did not differ significantly with sex. Treatment of rats infected with T.evansi isolates from Omdurman west area with quinapyramine pro-salt made by three different manufacturers revealed that Tryquine (Wockharde, India was the most effective in clearance of parasitaemia within two weeks. Biquin (Star, Pakistan and quinapyramine (Nicholas primal, India did not clear the parasitaemia in rats during the same period. The results are discussed in relation to studies leading to control of T.evansi in camels using chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis.

  16. Wild food trees in Eastern Nuba Mountains, Sudan: Use diversity and threatening factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Kamal-Eldin M. Salih

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 2010 in Eastern Nuba Mountains, Sudan to investigate ethnobotanical food and non-food uses of 16 wild edible fruit producing trees. Quantitative and qualitative information was collected from 105 individuals distributed in 7 villages using a semi-structured questionnaire. Also gathering of data was done using a number of rapid rural appraisal techniques, including key informant interviews, group discussion, secondary data sources and direct observations. Data was analysed using fidelity level and informant consensus factor methods to reveal the cultural importance of species and use category. Utilizations for timber products were found of most community importance than food usages, especially during cultivated food abundance. Balanites aegyptiaca, Ziziphus spina-christi and Tamarindus indica fruits were asserted as most preferable over the others and of high marketability in most of the study sites. Harvesting for timber-based utilizations in addition to agricultural expansion and overgrazing were the principal threats to wild edible food producing trees in the area. The on and off prevailing armed conflict in the area make it crucial to conserve wild food trees which usually play a more significant role in securing food supply during emergency times, especially in times of famine and wars. Increasing the awareness of population on importance of wild food trees and securing alternative income sources, other than wood products, is necessary in any rural development programme aiming at securing food and sustaining its resources in the area.

  17. Integrated ERT and Magnetic Surveys in a Mineralization Zone in Erkowit - Red Sea State - Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Kheiralla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focus on integrated geophysical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT imagesdefinelow resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. The study designates that correlation of magnetic and ERT anomalies with lithology are extremely useful in mineral exploration due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks.

  18. Recent environmental change and prehistoric human activity in Egypt and Northern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Kathleen

    2004-03-01

    This paper reviews the various Late Quaternary records that are available from western Egypt and northern Sudan, which includes more than 500 published radiocarbon dates and various sedimentary archives from local landscape components, including palaeolakes, soils, drainages (wadis), and archaeological sites. This palaeoenvironmental compilation frames the spatial and temporal context of local cultural activities when the region was most hospitable ˜9000-6000 BP; at this time, monsoonal weather influenced the portion of the African continental interior, creating enough convective rainfall for occasional surface water storage. In this part of the modern Sahara, rapid hydroclimatic changes play a key role in geomorphic evolution and resource availability. As 'watering holes' formed and dried up in the Early to Middle Holocene, Neolithic people developed various subsistence strategies, including opportunistic hunting of small animals (e.g. gazelle and hare), and food-related (e.g. wild sorghum, millet, and legumes) activities: gathering, plant cultivation and livestock-rearing. During its wettest phases during the 'monsoonal maximum,' the area was drought-prone, sustaining a meager steppe-shrub desert flora. Further desertification and aeolian deflation during the Middle and Late Holocene fostered technological innovation, migration and settlement, as well as the further development of agrarian communities and complex culture.

  19. URBAN PLANNING:A TOOL FOR URBAN POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN SUDAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elnazir RAMADAN; FENG Xue-zhi

    2004-01-01

    In the past few dacades, urbanization and urban growth have been increasing rapidly in many of the developing countries. It is expected that over 50% of the world population will live in cities in 2005. The growing trend indicates that as many as one fifth of all households still remain with housing tenure problems, which they try to solve through very expensive rentals, insecurity, socially and environmentally-hazardous squatting or unhealthy overcrowding, sometimes ending up with none at all. And hence, proper planning is necessary in urban development policies to improve human settlement managements in a sustainable way. This article has tried to handle urban poverty in the Sudan to a reasonable level of detail. It dealt with selected areas with regard to promotion of sustainable human settlement. The study managed to identity some recent progress in Sudanese human settlements, that is, however, still accompanied by numerous serious instances of decline in the urban environment, especially that of the greater Khartoum.Such instances of environmental deterioration are profiled and analyzed by the study with respect to all human settlement aspects of management, land-use, infrastructure, energy and transport. The paper's conclusion emphasized that improving all these aspects is of high priority.

  20. Prediction of nitrate contamination trends of groundwater in Al-Butana region of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmonem M. Abdellah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been documented that the increase of population in a confined area increases the risk of nitrate ion (NO3- contamination where modern sewage system is absent and traditional latrine holes are spread. In this study the NO3- levels of 209 well water samples belonging to previous construction analyses (CA and a total of 121 well water samples belonging to the current study analyses (SA in Al-Butana region of Sudan were statistically analyzed and located using the geographical information system (GIS. Cross comparison among the CA and the SA data were investigated and graphed. The GIS-map indicated that the nitrate ion levels > 50 mg/l were found in the central and southern part of the study area. Nitrate ion levels in the CA revealed that only 4 boreholes (1.91% exceeded the maximum permissible limit of 50 mg/l set by SSMO, WHO and EEC standards and guidelines while none of the investigated boreholes in the SA exceeded the maximum adopted level (MAL of 50 mg/l. Depicted trend graphs revealed that NO3- increases, gradually, over time almost in all parts of the study area as a result of the wide spread of traditional latrine holes and septic tanks system. Some boreholes are expected to reach the MAL within few years. The gradual increase in NO3- indicates that NO3- contamination may constitute a real forthcoming problem and threatens groundwater quality of the aquifer(s of the study area.

  1. Comparative bio-ecological studies among two species of Urentius lace bugs (Hemiptera: Tingidae in Sudan

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    Abdalla Abdelrahim Satti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the prevalent lace bugs in Sudan, Urentius hystricellus and Urentius euonymus are important pests of eggplant and pigeon pea, respectively. They attack alternative hosts, but some plants were reported as common hosts for both species. In fact, the identity of these pests and their actual host plants seems to be confusing. Therefore, the main objectives of this work were to; differentiate between such pest species based on certain morpho-biological investigations, verify their hosts’ ranges and study their intra-host distributions and seasonal trends through field surveys and experiments. The results showed clear morphological and biological differences among the two lace bug species. The durations of pre-imaginal stages of U. hystricellus were shorter than those of U. euonymus, while each pest took shorter durations in autumn as compared with winter season. Each pest has its own host range, and no shared hosts were detected, as believed. Hence, the mistaken hosts were corrected and new hosts were added. Such new records included Solanum incanum for U. hystricellus, and two hosts (Chrozophora plicata and Rhynchosia memnonia for U. euonymus. Counts of insects on either leaf sides have revealed variable distributions in different hosts. The seasonal trends of the two pests showed peak populations during autumn and summer seasons. In conclusion, the study made clear distinctions between U. hystricellus and U. euonymus, and gave supportive findings for ecological management.

  2. Evaluation of satellite based indices for primary production estimates in a sparse savanna in the Sudan

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    M. Sjöström

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the more frequently applied methods for integrating controls on primary production through satellite data is the Light Use Efficiency (LUE approach. Satellite indices such as the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI and the Shortwave Infrared Water Stress Index (SIWSI have previously shown promise as predictors of primary production in several different environments. In this study, we evaluate EVI and SIWSI derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite sensor against in-situ measurements from central Sudan in order to asses their applicability in LUE-based primary production modelling within a water limited environment. Results show a strong correlation between EVI against gross primary production (GPP, demonstrating the significance of EVI for deriving information on primary production with relatively high accuracy at similar areas. Evaluation of SIWSI however, reveal that the fraction of vegetation apparently is to low for the index to provide accurate information on canopy water content, indicating that the use of SIWSI as a predictor of water stress in satellite data-driven primary production modelling in similar semi-arid ecosystems is limited.

  3. Microbial quality of some vegetables sold in ED DueimTwon, Sudan.

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    Goja, Arafat Mohammed; Mahmoud, Mohamed Salih Osman

    2013-06-15

    This study was probably the first research carried out to investigate the microbiological quality of some vegetables sold in ED DueimTwon, Sudan. Four species of vegetables were used, Arugula (Eruca sativa), Mloukhia (Corchorus olitorius), Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Green pepper (Capsicum annuum). The samples were collected and examined according to standardized methods for total viable bacteria, coliforms and fecal coliform count. The average of total viable count ranged from 1.2 x 105-5.6 x 105 CFU mL(-1) for Arugula; 2.1 x 105-2.8 x 107 CFU mL(-1) for Mloukhia; 3.4 x 105-4.8 x 105 for Tomato and 2.3 x 105-8.0 x 106 CFU mL(-1) for Green pepper. However, the maximum level of total and fecal coliform were (93, 21); (28, 11); (75, 15) and (150, 20) MPN 100 mL(-1), respectively. Twelve bacteria belonging to five genera were isolated. Staphylococcus (33%) was the most predominant isolated followed by Enterobacteriaceae (25%), Bacillus (17%) and Streptococcus (17%). Micrococcus (8%) was the least dominant isolated. The results of microbial counts of these vegetable samples in this study indicate that, the agricultural practices, harvesting, hygiene, transporting and selling points are poor and therefore, the higher microbial load could be risked for public health.

  4. Methods for Extraction and Charaterization of Tannins from Some Acacia Species of Sudan

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    Isam Eldin Hussein Elgailani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is aimed to analyze and compare extraction methods of tannins from three common Acacia species of Sudan. The Acacia species selected were Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal and Acacia senegal. Bark samples from bulk collections of the three Acacia species were extracted with water, 80% methanol and 70% acetone. Two sets of extraction were made, one by boiling and a second by shaking the samples in the respective solvents for eight hours at room temperature. Although the amount of material extracted by these two procedures did not differ greatly (P > 0.05, 70% acetone was a more efficient solvent than either water or 80% methanol. The tannins of mature fruits extract of Acacia nilotica were identified by using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC, Ultraviolet and Infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons of absorption spectra and TLC of the reference tannins and some phenolics with that of Acacia nilotica extracts revealed the presence of both condensed and hydrolyzable tannins, since it consists of catechin, tannic and gallic acids. Catechin considered to be the phenolic precursor of condensed tannins. Hydrolysis of Acacia nilotica extract, tannic and gallic acids by butanolic-hydrochloric acid yielded gallic acid which is considered to be a chemical precursor of hydrolyzable tannins

  5. Review of research on the insect pests of kenaf and their control in the Sudan.

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    Eldin, N S; El-Amin, E M

    1981-01-01

    Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L., is grown in many parts of the Sudan as a fibre plant. During its various stages of growth, 17 different species of insects were detected, out of which only the cotton flea beetle Podagrica puncticollis Weise is of economic importance. The attack by this pest is most serious in the seedling stage; late sowings coupled with early light showers suffer the heaviest damage. In the leaves the beetles eat out round holes ('shot-hole effect'). The entire life cycle takes about 4 to 5 weeks, and about five generations are completed on the plant depending on the weather conditions. Cultural practices incorporating early sowing and eradication of the main host plants, Hibiscus esculentus and Abutilon spp., considerably reduce the size of the initial infestation. Chemicals tested as seed-dressing or sprays for the control of the beetle failed to give good results. However, granular insecticides showed a better performance and longer residual effect. Disyston 5G was effective for six weeks and also improved the general condition of the plants.

  6. Ultrasound findings in urinary shistosomaisis infection in school children in the Gezira State Central Sudan.

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    Elmadani, Ahmed E; Hamdoun, Anas O; Monis, Ahmed; Karamino, Nhashal E; Gasmelseed, Nagla

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasound findings of urinary schistosomiasis in Quran school (Khalwas) children in Gezira State Sudan, we studied all the students from two schools. A total of 103 boys were tested for urinary schistosomiasis using the urine filtration method. Schistosoma haematobium (S. haematobium) eggs were counted. Ultrasound was performed for all the positive subjects. Seventy-three (71%) subjects were positive for S. haematobium. The mean age was 11.3 ± 2.9 years. Sixty-six (90.4%) subjects showed urinary tract abnormalities. The findings revealed the following degrees of wall thickening: 53.0% mild, 18.2% moderate and 21.2% severe. Urinary bladder polyp(s) were noted in 43.3% (single) and 40.9% (multiple) of the subjects, and calcification of the bladder wall was observed in 7.6% subjects. Ureteric dilatation was noted in 38/73 (52.0%), while hydronephrosis was detected in 19/73 (26.3%). The vast majority of urinary tract schistomiasis lesions were in the urinary bladder. Ultrasound is a useful tool for identifying the morbidity of S. haematobium in endemic areas.

  7. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins and zearalenone in sorghum and sorghum products in Sudan.

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    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Ali, Salah Eldeen A

    2014-01-01

    This survey examined 60 samples of sorghum and 30 samples of sorghum products from three states (Khartoum, Kordofan and Gadarif) of Sudan for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), ochratoxin A and B (OTA, OTB) and zearalenone (ZEN), using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range 0.01-0.6 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-2.0 µg kg(-1), respectively. The frequency of contaminated samples with AFB1 from Khartoum, Gadarif and Kordofan state was 38.1%, 22.2% and 23.8%, respectively. Only two samples of sorghum from Khartoum state were contaminated with OTA (3.3%). Concentrations of OTA and OTB were low and may not cause problems. No sample of sorghum or sorghum products was contaminated with ZEN. Some sorghum samples contained AFB1 concentrations above the European Union regulatory limits. The highest contaminated samples were found in Khartoum state.

  8. Camel Owners And Perception Towards Management Practices At Butanaarea Gaderif State Sudan

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    Amir .M. Osman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current study was conducted at different locations in Butanaarea Gaderif state Sudan.60 questionnaires were used to collect information from camel owners .The study aims to assess perception of camel owners towards rangelands management practices .65 of camel owners rearing camels as life manner.The results revealed about 66 of the respondents are profession in camels rearing. On the other hand about 46 of camel owners adopted the nomadic system.Moreover 63 bred camel for milk and meat. The majority of camel owners kept breeding male camels from the same herd 90. the improvement methods of herd are based on three ways one of them is selection according to breeding history which practiced by 66.7 followed by productivity 25 and morphological features 8.3 . The improvement purposes focused on both milk meat about 78.3 .The concluded that most of the camels owner kept breeding male camels from the same herd. The priority of camel owners for improvement was a dual purpose meat and milk production.

  9. Mapping cancer disease using geographical information system (GIS) in Gezira State-Sudan.

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    Elebead, F M; Hamid, Amna; Hilmi, H S M; Galal, H

    2012-08-01

    In Sudan, the prevalence of cancer cases increased and cancer ranked as the major cause of death. Therefore, forming a cancer control program and putting strategic action plans into practice became an important matter for the health industry. The correlation of variations in different societies and environmental factors should be examined spatially with reliable data. The aim of this study is to produce base maps for implementation of cancer control program and cancer density maps through the utilization of GIS in health work. In this study, a database was built with the use of GIS to examine the distribution of cancer cases and maps relating to cancer events in allocation units were created. Cancer cases data registered from 1999 to 2008, by the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Biology and Treatment of Tumors--University of Gezira in El Gezira State, was used as case in this study. Using ArcGIS, the distribution of cancer cases were presented on cancer maps including allocation units and incidence values, which were calculated for each villages and locality region. According to the world standards, cancer rates were determined and examined by the spatial analysis power of GIS. The research concluded that cancer cases were increased, in some localities over the past 10 years (1999-2008). This can be related to many reasons including the existence of the Gezira Scheme were farmers used fertilizers and pesticides, as well as increasing health awareness among the citizens through the establishment of use in the state.

  10. Environmental Occurrence of Madurella mycetomatis, the Major Agent of Human Eumycetoma in Sudan

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    Ahmed, Abdalla; Adelmann, Daniel; Fahal, Ahmed; Verbrugh, Henri; Belkum, Alex van; Hoog, Sybren de

    2002-01-01

    Madurella mycetomatis is the main causative agent of human eumycetoma, a severe debilitating disease endemic in Sudan. It has been suggested that eumycetoma has a soil-borne or thorn prick-mediated origin. For this reason, efforts were undertaken to culture M. mycetomatis from soil samples (n = 43) and thorn collections (n = 35) derived from areas in which it is endemic. However, ribosomal sequencing data revealed that the black fungi obtained all belonged to other fungal species. In addition, we performed PCR-mediated detection followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for the identification of M. mycetomatis DNA from the environmental samples as well as biopsies from patients with mycetoma. In the case of the Sudanese soil samples, 17 out of 74 (23%) samples were positive for M. mycetomatis DNA. Among the thorn collections, 1 out of 22 (5%) was positive in the PCR. All PCR RFLP patterns clearly indicated the presence of M. mycetomatis. In contrast, 15 Dutch and English control soil samples were all negative. Clinically and environmentally obtained fungal PCR products share the same PCR RFLP patterns, suggesting identity, at least at the species level. These observations support the hypothesis that eumycetoma is primarily environmentally acquired and suggest that M. mycetomatis needs special conditions for growth, as direct isolation from the environment seems to be impossible. PMID:11880433

  11. Zinc and selenium levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus at Medani Hospital, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, H Z; Elbashir, L M; Hamdan, S Z; Elhassan, E M; Adam, I

    2014-10-01

    Gestational diabetes is a common medical disorder in pregnancy. There is a growing body of evidence of the association between zinc, selenium status and diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. A case-control study was conducted at Medani Hospital, Sudan, to compare zinc and selenium levels in pregnant women with gestational diabetes and normal pregnant women (controls). The two groups (31 in each arm) were well-matched in age, parity, gestational age, haemoglobin and body mass index. Zinc and selenium levels were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. There were no significant differences in the median (interquartile) zinc (498.9 [395-703] vs 486.4 [404-667] μg/l, p = 0.905) and selenium (164.4 [61-415] vs 204 [68-541] μg/l, p = 0.838) values between the two groups. There were no significant correlations between zinc and selenium, or between these trace elements and body mass index, gestational age and blood glucose levels.

  12. Analysis of farmers’ adaptation to weather extremes in West African Sudan Savanna

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    David Boansi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There have been recent incidences of weather extremes in the West African Sudan Savanna and farmers have responded through implementation of relevant adaptation strategies. For a deeper insight into farmers’ adaptation to climatic shocks, this study documents farmers’ perception of recent changes in the local climate, and identifies factors that influence the number and choice of strategies implemented. Interdependencies among strategies are explored and joint and marginal probabilities of adoption estimated. Upper East Ghana and Southwest Burkina Faso are used as the case study regions. These regions were selected due to extreme reliance of inhabitants on agriculture for sustenance, and their recent exposure to weather extremes. Through estimation of a Poisson regression and multivariate probit model to identify the major factors that influence the number and choice of strategies adopted, we discover that, limited access to credit, markets, and extension services, smaller cropland area, and low level of mechanization could impede effective adaptation to weather extremes. To enhance farmers’ adaptive capacity, policy makers and various stakeholders need to contribute towards improving farmers’ access to credit, markets, and extension services, and implement measures to promote mechanization.

  13. Homologous and heterologous protection of nonhuman primates by Ebola and Sudan virus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfield, Kelly L; Dye, John M; Wells, Jay B; Unfer, Robert C; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Swenson, Dana L; Bavari, Sina; Aman, M Javad

    2015-01-01

    Filoviruses cause hemorrhagic fever resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Several vaccine platforms that include multiple virus-vectored approaches and virus-like particles (VLPs) have shown efficacy in nonhuman primates. Previous studies have shown protection of cynomolgus macaques against homologous infection for Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) following a three-dose vaccine regimen of EBOV or MARV VLPs, as well as heterologous protection against Ravn Virus (RAVV) following vaccination with MARV VLPs. The objectives of the current studies were to determine the minimum number of vaccine doses required for protection (using EBOV as the test system) and then demonstrate protection against Sudan virus (SUDV) and Taï Forest virus (TAFV). Using the EBOV nonhuman primate model, we show that one or two doses of VLP vaccine can confer protection from lethal infection. VLPs containing the SUDV glycoprotein, nucleoprotein and VP40 matrix protein provide complete protection against lethal SUDV infection in macaques. Finally, we demonstrate protective efficacy mediated by EBOV, but not SUDV, VLPs against TAFV; this is the first demonstration of complete cross-filovirus protection using a single component heterologous vaccine within the Ebolavirus genus. Along with our previous results, this observation provides strong evidence that it will be possible to develop and administer a broad-spectrum VLP-based vaccine that will protect against multiple filoviruses by combining only three EBOV, SUDV and MARV components.

  14. Chemical composition of essential oil in dried fruits of Xylopia aethiopica from Sudan

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    Itmad Awad Elhassan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the dried fruit of Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Richard from Sudan was analyzed using combined GC-MS and 1HNMR. The main constituents identified in the oil were 4-terpineol (11.30%, ?-pinene (6.12%, ?-terpineol (6.02%, 1,8-cineole (5.42%, cis-?-copaene-8-ol (4.68%,13-epimanoyl oxide (4.62%, (+-spathulenol (4.26%, L-pinocarveol (3.26%, myrtenol (2.94%, o-cymene (2.82%, eudesma-1,3-dien-11-ol (2.35%, eudesma,4-11(13-dien-2-ol (2.32%, cumic alcohol (2.29%, Kaur-16-ene (2.21% and ?-pinene (1.88%. Fifteen compounds were identified for the first time in X. aethiopica essential oil, among which thujol, 1,5-epoxysalvial,4(14-ene, salvial-4(14-en-1-one and 13-epimanool were the major compounds.

  15. Dental plaque microbial profiles of children from Khartoum, Sudan, with congenital heart defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Ali, Hiba; Berggreen, Ellen; Nguyen, Daniel; Wahab Ali, Raouf; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Hasturk, Hatice; Mustafa, Manal

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Few studies have focused on the bacterial species associated with the deterioration of the dental and gingival health of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). The aims of this study were (1) to examine the dental plaque of children with CHD in order to quantify bacterial load and altered bacterial composition compared with children without CHD; and (2) to investigate the correlation between the level of caries and gingivitis and dental biofilm bacteria among those children. In this cross-sectional study, participants were children (3–12 years) recruited in Khartoum State, Sudan. A total of 80 CHD cases from the Ahmed Gasim Cardiac Centre and 80 healthy controls from randomly selected schools and kindergartens were included. Participants underwent clinical oral examinations for caries (decayed, missing, and filled teeth indices [DMFT] for primary dentition, and DMFT for permanent dentition), and gingivitis (simplified gingival index [GI]). Pooled dental biofilm samples were obtained from four posterior teeth using paper points. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection and quantification of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcussanguinis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization was used for the detection of 40 additional bacterial species. CHD cases had a significantly higher caries experience (DMFT = 4.1 vs. 2.3, p gingivitis (4.2 vs. 2.0; p gingivitis. PMID:28326155

  16. High prevalence of hypertension among an ethnic group in Sudan: implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Sufian K; Elsugud, Nada A; Bushara, Sarra O; Elmadhoun, Wadie M; Ahmed, Mohamed H

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is an emerging non-communicable disease in developing countries. Due to its silent nature and serious complications, active screening is essential in order to prevent complications. For instance, premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases could be prevented by the effective control of hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension among Nuba ethnic group living in Atbara city, north Sudan and to identify the associated risk factors. All consenting 500 adults from Nuba tribe who live in El Wihda District, Atbara were included. Blood pressure (BP) and body mass index were measured. Standard interviewing procedures were used to record medical history, socio-demographic data, and lifestyle characteristics. Among the 500 participants, females were 364 (72.8%) and males were 136 (27.2%). The overall prevalence of undiagnosed hypertension was 49.4% (30.8% stage 1 hypertension and 18.6% stage 2 hypertension). In addition, 41% of the population was having prehypertension. The significant risk factors for high BP were: male sex, age above 45 years, overweight, illiteracy, and alcohol consumption. Undiagnosed high BP is very common among Nuba ethnic group; therefore, active screening and early management are recommended to prevent complications.

  17. Homologous and heterologous protection of nonhuman primates by Ebola and Sudan virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Warfield

    Full Text Available Filoviruses cause hemorrhagic fever resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Several vaccine platforms that include multiple virus-vectored approaches and virus-like particles (VLPs have shown efficacy in nonhuman primates. Previous studies have shown protection of cynomolgus macaques against homologous infection for Ebola virus (EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV following a three-dose vaccine regimen of EBOV or MARV VLPs, as well as heterologous protection against Ravn Virus (RAVV following vaccination with MARV VLPs. The objectives of the current studies were to determine the minimum number of vaccine doses required for protection (using EBOV as the test system and then demonstrate protection against Sudan virus (SUDV and Taï Forest virus (TAFV. Using the EBOV nonhuman primate model, we show that one or two doses of VLP vaccine can confer protection from lethal infection. VLPs containing the SUDV glycoprotein, nucleoprotein and VP40 matrix protein provide complete protection against lethal SUDV infection in macaques. Finally, we demonstrate protective efficacy mediated by EBOV, but not SUDV, VLPs against TAFV; this is the first demonstration of complete cross-filovirus protection using a single component heterologous vaccine within the Ebolavirus genus. Along with our previous results, this observation provides strong evidence that it will be possible to develop and administer a broad-spectrum VLP-based vaccine that will protect against multiple filoviruses by combining only three EBOV, SUDV and MARV components.

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Peste des Petits Ruminants in sheep and goats in Sudan

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    Huyam Ahmed MohammedElamin Salih

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence and risk factors of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR were determined in unvaccinated sheep and goats in Sudan. A total of 480 sera samples were collected from the sheep (n=261 and goats (n=219 of Sennar, Gedarif, River Nile, and North Kordofan states during May, June, and October 2012 and February 2013, respectively. The sera were tested for the presence of antibodies against PPR using competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The overall seroprevalence of PPR was recorded as 45.6% (n=219/480; whereas, 57.2% in Sennar, 46.2% in Gedarif, 34.9% in River Nile and 39.8% in North Kordofan. A total of 14 risk factors were investigated using structured questionnaire, of which 9 were found to be associated with PPR seroprevalence (p≤0.05. Among the localities, Abozabad located in North Kordofan had the highest prevalence (91.7% of PPR followed by Barbar in River Nile. PPR seroprevalence was higher in pastoralists, animals housed in scarp fences, females, and Kwahla sheep. In addition, PPR was higher in the states that had high rainfall and wind-speed. The associated 9 factors were further analyzed multivariably by logistic regression, and finally 5 of them (states, localities, husbandry system, gender, and age were found to be associated with PPR seroprevalence (p≤0.05.

  19. Hydrogeochemical Facies of Hot Springs Water in Jebel Mara Mountain, Darfur, Western Sudan

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    Sami H. Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogeochemical assessment have been carried out to study the concentration ofNa+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-,SO42-, HCO3-, and other parameters like temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC, total hardness(T.H and total dissolved solid (TDS in ten hot springs water samples of some parts of Jebel Mara Mountain, Western Sudan. The results of water analysis revealed the average values of pH,electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids and total hardness, 9.46, 428 µS/cm, 667.2 mg/l and 102 mg/l respectively. The pH, TDS and EC variations confirmed light-salty nature of groundwater. It is also apparent from the results that, average concentrations of sodium, potassium, calcium,magnesium, chloride, sulphate,and bicarbonate ions were 43.6, 16.4, 53.7, 44, 37.5, 26.2, 428.5 mg/l, respectively. Chloride ion concentration ranged from (30 to 46 mg/l, sulphate ion concentration ranged from (10 to 40mg/l and carbonate concentration measured ranged from (215 to 800 mg/l.The results were found to be above the recommended values given by W.H.O., 1984 and warranty further recommended studies for the best improvement and utilization of springs water.

  20. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER, CARCASS VALUES OF SUDAN GOAT ECOTYPES FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ENERGY/PROTEIN

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    A.A. TAMEEM ELDAR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to assess the slaughter and carcass values of different Sudan goat ecotypes (Nubian, Desert and Swiss Nubian fed different levels of energy/protein. Nine male goat kids (2-3 months and average weight 9.23 kg of either ecotypes were used in a 3x3x3 arrangement, fed three experimental diets A (control, B and C, with varying energy: protein 1:0.14, 1:0.16 and 1:0.18 respectively. The study showed that Nubian goats possessed heavier slaughter weight; empty body weight, warm and cold carcass weight than the Desert and Swiss Nubian goats in the ration B and C. Dressing percentage on both basis (slaughter weight and empty body weight of Nubian were higher for ration B and C. Warm carcass weights of all goat ecotypes increased directly with energy: protein ratio. Highest weight of leg, loin, rack and neck and shoulder were recorded by Nubian goats for ration B and C. It was concluded that, all ecotype kids respond well to increasing energy protein levels. According to the results obtained local goat ecotypes, mainly Nubian goats, responded well to improved nutrition, therefore results obtained can be applied for the local goat ecotypes studied to encourage goat meat consumption and exportation.