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Sample records for jsc mars-1 martian

  1. Spectral properties of simulated impact glasses produced from martian soil analogue JSC Mars-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, L. V.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Hiroi, T.; Rout, S. S.; Baither, D.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Yakovlev, O. I.; Fisenko, A. V.; Semjonova, L. F.; Rusakov, V. S.; Khramov, D. A.; Zinovieva, N. G.; Arnold, G.; Pieters, C. M.

    2009-07-01

    To simulate the formation of impact glasses on Mars, an analogue of martian bright soil (altered volcanic soil JSC Mars-1) was melted at relevant oxygen fugacities using a pulsed laser and a resistance furnace. Reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ and in some cases formation of nanophase Fe0 in the glasses were documented by Mössbauer spectroscopy and TEM studies. Reflectance spectra for several size fractions of the JSC Mars-1 sample and the glasses were acquired between 0.3 and 25 μm. The glasses produced from the JSC Mars-1 soil show significant spectral variability depending on the method of production and the cooling rate. In general, they are dark and less red in the visible compared to the original JSC Mars-1 soil. Their spectra do not have absorption bands due to bound water and structural OH, have positive spectral slopes in the near-infrared range, and show two broad bands centered near 1.05 and 1.9 μm, typical of glasses rich in ferrous iron. The latter bands and low albedo partly mimic the spectral properties of martian dark regions, and may easily be confused with mafic materials containing olivine and low-Ca pyroxene. Due to their disordered structures and vesicular textures, the glasses show relatively weak absorption features from the visible to the thermal infrared. These weak absorption bands may be masked by the stronger bands of mafic minerals. Positive near-infrared spectral slopes typical of fresh iron-bearing impact or volcanic glasses may be masked either by oxide/dust coatings or by aerosols in the Mars' atmosphere. As a result, impact glasses may be present on the surface of Mars in significant quantities that have been either misidentified as other phases or masked by phases with stronger infrared features. Spectrometers with sufficient spatial resolution and wavelength coverage may detect impact glasses at certain locations, e.g., in the vicinity of fresh impact craters. Such dark materials are usually interpreted as accumulations of mafic

  2. Isolation and Identification of Microorganisms in JSC Mars-1 Simulant Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Claudia; Garza, Elizabeth; Gulati, Poonam; Morris, Penny A.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms were isolated and identified in samples of JSC Mars-1, a Mars simulant soil. JSC Mars-1 is an altered volcanic ash from a cinder cone south of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. This material was chosen because of its similarity to the Martian soil in physical and chemical composition. The soil was obtained by excavating 40 cm deep in a vegetated area to prevent contamination. In previous studies, bacteria from this soil has been isolated by culturing on different types of media, including minimal media, and using biochemical techniques for identification. Isolation by culturing is successful only for a small percentage of the population. As a result, molecular techniques are being employed to identify microorganisms directly from the soil without culturing. In this study, bacteria were identified by purifying and sequencing the DNA encoding the 16s ribosomal RNA (16s rDNA). This gene is well conserved in species and demonstrates species specificity. In addition, biofilm formation, an indicator of microbial life, was studied with this soil. Biofilms are microbial communities consisting of microbes and exopolysaccharides secreted by them. This is a protective way of life for the microbes as they are more resistant to environmental pressures.

  3. Characterization and Glass Formation of JSC-1 Lunar and Martian Soil Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Subhayu

    2008-01-01

    The space exploration mission of NASA requires long duration presence of human being beyond the low earth orbit (LEO), especially on Moon and Mars. Developing a human habitat or colony on these planets would require a diverse range of materials, whose applications would range from structural foundations, (human) life support, (electric) power generation to components for scientific instrumentation. A reasonable and cost-effective approach for fabricating the materials needed for establishing a self-sufficient human outpost would be to primarily use local (in situ) resources on these planets. Since ancient times, glass and ceramics have been playing a vital role on human civilization. A long term project on studying the feasibility of developing glass and ceramic materials using Lunar and Martian soil simulants (JSC-1) as developed by Johnson Space Center has been undertaken. The first step in this on-going project requires developing a data base on results that fully characterize the simulants to be used for further investigations. The present paper reports characterization data of both JSC-1 Lunar and JSC Mars-1 simulants obtained up to this time via x-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis (DTA, TGA) and chemical analysis. The critical cooling rate for glass formation for the melts of the simulants was also measured in order to quantitatively assess the glass forming tendency of these melts. The importance of the glasses and ceramics developed using in-situ resources for constructing human habitats on Moon or Mars is discussed.

  4. Geopolymers from lunar and Martian soil simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiadis, Alessio; Alberini, Federico; Meyer, Marit E.

    2017-01-01

    This work discusses the geopolymerization of lunar dust simulant JSC LUNAR-1A and Martian dust simulant JSC MARS-1A. The geopolymerization of JSC LUNAR-1A occurs easily and produces a hard, rock-like, material. The geopolymerization of JSC MARS-1A requires milling to reduce the particle size. Tests were carried out to measure, for both JSC LUNAR-1A and JSC MARS-1A geopolymers, the maximum compressive and flexural strengths. In the case of the lunar simulant, these are higher than those of conventional cements. In the case of the Martian simulant, they are close to those of common building bricks.

  5. Elemental Analysis of the JSC Mars-1 Soil Simulant using Laser Ablation and Magnetic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasab, Ahab S.

    2005-01-01

    Future long-duration missions to Mars require capabilities in terms of manufacture of structures and chemical compounds essential for human habitat and exploratory activities. Currently, it is not feasible to import all the required raw and finished materials from Earth. In fact, essential items such as structural members as well as various gases for human consumption and material processing need to be largely extracted from the available planetary resources. The resources on Mars include its soil and rocks, its atmosphere and the polar caps. Mars atmosphere consists of 95% carbon dioxide and the balance contains small percentages of oxygen, nitrogen, and argon. The Mars regolith contains many metal oxides in various mineralogical forms. Presently, Martian soil samples are not available. However, a closely matched Martian soil simulant developed by the Johnson Space Center has been available for scientific research and engineering studies. The chemical makeup of this simulant is compared with the data from Viking Lander and Path Finder missions are shown..

  6. Experimental Study of Water Exchange Between Regolith and Atmosphere Under Martian Conditions: Thermodynamics and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerol, A.; Schmitt, B.; Brissaud, O.

    2008-03-01

    We have designed a facility to measure near-infrared reflectance spectra of martian regolith analogs under martian surface temperature and humidity. We present adsorption isotherm and exchange kinetics between water and JSC Mars-1 regolith simulant.

  7. Gas flow within Martian soil: experiments on granular Knudsen compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Marc; Kelling, Thorben; Teiser, Jens; Wurm, Gerhard

    2017-09-01

    Thermal creep efficiently transports gas through Martian soil. To quantify the Martian soil pump we carried out laboratory analog experiments with illuminated granular media at low ambient pressure. We used samples of 1 μm to 5 μm SiO2 (quartz), basalt with a broad size distribution between 63 μm and 125 μm, and JSC-Mars 1A with a size fraction from 125 μm to 250 μm. The mean ambient pressure was varied between 50 Pa and 9000 Pa. Illumination was varied between 100 W/m2 and 6700 W/m2. The experiments confirm strong directed gas flows within granular and dusty soil and local sub-soil pressure variations. We find that Martian soil pumps can be described with existing models of thermal creep for capillaries, using the average grain size and light flux related temperatures.

  8. Water sorption on martian regolith analogs: Thermodynamics and near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerol, Antoine; Schmitt, Bernard; Beck, Pierre; Brissaud, Olivier

    2009-11-01

    The near-infrared reflectance spectra of the martian surface present strong absorption features attributed to hydration water present in the regolith. In order to characterize the relationships between this water and atmospheric vapor and decipher the physical state of water molecules in martian regolith analogs, we designed and built an experimental setup to measure near-IR reflectance spectra under martian atmospheric conditions. Six samples were studied that cover part of the diversity of Mars surface mineralogy: a hydrated ferric oxide (ferrihydrite), two igneous samples (volcanic tuff, and dunite sand), and three potential water rich soil materials (Mg-sulfate, smectite powder and a palagonitic soil, the JSC Mars-1 regolith stimulant). Sorption and desorption isotherms were measured at 243 K for water vapor pressure varying from 10 -5 to ˜0.3 mbar (relative humidity: 10 -4 to 75%). These measurements reveal a large diversity of behavior among the sample suite in terms of absolute amount of water adsorbed, shape of the isotherm and hysteresis between the adsorption and desorption branches. Simultaneous in situ spectroscopic observations permit a detailed analysis of the spectral signature of adsorbed water and also point to clear differences between the samples. Ferric (oxy)hydroxides like ferrihydrite or other phases present in palagonitic soils are very strong water adsorbent and may play an important role in the current martian water cycle by allowing large exchange of water between dust-covered regions and atmosphere at diurnal and seasonal scales.

  9. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, C M; Scurtu, A; Toader, D; Banu, N

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  10. Experimental demonstration of Martian soil simulant removal from a surface using a pulsed plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticoş, C. M.; Scurtu, A.; Toader, D.; Banu, N.

    2015-03-01

    A plasma jet produced in a small coaxial plasma gun operated at voltages up to 2 kV and working in pure carbon dioxide (CO2) at a few Torr is used to remove Martian soil simulant from a surface. A capacitor with 0.5 mF is charged up from a high voltage source and supplies the power to the coaxial electrodes. The muzzle of the coaxial plasma gun is placed at a few millimeters near the dusty surface and the jet is fired parallel with the surface. Removal of dust is imaged in real time with a high speed camera. Mars regolith simulant JSC-Mars-1A with particle sizes up to 5 mm is used on different types of surfaces made of aluminium, cotton fabric, polyethylene, cardboard, and phenolic.

  11. Martian Analogues Emissivity Spectra From the Berlin Emissivity Database (BED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2006-12-01

    Remote sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to bodies in the solar system include in their payload instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analog materials is needed. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulphur, and Martian analogue minerals, measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 microns as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from 0 to 250 microns. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Bruker IFS 88), purged with dry air and equipped with a cooled detector (MCT). All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm-1. We present here the results of our analysis on well knew and characterized Martian analogue minerals: JSC Mars-1, Salten Skov, and Palagonite from Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We are currently working to upgrade our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80v) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 microns, even in a vacuum environment.

  12. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Coronene in the Presence of Perchlorate for In Situ Chemical Analysis of Martian Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaig, Heather C.; Stockton, Amanda; Crilly, Candice; Chung, Shirley; Kanik, Isik; Lin, Ying; Zhong, Fang

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of the organic compounds present in the martian regolith is essential for understanding the history and habitability of Mars, as well as studying the signs of possible extant or extinct life. To date, pyrolysis, the only technique that has been used to extract organic compounds from the martian regolith, has not enabled the detection of unaltered native martian organics. The elevated temperatures required for pyrolysis extraction can cause native martian organics to react with perchlorate salts in the regolith and possibly result in the chlorohydrocarbons that have been detected by in situ instruments. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction is an alternative to pyrolysis that may be capable of delivering unaltered native organic species to an in situ detector. In this study, we report the SCCO2 extraction of unaltered coronene, a representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), from martian regolith simulants, in the presence of 3 parts per thousand (ppth) sodium perchlorate. PAHs are a class of nonpolar molecules of astrobiological interest and are delivered to the martian surface by meteoritic infall. We also determined that the extraction efficiency of coronene was unaffected by the presence of perchlorate on the regolith simulant, and that no sodium perchlorate was extracted by SCCO2. This indicates that SCCO2 extraction can provide de-salted samples that could be directly delivered to a variety of in situ detectors. SCCO2 was also used to extract trace native fluorescent organic compounds from the martian regolith simulant JSC Mars-1, providing further evidence that SCCO2 extraction may provide an alternative to pyrolysis to enable the delivery of unaltered native organic compounds to an in situ detector on a future Mars rover.

  13. TSGC and JSC Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Humberto

    2013-01-01

    NASA and the SGCs are, by design, intended to work closely together and have synergistic Vision, Mission, and Goals. The TSGC affiliates and JSC have been working together, but not always in a concise, coordinated, nor strategic manner. Today we have a couple of simple ideas to present about how TSGC and JSC have started to work together in a more concise, coordinated, and strategic manner, and how JSC and non-TSG Jurisdiction members have started to collaborate: Idea I: TSGC and JSC Technical Alignment Idea II: Concept of Clusters.

  14. Kinetics of water adsorption on minerals and the breathing of the Martian regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P.; Pommerol, A.; Schmitt, B.; Brissaud, O.

    2010-10-01

    Several observations of the total amount of water vapor in Mars atmosphere display diurnal variations. A possible explanation is an atmosphere/surface coupling that occurs through H2O exchange with the regolith, where adsorbed water molecules have been proposed as a consequent water reservoir. In order to test this hypothesis, experimental laboratory measurements of adsorption isotherms are needed together with adsorption kinetics measurements. Following our previous measurements of the adsorption isotherms of a series of Mars surface analog materials, we report here on kinetics measurements on the same samples at a temperature of 243 K (volcanic tuff, dunite, ferrihydrite, smectite, JSC-Mars1). We observed that even for thin samples (1 mm), diffusion through the sample might influence the adsorption process and significant caution is required to infer kinetics parameters of strongly adsorbing samples. The kinetics parameters kd and dka/dP were extracted following the Langmuir theory. Results show that adsorption is fast but not instantaneous with regard to the diurnal time scale (kd = 10-2-10-3 s-1, dka/dP = 10-3-10-4 Pa-1 s-1). Large variations are found between the different samples, which suggest a possible geological control on the amount of exchangeable water between the regolith and the atmosphere. We estimate the impact of a noninstantaneous kinetics on the diurnal water vapor cycle by calculating the maximum amount of exchangeable water. We found that a significant amount of H2O can be trapped within the regolith, even in weakly adsorbing analog materials. The similarity in adsorption properties between the JSC-Mars1 and ferrihydrite samples suggests that the adsorption properties of the latter are controlled by the presence of iron oxyhydroxide. These materials have strong adsorption capacities, and their presence on the Martian surface might explain the observed spatial correlation between the average surface humidity and the abundance of surface dust.

  15. Center Innovation Fund: JSC CIF (also includes JSC IRAD) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JSC provides and applies its preeminent capabilities in science and technology to develop, operate, and integrate human exploration missions.  The Center...

  16. Martian Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Independent, Internet savvy and with their own Martian language, China’s post-90s generation is rewriting the rules of behavior september 14 was the 18th birth-day of Zhang Zhaoyu from Sichuan Province. He is a new student at Peking University,

  17. JSC Design and Procedural Standards, JSC-STD-8080

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punch, Danny T.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides design and procedural requirements appropriate for inclusion in specifications for any human spaceflight program, project, spacecraft, system, or end item. The term "spacecraft" as used in the standards includes launch vehicles, orbital vehicles, non-terrestrial surface vehicles, and modules. The standards are developed and maintained as directed by Johnson Space Center (JSC) Policy Directive JPD 8080.2, JSC Design and Procedural Standards for Human Space Flight Equipment. The Design and Procedural Standards contained in this manual represent human spacecraft design and operational knowledge applicable to a wide range of spaceflight activities. These standards are imposed on JSC human spaceflight equipment through JPD 8080.2. Designers shall comply with all design standards applicable to their design effort.

  18. Martian Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image of Martian soil was taken by the Phoenix Lander's atomic force microscope on Sol 74 of the mission, which began on May 25, 2008. This image of a flat, smooth-surfaced particle is consistent with the appearance of soil from Earth containing the mineral phyllosilicate. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  19. Laboratory experiments to explore the sediment transport capacity of carbon dioxide sublimation under martian conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvest, Matthew; Conway, Susan; Patel, Manish; Dixon, John; Barnes, Adam

    2015-04-01

    Every spring, the solid carbon dioxide deposited over the martian high latitudes sublimates. Several, unusual surface features, including dark spots and flows on sand dunes, as well as recent activity in martian gullies, have been associated with this CO2 sublimation. Water and/or brines have also been proposed as potential agents for these events, but the timing of these phenomena suggest CO2 sublimation is more likely. However, the exact mechanism by which CO2 sublimation moves sediment is not fully understood, and this understanding is required to validate the CO2 hypothesis. Here we present the results of the first ever laboratory simulations of this process under martian conditions, and show that significant quantities of loose sediment can be transported. The centrepiece of the apparatus is a 1m diameter, 2m long Mars simulation chamber, housed at The Open University, UK. JSC Mars-1A regolith simulant was formed into a slope, inside a box, ~30 cm long, 23 cm wide by 12 cm deep. The box is constructed of coiled, copper tubing to allow cooling of the regolith by liquid nitrogen. The experimental procedure consists of four stages: 1) establishment of a dry atmosphere in the chamber, 2) cooling the regolith sufficiently to support condensation of CO2 frost at reduced pressure, 3) introduction of cooled CO2 gas above the regolith to deposit as frost, and 4) video recording the surface evolution under radiant heating (~100 mins). Two High Definition digital video cameras were mounted above the box and image pairs taken from the videos were then used to create digital elevation models (DEMs) in Agisoft Photoscan at regular intervals. In our initial experiments we performed four experimental runs where the slope was set at or near the angle of repose (~30°). In each case we observed mass wasting events triggered by the sublimation of the deposited CO2 over the whole duration of the insolation. The highest levels of activity occurred in the first third of the run

  20. Chemical Weathering Records of Martian Soils Preserved in the Martian Meteorite EET79001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.

    2004-01-01

    Impact-melt glasses, rich in Martian atmospheric gases, contain Martian soil fines (MSF) mixed with other coarse-grained regolith fractions which are produced during impact bombardment on Mars surface. An important characteristic of the MSF fraction is the simultaneous enrichment of felsic component accompanied by the depletion of mafic component relative to the host phase in these glasses. In addition, these glasses yield large sulfur abundances due to the occurrence of secondary mineral phases such as sulfates produced during acid-sulfate weathering of the regolith material near the Martian surface. Sulfurous gases released into atmosphere by volcanoes on Mars are oxidized to H2SO4 which deposit back on the surface of Mars as aerosol particles. Depending on the water availability, sulfuric acids dissolve into solutions which aggressively decompose the Fe-Mg silicates in the Martian regolith. During chemical weathering, structural elements such as Fe, Mg and Ca (among others) are released into the transgressing solutions. These solutions leach away the soluble components of Mg, Ca and Na, leaving behind insoluble iron as Fe3(+) hydroxysulfate mixed with poorly crystalline hydroxide- precipitates under oxidizing conditions. In this study, we focus on the elemental distribution of FeO and SO3 in the glass veins of EET79001, 507 sample, determined by Electron Microprobe and FE SEM measurements at JSC. This glass sample is an aliquot of a bigger glass inclusion ,104 analysed by where large concentrations of Martian atmospheric noble gases are found.

  1. Improved features of MARS 1.4 and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Don; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    MARS 1.4 code has been developed as a basic code frame for multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis of light water reactor transients. This report describes the newly improved features of MARS 1.4 and their verification results. The new features of MARS 1.4 include the implementation of point kinetics model in the 3D module, the coupled heat structure model, the extension of control functions and input check functions in the 3D module, the implementation of new features of RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 -version, the addition of automatic initialization function for fuel 3-D analysis and the unification of material properties and forcing functions, etc. These features have been implemented in the code in order to extend the code modeling capability and to enhance the user friendliness. Among these features, this report describes the implementation of new features of RELAP5/MOD3.3.3-version such as reflood model and critical heat flux models, etc., the automatic initialization function, the unification of material properties and forcing functions and the other code improvements and error corrections, which were not reported in the previous report. Through the verification calculations, the new features of MARS 1.4 have been verified well implemented in the code. In conclusion, MARS 1.4 code has been developed and verified as implemented in the code. In conclusion, MARS 1.4 code has been developed and verified as a multi-dimensional system thermal-hydraulic analysis tool. And, it can play its role as a basic code frame for the future development of a multi-purpose consolidated code, MARS 2.x, for coupled analysis of multi-dimensional system thermal hydraulics, 3D core kinetics, core CHF and containment as well as for further improvement of thermal-hydraulic and numerical models. 4 refs., 10 figs. (Author)

  2. Investigations in Martian Sedimentology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate and discuss the Martian surface. This report was done in specific tasks. The tasks were: characterization of Martian fluids and chemical sediments; mass wasting and ground collapse in terrains of volatile-rich deposits; Mars Rover terrestrial field investigations; Mars Pathfinder operations support; and Martian subsurface water instrument.

  3. The effects of combined application of inorganic Martian dust simulant and carbon dots on glutamate transport rat brain nerve terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasiya; Borysov, Arseniy; Pastukhov, Artem; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Dudarenko, Marina

    2016-07-01

    During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the central nervous system (Oberdorster et al., 2004). Recently, the research team of this study found the minor fractions of nanoparticles with the size ~ 50 -60 nm in Lunar and Martian dust stimulants (JSC-1a and JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin), whereas the average size of the simulants was 1 mm and 4mm, respectively (Krisanova et al., 2013). Also, the research team of this study discovered new phenomenon - the neuromodulating and neurotoxic effect of carbon nano-sized particles - Carbon dots (C-dots), originated from ash of burned carbon-containing product (Borisova et al, 2015). The aims of this study was to analyse acute effects of upgraded stimulant of inorganic Martian dust derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, carbon dots, on the key characteristic of synaptic neurotransmission. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogue resulted in a significant decrease in transporter-mediated uptake of L-[14C]glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter) by isolated rat brain nerve terminals. The ambient level of the neurotransmitter in the preparation of nerve terminals increased in the presence of carbon dot-contained Martian dust analogue. These effects were associated with action of carbon component of the upgraded Martian dust stimulant but not with its inorganic constituent.

  4. Martian Analogue Sample Characterization and Spectral Library Development at the Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.

    2002-01-01

    An extensive collection of Martian analogue samples housed at the Johnson Space Center is the focus of ongoing research by the JSC Mars soil genesis group and their collaborators. Because the major element composition of Martian meteorites and in situ analyses of Martian soils and rocks indicate that Mars is predominantly an iron-rich basaltic world, the focus of active sample collection and analysis is basaltic materials and their hydrolytic (both aqueous and hydrothermal) and sulfatetic alteration products. Described below are the scope of the JSC Mars analogue sample collection, the characterization process, and plans to incorporate the data into spectral libraries for the Mars 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Mars 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) CRISM missions.

  5. Center Independent Research & Developments: JSC IRAD Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JSC provides and applies its preeminent capabilities in science and technology to develop, operate, and integrate human exploration missions.  The center...

  6. Hydrogen in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.; Hervig, R.; Irving, T.

    2017-01-01

    Most volatile studies of Mars have targeted its surface via spacecraft and rover data, and have evidenced surficial water in polar caps and the atmosphere, in the presence of river channels, and in the detection of water bearing minerals. The other focus of Martian volatile studies has been on Martian meteorites which are all from its crust. Most of these studies are on hydrous phases like apatite, a late-stage phase, i.e. crystallizing near the end of the differentiation sequence of Martian basalts and cumulates. Moreover, calculating the water content of the magma a phosphate crystallized from is not always possible, and yet is an essential step to estimate how much water was present in a parent magma and its source. Water, however, is primarily dissolved in the interiors of differentiated planets as hydrogen in lattice defects of nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) of the crust and mantle. This hydrogen has tremendous influence, even in trace quantities, on a planet's formation, geodynamics, cooling history and the origin of its volcanism and atmosphere as well as its potential for life. Studies of hydrogen in nominally anhydrous phases of Martian meteorites are rare. Measuring water contents and hydrogen isotopes in well-characterized nominally anhydrous minerals of Martian meteorites is the goal of our study. Our work aims at deciphering what influences the distribution and origin of hydrogen in Martian minerals, such as source, differentiation, degassing and shock.

  7. A Martian Air Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate an entirely new battery chemistry by developing A Martian Air Battery. Specifically the project will explore the concept of a Martian...

  8. Martian Environment Electrostatic Precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Michael Owen

    2016-01-01

    As part of the planned manned mission to Mars, NASA has noticed that shipping oxygen as a part of life support to keep the astronauts alive continuously is overly expensive, and impractical. As such, noting that the Martian atmosphere is 95.37% CO2, NASA chemists noted that one could obtain oxygen from the Martian atmosphere. The plan, as part of a larger ISRU (in-situ resource utilization) initiative, would extract water from the regolith, or the Martian soil which can be electrolyzed by solar panel produced voltage into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can then be used in the Sabatier reaction with carbon dioxide to produce methane and water producing a net reaction that does not lose water and outputs methane and oxygen for use as rocket fuel and breathing.

  9. JSC Pharmacy Services for Remote Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Paul S.; Bayuse, Tina

    2005-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center Pharmacy began operating in March of 2003. The pharmacy serves in two main capacities: to directly provide medications and services in support of the medical clinics at the Johnson Space Center, physician travel kits for NASA flight surgeon staff, and remote operations, such as the clinics in Devon Island, Star City and Moscow; and indirectly provide medications and services for the International Space Station and Space Shuttle medical kits. Process changes that occurred and continued to evolve in the advent of the installation of the new JSC Pharmacy, and the process of stocking medications for each of these aforementioned areas will be discussed. Methods: The incorporation of pharmacy involvement to provide services for remote operations and supplying medical kits was evaluated. The first step was to review the current processes and work the JSC Pharmacy into the existing system. The second step was to provide medications to these areas. Considerations for the timeline of expiring medications for shipment are reviewed with each request. The third step was the development of a process to provide accountability for the medications. Results: The JSC Pharmacy utilizes a pharmacy management system to document all medications leaving the pharmacy. Challenges inherent to providing medications to remote areas were encountered. A process has been designed to incorporate usage into the electronic medical record upon return of the information from these remote areas. This is an evolving program and several areas have been identified for further improvement.

  10. JSC Search System Usability Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza, David; Berndt, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The advanced nature of "search" has facilitated the movement from keyword match to the delivery of every conceivable information topic from career, commerce, entertainment, learning... the list is infinite. At NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC ) the Search interface is an important means of knowledge transfer. By indexing multiple sources between directorates and organizations, the system's potential is culture changing in that through search, knowledge of the unique accomplishments in engineering and science can be seamlessly passed between generations. This paper reports the findings of an initial survey, the first of a four part study to help determine user sentiment on the intranet, or local (JSC) enterprise search environment as well as the larger NASA enterprise. The survey is a means through which end users provide direction on the development and transfer of knowledge by way of the search experience. The ideal is to identify what is working and what needs to be improved from the users' vantage point by documenting: (1) Where users are satisfied/dissatisfied (2) Perceived value of interface components (3) Gaps which cause any disappointment in search experience. The near term goal is it to inform JSC search in order to improve users' ability to utilize existing services and infrastructure to perform tasks with a shortened life cycle. Continuing steps include an agency based focus with modified questions to accomplish a similar purpose

  11. New Martian Meteorite Is One of the Most Oxidized Found to Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Peslier, Anne; Lapen, Thomas J.; Shafer, John T.; Brandon, Alan D.; Irving, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    As of 2013, about 60 meteorites from the planet Mars have been found and are being studied. Each time a new Martian meteorite is found, a wealth of new information comes forward about the red planet. The most abundant type of Martian meteorite is a shergottite; its lithologies are broadly similar to those of Earth basalts and gabbros; i.e., crustal igneous rocks. The entire suite of shergottites is characterized by a range of trace element, isotopic ratio, and oxygen fugacity values that mainly reflect compositional variations of the Martian mantle from which these magmas came. A newly found shergottite, NWA 5298, was the focus of a study performed by scientists within the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in 2012. This sample was found in Morocco in 2008. Major element analyses were performed in the electron microprobe (EMP) laboratory of ARES at JSC, while the trace elements were measured at the University of Houston by laser inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). A detailed analysis of this stone revealed that this meteorite is a crystallized magma that comes from the enriched end of the shergottite spectrum; i.e., trace element enriched and oxidized. Its oxidation comes in part from its mantle source and from oxidation during the magma ascent. It represents a pristine magma that did not mix with any other magma or see crystal accumulation or crustal contamination on its way up to the Martian surface. NWA 5298 is therefore a direct, albeit evolved, melt from the Martian mantle and, for its lithology (basaltic shergottite), it represents the oxidized end of the shergottite suite. It is thus a unique sample that has provided an end-member composition for Martian magmas.

  12. Martian soil component in impact glasses in a Martian meteorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M N; Borg, L E; McKay, D S; Wentworth, S J

    1999-11-01

    Chemical compositions of impact melt glass veins, called Lithology C (Lith C) in Martian meteorite EET79001 were determined by electron microprobe analysis. A large enrichment of S, and significant enrichments of Al, Ca, and Na were observed in Lith C glass compared to Lithology A (Lith A). The S enrichment is due to mixing of plagioclase- enriched Lith A material with Martian soil, either prior to or during impact on Mars. A mixture of 87% Lith A, 7% plagioclase, and 6% Martian soil reproduces the average elemental abundances observed in Lith C. Shock melting of such a mixture of plagioclase-enriched, fine-grained Lith A host rock and Martian soil could yield large excesses of S (observed in this study) and Martian atmospheric noble gases (found by Bogard et al., 1983) in Lith C. These mixing proportions can be used to constrain the elemental abundance of phosphorus in Martian soil.

  13. A Martian acoustic anemometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Don; Schindel, David W; Tarr, Steve; Dissly, Richard W

    2016-08-01

    An acoustic anemometer for use on Mars has been developed. To understand the processes that control the interaction between surface and atmosphere on Mars, not only the mean winds, but also the turbulent boundary layer, the fluxes of momentum, heat and molecular constituents between surface and atmosphere must be measured. Terrestrially this is done with acoustic anemometers, but the low density atmosphere on Mars makes it challenging to adapt such an instrument for use on Mars. This has been achieved using capacitive transducers and pulse compression, and was successfully demonstrated on a stratospheric balloon (simulating the Martian environment) and in a dedicated Mars Wind Tunnel facility. This instrument achieves a measurement accuracy of ∼5 cm/s with an update rate of >20 Hz under Martian conditions.

  14. Demonstrating Martian Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Pirkola, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    The surface gravity on Mars is smaller than the surface gravity on Earth, resulting in longer falling times. This effect can be simulated on Earth by taking advantage of air resistance and buoyancy, which cause low density objects to fall slowly enough to approximate objects falling on the surface of Mars. We describe a computer simulation based on an experiment that approximates Martian gravity, and verify our numerical results by performing the experiment.

  15. Cartography for Martian Trojans

    CERN Document Server

    Tabachnik, S A

    1999-01-01

    The last few months have seen the discovery of a second Martian Trojan (1998 VF31), as well as two further possible candidates (1998 QH56 and 1998 SD4). Together with the previously discovered Martian satellite 5261 Eureka, these are the only known possible solar system Trojan asteroids not associated with Jupiter. Here, maps of the locations of the stable Trojan trajectories of Mars are presented. These are constructed by integrating an ensemble of in-plane and inclined orbits in the vicinity of the Martian Lagrange points for between 25 million and 60 million years. The survivors occupy a band of inclinations between 15 degrees and 40 degrees and longitudes between 240 degrees and 330 degrees at the L5 Lagrange point. Around the L4 point, stable Trojans inhabit two bands of inclinations (15 degrees < i < 30 degrees and 32 degrees < i < 40 degrees) with longitudes restricted between 25 degrees and 120 degrees. Both 5261 Eureka and 1998 VF31 lie deep within one of the stable zones, which suggests ...

  16. Enrichment of Inorganic Martian Dust Simulant with Carbon Component can Provoke Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Dudarenko, Marina; Borysov, Arsenii; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasia; Borisova, Tatiana

    2017-02-01

    Carbon is the most abundant dust-forming element in the interstellar medium. Tremendous amount of meteorites containing plentiful carbon and carbon-enriched dust particles have reached the Earth daily. National Institute of Health panel accumulates evidences that nano-sized air pollution components may have a significant impact on the central nervous system (CNS) in health and disease. During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the CNS. Based on above facts, here we present the study, the aims of which were: 1) to upgrade inorganic Martian dust simulant derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, nanodiamonds and carbon dots; 2) to analyse acute effects of upgraded simulant on key characteristics of synaptic neurotransmission; and 3) to compare above effects with those of inorganic dust and carbon components per se. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues resulted in a significant decrease in transporter-mediated uptake of L-[14C]glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter) and [3H]GABA (the main inhibitory neurotransmitter) by isolated rat brain nerve terminals. The extracellular level of both neurotransmitters increased in the presence of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues. These effects were associated with action of carbon components of upgraded Martian dust simulant, but not with its inorganic constituent. This fact indicates that carbon component of native Martian dust can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate and GABA homeostasis in the CNS, and so glutamate- and GABA-ergic neurotransmission disballansing exitation and inhibition.

  17. Enrichment of Inorganic Martian Dust Simulant with Carbon Component can Provoke Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Dudarenko, Marina; Borysov, Arsenii; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasia; Borisova, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Carbon is the most abundant dust-forming element in the interstellar medium. Tremendous amount of meteorites containing plentiful carbon and carbon-enriched dust particles have reached the Earth daily. National Institute of Health panel accumulates evidences that nano-sized air pollution components may have a significant impact on the central nervous system (CNS) in health and disease. During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the CNS. Based on above facts, here we present the study, the aims of which were: 1) to upgrade inorganic Martian dust simulant derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, nanodiamonds and carbon dots; 2) to analyse acute effects of upgraded simulant on key characteristics of synaptic neurotransmission; and 3) to compare above effects with those of inorganic dust and carbon components per se. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues resulted in a significant decrease in transporter-mediated uptake of L-[14C]glutamate (the major excitatory neurotransmitter) and [3H]GABA (the main inhibitory neurotransmitter) by isolated rat brain nerve terminals. The extracellular level of both neurotransmitters increased in the presence of carbon-containing Martian dust analogues. These effects were associated with action of carbon components of upgraded Martian dust simulant, but not with its inorganic constituent. This fact indicates that carbon component of native Martian dust can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate and GABA homeostasis in the CNS, and so glutamate- and GABA-ergic neurotransmission disballansing exitation and inhibition.

  18. Status of Low Thrust Work at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Gerald L.

    2004-01-01

    High performance low thrust (solar electric, nuclear electric, variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket) propulsion offers a significant benefit to NASA missions beyond low Earth orbit. As NASA (e.g., Prometheus Project) endeavors to develop these propulsion systems and associated power supplies, it becomes necessary to develop a refined trajectory design capability that will allow engineers to develop future robotic and human mission designs that take advantage of this new technology. This ongoing work addresses development of a trajectory design and optimization tool for assessing low thrust (and other types) trajectories. This work targets to advance the state of the art, enable future NASA missions, enable science drivers, and enhance education. This presentation provides a summary of the low thrust-related JSC activities under the ISP program and specifically, provides a look at a new release of a multi-gravity, multispacecraft trajectory optimization tool (Copernicus) along with analysis performed using this tool over the past year.

  19. The New Martians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, Nick

    In The New Martians,the crewmembers undergo a great deal of psychological and interpersonal stress during their return home, in part prompted by the actions of a mysterious presence on board. Of course, no one knows for sure if such a presence will actually materialize during a real Mars expedition! But psychosocial issues will nevertheless affect a Mars crew due to the isolation, confinement, and long separation from family and friends that will characterize such a mission. In what follows, many of these issues will be reviewed, followed in each section by illustrations from the novel.

  20. Noble Gas Analysis for Mars Robotic Missions: Evaluating K-Ar Age Dating for Mars Rock Analogs and Martian Shergottites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Ming, D. W.; Garrison, D. H.; Jones, J. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Nagao, K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this noble gas investigation was to evaluate the possibility of measuring noble gases in martian rocks and air by future robotic missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The MSL mission has, as part of its payload, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument, which consists of a pyrolysis oven integrated with a GCMS. The MSL SAM instrument has the capability to measure noble gas compositions of martian rocks and atmosphere. Here we suggest the possibility of K-Ar age dating based on noble gas release of martian rocks by conducting laboratory simulation experiments on terrestrial basalts and martian meteorites. We provide requirements for the SAM instrument to obtain adequate noble gas abundances and compositions within the current SAM instrumental operating conditions, especially, a power limit that prevents heating the furnace above approx.1100 C. In addition, Martian meteorite analyses from NASA-JSC will be used as ground truth to evaluate the feasibility of robotic experiments to constrain the ages of martian surface rocks.

  1. JSC “ALFA-BANK” marketing policy. problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillov, A.; Kuznetcova, E.; Martirosian, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the results of JSC “Alfa-Bank” consumers’ segmentation and the following complex marketing research. The article suggests the ways of the bank’s marketing policy improvement.

  2. An Adulterated Martian Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    1999-07-01

    Martian meteorite, Elephant Moraine EETA79001, is composed of two distinct rock types. Scientists have thought that both formed from magmas, hence are igneous rocks and contain important information about the interior of Mars, the nature of lava flows on its surface, and the timing of igneous events on Mars. All that is now open to question, as a group of investigators at Lockheed Martin Space Operations and the Johnson Space Center led by David Mittlefehldt (Lockheed) has shown that one of the rock types making up EETA79001, designated lithology A, is almost certainly a melted mixture of other rocks. Mittlefehldt and coworkers suggest that formation by impact melting is the most likely explanation for the chemical and mineralogical features seen in the rock. If confirmed by other investigations, this may change the way we view the igneous evolution of Mars.

  3. Martian 'Kitchen Sponge'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. It shows a tiny 1 kilometer by 1 kilometer (0.62 x 0.62 mile) area of the martian north polar residual ice cap as it appears in summertime.The surface looks somewhat like that of a kitchen sponge--it is flat on top and has many closely-spaced pits of no more than 2 meters (5.5 ft) depth. The upper, flat surface in this image has a medium-gray tone, while the pit interiors are darker gray. Each pit is generally 10 to 20 meters (33-66 feet) across. The pits probably form as water ice sublimes--going directly from solid to vapor--during the martian northern summer seasons. The pits probably develop over thousands of years. This texture is very different from what is seen in the south polar cap, where considerably larger and more circular depressions are found to resemble slices of swiss cheese rather than a kitchen sponge.This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during northern summer on March 8, 1999. It was one of the very last 'calibration' images taken before the start of the Mapping Phase of the MGS mission, and its goal was to determine whether the MOC was properly focused. The crisp appearance of the edges of the pits confirmed that the instrument was focused and ready for its 1-Mars Year mapping mission. The scene is located near 86.9oN, 207.5oW, and has a resolution of about 1.4 meters (4 ft, 7 in) per pixel.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  4. Enhancement of inorganic Martian dust simulant with carbon component and its effects on key characteristics of glutamatergic neurotransmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Krisanova, Natalia; Nazarova, Anastasiya; Borysov, Arseniy; Pastukhov, Artem; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Dudarenko, Marina

    2016-07-01

    Evidence on the past existence of subsurface organic-bearing fluids on Mars was recently achieved basing on the investigation of organic carbon from the Tissint Martian meteorite (Lin et al., 2014). Tremendous amount of meteorites containing abundant carbon and carbon-enriched dust particles have reached the Earth daily (Pizzarello and Shock 2010). National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Institute of Health panel of research scientists revealed recently that accumulating evidences suggest that nano-sized air pollution may have a significant impact on central nervous system in health and disease (Block et al., Neurotoxicology, 2012). During inhalation, nano-/microsized particles are efficiently deposited in nasal, tracheobronchial, and alveolar regions and can be transported to the central nervous system (Oberdorster et al., 2004). Based on above facts, the aims of this study were: 1) to upgrade inorganic Martian dust stimulant derived from volcanic ash (JSC-1a/JSC, ORBITEC Orbital Technologies Corporation, Madison, Wisconsin) by the addition of carbon components, that is, nanodiamonds; 2) to analyse acute effects of upgraded stimulant on the key characteristic of synaptic neurotransmission and to compare its effects with those of inorganic dust and carbon components per se. Acute administration of carbon-containing Martian dust analogue resulted in a significant decrease in Na+-dependent uptake of L-[14C]glutamate that is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). The ambient level of the neurotransmitter in the preparation of isolated rat brain nerve terminals increased in the presence of carbon-contained Martian dust analogue. This fact indicated that carbon component of native Martian dust can have deleterious effects on extracellular glutamate homeostasis in the CNS, and so glutamatergic neurtransmission.

  5. Shock Experiments on Basalt - Ferric Sulfate Mixes at 21 GPa & 49 GPa and their Relevance to Martian Meteorite Impact Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; Ross, D. K.; See, T. H.; Nyquist, L. E.; Sutton, S.; Asimow, P.

    2013-01-01

    Large abundance of Martian atmospheric gases and neutron-induced isotopic excesses as well as Rb-Sr isotopic variations determined in some impact glasses in basaltic shergottites (e.g., Shergotty #DBS, Zagami #H1 and EET79001 #27, #8 and #104) provide definitive evidence for the occurrence of a Martian regolith component in their constituent mineral assemblages. Some of these glass-es, known as gas-rich impact-melts (GRIM), contain numerous micron-sized iron sulfide blebs along with minor amounts of iron sulfate particulates. As these GRIM glasses contain a Martian regolith component and as iron sulfates (but not sulfides) are found to occur abundantly on the Mars surface, we suggested that the sulfide blebs in GRIMs were likely generated by shock-reduction of the parental iron sulfate bearing regolith material that had been incorporated into the cavities/crevices of basaltic host rock prior to the impact event on Mars. To test whether the sulfates could be reduced to sulfides by impact shock, we carried out laboratory shock experiments on a basalt plus ferric sulfate mixture at 49 GPa at the Caltech Shock Wave Laboratory and at 21 GPa at Johnson Space Center (JSC) Experimental Impact Laboratory. The experimental details and the preliminary results for the Caltech 49 GPa experiment were presented at LPSC last year. Here, we report the results for the 21 GPa experiment at JSC and compare these results to obtain further insight into the mechanism of the bleb formation in the GRIM glasses.

  6. Martian terrain - 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This area of terrain near the Sagan Memorial Station was taken on Sol 3 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail.The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  7. Geomorphology of Martian meanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire-Mazzocco, H.; Stepinski, T.; McGovern, P.; Lanzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2005-12-01

    Morphological features of meandering landforms observed on the surface of Mars are computed and discussed. The relevance of the study pertains potentially useful hypotheses for the understanding of the evolution of Mars. Materials are digital images taken from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimer (MOLA) and from the Viking orbiter. The methods of morphological analysis derive from tool employed in the analysis of channeled landforms, in particular tidal ones, where the unit of information (i.e. the elementary pixel) is considerably smaller than the size of the channels. The results obtained concern the physical characterization of martian meanders, including the evolution in space of widths, wavelengths and curvatures and their spectra. Evidence for a narrow distribution of sinuosities (possibly a proxy of age of erosion/deposition processes carving the meanders) and for tapering of widths (a proxy of landforming flowrates) appears to suggest the past existence on Mars of massive and relatively brief outbursts of flow. The range of duration of such processes might be speculated upon comparison with terrestrial processes.

  8. Magnesium Based Rockets for Martian Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop Mg rockets for Martian ascent vehicle applications. The propellant can be acquired in-situ from MgO in the Martian regolith (5.1% Mg by mass)...

  9. Hydrological and Climatic Significance of Martian Deltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Achille, G.; Vaz, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    We a) review the geomorphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of the martian deltas record and b) present the results of a quantitative study of the hydrology and sedimentology of martian deltas using modified version of terrestrial model Sedflux.

  10. Catalog of Martian Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Horton E.; Hagerty, J. J.

    1998-01-01

    biology experiments. The surface may also contain material delivered to the surface, including solar-wind He-3, and chondritic material from meteorites and cosmic dust. One of the biggest problems is the probable lack of water any where near the surface, except in the the form of ice near the poles. A list summarizing some of the familiar and unfamiliar materials that may be encountered on the martian surface is presented.

  11. JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirck

    2009-01-01

    JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

  12. Curiosity analyzes Martian soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Mars Curiosity rover has conducted its first analysis of Martian soil samples using multiple instruments, the agency announced at a 3 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. "These results are an unprecedented look at the chemical diversity in the area," said NASA's Michael Meyer, program scientist for Curiosity.

  13. Bacterial survival in Martian conditions

    CERN Document Server

    D'Alessandro, Giuseppe Galletta; Giulio Bertoloni; Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    We shortly discuss the observable consequences of the two hypotheses about the origin of life on Earth and Mars: the Lithopanspermia (Mars to Earth or viceversa) and the origin from a unique progenitor, that for Earth is called LUCA (the LUCA hypothesis). To test the possibility that some lifeforms similar to the terrestrial ones may survive on Mars, we designed and built two simulators of Martian environments where to perform experiments with different bacterial strains: LISA and mini-LISA. Our LISA environmental chambers can reproduce the conditions of many Martian locations near the surface trough changes of temperature, pressure, UV fluence and atmospheric composition. Both simulators are open to collaboration with other laboratories interested in performing experiments on many kind of samples (biological, minerals, electronic) in situations similar to that of the red planet. Inside LISA we have studied the survival of several bacterial strains and endospores. We verified that the UV light is the major re...

  14. SNC Meteorites and Martian Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    The martian mantle is apparently heterogeneous, which opens the possibility that it is layered, with each layer convectively isolated. If this is correct, melt generation should occur either at thermal boundary layers or in plumes generated at those boundaries. Mantle layering may be a good means of slowing the planet's cooling rate, allowing young volcanism. Layering may also provide a means for keeping the crust and upper mantle cool, allowing the preservation of ancient variations in crustal thickness.

  15. Martian "microfossils" in lunar meteorites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D W; Kral, T A

    1998-07-01

    One of the five lines of evidence used by McKay et al. (1996) for relic life in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 was the presence of objects thought to be microfossils. These ovoid and elongated forms are similar to structures found in terrestrial rocks and described as "nanobacteria" (Folk, 1993; McBride et al., 1994). Using the same procedures and apparatus as McKay et al. (1996), we have found structures on internal fracture surfaces of lunar meteorites that cannot be distinguished from the objects described on similar surfaces in ALH 84001. The lunar surface is currently a sterile environment and probably always has been. However, the lunar and Martian meteorites share a common terrestrial history, which includes many thousands of years of exposure to Antarctic weathering. Although we do not know the origin of these ovoid and elongated forms, we suggest that their presence on lunar meteorites indicates that the objects described by McKay et al. (1996) are not of Martian biological origin.

  16. Technicians assembly the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    At JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A, technicians install a high gain antenna (HGA) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup. On the ground a technician operates the controls for the overhead crane that is lifting the HGA into place on the Support System Module (SSM) forward shell. Others in a cherry picker basket wait for the HGA to near its final position so they can secure it on the mockup.

  17. STS-35 DTO 0634 EDO trash compactor demonstration at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Development Test Objective (DTO) 0634 Trash Compaction and Retention System Demostration extended duration orbiter (EDO) trash compactor is operated by Project Engineer Fred Abolfathi of Lockheed Engineering and Space Corporation (left) and JSC Man-Systems Division Subsystems Manager J.B. Thomas. The EDO trash compactor will occupy one middeck locker and consists of a geared mechanism that allows manual compaction of wet and dry trash.

  18. The JSC Engineering Directorate Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Kenneth C.

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Engineering Directorate has developed a Product Peer Review process in support of NASA policies for project management and systems engineering. The process complies with the requirements of NPR 7120.5, NPR 7123.1 and NPR 7150.2 and follows the guidance in NASA/SP-2007-6105. This presentation will give an overview of the process followed by a brief demonstration of an actual peer review, with audience participation.

  19. Synthesis of Sol-Gel Precursors for Ceramics from Lunar and Martian Soil Simulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, L.; Gavira-Gallardo, J. A.; Hourlier-Bahloul, D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans for the human exploration of our Solar System has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable a long-term human presence on the Moon and Mars. The recovery and processing of metals and oxides from mineral sources on other planets is under study to enable use of ceramics, glasses and metals by explorer outposts. We report initial results on the production of sol-gel precursors for ceramic products using mineral resources available in martian or lunar soil. The presence of SO2, TiO2, and Al2O3 in both martian (44 wt.% SiO2, 1 wt.% TiO2, 7 wt.% Al2O3) and lunar (48 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% TiO2, 16 wt.% Al2O3) soils and the recent developments in chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents and relatively little energy indicate that such an endeavor is possible. In order to eliminate the risks involved in the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve silicates, two distinct chemical routes are investigated to obtain soluble silicon oxide precursors from lunar and martian soil simulars. Clear solutions of sol-gel precursors have been obtained by dissolution of silica from lunar soil similar JSC-1 in basic ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2) solutions to form silicon glycolates. Similarly, sol-gel solutions produced from martian soil simulars reveal higher contents of iron oxides. Characterization of the precursor molecules and efforts to further concentrate and hydrolyze the products to obtain gel materials will be presented for evaluation as ceramic precursors.

  20. Synthesis of Sol-Gel Precursors for Ceramics from Lunar and Martian Soil Simulars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, L.; Gavira-Gallardo, J. A.; Hourlier-Bahloul, D.

    2004-01-01

    Recent NASA mission plans for the human exploration of our Solar System has set new priorities for research and development of technologies necessary to enable a long-term human presence on the Moon and Mars. The recovery and processing of metals and oxides from mineral sources on other planets is under study to enable use of ceramics, glasses and metals by explorer outposts. We report initial results on the production of sol-gel precursors for ceramic products using mineral resources available in martian or lunar soil. The presence of SO2, TiO2, and Al2O3 in both martian (44 wt.% SiO2, 1 wt.% TiO2, 7 wt.% Al2O3) and lunar (48 wt.% SiO2, 1.5 wt.% TiO2, 16 wt.% Al2O3) soils and the recent developments in chemical processes to solubilize silicates using organic reagents and relatively little energy indicate that such an endeavor is possible. In order to eliminate the risks involved in the use of hydrofluoric acid to dissolve silicates, two distinct chemical routes are investigated to obtain soluble silicon oxide precursors from lunar and martian soil simulars. Clear solutions of sol-gel precursors have been obtained by dissolution of silica from lunar soil similar JSC-1 in basic ethylene glycol (C2H4(OH)2) solutions to form silicon glycolates. Similarly, sol-gel solutions produced from martian soil simulars reveal higher contents of iron oxides. Characterization of the precursor molecules and efforts to further concentrate and hydrolyze the products to obtain gel materials will be presented for evaluation as ceramic precursors.

  1. Boron enrichment in martian clay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Stephenson

    Full Text Available We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration.

  2. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  3. Chemical reactivity of the Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, A. P.; Mckay, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Viking life sciences experimental packages detected extraordinary chemical activity in the martian soil, probably the result of soil-surface chemistry. At least one very strong oxidant may exist in the martian soil. The electrochemical nature of the martian soil has figured prominently in discussions of future life sciences research on Mars. Putative oxidants in the martian soil may be responsible for the destruction of organic material to considerable depth, precluding the recovery of reducing material that may be relic of early biological forms. Also, there have been serious expressions of concern regarding the effect that soil oxidants may have on human health and safety. The concern here has centered on the possible irritation of the respiratory system due to dust carried into the martian habitat through the air locks.

  4. Laboratory Studies of the Heterogeneous Uptake of Methane on Martian Soil Analogs: Determination of Upper Limits of Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, R. V.; Hatch, C. D.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    In order to constrain possible methane sources on Mars, it is necessary to understand the type and magnitude of all possible methane sinks. We have performed laboratory experiments to determine the importance of heterogeneous uptake of methane on mineral surfaces analogous to Martian surface material. The uptake of methane on sodium montmorillonite and Mars soil simulant JSC-1 (a palagonite) was studied using a Knusden cell flow reactor capable of achieving Martian temperature, pressure and relative humidity conditions. A quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to detect any decrease in methane flow due to heterogeneous uptake and infrared spectroscopy was used to detect any adsorbed species on the particles. Experiments were performed under Martian temperatures (from 195 to 215 K), and under both dry conditions and 45% RH. As montmorillonite clay possesses unique swelling properties in the presence of water vapor, experiments were performed in which the clay was simultaneously exposed to water and methane, and also experiments in which the clay was equilibrated with water vapor prior to methane exposure. We found no methane uptake relative to an unreactive blank Si wafer on any of the Martian soil analogs studied under any conditions. These negative results place upper limits on the heterogeneous reactivity of methane on the Martian surface. We have determined that the initial uptake coefficient of methane on palagonite is less than 3.66×10-10 (±1.41×10-11) and the initial uptake coefficient, γ0, of methane on montmorillonite is less than 7.52×10-10 (±2.56×10-11). These studies demonstrate methane uptake by mineral surfaces is not expected to be a significant methane sink, as the process likely occurs on a time scale much longer than photolysis.

  5. Adsorption of Water on JSC-1A Lunar Simulant Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goering, John; Sah, Shweta; Burghaus, Uwe; Street, Kenneth W.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing probes sent to the moon in the 1990s indicated that water may exist in areas such as the bottoms of deep, permanently shadowed craters at the lunar poles, buried under regolith. Water is of paramount importance for any lunar exploration and colonization project which would require self-sustainable systems. Therefore, investigating the interaction of water with lunar regolith is pertinent to future exploration. The lunar environment can be approximated in ultra-high vacuum systems such as those used in thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Questions about water dissociation, surface wetting, degree of crystallization, details of water-ice transitions, and cluster formation kinetics can be addressed by TDS. Lunar regolith specimens collected during the Apollo missions are still available though precious, so testing with simulant is required before applying to use lunar regolith samples. Hence, we used for these studies JSC-1a, mostly an aluminosilicate glass and basaltic material containing substantial amounts of plagioclase, some olivine and traces of other minerals. Objectives of this project include: 1) Manufacturing samples using as little raw material as possible, allowing the use of surface chemistry and kinetics tools to determine the feasibility of parallel studies on regolith, and 2) Characterizing the adsorption kinetics of water on the regolith simulant. This has implications for the probability of finding water on the moon and, if present, for recovery techniques. For condensed water films, complex TDS data were obtained containing multiple features, which are related to subtle rearrangements of the water adlayer. Results from JSC-1a TDS studies indicate: 1) Water dissociation on JSC-1a at low exposures, with features detected at temperatures as high as 450 K and 2) The formation of 3D water clusters and a rather porous condensed water film. It appears plausible that the sub- m sized particles act as nucleation centers.

  6. STS-47 crew extinquishes fire during JSC fire fighting exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers lined up along water hoses direct spray at fire blazing in JSC's Fire Training Pit. At the left are backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak, holding the hose nozzle, and Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis. Manning the hose on the right are backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, holding the hose nozzle, followed by Commander Robert L. Gibson, Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, and MS Jerome Apt. Guiding the teams are MS Mae C. Jemison (front) and a veteran fire fighter and instructor (center). Doi and Mohri represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA). The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207.

  7. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  8. Human Spaceflight Technology Needs - A Foundation for JSC's Technology Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2013-01-01

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which adds risks as well as provides a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation s primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (TechNeeds) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology

  9. Terrestrial Permafrost Models of Martian Habitats and Inhabitants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilichinsky, D.

    2011-12-01

    The terrestrial permafrost is the only rich depository of viable ancient microorganisms on Earth, and can be used as a bridge to possible Martian life forms and shallow subsurface habitats where the probability of finding life is highest. Since there is a place for water, the requisite condition for life, the analogous models are more or less realistic. If life ever existed on Mars, traces might have been preserved and could be found at depth within permafrost. The age of the terrestrial isolates corresponds to the longevity of the frozen state of the embedding strata, with the oldest known dating back to the late Pliocene in Arctic and late Miocene in Antarctica. Permafrost on Earth and Mars vary in age, from a few million years on Earth to a few billion years on Mars. Such a difference in time scale would have a significant impact on the possibility of preserving life on Mars, which is why the longevity of life forms preserved within terrestrial permafrost can only be an approximate model for Mars. 1. A number of studies indicate that the Antarctic cryosphere began to develop on the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, after the isolation of the continent. Permafrost degradation is only possible if mean annual ground temperature, -28°C now, rise above freezing, i.e., a significant warming to above 25°C is required. There is no evidence of such sharp temperature increase, which indicates that the climate and geological history was favorable to persistence of pre-Pliocene permafrost. These oldest relics (~30Myr) are possibly to be found at high hypsometric levels of ice-free areas (Dry Valleys and nearby mountains). It is desirable to test the layers for the presence of viable cells. The limiting age, if one exists, within this ancient permafrost, where the viable organisms were no longer present, could be established as the limit for life preservation below 0oC. Positive results will extend the known temporal limits of life in permafrost. 2. Even in this case, the age of

  10. Why do Martian Magmas erupt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, J. B.; McSween, H. Y.

    2011-12-01

    Eruption of silicate lava, whether on Earth or another planet, requires that at some depth the melt has lower density than the surrounding rocks. As the densities of silicate liquids change during crystallization, whether a particular silicate liquid will erupt or be trapped at a level of neutral buoyancy is a complex yet fundamental issue for planetary dynamics. In general, 3 factors drive surface eruptions: inherent buoyancy relative to mantle phases, compositional evolution, and volatile contents. These factors manifest on Earth as terrestrial basalts commonly have compositions close to a density minimum [1]. Recent work has produced estimates of Martian parental magma compositions [2-5] based on shergottite meteorites and from Gusev crater. Using the MELTS algorithm [6] and other density calibrations, we simulated evolution of these liquids, focusing on density changes. For much of the crystallization path, density is controlled by FeO. All of the liquids begin with ρ ~ 2.8 g/cc at 1 bar, and the evolution of liquid density is controlled by the liquidus phases. At low pressures, olivine is the liquidus phase for each melt, and as FeO is not incompatible in olivine, olivine crystallization decreases liquid density, increasing buoyancy with crystallization. However, FeO is incompatible in pyroxene, and thus liquids crystallizing pyroxene become denser and less buoyant with crystallization, producing liquids with densities up to and above 3.0 g/cc. As the olivine-pyroxene saturation relationship is affected by pressure and chemistry, the identity of the liquidus phase and density evolution will vary between magmas. Without spreading centers, Mars has no location where the mantle approaches the surface, and it is likely that any magma which is denser than the crust will stall below or within that crust. The crystallization path of a liquid is a function of pressure, with pyroxene crystallizing first at P > 10 kbar (~80 km depth), close to the base of the Martian

  11. Laboratory Shock Experiments on Basalt - Iron Sulfate Mixes at Approximately 40-50 GPa and Their Relevance to the Martian Regolith Component Present in Shergottites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Ross, D. K.; Asimow, P. D.; See, T.; Sutton, S.; Cardernas, F.; Montes, R.; Cintala, M.

    2012-01-01

    Basaltic shergottites such as Shergotty, Zagami and EET79001 contain impact melt glass pockets that are rich in Martian atmospheric gases [1] and are known as gas-rich impact-melt (GRIM) glasses. These glasses show evidence for the presence of a Martian regolith component based on Sm and Kr isotopic studies [2]. The GRIM glasses are sometimes embedded with clusters of innumerable micron-sized iron-sulfide blebs associated with minor amounts of iron sulfate particles [3, 4]. These sulfide blebs are secondary in origin and are not related to the primary igneous sulfides occurring in Martian meteorites. The material comprising these glasses arises from the highly oxidizing Martian surface and sulfur is unlikely to occur as sulfide in the Martian regoilith. Instead, sulfur is shown to occur as sulfate based on APXS and Mossbauer results obtained by the Opportunity and Spirit rovers at Meridiani and Gusev [5]. We have earlier suggested that the micron-sized iron sulfide globules in GRIM glasses were likely produced by shock-reduction of iron sulfate occurring in the regolith at the time when the GRIM glasses were produced by the meteoroid impact that launched the Martian meteorites into space [6]. As a result of high energy deposition by shock (approx. 40-60 GPa), the iron sulfate bearing phases are likely to melt along with other regolith components and will get reduced to immiscible sulfide fluid under reducing conditions. On quenching, this generates a dispersion of micron-scale sulfide blebs. The reducing agents in our case are likely to be H2 and CO which were shock-implanted from the Martian atmosphere into these glasses along with the noble gases. We conducted lab simulation experiments in the Lindhurst Laboratory of Experimental Geophysics at Caltech and the Experimental Impact Laboratory at JSC to test whether iron sulfide globules can be produced by impact-driven reduction of iron sulfate by subjecting Columbia River Basalt (CRB) and ferric sulfate mixtures to

  12. Geophysics of Martian Periglacial Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Through the examination of small-scale geologic features potentially related to water and ice in the martian subsurface (specifically small-scale polygonal ground and young gully-like features), determine the state, distribution and recent history of subsurface water and ice on Mars. To refine existing models and develop new models of near-surface water and ice, and develop new insights about the nature of water on Mars as manifested by these geologic features. Through an improved understanding of potentially water-related geologic features, utilize these features in addressing questions about where to best search for present day water and what space craft may encounter that might facilitate or inhibit the search for water.

  13. Martian Sunrise at Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A Martian sunrise was captured in this Viking 2 Lander picture taken June 14, 1978, at the spacecraft's Utopia Planitia landing site. The data composing this image were acquired just as the Sun peaked over the horizon on the Lander's 631st sol (Martian solar day). Pictures taken at dawn (or dusk) are quite dark except where the sky is brightened above the Sun's position. The glow in the sky results as light from the Sun is scattered and preferentially absorbed by tiny particles of dust and ice in the atmosphere. When the Viking cameras are calibrated for darker scenes, the 'sky glow' tends to saturate their sensitivity and produce the bright regions seen here. The 'banding' and color separation effects are also artifacts, rather than real features, and are introduced because the cameras are not able to record continuous gradations of light. The cameras must represent such gradations in steps (bands) of brightness and color, and the process sometimes produces some 'false' colors within the bands. The scattering of light closest to the Sun's position tends to enhance blue wavelengths. The narrowing sky glow nearer the horizon above the Sun's position occurs as a result of light extinction. At that elevation, the optical path of sunlight through the atmosphere is at its longest penetration angle, and a substantial portion of the light is simply prevented from reaching the cameras by the dust, ice particles and other material in its way.NASA's Langley Research Center was the primary and extended mission manager; JPL assumed management for continued mission operations.

  14. Manganese, Metallogenium, and Martian Microfossils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L. Y.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese could easily be considered an abundant element in the Martian regolith, assuming that the composition of martian meteorites reflects the composition of the planet. Mineralogical analyses of 5 SNC meteorites have revealed an average manganese oxide concentration of 0.48%, relative to the 0.1% concentration of manganese found in the Earth's crust. On the Earth, the accumulation of manganese oxides in oceans, soils, rocks, sedimentary ores, fresh water systems, and hydrothermal vents can be largely attributed to microbial activity. Manganese is also a required trace nutrient for most life forms and participates in many critical enzymatic reactions such as photosynthesis. The wide-spread process of bacterial manganese cycling on Earth suggests that manganese is an important element to both geology and biology. Furthermore, there is evidence that bacteria can be fossilized within manganese ores, implying that manganese beds may be good repositories for preserved biomarkers. A particular genus of bacteria, known historically as Metallogenium, can form star-shaped manganese oxide minerals (called metallogenium) through the action of manganese oxide precipitation along its surface. Fossilized structures that resemble metallogenium have been found in Precambrian sedimentary formations and in Cretaceous-Paleogene cherts. The Cretaceous-Paleogene formations are highly enriched in manganese and have concentrations of trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Co) similar to modern-day manganese oxide deposits in marine environments. The appearance of metallogenium-like fossils associated with manganese deposits suggests that bacteria may be preserved within the minerals that they form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  15. Magnesium Based Rockets for Martian Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase II program, we will continue the development of Mg bipropellant rockets for Martian PAV applications. In Phase I, we proved the feasibility of...

  16. Robust Automated Identification of Martian Impact Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Mendenhall, M. P.; Bue, B. D.

    2007-03-01

    Robust automatic identification of martian craters is achieved by a computer algorithm acting on topographic data. The algorithm outperforms manual counts; derived crater sizes and depths are comparable to those measured manually.

  17. Reducing Organic Contamination in NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Allen, C. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic and human spaceflight missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and comets will require handling and storing astromaterial samples with minimal inorganic and organic contamination to preserve the scientific integrity of each sample. Much was learned from the rigorous attempts to minimize and monitor organic contamination during Apollo, but it was not adequate for current analytical requirements; thus [1]. OSIRIS-REx, Hayabusa-2, and future Mars sample return will require better protocols for reducing organic contamination. Future isolation con-tainment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study established the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs [2, 3]. After standard ultra-pure water (UPW) cleaning, the majority of organic contaminates found were hydrocarbons, plasticizers, silicones, and solvents. Hydro-carbons loads (> C7) ranged from 1.9 to 11.8 ng/cm2 for TD-GC-MS wafer exposure analyses and 5.0 to 19.5 ng/L for TD-GC-MS adsorbent tube exposure. Plasticizers included nano grade solution), and heat sterilization at 130degC for 48 hours to reduce organic contamination. In addition, both heat sterilization and peracetic acid sterilization were used in the atmospheric de-contamination (R) cabinets. Later, Lunar curation gloveboxes were degreased with a pressurized Freon 113 wash. Today, UPW has replaced Freon as the standard cleaning procedure, but does not have the degreasing solvency power of Freon. Future Cleaning Studies: Cleaning experiments are cur-rently being orchestrated to study how to degrease and reduce organics in a JSC curation glovebox lower than the established baseline. Several new chemicals in the industry have replaced traditional degreasing solvents such as Freon and others that are now federally

  18. Phosphates and Carbon in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper proposes tests for exobiological examination of samples prior to obtaining martian rocks of known provenance via future sample-return missions. If we assume that all of the secondary minerals in martian meteorite ET79001 were indeed cogenetic and originate from Mars, we list conclusions that can be drawn that are of exobiological interest. This work serves as a preamble for the subsequent work listed below.

  19. The JSC Research and Development Annual Report 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Issued as a companion to Johnson Space Center's Research and Technology Annual Report, which reports JSC accomplishments under NASA Research and Technology Operating Plan (RTOP) funding, this report describes 47 additional projects that are funded through sources other than the RTOP. Emerging technologies in four major disciplines are summarized: space systems technology, medical and life sciences, mission operations, and computer systems. Although these projects focus on support of human spacecraft design, development, and safety, most have wide civil and commercial applications in areas such as advanced materials, superconductors, advanced semiconductors, digital imaging, high density data storage, high performance computers, optoelectronics, artificial intelligence, robotics and automation, sensors, biotechnology, medical devices and diagnosis, and human factors engineering.

  20. [Taylor and Hill, Incorporated's JSC Cryo Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rito

    2008-01-01

    NASA commissioned construction of an environmental simulation test chamber which was completed in 1964 at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. The facility, Chamber A, was invaluable for testing spacecraft and satellites before deployment to space. By testing spacecraft in an environment similar to the one they would be functioning in, potential problems could be addressed before launch. A new addition to NASA's observatory inventory is called the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), after a former Administrator of NASA. The new telescope will have 7 times the mirror area of the Hubble, with a target destination approximately one million miles from earth. Scheduled for launch in 2013, the JWST will allow scientists the ability to see, for the first time, the first galaxies that formed in the early Universe. Pre-launch testing of JWST must be performed in environments that approximate its final target space environment as closely as possible.

  1. STS-26 crew in JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers have donned their new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) for a training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Commander Frederick H. Hauck is in the center foreground. Hauck is flanked by fellow crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge, MS George D. Nelson, Pilot Richard O. Covey, and MS David C. Hilmers. Astronaut Steven R. Nagel, not assigned as crewmember but assisting in training, is at far right. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew is scheduled to check out the new partial pressure suits and crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  2. Ne-20/Ne-22 in the Martian Atmosphere: New Evidence from Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Herzog, G. F.; Nagao, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Kusakabe, M.

    2017-01-01

    Analyses of Ne trapped in "pods" of impact melt in the Elephant Moraine 79001 (EET 79001) Martian meteorite led to suggest (Ne-20/Ne-22) approx.10 in the Martian atmosphere (MA). In contrast, obtained trapped (Ne-20/Ne-22)Tr approx.7 from an impact melt vein in Yamato 793605 (Y-793605) and concluded that the isotopic composition of Martian Ne remained poorly defined. A "pyroxene-rich" separate from Dhofar 378 (Dho 378) analyzed gave a comparatively high trapped Ne concentration and (Ne-20/Ne-22) = 7.3+/-0.2 in agreement with the Y-793605 value. We explore the hypothesis that Martian Ne was trapped in the Dho 378 meteorite in a manner similar to entrapment of terrestrial Ne in tektites strengthening the "Martian atmosphere" interpretation. We also report new data for Northwest Africa 7034 (NWA 7034) that are consistent with the Ne data for Dho 378.

  3. STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, MS Springer on JSC crew compartment trainer middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, wearing navy blue launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), participates in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) exercises. MS Springer is seated in mission specialist seat on CCT middeck, the position he will occupy during the entry phase of flight. Behind Springer is the closed airlock hatch and stowed treadmill. The crew escape system (CES) pole extends overhead from starboard wall to side hatch. On Springer's left is the galley. CCT is located in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Photo was taken by Bill Bowers of JSC.

  4. Blue moons and Martian sunsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Kurt; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Moosmüller, Hans

    2014-03-20

    The familiar yellow or orange disks of the moon and sun, especially when they are low in the sky, and brilliant red sunsets are a result of the selective extinction (scattering plus absorption) of blue light by atmospheric gas molecules and small aerosols, a phenomenon explainable using the Rayleigh scattering approximation. On rare occasions, dust or smoke aerosols can cause the extinction of red light to exceed that for blue, resulting in the disks of the sun and moon to appear as blue. Unlike Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is dominated by micron-size dust aerosols, and the sky during sunset takes on a bluish glow. Here we investigate the role of dust aerosols in the blue Martian sunsets and the occasional blue moons and suns on Earth. We use the Mie theory and the Debye series to calculate the wavelength-dependent optical properties of dust aerosols most commonly found on Mars. Our findings show that while wavelength selective extinction can cause the sun's disk to appear blue, the color of the glow surrounding the sun as observed from Mars is due to the dominance of near-forward scattering of blue light by dust particles and cannot be explained by a simple, Rayleigh-like selective extinction explanation.

  5. Martian polar expeditions: problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C S

    2001-12-01

    The Martian polar ice caps are regions of substantial scientific interest, being the most dynamic regions of Mars. They are volatile sinks and thus closely linked to Martian climatic conditions. Because of their scale and the precedent set by the past history of polar exploration on Earth, it is likely that an age of polar exploration will emerge on the surface of Mars after the establishment of a capable support structure at lower latitudes. Expeditions might be launched either from a lower latitude base camp or from a human-tended polar base. Based on previously presented expeditionary routes to the Martian poles, in this paper a "spiral in-spiral out" unsupported transpolar assault on the Martian north geographical pole is used as a Reference expedition to propose new types of equipment for the human polar exploration of Mars. Martian polar "ball" tents and "hover" modifications to the Nansen sledge for sledging on CO2-containing water ice substrates under low atmospheric pressures are suggested as elements for the success of these endeavours. Other challenges faced by these expeditions are quantitatively and qualitatively addressed.

  6. Martian hillside gullies and icelandic analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William K.; Thorsteinsson, Thorsteinn; Sigurdsson, Freysteinn

    2003-04-01

    We report observations of Icelandic hillside gully systems that are near duplicates of gullies observed on high-latitude martian hillsides. The best Icelandic analogs involve basaltic talus slopes at the angle of repose, with gully formation by debris flows initiated by ground water saturation, and/or by drainage of water from upslope cliffs. We report not only the existence of Mars analog gullies, but also an erosional sequence of morphologic forms, found both on Mars and in Iceland. The observations support hypotheses calling for creation of martian gullies by aqueous processes. Issues remain whether the water in each case comes only from surficial sources, such as melting of ground ice or snow, or from underground sources such as aquifers that gain surface access in hillsides. Iceland has many examples of the former, but the latter mechanism is not ruled out. Our observations are consistent with the martian debris flow mechanism of F. Costard et al. (2001c, Science295, 110-113), except that classic debris flows begin at midslope more frequently than on Mars. From morphologic observations, we suggest that some martian hillside gully systems not only involve significant evolution by extended erosive activity, but gully formation may occur in episodes, and the time interval since the last episode is considerably less than the time interval needed to erase the gully through normal martian obliteration processes.

  7. Astronaut Kenneth D. Cameron in T-38A cockpit at Ellington Field near JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Astronaut Kenneth D. Cameron seated in the forward cockpit of a T-38A conducts preflight checkout procedures at Ellington Field near JSC. Cameron is preparing for a flight to Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) in Spokane, Washington.

  8. STS-30 crewmembers pose for informal portrait on JSC FB-SMS middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-30 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, crewmembers pause briefly from their training schedule to pose for informal portrait in JSC fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). On FB-SMS middeck are (left to right) Commander David M. Walker, Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Lee, MS Mary L. Cleave, Pilot Ronald J. Grabe, and MS Norman E. Thagard. FB-SMS is located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  9. Martian Surface after Phoenix's Conductivity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera took this image on Sol 71 (August 6, 2008), the 71st Martian day after landing. The shadow shows the outline of Phoenix's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe, or TECP. The holes seen in the Martian surface were made by this instrument to measure the soil's conductivity. A fork-like probe inserted into the soil checks how well heat and electricity move through the soil from one prong to another. The measurements completed Wednesday ran from the afternoon of Phoenix's 70th Martian day, or sol, to the morning of Sol 71. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  10. Vertical Analysis of Martian Drainage Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; OHara, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    We have performed a vertical analysis of drainage basins on Mars that were computationally extracted from DEMs based on the MOLA data. Longitudinal profiles of main streams are calculated and the slope-area relation is established for 20 basins coming from assorted martian locations. An identical analysis is done for 19 terrestrial river basins. Our results show that, in comparison to terrestrial basins, martian basins have more linear longitudinal profiles, more frequent existence of knickpoints, predominance of asymmetric location of the main stream in the basin, and smaller values of concavity exponent. This suggests a limited role for surface runoff on the global scale. However, two basins extracted from the slopes of martian volcanoes show a strong similarity to terrestrial basins, indicating a possible local role for the process of surface runoff.

  11. Evidence for methane in Martian meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, Nigel J F; Parnell, John; McMahon, Sean; Mark, Darren F; Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin; Shivak, Jared; Izawa, Matthew R M; Banerjee, Neil R; Flemming, Roberta L

    2015-06-16

    The putative occurrence of methane in the Martian atmosphere has had a major influence on the exploration of Mars, especially by the implication of active biology. The occurrence has not been borne out by measurements of atmosphere by the MSL rover Curiosity but, as on Earth, methane on Mars is most likely in the subsurface of the crust. Serpentinization of olivine-bearing rocks, to yield hydrogen that may further react with carbon-bearing species, has been widely invoked as a source of methane on Mars, but this possibility has not hitherto been tested. Here we show that some Martian meteorites, representing basic igneous rocks, liberate a methane-rich volatile component on crushing. The occurrence of methane in Martian rock samples adds strong weight to models whereby any life on Mars is/was likely to be resident in a subsurface habitat, where methane could be a source of energy and carbon for microbial activity.

  12. 劈地雷霆——评JF-17战斗机装备MAR-1反辐射导弹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    达茂

    2011-01-01

    据俄罗斯军工新闻网7月18日报道,巴基斯坦空军日前顺利完成了JF-17“雷电”战斗机(即中巴联合研制的“枭龙”战机)装配巴西MAR-1空对面反辐射导弹的整合工作.自此,JF-17“雷电”将成为巴空军最重要的战术空地作战平台,执行类似F-16CJ或EA-18G的压制敌方防空火力任务.MAR-1导弹分析MAR-1并非AGM-88“山寨版”在国内转载的有关MAR -1的消息中,对MAR-1导弹的描述大多有这样那样的自相矛盾之处,有些消息甚至称“MAR-1是美国AGM- 88‘哈姆’高速反辐射导弹的巴西版”,但事实上MAR 1的气动外形和控制方式与AGM -88迥异--MAR- 1采用带前置反安定面的正常式气动布局,从前往后的三组翼面分别是固定式反安定面.

  13. A Hypothesis for the Abiotic and Non-Martian Origins of Putative Signs of Ancient Martian Life in ALH84001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    2001-01-01

    Putative evidence of martian life in ALH84001 can be explained by abiotic and non-martian processes consistent with the meteorite's geological history. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  14. Estimation of high altitude Martian dust parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabari, Jayesh; Bhalodi, Pinali

    2016-07-01

    Dust devils are known to occur near the Martian surface mostly during the mid of Southern hemisphere summer and they play vital role in deciding background dust opacity in the atmosphere. The second source of high altitude Martian dust could be due to the secondary ejecta caused by impacts on Martian Moons, Phobos and Deimos. Also, the surfaces of the Moons are charged positively due to ultraviolet rays from the Sun and negatively due to space plasma currents. Such surface charging may cause fine grains to be levitated, which can easily escape the Moons. It is expected that the escaping dust form dust rings within the orbits of the Moons and therefore also around the Mars. One more possible source of high altitude Martian dust is interplanetary in nature. Due to continuous supply of the dust from various sources and also due to a kind of feedback mechanism existing between the ring or tori and the sources, the dust rings or tori can sustain over a period of time. Recently, very high altitude dust at about 1000 km has been found by MAVEN mission and it is expected that the dust may be concentrated at about 150 to 500 km. However, it is mystery how dust has reached to such high altitudes. Estimation of dust parameters before-hand is necessary to design an instrument for the detection of high altitude Martian dust from a future orbiter. In this work, we have studied the dust supply rate responsible primarily for the formation of dust ring or tori, the life time of dust particles around the Mars, the dust number density as well as the effect of solar radiation pressure and Martian oblateness on dust dynamics. The results presented in this paper may be useful to space scientists for understanding the scenario and designing an orbiter based instrument to measure the dust surrounding the Mars for solving the mystery. The further work is underway.

  15. Human Thermal Model Evaluation Using the JSC Human Thermal Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Makinen, Janice; Cognata, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal modeling has considerable long term utility to human space flight. Such models provide a tool to predict crew survivability in support of vehicle design and to evaluate crew response in untested space environments. It is to the benefit of any such model not only to collect relevant experimental data to correlate it against, but also to maintain an experimental standard or benchmark for future development in a readily and rapidly searchable and software accessible format. The Human thermal database project is intended to do just so; to collect relevant data from literature and experimentation and to store the data in a database structure for immediate and future use as a benchmark to judge human thermal models against, in identifying model strengths and weakness, to support model development and improve correlation, and to statistically quantify a model s predictive quality. The human thermal database developed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is intended to evaluate a set of widely used human thermal models. This set includes the Wissler human thermal model, a model that has been widely used to predict the human thermoregulatory response to a variety of cold and hot environments. These models are statistically compared to the current database, which contains experiments of human subjects primarily in air from a literature survey ranging between 1953 and 2004 and from a suited experiment recently performed by the authors, for a quantitative study of relative strength and predictive quality of the models.

  16. Martian Soil Inside Phoenix's Robotic Arm Scoop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) shows material from the Martian surface captured by the Robotic Arm (RA) scoop during its first test dig and dump on the seventh Martian day of the mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The test sample shown was taken from the digging area informally known as 'Knave of Hearts.' The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Martian surface paleotemperatures from thermochronology of meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuster, David L; Weiss, Benjamin P

    2005-07-22

    The temporal evolution of past martian surface temperatures is poorly known. We used thermochronology and published noble gas and petrographic data to constrain the temperature histories of the nakhlites and martian meteorite ALH84001. We found that the nakhlites have not been heated to more than 350 degrees C since they formed. Our calculations also suggest that for most of the past 4 billion years, ambient near-surface temperatures on Mars are unlikely to have been much higher than the present cold (<0 degrees C) state.

  18. The O+ Ion Flux in the Martian Magnetosphere andMartian Intrinsic Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A model is developed to study the ionospheric ion flux distribution along magnetic force lines in Martian magnetosphere and the influence of Martian intrinsic moment on the distribution.It is discovered that the intrinsic moment has significant influence on the O+ ion flux distribution that a lower flux in the magnetotail will be associated with a stronger intrinsic moment.According to the theoretical result and the observed data on the ion flux which is about 7.6×106 cm-2s-1 in the Martian magnetotail,the deduced Martian moment is about 2×1021 G cm3.This agrees well with the most recent data obtained by MAG/ER on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft.

  19. Water retention of selected microorganisms and Martian soil simulants under close to Martian environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jänchen, J.; Bauermeister, A.; Feyh, N.; de Vera, J.-P.; Rettberg, P.; Flemming, H.-C.; Szewzyk, U.

    2014-08-01

    Based on the latest knowledge about microorganisms resistant towards extreme conditions on Earth and results of new complex models on the development of the Martian atmosphere we quantitatively examined the water-bearing properties of selected extremophiles and simulated Martian regolith components and their interaction with water vapor under close to Martian environmental conditions. Three different species of microorganisms have been chosen and prepared for our study: Deinococcus geothermalis, Leptothrix sp. OT_B_406, and Xanthoria elegans. Further, two mineral mixtures representing the early and the late Martian surface as well as montmorillonite as a single component of phyllosilicatic minerals, typical for the Noachian period on Mars, were selected. The thermal mass loss of the minerals and bacteria-samples was measured by thermoanalysis. The hydration and dehydration properties were determined under close to Martian environmental conditions by sorption isotherm measurements using a McBain-Bakr quartz spring balance. It was possible to determine the total water content of the materials as well as the reversibly bound water fraction as function of the atmospheres humidity by means of these methods. Our results are important for the evaluation of future space mission outcomes including astrobiological aspects and can support the modeling of the atmosphere/surface interaction by showing the influence on the water inventory of the upper most layer of the Martian surface.

  20. Prospects for Chronological Studies of Martian Rocks and Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronological information about Martian processes comes from two sources: Crater-frequency studies and laboratory studies of Martian meteorites. Each has limitations that could be overcome by studies of returned Martian rocks and soils. Chronology of Martian volcanism: The currently accepted chronology of Martian volcanic surfaces relies on crater counts for different Martian stratigraphic units [1]. However, there is a large inherent uncertainty for intermediate ages near 2 Ga ago. The effect of differing preferences for Martian cratering chronologies [1] is shown in Fig. 1. Stoeffler and Ryder [2] summarized lunar chronology, upon which Martian cratering chronology is based. Fig. 2 shows a curve fit to their data, and compares to it a corresponding lunar curve from [3]. The radiometric ages of some lunar and Martian meteorites as well as the crater-count delimiters for Martian epochs [4] also are shown for comparison to the craterfrequency curves. Scaling the Stoeffler-Ryder curve by a Mars/Moon factor of 1.55 [5] places Martian shergottite ages into the Early Amazonian to late Hesperian epochs, whereas using the lunar curve of [3] and a Mars/Moon factor 1 consigns the shergottites to the Middle-to-Late Amazonian, a less probable result. The problem is worsened if a continually decreasing cratering rate since 3 Ga ago is accepted [6]. We prefer the adjusted St ffler-Ryder curve because it gives better agreement with the meteorite ages (Fig.

  1. Development of a multi-dimensional realistic thermal-hydraulic system analysis code, MARS 1.3 and its verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Jae; Chung, Bub Dong; Jeong, Jae Jun; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-06-01

    A multi-dimensional realistic thermal-hydraulic system analysis code, MARS version 1.3 has been developed. Main purpose of MARS 1.3 development is to have the realistic analysis capability of transient two-phase thermal-hydraulics of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) especially during Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LBLOCAs) where the multi-dimensional phenomena domain the transients. MARS code is a unified version of USNRC developed COBRA-TF, domain the transients. MARS code is a unified version of USNRC developed COBRA-TF, three-dimensional (3D) reactor vessel analysis code, and RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2, one-dimensional (1D) reactor system analysis code., Developmental requirements for MARS are chosen not only to best utilize the existing capability of the codes but also to have the enhanced capability in code maintenance, user accessibility, user friendliness, code portability, code readability, and code flexibility. For the maintenance of existing codes capability and the enhancement of code maintenance capability, user accessibility and user friendliness, MARS has been unified to be a single code consisting of 1D module (RELAP5) and 3D module (COBRA-TF). This is realized by implicitly integrating the system pressure matrix equations of hydrodynamic models and solving them simultaneously, by modifying the 1D/3D calculation sequence operable under a single Central Processor Unit (CPU) and by unifying the input structure and the light water property routines of both modules. In addition, the code structure of 1D module is completely restructured using the modular data structure of standard FORTRAN 90, which greatly improves the code maintenance capability, readability and portability. For the code flexibility, a dynamic memory management scheme is applied in both modules. MARS 1.3 now runs on PC/Windows and HP/UNIX platforms having a single CPU, and users have the options to select the 3D module to model the 3D thermal-hydraulics in the reactor vessel or other

  2. Initiation and growth of martian ice lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizemore, Hanna G.; Zent, Aaron P.; Rempel, Alan W.

    2015-05-01

    Water ice in the upper meters of the martian regolith is a major volatile reservoir. Although the geographic extent, burial depth, and thermal stability of this shallow ice are well understood, its origin, history, and stratigraphy are not. Over the past decade, a growing body of observational evidence has indicated that shallow ground ice exceeds the pore volume of its host soil over large regions of both martian hemispheres. This is confounding, given that (1) the physical theory that accurately predicts the location of ground ice also assumes that ice should be pore-filling in the upper meter of regolith, and (2) the Phoenix spacecraft uncovered far more pore-filling ice than excess ice at its landing site in the northern hemisphere. The development of ice lenses by low-temperature in situ segregation - analogous to the processes that generate frost heave on Earth - has been hypothesized to explain shallow excess ice on Mars. We have developed a numerical model of ice lens initiation and growth in the martian environment, and used it to test this hypothesis for the first time. We carried out a large suite of numerical simulations in order to place quantitative constraints on the timing and location of ice lens initiation, and on the magnitude of ice lens growth in a variety of host soils. We find that ice lens initiation is a ubiquitous process in the martian high latitudes, but the ultimate magnitude of lens growth, or frost heave, is sensitive to the properties of the host soil. Depending on the specific properties of martian soils, in situ segregation may be a very slow process sufficient to explain the excess ice observed in the Dodo-Goldilocks trench at the Phoenix landing site, but without regionally significant effects. Alternatively, if clay-sized particles or perchlorate salts are present, in situ segregation may be a vigorous process that has significantly affected the stratigraphy of ground ice in the upper meter of regolith throughout the high

  3. Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures

  4. Hydrogen isotopic composition of the Martian mantle inferred from the newest Martian meteorite fall, Tissint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, P.; Hervig, R.; Wadhwa, M.; Garvie, L. A. J.; Balta, J. B.; McSween, H. Y.

    2016-11-01

    The hydrogen isotopic composition of planetary reservoirs can provide key constraints on the origin and history of water on planets. The sources of water and the hydrological evolution of Mars may be inferred from the hydrogen isotopic compositions of mineral phases in Martian meteorites, which are currently the only samples of Mars available for Earth-based laboratory investigations. Previous studies have shown that δD values in minerals in the Martian meteorites span a large range of -250 to +6000‰. The highest hydrogen isotope ratios likely represent a Martian atmospheric component: either interaction with a reservoir in equilibrium with the Martian atmosphere (such as crustal water), or direct incorporation of the Martian atmosphere due to shock processes. The lowest δD values may represent those of the Martian mantle, but it has also been suggested that these values may represent terrestrial contamination in Martian meteorites. Here we report the hydrogen isotopic compositions and water contents of a variety of phases (merrillites, maskelynites, olivines, and an olivine-hosted melt inclusion) in Tissint, the latest Martian meteorite fall that was minimally exposed to the terrestrial environment. We compared traditional sample preparation techniques with anhydrous sample preparation methods, to evaluate their effects on hydrogen isotopes, and find that for severely shocked meteorites like Tissint, the traditional sample preparation techniques increase water content and alter the D/H ratios toward more terrestrial-like values. In the anhydrously prepared Tissint sample, we see a large range of δD values, most likely resulting from a combination of processes including magmatic degassing, secondary alteration by crustal fluids, shock-related fractionation, and implantation of Martian atmosphere. Based on these data, our best estimate of the δD value for the Martian depleted mantle is -116 ± 94‰, which is the lowest value measured in a phase in the

  5. Martian Mixed Layer during Pathfinder Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, G. M.; Valero, F.; Vazquez, L.

    2008-09-01

    In situ measurements of the Martian Planetary Boundary Layer (MPBL) encompass only the sur- face layer. Therefore, in order to fully address the MPBL, it becomes necessary to simulate somehow the behaviour of the martian mixed layer. The small-scale processes that happen in the MPBL cause GCM's ([1], [2]) to describe only partially the turbulent statistics, height, convective scales, etc, of the surface layer and the mixed layer. For this reason, 2D and 3D martian mesoscale models ([4], [5]), and large eddy simulations ([4], [6], [7], [8]) have been designed in the last years. Although they are expected to simulate more accurately the MPBL, they take an extremely expensive compu- tational time. Alternatively, we have derived the main turbu- lent characteristics of the martian mixed layer by using surface layer and mixed layer similarity ([9], [10]). From in situ temperature and wind speed measurements, together with quality-tested simu- lated ground temperature [11], we have character- ized the martian mixed layer during the convective hours of Pathfinder mission Sol 25. Mean mixed layer turbulent statistics like tem- perature variance , horizontal wind speed variance , vertical wind speed variance , viscous dissipation rate , and turbu- lent kinetic energy have been calculated, as well as the mixed layer height zi, and the convective scales of wind w? and temperature θ?. Our values, obtained with negligible time cost, match quite well with some previously obtained results via LES's ([4] and [8]). A comparisson between the above obtained mar- tian values and the typical Earth values are shown in Table 1. Convective velocity scale w doubles its counterpart terrestrial typical value, as it does the mean wind speed variances and . On the other hand, the temperature scale θ? and the mean temperature variance are virtually around one order higher on Mars. The limitations of these results concern the va- lidity of the convective mixed layer similarity. This theory

  6. Engineer Calvin H. Seaman demonstrates STS-49 INTELSAT capture bar at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Project Engineer Calvin H. Seaman (center) briefs news media representatives on the grapple fixture (capture bar) expected to be instrumental in the capture of the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) VI satellite in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. Seaman is a JSC engineer who designed the capture bar. After Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, is maneuvered into a tight proximity operations configuration with the errant satellite, two STS-49 crewmembers will attach the grapple device to the aft side of INTELSAT, as demonstrated with this full-scale mockup. The communications satellite will then be mated with a perigee stage, which the crewmembers will carry with them on their May launch, and released into space. Its motor will be fired many hours afterward, sending it on its way to a higher, geosynchronous orbit. The Errant Satellite Simulator is set up on the Air Bearing Floor for the demonstration. Photo taken by NASA JSC contract

  7. MODERN RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGIES IN FOUNDRY PRODUCTION OF JSC «MINSK TRAKTOR PLANT»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Domotenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the main world tendencies of development of the production technology of sandy cores and value of this production in complex technology of manufacture of castings are considered. It is established that the most rational way of production technically and economically is manufacture of wafer sandy cores using the Cold-box-amin technology. Scientific, technical, technological and economic aspects of modernization of foundry production of JSC MTZ with complete transition to production of sandy cores on the resource-saving Cold-box-amin technology are provided. The main distinctive feature of this reequipment – all planned works are based on the domestic technological developments and the equipment created in the cooperation by specialists of JSC BELNIILIT and JSC MTZ. Within GNTP essential support to the provided works was given by the state.

  8. Laboratory simulation of Martian atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, M. K. D.; Lewis, S. R.; Mason, N. J.; Patel, M. R.

    2012-09-01

    Measurements of the yield of important trace gas species such as ozone, evolved during photolytic reactions have been made under Martian environmental conditions in one of the The Open University's Mars simulation chambers. The simulation chamber can mimic Martian temperatures and pressures and a UV solar simulator can be added to irradiate a Marslike gas mixture within the chamber to drive chemical reactions. The concentration of trace gases is measured in situ using a Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer (FTIR). The data obtained will be invaluable in improving the qualitative and quantitative representation of chemical species calculated using Mars global circulation models (MGCMs) and in interpreting a new suite of observational data such as from ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO).

  9. Dust transport into Martian polar latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J. R.; Pollack, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of suspended dust in the Martian atmosphere, and its return to the planet's surface, is implicated in the formation of the polar layered terrain and the dichotomy in perennial CO2 polar cap retention in the two hemispheres. A three dimensional model was used to study Martian global dust storms. The model accounts for the interactive feedbacks between the atmospheric thermal and dynamical states and an evolving radiatively active suspended dust load. Results from dust storm experiments, as well as from simulations in which there is interest in identifying the conditions under which surface dust lifting occurs at various locations and times, indicate that dust transport due to atmospheric eddy motions is likely to be important in the arrival of suspended dust at polar latitudes. The layered terrain in both polar regions of Mars is interpreted as the reality of cyclical episodes of volatile (CO2, H2O) and dust deposition.

  10. Nuclear rocket using indigenous Martian fuel NIMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    1991-01-01

    In the 1960's, Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) engines were developed and ground tested capable of yielding isp of up to 900 s at thrusts up to 250 klb. Numerous trade studies have shown that such traditional hydrogen fueled NTR engines can reduce the inertial mass low earth orbit (IMLEO) of lunar missions by 35 percent and Mars missions by 50 to 65 percent. The same personnel and facilities used to revive the hydrogen NTR can also be used to develop NTR engines capable of using indigenous Martian volatiles as propellant. By putting this capacity of the NTR to work in a Mars descent/acent vehicle, the Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel (NIMF) can greatly reduce the IMLEO of a manned Mars mission, while giving the mission unlimited planetwide mobility.

  11. Martian Dust Collected by Phoenix's Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Lander's Optical Microscope shows particles of Martian dust lying on the microscope's silicon substrate. The Robotic Arm sprinkled a sample of the soil from the Snow White trench onto the microscope on July 2, 2008, the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission after landing. Subsequently, the Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM, zoomed in one of the fine particles, creating the first-ever image of a particle of Mars' ubiquitous fine dust, the most highly magnified image ever seen from another world. The Atomic Force Microscope was developed by a Swiss-led consortium in collaboration with Imperial College London. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Amino Acids in the Martian Meteorite Nakhla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Brinton, Karen L. F.; McDonald, Gene D.

    1999-08-01

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, β -alanine, and γ -amino-n-butyric acid (γ -ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  13. Overview of the Martian radiation environment experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T.F.; Cucinotta, F.A.; Saganti, P.; Andersen, V.; Lee, K.T.; Pinsky, L.S.; Atwell, W.; Turner, R.; Badhwar, G.

    2004-12-01

    Space radiation presents a hazard to astronauts, particularly those journeying outside the protective influence of the geomagnetosphere. Crews on future missions to Mars will be exposed to the harsh radiation environment of deep space during the transit between Earth and Mars. Once on Mars, they will encounter radiation that is only slightly reduced, compared to free space, by the thin Martian atmosphere. NASA is obliged to minimize, where possible, the radiation exposures received by astronauts. Thus, as a precursor to eventual human exploration, it is necessary to measure the Martian radiation environment in detail. The MARIE experiment, aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, is returning the first data that bear directly on this problem. Here we provide an overview of the experiment, including introductory material on space radiation and radiation dosimetry, a description of the detector, model predictions of the radiation environment at Mars, and preliminary dose-rate data obtained at Mars.

  14. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted into Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander inserted the four needles of its thermal and conductivity probe into Martian soil during the 98th Martian day, or sol, of the mission and left it in place until Sol 99 (Sept. 4, 2008). The Robotic Arm Camera on Phoenix took this image on the morning of Sol 99 while the probe's needles were in the ground. The science team informally named this soil target 'Gandalf.' The thermal and conductivity probe measures how fast heat and electricity move from one needle to an adjacent one through the soil or air between the needles. Conductivity readings can be indicators about water vapor, water ice and liquid water. The probe is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity suite of instruments. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. CO2 Impacts on the Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael; Bauer, James; Bodewits, Dennis; Farnham, Tony; Stevenson, Rachel; Yelle, Roger

    2014-09-01

    The dynamically new comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) will pass Mars at the extremely close distance of 140,000 km on 2014 Oct 19. This encounter is unique---a record close approach to a planet with spacecraft that can observe its passage---and currently, all 5 Mars orbiters have plans to observe the comet and/or its effects on the planet. Gas from the comet's coma is expected to collide with the Martian atmosphere, altering the abundances of some species and producing significant heating, inflating the upper atmosphere. We propose DDT observations with Spitzer/IRAC to measure the comet's CO2+CO coma (observing window Oct 30 - Nov 20), to use these measurements to derive the coma's CO2 density at Mars during the closest approach, and to aid the interpretation of any observed effects or changes in the Martian atmosphere.

  16. Ice sculpture in the Martian outflow channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Viking Orbiter and terrestrial satellite images are examined at similar resolution to compare features of the Martian outflow channels with features produced by the movement of ice on earth, and many resemblances are found. These include the anastomoses, sinuosities, and U-shaped cross profiles of valleys; hanging valleys; linear scour marks on valley walls; grooves and ridges on valley floors; and the streamlining of bedrock highs. Attention is given to the question whether ice could have moved in the Martian environment. It is envisaged that springs or small catastrophic outbursts discharged fluids from structural outlets or chaotic terrains. These fluids built icings that may have grown into substantial masses and eventually flowed like glaciers down preexisting valleys. An alternative is that the fluids formed rivers or floods that in turn formed ice jams and consolidated into icy masses in places where obstacles blocked their flow.

  17. MetNet - Martian Network Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.

    2009-04-01

    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The actual practical mission development work started in January 2009 with participation from various countries and space agencies. The scientific rationale and goals as well as key mission solutions will be discussed. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. This development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development.

  18. Improvement of Operational Reliability Resource for JSC “Beltransgaz” Main Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mayorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper considers prospects for modernization of the operating linear portion of JSC “Beltransgaz” gas transportation system, various methods and materials which are used while implementing  construction and installation works in the oil and gas sector. It has been shown that in the recent decade one of the most technically, technologically and economically efficient application of the material is double-composite polyurethane coating. The method for coating deposition has been tested and introduced by JSC “Beltransgaz” with significant economic efficiency.

  19. ASTP crewmen in Apollo Command Module Trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The three members of the American ASTP prime crew are photographed inside the Apollo Command Module (CM) trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egress training at JSC. They are, left to right, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot (23430); Slayton attaches his life preserver as he egresses an Apollo Command Module trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egresss training at JSC. Astronauts Brand (on left) and Stafford have already egressed the trainer and are seated in a three-man life raft.

  20. STS-31 crewmembers during simulation on the flight deck of JSC's FB-SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    On the flight deck of JSC's fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS), Mission Specialist (MS) Steven A. Hawley (left), on aft flight deck, looks over the shoulders of Commander Loren J. Shriver, seated at the commanders station (left) and Pilot Charles F. Bolden, seated at the pilots station and partially blocked by the seat's headrest (right). The three astronauts recently named to the STS-31 mission aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, go through a procedures checkout in the FB-SMS. The training simulation took place in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  1. Organic Contamination Baseline Study: In NASA JSC Astromaterials Curation Laboratories. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for OSIRIS-REx and other future sample return missions concerned with analyzing organics, we conducted an Organic Contamination Baseline Study for JSC Curation Labsoratories in FY12. For FY12 testing, organic baseline study focused only on molecular organic contamination in JSC curation gloveboxes: presumably future collections (i.e. Lunar, Mars, asteroid missions) would use isolation containment systems over only cleanrooms for primary sample storage. This decision was made due to limit historical data on curation gloveboxes, limited IR&D funds and Genesis routinely monitors organics in their ISO class 4 cleanrooms.

  2. Theoretical Study on Ion Escape in Martian Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jian-Kui; LIU Zhen-Xing; Klaus TORKAR; Tielong ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    @@ Based on the observation that Martian magnetic moment is gradually reducing from the ancient to the present,we investigate the O+ ion flux distribution along magnetic field lines and the ion escaping flux in Martian tail with different assumed Martian magnetic moments. The results show that the O+ ion flux along magnetic field lines decreases with distance from Mars; the ion flux along the field line decreases more quickly if the magnetic moment is larger; the larger the magnetic moment, the smaller the ion escaping flux in the Martian tail. The ion escaping flux depends on Z-coordinate in the Martian tail. With decrease of the magnetic moment, the ion escaping flux in the Martian tail increases. The results are significant for studying the water loss from Mars surface.

  3. 77 FR 31794 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Imposition of Special Measure Against JSC CredexBank as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Against JSC CredexBank as a Financial Institution of Primary Money Laundering Concern AGENCY: Financial... that JSC CredexBank is a financial institution of primary money laundering concern pursuant to 31 U.S.C...), Public Law 107-56. Title III of the USA PATRIOT Act amends the anti- money laundering provisions of...

  4. Unusual Iron Redox Systematics of Martian Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Pando, K.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T.; Agresti, D.; Martin, A.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.; Lanzirotti, A.

    2012-01-01

    Martian magmas are known to be FeO-rich and the dominant FeO-bearing mineral at many sites visited by the Mars Exploration rovers (MER) is magnetite. Morris et al. proposed that the magnetite appears to be igneous in origin, rather than of secondary origin. However, magnetite is not typically found in experimental studies of martian magmatic rocks. Magnetite stability in terrestrial magmas is well understood, as are the stabilities of FeO and Fe2O3 in terrestrial magmas. In order to better understand the variation of FeO and Fe2O3, and the stability of magnetite (and other FeO-bearing phases) in martian magmas, we have undertaken an experimental study with two emphases. First, we determine the FeO and Fe2O3 contents of super- and sub-liquidus glasses from a shergottite bulk composition at 1 bar to 4 GPa, and variable fO2. Second, we document the stability of magnetite with temperature and fO2 in a shergottite bulk composition.

  5. Iron Redox Systematics of Martian Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Martin, A.; Pando, K.; Sutton, S.; Newville, M.

    2011-01-01

    Martian magmas are known to be FeO-rich and the dominant FeO-bearing mineral at many sites visited by the Mars Exploration rovers (MER) is magnetite [1]. Morris et al. [1] propose that the magnetite appears to be igneous in origin, rather than of secondary origin. However, magnetite is not typically found in experimental studies of martian magmatic rocks [2,3]. Magnetite stability in terrestrial magmas is well understood, as are the stability of FeO and Fe2O3 in terrestrial magmas [4,5]. In order to better understand the variation of FeO and Fe2O3, and the stability of magnetite (and other FeO-bearing phases) in martian magmas we have undertaken an experimental study with two emphases. First we document the stability of magnetite with temperature and fO2 in a shergottite bulk composition. Second, we determine the FeO and Fe2O3 contents of the same shergottite bulk composition at 1 bar and variable fO2 at 1250 C, and at variable pressure. These two goals will help define not only magnetite stability, but pyroxene-melt equilibria that are also dependent upon fO2.

  6. Martian regolith geochemistry and sampling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory study of samples of the intermediate and fine-grained regolith, including duricrust peds, is a fundamental prerequisite for understanding the types of physical and chemical weathering processes on Mars. The extraordinary importance of such samples is their relevance to understanding past changes in climate, availability (and possible physical state) of water, eolian forces, the thermal and chemical influences of volcanic and impact processes, and the inventory and fates of Martian volatiles. Fortunately, this regolith material appears to be ubiquitous over the Martian surface, and should be available at many different landing sites. Viking data has been interpreted to indicate a smectite-rich regolith material, implying extensive weathering involving aqueous activity and geochemical alteration. An all-igneous source of the Martian fines has also been proposed. The X-ray fluorescence measurement data set can now be fully explained in terms of a simple two-component model. The first component is silicate, having strong geochemical similarities with Shergottites, but not other SNC meteorites. The second component is salt. Variations in these components could produce silicate and salt-rich beds, the latter being of high potential importance for microenvironments in which liquid water (brines) could exist. It therefore would be desirable to scan the surface of the regolith for such prospects.

  7. Martian Atmospheric Pressure Static Charge Elimination Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    A Martian pressure static charge elimination tool is currently in development in the Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory (ESPL) at NASA's Kennedy Space Center. In standard Earth atmosphere conditions, static charge can be neutralized from an insulating surface using air ionizers. These air ionizers generate ions through corona breakdown. The Martian atmosphere is 7 Torr of mostly carbon dioxide, which makes it inherently difficult to use similar methods as those used for standard atmosphere static elimination tools. An initial prototype has been developed to show feasibility of static charge elimination at low pressure, using corona discharge. A needle point and thin wire loop are used as the corona generating electrodes. A photo of the test apparatus is shown below. Positive and negative high voltage pulses are sent to the needle point. This creates positive and negative ions that can be used for static charge neutralization. In a preliminary test, a floating metal plate was charged to approximately 600 volts under Martian atmospheric conditions. The static elimination tool was enabled and the voltage on the metal plate dropped rapidly to -100 volts. This test data is displayed below. Optimization is necessary to improve the electrostatic balance of the static elimination tool.

  8. The Germanium Dichotomy in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humayun, M.; Yang, S.; Righter, K.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R. H.

    2016-01-01

    Germanium is a moderately volatile and siderophile element that follows silicon in its compatibility during partial melting of planetary mantles. Despite its obvious usefulness in planetary geochemistry germanium is not analyzed routinely, with there being only three prior studies reporting germanium abundances in Martian meteorites. The broad range (1-3 ppm) observed in Martian igneous rocks is in stark contrast to the narrow range of germanium observed in terrestrial basalts (1.5 plus or minus 0.1 ppm). The germanium data from these studies indicates that nakhlites contain 2-3 ppm germanium, while shergottites contain approximately 1 ppm germanium, a dichotomy with important implications for core formation models. There have been no reliable germanium abundances on chassignites. The ancient meteoritic breccia, NWA 7533 (and paired meteorites) contains numerous clasts, some pristine and some impact melt rocks, that are being studied individually. Because germanium is depleted in the Martian crust relative to chondritic impactors, it has proven useful as an indicator of meteoritic contamination of impact melt clasts in NWA 7533. The germanium/silicon ratio can be applied to minerals that might not partition nickel and iridium, like feldspars. We report germanium in minerals from the 3 known chassignites, 2 nakhlites and 5 shergottites by LAICP- MS using a method optimized for precise germanium analysis.

  9. Fractionated (Martian) Noble Gases — EFA, Experiments and Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Barnes, G.; Bridges, J. C.; Bullock, M. A.; Chavez, C. L.; Filiberto, J.; Herrmann, S.; Hicks, L. J.; Kelley, S. P.; Miller, M. A.; Moore, J. M.; Ott, U.; Smith, H. D.; Steer, E. D.; Swindle, T. D.; Treiman, A. H.

    2016-08-01

    Noble gases are tracers for physical processes, including adsorption, dissolution and secondary mineral formation. We examine the Martian fractionated atmosphere through literature, terrestrial analogs and experiments.

  10. An Electrostatic Precipitator System for the Martian Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Mackey, P. J.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M. R.; Phillips, J. R., III; Clements, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions to Mars will require the development of technologies for the utilization of the planet's own resources for the production of commodities. However, the Martian atmosphere contains large amounts of dust. The extraction of commodities from this atmosphere requires prior removal of this dust. We report on our development of an electrostatic precipitator able to collect Martian simulated dust particles in atmospheric conditions approaching those of Mars. Extensive experiments with an initial prototype in a simulated Martian atmosphere showed efficiencies of 99%. The design of a second prototype with aerosolized Martian simulated dust in a flow-through is described. Keywords: Space applications, electrostatic precipitator, particle control, particle charging

  11. Magnesium isotope systematics in Martian meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magna, Tomáš; Hu, Yan; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Mezger, Klaus

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium isotope compositions are reported for a suite of Martian meteorites that span the range of petrological and geochemical types recognized to date for Mars, including crustal breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034. The δ26Mg values (per mil units relative to DSM-3 reference material) range from -0.32 to -0.11‰; basaltic shergottites and nakhlites lie to the heavier end of the Mg isotope range whereas olivine-phyric, olivine-orthopyroxene-phyric and lherzolitic shergottites, and chassignites have slightly lighter Mg isotope compositions, attesting to modest correlation of Mg isotopes and petrology of the samples. Slightly heavier Mg isotope compositions found for surface-related materials (NWA 7034, black glass fraction of the Tissint shergottite fall; δ26Mg > -0.17‰) indicate measurable Mg isotope difference between the Martian mantle and crust but the true extent of Mg isotope fractionation for Martian surface materials remains unconstrained. The range of δ26Mg values from -0.19 to -0.11‰ in nakhlites is most likely due to accumulation of clinopyroxene during petrogenesis rather than garnet fractionation in the source or assimilation of surface material modified at low temperatures. The rather restricted range in Mg isotope compositions between spatially and temporally distinct mantle-derived samples supports the idea of inefficient/absent major tectonic cycles on Mars, which would include plate tectonics and large-scale recycling of isotopically fractionated surface materials back into the Martian mantle. The cumulative δ26Mg value of Martian samples, which are not influenced by late-stage alteration processes and/or crust-mantle interactions, is - 0.271 ± 0.040 ‰ (2SD) and is considered to reflect δ26Mg value of the Bulk Silicate Mars. This value is robust taking into account the range of lithologies involved in this estimate. It also attests to the lack of the Mg isotope variability reported for the inner Solar System bodies at current

  12. STS-46 MS Chang-Diaz floats in life raft during water egress training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), relies on a one-person life raft to get him to 'safety' during a launch emergency egress (bailout) simulation conducted in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  13. STS-35 Pilot Gardner shoots picture during water egress training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Pilot Guy S. Gardner shoots picture using a 35mm camera during water egress training conducted in the Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 at JSC. Gardner is wearing a launch and entry suit and a life jacket.

  14. STS-56 Commander Cameron, in LES, during JSC emergency egress training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-56 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Kenneth Cameron, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), poses at the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT) side hatch before climbing into the mockup. Cameron, along with the other STS-56 crewmembers, is participating in an emergency egress simulation at JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE.

  15. STS-37 Pilot Kenneth D. Cameron during egress training in JSC's WETF Bldg 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-37 Pilot Kenneth D. Cameron, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), discusses simulated emergency egress training on the pool side of JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Cameron will be dropped into a simulated ocean, the WETF's 25-ft pool, into which a parachute landing might be made.

  16. STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Godwin during simulation in JSC's FB-SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Linda M. Godwin rehearses some phases of her scheduled duties on the middeck of the fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Godwin is inspecting supplies stowed in the middeck lockers during this unsuited simulation.

  17. STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Ross during simulation in JSC's FB-SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross 'borrows' the pilots station to rehearse some of his scheduled duties for his upcoming mission. He is on the flight deck of the fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) during this unsuited simulation. The SMS is part of JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  18. STS-44 Atlantis, OV-104, MS Musgrave on FB-SMS middeck during JSC training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) F. Story Musgrave, wearing lightweight headset (HDST), adjusts controls on communications module mounted on a middeck overhead panel. Musgrave is on the middeck of the Fixed Base (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. The STS-44 crewmembers are participating in a flight simulation.

  19. STS-31 Pilot Bolden with beverages on the FB-SMS middeck during JSC training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-31 Pilot Charles F. Bolden holds three beverage containers while in front of the galley on the middeck of the fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) during a training simulation at JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. From the middeck, Bolden, wearing lightweight headset, simulates a communications link with ground controllers and fellow crewmembers.

  20. STS-31 crewmembers review checklist with instructor on JSC's FB-SMS middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Bruce McCandless II (left) and Pilot Charles F. Bolden (right) discuss procedures with a training instructor on the middeck of JSC's fixed-based (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). The three are pointing to a checklist during this training simulation in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  1. STS-44 Atlantis, OV-104, Pilot Henricks in FB-SMS training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, seated at the pilots station on the forward flight deck, reviews checklists before a flight simulation in the Fixed Base (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Surrounding Henricks are the seat back, the overhead panels, forward panels, and forward windows.

  2. STS-32 MS Dunbar trains in JSC Manipulator Development Facility (MDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-32 Mission Specialist (MS) Bonnie J. Dunbar reviews checklist with training personnel in the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) in JSC's Mockup and Integration Facility (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Dunbar (left) discusses procedures with trainer in front of the aft flight deck onorbit station controls. Overhead window W8 is visible above their heads.

  3. Technicians assist STS-47 MS Jemison prior to JSC bailout training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison, assisted by technicians, adjusts a strap on her launch and entry suit (LES) prior to launch emergency egress (bailout) exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Jemison is making her first flight in space.

  4. Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS) echocardiograph in mockup rack in JSC's Bldg 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS) life sciences laboratory equipment (LSLE) echocardiograph is documented in the JSC Bioengineering and Test Support Facility Bldg 36. Displayed on the echocardiograph monitor is a heart image. The echocardiograph equipment is located in Rack 6 and will be used in conjunction with Experiment No. 294 Cardiovascular Adaptation to Zero Gravity during the STS-40 SLS-1 mission.

  5. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba sits at the pilots station in JSC mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba sits at the pilots station on the forward flight deck of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. Malerba, wearing a flight suit, is participating in a hardware familiarity training session.

  6. STS-41 MS Akers looks up at mockup prior to egress training in JSC's MAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 Mission Specialist (MS) Thomas D. Akers, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), looks up at crew compartment trainer (CCT) prior to emergency egress training exercises. The exercises were conducted in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  7. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, MS Brown dons LES in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Mission Specialist (MS) Mark N. Brown, wearing communications carrier assembly (CCA) and launch and entry suit (LES), prepares to don launch and entry helmet (LEH). Brown suits up for shuttle emergency egress (bailout) procedures in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  8. STS-46 MS Chang-Diaz floats in life raft during water egress training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), relies on a one-person life raft to get him to 'safety' during a launch emergency egress (bailout) simulation conducted in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  9. Variability of the Martian thermospheric temperatures during the last 7 Martian Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Galindo, Francisco; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel Angel; Millour, Ehouarn; Forget, François

    2014-05-01

    The temperatures and densities in the Martian upper atmosphere have a significant influence over the different processes producing atmospheric escape. A good knowledge of the thermosphere and its variability is thus necessary in order to better understand and quantify the atmospheric loss to space and the evolution of the planet. Different global models have been used to study the seasonal and interannual variability of the Martian thermosphere, usually considering three solar scenarios (solar minimum, solar medium and solar maximum conditions) to take into account the solar cycle variability. However, the variability of the solar activity within the simulated period of time is not usually considered in these models. We have improved the description of the UV solar flux included on the General Circulation Model for Mars developed at the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD-MGCM) in order to include its observed day-to-day variability. We have used the model to simulate the thermospheric variability during Martian Years 24 to 30, using realistic UV solar fluxes and dust opacities. The model predicts and interannual variability of the temperatures in the upper thermosphere that ranges from about 50 K during the aphelion to up to 150 K during perihelion. The seasonal variability of temperatures due to the eccentricity of the Martian orbit is modified by the variability of the solar flux within a given Martian year. The solar rotation cycle produces temperature oscillations of up to 30 K. We have also studied the response of the modeled thermosphere to the global dust storms in Martian Year 25 and Martian Year 28. The atmospheric dynamics are significantly modified by the global dust storms, which induces significant changes in the thermospheric temperatures. The response of the model to the presence of both global dust storms is in good agreement with previous modeling results (Medvedev et al., Journal of Geophysical Research, 2013). As expected, the simulated

  10. The Martian Chronicles. A Sound Filmstrip Program. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christesen, Barbara

    This filmstrip study guide dramatizes several stories from Ray Bradbury's "The Martian Chronicles" concerning basic issues of human nature: the need to respect cultural differences and the importance of preserving the environment. A collection of 26 short stories, "The Martian Chronicles" describes the colonization of Mars. The…

  11. Disentangling xenon components in Nakhla: martian atmosphere, spallation and martian interior^1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, J. D.; Whitby, J. A.; Turner, G.

    2001-01-01

    A powdered sample of Nakhla was separated into 3 subsamples. One was left otherwise untreated, one was washed in water and one etched with HNO 3 removing 6% of the original mass. We report results of isotopic analysis of xenon released by laser step heating on aliquots of each of these subsamples; some aliquots were neutron irradiated before isotopic analysis (to allow determination of I, Ba and U as daughter xenon isotopes) and some were not. There is evidence that water soluble phases contain both martian atmospheric xenon and a component with low 129Xe/ 132Xe, either martian interior xenon or terrestrial atmosphere. Higher temperature data from unirradiated aliquots of the water and acid treated samples reveal two-component mixing. One is a trapped xenon component with 129Xe/ 132Xe = 2.350 ± 0.026, isotopically identical to the martian atmosphere as measured in shock glass from shergottites. It is associated with leachable iodine, suggesting it is trapped close to grain boundaries. It may be a result of shock incorporation of adsorbed atmospheric gas. The second component is best explained as an intimate mixture of martian interior xenon and spallation xenon. The martian interior component is present at a concentration of ˜10 -12 cm 3 STP g -1 132Xe, around 40 times lower than that observed in Chassigny. Its association with spallation xenon (produced from Ba and light rare earth elements) suggests it is in the feldspathic mesostasis. We propose that it was trapped during crystallisation and reflects the mantle source of the parental magma.

  12. One Last Look at the Martian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is a false color image of the Martian terrain and rock called 'Winkies' (rock 'Quadlings' in foreground) taken by the Surface Stereo Imager camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on Sol 151 of the mission (Oct. 27, 2008). This frosty image is among the last taken by the lander before the mission's final communications on Nov. 2, 2008. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. An Examination of "The Martian" Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This analysis was performed to support a request to examine the trajectory of the Hermes vehicle in the novel "The Martian" by Andy Weir. Weir developed his own tool to perform the analysis necessary to provide proper trajectory information for the novel. The Hermes vehicle is the interplanetary spacecraft that shuttles the crew to and from Mars. It is notionally a Nuclear powered vehicle utilizing VASIMR engines for propulsion. The intent of this analysis was the determine whether the trajectory as it was outlined in the novel is consistent with the rules of orbital mechanics.

  14. Phoenix's Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Phoenix Mars lander's robotic-arm camera took this image of the spacecraft's thermal and electrical-conductivity probe (TECP) inserted into Martian soil on day 149 of the mission. Phoenix landed on Mars' northern plains on May 25, 2008, landing. The robotic-arm camera acquired this image at 16:02:41 local solar time. The camera pointing was elevation -72.6986 degrees and azimuth 2.1093 degrees. The Phoenix mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. A Thermal Plume Model for the Martian Convective Boundary Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Colaïtis, Arnaud; Hourdin, Frédéric; Rio, Catherine; Forget, François; Millour, Ehouarn

    2013-01-01

    The Martian Planetary Boundary Layer [PBL] is a crucial component of the Martian climate system. Global Climate Models [GCMs] and Mesoscale Models [MMs] lack the resolution to predict PBL mixing which is therefore parameterized. Here we propose to adapt the "thermal plume" model, recently developed for Earth climate modeling, to Martian GCMs, MMs, and single-column models. The aim of this physically-based parameterization is to represent the effect of organized turbulent structures (updrafts and downdrafts) on the daytime PBL transport, as it is resolved in Large-Eddy Simulations [LESs]. We find that the terrestrial thermal plume model needs to be modified to satisfyingly account for deep turbulent plumes found in the Martian convective PBL. Our Martian thermal plume model qualitatively and quantitatively reproduces the thermal structure of the daytime PBL on Mars: superadiabatic near-surface layer, mixing layer, and overshoot region at PBL top. This model is coupled to surface layer parameterizations taking ...

  16. Amino acids in the Martian meteorite Nakhla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D P; Bada, J L; Brinton, K L; McDonald, G D

    1999-08-03

    A suite of protein and nonprotein amino acids were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography in the water- and acid-soluble components of an interior fragment of the Martian meteorite Nakhla, which fell in Egypt in 1911. Aspartic and glutamic acids, glycine, alanine, beta-alanine, and gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (gamma-ABA) were the most abundant amino acids detected and were found primarily in the 6 M HCl-hydrolyzed, hot water extract. The concentrations ranged from 20 to 330 parts per billion of bulk meteorite. The amino acid distribution in Nakhla, including the D/L ratios (values range from meteorite soon after its fall to Earth, although it is possible that some of the amino acids are endogenous to the meteorite. The rapid amino acid contamination of Martian meteorites after direct exposure to the terrestrial environment has important implications for Mars sample-return missions and the curation of the samples from the time of their delivery to Earth.

  17. Phoenix Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This series of six images from the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander records the first time that the four spikes of the lander's thermal and electrical conductivity probe were inserted into Martian soil. The images were taken on July 8, 2008, during the Phoenix mission's 43rd Martian day, or sol, since landing. The insertion visible from the shadows cast on the ground on that sol was a validation test of the procedure. The spikes on the probe are about 1.5 centimeters or half an inch long. The science team will use the probe tool to assess how easily heat and electricity move through the soil from one spike to another. Such measurements can provide information about frozen or unfrozen water in the soil. The probe is mounted on the 'knuckle' of Phoenix's Robotic Arm. It has already been used for assessing water vapor in the atmosphere when it is held above the ground. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Martian north polar cap summer water cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adrian J; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane

    2016-01-01

    A key outstanding question in Martian science is 'are the polar caps gaining or losing mass and what are the implications for past, current and future climate?' To address this question, we use observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of the north polar cap during late summer for multiple Martian years, to monitor the summertime water cycle in order to place quantitative limits on the amount of water ice deposited and sublimed in late summer. We establish here for the first time the summer cycle of water ice absorption band signatures on the north polar cap. We show that in a key region in the interior of the north polar cap, the absorption band depths grow until Ls=120, when they begin to shrink, until they are obscured at the end of summer by the north polar hood. This behavior is transferable over the entire north polar cap, where in late summer regions 'flip' from being net sublimating into net condensation mode. This transition or 'mode flip' happens earlier for ...

  19. Charge Balance in the Martian Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esman, Teresa; Yelle, Roger V.; Stone, Shane W.; Andersson, Laila; Fowler, Christopher Michael; Benna, Mehdi; Eparvier, Francis; Mahaffy, Paul; Ergun, Bob; Elrod, Meredith K.; MAVEN

    2016-10-01

    We present empirical models of the Martian ionosphere in conjunction with data from the Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW), Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS), and Extreme Ultraviolet Monitor (EUVM) instruments aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission (MAVEN) spacecraft. Among the data provided by MAVEN are electron densities and temperatures, ion and neutral densities, and solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) flux. We explore a number of contributors to the CO2 photoionization rate, with a specific focus on the role of electron temperatures, which, prior to MAVEN, were not well-known. We compare our results with expectations of the ionospheric structure and behavior to confirm our understanding of the basic structure of the Martian ionosphere in the photochemical region. We show that the ionosphere of Mars is well matched by photochemical equilibrium to within the accuracy of the measurements. These results will aid in the development of more complex ionospheric and escape models and lead to a comprehensive and global scale picture of thermal ion escape on Mars.

  20. Numerical Modeling of Glaciers in Martian Paleoclimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaprete, A.; Haberle, R. M.; Montmessin, F.; Scheaffer, J.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous geologic features suggest the presence of ice flow on the surface of mars. These features include lobate debris aprons, concentric crater fill, and lineated valley fill. The lateral extent of these features can range from 100 meters to over 20 km. Previous work has demonstrated that these features could not have formed in current Martian conditions. It has long been speculated that changes in Mars orbital properties, namely its obliquity, eccentricity, and argument of perihelion, can result in dramatic changes to climate. Recent climate model studies have shown that at periods of increased obliquity north polar water ice is mobilized southward and deposited at low ad mid latitudes. Mid latitude accumulation of ice would provide the necessary conditions for rock glaciers to form. A time-marching, finite element glacier model is used to demonstrate the ability of ice and ice-rock mixtures to flow under Martian paleoclimate conditions. Input to this model is constrained by the NASA Ames Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM).

  1. Stable Chlorine Isotopes and Elemental Chlorine by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Ion Chromatography; Martian Meteorites, Carbonaceous Chondrites and Standard Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C.-Y.; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.

    2011-01-01

    Recently significantly large mass fractionation of stable chlorine isotopes has been reported for terrestrial and lunar samples [1,2]. In addition, in view of possible early solar system processes [3] and also potential perchlorate-related fluid/microbial activities on the Martian surface [4,5], a large chlorine isotopic fractionation might be expected for some types of planetary materials. Due to analytical difficulties of isotopic and elemental analyses, however, current chlorine analyses for planetary materials are controversial among different laboratories, particularly between IRMS (gas source mass spectrometry) and TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry) groups [i.e. 1,6,7] for isotopic analyses, as well as between those doing pyrohydrolysis and other groups [i.e. 6,8]. Additional careful investigations of Cl isotope and elemental abundances are required to confirm real chlorine isotope and elemental variations for planetary materials. We have developed a TIMS technique combined with HF-leaching/ion chromatography at NASA JSC that is applicable to analysis of small amounts of meteoritic and planetary materials. We present here results for several standard rocks and meteorites, including Martian meteorites.

  2. Survival of microorganisms in smectite clays: Implications for Martian exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Deborah M.; Vestal, J. Robie

    1992-08-01

    Manned exploration of Mars may result in the contamination of that planet with terrestrial microbes, a situation requiring assessment of the survival potential of possible contaminating organisms. In this study, the survival of Bacillus subtilis, Azotobacter chroococcum, and the enteric bacteriophage MS2 was examined in clays representing terrestrial (Wyoming type montmorillonite) or Martian (Fe 3+-montmorillonite) soils exposed to terrestrial and Martian environmental conditions of temperature and atmospheric pressure and composition, but not to UV flux or oxidizing conditions. Survival of bacteria was determined by standard plate counts and biochemical and physiological measurements over 112 days. Extractable lipid phosphate was used to measure microbial biomass, and the rate of 14C-acetate incorporation into microbial lipids was used to determine physiological activity. MS2 survival was assayed by plaque counts. Both bacterial types survived terrestrial or Martian conditions in Wyoming montmorillonite better than Martian conditions in Fe 3+-montmorillonite. Decreased survival may have been caused by the lower pH of the Fe 3+-montmorillonite compared to Wyoming montmorillonite. MS2 survived simulated Mars conditions better than the terrestrial environment, likely due to stabilization of the virus caused by the cold and dry conditions of the simulated Martian environment. The survival of MS2 in the simulated Martian environment is the first published indication that viruses may be able to survive in Martian type soils. This work may have implications for planetary protection for future Mars missions.

  3. Field Measurements of Terrestrial and Martian Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jim; Steakley, Kathryn; Balme, Matt; Deprez, Gregoire; Esposito, Francesca; Kahanpää, Henrik; Lemmon, Mark; Lorenz, Ralph; Murdoch, Naomi; Neakrase, Lynn; Patel, Manish; Whelley, Patrick

    2016-11-01

    Surface-based measurements of terrestrial and martian dust devils/convective vortices provided from mobile and stationary platforms are discussed. Imaging of terrestrial dust devils has quantified their rotational and vertical wind speeds, translation speeds, dimensions, dust load, and frequency of occurrence. Imaging of martian dust devils has provided translation speeds and constraints on dimensions, but only limited constraints on vertical motion within a vortex. The longer mission durations on Mars afforded by long operating robotic landers and rovers have provided statistical quantification of vortex occurrence (time-of-sol, and recently seasonal) that has until recently not been a primary outcome of more temporally limited terrestrial dust devil measurement campaigns. Terrestrial measurement campaigns have included a more extensive range of measured vortex parameters (pressure, wind, morphology, etc.) than have martian opportunities, with electric field and direct measure of dust abundance not yet obtained on Mars. No martian robotic mission has yet provided contemporaneous high frequency wind and pressure measurements. Comparison of measured terrestrial and martian dust devil characteristics suggests that martian dust devils are larger and possess faster maximum rotational wind speeds, that the absolute magnitude of the pressure deficit within a terrestrial dust devil is an order of magnitude greater than a martian dust devil, and that the time-of-day variation in vortex frequency is similar. Recent terrestrial investigations have demonstrated the presence of diagnostic dust devil signals within seismic and infrasound measurements; an upcoming Mars robotic mission will obtain similar measurement types.

  4. Martian Gullies: H2O or CO2 snow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolanda, C.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.

    2007-05-01

    The theories proposed to try to explain the origin of the Martian gullies involve either liquid water, liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material. We propose another processes that can be favorable for the origin of the Martian gullies, with our model by gaseous fluidification of CO2. We propose that on the Martian slopes, CO2 snow and dust transported by winds, are accumulate. During the Martian spring, sublimation of carbonic snow starts because of heat and weigth of the frezze layer, causing that the material mixed its fluidifized and slide downslope by gravity. By experimental work with dry granular material, we simulated the development of the Martian gullies injecting air inside the granular material. We also present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies forms at cold environment, sited at Nevado de Toluca Volcano near Toluca City, México. We compared them with some Martian gullies, to identify possible processes evolved in its formation. We measured the lengths of those Martian gullies and the range was from 24 meters to 1775 meters. Finally, we present results of our experimental work at laboratory with dry granular material and our field trip to Nevado de Toluca Volcano.

  5. The 2015-2016 SEPMAP Program at NASA JSC: Science, Engineering, and Program Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L.; Archer, D.; Bakalyar, J.; Berger, E.; Blome, E.; Brown, R.; Cox, S.; Curiel, P.; Eid, R.; Eppler, D.; Fries, M.; Gruener, J.; Haddock, M.; Harder, K.; Hong, T.; McCann, C.; Neiss, K.; Newswander, J.; Odina, J.; Peslier, A.; Quadri, Z.; Ross, S.; Rutovic, M.; Schulte, R.; Thomas, R.; Vos, J.; Waid, M.; William, B.

    2017-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Project Management Advancement Program (SEPMAP) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is an employee development program designed to provide graduate level training in project management and systems engineering. The program includes an applied learning project with engineering and integrated science goals requirements. The teams were presented with a task: Collect a representative sample set from a field site using a hexacopter platform, as if performing a scientific reconnaissance to assess whether the site is of sufficient scientific interest to justify exploration by astronauts. Four teams worked through the eighteen-month course to design customized sampling payloads integrated with the hexacopter, and then operate the aircraft to meet sampling requirements of number (= 5) and mass (= 5g each). The "Mars Yard" at JSC was utilized for this purpose. This project activity closely parallels NASA plans for the future exploration of Mars, where remote sites will be reconnoitered ahead of crewed exploration.

  6. Lunar and martian meteorite delivery services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1994-01-01

    Launch mechanisms for lunar and martian meteorites have been investigated, by integrating physical modeling constraints, geochemical cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) constraints, and petrologic constraints. The potential source region for lunar meteorites is remarkably small compared to the final crater volume. CRE constraints indicate that most launches start at depths of less than or equal to 3.2 m, and cratering theory implies derivation of suitably accelerated objects from a subvolume with diameter only about 0.3 x the final crater diameter. The shallow depth provenance is probably related to shock-wave interference, enhanced by the lunar regolith's extremely low compressional wave velocity. CRE constraints alone imply that four to five separate launch events are represented among the eight well-studied lunar meteorites. Most of the lunar meteorites are regolith breccias, which tend to show only limited compositional diversity within any kilometer-scale region of the Moon. Several others are polymict breccias, which also show relatively subdued compositional diversity, compared to igneous rocks. The observed diversity among these samples in terms of abundances of mare basalt and KREEP, and in Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio, implies that among eight well-studied lunar meteorites only two potential source craters pairings are plausible: between Asuka-881757 + Y-793169 (most probable) and between Y-793274 + EET875721. Altogether, these eight lunar meteorites apparently represent at least six separate source craters, including three in the past 10(exp 5) years and five in the past 10(exp 6) years. CRE constraints imply that SNC meteorites are launched from systematically greater than lunar meteorites. SNCs are also systematically bigger, and all nine well-studied SNCs are uncommonly young (by martian standards) mafic igneous rocks. Comparison between Viking and Apollo results reveals that rocks the size of common meteorites are remarkably scarce in the martian regolith, probably due

  7. Lunar and martian meteorite delivery services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1994-10-01

    Launch mechanisms for lunar and martian meteorites have been investigated, by integrating physical modeling constraints, geochemical cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) constraints, and petrologic constraints. The potential source region for lunar meteorites is remarkably small compared to the final crater volume. CRE constraints indicate that most launches start at depths of less than or equal to 3.2 m, and cratering theory implies derivation of suitably accelerated objects from a subvolume with diameter only about 0.3 x the final crater diameter. The shallow depth provenance is probably related to shock-wave interference, enhanced by the lunar regolith's extremely low compressional wave velocity. CRE constraints alone imply that four to five separate launch events are represented among the eight well-studied lunar meteorites. Most of the lunar meteorites are regolith breccias, which tend to show only limited compositional diversity within any kilometer-scale region of the Moon. Several others are polymict breccias, which also show relatively subdued compositional diversity, compared to igneous rocks. The observed diversity among these samples in terms of abundances of mare basalt and KREEP, and in Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio, implies that among eight well-studied lunar meteorites only two potential source craters pairings are plausible: between Asuka-881757 + Y-793169 (most probable) and between Y-793274 + EET875721. Altogether, these eight lunar meteorites apparently represent at least six separate source craters, including three in the past 105 years and five in the past 106 years. CRE constraints imply that SNC meteorites are launched from systematically greater than lunar meteorites. SNCs are also systematically bigger, and all nine well-studied SNCs are uncommonly young (by martian standards) mafic igneous rocks. Comparison between Viking and Apollo results reveals that rocks the size of common meteorites are remarkably scarce in the martian regolith, probably due to pervasive

  8. STS-56 Commander Cameron, in LES, with sky genie during JSC egress training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-56 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Kenneth Cameron, wearing launch and entry suit (LES), gives the sky-genie escape device a tug as training instructor Kenneth D. Trujillo holds it in position and explains its operation. Cameron, along with the other STS-56 crewmembers, is briefed on emergency egress procedures at JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE prior to a training simulation. The sky-genie is carried on all Space Shuttle flights for emergency egress purposes.

  9. STS-56 Commander Cameron and Pilot Oswald at CCT hatch during JSC training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Kenneth Cameron (right) and Pilot Stephen S. Oswald, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), stand at the side hatch of the crew compartment trainer (CCT), a shuttle mockup, prior to entering the mockup. Once inside the CCT, they will don their launch and entry helmets (LEHs) and participate in emergency egress (bailout) procedures. The CCT is located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE.

  10. ASTP crewmen in Docking Module trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An interior view of the Docking Module trainer in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint crew training at JSC. Astronaut Donald K. Slayton (right) is the docking module pilot of the American ASTP prime crew. The other man is Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP first (prime) crew. The training session simulated activities on the second day in space. The Docking module is designed to link the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft.

  11. STS-37 crewmembers train in JSC's FB shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Commander Steven R. Nagel (left) and Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross rehearse some of their scheduled duties on the flight deck of JSC's fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. During the unsuited simulation, Nagel reviews checklist while seated at the commanders station as Ross looks on from the pilots station.

  12. STS-36 crewmembers train in JSC's FB shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-36 Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, seated on the aft flight deck, discusses procedures with Commander John O. Creighton (left) and Pilot John H. Casper during a simulation in JSC's Fixed Based (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Casper reviews a checklist at the pilots station on the forward flight deck. The crewmembers are rehearsing crew cabin activities for their upcoming Department of Defense (DOD) mission aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104.

  13. STS-44 Atlantis, OV-104, crewmembers participate in JSC FB-SMS training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Commander Frederick D. Gregory and Pilot Terence T. Henricks are stationed at their appointed positions on the forward flight deck of the Fixed Base (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Gregory (left) in the commanders seat and Henricks (right) in the pilots seat look back toward aft flight deck and the photographer. Seat backs appear in the foreground and forward flight deck control panels in the background.

  14. STS-44 Atlantis, OV-104, crewmembers participate in FB-SMS training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Commander Frederick D. Gregory (left) and Pilot Terence T. Henricks, positioned at their appointed stations on the forward flight deck, are joined by Mission Specialist (MS) F. Story Musgrave (center) and MS James S. Voss (standing). The crewmembers are participating in a flight simulation in the Fixed Base (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. A maze of panel switches appear overhead and in the background.

  15. STS-49 crew in JSC's FB Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) during simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers participate in a simulation in JSC's Fixed Base (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Wearing launch and entry suits (LESs) and launch and entry helmets (LEH) and seated on the FB-SMS middeck are (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Thomas D. Akers, MS Kathryn C. Thornton, and MS Pierre J. Thuot.

  16. STS-46 crewmembers participate in Fixed Base (FB) SMS training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Pilot Andrew M. Allen hands Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman checklists from middeck locker MF43E during training session in JSC's fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. European Space Agency (ESA) MS Claude Nicollier outfitted with communications kit assembly headset (HDST) and equipment looks beyond Hoffman to the opposite side of the middeck.

  17. STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer dons EMU in JSC's WETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, wearing extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), fastens the strap on his communications carrier assembly (CCA) cap during suit donning in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Positioned on the WETF platform at pool side, Springer is preparing for an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation. During the training exercise, Springer will rehearse contingency EVA procedures for the STS-38 mission aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104.

  18. STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer dons EMU in JSC's WETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer dons extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) upper torso with technicians' assistance in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Positioned on the WETF platform at pool side, Springer is preparing for an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation. During the training session, Springer will rehearse contingency EVA procedures for the STS-38 mission aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104.

  19. STS-34 crewmembers train with the IMAX camera in JSC's Bldg 9B mockup area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 crewmembers participate in IMAX camera training session held in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9B. The crew is briefed on the operation and handling of the IMAX camera scheduled to fly aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. Standing behind the IMAX camera is Mission Specialist (MS) Franklin R. Chang-Diaz with IMAX instructors Grant Ferguson and David Douglas on his left. Commander Donald E. Williams (looking at IMAX lens) is at the right edge of the photo.

  20. Technicians complete assembly of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) mockup at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    A technician listens to instructions as he operates the controls for the overhead crane that is lifting one of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) high gain antennas (HGAs) into place on the HST Support System Module (SSM) forward shell. Others in a cherry picker basket wait to install the HGA on the SSM mockup. The HST mockup will be used for astronaut training and is being assembled in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  1. STS-29 crewmembers launch/landing procedural training in JSC mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot John E. Blaha and Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer participate in launch and landing training on JSC mockup flight deck in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Blaha sits at the pilots station controls in front of Springer who is seated on aft flight deck in mission specialist seat. Springer prepares to don communications kit assembly headset.

  2. STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford trains in JSC's SLS mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford conducts Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) Experiment No. 198, Pulmonary Function During Weightlessness, in JSC's Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) SLS mockup located in the Bioengineering and Test Support Facility Bldg 36. Hughes-Fulford monitors instruments and settings on Rack 8's panels. Behind her in the center aisle are the body mass measurement device (foreground) and the stowed bicycle ergometer.

  3. STS-26 Pilot Covey, wearing launch and entry suit, trains in JSC mockup area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey, wearing the orange launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), pauses during a training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A crew compartment trainer (CCT). LES, a partial pressure suit to be worn during launch and entry phases of the space shuttle flight, was evaluated and checked out.

  4. STS-34 crewmembers review IFM procedures on JSC's CCT mockup middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-34 crewmembers review inflight maintenance (IFM) procedures on the middeck of JSC's crew compartment trainer (CCT) located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. IFM trainer, holding cable, discusses procedures with Mission Specialist (MS) Ellen S. Baker (center) and Pilot Michael J. McCulley. An open stowage locker appears in front of the group. Visible on the mockup's middeck are forward and aft stowage lockers, the airlock hatch, and the starboard wall mounted sleep restraints.

  5. STS-26 MS Nelson during training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, wearing navy blue launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), is seated in his launch and entry position on crew compartment trainer (CCT) middeck during a training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Visible in the background are the airlock, stowed treadmill, and sleep restraints. NOTE: Photo was taken by William H. Bowers, crew photo instructor, with wide angle lens.

  6. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba at aft flight deck controls in JSC mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba, wearing flight suit, operates controls on the aft flight deck of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. During the training session, Malerba adjusts a control on the A3 panel closed circuit television (CCTV). Onorbit station panels appear in front of Malerba and payload station controls behind him.

  7. STS-26 crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits, train in JSC mockup area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck (left) and Pilot Richard O. Covey, wearing the orange launch and entry suits (LESs), discuss training exercise with technicians in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. During the exercise, the LES, a partial pressure suit to be worn during launch and entry phases of the space shuttle flight, was evaluated and checked out.

  8. STS-28 Columbia, OV-102, crewmembers train in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-28 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers participate in shuttle emergency egress (bailout) procedures in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Wearing orange launch and entry suits (LESs), crewmembers (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Brown, MS David C. Leestma, MS James C. Adamson, Pilot Richard N. Richards, and Commander Brewster H. Shaw pause before training exercise. In the background are training personnel and the Manipulator Development Facility (MDF) surrounded by helium-filled mockups.

  9. STS-26 Commander Hauck, wearing launch and entry suit, trains in JSC mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, wearing the orange launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), gets assistance from a suit technician prior to participating in a training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A crew compartment trainer (CCT). During the exercise, the LES, a partial pressure suit to be worn during launch and entry phases of the space shuttle flight, was evaluated and checked out.

  10. ESA MS Nicollier extends mockup tetherline prior to JSC WETF simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, turning a crank, extends a tetherline from a reel mounted on a mockup of the forward payload bay (PLB) bulkhead. Nicollier familiarizes himself with the operation of the safety tether system prior to donning an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and participating in an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simu- lation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  11. STS-47 MS Jemison extends side hatch mockup CES pole during JSC training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist (MS) Mae C. Jemison extends crew escape system (CES) pole through a side hatch mockup during launch emergency egress (bailout) training in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. MS Jerome Apt (right) looks on. The crewmembers practiced extending the CES pole prior to donning their launch and entry suits (LESs) and conducting the simulation in the Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT).

  12. At JSC's MCC, CAPCOMs display score cards rating STS-26 Discovery landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    In JSC's Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30, astronauts and spacecraft communicators (CAPCOMs) L. Blaine Hammond, Jr, John O. Creighton, Frank L. Culbertson, Jr, and an unidentified man display score cards rating the STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, landing at Edwards Air Force Base(EAFB), California. Flight control room (FCR) front visual displays show world tracking map, EAFB post landing activity, and head alignment cone (HAC).

  13. STS-48 MS Gemar uses laptop during training session in JSC's MB SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Charles D. Gemar, wearing lightweight headset, enters data into a portable laptop computer on the middeck of JSC's Motion Based (MB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Gemar is participating in a preflight familiarization session in the MB-SMS located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Visible to Gemar's right is a stowed extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and on his left are forward locker mockups.

  14. Martian cratering 11. Utilizing decameter scale crater populations to study Martian history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.; Daubar, I. J.

    2017-03-01

    New information has been obtained in recent years regarding formation rates and the production size-frequency distribution (PSFD) of decameter-scale primary Martian craters formed during recent orbiter missions. Here we compare the PSFD of the currently forming small primaries (P) with new data on the PSFD of the total small crater population that includes primaries and field secondaries (P + fS), which represents an average over longer time periods. The two data sets, if used in a combined manner, have extraordinary potential for clarifying not only the evolutionary history and resurfacing episodes of small Martian geological formations (as small as one or few km2) but also possible episodes of recent climatic change. In response to recent discussions of statistical methodologies, we point out that crater counts do not produce idealized statistics, and that inherent uncertainties limit improvements that can be made by more sophisticated statistical analyses. We propose three mutually supportive procedures for interpreting crater counts of small craters in this context. Applications of these procedures support suggestions that topographic features in upper meters of mid-latitude ice-rich areas date only from the last few periods of extreme Martian obliquity, and associated predicted climate excursions.

  15. Grove Mountains (GRV) 99027: A new Martian meteorite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yangting; WANG Daode; MIAO Bingkui; OUYANG Ziyuan; LIU Xiaohan; JU Yitai

    2003-01-01

    We report the petrography, mineral chemistry and oxygen isotopic composition of GRV 99027, a new Martian meteorite recently collected during the 16th Chinese Antarctic Research Expedition. This meteorite consists of two textural regions. The interstitial region is characterized by the presence of plagioclase and phosphate, and higher FeO contents of olivine and orthopyroxene, in comparison with the poikilitic region. All of the observations are similar to the three known Martian lherzolites. We classify GRV 99027 as the fourth sample of Martian lherzolite.

  16. History of Martian volatiles - Implications for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, F. P.

    1971-01-01

    A theoretical reconstruction of the history of Martian volatiles indicates that Mars probably possessed a substantial reducing atmosphere at the outset of its history, and that its present tenuous and more oxidized atmosphere is the result of extensive chemical evolution. As a consequence, it is probable that Martian atmospheric chemical conditions, now hostile with respect to abiotic organic synthesis in the gas phase, were initially favorable. Evidence indicating the chronology and degradational history of Martian surface features, surface mineralogy, bulk volatile content, internal mass distribution, and thermal history suggests that Mars catastrophically developed a substantial reducing atmosphere as the result of rapid accretion.

  17. Model for Formation of Dunes at the North Martian Pole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; CHEN Chu-Xin

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera(MOC)took images of a series of strange horseshoe-shaped dunes at the North Martian pole in 2004.These dunes would be formed due to the strong Martian winds whose pattern is different from that on the Earth.We study the cause of the formation of these dunes and make a model for them.In this model,wind speed near the north Martian pole can be evaluated based on the shape of the dunes.We also estimate the surpassing speed of dunes of different sizes.

  18. History of Martian volatiles - Implications for organic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanale, F. P.

    1971-01-01

    A theoretical reconstruction of the history of Martian volatiles indicates that Mars probably possessed a substantial reducing atmosphere at the outset of its history, and that its present tenuous and more oxidized atmosphere is the result of extensive chemical evolution. As a consequence, it is probable that Martian atmospheric chemical conditions, now hostile with respect to abiotic organic synthesis in the gas phase, were initially favorable. Evidence indicating the chronology and degradational history of Martian surface features, surface mineralogy, bulk volatile content, internal mass distribution, and thermal history suggests that Mars catastrophically developed a substantial reducing atmosphere as the result of rapid accretion.

  19. Gas Phase Pressure Effects on the Apparent Thermal Conductivity of JSC-1A Lunar Regolith Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Kleinhenz, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    Gas phase pressure effects on the apparent thermal conductivity of a JSC-1A/air mixture have been experimentally investigated under steady state thermal conditions from 10 kPa to 100 kPa. The result showed that apparent thermal conductivity of the JSC-1A/air mixture decreased when pressure was lowered to 80 kPa. At 10 kPa, the conductivity decreased to 0.145 W/m/degree C, which is significantly lower than 0.196 W/m/degree C at 100 kPa. This finding is consistent with the results of previous researchers. The reduction of the apparent thermal conductivity at low pressures is ascribed to the Knudsen effect. Since the characteristic length of the void space in bulk JSC-1A varies over a wide range, both the Knudsen regime and continuum regime can coexist in the pore space. The volume ratio of the two regimes varies with pressure. Thus, as gas pressure decreases, the gas volume controlled by Knudsen regime increases. Under Knudsen regime the resistance to the heat flow is higher than that in the continuum regime, resulting in the observed pressure dependency of the apparent thermal conductivity.

  20. Development and Validation of a Model for Hydrogen Reduction of JSC-1A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, U.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen reduction of lunar regolith has been proposed as a viable technology for oxygen production on the moon. Hydrogen reduces FeO present in the lunar regolith to form metallic iron and water. The water may be electrolyzed to recycle the hydrogen and produce oxygen. Depending upon the regolith composition, FeO may be bound to TiO2 as ilmenite or it may be dispersed in glassy substrates. Some testing of hydrogen reduction has been conducted with Apollo-returned lunar regolith samples. However, due to the restricted amount of lunar material available for testing, detailed understanding and modeling of the reduction process in regolith have not yet been developed. As a step in this direction, hydrogen reduction studies have been carried out in more detail with lunar regolith simulants such as JSC-1A by NASA and other organizations. While JSC-1A has some similarities with lunar regolith, it does not duplicate the wide variety of regolith types on the moon, for example, it contains almost no ilmenite. Nonetheless, it is a good starting point for developing an understanding of the hydrogen reduction process with regolith-like material. In this paper, a model utilizing a shrinking core formulation coupled with the reactor flow is described and validated against experimental data on hydrogen reduction of JSC-1A.

  1. The chlorine isotopic composition of Martian meteorites 1: Chlorine isotope composition of Martian mantle and crustal reservoirs and their interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. T.; Shearer, C. K.; Sharp, Z. D.; Burger, P. V.; McCubbin, F. M.; Santos, A. R.; Agee, C. B.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2016-11-01

    The Martian meteorites record a wide diversity of environments, processes, and ages. Much work has been done to decipher potential mantle sources for Martian magmas and their interactions with crustal and surface environments. Chlorine isotopes provide a unique opportunity to assess interactions between Martian mantle-derived magmas and the crust. We have measured the Cl-isotopic composition of 17 samples that span the range of known ages, Martian environments, and mantle reservoirs. The 37Cl of the Martian mantle, as represented by the olivine-phyric shergottites, NWA 2737 (chassignite), and Shergotty (basaltic shergottite), has a low value of approximately -3.8‰. This value is lower than that of all other planetary bodies measured thus far. The Martian crust, as represented by regolith breccia NWA 7034, is variably enriched in the heavy isotope of Cl. This enrichment is reflective of preferential loss of 35Cl to space. Most basaltic shergottites (less Shergotty), nakhlites, Chassigny, and Allan Hills 84001 lie on a continuum between the Martian mantle and crust. This intermediate range is explained by mechanical mixing through impact, fluid interaction, and assimilation-fractional crystallization.

  2. Martian Methyl Chloride. A lesson in uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Bains, William

    2013-01-01

    The MSL Lander Curiosity has recently detected methyl halides coming from heated samples of Martian soil. This is reminiscent of similar findings in the Viking Lander spacecraft. In the 1970s a consensus developed quickly explaining the methyl halides as contamination originating from the spacecraft, and ignoring lines of evidence that the two compounds originated from Mars, and that they could not have originated from the proposed spacecraft chemistry. I discuss why this consensus developed from the understanding of biochemistry and geochemistry of 1976, despite its implausibility. Subsequent explanations for the Viking methyl halides are more plausible but still not proven. The Curiosity rover results are also being explained as a result of on-spacecraft chemistry. I urge caution in this interpretation, in light of the historical Viking example: it is better to leave unexplained data unexplained than to lock in an explanation that precludes future developments.

  3. Aeronomy of the current Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, C. A.; Stewart, A. I. F.; Bougher, S. W.; Hunten, D. M.; Bauer, S. J.; Nagy, A. F.

    1992-01-01

    The thermal structure of the Martian atmosphere, which varies diurnally, seasonally and episodically, is discussed. The atomic oxygen airglow at 1304 A is used to determine the density of atomic oxygen, and the 1216-A Lyman-alpha line is used to calculate the density of atomic hydrogen and, when coupled with the temperature measurement, the escape flux of atomic hydrogen. The most intense airglow is the IR atmospheric band of O2 at 1.27 micron that results from the photodissociation of ozone. The escape mechanism for atomic hydrogen is thermal, or Jeans, escape, while the atomic oxygen escape is caused by a nonthermal process, namely, the dissociative recombination of O2(+). The ratio of deuterium to hydrogen is enriched by a factor of 6. Three-dimensional models of the Mars thermospheric circulation show that planetary rotation has a significant effect on the wind, composition, and temperature structure.

  4. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. Spirit acquired this mosaic with the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. The view presented here is an approximately true-color rendering.

  5. Martian polar vortices: Comparison of reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, D. W.; Toigo, A. D.; Guzewich, S. D.; Greybush, S. J.; Wilson, R. J.; Montabone, L.

    2016-09-01

    The structure and evolution of the Martian polar vortices is examined using two recently available reanalysis systems: version 1.0 of the Mars Analysis Correction Data Assimilation (MACDA) and a preliminary version of the Ensemble Mars Atmosphere Reanalysis System (EMARS). There is quantitative agreement between the reanalyses in the lower atmosphere, where Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data are assimilated, but there are differences at higher altitudes reflecting differences in the free-running general circulation model simulations used in the two reanalyses. The reanalyses show similar potential vorticity (PV) structure of the vortices: There is near-uniform small PV equatorward of the core of the westerly jet, steep meridional PV gradients on the polar side of the jet core, and a maximum of PV located off of the pole. In maps of 30 sol mean PV, there is a near-continuous elliptical ring of high PV with roughly constant shape and longitudinal orientation from fall to spring. However, the shape and orientation of the vortex varies on daily time scales, and there is not a continuous ring of PV but rather a series of smaller scale coherent regions of high PV. The PV structure of the Martian polar vortices is, as has been reported before, very different from that of Earth's stratospheric polar vortices, but there are similarities with Earth's tropospheric vortices which also occur at the edge of the Hadley Cell, and have near-uniform small PV equatorward of the jet, and a large increase of PV poleward of the jet due to increased stratification.

  6. Martian north polar cap summer water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane

    2016-10-01

    A key outstanding question in Martian science is "are the polar caps gaining or losing mass and what are the implications for past, current and future climate?" To address this question, we use observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of the north polar cap during late summer for multiple Martian years, to monitor the summertime water cycle in order to place quantitative limits on the amount of water ice deposited and sublimed in late summer. We establish here for the first time the summer cycle of water ice absorption band signatures on the north polar cap. We show that in a key region in the interior of the north polar cap, the absorption band depths grow until Ls = 120, when they begin to shrink, until they are obscured at the end of summer by the north polar hood. This behavior is transferable over the entire north polar cap, where in late summer regions 'flip' from being net sublimating into net condensation mode. This transition or 'mode flip' happens earlier for regions closer to the pole, and later for regions close to the periphery of the cap. The observations and calculations presented herein estimate that on average a water ice layer ∼70 microns thick is deposited during the Ls = 135-164 period. This is far larger than the results of deposition on the south pole during summer, where an average layer 0.6-6 microns deep has been estimated by Brown et al. (2014) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 406, 102-109.

  7. VCHP Radiators for Lunar and Martian Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-term Lunar and Martian systems present challenges to thermal control systems, including changes in thermal load, and large changes in the thermal environment...

  8. Dune-like dynamic of Martian Aeolian large ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D. A.; Yizhaq, H.; Esposito, F.

    2016-08-01

    Martian dunes are sculpted by meter-scale bed forms, which have been interpreted as wind ripples based on orbital data. Because aeolian ripples tend to orient and migrate transversely to the last sand-moving wind, they have been widely used as wind vanes on Earth and Mars. In this report we show that Martian large ripples are dynamically different from Earth's ripples. By remotely monitoring their evolution within the Mars Science Laboratory landing site, we show that these bed forms evolve longitudinally with minimal lateral migration in a time-span of ~ six terrestrial years. Our observations suggest that the large Martian ripples can record more than one wind direction and that in certain cases they are more similar to linear dunes from a dynamic point of view. Consequently, the assumption of the transverse nature of the large Martian ripples must be used with caution when using these features to derive wind directions.

  9. VCHP Radiators for Lunar and Martian Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long-term Lunar and Martian systems present challenges to thermal systems, including changes in thermal load, and large changes in the thermal environment between...

  10. Sulphur Spring: Busy Intersection and Possible Martian Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nankivell, A.; Andre, N.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Allen, C.; McKay, D.

    2000-01-01

    Life in extreme environments exhibiting conditions similar to early Earth and Mars, such as Sulphur Spring, may harbor microbiota serving as both relics from the past as well as present day Martian analogues.

  11. Martian Meanders: Wavelength-Width Scaling and Flow Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoire-Mazzocco, H.; Stepinski, T. F.; McGovern, P. J.; Lanzoni, S.; Frascati, A.; Rinaldo, A.

    2006-03-01

    Martian meanders reveals linear wavelength/width scaling with a coef. k~10, that can be used to estimate discharges. Simulations of channel evolution are used to determine flow duration from sinuosity. Application to Nirgal Vallis yields 200 yrs.

  12. Plasma Extraction of Oxygen from Martian Atmosphere Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma techniques are proposed for the extraction of oxygen from the abundant carbon dioxide contained in the Martian atmosphere (96 % CO2). In this process, CO2 is...

  13. Plasma Catalytic Extraction of Oxygen from the Martian Atmosphere Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma catalytic techniques are proposed for the extraction of oxygen from the abundant carbon dioxide contained in the Martian atmosphere (95% CO2).. The Phase I...

  14. Alteration of Sedimentary Clasts in Martian Meteorite Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Tartese, R.; Santos, A. R.; Domokos, G.; Muttik, N.; Szabo, T.; Vazquez, J.; Boyce, J. W.; Keller, L. P.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Anand, M.; Moser, D. E.; Delhaye, T.; Shearer, C. K.; Agee, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    The martian meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 and pairings represent the first brecciated hand sample available for study from the martian surface [1]. Detailed investigations of NWA 7034 have revealed substantial lithologic diversity among the clasts [2-3], making NWA 7034 a polymict breccia. NWA 7034 consists of igneous clasts, impact-melt clasts, and "sedimentary" clasts represented by prior generations of brecciated material. In the present study we conduct a detailed textural and geochemical analysis of the sedimentary clasts.

  15. Clearing the Martian air - The troubled history of dust storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, L. J.

    1984-03-01

    This note is an attempt to resolve some misconceptions regarding the historical record of the Martian atmospheric phenomena referred to as 'dust storms,' but often called yellow storms, yellow clouds, planetwide dust storms, global dust storms, great dust storms, etc. The known frequency of planet-encircling storms will be specifically addressed. Better knowledge of the sizes, frequencies, and locations of Martian dust storms is needed for atmospheric modeling and for future mission planning.

  16. MOC Views of Martian Solar Eclipses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The shadow of the martian moon, Phobos, has been captured in many recent wide angle camera views of the red planet obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). Designed to monitor changes in weather and surface conditions, the wide angle cameras are also proving to be a good way to spot the frequent solar eclipses caused by the passage of Phobos between Mars and the Sun.The first figure (above), shows wide angle red (left), blue (middle), and color composite (right) views of the shadow of Phobos (elliptical feature at center of each frame) as it was cast upon western Xanthe Terra on August 26, 1999, at about 2 p.m.local time on Mars. The image covers an area about 250 kilometers (155 miles) across and is illuminated from the left. The meandering Nanedi Valles is visible in the lower right corner of the scene. Note the dark spots on three crater floors--these appear dark in the red camera image (left) but are barely distinguished in the blue image (middle), while the shadow is dark in both images. The spots on the crater floors are probably small fields of dark sand dunes.The second figure shows three samples of MOC's global image swaths, each in this case with a shadow of Phobos visible (arrow). The first scene (left) was taken on September 1, 1999, and shows the shadow of Phobos cast upon southern Elysium Planitia. The large crater with dark markings on its floor at the lower right corner is Herschel Basin. The second scene shows the shadow of Phobos cast upon northern Lunae Planum on September 8, 1999. Kasei Valles dominates the upper right and the deep chasms of Valles Marineris dominate the lower third of the September 8 image. The picture on the right shows the shadow of Phobos near the giant volcano, Olympus Mons (upper left), on September 25, 1999. Three other major volcanoes are visible from lower-center (Arsia Mons) and right-center (Pavonis Mons) to upper-middle-right (Ascraeus Mons

  17. Alteration of Meteorite-Derived Kamacite in Martian Regolith: A new Insight of Chemical Processes in Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G.

    2014-07-01

    We experimented the idea that the martian regolith, which is assumed to be contaminated by meteoritic inputs, may have contained kamacite (Fe-Ni). The reactivity of an iron-based metal offers new perspectives for the alteration mechanisms.

  18. Explaining the Birth of the Martian Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    A new study examines the possibility that Marss two moons formed after a large body slammed into Mars, creating a disk of debris. This scenario might be the key to reconciling the moons orbital properties with their compositions.Conflicting EvidenceThe different orbital (left) and spectral (right) characteristics of the Martian moons in the three different formation scenarios. Click for a better look! Phobos and Deimoss orbital characteristics are best matched by formation around Mars (b and c), and their physical characteristics are best matched by formation in the outer region of an impact-generated accretion disk (rightmost panel of c). [Ronnet et al. 2016]How were Marss two moons, Phobos and Deimos, formed? There are three standing theories:Two already-formed, small bodies from the outer main asteroid belt were captured by Mars, intact.The bodies formed simultaneously with Mars, by accretion from the same materials.A large impact on Mars created an accretion disk of material from which the two bodies formed.Our observations of the Martian moons, unfortunately, provide conflicting evidence about which of these scenarios is correct. The physical properties of the moons low albedos, low densities are consistent with those of asteroids in our solar system, and are not consistent with Marss properties, suggesting that the co-accretion scenario is unlikely. On the other hand, the moons orbital properties low inclination, low eccentricity, prograde orbits are consistent with bodies that formed around Mars rather than being captured.In a recent study,a team of scientists led by Thomas Ronnet and Pierre Vernazza (Aix-Marseille University, Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille) has attempted to reconcile these conflictingobservations by focusing on the third option.Moons After a Large ImpactIn the thirdscenario, an impactor of perhaps a few percent of Marss mass smashed into Mars, forming a debris disk of hot material that encircled Mars. Perturbations in the disk then

  19. Retraction: erbB expression changes in ethanol and 7,12- dimethylbenz (a)anthracene-induced oral carcinogenesis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013 Mar 1;18(2):e325-31

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia Carranca, A; Zentero Galindo, E; Jimenez Farfan, MD; Hernandez Guerrero, JC

    2014-01-01

    ... (a)anthracene-induced oral carcinogenesis. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013 Mar 1;18(2):e325-31.) corresponding to Western blots have not been found and the voluntary alteration of this figure is evident...

  20. The new Martians a scientific novel

    CERN Document Server

    Kanas, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The year is 2035, and the crew from the first expedition to Mars is returning to Earth. The crewmembers are anxious to get home, and ennui pervades the ship. The mood is broken by a series of mysterious events that jeopardize their safety. Someone or something is threatening the crew. Is it an alien being? A psychotic crewmember? A malfunctioning computer? The truth raises questions about the crewmembers’ fate and that of the human race. In this novel, the intent is to show real psychological issues that could affect a crew returning from a long-duration mission to Mars. The storyline presents a mystery that keeps the reader guessing, yet the issues at stake are based on the findings from the author’s research and other space-related work over the past 40+ years. The novel touches on actual plans being discussed for such an expedition as well as notions involving the search for Martian life and panspermia. The underlying science, in particular the psychological, psychiatric, and interpersonal elements...

  1. Orbital monitoring of martian surface changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Paul E.; Fenton, Lori K.; Enga, Marie-therese; Mukherjee, Priyanjoli

    2016-11-01

    A history of martian surface changes is documented by a sequence of global mosaics made up of Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera daily color images from 1999 to 2006, together with a single mosaic from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mars Color Imager in 2009. These observations show that changes in the global albedo patterns of Mars take place by a combination of dust storms and strong winds. Many of the observed surface changes took place along the tracks of seasonally repeating winter dust storms cataloged by Wang and Richardson (2015). These storms tend to sweep dust towards the equator, progressively shifting albedo boundaries and continuing surface changes that began before the arrival of MGS. The largest and most conspicuous changes took place during the global dust storm of 2001 (MY 25), which blanketed Syrtis Major, stripped dust from the Tharsis region, and injected dust into Solis Planum. High wind speeds but low wind stresses are predicted in Syrtis, Tharsis and Solis by the NASA Ames GCM. Frequent changes in these regions show that dust accumulations are quickly removed by stronger winds that are not predicted by the GCM, but may result from smaller-scale influences such as unresolved topography.

  2. Coaxial Cables for Martian Extreme Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Harvey, Wayne L.; Valas, Sam; Tsai, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Work was conducted to validate the use of the rover external flexible coaxial cabling for space under the extreme environments to be encountered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The antennas must survive all ground operations plus the nominal 670-Martian-day mission that includes summer and winter seasons of the Mars environment. Successful development of processes established coaxial cable hardware fatigue limits, which were well beyond the expected in-flight exposures. In keeping with traditional qualification philosophy, this was accomplished by subjecting flight-representative coaxial cables to temperature cycling of the same depth as expected in-flight, but for three times the expected number of in-flight thermal cycles. Insertion loss and return loss tests were performed on the coaxial cables during the thermal chamber breaks. A vector network analyzer was calibrated and operated over the operational frequency range 7.145 to 8.450 GHz. Even though some of the exposed cables function only at UHF frequencies (approximately 400 MHz), the testing was more sensitive, and extending the test range down to 400 MHz would have cost frequency resolution. The Gore flexible coaxial cables, which were the subject of these tests, proved to be robust and displayed no sign of degradation due to the 3X exposure to the punishing Mars surface operations cycles.

  3. Atomic oxygen in the Martian thermosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A. I. F.; Alexander, M. J.; Meier, R. R.; Paxton, L. J.; Bougher, S. W.; Fesen, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    Modern models of thermospheric composition and temperature and of excitation and radiative transfer processes are used to simulate the O I 130-nm emission from Mars measured by the Mariner 9 ultraviolet spectrometer. This paper uses the Mars thermospheric general circulation model calculations (MTGCM) of Bougher et al. (1988) and the Monte Carlo partial frequency redistribution multiple scattering code of Meier and Lee (1982). It is found that the decline in atomic oxygen through the daylight hours predicted by the MTGCM cannot be reconciled with the excess afternoon brightness seen in the data. Oxygen concentrations inferred from the data show a positive gradient through the day, in agreement with the original analysis by Strickland et al. (1973). In addition, the data suggest that the oxygen abundance increases toward high southerly latitudes, in contrast with the MTGCM prediction of high values in the Northern Hemisphere. It appears that solar forcing alone cannot account for the observed characteristics of the Martian thermosphere and that wave and tidal effects may profoundly affect the structure, winds, and composition.

  4. Electric Field Generation in Martian Dust Devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Erika L.; Farrell, William M.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Terrestrial dust devils are known to generate electric fields from the vertical separation of charged dust particles. The particles present within the dust devils on Mars may also be subject to similar charging processes and so likely contribute to electric field generation there as well. However, to date, no Marsin situ instrumentation has been deployed to measure electric field strength. In order to explore the electric environment of dust devils on Mars, the triboelectric dust charging physics from the MacroscopicTriboelectric Simulation (MTS) code has been coupled to the Mars Regional Atmospheric ModelingSystem (MRAMS). Using this model, we examine how macroscopic electric fields are generated within martian dust disturbances and attempt to quantify the time evolution of the electrodynamical system.Electric fields peak for several minutes within the dust devil simulations. The magnitude of the electric field is a strong function of the size of the particles present, the average charge on the particles and the number of particles lifted. Varying these parameters results in peak electric fields between tens of millivolts per meter and tens of kilovolts per meter.

  5. Commissioning of the Liquid Nitrogen Thermo-Siphon System for NASA-JSC Chamber-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J.; Montz, M.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Garcia, S.; Garza, J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory's (SESL) Chamber A, located at the Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas has recently implemented major enhancements of its cryogenic and vacuum systems. The new liquid nitrogen (LN2) thermo-siphon system was successfully commissioned in August of 2012. Chamber A, which has 20 K helium cryo-panels (or shrouds ) which are shielded by 80 K nitrogen shrouds, is capable of simulating a deep space environment necessary to perform ground testing of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Chamber A s previous system used forced flow LN2 cooling with centrifugal pumps, requiring 200,000 liters of LN2 to cool-down and consuming 180,000 liters per day of LN2 in steady operation. The LN2 system did not have the reliability required to meet the long duration test of the JWST, and the cost estimate provided in the initial approach to NASA-JSC by the sub-contractor for refurbishment of the system to meet the reliability goals was prohibitive. At NASA-JSC's request, the JLab Cryogenics Group provided alternative options in 2007, including a thermo-siphon, or natural flow system. This system, eliminated the need for pumps and used one tenth of the original control valves, relief valves, and burst disks. After the thermo-siphon approach was selected, JLab provided technical assistance in the process design, mechanical design, component specification development and commissioning oversight, while the installation and commissioning operations of the system was overseen by the Jacobs Technology/ESC group at JSC. The preliminary commissioning data indicate lower shroud temperatures, 70,000 liters to cool-down and less than 90,000 liters per day consumed in steady operation. All of the performance capabilities have exceeded the design goals. This paper will outline the comparison between the original system and the predicted results of the selected design option, and the commissioning results of thermo-siphon system.

  6. Commissioning of the Liquid Nitrogen Thermo-Siphon System for NASA-JSC Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J.; Montz, M.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Garcia, S.; Garza, J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Space Environment Simulation Laboratory s (SESL) Chamber A, located at the Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas has recently implemented major enhancements of its cryogenic and vacuum systems. The new liquid nitrogen (LN) thermo-siphon system was successfully commissioned in August of 2012. Chamber A, which has 20 K helium cryo-panels (or shrouds ) which are shielded by 80 K nitrogen shrouds, is capable of simulating a deep space environment necessary to perform ground testing of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Chamber A s previous system used forced flow LN cooling with centrifugal pumps, requiring 220,000 liters of LN to cool-down and consuming 180,000 liters per day of LN in steady operation. The LN system did not have the reliability required to meet the long duration test of the JWST, and the cost estimate provided in the initial approach to NASA-JSC by the subcontractor for refurbishment of the system to meet the reliability goals was prohibitive. At NASA-JSC s request, the JLab Cryogenics Group provided alternative options in 2007, including a thermo-siphon, or natural flow system. This system, eliminated the need for pumps and used one tenth of the original control valves, relief valves, and burst disks. After the thermo-siphon approach was selected, JLab provided technical assistance in the process design, mechanical design, component specification development and commissioning oversight, while the installation and commissioning operations of the system was overseen by the Jacobs Technology/ESC group at JSC. The preliminary commissioning data indicate lower shroud temperatures, 68,000 liters to cool-down and less than 91,000 liters per day consumed in steady operation. All of the performance capabilities have exceeded the design goals. This paper will outline the comparison between the original system and the predicted results of the selected design option, and the commissioning results of thermo-siphon system.

  7. Coordinated Analysis 101: A Joint Training Session Sponsored by LPI and ARES/JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D. S.; Treiman, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), co-sponsored a training session in November 2016 for four early-career scientists in the techniques of coordinated analysis. Coordinated analysis refers to the approach of systematically performing high-resolution and -precision analytical studies on astromaterials, particularly the very small particles typical of recent and near-future sample return missions such as Stardust, Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, and OSIRIS-REx. A series of successive analytical steps is chosen to be performed on the same particle, as opposed to separate subsections of a sample, in such a way that the initial steps do not compromise the results from later steps in the sequence. The data from the entire series can then be integrated for these individual specimens, revealing important in-sights obtainable no other way. ARES/JSC scientists have played a leading role in the development and application of this approach for many years. Because the coming years will bring new sample collections from these and other planned NASA and international exploration missions, it is timely to begin disseminating specialized techniques for the study of small and precious astromaterial samples. As part of the Cooperative Agreement between NASA and the LPI, this training workshop was intended as the first in a series of similar training exercises that the two organizations will jointly sponsor in the coming years. These workshops will span the range of analytical capabilities and sample types available at ARES/JSC in the Astromaterials Research and Astro-materials Acquisition and Curation Offices. Here we summarize the activities and participants in this initial training.

  8. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

  9. STS-35 Pilot Gardner during fire fighting exercises at JSC fire training pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Pilot Guy S. Gardner extinguishes a small blaze during a fire handling training session for crewmembers at JSC Fire Training Pit across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Wearing a navy blue flight suit, Gardner approaches fire while operating a fire extinguisher as Commander Vance D. Brand (far right) and Payload Specialist Samuel T. Durrance look on. The crew was briefed on types of potential blazes and the correct means of controlling each type. STS-35 will mark the first seven-member crew staffing since the Challenger accident of January 1986.

  10. STS-35 Pilot Gardner and MS Hoffman during egress training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 Pilot Guy S. Gardner (standing) and Mission Specialist (MS) Jeffrey A. Hoffman prepare for egress training at JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Gardner and Hoffman, wearing orange launch and entry suits (LESs), adjust their parachute harnesses as they listen to instructions before training begins. The astronaut crewmembers and payload specialists for the scheduled May flight were specifically learning proper measures to take in the event of an emergency on the launch pad necessitating emergency evacuation of the orbiter.

  11. STS-56 Commander Cameron and Pilot Oswald on CCT flight deck in JSC's MAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Kenneth Cameron, (left) and Pilot Stephen S. Oswald, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs) and launch and entry helmets (LEHs), are seated on the forward flight deck of the crew compartment trainer (CCT), a shuttle mockup. Cameron mans the commander station controls and Oswald the pilots station controls during an emergency egress (bailout) simulation. The view was taken from the aft flight deck looking forward and includes Cameron's and Oswald's profiles and the forward flight deck controls and checklists. The CCT is located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE.

  12. STS-57 crewmembers train in JSC's FB Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Nancy J. Sherlock, holding computer diskettes and procedural checklist, discusses equipment operation with Commander Ronald J. Grabe on the middeck of JSC's fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low points to a forward locker location as MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff switches controls on overhead panels MO42F and MO58F, and MS4 Janice E. Voss looks on. The FB-SMS is located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  13. STS-35 crewmembers during fire fighting exercises at JSC fire training pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-35 crewmembers extinguish a small blaze during a fire handling training session at JSC Fire Training Pit across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Wearing navy blue flight suits, Mission Specialist (MS) Robert A.R. Parker (second right) and MS John M. Lounge (third left) approach fire while operating a fire extinguishers. The crew was briefed on types of potential blazes and the correct means of controlling each type. Also pictured are (left to right) Commander Vance D. Brand, Payload Specialist Samuel T. Durrance, Pilot Guy S. Gardner, and training officer Al Putnam. STS-35 will mark the first seven-member crew staffing since the Challenger accident of January 1986.

  14. STS-26 crew in JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers model the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) for entry and launch phases before a training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Pictured (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, Pilot Richard O. Covey, MS John M. Lounge, and MS George D. Nelson. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew is scheduled to check out the new partial pressure suits and crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  15. STS-45 payload specialists with crew escape system (CES) mockup at JSC's MAIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-45 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Payload Specialist Dirk D. Frimout (European Space Agency (ESA) Belgian crewmember) (left), backup Payload Specialist Charles R. Chappell (center), and Payload Specialist Byron K. Lichtenberg (right) listen to technician explain the operation of the crew escape system (CES) pole. Frimout is engaging the handle which extends the CES pole out the side hatch. The payload specialists along with the other STS-45 crewmembers are participating in side hatch emergency egress exercises in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A.

  16. STS-26 crew trains in JSC crew compartment trainer (CCT) shuttle mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck tests cushion outside the crew compartment trainer (CCT) side hatch. Hauck, wearing new (navy blue) partial pressure suit (launch and entry suit (LES)) and helmet, tumbles out CCT side hatch onto cushion as technicians look on. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new partial pressure suits and checked out crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. CCT is located in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A.

  17. STS-31 MS Sullivan exits airlock mockup during JSC WETF underwater simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-31 Mission Specialist (MS) Kathryn D. Sullivan, fully suited in an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and holding a semirigid tether (SRT) and ratchet caddy assembly, egresses the airlock (AL) mockup during an underwater simulation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. The open AL extravehicular (EV) hatch appears in the foreground as Sullivan backs out into the payload bay (PLB). Though no extravehicular activity (EVA) is planned for STS-31, two crewmembers train for contingencies that would necessitate leaving the shirt sleeve environment of Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, cabin and performing chores with their Hubble Space Telescope (HST) payload or related hardware in the PLB.

  18. STS-46 Payload Specialist Malerba on the middeck of JSC's FFT mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Italian Payload Specialist Franco Malerba with his hand resting on the crew escape system (CES) pole stands on the middeck of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) located in JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9. Malerba, wearing a flight suit, familiarizes himself with the operation of the CES pole which extends out the shuttle mockup's open side hatch. The CES pole is used if emergency egress is required during the launch or ascent phase of flight.

  19. Glassmaking Units and Glass Feeders Production——a New Production Development Stage at JSC "Krastsvetmet"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MALTSEV E. V.; MAMONOV S. N.; DMITRIEV V. A.; KHORIKOV P. A.

    2012-01-01

    JSC "Krastsvetmet" has launched the production of glass melting units (GU) and glass feeders (GF),with the number of bushings being from 200 to 4000,made from platinum-rhodium alloys doped with oxide-forming and reinforcing elements.The proprietary technology for dispersion-stabilized material of PtRh10DS composition having high strength and performance properties has been developed and applied.Combined products production was launched where bushings made of PtRh-20 alloy are welded to the plate of the dispersion-stabilized PtRh10DS material.The manufacture of seamless spinning assemblies has been organized.

  20. Development and Making of New Jewellery Palladium Based Alloys at JSC "Krastsvetmet"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YEFIMOV V. N.; MAMONOV S. N.; SHULGIN D. R.; YELTSIN S. I.

    2012-01-01

    Complex of research and development work aimed at implementation of jewellery palladium based alloys technology has been carried out at JSC Krastsvetmet.A range of palladium alloys jewellery fabrication has been organized.Compositions of a number of jewellery palladium alloys grade 850,900,950 and 990 have been proposed,their production and application in jewellery manufacture has been organized.To produce palladium alloys induction melting in inert atmosphere and melt pouring into a copper mould has been used.The ingots heat treatment conditions,as well as semi-finished jewelry plastic deformation parameters have been determined.

  1. Human spaceflight technology needs-a foundation for JSC's technology strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, J. M.

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which added risks and became a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation's primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (Tech Needs) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology disciplines. Th

  2. Deep Martian Mantle Melting and Implications for the Source Regions of Martian Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebske, C.

    2016-12-01

    The chemical compositions of Martian SNC meteorites (Shergotty, Nakhla and Chassigny types) show significant variations in major and trace element contents, suggesting that parental magmas originate from different geochemical reservoirs. Radiogenic isotope systematics further indicate that some reservoirs were strongly influenced by silicate differentiation processes about 4.5 Gyr ago, placing such events in tight vicinity to core formation, and therefore favour magma ocean crystallisation and differentiation as a plausible mechanism for generating a diversity of sources. However, any predictions of geochemical signatures resulting from large scale magma ocean differentiation require precise knowledge of melting relations of a primordial bulk silicate Mars composition to be known. The aim of this study is to investigate solidus and liquids temperatures, mineral modes and melt fractions for the bulk silicate Mars (BSM) composition proposed by Taylor (2013, Chemie der Erde 73, 401-420) in a self consistent set of experiments from ambient to core-mantle boundary (estimated at around 20 GPa) pressures. Specific emphasis is put on the presure range greater than 10 GPa to more rigorously investigate the potential role of majoritic garnet during magma ocean differentiation. The new results, combined with data from previous studies on phase relations and mineral-melt element partitioning, are being used to derive time-integrated geochemical models to discuss fractionation mechanisms that could lead to the distinct chemical signatures of source regions proposed for martian meteorites.

  3. Liquid Water in the Extremely Shallow Martian Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A.; Shivak, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Availability of liquid water is one of the major constraints for the potential Martian biosphere. Although liquid water is unstable on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressures, it has been suggested that liquid films of water could be present in the Martian soil. Here we explored a possibility of the liquid water formation in the extremely shallow (1-3 cm) subsurface layer under low atmospheric pressures (0.1-10 mbar) and low ("Martian") surface temperatures (approx.-50 C-0 C). We used a new Goddard Martian simulation chamber to demonstrate that even in the clean frozen soil with temperatures as low as -25C the amount of mobile water can reach several percents. We also showed that during brief periods of simulated daylight warming the shallow subsurface ice sublimates, the water vapor diffuses through porous surface layer of soil temporarily producing supersaturated conditions in the soil, which leads to the formation of additional liquid water. Our results suggest that despite cold temperatures and low atmospheric pressures, Martian soil just several cm below the surface can be habitable.

  4. Water in Pyroxene and Olivine from Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.

    2012-01-01

    Water in the interior of terrestrial planets can be dissolved in fluids or melts and hydrous phases, but can also be locked as protons attached to structural oxygen in lattice defects in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAM) like olivine, pyroxene, or feldspar [1-3]. Although these minerals contain only tens to hundreds of ppm H2O, this water can amount to at least one ocean in mass when added at planetary scales because of the modal dominance of NAM in the mantle and crust [4]. Moreover these trace amounts of water can have drastic effects on melting temperature, rheology, electrical and heat conductivity, and seismic wave attenuation [5]. There is presently a debate on how much water is present in the martian mantle. Secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS) studies of NAM [6], amphiboles and glass in melt inclusions [7-10], and apatites [11, 12] from Martian meteorites report finding as much water as in the same phases from Earth's igneous rocks. Most martian hydrous minerals, however, generally have the relevant sites filled with Cl and F instead of H [13, 14], and experiments using Cl [15] in parent melts can reproduce Martian basalt compositions as well as those with water [16]. We are in the process of analyzing Martian meteorite minerals by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) in order to constrain the role of water in this planet s formation and magmatic evolution

  5. Simulating Meteor Shower Observations In The Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, J. P.; Christou, A. A.

    2005-08-01

    It is known that fast meteoroids entering the martian atmosphere give rise to bright, detectable meteors (Adolfsson et al, Icarus 119, 144, 1996). Although single meteors have already been detected at Mars (Selsis et al., Nature 435, 581, 2005), the characterisation of the martian meteor year will require a large number of detections. Experience at the Earth suggests that data storage and bandwidth resources to conduct such surveys will be substantial, and may be prohibitive. In an attempt to quantify the problem in detail, we have simulated meteor shower detection in the martian and terrestrial atmospheres. For a given shower, we assume a meteoroid stream flux, size distribution and velocity based on current knowledge of Earth streams as well as the proximity of certain comets' orbits to that of Mars. A numerical code is used to simulate meteoroid ablation in a model martian and terrestrial atmosphere. Finally, using the same baseline detector characteristics (limiting magnitude, sky coverage) we generate detection statistics for the two planets. We will present results for different types of showers, including strong annual activity and episodic outbursts from Halley-type and Jupiter family comets. We will show how detection efficiency at Mars compares to the Earth for these showers and discuss optimum strategies for monitoring the martian atmosphere for meteor activity. Astronomy research at Armagh Observatory is funded by the Northern Ireland Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL).

  6. Martian Atmospheric and Ionospheric plasma Escape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Rickard

    2016-04-01

    Solar forcing is responsible for the heating, ionization, photochemistry, and erosion processes in the upper atmosphere throughout the lifetime of the terrestrial planets. Of the four terrestrial planets, the Earth is the only one with a fully developed biosphere, while our kin Venus and Mars have evolved into arid inhabitable planets. As for Mars, there are ample evidences for an early Noachian, water rich period on Mars. The question is, what made Mars evolve so differently compared to the Earth? Various hydrosphere and atmospheric evolution scenarios for Mars have been forwarded based on surface morphology, chemical composition, simulations, semi-empiric (in-situ data) models, and the long-term evolution of the Sun. Progress has been made, but the case is still open regarding the changes that led to the present arid surface and tenuous atmosphere at Mars. This presentation addresses the long-term variability of the Sun, the solar forcing impact on the Martian atmosphere, and its interaction with the space environment - an electromagnetic wave and particle interaction with the upper atmosphere that has implications for its photochemistry, composition, and energization that governs thermal and non-thermal escape. Non-thermal escape implies an electromagnetic upward energization of planetary ions and molecules to velocities above escape velocity, a process governed by a combination of solar EUV radiation (ionization), and energy and momentum transfer by the solar wind. The ion escape issue dates back to the early Soviet and US-missions to Mars, but the first more accurate estimates of escape rates came with the Phobos-2 mission in 1989. Better-quality ion composition measurement results of atmospheric/ionospheric ion escape from Mars, obtained from ESA Mars Express (MEX) instruments, have improved our understanding of the ion escape mechanism. With the NASA MAVEN spacecraft orbiting Mars since Sept. 2014, dual in-situ measurement with plasma instruments are now

  7. A lunar/Martian anchor emplacement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Dustin; Holt, Andrew; Jantz, Erik; Kaufman, Teresa; Martin, James; Weber, Reed

    1993-01-01

    On the Moon or Mars, it is necessary to have an anchor, or a stable, fixed point able to support the forces necessary to rescue a stuck vehicle, act as a stake for a tent in a Martian gale, act as a fulcrum in the erection of general construction poles, or support tent-like regolith shields. The anchor emplacement system must be highly autonomous. It must supply the energy and stability for anchor deployment. The goal of the anchor emplacement system project is to design and build a prototype anchor and to design a conceptual anchor emplacement system. Various anchors were tested in a 1.3 cubic meter test bed containing decomposed granite. A simulated lunar soil was created by adjusting the moisture and compaction characteristics of the soil. We conducted tests on emplacement torque, amount of force the anchor could withstand before failure, anchor pull out force at various angles, and soil disturbances caused by placing the anchor. A single helix auger anchor performed best in this test bed based on energy to emplace, and the ultimate holding capacity. The anchor was optimized for ultimate holding capacity, minimum emplacement torque, and minimum soil disturbance in sandy soils yielding the following dimensions: helix diameter (4.45 cm), pitch (1.27 cm), blade thickness (0.15 cm), total length (35.56 cm), shaft diameter (0.78 cm), and a weight of 212.62 g. The experimental results showed that smaller diameter, single-helix augers held more force than larger diameter augers for a given depth. The emplacement system consists of a flywheel and a motor for power, sealed in a protective box supported by four legs. The flywheel system was chosen over a gear system based on its increased reliability in the lunar environment.

  8. Structural Origins of Martian Pit Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrick, D.; Ferrill, D. A.; Morris, A. P.; Colton, S. L.; Sims, D. W.

    2003-12-01

    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs, and are common on the surface of Mars. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that these features are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying sediments. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, karst dissolution, fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (i) visible faulting to (ii) faults and pits to (iii) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to interpret a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. The information collected in the study was then compared with non-Martian examples of pit chains and physical analog models. We evaluated the various mechanisms for pit chain development based on the data collected and conclude that dilational

  9. Morphogenesis of Antarctic Paleosols: Martian Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaney, W. C.; Dohm, J. M.; Baker, V. R.; Newsom, Horton E.; Malloch, D.; Hancock, R. G. V.; Campbell, Iain; Sheppard, D.; Milner, M. W.

    2001-11-01

    Samples of horizons in paleosols from the Quartermain Mountains of the Antarctic Dry Valleys (Aztec and New Mountain areas) were analyzed for their physical characteristics, mineralogy, chemical composition, and microbiology to determine the accumulation and movement of salts and other soluble constituents and the presence/absence of microbial populations. Salt concentrations are of special interest because they are considered to be a function of age, derived over time, in part from nearby oceanic and high-altitude atmospheric sources. The chemical composition of ancient Miocene-age paleosols in these areas is the direct result of the deposition and weathering of airborne-influxed salts and other materials, as well as the weathering of till derived principally from local dolerite and sandstone outcrops. Paleosols nearer the coast have greater contents of Cl, whereas near the inland ice sheet, nitrogen tends to increase on a relative basis. The accumulation and vertical distribution of salts and other soluble chemical elements indicate relative amounts of movement in the profile over long periods of time, in the order of several million years. Four of the six selected subsamples from paleosol horizons in two ancient soil profiles contained nil concentrations of bacteria and fungi. However, two horizons at depths of between 3 and 8 cm, in two profiles, yielded several colonies of the fungi Beauveria bassiana and Penicillium brevicompactum, indicating very minor input of organic carbon. Beauveria bassiana is often reported in association with insects and is used commercially for the biological control of some insect pests. Penicillium species are commonly isolated from Arctic, temperate, and tropical soils and are known to utilize a wide variety of organic carbon and nitrogen compounds. The cold, dry soils of the Antarctic bear a close resemblance to various present and past martian environments where similar weathering could occur and possible microbial populations

  10. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) proposed dual-use technology investment program in intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the proposed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) precompetitive, dual-use technology investment project in robotics. New robotic technology in advanced robots, which can recognize and respond to their environments and to spoken human supervision so as to perform a variety of combined mobility and manipulation tasks in various sectors, is an obejective of this work. In the U.S. economy, such robots offer the benefits of improved global competitiveness in a critical industrial sector; improved productivity by the end users of these robots; a growing robotics industry that produces jobs and profits; lower cost health care delivery with quality improvements; and, as these 'intelligent' robots become acceptable throughout society, an increase in the standard of living for everyone. In space, such robots will provide improved safety, reliability, and productivity as Space Station evolves, and will enable human space exploration (by human/robot teams). The proposed effort consists of partnerships between manufacturers, universities, and JSC to develop working production prototypes of these robots by leveraging current development by both sides. Currently targeted applications are in the manufacturing, health care, services, and construction sectors of the U.S. economy and in the inspection, servicing, maintenance, and repair aspects of space exploration. But the focus is on the generic software architecture and standardized interfaces for custom modules tailored for the various applications allowing end users to customize a robot as PC users customize PC's. Production prototypes would be completed in 5 years under this proposal.

  11. Evolution of Water Reservoirs on Mars: Constraints from Hydrogen Isotopes in Martian Meteorites

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Sato, Masahiko; Ushioda, Masashi; Matsuyama, Takeshi; Moriwaki, Ryota; James M. Dohm; Usui, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    Martian surface morphology implies that Mars was once warm enough to maintain persistent liquid water on its surface. While the high D/H ratios (~6 times the Earth's ocean water) of the current martian atmosphere suggest that significant water has been lost from the surface during martian history, the timing, processes, and the amount of the water loss have been poorly constrained. Recent technical developments of ion-microprobe analysis of martian meteorites have provided accurate estimation...

  12. Iron Redox Systematics of Shergottites and Martian Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin; Danielson, L. R.; Martin, A. M.; Newville, M.; Choi, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Martian meteorites record a range of oxygen fugacities from near the IW buffer to above FMQ buffer [1]. In terrestrial magmas, Fe(3+)/ SigmaFe for this fO2 range are between 0 and 0.25 [2]. Such variation will affect the stability of oxides, pyroxenes, and how the melt equilibrates with volatile species. An understanding of the variation of Fe(3+)/SigmaFe for martian magmas is lacking, and previous work has been on FeO-poor and Al2O3-rich terrestrial basalts. We have initiated a study of the iron redox systematics of martian magmas to better understand FeO and Fe2O3 stability, the stability of magnetite, and the low Ca/high Ca pyroxene [3] ratios observed at the surface.

  13. Martian zeolites as a source of atmospheric methane

    CERN Document Server

    Mousis, Olivier; Bellat, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Frédéric; Bouley, Sylvain; Chassefière, Eric; Sautter, Violaine; Quesnel, Yoann; Picaud, Sylvain; Lectez, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the martian methane is still poorly understood. A plausible explanation is that methane could have been produced either by hydrothermal alteration of basaltic crust or by serpentinization of ultramafic rocks producing hydrogen and reducing crustal carbon into methane. Once formed, methane storage on Mars is commonly associated with the presence of hidden clathrate reservoirs. Here, we alternatively suggest that chabazite and clinoptilolite, which belong to the family of zeolites, may form a plausible storage reservoir of methane in the martian subsurface. Because of the existence of many volcanic terrains, zeolites are expected to be widespread on Mars and their Global Equivalent Layer may range up to more than $\\sim$1 km, according to the most optimistic estimates. If the martian methane present in chabazite and clinoptilolite is directly sourced from an abiotic source in the subsurface, the destabilization of a localized layer of a few millimeters per year may be sufficient to explain the curr...

  14. The effect of solar energetic particles on the Martian ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Omar Hussain Al; Lillis, Robert; Fillingim, Matthew; Lee, Christina

    2016-10-01

    The precipitation of Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) into the Martian atmosphere causes several effects, one of the most important of which is ionization. However, the importance of this process to the global structure and dynamics for the Martian ionosphere is currently not well understood. The MAVEN spacecraft carries instrumentation which allow us to examine this process. The Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) measures the densities of planetary ions in the Mars ionosphere (O+,CO2+ and O2+). The Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) detector measures the fluxes of energetic protons and electrons. In this project, we examine the degree to which the density of ions in the Martian ionosphere is affected by the precipitation of energetic particles, under conditions of different SEP ion and electron fluxes and at various solar zenith angles. We will present statistical as well as case studies.

  15. SNC meteorites and their implications for reservoirs of Martian volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    The SNC meteorites and the measurements of the Viking landers provide our only direct information about the abundance and isotopic composition of Martian volatiles. Indirect measurements include spectroscopic determinations of the D/H ratio of the Martian atmosphere. A personal view of volatile element reservoirs on Mars is presented, largely as inferred from the meteoritic evidence. This view is that the Martian mantle has had several opportunities for dehydration and is most likely dry, although not completely degassed. Consequently, the water contained in SNC meteorites was most likely incorporated during ascent through the crust. Thus, it is possible that water can be decoupled from other volatile/incompatible elements, making the SNC meteorites suspect as indicators of water inventories on Mars.

  16. Earth – Mars Similarity Criteria for Martian Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian TRIFU

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to select the most efficient kind of a martian exploring vehicle, the similarity criteria are deduced from the equilibrium movement in the terrestrial and martian conditions. Different invariants have been obtained for the existing (entry capsules, parachutes and rovers and potential martian exploring vehicles (lighter-than-air vehicle, airplane, helicopter and Mars Jumper. These similarity criteria, as non dimensional numbers, allow to quickly compare if such a kind of vehicles can operate in the martian environment, the movement performances, the necessary geometrical dimensions and the power consumption. Following this way of study it was concluded what vehicle is most suitable for the near soil Mars exploration. “Mars Rover” has less power consumption on Mars, but due to the rugged terrain the performances are weak. A vacuumed rigid airship is possible to fly with high performances and endurance on Mars, versus the impossibility of such a machine on the Earth. Due to very low density and the low Reynolds numbers in the Mars atmosphere, the power consumption for the martian airplane or helicopter, is substantial higher. The most efficient vehicle for the Mars exploration it seems to be a machine using the in-situ non-chemical propellants: the 95% CO2 atmosphere and the weak solar radiation. A small compressor, electrically driven by photovoltaics, compresses the gas in a storage tank, in time. If the gas is expanded through a nozzle, sufficient lift and control forces are obtained for a VTOL flight of kilometers over the martian soil, in comparison with tens of meters of the actual Mars rovers.

  17. Consequences of Giant Impacts on the Martian dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteux, J.; Amit, H.; Arkani-Hamed, J.; Choblet, G.; Langlais, B.; Tobie, G.; Johnson, C. L.; Jellinek, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Martian surface exhibits a strong dichotomy in elevation, crustal thickness and magnetization between the southern and northern hemispheres. A giant impact has been proposed to explain the formation of the Northern Lowlands on Mars. Such an impact probably led to strong and deep mantle heating and merging between the two cores. These processes will have implications on the thermal state and on the magnetic evolution of the planet. We model the effects of such an impact on the Martian magnetic field (1) by characterizing the thermochemical consequences of the sinking of the impactor's core as a single diapir, (2) by imposing a heat flux heterogeneity on the Martian core-mantle boundary (CMB). Our results show that large viscosity contrasts between the impactor's core and the surrounding mantle silicates can reduce the duration of the merging down to 1 kyr. Direct impact heating of Martian core favor thermal stratification of the core and core dynamo cessation. The merging of the impactor's core with the Martian core only delays the re-initiation of the dynamo for a very short time. While the core thermal stratification is likely to be evacuated rapidly, the impact induced thermal anomaly within the mantle is likely to remain stable for a longer timescale above the CMB. This thermal anomaly generates a large scale cooling heterogeneity at the CMB and a magnetic field dichotomy. A polar impactor leads to a north-south hemispheric magnetic dichotomy that is stronger than an east-west dichotomy created by an equatorial impactor. The amplitude of the magnetic dichotomy is mostly controlled by the horizontal Rayleigh number that represents the vigor of the convection driven by the lateral variations of the CMB heat flux. Our results imply that an impactor radius of 1000 km could have recorded the magnetic dichotomy observed in the Martian crustal field only if very rapid post-impact magma cooling took place.

  18. Shergottite Impact Melt Glasses Contain Soil from Martian Uplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; McKay, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    Martian meteorite (shergottite) impact melt glasses that contain high concentrations of martian atmospheric noble gases and show significant variations in Sr-87/Sr-86 isotopic ratios are likely to contain Martian surface fines mixed with coarser regolith materials. The mixed soil constituents were molten due to shock at the time of meteoroid impact near the Martian surface and the molten glass got incorporated into the voids and cracks in some shergottite meteorites. Earlier, Rao et al. found large enrichments of sulfur (sulfate) during an electron-microprobe study of several impact melt glass veins and pods in EET79001,LithC thin sections. As sulfur is very abundant in Martian soil, these S excesses were attributed to the mixing of a soil component containing aqueously altered secondary minerals with the LithC precursor materials prior to impact melt generation. Recently, we studied additional impact melt glasses in two basaltic shergottites, Zagami and Shergotty using procedures similar to those described. Significant S enrichments in Zagami and Shergotty impact melt glass veins similar to the EET79001, LithC glasses were found. In addition, we noticed the depletion of the mafic component accompanied by the enrichment of felsic component in these impact melt glass veins relative to the bulk host rock in the shergottites. To explain these observations, we present a model based on comminution of basaltic rocks due to meteoroid bombardment on martian regolith and mechanical fractionation leading to enrichment of felsics and depletion of mafics in the fine grained dust which is locally mobilized as a result of saltation and deflation due to the pervasive aeolian activity on Mars.

  19. Earth Mars similarity criteria for exploring martian vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savu, G.

    2006-10-01

    In order to select the most efficient kind of a martian exploring vehicle, the similarity criteria are deduced from the equilibrium movement in the terrestrial and martian conditions. Different invariants have been obtained for the existing (entry capsules, parachutes and rovers) and potential martian exploring vehicles (lighter-than-air vehicle, airplane, helicopter and Mars Jumper). These similarity criteria, as non-dimensional numbers, allow to quickly compare if such kind of vehicles can operate in the martian environment, the movement performances, the necessary geometrical dimensions and the power consumption. Following this way of study it was concluded what vehicle is most suitable for the near soil Mars exploration. “Mars Rover” has less power consumption on Mars, but due to the rugged terrain the performances are weak. A vacuumed rigid airship is possible to fly with high performances and endurance on Mars, versus the impossibility of such a machine on the Earth. Due to very low density and the low Reynolds numbers in the Mars atmosphere, the power consumption for the martian airplane or helicopter is substantially higher. The most efficient vehicle for the Mars exploration seems to be a machine using the in situ non-chemical propellants: the 95% CO2 atmosphere and the weak solar radiation. A small compressor, electrically driven by photovoltaics, compresses the gas in a storage tank, in time. If the gas is expanded through a nozzle, sufficient lift and control forces are obtained for a VTOL flight of kilometers over the martian soil, in comparison with tens of meters of the actual Mars rovers.

  20. Earth-Mars similarity criteria for exploring martian vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savu, G.

    2003-11-01

    In order to select the most efficient kind of a martian exploring vehicle, the similarity criteria are deduced from the equilibrium movement in the terrestrial and martian conditions. Different invariants have been obtained for the existing (entry capsules, parachutes and rovers) and potential martian exploring vehicles (lighter-than-air vehicle, airplane, helicopter and Mars Jumper). These similarity criteria, as non dimensional numbers, allow to quickly compare if such a kind of vehicles can operate in the martian environment, the movement performances, the necessary geometrical dimensions and the power consumption. Following this way of study it was concluded what vehicle is most suitable for the near soil Mars exploration. "Mars Rover" has less power consumption on Mars, but due to the rugged terrain the performances are weak. A vacuumed rigid airship is possible to fly with high performances and endurance on Mars, versus the impossibility of such a machine on the Earth. Due to very low density and the low Reynolds numbers in the Mars atmosphere, the power consumption for the martian airplane or helicopter, is substantial higher. The most efficient vehicle for the Mars exploration it seems to be a machine using the in-situ non-chemical propellants: the 95% CO2 atmosphere and the weak solar radiation. A small compressor, electrically driven by photovoltaics, compresses the gas in a storage tank, in time. If the gas is expanded through a nozzle, sufficient lift and control forces are obtained for a VTOL flight of kilometers over the martian soil, in comparison with tens of meters of the actual Mars rovers.

  1. Effects of Martian crustal magnetic field on its ionosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the Martian crustal magnetic field is one of the hot topics of the study of Martian ionosphere.The studies on this topic are summarized in this paper.Main data of the Martian ionosphere were resulted from radio occultation experiments.According to the observations,the electron density scale height and the peak electron density of the Martian ionosphere are influenced by its crustal magnetic field.The strong horizontal magnetic field prevents the vertical diffusion of the plasma and makes the electron density scale height in the topside ionosphere close to that in the photo equilibrium region.In the cusp-like regions with strong vertical magnetic field,the enhanced vertical diffusion leads to a larger electron density scale height in the diffusion equilibrium region.The observation of radio occultation experiment onboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) showed that the averaged peak electron density observed in the southern hemisphere with strong crustal magnetic field was slightly larger than that in the northern hemisphere with weak crustal magnetic field.The Mars advanced radar for subsurface and ionosphere sounding (MARSIS) onboard Mars Express (MEX) was the first topside sounder to be used to observe Martian ionosphere.The MARSIS results confirmed that the enhancement of the peak electron density occurred in cusp-like regions with open field lines,and the amount of the enhancement was much larger than that observed by the radio occultation experiment.There are two possible mechanisms for the peak electron density enhancement in the cusp-like crustal magnetic field regions:One is the precipitation of the energetic particles and the other is the heating by the waves excited by plasma instabilities.It’s difficult to determine which one is the key mechanism for the peak electron density enhancement.Based on these studies,several interesting problems on the Martian ionosphere and plasma environment are presented.

  2. Meteor layers in the Martian ionosphere: Observations and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Kerstin; Molina Cuberos, Gregorio J.; Witasse, Olivier; Paetzold, Martin

    Observations by the radio science experiments MaRS on Mars Express and VeRa on Venus Express revealed the appearance of additional electron density layers in the Martian and Venu-sian ionosphere below the common secondary layers in some of the ionospheric profiles. This may be an indicator for the signature of meteoric particles in the Martian atmosphere. There are two main sources of meteoric flux into planetary atmospheres: the meteoroid stream com-ponent whose origin is related to comets, and the sporadic meteoroid component which has its source in body collisions i.e. in the Kuiper belt or the asteoroid belt. This paper will present the detection status for the Martian meteor layers in MaRS electron density profiles and the first steps towards modelling this feature. The presented meteor layer model will show the influence of the sporadic meteoric component on the Martian ionosphere. Input param-eters to this model are the ablation profiles of atomic Magnesium and Iron in the Martian atmosphere caused by sporadic meteoric influx, the neutral atmosphere which is taken from the Mars Climate Database and electron density profiles for an undisturbed ionosphere from a simple photochemical model. The meteor layer model includes the effects of molecular and eddy diffusion processes of metallic species and contains chemical reaction schemes for atomic Magnesium and Iron. It calculates the altitude-density-profiles for several metallic species on the basis of Mg and Fe in chemical equilibrium by analytical solution of the reaction equations. A first comparison of model and observed meteoric structures in the Martian ionosphere will be presented.

  3. Martian Swarm Exploration and Mapping Using Laser Slam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, S.; Krüger, T.; Matthaei, J.; Bestmann, U.

    2013-08-01

    In order to explore planet Mars in detail and search for extra-terrestrial life the observation from orbit is not sufficient. To realize complex exploration tasks the use of automatic operating robots with a robust fault-tolerant method of navigation, independent of any infrastructure is a possibility. This work includes a concept of rotary-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) for Martian exploration in a swarm. Besides the scenario of Martian surrounding, with a small number of distinctive landmarks, the challenge consists of a Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) concept using laser data of all swarm members.

  4. Martian thermosphere-exosphere temperatures from SPICAM dayglow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiepen, A.; Gérard, J.-C.; Bougher, S.; Montmessin, F.

    2013-09-01

    We analyze the ultraviolet dayglow in the atmosphere of Mars through CO2+ and CO Cameron emissions. These emissions are accumulated on a large dataset of dayside grazing limb performed by the Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) instrument on board the Mars Express spacecraft. The temperature of the Martian high atmosphere can be retrieved from these limb emission profiles. Its variability with season, latitude, solar activity and the crustal magnetic field is discussed. We use a one-dimensional chemical-diffusive model to retrieve the main features of the emissions and constrain the temperature and density vertical profiles of the main components of the Martian atmosphere.

  5. Modeling the Martian neutral particle radiation - predictions for ExoMars/IRAS and implications for Martian habitability during the Noachian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehresmann, Bent; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Burmeister, Soenke; Koehler, Jan; Kulkarni, Shri [Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, Kiel (Germany); Reitz, Guenther [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The exciting results of recent Mars exploration missions indicate that water existed on the Martian surface, which provides a possibility for life on Mars. Thus, there is an enhanced interest in analyzing the conditions for habitability on Mars, especially in the Noachian epoch. An important aspect of habitability is the radiation level of charged and neutral particles in possible habitats. Using Planetocosmics, we calculate particle radiation in the Martian atmosphere and at ground level for present-day conditions. These calculations allow us to make predictions for the measurements of the Ionizing Radiation Sensor (IRAS) on ExoMars. By changing atmosphere conditions and varying the water-content of the Martian soil, we can derive radiation levels expected during the Noachian period. We will discuss the implications of these model results in terms of Noachian habitability.

  6. What Lies Below a Martian Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger annotated version This image (top) taken by the Shallow Radar instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveals the layers of ice, sand and dust that make up the north polar ice cap on Mars. It is the most detailed look to date at the insides of this ice cap. The colored map below the radar picture shows the topography of the corresponding Martian terrain (red and white represent higher ground, and green and yellow lower). The radar image reveals four never-before-seen thick layers of ice and dust separated by layers of nearly pure ice. According to scientists, these thick ice-free layers represent approximately one-million-year-long cycles of climate change on Mars caused by variations in the planet's tilted axis and its eccentric orbit around the sun. Adding up the entire stack of ice gives an estimated age for the north polar ice cap of about 4 million years a finding that agrees with previous theoretical estimates. The ice cap is about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) thick. The radar picture also shows that the boundary between the ice layers and the surface of Mars underneath is relatively flat (bottom white line on the right). This implies that the surface of Mars is not sagging, or bending, under the weight of the ice cap and this, in turn, suggests that the planet's lithosphere, a combination of the crust and the strong parts of the upper mantle, is thicker than previously thought. A thicker lithosphere on Mars means that temperatures increase more gradually with depth toward the interior. Temperatures warm enough for water to be liquid are therefore deeper than previously thought. Likewise, if liquid water does exist in aquifers below the surface of Mars, and if there are any organisms living in that water, they would have to be located deeper in the planet. The topography data are from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, which was flown on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor mission. NPLD stands

  7. A comprehensive database of Martian landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista Crosta, Giovanni; Vittorio De Blasio, Fabio; Frattini, Paolo; Valbuzzi, Elena

    2016-04-01

    During a long-term project, we have identified and classified a large number (> 3000) of Martian landslides especially but not exclusively from Valles Marineris. This database provides a more complete basis for a statistical study of landslides on Mars and its relationship with geographical and environmental conditions. Landslides have been mapped according to standard geomorphological criteria, delineating both the landslide scar and accumulation limits, associating each scarp to a deposit, and using the program ArcGis for generation of a complete digital dataset. Multiple accumulations from the same source area or from different sources have been differentiated, where possible, to obtain a more complete dataset and to allow more refined analyses. Each landslide has been classified according to a set of criteria including: type, degree of confinement, possible trigger, elevation with respect to datum, geomorphological features, degree of multiplicity, and so on. The runout, fall height, and volume have been measured for each deposit. In fact, the database is revealing a series of trends that may assist at understanding landform processes on Mars and its past climatic conditions. One of the most interesting aspects of our dataset is the presence of a population of landslides whose particularly long mobility deviates from average behavior. While some landslides have travelled unimpeded on a usually flat area, others have travelled against obstacles or mounds. Therefore, landslides are also studied in relation to i) morphologies created by the landslide itself, ii) presence of mounds, barriers or elevations than have affected the movement of the landslide mass. In some extreme cases, the landslide was capable of travelling for several tens of km along the whole valley and upon reaching the opposite side it travelled upslope for several hundreds of meters, which is indication of high travelling speed. In other cases, the high speed is revealed by dynamic deformations

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Martian (SNC) Meteorite ALH 84001: Hydrocarbons from Mars, Terrestrial Contaminants, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Romanek, C. S.; Macheling, C. R.; Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Score, R.; Zare, R. N.

    1995-09-01

    Previous work has shown that pre-terrestrial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exist in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and certain meteorites [1-3]. We previously reported the first observation of PAHs in the newest member of the SNC group, Allan Hills 84001 [4] and determined that particular types of organic compounds are indigenous to ALH 84001 because they are associated with certain mineralogical features [4]. We also analyzed two diogenites from Antarctica: one showed no evidence for aromatic hydrocarbons while the other contained PAHs with the same major peaks as those in ALH 84001[4]. PAHs in the diogenite meteorite are not associated with mineral features on the analyzed surface and the most abundant PAHs in the diogenite are lower by a factor of 3 than those in ALH 84001. Furthermore, ALH 84001 contains a number of minor PAHs not found in the diogenite or typical terrestrial soils [4]. In this study we are analyzing a more complete group of Antarctic and non-Antarctic meteorites, including SNCs, to determine: (1) PAHs abundance and diversity in Antarctic meteorites and (2) the contribution of PAHs in SNCs from martian and, possibly, terrestrial sources. ALH 84001 is an unusual orthopyroxenite which contains abundant carbonate spheroids which are ~100-200 micrometers in diameter and range in composition from magnesite to ferroan magnesite [5-7]. These spheroids are not the result of terrestrial contamination: oxygen isotopic compositions indicate that the carbonates probably precipitated from a low-temperature fluid within the martian crust [5] and carbon isotopic abundances are consistent with martian atmospheric CO2 as the carbon source [5]. PAHs may coexist with other low-temperature carbon-bearing phases in a subsurface martian environment. Samples: We are analyzing freshly-fractured meteorite samples, or chips, which have been extracted from the internal regions of the following meteorites: ALH 84001 (crush and uncrush zones), EETA79001

  9. Martian fluid and Martian weathering signatures identified in Nakhla, NWA 998 and MIL 03346 by halogen and noble gas analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, J. A.; Gilmour, J. D.; Burgess, R.

    2013-03-01

    We report argon (Ar) noble gas, Ar-Ar ages and halogen abundances (Cl, Br, I) of Martian nakhlites Nakhla, NWA 998 and MIL 03346 to determine the presence of Martian hydrous fluids and weathering products. Neutron-irradiated samples were either crushed and step-heated (Nakhla only), or simply step-heated using a laser or furnace, and analysed for noble gases using an extension of the 40Ar-39Ar technique to determine halogen abundances. The data obtained provide the first isotopic evidence for a trapped fluid that is Cl-rich, has a strong correlation with 40ArXS (40ArXS = 40Armeasured - 40Arradiogenic) and displays 40ArXS/36Ar of ˜1000 - consistent with the Martian atmosphere. This component was released predominantly in the low temperature and crush experiments, which may suggest a fluid inclusion host. For the halogens, we observe similar Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios between the nakhlites and terrestrial reservoirs, which is surprising given the absence of crustal recycling, organic matter and frequent fluid activity on Mars. In particular, Br/Cl ratios in our Nakhla samples (especially olivine) are consistent with previously analysed Martian weathering products, and both low temperature and crush analyses show a similar trend to the evaporation of seawater. This may indicate that surface brines play an important role on Mars and on halogen assemblages within Martian meteorites and rocks. Elevated I/Cl ratios in the low temperature NWA 998 and MIL 03346 releases may relate to in situ terrestrial contamination, though we are unable to distinguish between low temperature terrestrial or Martian components. Whilst estimates of the amount of water present based on the 36Ar concentrations are too high to be explained by a fluid component alone, they are consistent with a mixed-phase inclusion (gas and fluid) or with shock-implanted Martian atmospheric argon. The observed fluid is dilute (low salinity, but high Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios), contains a Martian atmospheric component

  10. ANALYSIS OF TRAIN SHEET IN THE INFORMATION SYSTEM OF JSC «UKRZALIZNYTSIA»: PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ovcharenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The system of train sheet analysis (TSA in the information system of JSC «Ukrzaliznytsia» provides work with passenger and suburban trains and has considerable potential. Therefore it is necessary to establish the prospects of development of the system. Methodology. Departments’ setup and the train delay causes should be carried out at every station and span, where such delays took place. This requires the fixation of condition deviations of infrastructure from normal and other adverse factors. In the sector of freight transportations the train schedule analysis is insufficient, since this analysis does not account for deviations from the terms of delivery. Therefore it also is necessary to analyze the delivery graphs. The basis for monitoring the cargo delivery is the method of control time points (CTP of technological operations performed with cargo at railway stations. On the basis of CTP to assess the quality of the transport process one should calculate the values of the analysis of cargo delivery schedule (performance level of the cargo delivery schedule, the coefficient of ahead of schedule/delay delivery. Findings. The article proposes to develop the system TSA using the input and display of the train delay causes on-line by transportation service employees, expansion of statistical databases and processing of the input delay causes during its calculation train sheet analysis of freight trains and quality assessment of the delivery schedule fulfillment. It is also appropriate before the new operator companies had appeared to make changes in the instructions TSCHU-TSD-0002 on the list of departments, which include delayed trains, by adding «the department» «The fault of operator companies» and corresponding causes of delays. Originality. The scheme of automated TSA in the information system of JSC «Ukrzaliznytsia» was improved. The author proposes to determine the cargo delivery quality on the certain polygon using the

  11. Spectral characterization of volcanic rocks in the VIS-NIR for martian exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Simone; Carli, Cristian; Manzari, Paola; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Capaccioni, Fabrizio

    2016-10-01

    Igneous effusive rocks cover much of the surface of Mars [1,2,3]. Initially only two types of lithologies were thought to constitute the Martian crust, i.e. a basaltic one and a more andesitic one [1,2], while more evolved lithologies were ruled out.Nevertheless a more complex situation is appearing in the last years. Recently several observations have highlighted the presence of evolved, acidic rocks. High-silica dacite units were identified in Syrtis Major caldera by thermal IR data [4]. Outcrops in Noachis Terra were interpreted as constituted of felsic (i.e. feldspar-rich) rocks essentially by the observation of a 1.3-µm spectral feature in CRISM data, attributed to Fe2+ in feldspars [5]. However different interpretations exist, invoking plagioclase-enriched basalts [6] rather than felsic products.The increasing of high-resolution and in-situ rover-based observations datasets and the changing of the initial paradigm justify a new systematic spectral study of igneous effusive rocks. In this work we focus on the spectral characterization of volcanic effusive rocks in the 0.35-2.5-µm range. We are carrying out measurements and spectral analyses on a wide ensemble of effusive samples, from mafic to sialic, with variable alkali contents, following the classification in the Total-Alkali-Silica diagram, and discussing the influence on spectral characteristics of different mineral assemblages and/or texture ([7], [8]). [1] Bandfield J.L., et al., Science, 287, 1626, 2000; [2] Christensen P.R., et al., J. Geophys. Res., 105, N.E4, 9609-9621, 2000; [3] Ehlmann B.L. & Edwards C.S., Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 42, 291-315, 2014; [4] Christensen P.R., et al., Nature, 436, 504-509, 2005; [5] Wray J.J., et al., 44th LPSC, abs. n.3065, 2013; [6] Rogers A.D. & Nekvasil H., Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 2619-2626, 2015; [7] Carli C. and Sgavetti M.,Icarus, 211, 1034–1048, 2011; [7] Carli C. et al., SGL, doi 10.1144/SP401.19, 2015.

  12. MEDUSA (Martian Environmental DUst Systematic Analyser)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, R.; Colangeli, L.; della Corte, V.; Esposito, F.; Ferrini, G.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Palomba, E.; Palumbo, P.; Panizza, A.; Rotundi, A.

    2003-04-01

    ) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor. Seasonal variations in the column abundance are due to the combined effect of exchange of H_2O between atmosphere and water reservoirs (i.e. polar caps, regolith) and atmospheric transport. Despite the low absolute water content (0.03% by volume), relative humidity can exceed 100% leading to frosting phenomena, thanks to low Martian temperatures. The typical value of the pressure at surface, close to the triple point value of water phase diagram, makes the persistence of liquid water at the surface of Mars highly improbable. This means that the water is probably present exclusively in gaseous and solid states, at the surface level. Attempts to use space-born and earth-based observations to estimate quantitatively surface and near-surface sources and sinks of water vapour have had good but also partial success. Most important questions that appear from the present knowledge is how the water vapour atmospheric circulation occurs and how to explain the difference in the hemispheric and seasonal behaviour of the water vapour. Despite TES results showed that a percentage of hemispheric "asymmetry" of the seasonal vapour abundance was probably due to the presence of two dust storms during MAWD observations, an evident difference remains partially unexplained. In this context, it is extremely important to study the role of the different contributions to the production of atmospheric vapour from the main reservoirs and to the formation of water ice clouds most probably catalysed by the atmospheric dust. At present, no in situ measurement of water vapour content was performed yet. We discuss the possibility of using a new concept instrument for extraterrestrial planetary environments, based on the past experience acquired for dust monitoring in space and on Earth and new possible technologies for space applications. MEDUSA (Martian Environmental Dust Analyser) project is a multisensor and multistage instrument based on an optical detector of dust

  13. Seasonal cycle of Martian climate : Experimental data and numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodin, A. V.; Willson, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    The most adequate theoretical method of investigating the present-day Martian climate is numerical simulation based on a model of general circulation of the atmosphere. First and foremost, such models encounter the greatest difficulties in description of aerosols and clouds, which in turn essentiall

  14. Nightside Martian Ionosphere Produced by Electron Impact Ionization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-Teng; LI Lei

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Martian magnetic field model established by magnetohydrodynamics simulation,we determine the possible precipitation areas of the solar wind electron in the nightside Martian atmosphere,and analyze the electron impact ionization to estimate the height of the nightside Martian ionospheric peak and the electron density profile using the energy flux analysis method.The influences of the single electron energy,electron energy density and ionization efficiency on the altitude of the ionospheric peak and the electron density profile axe also investigated.Our results show that the solar wind electron moves along the V-shaped solar wind magnetic field lines,to precipitate into the Martian atmosphere.Due to the crustal magnetic field,the precipitation regions on the nightside are quite narrow and unstable.The impact ionization happens at the altitude of 130-500km,and the height of the ionospheric peak is around 170kin,with a peak electron density of 3.0×103 cm-3.The simulation results are consistent with the results from Mars 4/5 and Viking occultation measurements.

  15. Local Dynamics of Baroclinic Waves in the Martian Atmosphere

    KAUST Repository

    Kavulich, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    The paper investigates the processes that drive the spatiotemporal evolution of baroclinic transient waves in the Martian atmosphere by a simulation experiment with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Mars general circulation model (GCM). The main diagnostic tool of the study is the (local) eddy kinetic energy equation. Results are shown for a prewinter season of the Northern Hemisphere, in which a deep baroclinic wave of zonal wavenumber 2 circles the planet at an eastward phase speed of about 70° Sol-1 (Sol is a Martian day). The regular structure of the wave gives the impression that the classical models of baroclinic instability, which describe the underlying process by a temporally unstable global wave (e.g., Eady model and Charney model), may have a direct relevance for the description of the Martian baroclinic waves. The results of the diagnostic calculations show, however, that while the Martian waves remain zonally global features at all times, there are large spatiotemporal changes in their amplitude. The most intense episodes of baroclinic energy conversion, which take place in the two great plain regions (Acidalia Planitia and Utopia Planitia), are strongly localized in both space and time. In addition, similar to the situation for terrestrial baroclinic waves, geopotential flux convergence plays an important role in the dynamics of the downstream-propagating unstable waves. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

  16. Timescales of shock processes in chondritic and martian meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, P; Gillet, Ph; El Goresy, A; Mostefaoui, S

    2005-06-23

    The accretion of the terrestrial planets from asteroid collisions and the delivery to the Earth of martian and lunar meteorites has been modelled extensively. Meteorites that have experienced shock waves from such collisions can potentially be used to reveal the accretion process at different stages of evolution within the Solar System. Here we have determined the peak pressure experienced and the duration of impact in a chondrite and a martian meteorite, and have combined the data with impact scaling laws to infer the sizes of the impactors and the associated craters on the meteorite parent bodies. The duration of shock events is inferred from trace element distributions between coexisting high-pressure minerals in the shear melt veins of the meteorites. The shock duration and the associated sizes of the impactor are found to be much greater in the chondrite (approximately 1 s and 5 km, respectively) than in the martian meteorite (approximately 10 ms and 100 m). The latter result compares well with numerical modelling studies of cratering on Mars, and we suggest that martian meteorites with similar, recent ejection ages (10(5) to 10(7) years ago) may have originated from the same few square kilometres on Mars.

  17. Martian sub-surface ionising radiation: biosignatures and geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ward

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars, unshielded by thick atmosphere or global magnetic field, is exposed to high levels of cosmic radiation. This ionising radiation field is deleterious to the survival of dormant cells or spores and the persistence of molecular biomarkers in the subsurface, and so its characterisation is of prime astrobiological interest. Here, we present modelling results of the absorbed radiation dose as a function of depth through the Martian subsurface, suitable for calculation of biomarker persistence. A second major implementation of this dose accumulation rate data is in application of the optically stimulated luminescence technique for dating Martian sediments.

    We present calculations of the dose-depth profile in the Martian subsurface for various scenarios: variations of surface composition (dry regolith, ice, layered permafrost, solar minimum and maximum conditions, locations of different elevation (Olympus Mons, Hellas basin, datum altitude, and increasing atmospheric thickness over geological history. We also model the changing composition of the subsurface radiation field with depth compared between Martian locations with different shielding material, determine the relative dose contributions from primaries of different energies, and discuss particle deflection by the crustal magnetic fields.

  18. Mapping the Iron Oxidation State in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. M.; Treimann, A. H.; Righter, K.

    2017-01-01

    Several types of Martian igneous meteorites have been identified: clinopyroxenites (nakhlites), basaltic shergottites, peridotitic shergottites, dunites (chassignites) and orthopyroxenites [1,2]. In order to constrain the heterogeneity of the Martian mantle and crust, and their evolution through time, numerous studies have been performed on the iron oxidation state of these meteorites [3,4,5,6,7,8,9]. The calculated fO2 values all lie within the FMQ-5 to FMQ+0.5 range (FMQ representing the Fayalite = Magnetite + Quartz buffer); however, discrepancies appear between the various studies, which are either attributed to the choice of the minerals/melts used, or to the precision of the analytical/calculation method. The redox record in volcanic samples is primarily related to the oxidation state in the mantle source(s). However, it is also influenced by several deep processes: melting, crystallization, magma mixing [10], assimilation and degassing [11]. In addition, the oxidation state in Martian meteorites is potentially affected by several surface processes: assimilation of sediment/ crust during lava flowing at Mars' surface, low temperature micro-crystallization [10], weathering at the surface of Mars and low temperature reequilibration, impact processes (i.e. high pressure phase transitions, mechanical mixing, shock degassing and melting), space weathering, and weathering on Earth (at atmospheric conditions different from Mars). Decoding the redox record of Martian meteorites, therefore, requires large-scale quantitative analysis methods, as well as a perfect understanding of oxidation processes.

  19. Modeling the development of martian sublimation thermokarst landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Colin M.; Byrne, Shane; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2015-12-01

    Sublimation-thermokarst landforms result from collapse of the surface when ice is lost from the subsurface. On Mars, scalloped landforms with scales of decameters to kilometers are observed in the mid-latitudes and considered likely thermokarst features. We describe a landscape evolution model that couples diffusive mass movement and subsurface ice loss due to sublimation. Over periods of tens of thousands of Mars years under conditions similar to the present, the model produces scallop-like features similar to those on the martian surface, starting from much smaller initial disturbances. The model also indicates crater expansion when impacts occur in surfaces underlain by excess ice to some depth, with morphologies similar to observed landforms on the martian northern plains. In order to produce these landforms by sublimation, substantial quantities of excess ice are required, at least comparable to the vertical extent of the landform, and such ice must remain in adjacent terrain to support the non-deflated surface. We suggest that martian thermokarst features are consistent with formation by sublimation, without melting, and that significant thicknesses of very clean excess ice (up to many tens of meters, the depth of some scalloped depressions) are locally present in the martian mid-latitudes. Climate conditions leading to melting at significant depth are not required.

  20. Modeling the development of martian sublimation thermokarst landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Colin M.; Byrne, Shane; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2015-01-01

    Sublimation-thermokarst landforms result from collapse of the surface when ice is lost from the subsurface. On Mars, scalloped landforms with scales of decameters to kilometers are observed in the mid-latitudes and considered likely thermokarst features. We describe a landscape evolution model that couples diffusive mass movement and subsurface ice loss due to sublimation. Over periods of tens of thousands of Mars years under conditions similar to the present, the model produces scallop-like features similar to those on the Martian surface, starting from much smaller initial disturbances. The model also indicates crater expansion when impacts occur in surfaces underlain by excess ice to some depth, with morphologies similar to observed landforms on the Martian northern plains. In order to produce these landforms by sublimation, substantial quantities of excess ice are required, at least comparable to the vertical extent of the landform, and such ice must remain in adjacent terrain to support the non-deflated surface. We suggest that Martian thermokarst features are consistent with formation by sublimation, without melting, and that significant thicknesses of very clean excess ice (up to many tens of meters, the depth of some scalloped depressions) are locally present in the Martian mid-latitudes. Climate conditions leading to melting at significant depth are not required.

  1. Martian sub-surface ionising radiation: biosignatures and geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Dartnell

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface of Mars, unshielded by thick atmosphere or global magnetic field, is exposed to high levels of cosmic radiation. This ionizing radiation field is deleterious to the survival of dormant cells or spores and the persistence of molecular biomarkers in the subsurface, and so its characterisation is of prime astrobiological interest. Previous research has attempted to address the question of biomarker persistence by inappropriately using dose profiles weighted specifically for cellular survival. Here, we present modelling results of the unmodified physically absorbed radiation dose as a function of depth through the Martian subsurface. A second major implementation of this dose accumulation rate data is in application of the optically stimulated luminescence technique for dating Martian sediments.

    We present calculations of the dose-depth profile from galactic cosmic rays in the Martian subsurface for various scenarios: variations of surface composition (dry regolith, ice, layered permafrost, solar minimum and maximum conditions, locations of different elevation (Olympus Mons, Hellas basin, datum altitude, and increasing atmospheric thickness over geological history. We also model the changing composition of the subsurface radiation field with depth compared between Martian locations with different shielding material, determine the relative dose contributions from primaries of different energies, and briefly treat particle deflection by the crustal magnetic fields.

  2. Martian gullies: possible formation mechanism by dry granular material..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-Flores, Y.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.

    section Some of the geomorphological features in Mars are the gullies Some theories developed tried explain its origin either by liquid water liquid carbon dioxide or flows of dry granular material We made a comparative analysis of the Martian gullies with the terrestrial ones We propose that the mechanism of formation of the gullies is as follows In winter CO 2 snow mixed with sand falls in the terrain In spring the CO 2 snow sublimate and gaseous CO 2 make fluid the sand which flows like liquid eroding the terrain and forming the gullies By experimental work with dry granular material we simulated the development of the Martian gullies injecting air in the granular material section We present the characteristics of some terrestrial gullies forms at cold environment sited at Nevado de Toluca Volcano near Toluca City M e xico We compare them with Martian gullies choose from four different areas to target goal recognize or to distinguish to identify possible processes evolved in its formation Also we measured the lengths of those Martian gullies and the range was from 24 m to 1775 meters Finally we present results of our experimental work at laboratory with dry granular material

  3. Seasonal cycle of Martian climate : Experimental data and numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodin, A. V.; Willson, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    The most adequate theoretical method of investigating the present-day Martian climate is numerical simulation based on a model of general circulation of the atmosphere. First and foremost, such models encounter the greatest difficulties in description of aerosols and clouds, which in turn

  4. Seasonal cycle of Martian climate : Experimental data and numerical simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodin, A. V.; Willson, R. J.

    2006-01-01

    The most adequate theoretical method of investigating the present-day Martian climate is numerical simulation based on a model of general circulation of the atmosphere. First and foremost, such models encounter the greatest difficulties in description of aerosols and clouds, which in turn essentiall

  5. Bacterial growth in a simulated Martian subsurface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronyak, R. E.; Pavlov, A.; House, C. H.

    2013-12-01

    The ability of microorganisms to grow under Martian conditions has implications in both the search for life and habitability of Mars as well as the potential contamination of Mars by landing spacecraft. Factors that inhibit the growth of organisms on Mars include UV radiation, low pressure and temperature, CO2 atmosphere, lack of liquid water, and extreme desiccation. Yet a possible biozone capable of supporting microbial life on Mars exists in the shallow subsurface where there is protection from harsh UV rays. In addition, the presence of widespread subsurface ice, confirmed by the Phoenix Lander, offers a water source as the ice sublimates through the upper soil. Here we will determine the ability of the organism Halomonas desiderata strain SP1 to grow in the simulated Martian subsurface environment. Halomonas was chosen as the bacteria of interest due to its tolerance to extreme environments, including carrying salt concentrations and pH. Experiments were carried out in the Mars Simulation Chamber, where temperatures, pressures, and atmospheric composition can be closely monitored to simulate Martian conditions. A series of stress experiments were conducted to observe Halomonas's ability to withstand exposure to a Mars analog soil, freezing temperatures, anoxic conditions, and low pressures. We have determined that Halomonas is able to survive exposures to low temperatures, pressures, and anoxic conditions. We will report on the survival and growth of Halomonas in the simulated Martian permafrost under low (6-10 mbar) atmospheric pressures.

  6. Samples from Martian craters: Origin of the Martian soil by hydrothermal alteration of impact melt deposits and atmospheric interactions with ejecta during crater formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Horton E.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of the Martian soil is an important question for understanding weathering processes on the Martian surface, and also for understanding the global geochemistry of Mars. Chemical analyses of the soil will provide an opportunity to examine what may be a crustal average, as studies of loess on the Earth have demonstrated. In this regard the origin of the Martian soil is also important for understanding the chemical fractionations that have affected the composition of the soil. Several processes that are likely to contribute to the Martian soil are examined.

  7. Technology Development and Production of Certain Chemical Platinum Metals Compounds at JSC "Krastsvetmet"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ILYASHEVICH V.D.; PAVLOVA E.I.; KORITSKAYA N.G.; MAMONOV S.N.; SHULGIN D.R.; MALTSEV E.V.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years JSC "Krastsvetmet" has successfully developed the production of chemically pure compounds of precious metals.Currently methods have been developed and facilities have been provided for industrial production of the following platinum metals compounds:- Rhodium (Ⅲ) chloride hydrate,rhodium (Ⅲ) chloride solution,rhodium ( Ⅲ) nitrate solution,rhodium ( Ⅲ)iodide,rhodium ( Ⅲ) sulfate,hydrated rhodium ( Ⅲ) oxide,ammonium hexachlororodiate,rhodium ( Ⅲ)phosphate solution,rhodium electrolytes;Iridium (Ⅳ) chloride hydrate,iridium (Ⅲ) chloride hydrate,ammonium hexachloroiridate (Ⅳ),hexachloriridium acid solution,hexachloriridium crystalline acid;- Ruthenium (Ⅲ) chloride hydrate,ruthenium (Ⅳ) hydroxide chloride,ruthenium (Ⅳ) hydroxide chloride solution,ammonium hexachlororuthenate,ruthenium (Ⅲ) chloride solution,potassium,diaquaoctachloronitrido diruthenate.The quality of the production meets the requirements of Russian and foreign consumers.

  8. STS-26 MS Hilmers during egress training at JSC's MAIL full fuselage trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), tries out the new crew escape system (CES) inflated slide during an emergency egress training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Technicians stand on either side of the slide ready to help Hilmers to his feet once he reaches the bottom. Watching from floor level at the far left is astronaut Steven R. Nagel. A second crewmember stands in the open side hatch of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) awaiting his turn to slide to 'safety'. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (LESs) and checked out CES slide and other CES configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options. The CES pole extends out the side hatch just above Hilmers' head.

  9. STS-26 Pilot Covey during egress training at JSC's MAIL full fuselage trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Pilot Richard O. Covey, wearing a launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), slides to safety using the new crew escape system (CES) inflated slide during an emergency egress training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Technicians stand on either side of the slide ready to help Covey to his feet once he reaches the bottom. The CES pole extends out the open side hatch of the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT). During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew donned the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (LESs) and checked out CES slide and other CES configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  10. Measurement of Apparent Thermal Conductivity of JSC-1A Under Ambient Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Kleinhenz, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    The apparent thermal conductivity of JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant was measured experimentally using a cylindrical apparatus. Eleven thermocouples were embedded in the simulant bed to obtain the steady state temperature distribution at various radial, axial, and azimuthal locations. The high aspect ratio of a cylindrical geometry was proven to provide a one-dimensional, axisymmetric temperature field. A test series was performed at atmospheric pressure with varying heat fluxes. The radial temperature distribution in each test fit a logarithmic function, indicating a constant thermal conductivity throughout the soil bed. However, thermal conductivity was not constant between tests at different heat fluxes. This variation is attributed to stresses created by thermal expansion of the simulant particles against the rigid chamber wall. Under stress-free conditions (20 deg C), the data suggest a temperature independent apparent conductivity of 0.1961 +/- 0.0070 W/m/ deg C

  11. STS-47 crew during fire fighting exercises at JSC's Fire Training Pit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers line up along water hoses to extinguish a blaze in JSC's Fire Training Pit during fire fighting exercises. Manning the hose in the foreground are Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri, holding the hose nozzle, backup Payload Specialist Takao Doi, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerome Apt, and Commander Robert L. Gibson, at rear. Lined up on the second hose are Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, holding the hose nozzle, followed by MS N. Jan Davis, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, and backup Payload Specialist Stan Koszelak. A veteran firefighter monitors the effort from a position between the two hoses. In the background, backup Payload Specialist Chiaki Naito-Mukai, donning gloves, and MS Mae C. Jemison look on. The Fire Training Pit is located across from the Gilruth Center Bldg 207. Mohri, Doi, and Mukai all represent Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

  12. Student experimenter stands near middeck lockers in JSC Bldg 9A mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Student experimenter Constantine Costes, STS-42 Commander Ronald J. Grabe, STS-42 Mission Specialist (MS) William F. Readdy, and Integration Engineer Neal Christie discuss Coates' student experiment 83-02 (SE 83-02) entitled 'Zero-G Capillary Rise of Liquid through Granular Porous Media' in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT). On FFT middeck, Costes stands behind Readdy (kneeling) as Christie demonstrates experiment setup and Grabe looks on (47326). The team also examines experiment components at middeck stowage locker (47323) and at FFT open side hatch (47324, 47325). The experiment is designed to investigate the capillary and forced flow characteristics of blue-tinted water in three glass tubes with three sizes of glass beads. SE 83-02 is scheduled to be flown on STS-42 aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103.

  13. STS-33 crewmembers during training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers, wearing orange launch and entry suits (LESs) and launch and entry helmets (LEHs), are seated in their launch and entry positions on crew compartment trainer (CCT) flight deck during a training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. Commander Frederick D. Gregory (far right) is stationed at forward flight deck commanders controls, Pilot John E. Blaha (far left) at the pilots controls and on aft flight deck are mission specialists Manley L. Carter, Jr (left), MS F. Story Musgrave (center, holding clipboard), and MS Kathryn C. Thornton (standing). Overhead forward control panels are visible above the astronauts and aft flight deck onorbit station control panels and windows are visible in the background. Thornton is on the flight deck for this photo but during launch and entry will be seated on the middeck.

  14. STS-29 MS Bagian during post landing egress exercises in JSC FFT mockup

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) James P. Bagian works his way down to 'safety' using a sky-genie device during post landing emergency egress exercises in JSC full fuselage trainer (FFT) located in the Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Bagian, wearing orange launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), lowers himself using the sky genie after egressing from crew compartment overhead window W8. Fellow crewmembers and technicians watch Bagian's progress. Standing in navy blue LES is MS Robert C. Springer with MS James F. Buchli seated behind him on his right and Pilot John E. Blaha seated behind him on his left. Bagian is one of several astronauts who has been instrumental in developing the new crew escape system (CES) equipment (including parachute harness).

  15. STS-26 crewmembers during training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers, wearing navy blue launch and entry suits (LESs) and launch and entry helmets (LEHs), are seated in their launch and entry positions on crew compartment trainer (CCT) flight deck during a training exercise in JSC Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Commander Frederick H. Hauck (far right) is stationed at forward flight deck commanders controls, Pilot Richard O. Covey (far left) at the pilots controls and on aft flight deck are mission specialists John M. Lounge (left) and David C. Hilmers. Overhead forward control panels are visible above the astronauts and aft flight deck onorbit station control panels and windows are visible in the background. NOTE: Photo was taken by William H. Bowers, crew photo instructor, with wide angle lens.

  16. STS-40 crew trains in JSC's SLS mockup located in Bldg 36

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    STS-40 Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford along with backup payload specialist Robert Ward Phillips familiarize themselves with Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) equipment. The two scientists are in JSC's Life Sciences Project Division (LSPD) SLS mockup located in the Bioengineering and Test Support Facility Bldg 36. Hughes-Fulford, in the center aisle, pulls equipment from an overhead stowage locker while Phillips, in the foreground, experiments with the baroreflex neck pressure chamber at Rack 11. The baroreflex collar will be used in conjuction with Experiment No. 022, Influence of Weightlessness Upon Human Autonomic Cardiovascular Control. Behind Phillips in the center aisle are body mass measurement device (BMMD) (foreground) and the stowed bicycle ergometer.

  17. STS-26 crew training in JSC Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers use a bit of orchestrated humor to demonstrate the aft (back) zipper feature on the new (navy blue) partial pressure suits (launch and entry suits (LESs)) before a training exercise in JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory Bldg 9A. Left to right are Commander Frederick H. Hauck, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, MS David C. Hilmers, MS John M. Lounge, and Pilot Richard O. Covey. During Crew Station Review (CSR) #3, the crew is scheduled to check out the new partial pressure suits and crew escape system (CES) configurations to evaluate crew equipment and procedures related to emergency egress methods and proposed crew escape options.

  18. Hydrogen Isotopic Systematics of Nominally Anhydrous Phases in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Kera

    Hydrogen isotope compositions of the martian atmosphere and crustal materials can provide unique insights into the hydrological and geological evolution of Mars. While the present-day deuterium-to-hydrogen ratio (D/H) of the Mars atmosphere is well constrained (~6 times that of terrestrial ocean water), that of its deep silicate interior (specifically, the mantle) is less so. In fact, the hydrogen isotope composition of the primordial martian mantle is of great interest since it has implications for the origin and abundance of water on that planet. Martian meteorites could provide key constraints in this regard, since they crystallized from melts originating from the martian mantle and contain phases that potentially record the evolution of the H 2O content and isotopic composition of the interior of the planet over time. Examined here are the hydrogen isotopic compositions of Nominally Anhydrous Phases (NAPs) in eight martian meteorites (five shergottites and three nakhlites) using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). This study presents a total of 113 individual analyses of H2O contents and hydrogen isotopic compositions of NAPs in the shergottites Zagami, Los Angeles, QUE 94201, SaU 005, and Tissint, and the nakhlites Nakhla, Lafayette, and Yamato 000593. The hydrogen isotopic variation between and within meteorites may be due to one or more processes including: interaction with the martian atmosphere, magmatic degassing, subsolidus alteration (including shock), and/or terrestrial contamination. Taking into consideration the effects of these processes, the hydrogen isotope composition of the martian mantle may be similar to that of the Earth. Additionally, this study calculated upper limits on the H2O contents of the shergottite and nakhlite parent melts based on the measured minimum H2O abundances in their maskelynites and pyroxenes, respectively. These calculations, along with some petrogenetic assumptions based on previous studies, were subsequently used

  19. Durham, North Carolina, Students Study Martian Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image of the wall of a graben a depressed block of land between two parellel faults in Tyrrhena Terra, in Mars' ancient southern highlands, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0914 UTC (4:14 a.m. EST) on February 6, 2008, near 17.3 degrees south latitude, 95.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 35 meters (115 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. This image was part of an investigation planned by students in four high schools in Durham, North Carolina. The students are working with the CRISM science team in a project called the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT), which is part of NASA's Mars Public Engagement Program and Arizona State University's Mars Education Program. Starting with a medium-resolution map of the area, taken as part of CRISM's 'multispectral survey' campaign to map Mars in 72 colors at 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel, the students identified a key rock outcrop to test their hypothesis that the irregular depression was formed by Martian volcanism. They provided the coordinates of the target to CRISM's operations team, who took a high-resolution image of the site. The Context Imager (CTX) accompanied CRISM with a 6 meter (20 feet) per pixel, high-resolution image to sharpen the relationship of spectral variations to the underlying surface structures. The Durham students worked with a mentor on the CRISM team to analyze the data, and presented their results at the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held in League City, Texas, on March 10-14, 2008. The upper panel of the image shows the location of the CRISM data and the surrounding, larger CTX image, overlain on an image mosaic taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on Mars Odyssey. The mosaic has been color-coded for elevation using data from the Mars Orbiter Laser

  20. Evaporites in Martian Paleolakes: Observations and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, J. J.; Milliken, R.; Swayze, G. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Dundas, C. M.; Baldridge, A. M.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Murchie, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    Ancient lakes on Mars have long been inferred from morphologic evidence [e.g., 1], and are considered high-priority targets in the search for Martian biomarkers. Minerals precipitated from lake water reflect water chemistry and temperature, as well as the composition of the contemporaneous atmosphere, providing constraints on habitability. However, proposed paleolakes have until recently shown little evidence for evaporite minerals such as carbonates and sulfates. We previously reported CRISM detections of sulfates and phyllosilicates in finely bedded deposits within impact craters in Terra Sirenum [2]. Subsequent mapping reveals that Al-phyllosilicates are found not only within these ~10 craters, but also on the intercrater plains. Sulfates, however, are found only within the craters Columbus (29S, 166W) and Cross (30S, 158W). Cross contains the acid sulfate alunite [3], while Columbus has predominantly polyhydrated Ca and possibly Mg sulfates in a “bathtub ring” around its walls. Thermal infrared data are consistent with ~40% clay and ~16% sulfate abundances in the Columbus ring, suggesting strong alteration, possibly in a lacustrine setting. Since most craters in the region lack major inlet valleys, they may have been filled by groundwater. Indeed, global hydrologic models [4] predict enhanced Noachian/Hesperian groundwater upwelling in this region, and a new regional model predicts the greatest thicknesses of evaporites in Columbus and Cross craters specifically. Therefore, groundwater may have caused regional alteration, before ponding and evaporating in the largest craters to form sulfates. A new CRISM image reveals sulfate in another deep lacustrine setting. A depression within Shalbatana Vallis (3N, 43.3W) has been described as a Hesperian-aged paleolake based on topography and morphology, including inlet channels that feed six fan-shaped deposits interpreted as deltas, the largest of which preserves features inferred to be shorelines [5]. The valley

  1. Durham, North Carolina, Students Study Martian Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image of the wall of a graben a depressed block of land between two parellel faults in Tyrrhena Terra, in Mars' ancient southern highlands, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0914 UTC (4:14 a.m. EST) on February 6, 2008, near 17.3 degrees south latitude, 95.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 35 meters (115 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. This image was part of an investigation planned by students in four high schools in Durham, North Carolina. The students are working with the CRISM science team in a project called the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT), which is part of NASA's Mars Public Engagement Program and Arizona State University's Mars Education Program. Starting with a medium-resolution map of the area, taken as part of CRISM's 'multispectral survey' campaign to map Mars in 72 colors at 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel, the students identified a key rock outcrop to test their hypothesis that the irregular depression was formed by Martian volcanism. They provided the coordinates of the target to CRISM's operations team, who took a high-resolution image of the site. The Context Imager (CTX) accompanied CRISM with a 6 meter (20 feet) per pixel, high-resolution image to sharpen the relationship of spectral variations to the underlying surface structures. The Durham students worked with a mentor on the CRISM team to analyze the data, and presented their results at the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held in League City, Texas, on March 10-14, 2008. The upper panel of the image shows the location of the CRISM data and the surrounding, larger CTX image, overlain on an image mosaic taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on Mars Odyssey. The mosaic has been color-coded for elevation using data from the Mars Orbiter Laser

  2. Insights into the Martian Regolith from Martian Meteorite Northwest Africa 7034

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis M.; Boyce, Jeremy W.; Szabo, Timea; Santos, Alison R.; Domokos, Gabor; Vazquez, Jorge; Moser, Desmond E.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Keller, Lindsay P.; Tartese, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Everything we know about sedimentary processes on Mars is gleaned from remote sensing observations. Here we report insights from meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034, which is a water-rich martian regolith breccia that hosts both igneous and sedimentary clasts. The sedimentary clasts in NWA 7034 are poorly-sorted clastic siltstones that we refer to as protobreccia clasts. These protobreccia clasts record aqueous alteration process that occurred prior to breccia formation. The aqueous alteration appears to have occurred at relatively low Eh, high pH conditions based on the co-precipitation of pyrite and magnetite, and the concomitant loss of SiO2 from the system. To determine the origin of the NWA 7034 breccia, we examined the textures and grain-shape characteristics of NWA 7034 clasts. The shapes of the clasts are consistent with rock fragmentation in the absence of transport. Coupled with the clast size distribution, we interpret the protolith of NWA 7034 to have been deposited by atmospheric rainout resulting from pyroclastic eruptions and/or asteroid impacts. Cross-cutting and inclusion relationships and U-Pb data from zircon, baddelleyite, and apatite indicate NWA 7034 lithification occurred at 1.4-1.5 Ga, during a short-lived hydrothermal event at 600-700 C that was texturally imprinted upon the submicron groundmass. The hydrothermal event caused Pb-loss from apatite and U-rich metamict zircons, and it caused partial transformation of pyrite to submicron mixtures of magnetite and maghemite, indicating the fluid had higher Eh than the fluid that caused pyrite-magnetite precipitation in the protobreccia clasts. NWA 7034 also hosts ancient 4.4 Ga crustal materials in the form of baddelleyites and zircons, providing up to a 2.9 Ga record of martian geologic history. This work demonstrates the incredible value of sedimentary basins as scientific targets for Mars sample return missions, but it also highlights the importance of targeting samples that have not been

  3. The Martian paleo-magnetosphere during the early Naochian and its implication for the early Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodachenko, Maxim L.; Scherf, Manuel; Amerstorfer, Ute; Alexeev, Igor; Johnstone, Colin; Belenkaya, Elena; Tu, Lin; Lichtenegger, Herbert; Guedel, Manuel; Lammer, Helmut

    2016-10-01

    During the late 1990's the Mars Global Surveyor MAG/ER experiment detected crustal remanent magnetization at Mars indicating an ancient internal magnetic dynamo. The location of this remanent magnetization and in particular its absence at the large Martian impact craters like Hellas suggests a cessation of the dynamo during the early Naochian epoch, i.e. ~ 4.1 to 4 billion years ago. The strength of the remanent magnetization together with dynamo theory are indicating an ancient dipole field strength lying in the range of ~0.1 and ~1.0 of the present-day dipole field of the Earth, making the Martian paleo-magnetosphere comparable with the terrestrial paleo-magnetosphere. This also has implication for the early Martian atmosphere.In this poster we will present simulations of the paleo-magnetosphere of Mars for the early Naochian, just before cessation (i.e. for ~4.1 to ~4.0 billion years ago). These were performed with an adapted version of the Paraboloid Magnetospheric Model (PMM) of the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Moscow State University, which serves as an ISO standard for the magnetosphere. Here the ancient magnetic field was assumed to be a dipole field (with dipole tilt ψ=0). The ancient solar wind ram pressure as important input parameter was derived from a newly developed solar/stellar wind evolution model, which is strongly dependent on the rotation rate of the early Sun. These simulations show that for the most extreme case of a fast rotating Sun and a paleomagnetic field strength of 0.1 of the present-day Earth value, the Martian magnetopause was located at ~5.5 RM (i.e. ~2.9 RE) above the Martian surface. Assuming a strong dipole field (i.e. 1.0 of present-day Earth) and a slow rotating Sun - our least extreme case - would lead to a standoff-distance of rs~16 RM (i.e. ~8.5 RE).Our simulations also have implications for the early Martian atmosphere, which will be demonstrated within this poster. These first results on the erosion of

  4. Terrestrial microbes in martian and chondritic meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airieau, S.; Picenco, Y.; Andersen, G.

    2007-08-01

    Introduction: The best extraterrestrial analogs for microbiology are meteorites. The chemistry and mineralogy of Asteroid Belt and martian (SNC) meteorites are used as tracers of processes that took place in the early solar system. Meteoritic falls, in particular those of carbonaceous chondrites, are regarded as pristine samples of planetesimal evolution as these rocks are primitive and mostly unprocessed since the formation of the solar system 4.56 billion years ago. Yet, questions about terrestrial contamination and its effects on the meteoritic isotopic, chemical and mineral characteristics often arise. Meteorites are hosts to biological activity as soon as they are in contact with the terrestrial biosphere, like all rocks. A wide biodiversity was found in 21 chondrites and 8 martian stones, and was investigated with cell culture, microscopy techniques, PCR, and LAL photoluminetry. Some preliminary results are presented here. The sample suite included carbonaceous chondrites of types CR, CV, CK, CO, CI, and CM, from ANSMET and Falls. Past studies documented the alteration of meteorites by weathering and biological activity [1]-[4]. Unpublished observations during aqueous extraction for oxygen isotopic analysis [5], noted the formation of biofilms in water in a matter of days. In order to address the potential modification of meteoritic isotopic and chemical signatures, the culture of microbial contaminating species was initiated in 2005, and after a prolonged incubation, some of the species obtained from cell culture were analyzed in 2006. The results are preliminary, and a systematic catalog of microbial contaminants is developing very slowly due to lack of funding. Methods: The primary method was cell culture and PCR. Chondrites. Chondritic meteorite fragments were obtained by breaking stones of approximately one gram in sterile mortars. The core of the rocks, presumably less contaminated than the surface, was used for the present microbial study, and the

  5. The age of the carbonates in martian meteorite ALH84001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, L E; Connelly, J N; Nyquist, L E; Shih, C Y; Wiesmann, H; Reese, Y

    1999-10-01

    The age of secondary carbonate mineralization in the martian meteorite ALH84001 was determined to be 3.90 +/- 0.04 billion years by rubidium-strontium (Rb-Sr) dating and 4.04 +/- 0.10 billion years by lead-lead (Pb-Pb) dating. The Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb isochrons are defined by leachates of a mixture of high-graded carbonate (visually estimated as approximately 5 percent), whitlockite (trace), and orthopyroxene (approximately 95 percent). The carbonate formation age is contemporaneous with a period in martian history when the surface is thought to have had flowing water, but also was undergoing heavy bombardment by meteorites. Therefore, this age does not distinguish between aqueous and impact origins for the carbonates.

  6. Filter Media Tests Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will require the optimal utilization of planetary resources. One of its abundant resources is the Martian atmosphere that can be harvested through filtration and chemical processes that purify and separate it into its gaseous and elemental constituents. Effective filtration needs to be part of the suite of resource utilization technologies. A unique testing platform is being used which provides the relevant operational and instrumental capabilities to test articles under the proper simulated Martian conditions. A series of tests were conducted to assess the performance of filter media. Light sheet imaging of the particle flow provided a means of detecting and quantifying particle concentrations to determine capturing efficiencies. The media's efficiency was also evaluated by gravimetric means through a by-layer filter media configuration. These tests will help to establish techniques and methods for measuring capturing efficiency and arrestance of conventional fibrous filter media. This paper will describe initial test results on different filter media.

  7. Microscopic Views of Martian Soils and Evidence for Incipient Diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, W.; Madsen, M. B.; Bridges, N.; Clark, B.; Edgett, K. S.; Fisk, M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Hviid, S. F.; Meslin, P.-Y.; Ming, D. W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Mars landed missions returned im-ages at increasingly higher spatial resolution (Table 1). These images help to constrain the microstructure of Martian soils, i.e. the grain-by-grain association of chemistry and mineralogy with secondary properties, such as albedo, color, magnetic properties, and mor-phology (size, shape, texture). The secondary charac-teristics are controlled by mineralogical composition as well as the geo-setting (transport and weathering modes, e.g. water supply, pH, atmospheric properties, exposure to radiation, etc.). As of today this association is poorly constrained. However, it is important to un-derstand soil-forming processes on the surface of Mars. Here we analyze high-resolution images of soils re-turned by different landed missions. Eventually these images must be combined with other types of data (chemistry and mineralogy at small spatial scale) to nail down the microstructure of Martian soils.

  8. Effects of varying obliquity on Martian sublimation thermokarst landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Scalloped depressions in the Martian mid-latitudes are likely formed by sublimation of ice-rich ground. The stability of subsurface ice changes with the planetary obliquity, generally becoming less stable at lower axial tilt. As a result, the relative rates of sublimation and creep change over time. A landscape evolution model shows that these variations produce internal structure in scalloped depressions, commonly in the form of arcuate ridges, which emerge as depressions resume growth after pausing or slowing. In other scenarios, the formation of internal structure is minimal. Significant uncertainties in past climate and model parameters permit a range of scenarios. Ridges observed in some Martian scalloped depressions could date from obliquity lows or periods of low ice stability occurring <5 Ma, suggesting that the pits are young features and may be actively evolving.

  9. The Martian paleoclimate and enhanced atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cess, R. D.; Owen, T.; Ramanathan, V.

    1980-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that the Martian surface is abundant with water presently in the form of ice, while the atmosphere was at one time more massive with a past surface pressure of as much as 1 atm of CO2. In an attempt to understand the Martian paleoclimate, a past CO2-H2O greenhouse was modeled and global temperatures which are consistent with an earlier presence of liquid surface water are found in agreement with the extensive evidence for past fluvial erosion. An important aspect of the CO2-H2O greenhouse model is the detailed inclusion of CO2 hot bands. For a surface pressure of 1 atm of CO2, the present greenhouse model predicts a global mean surface temperature of 294 K, but if the hot bands are excluded, a surface temperature of only 250 K is achieved.

  10. The application of NERVA technology to Martian power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, G. H.; Pierce, B. L.

    1991-09-01

    A Martian Nuclear Power Plant is described, based on the nuclear technologies developed and demonstrated in the NERVA nuclear propulsion program. The reactor is in a closed-cycle system, employing an inert gas coolant, while the power-turbine generator system is an open-cycle gas turbine which uses the Martian atmosphere as a working fluid. The two systems are connected by a double-walled heat exchanger which transfers energy from the reactor to the power turbine system. The plant is rated at 3 MWe and is capable of three years of power operation, at a capacity factor of 90 percent, before the fuel is depleted. The plant is arranged in modules, which are fully constructed on earth and then interconnected on the surface of Mars. A preliminary estimate of the module contents and masses leads to a total plant specific mass of 25.3 kg/kWe.

  11. Leak Rate Performance of Silicone Elastomer O-Rings Contaminated with JSC-1A Lunar Regolith Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravec, Heather Ann; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of spacecraft components with planetary and foreign object debris is a growing concern. Face seals separating the spacecraft cabin from the debris filled environment are particularly susceptible; if the seal becomes contaminated there is potential for decreased performance, mission failure, or catastrophe. In this study, silicone elastomer O-rings were contaminated with JSC- 1A lunar regolith and their leak rate performance was evaluated. The leak rate values of contaminated O-rings at four levels of seal compression were compared to those of as-received, uncontaminated, O-rings. The results showed a drastic increase in leak rate after contamination. JSC-1A contaminated O-rings lead to immeasurably high leak rate values for all levels of compression except complete closure. Additionally, a mechanical method of simulant removal was examined. In general, this method returned the leak rate to as-received values.

  12. Microscopic Image of Martian Surface Material on a Silicone Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger version of Figure 1 This image taken by the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows soil sprinkled from the lander's Robot Arm scoop onto a silicone substrate. The substrate was then rotated in front of the microscope. This is the first sample collected and delivered for instrumental analysis onboard a planetary lander since NASA's Viking Mars missions of the 1970s. It is also the highest resolution image yet seen of Martian soil. The image is dominated by fine particles close to the resolution of the microscope. These particles have formed clumps, which may be a smaller scale version of what has been observed by Phoenix during digging of the surface material. The microscope took this image during Phoenix's Sol 17 (June 11), or the 17th Martian day after landing. The scale bar is 1 millimeter (0.04 inch). Zooming in on the Martian Soil In figure 1, three zoomed-in portions are shown with an image of Martian soil particles taken by the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The left zoom box shows a composite particle. The top of the particle has a green tinge, possibly indicating olivine. The bottom of the particle has been reimaged at a different focus position in black and white (middle zoom box), showing that this is a clump of finer particles. The right zoom box shows a rounded, glassy particle, similar to those which have also been seen in an earlier sample of airfall dust collected on a surface exposed during landing. The shadows at the bottom of image are of the beams of the Atomic Force Microscope. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Characterization of Martian Soil Fines Fraction in SNC Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; McKay, D. S.

    2003-01-01

    Some impact-melt glasses in shergottite meteorites contain large abundances of martian atmospheric noble gases with high (129)Xe/(132)Xe ratios, accompanied by varying (87)Sr/(86)Sr (initial) ratios. These glasses contain Martian Soil Fines (MSF) probably from young volcanic terrains such as Tharsis or Elysium Mons. The composition of the MSF bearing samples is different from the average bulk composition of the host rock. These samples show the following charecteristics: a) simultaeneous enrichment of the felsic component and depletion of the mafic component relative to the host phase and b) significant secondary sulfur/sulfate excesses over the host material. The degree of enrichment and associated depletion varies from one sample to another. Earlier, we found large enrichments of felsic (Al, Ca, Na and K) component and depletion of mafic (Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti) component in several impact melt glass veins and pods of samples ,77 ,78 , 18, and ,20A in EET79001 accompanied by large sulfur/sulfate excesses. Based on these results, we proposed a model where the comminution of basaltic rocks takes place by meteoroid bombardment on the martian surface, leading to the generation of fine-grained soil near the impact sites. This fine-grained soil material is subsequently mobilized by saltation and deflation processes on Mars surface due to pervasive aeolian activity. This movement results in mechanical fractionation leading to the felsic enrichment and mafic depletion in the martian dust. We report, here, new data on an impact-melt inclusion ,507 (PAPA) from EET79001, Lith B and ,506 (ALPHA) from EET79001, Lith A and compare the results with those obtained on Shergotty impact melt glass (DBS).

  14. Martian Atmospheric Plumes: Behavior, Detectability and Plume Tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Don; Mischna, M.; Sykes, R.; Dissly, R.

    2013-10-01

    We will present our recent work simulating neutrally buoyant plumes in the martian atmosphere. This work is primarily directed at understanding the behavior of discrete plumes of biogenic tracer gases, and thus increasing our understanding of their detectability (both from orbit and from in situ measurements), and finally how to use the plumes to identify their precise source locations. We have modeled the detailed behavior of martian atmospheric plumes using MarsWRF for the atmospheric dynamics and SCIPUFF (a terrestrial state of the art plume modeling code that we have modified to represent martian conditions) for the plume dynamics. This combination of tools allows us to accurately simulate plumes not only from a regional scale from which an orbital observing platform would witness the plume, but also from an in situ perspective, with the instantaneous concentration variations that a turbulent flow would present to a point sampler in situ instrument. Our initial work has focused on the detectability of discrete plumes from an orbital perspective and we will present those results for a variety of notional orbital trace gas detection instruments. We have also begun simulating the behavior of the plumes from the perspective of a sampler on a rover within the martian atmospheric boundary layer. The detectability of plumes within the boundary layer has a very strong dependence on the atmospheric stability, with plume concentrations increasing by a factor of 10-1000 during nighttime when compared to daytime. In the equatorial regions of the planet where we have simulated plumes, the diurnal tidal “clocking” of the winds is strongly evident in the plume trail, which similarly “clocks” around its source. This behavior, combined with the strong diurnal concentration variations suggests that a rover hunting a plume source would be well suited to approach it from a particular azimuth (downwind at night) to maximize detectability of the plume and the ability to

  15. Stability analysis of the Martian obliquity during the Noachian era

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We performed numerical simulations of the obliquity evolution of Mars during the Noachian era, at which time the giant planets were on drastically different orbits than today. For the preferred primordial configuration of the planets we find that there are two large zones where the Martian obliquity is stable and oscillates with an amplitude lower than 20?. These zones occur at obliquities below 30?and above 60?; intermediate values show either resonant or chaotic behaviou...

  16. Lake Shorelines: Earth Analogs for Hypothesized Martian Coastal Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Williams, S. H.; Johnston, A. K.; Head, James W.

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of oceans on Mars has generated a lot of interest in the science community, but conclusive evidence supporting or refuting the ocean hypothesis has remained somewhat elusive. Precise topographic measurements of fresh-appearing shorelines from glacial Lake Lahontan were collected recently in an effort to obtain well-constrained data for comparison with the hypothesized Martian shorelines. This report summarizes the first results of the on-going research project.

  17. The Martian Plasma Environment: Model Calculations and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenegger, H. I. M.; Dubinin, E.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Riedler, W.

    Based on a modified version of the model of an induced martian magnetosphere developed by Luhmann (1990), the dynamics and spatial distribution of different planetary ion species is examined. Three main regions are identified: A cloud of ions travelling along cycloidal trajectories, a plasma mantle and a plasma sheet. The latter predominantly consists of oxygen ions of ionospheric origin with minor portions of light particles. Comparison of model results with Phobos-2 observations shows reasonable agreement.

  18. Preparing to Receive and Handle Martian Samples When They Arrive on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis M.

    2017-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10F+ derivative NPR 'Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials', JSC is charged with 'The curation of all extraterrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions. 'The Directive goes on to define Curation as including'...documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach."

  19. Martian gullies: Produced by fluidization of dry material

    CERN Document Server

    Cedillo-Flores, Yolanda

    2010-01-01

    The gullies on Mars were discovered in the year 1999.Since then several hypotheses have appeared trying to explain the presence of these gullies. The main hypotheses are the ones which suggest that some liquid, water or CO2, was responsible for modeling the gullies and ones that propose dry flows as the modeling agents. The aim of this work is to develop an alternative hypotetical mechanism of formation of Martian gullies.Our model proposes that the Martian gullies were formed as a result of a fluidization process of the material deposited on the slopes of the impact craters, plateaux and other geomorphologic structures. This fluidization is caused by the sublimation of carbon dioxide ice deposited in the form of snow, due to the daily and seasonal temperature changes. We also present the results of an experimental simulation.Structures similar to the Martian gullies were reproduced using the air injection mechanism, as a substitute to gaseous CO2, on a sandy slope. The Reynolds number for our experimental fl...

  20. Martian zeolites as a source of atmospheric methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousis, Olivier; Simon, Jean-Marc; Bellat, Jean-Pierre; Schmidt, Frédéric; Bouley, Sylvain; Chassefière, Eric; Sautter, Violaine; Quesnel, Yoann; Picaud, Sylvain; Lectez, Sébastien

    2016-11-01

    The origin of the martian methane is still poorly understood. A plausible explanation is that methane could have been produced either by hydrothermal alteration of basaltic crust or by serpentinization of ultramafic rocks producing hydrogen and reducing crustal carbon into methane. Once formed, methane storage on Mars is commonly associated with the presence of hidden clathrate reservoirs. Here, we alternatively suggest that chabazite and clinoptilolite, which belong to the family of zeolites, may form a plausible storage reservoir of methane in the martian subsurface. Because of the existence of many volcanic terrains, zeolites are expected to be widespread on Mars and their Global Equivalent Layer may range up to more than ∼1 km, according to the most optimistic estimates. If the martian methane present in chabazite and clinoptilolite is directly sourced from an abiotic source in the subsurface, the destabilization of a localized layer of a few millimeters per year may be sufficient to explain the current observations. The sporadic release of methane from these zeolites requires that they also remained isolated from the atmosphere during its evolution. The methane release over the ages could be due to several mechanisms such as impacts, seismic activity or erosion. If the methane outgassing from excavated chabazite and/or clinoptilolite prevails on Mars, then the presence of these zeolites around Gale Crater could explain the variation of methane level observed by Mars Science Laboratory.

  1. A Martian origin for the Mars Trojan asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polishook, D.; Jacobson, S. A.; Morbidelli, A.; Aharonson, O.

    2017-08-01

    Seven of the nine known Mars Trojan asteroids belong to an orbital cluster1,2 named after its largest member, (5261) Eureka. Eureka is probably the progenitor of the whole cluster, which formed at least 1 Gyr ago3. It has been suggested3 that the thermal YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack) effect spun up Eureka, resulting in fragments being ejected by the rotational-fission mechanism. Eureka's spectrum exhibits a broad and deep absorption band around 1 μm, indicating an olivine-rich composition4. Here we show evidence that the Trojan Eureka cluster progenitor could have originated as impact debris excavated from the Martian mantle. We present new near-infrared observations of two Trojans ((311999) 2007 NS2 and (385250) 2001 DH47) and find that both exhibit an olivine-rich reflectance spectrum similar to Eureka's. These measurements confirm that the progenitor of the cluster has an achondritic composition4. Olivine-rich reflectance spectra are rare amongst asteroids5 but are seen around the largest basins on Mars6. They are also consistent with some Martian meteorites (for example, Chassigny7) and with the material comprising much of the Martian mantle8,9. Using numerical simulations, we show that the Mars Trojans are more likely to be impact ejecta from Mars than captured olivine-rich asteroids transported from the main belt. This result directly links specific asteroids to debris from the forming planets.

  2. Water in the Martian interior—The geodynamical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Doris; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Tosi, Nicola; Grott, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    Petrological analysis of the Martian meteorites suggests that rheologically significant amounts of water are present in the Martian mantle. A bulk mantle water content of at least a few tens of ppm is thus expected to be present despite the potentially efficient degassing during accretion, magma ocean solidification, and subsequent volcanism. We examine the dynamical consequences of different thermochemical evolution scenarios testing whether they can lead to the formation and preservation of mantle reservoirs, and compare model predictions with available data. First, the simplest scenario of a homogenous mantle that emerges when ignoring density changes caused by the extraction of partial melt is found to be inconsistent with the isotopic evidence for distinct reservoirs provided by the analysis of the Martian meteorites. In a second scenario, reservoirs can form as a result of partial melting that induces a density change in the depleted mantle with respect to its primordial composition. However, efficient mantle mixing prevents these reservoirs from being preserved until present unless they are located in the stagnant lid. Finally, reservoirs could be formed during fractional crystallization of a magma ocean. In this case, however, the mantle would likely end up being stably stratified as a result of the global overturn expected to accompany the fractional crystallization. Depending on the assumed density contrast, little secondary crust would be produced and the lithosphere would be extremely cool and dry, in contrast to observations. In summary, it is very challenging to obtain a self-consistent evolution scenario that satisfies all available constraints.

  3. Martian Radiative Transfer Modeling Using the Optimal Spectral Sampling Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluszkiewicz, J.; Cady-Pereira, K.; Uymin, G.; Moncet, J.-L.

    2005-01-01

    The large volume of existing and planned infrared observations of Mars have prompted the development of a new martian radiative transfer model that could be used in the retrievals of atmospheric and surface properties. The model is based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS) method [1]. The method is a fast and accurate monochromatic technique applicable to a wide range of remote sensing platforms (from microwave to UV) and was originally developed for the real-time processing of infrared and microwave data acquired by instruments aboard the satellites forming part of the next-generation global weather satellite system NPOESS (National Polarorbiting Operational Satellite System) [2]. As part of our on-going research related to the radiative properties of the martian polar caps, we have begun the development of a martian OSS model with the goal of using it to perform self-consistent atmospheric corrections necessary to retrieve caps emissivity from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra. While the caps will provide the initial focus area for applying the new model, it is hoped that the model will be of interest to the wider Mars remote sensing community.

  4. Advanced concept for a crewed mission to the martian moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Davide; Di Carlo, Marilena; Budzyń, Dorota; Burgoyne, Hayden; Fries, Dan; Grulich, Maria; Heizmann, Sören; Jethani, Henna; Lapôtre, Mathieu; Roos, Tobias; Castillo, Encarnación Serrano; Schermann, Marcel; Vieceli, Rhiannon; Wilson, Lee; Wynard, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design of the IMaGInE (Innovative Mars Global International Exploration) Mission. The mission's objectives are to deliver a crew of four astronauts to the surface of Deimos and perform a robotic exploration mission to Phobos. Over the course of the 343 day mission during the years 2031 and 2032, the crew will perform surface excursions, technology demonstrations, In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of the Martian moons, as well as site reconnaissance for future human exploration of Mars. This mission design makes use of an innovative hybrid propulsion concept (chemical and electric) to deliver a relatively low-mass reusable crewed spacecraft (approximately 100 mt) to cis-martian space. The crew makes use of torpor which minimizes launch payload mass. Green technologies are proposed as a stepping stone towards minimum environmental impact space access. The usage of beamed energy to power a grid of decentralized science stations is introduced, allowing for large scale characterization of the Martian environment. The low-thrust outbound and inbound trajectories are computed through the use of a direct method and a multiple shooting algorithm that considers various thrust and coast sequences to arrive at the final body with zero relative velocity. It is shown that the entire mission is rooted within the current NASA technology roadmap, ongoing scientific investments and feasible with an extrapolated NASA Budget. The presented mission won the 2016 Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts - Academic Linkage (RASC-AL) competition.

  5. Potential Antifreeze Compounds in Present-Day Martian Seepage Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Shuh Jean

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Is the recently found seepage groundwater on Mars pure H2O, or mixed with salts and other antifreeze compounds? Given the surface conditions of Mars, it is unlikely that pure water could either exist in its liquid state or have shaped Mars¡¦ fluid erosional landforms (gullies, channels, and valley networks. More likely is that Mars¡¦ seepage groundwater contains antifreeze and salt compounds that resist freezing and suppress evaporation. This model better accounts for Mars¡¦ enigmatic surface erosion. This paper suggests 17 antifreeze compounds potentially present in Martian seepage groundwater. Given their liquid state and physical properties, triethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and 1,3-propylene glycol are advanced as the most likely candidate compounds. This paper also explores how a mixing of glycol or glycerol with salts in the Martian seepage groundwater may have lowered water¡¦s freezing point and raised its boiling point, with consequences that created fluid gully and channel erosion. Ethylene glycol and related hydrocarbon compounds have been identified in Martian and other interstellar meteorites. We suggest that these compounds and their proportions to water be included for detection in future explorations.

  6. High resolution thermal infrared mapping of Martian channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, R. A.; Greeley, R.; Christensen, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) high resolution (2 to 5 km) data were compiled and compared to Viking Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS) data and available 1:5M geologic maps for several Martian channels including Dao, Harmakhis, Mangala, Shalbatana, and Simud Valles in an effort to determine the surface characteristics and the processes active during and after the formation of these channels. Results show a dominance of aeolian processes active in and around the channels. These processes have left materials thick enough to mask any genuine channel deposits. Results also indicate that very comparable Martian channels and their surrounding terrain are blanketed by deposits which are homogeneous in their thermal inertia values. However, optimum IRTM data does not cover the entire Martian surface and because local deposits of high thermal inertia material may not be large enough in areal extent or may be in an unfavorable location on the planet, a high resolution data track may not always occur over these deposits. Therefore, aeolian processes may be even more active than the IRTM data tracts can always show.

  7. Spectral reflectance of SNC meteorites: Relationships to Martian surface composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadden, L. A.

    1987-01-01

    The spectral signatures of each of the Shergottite-Nakhlite-Chassignite (SNC) meteorite types measured to date are unique among extraterrestrial materials. Reflectance spectra of dark regions of Mars show evidence of basaltic composition. Analytic analysis of absorption band positions and widths in reflectance spectra of SNC meteorites will permit comparisons with spectra from approximately 600 km sized regions for which high-quality, near-IR spectra are available. Multi-spectral mapping data from orbital spacecraft is expected to provide the necessary spectra to determine basaltic compositions of smaller regions on Mars provided fresh, unaltered basalts can be observed or the effects of Martian weathering can be understood and removed from the spectra. With modeling of spectral weathering and mixing of SNC meteoritic assemblages it should be possible with the Mars Observer data to test for the presence of SNC analogs on the Martian surface. Before the relationship between the basaltic composition of units on Mars and the SNC meteorites can be addressed, it is necessary to analyze the absorption band parameters of the SNC reflectance spectra and to acquire high resolution spectral data on smaller regions of the Martian surface.

  8. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Internal Corporate Controls in Coal Mines Illustrated By the Example of JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass”

    OpenAIRE

    Kucherova Elena; Ponkratova Tamara; Tyuleneva Tatiana; Cherepanova Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The article gives reasons for the need to develop the mechanism and tools of performance evaluation based on the implementation of specific management functions, as well as the integrated evaluation of the effectiveness of internal corporate controls. It presents the approbation of the proposed assessment methodology on the example of JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass”. The monitoring role as one of the functions of management is constantly increasing in the market economy. The participation of Russian compa...

  9. Detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the Martian atmosphere with MEX / PFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, S.; Kasaba, Y.; Giuranna, M.; Geminale, A.; Sindoni, G.; Nakagawa, H.; Kasai, Y.; Murata, I.; Grassi, D.; Formisano, V.

    2011-10-01

    We first derived the long-term averaged abundance of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the Martian atmosphere with data sets of Planetary Fourier Spectroscopy (PFS) onboard Mars Express (MEX). The total averaged amounts of H2O2 at three Martian years were 45 ± 21 ppb and 25 ± 18 ppb in the forward/reverse pendulum direction, respectively. It could not explain the observed short lifetime of CH4 in the Martian atmosphere.

  10. Enhanced removal of Zn(2+) or Cd(2+) by the flocculating Chlorella vulgaris JSC-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Asraful; Wan, Chun; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Chen, Li-Jie; Chang, Jo-Shu; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2015-05-30

    Microalgae are attracting attention due to their potentials in mitigating CO2 emissions and removing environmental pollutants. However, harvesting microalgal biomass from diluted cultures is one of the bottlenecks for developing economically viable processes for this purpose. Microalgal cells can be harvested by cost-effective sedimentation when flocculating strains are used. In this study, the removal of Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) by the flocculating Chlorella vulgaris JSC-7 was studied. The experimental results indicated that more than 80% Zn(2+) and 60% Cd(2+) were removed by the microalgal culture within 3 days in the presence up to 20.0mg/L Zn(2+) and 4.0mg/L Cd(2+), respectively, which were much higher than that observed with the culture of the non-flocculating C. vulgaris CNW11. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon was explored by investigating the effect of Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) on the growth and metabolic activities of the microalgal strains. It was found that the flocculation of the microalga improved its growth, synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and antioxidation activity under the stressful conditions, indicating a better tolerance to the heavy metal ions for a potential in removing them more efficiently from contaminated wastewaters, together with a bioremediation of other nutritional components contributed to the eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems.

  11. Characterization of the flocculating agent from the spontaneously flocculating microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Asraful; Wan, Chun; Guo, Suo-Lian; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Huang, Zih-You; Yang, Yu-Liang; Chang, Jo-Shu; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2014-07-01

    High cost of biomass recovery is one of the bottlenecks for developing cost-effective processes with microalgae, particularly for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals through biorefinery, and microalgal biomass recovery through cell flocculation is a promising strategy. Some microalgae are naturally flocculated whose cells can be harvested by simple sedimentation. However, studies on the flocculating agents synthesized by microalgae cells are still very limited. In this work, the cell flocculation of a spontaneously flocculating microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-7 was studied, and the flocculating agent was identified to be cell wall polysaccharides whose crude extract supplemented at low dosage of 0.5 mg/L initiated the more than 80% flocculating rate of freely suspended microalgae C. vulgaris CNW11 and Scenedesmus obliquus FSP. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis revealed a characteristic absorption band at 1238 cm(-1), which might arise from PO asymmetric stretching vibration of [Formula: see text] phosphodiester. The unique cell wall-associated polysaccharide with molecular weight of 9.86×10(3) g/mol, and the monomers consist of glucose, mannose and galactose with a molecular ratio of 5:5:2. This is the first time to our knowledge that the flocculating agent from C. vulgaris has been characterized, which could provide basis for understanding the cell flocculation of microalgae and breeding of novel flocculating microalgae for cost-effective biomass harvest.

  12. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  13. NASA-JSC Protocol for the Characterization of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Material Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pasha; Gorelik, Olga; Hadjiev, Victor; Holmes, William; Devivar, Rodrigo; Files, Bradley; Yowell, Leonard

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that the raw as well as purified single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) material always contain certain amount of impurities of varying composition (mostly metal catalyst and non-tubular carbon). Particular purification method also creates defects and/or functional groups in the SWCNT material and therefore affects the its dispersability in solvents (important to subsequent application development). A number of analytical characterization tools have been used successfully in the past years to assess various properties of nanotube materials, but lack of standards makes it difficult to compare these measurements across the board. In this work we report the protocol developed at NASA-JSC which standardizes measurements using TEM, SEM, TGA, Raman and UV-Vis-NIR absorption techniques. Numerical measures are established for parameters such as metal content, homogeneity, thermal stability and dispersability, to allow easy comparison of SWCNT materials. We will also report on the recent progress in quantitative measurement of non-tubular carbon impurities and a possible purity standard for SWCNT materials.

  14. CO2 ice structure and density under Martian atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, T. P.; Salzmann, C. G.; Plane, J. M. C.; Murray, B. J.

    2017-09-01

    Clouds composed of CO2 ice form throughout the Martian atmosphere. In the mesosphere, CO2 ice clouds are thought to form via heterogeneous ice nucleation on nanoparticles of meteoric origin at temperatures often below 100 K. Lower altitude CO2 ice clouds in the wintertime polar regions form up to around 145 K and lead to the build-up of the polar ice caps. However, the crystal structure and related fundamental properties of CO2 ice under Martian conditions are poorly characterised. Here we present X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements of CO2 ice, grown via deposition from the vapour phase under temperature and pressure conditions analogous to the Martian mesosphere. A crystalline cubic structure was determined, consistent with the low-pressure polymorph (CO2-I, space group Pa-3 (No. 205)). CO2 deposited at temperatures of 80-130 K and pressures of 0.01-1 mbar was consistent with dry ice and previous literature measurements, thus removing the possibility of a more complicated phase diagram for CO2 in this region. At 80 K, a lattice parameter of 5.578 ± 0.002 Å, cell volume of 173.554 ± 0.19 Å3 and density of 1.684 ± 0.002 g cm-3 was determined. Using these measurements, we determined the thermal expansion of CO2 across 80-130 K that allowed for a fit of CO2 ice density measurements across a larger temperature range (80-195 K) when combined with literature data (CO2 density = 1.72391 - 2.53 × 10-4T - 2.87 × 10-6 T2). Temperature-dependent CO2 density values are used to estimate sedimentation velocities and heterogeneous ice nucleation rates, showing an increase in nucleation rate of up to a factor of 1000 when compared to commonly used literature values. This temperature-dependent equation of state is therefore suggested for use in future studies of Martian mesospheric CO2 clouds. Finally, we discuss the possible shapes of crystals of CO2 ice in the Martian atmosphere and show that a range of shapes including cubes and octahedra as well as a combination of the

  15. Possible Mechanism for Formation of Martian Ground Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, T.; Hamano, Y.

    2002-12-01

    Mars Odyssey disclosed the existence of the vast quantities of water-ice beneath the Martian ground surface. Now we have become to able to discuss the ground ice on Mars, admitting its existence. However, another question was brought up ; we need to explain how this ice was formed. Through the analysis of surface landform, we now almost agree for that Martian environment was warm and wet in the past, and (at least) once had much water on its surface. Nevertheless, the existing of ice-rich layer in just near from the surface is controversial. There is no good idea to supply enough amount of water to subsurface. As the Martian environment cooled down, due to decrease of precipitation, it should have become dry like terrestrial polar desert. In this case, water should go to deeper part of the ground. The "wet and cold" situation is hard to imagine. And after once Martian environment had cooled and dried, even if liquid water was supplied from the surface, the volumetric ice content of the soil cannot be more than the porosity of the soil (20-30% would be reasonable). In this study, we proposed one possible scenario to form this ice-rich permafrost layer, and discussed the required conditions. Our concept is taking account of the migration of the soil water during its freezing, like the frost heaving or the formation of the ice lenses. We applied the 1-D soil model for Martian condition, assuming the simple cooling climate history and constant heatflow value. The original idea of the model was developed by Harlan (1973), both of the flow of heat and soil moisture were taken into account. We calculated the soil water migration and ice segregation, to estimate how much ice can be formed near the surface. Calculation was performed under the several parameter sets of surface cooling rate, initial water content of the soil, and crustal heatflow value. From these numerical experiments, we found that this mechanism could work in some range of the parameters. As to the surface

  16. Biohazard potential of putative Martian organisms during missions to Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmflash, David; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey; Fox, George E; McKay, David S

    2007-04-01

    Exploration Class missions to Mars will require precautions against potential contamination by any native microorganisms that may be incidentally pathogenic to humans. While the results of NASA's Viking biology experiments of the 1970s have been generally interpreted as inconclusive for surface organisms, and attributed to active but nonbiological chemistries, the possibility of native surface life has never been ruled out completely. It is possible that, prior to the first human landing on Mars, robotic craft and sample return missions will provide enough data to know with certainty whether future human landing sites harbor extant life forms. If native life were found to exist, it would be problematic to determine whether any of its species might present a medical danger to astronauts. Therefore, it will become necessary to assess empirically the risk that the planet contains pathogens based on terrestrial examples of pathogenicity and to take a reasonably cautious approach to biohazard protection. A survey of terrestrial pathogens was conducted with special emphasis on those whose evolution has not depended on the presence of animal hosts. The history of the development and implementation of Apollo anti-contamination protocol and recommendations of the National Research Council's Space Studies Board regarding Mars were reviewed. Organisms can emerge in Nature in the absence of indigenous animal hosts and both infectious and non-infectious human pathogens are therefore theoretically possible on Mars. Although remote, the prospect of Martian surface life, together with the existence of a diversity of routes by which pathogenicity has emerged on Earth, suggests that the probability of human pathogens on Mars, while low, is not zero. Still, since the discovery and study of Martian life can have long-term benefits for humanity, the risk that Martian life might include pathogens should not be an obstacle to human exploration. As a precaution, it is recommended that EVA

  17. A Martian Fractionation Line Constructed from Oxygen Isotope Analyses of Bulk Material and Minerals from SNC Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N. R.; Ali, A.; Jabeen, I.; Osinski, G.; Al-Rawas, A. D.; Nasir, S.; Flemming, R.; Shivak, J.; Gregory, D.

    2013-09-01

    Precise triple oxygen isotope data of SNC Martian meteorites are obtained by laser-assisted fluorination technique. Martian fractionation line is constructed using bulk material and mineral separates of SNC meteorites.

  18. Evaluating the effectiveness of the use of fixed assets defense enterprises (by the example of JSC “Concern ‘Sozvezdie’”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the problem of sustainable development of enterprises of the Russian military-industrial complex has not only military, but economic importance. The article provides an analysis of the availability, scope, composition and structure of the basic production assets of JSC "Concern "Sozvezdie" for 2013-2015, and analysis of efficiency of use of the basic production assets in JSC "Concern "Sozvezdie" for 2013-2015. JSC "Concern "Sozvezdie" JSC approved the program of innovative development and technological modernization, the development objective of which is the proved choice of the list and content of activities, the implementation of which should ensure the development of the Concern as a scientific and industrial socio-economic system – a holistic entity. Assessment of the dynamics of the basic production assets has shown that the security of JSC "Concern "Sozvezdie" OPF for 2013-2015 increased by 89,81%. The degree of updating of production assets during the period was 50.7%. The analysis of the efficiency of the basic production assets in JSC "Concern "Sozvezdie" has shown that for every 1% increase in revenue major funds have grown by 0.65%. The rate of fondamenti decreased by 18.2%. The assessment of efficiency of use of the basic production assets of JSC "Concern "Sozvezdie" shows that the total technical re-equipment of scientific and technological, testing and production and technological base of the enterprises of the Concern is directed on creation of production capacities to ensure serial production of advanced weapons, military and special equipment in the framework of the state defense order, as the main activity of the majority of the companies of the Group, and reconstruction, the expansion and creation of production to the production of innovative civilian products.

  19. Continuing developments in the search for Martian atmospheric methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonti, S.; Roush, T. L.; Chizek, M. R.; Liuzzi, G.; Mancarella, F.; Murphy, J. R.; Blanco, A.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, the possible presence of a tiny, but meaningful, quantity of methane in the Martian atmosphere has been suggested [1-6] and widely debated [7] within the community, due to the important consequences it may have on our understanding of the planet's evolution. In this framework, and looking forward to the results of the planned search by the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument on-board the recently landed Mars Science Laboratory, the work of Fonti and Marzo [5] is particularly interesting. Using a statistical clustering technique, they analysed ~3x106 Thermal Emission Spectrometer spectra, spanning three Martian years. The results for principal Ls values (0, 90, 180, 270) suggest a temporal variation of the gas content with an annual cycle and a recurrent spatial distribution. In addition a preliminary temporal comparison with the well-known water vapour cycle and dust aerosol opacity has suggested interesting temporal phase correlations among the three atmospheric components. The possible implications of such findings have not been fully explored yet, due to the time and effort necessary to improve the temporal resolution of the data beyond the original four Ls values per year. Before undertaking such demanding effort, we have decided to improve our confidence in the results, currently affected by uncertainty of about 30 % on the derived methane abundance, focusing on the effects of the inhomogeneity in the original dataset that is linked to the presence of some anomalous spectra. Additionally, to better understand how the statistical procedure is affecting the clustering of the spectra, we have applied it to a set of synthetic Martian spectra that were generated by varying a relevant number of atmosphere and surface parameters. The clustering results for the artificial data set have then been compared to the known properties used to create it. [1] Krasnopolsky, V.A., Maillard, J.P., and Owen, T.C. 2004. Detection of methane in the martian atmosphere

  20. 20 K Helium Refrigeration System for NASA-JSC Chamber-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J.; Redman, R.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhelef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Norton, R.; Lauterbach, J.; Linza, R.; Vargas, G.

    2013-01-01

    A new 20 K helium refrigerator installed at NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory (SESL) was successfully commissioned and tested in 2012. The refrigerator is used to create a deep space environment within SESL s Chamber A to perform ground testing of the James Webb Space Telescope. The chamber previously and currently still has helium cryopumping panels (CPP) and LN2 shrouds used to create Low Earth Orbit environments. Now with the new refrigerator and new helium shrouds (45 x 65 ) the chamber can create a deep space environment. The process design, system analysis, specification development, and commissioning oversight were performed by the cryogenics department at Jefferson Labs, while the contracts and system installation was performed by the ESC group at JSC. Commissioning data indicate a inverse coefficient of performance better than 70 W/W for a 18 KW load at 20 K (accounting for liquid nitrogen precooling power) that remains essentially constant down to 1/3 of this load. Even at 10 percent of the maximum capacity, the performance is better than 140 W/W at 20K. The refrigerator exceeded all design goals and demonstrated the ability to support a wide load range from 10kW at 15 K to 100 kW at 100K. The refrigerator is capable of operating at any load temperature from 15K to ambient with tight temperature stability. The new shroud (36 tons of aluminum) can be cooled from room temperature to 20 K in 24 hours. This paper will outline the process design and commissioning results.

  1. Water content in the Martian mantle: A Nakhla perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Franz A.; Bellucci, Jeremy J.; Skogby, Henrik; Stalder, Roland; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Whitehouse, Martin J.

    2017-09-01

    Water contents of the Martian mantle have previously been investigated using Martian meteorites, with several comprehensive studies estimating the water content in the parental melts and mantle source regions of the shergottites and Chassigny. However, no detailed studies have been performed on the Nakhla meteorite. One possible way to determine the water content of a crystallizing melt is to use the water content in nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) such as clinopyroxene and olivine. During or after eruption on the surface of a planetary body and during residence in a degassing magma, these minerals may dehydrate. By reversing this process experimentally, original (pre-dehydration) water concentrations can be quantified. In this study, hydrothermal rehydration experiments were performed at 2 kbar and 700 °C on potentially dehydrated Nakhla clinopyroxene crystals. Rehydrated clinopyroxene crystals exhibit water contents of 130 ± 26 (2σ) ppm and are thus similar to values observed in similar phenocrysts from terrestrial basalts. Utilizing clinopyroxene/melt partition coefficients, both the water content of the Nakhla parent melt and mantle source region were estimated. Despite previous assumptions of a relatively dry melt, the basaltic magma crystallizing Nakhla may have had up to 1.42 ± 0.28 (2σ) wt.% H2O. Based on an assumed low degree of partial melting, this estimate can be used to calculate a minimum estimate of the water content for Nakhla's mantle source region of 72 ± 16 ppm. Combining this value with values determined for other SNC mantle sources, by alternative methods, gives an average mantle value of 102 ± 9 (2σ) ppm H2O for the Martian upper mantle throughout geologic time. This value is lower than the bulk water content of Earth's upper mantle (∼250 ppm H2O) but similar to Earth's MORB source (54-330 ppm, average ∼130 ppm H2O).

  2. The structure of the Martian cryolithosphere upper levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, R. O.; Bobina, N. N.; Zabalueva, E. V.; Shashkina, V. P.

    1988-01-01

    Structural inhomogeneities of the Martian cryolithosphere upper levels were studied by the proposed crater method. On the basis of analysis of 127 photomaps of 1:2 million scale morphological and morphometrical parameters of all the fresh craters larger than 1 km in diameter with fluidized ejecta and without it were investigated. Using the parameters of the craters, the roof depths of ice-bearing rocks were estimated and the data on the ice relative constant in the excavated permafrost layer were obtained. These data were used for the construction of maps of the boundary depth between ice-free nearsurface layer and ice-bearing rocks. A series of maps of the relative ice content for individual permafrost horizons was constructed. It was deduced from the obtained maps that the zone of the dryest nearsurface rocks on Mars is in the latitude belt + or - 30 degrees where maximum floor depths of the ice-bearing rocks vary from 400 to more than 400 m. It was found that the thickness of ice-free rocks in the Southern Hemisphere is larger than in the Northern one. The tendency of similarity of latitudinal zonality observed both on the maps of the minimal and mean roof depths may be considered as an indicator of structural stability of upper horizons of the Martian cryolithosphere down to the depths of 300 to 400 m. The areas of minimal ice content in the nearsurface layers coincide with the zone of maximum thickness of ice-free rocks. The ice relative content in Martian rocks becomes systematically higher from 30 deg latitude to the polars. The same tendency is observed in depth. The data obtained may be useful for the selecting of landing sites for Mars samples return and other missions.

  3. Spectroscopic and Visual Evidence of Perchlorate Deliquescence Under Martian Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakakos, George; Whiteway, James

    2015-04-01

    One of the key findings during the Phoenix and Mars Science Laboratory landed Mars missions has been the detection of perchlorate, a highly deliquescent salt. Perchlorates are of great interest on Mars due to their high affinity for water vapour as well as their ability to greatly depress the freezing point of water when in solution. This has intriguing biological implications as resulting brines could potentially provide a habitable environment for living organisms. Additionally, it has been speculated that these salts may play a significant role in influencing the hydrological cycle on Mars. In order to experimentally study water exchange processes between the surface and atmosphere on Mars and assess the feasibility of a future landed detection tool, a stand-off Raman spectroscopy instrument and environmental simulation chamber have been developed at York University. A sample of magnesium perchlorate consistent with the size of patches found at the Phoenix site has been subjected to the low water vapour pressure and temperatures found at polar Martian latitudes. Results indicate that at a water vapour pressure of ~2 Pa (-54°C frost point temperature), Raman spectroscopy is able to detect the onset of brine formation and provide a relative estimate of the quantity of water taken up by the sample until complete deliquescence is reached. Significant uptake of water from the atmosphere is observed to occur prior to the frost point temperature being reached and on time scales relevant to the Martian diurnal cycle. This result suggests that perchlorates in the Martian regolith can contribute to the hydrological cycle, pre-emptively reducing the water vapour pressure before saturation is reached.

  4. "Martian Boneyards": Sustained Scientific Inquiry in a Social Digital Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell-Clarke, Jordis

    Social digital gaming is an explosive phenomenon where youth and adults are engaged in inquiry for the sake of fun. The complexity of learning evidenced in social digital games is attracting the attention of educators. Martian Boneyards is a proof-of-concept game designed to study how a community of voluntary gamers can be enticed to engage in sustained, high-quality scientific inquiry. Science educators and game designers worked together to create an educational game with the polish and intrigue of a professional-level game, striving to attract a new audience to scientific inquiry. Martian Boneyards took place in the high-definition, massively multiplayer online environment, Blue Mars, where players spent an average of 30 hours in the game over the 4-month implementation period, with some exceeding 200 hours. Most of the players' time was spent in scientific inquiry activities and about 30% of the players' in-game interactions were in the analysis and theory-building phases of inquiry. Female players conducted most of the inquiry, in particular analysis and theory building. The quality of scientific inquiry processes, which included extensive information gathering by players, and the resulting content were judged to be very good by a team of independent scientists. This research suggests that a compelling storyline, a highly aesthetic environment, and the emergent social bonds among players and between players and the characters played by designers were all responsible for sustaining high quality inquiry among gamers in this free-choice experience. The gaming environment developed for Martian Boneyards is seen as an evolving ecosystem with interactions among design, players' activity, and players' progress.

  5. Machine Identification of Martian Craters Using Digital Elevation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, B.; Stepinski, T. F.

    2005-12-01

    Impact craters are among the most studied features on Martian surface. Their importance stems from the worth of information that a detailed analysis of their number and morphology can bring forth. Because building manually a comprehensive dataset of craters is a laborious process, there have been many previous attempts to develop an automatic, image-based crater identifier. The resulting identifiers suffer from low efficiency and remain in an experimental stage. We have developed a DEM-based, fully autonomous crater identifier that takes an arbitrarily large Martian site as an input and produces a catalog of craters as an output. Using the topography data we calculate a topographic profile curvature that is thresholded to produce a binary image, pixels having maximum negative curvature are labeled black, the remaining pixels are labeled white. The black pixels outline craters because crater rims are the most convex feature in the Martian landscape. The Hough Transform (HT) is used for an actual recognition of craters in the binary image. The image is first segmented (without cutting the craters) into a large number of smaller images using the ``flood" algorithm that identifies basins. This segmentation makes possible the application of highly inefficient HT to large sites. The identifier is applied to a 106 km2 site located around the Herschel crater. According to the Barlow catalog, this site contains 485 craters >5 km. Our identifier finds 1099 segments, 628 of them are classified as craters >5 km. Overall, there is an excellent agreement between the two catalogs, although the specific statistics are still pending due to the difficulties in recalculating the MDIM 1 coordinate system used in the Barlow catalog to the MDIM 2.1 coordinate system used by our identifier.

  6. Enzyme activity in terrestrial soil in relation to exploration of the Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaren, A. D.

    1974-01-01

    Sensitive tests for the detection of extracellular enzyme activity in Martian soil was investigated using simulated Martian soil. Enzyme action at solid-liquid water interfaces and at low humidity were studied, and a kinetic scheme was devised and tested based on the growth of microorganisms and the oxidation of ammonium nitrite.

  7. Neutron-Capture Kr-80 and Ar-36 in the Martian Atmosphere and Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. N.; Bogard, D. D.; Nyquist, L.; McKay, D. S.; Masarik, J.

    2001-01-01

    We calculate that approximately 10% of martian atmospheric Kr-80 formed by neutron capture on Mars in approx. 0.5 Ga. The regolith contains even larger amounts of n-capture Kr-80 and Ar-36, which may provide clues to the evolution of the martian regolith and atmosphere. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Martian clouds observed by Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huiqun; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    We have made daily global maps that cover both polar and equatorial regions of Mars for Ls 135°–360° and 0°–111° using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) red and blue wide-angle swaths taken from May 1999 to January 2001. We study the seasonal distribution of condensate clouds and dust clouds during roughly 1 Martian year using these daily global maps. We present the development and decay of the tropical cloud belt and the polar hoods, the spatial and temporal distributi...

  9. Martian cave air-movement via Helmholtz resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kaj; Titus, Timothy N.; Okubo, Chris; Cushing, Glen

    2017-01-01

    Infrasonic resonance has previously been measured in terrestrial caves by other researchers, where Helmholtz resonance has been suggested as the plausible mechanism resulting in periodic wind reversals within cave entrances. We extend this reasoning to possible Martian caves, where we examine the characteristics of four atypical pit craters (APCs) on Tharsis, suggested as candidate cave entrance locations. The results show that, for several possible cave air movement periods, we are able to infer the approximate cave volumes. The utility of inferring cave volumes for planetary cave exploration is discussed.

  10. Probing the Martian Subsurface with Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B. A.; Maxwell, T. A.; Freeman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Many regions of the martian surface are covered by fine-grained materials emplaced by volcanic, fluvial, or aeolian processes. These mantling deposits likely hide ancient channel systems (particularly at smaller scale lengths) and volcanic, impact, glacial, or shoreline features. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) offers the capability to probe meters below the surface, with imaging resolution in the 10 s of m range, to reveal the buried terrain and enhance our understanding of Mars geologic and climate history. This presentation focuses on the practical applications of a Mars orbital SAR, methods for polarimetric and interferometric radar studies, and examples of such techniques for Mars-analog sites on the Moon and Earth.

  11. TDEM for Martian in situ resource prospecting missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Tacconi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a TDEM (Time Domain Electromagnetic Methods application, addressed to the search for water on Mars. In this context, the opportunities for a TDEM system as payload in a future mission are investigated for different in situ exploration scenarios. The TDEM sounding capability is evaluated with respect to the expected Martian environment, and some considerations are made about the many unknown variables (above all the background EM noise and the subsoil composition altogether with the limited resources availability (mission constraints in mass, time and power and the way they could represent an obstacle for operations and measurements.

  12. Martian resource utilization. 1: Plant design and transportation selection criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloupis, Peter; Nolan, Peter E.; Cutler, Andrew H.

    Indigenous Space Materials Utilization (ISMU) provides an opportunity to make Mars exploration mission scenarios more affordable by reducing the initial mass necessary in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Martian propellant production is discussed in terms of simple design and economic tradeoffs. Fuel and oxidizer combinations included are H2/O2, CH4/O2, and CO/O2. Process flow diagrams with power and mass flow requirements are presented for a variety of processes, and some design requirements are derived. Maximum allowable plant masses for single use amortization are included.

  13. Does life's rapid appearance imply a Martian origin?

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Paul Charles William

    2004-01-01

    The hypothesis that the rapid appearance of life on Earth justifies the belief that life is widespread in the universe has been investigated statistically by Lineweaver and Davis. However, a rapid appearance could also be interpreted as evidence for a nonterrestrial origin. I attempt to quantify the relative probabilities for a nonindigenous versus an indigenous origin of life on Earth, on the assumption that biogenesis involved one or more highly improbable steps, using a generalization of the well known observer selection argument of Carter. The analysis is specifically applied to a Martian origin of life, with subsequent transfer to Earth within impact ejecta.

  14. Accessing the Martian deep subsurface to search for life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2000-09-01

    To date there has been no data indicating that the surface of Mars is inhabited. Research conducted on Earth has revealed that life can exist deep beneath the surface of a planet. Current data from Mars missions suggesting the presence of liquid water early in Mars' history and mathematical modeling of the fate of water on Mars imply that liquid water may exist deep beneath the surface of Mars. The existence of liquid water beneath the Martian surface, combined with life's ability to live chemolithoautotrophically, leads to the hypothesis that life may exist deep beneath the Martian surface. Acquisition and analyses of Martian subsurface samples will shed light on the possibility of extant or extinct life, in permafrost and liquid water, on Mars, the processes leading to the origin of life, and the size of the Solar System's habitable zone. The results of a workshop convened by NASA in 1998 suggest that no fewer than two missions could be considered for accessing the deep subsurface of Mars. This two mission scenario includes a mission penetrating to a depth of ˜300 m and a mission penetrating to a depth of ˜3 km. As in all space missions the power, mass and volume of the penetration system and all associated equipment to be used to gain access to the Martian subsurface must be kept to a minimum. One technique that may be applicable, but in need of further development, is an electrically heated probe (bit) that penetrates and cores by melting through rock. The probe is attached to an umbilical cable to provide power and to allow periodic retrieval of the probe. This approach appears to address planetary protection concerns and may decrease the mass, power and volume requirements of conventional drilling systems by eliminating the need for casing material, drilling fluids, and handling potentially contaminated debris from the bore hole. Deep drilling on Mars presents several planetary protection forward and back contamination issues. These issues include sample

  15. Martian thermosphere scale height from SPICAM dayglow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiepen, A.; Gérard, J.-C.; Bougher, S.; Montmessin, F.

    2014-04-01

    We analyze the ultraviolet dayglow in the atmosphere of Mars through CO2+ and CO Cameron emissions. These emissions are accumulated on a large dataset of dayside grazing limb performed by the Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) instrument on board the Mars Express spacecraft. The temperature of the Martian upper atmosphere can be retrieved from these limb emission profiles. We present discussion on the validity domain for such retrieval. We also show evidence for local (spatial and temporal) variability in the scale height of the atmosphere at the altitude of these emissions.

  16. The new Martian nomenclature of the international Astronomical Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Vaucouleur G.; Blunck, J.; Davies, M.; Dollfus, A.; Koval, I.K.; Kuiper, G.P.; Masursky, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Moroz, V.I.; Sagan, C.; Smith, B.

    1975-01-01

    A new nomenclature for Martian regions and topographic features uncovered by Mariner 9, as officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is described. About 180 craters, generally of diameters >100 km, have been named, as well as 13 classes of topographic features designated catena, chasma, dorsum, fossa, labyrinthus, mensa, mons, patera, planitia, planum, tholus, vallis, and vastitas. In addition seven craters and the Kepler Dorsum are named on Phobos, and two craters on Deimos. Coordinates and maps of each named features are displayed. ?? 1975.

  17. Photo-induced free radicals on a simulated Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, S.-S.; Chang, S.

    1974-01-01

    Results of an electron spin resonance study of free radicals in the ultraviolet irradiation of a simulated Martian surface suggest that the ultraviolet photolysis of CO or CO2, or a mixture of both, adsorbed on silica gel at minus 170 C involves the formation of OH radicals and possibly of H atoms as the primary process, followed by the formation of CO2H radicals. It is concluded that the photochemical synthesis of organic compounds could occur on Mars if the siliceous surface dust contains enough silanol groups and/or adsorbed H2O in the form of bound water.

  18. Water in SNC meteorites - Evidence for a Martian hydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Haraldur R.; Clayton, Robert N.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Mayeda, Toshiko K.

    1992-01-01

    The Shergotty-Nakhla-Chassigny (SNC) meteorites, purportedly of Martian origin, contain 0.04 to 0.4 percent water by weight. Oxygen isotopic analysis can be used to determine whether this water is extraterrestrial or terrestrial. Such analysis reveals that a portion of the water is extraterrestrial and furthermore was not in oxygen isotopic equilibrium with the host rock. Lack of equilibrium between water and host rock implies that the lithosphere and hydrosphere of the SNC parent body formed two distinct oxygen isotopic reservoirs. If Mars was the parent body, the maintenance of two distinct reservoirs may result from the absence of plate tectonics on the planet.

  19. Identification of Martian biota using their radioresistance ability and specific isotopic composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. K.; Kalinin, V.; Konstantinov, A.; Shelegedin, V.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2003-04-01

    Because of a thin atmosphere and weak magnetic field, Martian surface is a subject to high levels of ionizing radiation. On the other hand, variations in Martian obliquity produce the global climate oscillations (with the main period ~120000 years) of the great magnitude. Martian biota would accumulate large radiation dosage during the periods of cold climate, when it would be in the dormant state and would rebuild its population during the periods of warm climate. Therefore, all types of hypothetical Martian microorganisms living in subsurface layers of soil have to posses very high radiation tolerance. In our experiments, we find that "ordinary" bacteria (Escherichia coli and two species of Bacillus ) can develop radioresistance ability after a number of cycles of exposure to the high (almost lethal) radiation dosages, followed by recovery of the bacterial population. We show that natural cycles of this kind could take place only on Mars. On the other hand, high radiation tolerance is hardly necessary for the survival in any natural environment on Earth. A few number of terrestrial microorganisms (radioresistant bacteria) posses this peculiar ability (Deinococus radiodurance , Rubrobacter radiotolerance, Rubrobacter xylanophilus ). The radiation background on Earth, including vicinity of natural nuclear reactor Oklo is many orders of magnitude lower than the lethal dose for these microorganisms. We show that such radioresistance can be "trained" only in the Martian conditions. Therefore, we propose that Earth has been infected several times by the Martian biota on Martian meteorites. We propose that high radioresistance could be a strong sign of the Martian origin for potential microorganisms acquired in the sample return missions. Another way to identify "Martian" microorganisms and exclude contamination in returned samples involves analysis of the radionuclides abundance (being produced by the high energy cosmic rays in the Martian soil). We show that these

  20. Tissint martian meteorite: a fresh look at the interior, surface, and atmosphere of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoudjehane, H Chennaoui; Avice, G; Barrat, J-A; Boudouma, O; Chen, G; Duke, M J M; Franchi, I A; Gattacceca, J; Grady, M M; Greenwood, R C; Herd, C D K; Hewins, R; Jambon, A; Marty, B; Rochette, P; Smith, C L; Sautter, V; Verchovsky, A; Weber, P; Zanda, B

    2012-11-09

    Tissint (Morocco) is the fifth martian meteorite collected after it was witnessed falling to Earth. Our integrated mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical study shows that it is a depleted picritic shergottite similar to EETA79001A. Highly magnesian olivine and abundant glass containing martian atmosphere are present in Tissint. Refractory trace element, sulfur, and fluorine data for the matrix and glass veins in the meteorite indicate the presence of a martian surface component. Thus, the influence of in situ martian weathering can be unambiguously distinguished from terrestrial contamination in this meteorite. Martian weathering features in Tissint are compatible with the results of spacecraft observations of Mars. Tissint has a cosmic-ray exposure age of 0.7 ± 0.3 million years, consistent with those of many other shergottites, notably EETA79001, suggesting that they were ejected from Mars during the same event.

  1. Variability of the Martian thermosphere during eight Martian years as simulated by a ground-to-exosphere global circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Galindo, F.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Forget, F.; García-Comas, M.; Millour, E.; Montabone, L.

    2015-11-01

    Using a ground-to-exosphere general circulation model for Mars we have simulated the variability of the dayside temperatures at the exobase during eight Martian years (MY, from MY24 to MY31, approximately from 1998 to 2013), taking into account the observed day-to-day solar and dust load variability. We show that the simulated temperatures are in good agreement with the exospheric temperatures derived from Precise Orbit Determination of Mars Global Surveyor. We then study the effects of the solar variability and of two planetary-encircling dust storms on the simulated temperatures. The seasonal effect produced by the large eccentricity of the Martian orbit translates in an aphelion-to-perihelion temperature contrast in every simulated year. However, the magnitude of this seasonal temperature variation is strongly affected by the solar conditions, ranging from 50 K for years corresponding to solar minimum conditions to almost 140 K during the last solar maximum. The 27 day solar rotation cycle is observed on the simulated temperatures at the exobase, with average amplitude of the temperature oscillation of 2.6 K but with a significant interannual variability. These two results highlight the importance of taking into account the solar variability when simulating the Martian upper atmosphere and likely have important implications concerning the atmospheric escape rate. We also show that the global dust storms in MY25 and MY28 have a significant effect on the simulated temperatures. In general, they increase the exospheric temperatures over the low latitude and midlatitude regions and decrease them in the polar regions.

  2. Sublimation of the Martian CO2 Seasonal South Polar Cap

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Frederic; Doute, Sylvain; Forget, Francois; Jian, Jeng-Jong; Martin, Patrick; Langevin, Yves; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The polar condensation/sublimation of CO2, that involve about one fourth of the atmosphere mass, is the major Martian climatic cycle. Early observations in visible and thermal infrared have shown that the sublimation of the Seasonal South Polar Cap (SSPC) is not symmetric around the geographic South Pole. Here we use observations by OMEGA/Mars Express in the near-infrared to detect unambiguously the presence of CO2 at the surface, and to estimate albedo. Second, we estimate the sublimation of CO2 released in the atmosphere and show that there is a two-step process. From Ls=180^\\circ to 220^\\circ, the sublimation is nearly symmetric with a slight advantage for the cryptic region. After Ls=220^\\circ the anti-cryptic region sublimation is stronger. Those two phases are not balanced such that there is 22%\\pm9 more mass the anti-cryptic region, arguing for more snow precipitation. We compare those results with the MOLA height measurements. Finally we discuss implications for the Martian atmosphere about general ci...

  3. Martian Atmospheric Methane Plumes from Meteor Shower Infall: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M.; Christou, A.; Archer, D.; Conrad, P.; Cooke, W.; Eigenbrode, J.; ten Kate, I. L.; Matney, M.; Niles, P.; Sykes, M.

    2016-01-01

    Methane plumes in the martian atmosphere have been detected using Earth-based spectroscopy, the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer on the ESA Mars Express mission, and the NASA Mars Science Laboratory. The methane's origin remains a mystery, with proposed sources including volcanism, exogenous sources like impacts and interplanetary dust, aqueous alteration of olivine in the presence of carbonaceous material, release from ancient deposits of methane clathrates, and/or biological activity. To date, none of these phenomena have been found to reliably correlate with the detection of methane plumes. An additional source exists, however: meteor showers could generate martian methane via UV pyrolysis of carbon-rich infall material. We find a correlation between the dates of Mars/cometary orbit encounters and detections of methane on Mars. We hypothesize that cometary debris falls onto Mars during these interactions, depositing freshly disaggregated meteor shower material in a regional concentration. The material generates methane via UV photolysis, resulting in a localized "plume" of short-lived methane.

  4. Rocket dust storms and detached layers in the Martian atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Spiga, Aymeric; Madeleine, Jean-Baptiste; Määttänen, Anni; Forget, François

    2012-01-01

    Airborne dust is the main climatic agent in the Martian environment. Local dust storms play a key role in the dust cycle; yet their life cycle is poorly known. Here we use mesoscale modeling with radiatively-active transported dust to predict the evolution of a local dust storm monitored by OMEGA on board Mars Express. We show that the evolution of this dust storm is governed by deep convective motions. The supply of convective energy is provided by the absorption of incoming sunlight by dust particles, in lieu of latent heating in moist convection on Earth. We propose to use the terminology "rocket dust storm", or conio-cumulonimbus, to describe those storms in which rapid and efficient vertical transport takes place, injecting dust particles at high altitudes in the Martian troposphere (30 to 50 km). Combined to horizontal transport by large-scale winds, rocket dust storms form detached layers of dust reminiscent of those observed with instruments on board Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Reconnaissance Orbite...

  5. Measurements of Martian dust devil winds with HiRISE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D.S.; Dundas, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report wind measurements within Martian dust devils observed in plan view from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) orbiting Mars. The central color swath of the HiRISE instrument has three separate charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and color filters that observe the surface in rapid cadence. Active features, such as dust devils, appear in motion when observed by this region of the instrument. Our image animations reveal clear circulatory motion within dust devils that is separate from their translational motion across the Martian surface. Both manual and automated tracking of dust devil clouds reveal tangential winds that approach 20-30 m s -1 in some cases. These winds are sufficient to induce a ???1% decrease in atmospheric pressure within the dust devil core relative to ambient, facilitating dust lifting by reducing the threshold wind speed for particle elevation. Finally, radial velocity profiles constructed from our automated measurements test the Rankine vortex model for dust devil structure. Our profiles successfully reveal the solid body rotation component in the interior, but fail to conclusively illuminate the profile in the outer regions of the vortex. One profile provides evidence for a velocity decrease as a function of r -1/2, instead of r -1, suggestive of surface friction effects. However, other profiles do not support this observation, or do not contain enough measurements to produce meaningful insights. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Qualification of Fiber Optic Cables for Martian Extreme Temperature Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Lindensmith, Christian A.; Roberts, William T.; Rainen, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Means have been developed for enabling fiber optic cables of the Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer instrument to survive ground operations plus the nominal 670 Martian conditions that include Martian summer and winter seasons. The purpose of this development was to validate the use of the rover external fiber optic cabling of ChemCam for space applications under the extreme thermal environments to be encountered during the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. Flight-representative fiber optic cables were subjected to extreme temperature thermal cycling of the same diurnal depth (or delta T) as expected in flight, but for three times the expected number of in-flight thermal cycles. The survivability of fiber optic cables was tested for 600 cumulative thermal cycles from -130 to +15 C to cover the winter season, and another 1,410 cumulative cycles from -105 to +40 C to cover the summer season. This test satisfies the required 3 times the design margin that is a total of 2,010 thermal cycles (670 x 3). This development test included functional optical transmission tests during the course of the test. Transmission of the fiber optic cables was performed prior to and after 1,288 thermal cycles and 2,010 thermal cycles. No significant changes in transmission were observed on either of the two representative fiber cables subject through the 3X MSL mission life that is 2,010 thermal cycles.

  7. Atmospheric environment during maneuvering descent from Martian orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, Michael E.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Yang, Lily

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the atmospheric maneuvering capability of a vehicle designated to land on the Martian surface, together with an analysis of the entry environment encountered by the vehicle. A maximum lift/drag ratio of 2.3 was used for all trajectory calculations. The maximum achievable lateral ranges varied from about 3400 km to 2500 km for entry velocities of 5 km/s (from a highly elliptical Martian orbit) and 3.5 km/s (from a low-altitude lower-speed orbit), respectively. It is shown that the peak decelerations are an order of magnitude higher for the 5-km/s entries than for the 3.5-km/s entries. The vehicle entering at 3.5 km/s along a gliding trajectory encountered a much more benign atmospheric environment. In addition, the glider's peak deceleration was found to be only about 0.7 earth g, making the shallow flight path ideal for manned vehicles whose crews might be physically weakened by the long voyage to Mars.

  8. A Persistent Meteoric Ion Layer in the Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crismani, Matteo; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Jain, Sonal Kumar; Plane, John; Deigo Carrillo Sanchez, Juan; Deighan, Justin; Stevens, Michael H.; Evans, Scott; Chaffin, Michael S.; Jacosky, Bruce; IUVS Team

    2016-10-01

    We report on a persistent metal ion layer at Mars produced by meteoric ablation in the upper atmosphere, observed by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on MAVEN. The response of the Martian atmosphere to meteoroid influx constrains cometary activity, dust dynamics, ionospheric production at Mars and meteoric smoke may represent a site of nucleation for high altitude clouds. Using observations that span more than an Earth year, we find this layer is global and steady state, contrary to previous observations, but in accordance with predictions. IUVS observations cover a range of observation conditions, which allows us to determine the variability of the Mg+ layer seasonally and geographically. Mars has passed through several predicted meteor showers, though the fluences of these events have hitherto been unconstrained. Analysis of these events will determine whether Mars' atmosphere responds to such events dramatically, as was the case with comet Siding Spring, or more similarly to Earth. Mg is also detected, but the ratio of Mg to Mg+ is less than predicted, indicative of undetermined chemical processes in the Martian atmosphere.

  9. HiRISE observations of fractured mounds: Possible Martian pingos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, C.M.; Mellon, M.T.; McEwen, A.S.; Lefort, A.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; Thomas, N.

    2008-01-01

    Early images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera have revealed small fractured mounds in the Martian mid-latitudes. HiRISE resolves fractures on the mound surfaces, indicating uplift, and shows that the mound surface material resembles that of the surrounding landscape. Analysis of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images shows that in Utopia Planitia the mounds lie almost exclusively between 35-45??N. This range coincides with the peak-abundance latitudes of several landforms attributed to ground water or ice, including gullies, and suggests a ground ice-related origin. The best terrestrial analogues for the observed mound morphology are pingos, although some differences are noted. The presence of uncollapsed. pingos would indicate the presence of near-surface ground ice in the Martian mid-latitudes, at depths greater than the ???1 meter sampled by orbital spectrometers. Pingo formation may require near-surface liquid water, which is consistent with a shallow groundwater model for the origin of gullies. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Periodic orbits around areostationary points in the Martian gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Dong; Baoyin, Hexi; Ma, Xing-Rui

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates the problem of areostationary orbits around Mars in three-dimensional space. Areostationary orbits are expected to be used to establish a future telecommunication network for the exploration of Mars. However, no artificial satellites have been placed in these orbits thus far. The characteristics of the Martian gravity field are presented, and areostationary points and their linear stability are calculated. By taking linearized solutions in the planar case as the initial guesses and utilizing the Levenberg-Marquardt method, families of periodic orbits around areostationary points are shown to exist. Short-period orbits and long-period orbits are found around linearly stable areostationary points, but only short-period orbits are found around unstable areostationary points. Vertical periodic orbits around both linearly stable and unstable areostationary points are also examined. Satellites in these periodic orbits could depart from areostationary points by a few degrees in longitude, which would facilitate observation of the Martian topography. Based on the eigenvalues of the monodromy matrix, the evolution of the stability index of periodic orbits is determined. Finally, heteroclinic orbits connecting the two unstable areostationary points are found, providing the possibility for orbital transfer with minimal energy consumption.

  11. Spectroscopy and reactivity of mineral analogs of the Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Orenberg, J.; Roush, T.

    1991-01-01

    To answer the question of why life occurred on Earth but not on Mars requires a study of the geochemical and physical aspects of the Martian soil. Some of the best Mars analog mineral models of the soil have been prepared and justified according to known constraints of chemical composition, reflectance spectroscopy, and chemical reactivity. Detailed laboratory reflectance spectra in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared (.30 to 2.5 microns) and the infrared (2.5 to 25 microns) regions have been obtained for the pure candidate minerals and some analog mixtures and compared to Mars reflectance spectra. Modeling of the reflectance spectra from optical constraints determined for the analog minerals has begun and will be interpreted in terms of the effects of particle size variation, component mixing, and soil packing upon remotely sensed reflectance spectra. This has implications not only for Mars, but for other planets and planetoids. The ratio of Fe(II)/Fe(III) in the Martian soil analog materials on spectral reflectance in the visible range has begun, and the results will be evaluated according to conformity with the visible Mars reflectance spectrum. Some initial LR and GEX data have been collected for the mineral samples and their mixtures, which can be compared with the Viking data and interpreted in terms of the redox (Fe(II)/Fe(III) environment.

  12. Modeling of the Martian Environment for Radiation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, G. [Istituto Superiore di Sanit, Rome, I-00161 (Italy); Badavi, F.F. [Christopher Newport University, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Blattnig, S.R.; Clowdsley, M.S. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States); Nealy, J.E. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23508 (United States); Qualls, G.D.; Singleterry, R.C.; Tripathi, R.K.; Wilson, J.W. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    Results for the radiation environment to be found on the planet Mars due to Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and Solar Particle Events (SPE) has been obtained. Primary particle environments computed for Martian conditions are transported within the Mars atmosphere, modeled in a time-dependent way in terms of density, pressure, and temperature vs. altitude, down to the surface, with topography and backscattering patterns taken into account. The atmospheric chemical and isotopic composition has been modeled over results from the in-situ Viking Lander measurements for both major and minor components. The surface topography has been determined by using a model based on the data provided by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument on board the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. The surface itself has been modeled in both the dry ('regolith') and volatile components. Mars regolith composition has been modeled based on the measurements obtained with orbiter and lander spacecraft from which an average composition has been derived. The volatile inventory properties, both in the regolith and in the seasonal and perennial polar caps, has been taken into account by modeling the deposition of volatiles and its variations with geography and time all throughout the Martian year, from results from imaging data of orbiter spacecraft. Results are given in terms of fluxes, doses and LET, for most kinds of particles, namely protons, neutrons, alpha particles, heavy ions, pions, and muons for various soil compositions.

  13. Periodic orbits around areostationary points in the Martian gravity field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Liu; Hexi Baoyin; Xing-Rui Ma

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the problem of areostationary orbits around Mars in three-dimensional space.Areostationary orbits are expected to be used to establish a future telecommunication network for the exploration of Mars.However,no artificial satellites have been placed in these orbits thus far.The characteristics of the Martian gravity field are presented,and areostationary points and their linear stability are calculated.By taking linearized solutions in the planar case as the initial guesses and utilizing the Levenberg-Marquardt method,families of periodic orbits around areostationary points are shown to exist.Short-period orbits and long-period orbits are found around linearly stable areostationary points,but only short-period orbits are found around unstable areostationary points.Vertical periodic orbits around both linearly stable and unstable areostationary points are also examined.Satellites in these periodic orbits could depart from areostationary points by a few degrees in longitude,which would facilitate observation of the Martian topography.Based on the eigenvalues of the monodromy matrix,the evolution of the stability index of periodic orbits is determined.Finally,heteroclinic orbits connecting the two unstable areostationary points are found,providing the possibility for orbital transfer with minimal energy consumption.

  14. Laboratory-based electrical conductivity at Martian mantle conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Olivier; Vacher, Pierre

    2016-12-01

    Information on temperature and composition of planetary mantles can be obtained from electrical conductivity profiles derived from induced magnetic field analysis. This requires a modeling of the conductivity for each mineral phase at conditions relevant to planetary interiors. Interpretation of iron-rich Martian mantle conductivity profile therefore requires a careful modeling of the conductivity of iron-bearing minerals. In this paper, we show that conduction mechanism called small polaron is the dominant conduction mechanism at temperature, water and iron content conditions relevant to Mars mantle. We then review the different measurements performed on mineral phases with various iron content. We show that, for all measurements of mineral conductivity reported so far, the effect of iron content on the activation energy governing the exponential decrease in the Arrhenius law can be modeled as the cubic square root of the iron content. We recast all laboratory results on a common generalized Arrhenius law for iron-bearing minerals, anchored on Earth's mantle values. We then use this modeling to compute a new synthetic profile of Martian mantle electrical conductivity. This new profile matches perfectly, in the depth range [100,1000] km, the electrical conductivity profile recently derived from the study of Mars Global Surveyor magnetic field measurements.

  15. Variations in the Fe mineralogy of bright Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Scott; Mustard, John; Erard, Stephane; Geissler, Paul; Singer, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Bright regions on Mars are interpreted as 'soil' derived by chemical alteration of crustal rocks, whose main pigmentary component is ferric oxide or oxyhydroxide. The mineralogy and mineralogic variability of ferric iron are important evidence for the evolution of Martian soil: mineralogy of ferric phases is sensitive to chemical conditions in their genetic environments, and the spatial distributions of different ferric phases would record a history of both chemical environments and physical mixing. Reflectance spectroscopic studies provide several types of evidence that discriminate possible pigmentary phases, including the position of a crystal field absorption near 0.9 microns and position and strengths of absorptions in the UV-visible wavelength region. Recent telescopic spectra and laboratory measurements of Mars soil analogs suggest that spectral features of bright soil can be explained based on a single pigmentary phase, hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), occurring in both 'nanophase' and more crystalline forms. Here we report on a systematic investigation of Martian bright regions using ISM imaging spectrometer data, in which we examined spatial variations in the position and shape of the approximately 0.9 microns absorption. We found both local and regional heterogeneities that indicate differences in Fe mineralogy. These results demonstrate that bright soils do not represent a single lithology that has been homogenized by eolian mixing, and suggest that weathering of soils in different geologic settings has followed different physical and chemical pathways.

  16. Seasonal activity and morphological changes in martian gullies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Colin M.; Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candice J.; Byrne, Shane; McEwen, Alfred S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies of martian dune and non-dune gullies have suggested a seasonal control on present-day gully activity. The timing of current gully activity, especially activity involving the formation or modification of channels (which commonly have been taken as evidence of fluvial processes), has important implications regarding likely gully formation processes and necessary environmental conditions. In this study, we describe the results of frequent meter-scale monitoring of several active gully sites by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The aim is to better assess the scope and nature of current morphological changes and to provide improved constraints on timing of gully activity on both dune and non-dune slopes. Our observations indicate that (1) gully formation on Mars is ongoing today and (2) the most significant morphological changes are strongly associated with seasonal frost and defrosting activity. Observed changes include formation of all major components of typical gully landforms, although we have not observed alcove formation in coherent bedrock. These results reduce the need to invoke recent climate change or present-day groundwater seepage to explain the many martian gullies with pristine appearance.

  17. ChemCam analysis of Martian fine dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Mangold, Nicolas; Cousin, Agnes; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Wiens, Roger; Gasnault, Olivier; Rapin, William; Schroder, Susanne; Ollila, Ann; Fabre, Cécile; Berger, Gilles; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Dehouck, Erwin; Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Anderson, Ryan; Bridges, Nathan; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Samuel; d'Uston, Claude; Goetz, Walter; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Lanza, Nina; Madsen, Morten; Melikechi, Noureddine; Newsom, Horton; Sautter, Violaine; Martin-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; MSL Science Team

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we examine the chemical composition of dust observed by the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) instrument onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover at Gale Crater. The Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique analyses samples without preparation, which allows detection of the elemental composition of surface deposits. Mars aeolian fine dust (soils encountered at Gale crater. The composition is also similar to the soils and fine dust measured by APXS for the elements common to both instruments. The minor elements quantified by ChemCam (Ba, Sr, Rb, Li, Mn, Cr) are within the range of soil surveys, but we see a higher concentration of Li than in other types of remotely characterized targets. Sulfur is possibly detected at the ChemCam limit of detection. Hydrogen is clearly identified, indicating that this fine dust is a contributor to the H content of the martian soils, as also detected by the SAM and CheMin instruments, and provides constraints as to which fraction of the Martian surface is hydrated and altered. In conclusion, the finest fraction of dust particles on the surface of Mars contains hydrated components mixed intimately within the fine aeolian dust fraction, suggesting that this dust likely originates from mechanical weathering of altered grains.

  18. Global permittivity mapping of the Martian surface from SHARAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaldo, Luigi; Mège, Daniel; Gurgurewicz, Joanna; Orosei, Roberto; Alberti, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    SHARAD is a subsurface sounding radar aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, capable of detecting dielectric discontinuities in the subsurface caused by compositional and/or structural changes. Echoes coming from the surface contain information on geometric properties at metre scale and on the permittivity of the upper layers of the Martian crust. A model has been developed to estimate the effect of surface roughness on echo power, depending on statistical parameters such as RMS height and topothesy. Such model is based on the assumption that topography can be characterized as a self-affine fractal, and its use allows the estimation of the dielectric properties of the first few metres of the Martian soil. A permittivity map of the surface of Mars is obtained, covering several large regions across the planet surface. The most significant correspondence with geology is observed at the dichotomy boundary, with high dielectric constant on the highlands side (7 to over 10) and lower on the lowlands side (3 to 7). Other geological correlations are discussed.

  19. Evaluation of wind electric energy based on martian wind measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Y.; Kurita, K.

    2012-12-01

    Since Mars is characterized by strong surface wind, electric power generation by the wind activity has been proposed as a possible power source for martian base station as well as that for exploration module (George James et al., 1999, Vimal Kumar et al., 2010). George and Vimal estimated total power as 19kW and 500W, which they conclude is sufficient value as a power source of small exploration module. These values seem comparable to that used in MER( 900Wh per day ). But their estimate largely depends on the model of wind velocity and reevaluation is necessary based on plausible wind model as well as more realistic assumptions about power generation. This study evaluates plausible range of available power by using surface wind model estimated by Viking Lander measurements. Meteorological package of Viking Lander measured wind velocity and its direction at 1.6m hight at every 60 min. for 200 sols. We estimate wind statistics by using Weibull distribution function and elevation offset. We calculate the wind energy by wind turbines as the integrated value of power produced in a Martian day, and compare with solar panel and nuclear battery under various conditions (Mars ground roughness, blade length, shape of wind turbine and rotor height from the ground). As a result of the calculations, we obtain reasonable amount of wind electricity (1000 Wh per day ), which can be used if we select proper locations and suitable wind turbine.

  20. What SNC meteorites tell us about Martian magmatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, John; Pan, Vivian

    1987-01-01

    The SNC meteorites record relatively recent (less than b.y.) basaltic volcanism on a hydrous planet with a core. This much was known about Mars even before the Viking mission. The SNCs tell that the basalts were unusually low in Al2O3 and, despite overall similarities in major elements, apparently sampled two isotopically distinct regions of Mars: one is relatively depleted in incompatible elements (Nahklite source) with a U-Pb model age of 4.3 b.y. and is probably a portion of the upper Martian mantle, whereas the other is relatively enriched in incompatible elements (Shergottite source) with a 4.5 b.y. U-Pb age and is probably Martian crust assimulated into the mantle-derived Shergottite magma. The SNCs tell that the overall abundances of moderately volatile elements, such as alkalies, are higher on Mars than on earth. Given extensive volcanism and a depleted mantle, the present day absence of a thick atmosphere is more likely due to catastrophic removal of a primordial atmosphere than lack of degassing.

  1. Additive Manufacturing, Design, Testing, and Fabrication: A Full Engineering Experience at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusack, Steven

    2016-01-01

    I worked on several projects this term. While most projects involved additive manufacturing, I was also involved with two design projects, two testing projects, and a fabrication project. The primary mentor for these was Richard Hagen. Secondary mentors were Hai Nguyen, Khadijah Shariff, and fabrication training from James Brown. Overall, my experience at JSC has been successful and what I have learned will continue to help me in my engineering education and profession long after I leave. My 3D printing projects ranged from less than a 1 cubic centimeter to about 1 cubic foot and involved several printers using different printing technologies. It was exciting to become familiar with printing technologies such as industrial grade FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), the relatively new SLA (Stereolithography), and PolyJet. My primary duty with the FDM printers was to model parts that came in from various sources to print effectively and efficiently. Using methods my mentor taught me and the Stratasys Insight software, I was able to minimize imperfections, hasten build time, improve strength for specific forces (tensile, shear, etc...), and reduce likelihood of a print-failure. Also using FDM, I learned how to repair a part after it was printed. This is done by using a special kind of glue that chemically melts the two faces of plastic parts together to form a fused interface. My first goal with SLA technology was to bring the printer back to operational readiness. In becoming familiar with the Pegasus SLA printer, I researched the leveling, laser settings, and different vats to hold liquid material. With this research, I was successfully able to bring the Pegasus back online and have successfully printed multiple sample parts as well as functional parts. My experience with PolyJet technology has been focused on an understanding of the abilities/limits, costs, and the maintenance for daily use. Still upcoming will be experience with using a composite printer that uses FDM

  2. Sustainable development through innovation (the example of JSC «Concern» Constellation»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the «economic growth» theoretical approaches to the terms and «sustainable development». It is indicated that «sustainable development» is related to the introduction of new technologies and innovations, as well as the mechanisms of perfection economic activity. The concept of «sustainable development» includes the principles of sustainability and balanced-ness, while economic growth is associated with the dominant country economic policy objectives, including innovative factors, with the well-being of its population level: the development of the social structure, from the labor market level and other factors. Prospects of development of the country based on the justification of the socio-economic model of its translational movement in the world civilization. Excessive political risks and economic sanctions have shown that Russia should not rely on foreign imports of high-tech, and the need to develop import substitution. Change the vector of development of the Russian economy made their adjustments to the development of the Voronezh region economy slowed down the speed of displacements, of capital, the regional financial centers develop poorly, due to lack of investment has slowed the growth of innovational and information development. There is a growing dependence of the region on the processes taking place at the international and national levels. In the example of the Voronezh area are considered factors of sustainable development such as the coordination of organizational efforts and financial resources in order to achieve a new quality of the region's population lives, and necessity of formation of a new development paradigm of management in the region, based on the modernization of diversified bath economy and the introduction of mechanisms to ensure the implementation of sustainable development. In view of the innovative-investment activity of JSC «Concern» Constellation «steady growth

  3. Terrestrial and Martian weathering signatures of xenon components in shergottite mineral separates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, J. A.; Ocker, K. D.; Crowther, S. A.; Burgess, R.; Gilmour, J. D.

    2010-08-01

    Xenon-isotopic ratios, step-heating release patterns, and gas concentrations of mineral separates from Martian shergottites Roberts Massif (RBT) 04262, Dar al Gani (DaG) 489, Shergotty, and Elephant Moraine (EET) 79001 lithology B are reported. Concentrations of Martian atmospheric xenon are similar in mineral separates from all meteorites, but more weathered samples contain more terrestrial atmospheric xenon. The distributions of xenon from the Martian and terrestrial atmospheres among minerals in any one sample are similar, suggesting similarities in the processes by which they were acquired. However, in opaque and maskelynite fractions, Martian atmospheric xenon is released at higher temperatures than terrestrial atmospheric xenon. It is suggested that both Martian and terrestrial atmospheric xenon were initially introduced by weathering (low temperature alteration processes). However, the Martian component was redistributed by shock, accounting for its current residence in more retentive sites. The presence or absence of detectable 129Xe from the Martian atmosphere in mafic minerals may correspond to the extent of crustal contamination of the rock's parent melt. Variable contents of excess 129Xe contrast with previously reported consistent concentrations of excess 40Ar, suggesting distinct sources contributed these gases to the parent magma.

  4. The provenance, formation, and implications of reduced carbon phases in Martian meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Andrew; McCubbin, Francis M.; Fries, Marc D.

    2016-08-01

    This review is intended to summarize the current observations of reduced carbon in Martian meteorites, differentiating between terrestrial contamination and carbon that is indigenous to Mars. Indeed, the identification of Martian organic matter is among the highest priority targets for robotic spacecraft missions in the next decade, including the Mars Science Laboratory and Mars 2020. Organic carbon compounds are essential building blocks of terrestrial life, so the occurrence and origin (biotic or abiotic) of organic compounds on Mars is of great significance; however, not all forms of reduced carbon are conducive to biological systems. This paper discusses the significance of reduced organic carbon (including methane) in Martian geological and astrobiological systems. Specifically, it summarizes current thinking on the nature, sources, and sinks of Martian organic carbon, a key component to Martian habitability. Based on this compilation, reduced organic carbon on Mars, including detections of methane in the Martian atmosphere, is best described through a combination of abiotic organic synthesis on Mars and infall of extraterrestrial carbonaceous material. Although conclusive signs of Martian life have yet to be revealed, we have developed a strategy for life detection on Mars that can be utilized in future life-detection studies.

  5. Analysis and modeling of remote observations of the martian hydrogen exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Clarke, J. T.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Chaufray, J.-Y.; Mayyasi, M.

    2017-01-01

    Past observations of the martian exosphere have given a wide range of values for the mean temperature and number density of the hydrogen population that occupies this uppermost layer. More recently, observations by HST and MEX have found large variations over short timescales exhibited by this layer, which have been attributed to seasonal effects. Here we present an analysis of the modeling techniques used to study the martian exosphere and their related uncertainties, and discuss the sensitivity of various modeling parameters for any remote observations of the martian hydrogen exosphere. Degeneracy between the two free parameters in the model, the exobase temperature and density of hydrogen at Mars introduces difficulty in accurately characterizing the properties of the martian exosphere. An independent measurement of at least one parameter is required in order to positively identify the other. The likely presence of a superthermal component of H adds another uncertainty to the modeling process, with large changes in the resulting escape flux. A study of the latitudinal symmetry of the martian exosphere found the radial emission profiles to be asymmetric below 2.5 martian radii, and then more uniform at high altitudes. Comparisons between simulated spacecraft and HST intensity profiles with altitude suggest that a larger coverage of intensity profiles is important to better determine the characteristics of the martian exosphere.

  6. Physical and chemical properties of the Martian soil: Review of resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Gooding, James L.; Banin, A.; Clark, Benton C.; Roush, Ted

    1991-01-01

    The chemical and physical properties of Martian surface materials are reviewed from the perspective of using these resources to support human settlement. The resource potential of Martian sediments and soils can only be inferred from limited analyses performed by the Viking Landers (VL), from information derived from remote sensing, and from analysis of the SNC meteorites thought to be from Mars. Bulk elemental compositions by the VL inorganic chemical (x ray fluorescence) analysis experiments have been interpreted as evidence for clay minerals (possibly smectites) or mineraloids (palagonite) admixed with sulfate and chloride salts. The materials contained minerals bearing Fe, Ti, Al, Mg and Si. Martian surface materials may be used in many ways. Martian soil, with appropriate preconditioning, can probably be used as a plant growth medium, supplying mechanical support, nutrient elements, and water at optimal conditions to the plants. Loose Martian soils could be used to cover structures and provide radiation shielding for surface habitats. Martian soil could be wetted and formed into abode bricks used for construction. Duricrete bricks, with strength comparable to concrete, can probably be formed using compressed muds made from martian soil.

  7. The provenance, formation, and implications of reduced carbon phases in Martian meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Andrew; McCubbin, Francis M.; Fries, Marc D.

    2016-11-01

    This review is intended to summarize the current observations of reduced carbon in Martian meteorites, differentiating between terrestrial contamination and carbon that is indigenous to Mars. Indeed, the identification of Martian organic matter is among the highest priority targets for robotic spacecraft missions in the next decade, including the Mars Science Laboratory and Mars 2020. Organic carbon compounds are essential building blocks of terrestrial life, so the occurrence and origin (biotic or abiotic) of organic compounds on Mars is of great significance; however, not all forms of reduced carbon are conducive to biological systems. This paper discusses the significance of reduced organic carbon (including methane) in Martian geological and astrobiological systems. Specifically, it summarizes current thinking on the nature, sources, and sinks of Martian organic carbon, a key component to Martian habitability. Based on this compilation, reduced organic carbon on Mars, including detections of methane in the Martian atmosphere, is best described through a combination of abiotic organic synthesis on Mars and infall of extraterrestrial carbonaceous material. Although conclusive signs of Martian life have yet to be revealed, we have developed a strategy for life detection on Mars that can be utilized in future life-detection studies.

  8. Recovery of Minerals in Martian Soils Via Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debelak, Kenneth A.; Roth, John A.

    2001-03-01

    We are investigating the use of supercritical fluids to extract mineral and/or carbonaceous material from Martian surface soils and its igneous crust. Two candidate supercritical fluids are carbon dioxide and water. The Martian atmosphere is composed mostly of carbon dioxide (approx. 95.3%) and could therefore provide an in-situ source of carbon dioxide. Water, although present in the Martian atmosphere at only approx. 0.03%, is also a candidate supercritical solvent. Previous work done with supercritical fluids has focused primarily on their solvating properties with organic compounds. Interestingly, the first work reported by Hannay and Hogarth at a meeting of the Royal Society of London in 1879 observed that increasing or decreasing the pressure caused several inorganic salts e.g., cobalt chloride, potassium iodide, and potassium bromide, to dissolve or precipitate in supercritical ethanol. In high-pressure boilers, silica, present in most boiler feed waters, is dissolved in supercritical steam and transported as dissolved silica to the turbine blades. As the pressure is reduced the silica precipitates onto the turbine blades eventually requiring the shutdown of the generator. In supercritical water oxidation processes for waste treatment, dissolved salts present a similar problem. The solubility of silicon dioxide (SiO2) in supercritical water is shown. The solubility curve has a shape characteristic of supercritical systems. At a high pressure (greater than 1750 atmospheres) increasing the temperature results in an increase in solubility of silica, while at low pressures, less than 400 atm., the solubility decreases as temperature increases. There are only a few studies in the literature where supercritical fluids are used in extractive metallurgy. Bolt modified the Mond process in which supercritical carbon monoxide was used to produce nickel carbonyl (Ni(CO)4). Tolley and Tester studied the solubility of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) in supercritical CO2

  9. The Martian Radiation Environment Experiment -- Results and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, C.; Cleghorn, T. F.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Saganti, P.; Andersen, V.; Lee, K. T.; Pinsky, L. S.; Atwell, W.; Turner, R.

    2004-05-01

    Ionizing radiation in space presents a potentially serious health hazard to astronauts on long-duration missions. Missions that take humans outside the geomagnetosphere (which provides significant shielding for crews in low-Earth orbit) are of particular concern. A mission to Mars would expose a crew to a substantial radiation dose from high-energy heavy ions in the Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR). Though not expected to cause acute effects, such exposures might endanger the long-term health of crewmembers, leading to increased risk of late effects such as cancer and cataract. Since the biological effects of these ions are not well understood, NASA cannot yet specify career limits for deep-space missions. While ground-based research in radiobiology continues, it is necessary to characterize the radiation field on the Martian surface. This is determined by the radiation incident on the top of the Martian atmosphere, the transmission properties of the atmosphere, and the production of secondary particles (neutrons in particular) in the upper part of the surface. The Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE), aboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, has returned the first detailed measurements of the radiation field incident on the atmosphere. MARIE consists of a stack of silicon charged-particle detectors, designed to measure the nearly-constant flux of energetic Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and intermittent Solar Particle Events (SPE). The detector is optimized for the detection of solar protons and helium in the energy range from 30 to 75 MeV/nucleon, though higher energies and heavier ions are also detected. Despite considerable uncertainties in data normalization, the measured dose agrees with model calculations, to an accuracy well within the (conservatively) estimated errors. As of this writing (Feb. 2004), MARIE is off, having sustained damage during the large Solar Particle Event of Oct. 29, 2003. Attempts to recover the instrument will resume in the

  10. MLAM Simulation of Martian Atmosphere around Curiosity Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlaskin, Evgeny; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauhanen, Janne; Määttänen, Anni; Paton, Mark; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero

    2013-04-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory 'Curiosity' landed successfully in the Martian Gale crater close to the equator on 6 Aug 2012. As part of the environment monitoring instrument package REMS [1] the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) provided the pressure and humidity sensors. A similar pressure sensor was successfully flown earlier on the Phoenix lander mission in 2008 and on the Cassini / Huygens probe to Titan in 2005. The behaviour of the Martian atmosphere inside the Gale crater is dominated by its location close to the equator, the steep outer rims and the slopes of the central mountain. These complex topographical features make it ideally suited for a mesoscale atmospheric model like the Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM), developed jointly by the University of Helsinki (UH) and FMI to study mesoscale phenomena in the Martian Atmosphere [2]. MLAM is based on the hydro-static dynamical core of the HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM), an operational weather prediction model-analysis system used by several European countries. Using the simulation tools already published observational data from the first three months of Curiosity's operations and detailed topographical feature information we will show the observations in the context of the atmospheric conditions in the wider Gale crater region. In preparation of the simulation also the UH 1-dimensional model [3] is being used to study the boundary layer behaviour in that area. The expected long operation time of the rover will additionally provide insight in the seasonal change of atmospheric conditions at the equator. Some aspects might already become visible by the time of the conference. Newest Curiosity/REMS data will be shown in session PS2.5 "Curiosity on Mars: First results". Reference: [1] Gómez-Elvira J. et al. (2012), Space Sci. Rev. 170, 583-640. [2] Kauhanen, J., Siili T., Järvenoja, S. and Savijärvi, H. (2008) , The Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM) and simulations of atmospheric circulations

  11. Spectral Properties of the Martian Crustal Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, K. W.; Simons, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    Although the planet Mars no longer possesses an internal dynamo, its crustal rocks retain strong remanent magnetization thought to have been induced by an ancient core-sourced field. The strength and distribution of the crustal field is extremely heterogeneous, and particularly strong in the Terra Cimmeria region of the southern hemisphere. The field as a whole is inconsistent with induction from a single dipolar source, although previous studies have attempted to isolate individual magnetic anomalies to deduce paleopolar orientations. While several areas of the planet appear to have been demagnetized, including large impact basins and the Tharsis volcanic province, the distribution of the field is generally poorly correlated with surface geologic structures. However, beyond the spatial pattern of crustal magnetization, the magnetic power spectrum can provide information about the nature of the source and formation processes. Previous studies have used the power spectrum of the Martian field to estimate the approximate depth of the magnetic anomalies. We extend this approach by applying the spatiospectral localization technique of Wieczorek and Simons (2005) and Dahlen and Simons (2008) to isolate the magnetic power spectra of several areas of the Martian surface. This method allows us to look beyond the strongly magnetized Terra Cimmeria region, which dominates the global power spectrum. Localized spectral estimates, along with their appropriate errors, allow us to examine the significance of observed variations between distinct regions of the planet, and to evaluate the validity of analyses which operate on the whole sphere. Significant differences are observed between spectra of the Terra Cimmeria region and the remainder of the planet, a result of the concentration of power at certain spherical harmonic degrees in this anomalous region. Approximate depths to the magnetic sources are calculated for tiled windows on the planet using the stochastic magnetized

  12. Martian ionosphere response to solar wind variability during solar minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cano, Beatriz; Lester, Mark; Witasse, Olivier; Mays, M. Leila; Hall, Benjamin E. S.; Milan, Stephen E.; Cartacci, Marco; Blelly, Pierre-Louis; Andrews, David; Opgenoorth, Hermann; Odstrcil, Dusan

    2016-04-01

    Solar cycle variations in solar radiation create notable density changes in the Martian ionosphere. In addition to this long-term variability, there are numerous short-term and non-recurrent solar events that hit Mars which need to be considered, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs), Co-Rotation Interaction Regions (CIRs), solar flares, or solar wind high speed streams. The response of the Martian plasma system to each of these events is often unusual, especially during the long period of extreme low solar activity in 2008 and 2009. This work shows the long-term solar cycle impact on the ionosphere of Mars using data from The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS), and The Analyzer of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3), and with empirical and numerical models on Mars Express. Particular attention is given to the different ionospheric responses observed during the last, extended solar minimum. Mars' ionospheric response followed a similar pattern to the response observed in the Earth's ionosphere, despite the large differences related to the inner-origin of the magnetic field of both planets. The ionospheric temperature was cooler, the topside scale height was smaller and almost constant with altitude, the secondary ionospheric layer practically disappeared and the whole atmospheric total electron content (TEC) suffered an extreme reduction of about 30-40%, not predicted before by models. Moreover, there is a larger probability for the induced magnetic field to be present in the ionosphere, than in other phases of the solar cycle. The short-term variability is also addressed with the study of an ICME followed by a fast stream that hit Mars in March 2008, where solar wind data are provided by ACE and STEREO-B and supported by simulations using the WSA-ENLIL Model. The solar wind conditions lead to the formation of a CIR centred on the interface of the fast and the slow solar wind streams. Mars' system reacted to

  13. INCREASE OF FIRMNESS OF FETTLING OF DSP-2 AT USING THE BURNED MAGNESIA CALCIC FLUX IN CONDITIONS OF JSC «BMZ» – MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF HOLDING «BMK»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Bondarenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the burned magnesia calcic flux of JSC “Complex “Magnesite” production is recommended for industrial use on all steel-smelting units of JSC “BMZ —management company BMK holding” on the basis of positive results on increase in firmness of fettling DSP-2.

  14. Organic Carbon Exists in Mars Meteorites: where is it on the Martian Surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David; Clemett, Simon; Gibson, Everett; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Wentworth, Susan

    The search for organic carbon on Mars has been a major challenge. The first attempt was the Viking GC-MS in situ experiment which gave inconclusive results at two sites on Mars [1]. After the discovery that the SNC meteorites were from Mars [2], [3-5] reported C isotopic compositional information which suggested a reduced C component present in the Martian meteorites. [6 7] reported the presence of reduced C components (i.e., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) associated with the carbonate globules in ALH84001. Jull et al. [8] noted in Nakhla there was an acid insoluble C component present with more than 75% of its C lacking any 14 C, which is modern-day terrestrial carbon. This C fraction was believed to be either indigenous martian or ancient meteoritic carbon. Fisk et al. [9, 10] have shown textural evidence along with C-enriched areas within fractures in Nakhla and ALH84001. Westall et al. [11] have shown the presence of a large irregular fragment of organic material completely embedded within a chip of ALH84001. Interior samples from the Nakhla SNC made available by the British Museum of Natural His-tory, were analyzed. Petrographic examination [12] of Nakhla showed evidence of fractures ( 0.5 m wide) filled with dark brown to black dendritic material with characteristics similar to those observed by [10]. Iddingsite is also present along fractures in olivine. Fracture filling and dendritic material was examined by SEM-EDX, TEM-EDX, Focused Electron Beam mi-croscopy, Laser Raman Spectroscopy, Nano-SIMS Ion Micro-probe, and Stepped-Combustion Static Mass Spectrometry. Observations from the first three techniques are discussed in [12 and 13]. Nano-SIMS Ion Microprobe studies of the C-bearing fractures, containing the optically dark dendritic material, show direct correlation between C- and CN- abundances. Ion abun-dances for epoxy are distinct from those of the dendritic material[12] . Laser Raman Spectrometry was utilized to examine the optically dark dendritic

  15. Evidence that the reactivity of the martian soil is due to superoxide ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, A. S.; Kim, S. S.; Hecht, M. H.; Frant, M. S.; Murray, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Viking Landers were unable to detect evidence of life on Mars but, instead, found a chemically reactive soil capable of decomposing organic molecules. This reactivity was attributed to the presence of one or more as-yet-unidentified inorganic superoxides or peroxides in the martian soil. Using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we show that superoxide radical ions (O2-) form directly on Mars-analog mineral surfaces exposed to ultraviolet radiation under a simulated martian atmosphere. These oxygen radicals can explain the reactive nature of the soil and the apparent absence of organic material at the martian surface.

  16. Peology and Geochemistry of New Paired Martian Meteorites 12095 and LAR 12240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, R. C.; Brandon, A. D.; Peslier, A.

    2015-01-01

    The meteorites LAR 12095 and LAR 12240 are believed to be paired Martian meteorites and were discovered during the Antarctic Search for Meteorites (ANSMET) 2012-2013 Season at Larkman Nunatak. The purpose of this study is to characterize these olivine-phyric shergottites by analyzing all mineral phases for major, minor and trace elements and examining their textural relationships. The goal is to constrain their crystallization history and place these shergottites among other Martian meteorites in order to better understand Martian geological history.

  17. The mineralogic evolution of the Martian surface through time: Implications from chemical reaction path modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Ridley, W. I.; Debraal, J. D.; Reed, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reaction path calculations were used to model the minerals that might have formed at or near the Martian surface as a result of volcano or meteorite impact driven hydrothermal systems; weathering at the Martian surface during an early warm, wet climate; and near-zero or sub-zero C brine-regolith reactions in the current cold climate. Although the chemical reaction path calculations carried out do not define the exact mineralogical evolution of the Martian surface over time, they do place valuable geochemical constraints on the types of minerals that formed from an aqueous phase under various surficial and geochemically complex conditions.

  18. YingHuo-1——Martian Space Environment Exploration Orbiter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hua

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a brief introduction of YingHuo-1 (YH-1), a Chinese Martian Space Environment Exploration Orbiter. YH-1 is a micro-satellite developed by Chinese Aerospace Industry,and will be launched together with Russian spacecraft, Phobos-Grunt, to orbit Mars in September,2009. Four payloads are selected for the mission, plasma package, including of electron analyzer, ion energy and mass analyzer; sat-sat occultation receiver; flux-gate magnetometer; and optical monitor.YH-1 mission focus on the investigation of the characteristics and its evolution of the Martian space Environment, and identifying major plasma processes, which provide channels for Martian volatiles escaping.

  19. Magnetic tests for magnetosome chains in Martian meteorite ALH84001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Benjamin P; Kim, Soon Sam; Kirschvink, Joseph L; Kopp, Robert E; Sankaran, Mohan; Kobayashi, Atsuko; Komeili, Arash

    2004-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy studies have been used to argue that magnetite crystals in carbonate from Martian meteorite ALH84001 have a composition and morphology indistinguishable from that of magnetotactic bacteria. It has even been claimed from scanning electron microscopy imaging that some ALH84001 magnetite crystals are aligned in chains. Alignment of magnetosomes in chains is perhaps the most distinctive of the six crystallographic properties thought to be collectively unique to magnetofossils. Here we use three rock magnetic techniques, low-temperature cycling, the Moskowitz test, and ferromagnetic resonance, to sense the bulk composition and crystallography of millions of ALH84001 magnetite crystals. The magnetic data demonstrate that although the magnetite is unusually pure and fine-grained in a manner similar to terrestrial magnetofossils, most or all of the crystals are not arranged in chains.

  20. Ensemble-Based Data Assimilation With a Martian GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, W.; Richardson, M. I.; McCleese, D. J.; Anderson, J. L.; Chen, Y.; Snyder, C.

    2007-12-01

    Quantitative study of Mars weather and climate will ultimately stem from analysis of its dynamic and thermodynamic fields. Of all the observations of Mars available to date, such fields are most easily derived from mapping data (radiances) of the martian atmosphere as measured by orbiting infrared spectrometers and radiometers (e.g., MGS / TES and MRO / MCS). Such data-derived products are the solutions to inverse problems, and while individual profile retrievals have been the popular data-derived products in the planetary sciences, the terrestrial meteorological community has gained much ground over the last decade by employing techniques of data assimilation (DA) to analyze radiances. Ancillary information is required to close an inverse problem (i.e., to disambiguate the family of possibilities that are consistent with the observations), and DA practitioners inevitably rely on numerical models for this information (e.g., general circulation models (GCMs)). Data assimilation elicits maximal information content from available observations, and, by way of the physics encoded in the numerical model, spreads this information spatially, temporally, and across variables, thus allowing global extrapolation of limited and non-simultaneous observations. If the model is skillful, then a given, specific model integration can be corrected by the information spreading abilities of DA, and the resulting time sequence of "analysis" states are brought into agreement with the observations. These analysis states are complete, gridded estimates of all the fields one might wish to diagnose for scientific study of the martian atmosphere. Though a numerical model has been used to obtain these estimates, their fidelity rests in their simultaneous consistency with both the observations (to within their stated uncertainties) and the physics contained in the model. In this fashion, radiance observations can, say, be used to deduce the wind field. A new class of DA approaches based on

  1. Martian carbon dioxide: Clues from isotopes in SNC meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, H. R.; Clayton, R. N.; Mayeda, T. K.; Jull, A. J. T.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Attempts to unravel the origin and evolution of the atmosphere and hydrosphere on Mars from isotopic data have been hampered by the impreciseness of the measurements made by the Viking Lander and by Earth-based telescopes. The SNC meteorites which are possibly pieces of the Martian surface offer a unique opportunity to obtain more precise estimates of the planet's volatile inventory and isotopic composition. Recently, we reported results on oxygen isotopes of water extracted by pyrolysis from samples of Shergotty, Zagami, Nakhla, Chassigny, Lafayette, and EETA-79001. Now we describe complementary results on the stable isotopic composition of carbon dioxide extracted simultaneously from those same samples. We will also report on C-14 abundances obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for some of these CO2 samples.

  2. Conductivity Probe Inserted in Martian Soil, Sol 46

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander shows the lander's Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP), at the end of the Robotic Arm, on the 46th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 11, 2008). The TECP is inserted at a site called Vestri, which was monitored several times over the course of the mission. The probe's measurements at this site yielded evidence that water was exchanged, daily and seasonally, between the soil and atmosphere. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. The effect of dust on the martian polar vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzewich, Scott D.; Toigo, A. D.; Waugh, D. W.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of atmospheric dust on the dynamics and stability of the martian polar vortices is examined, through analysis of Mars Climate Sounder observations and MarsWRF general circulation model simulations. We show that regional and global dust storms produce "transient vortex warming" events that partially or fully disrupt the northern winter polar vortex for brief periods. Increased atmospheric dust heating alters the Hadley circulation and shifts the downwelling branch of the circulation poleward, leading to a disruption of the polar vortex for a period of days to weeks. Through our simulations, we find this effect is dependent on the atmospheric heating rate, which can be changed by increasing the amount of dust in the atmosphere or by altering the dust optical properties (e.g., single scattering albedo). Despite this, our simulations show that some level of atmospheric dust is necessary to produce a distinct northern hemisphere winter polar vortex.

  4. Periodic orbits around areostationary points in the Martian gravity field

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Xiaodong; Ma, Xingrui

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the problem of areostationary orbits around Mars in the three-dimensional space. Areostationary orbits are expected to be used to establish a future telecommunication network for the exploration of Mars. However, no artificial satellites have been placed in these orbits thus far. In this paper, the characteristics of the Martian gravity field are presented, and areostationary points and their linear stability are calculated. By taking linearized solutions in the planar case as the initial guesses and utilizing the Levenberg-Marquardt method, families of periodic orbits around areostationary points are shown to exist. Short-period orbits and long-period orbits are found around linearly stable areostationary points, and only short-period orbits are found around unstable areostationary points. Vertical periodic orbits around both linearly stable and unstable areostationary points are also examined. Satellites in these periodic orbits could depart from areostationary points by a few degree...

  5. Mud volcanoes of trinidad as astrobiological analogs for martian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil's Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  6. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  7. On simfitting MER Moessbauer data to characterize Martian hematite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agresti, David G [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-1170 (United States); Fleischer, Iris; Klingelhoefer, Goestar [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Morris, Richard V, E-mail: agresti@uab.ed, E-mail: fleischi@uni-mainz.d [NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas 77058 (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Moessbauer spectra of Eagle Crater outcrop rocks in Meridiani Planum were acquired by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity. Sixty spectra, containing {approx}20 to 60% hematite by area, were simultultaneously fit (simfit) in a self-consistent manner to a single chi-squared minimum, where relations among parameters from different spectra were defined for both sol (Martian day) and acquisition temperature (200-280 K). Different spectral models were compared, hematite being modeled optimally with two sextets. Sextet S1 ({approx}35% of total sextet area) has narrower linewidths, a larger magnetic hyperfine field, and a quadrupole shift that changes smoothly from positive to negative values as the temperature increases through the bulk Morin transition temperature. Sextet S2 has broader linewidths, a likely skewed line shape, a smaller hyperfine field, and a quadrupole shift that remains negative at all temperatures, implying the S2 phase is weakly ferromagnetic at all temperatures.

  8. Absence of Martian Radiation Belts and Implications Thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, J A; Frank, L A; Krimigis, S M; Hills, H K

    1965-09-10

    A system of sensitive particle detectors on Mariner IV showed the presence of electrons of energy (E(e)) less than 40 kiloelectron volts out to a radial distance of 165,000 kilometers in the morning fringe of the earth's magnetosphere but failed to detect any such electrons during the close encounter with Mars on 14-15 July 1965, at the time when the minimum areocentric radial distance was 13,200 kilometers. This result can mean that the ratio of the magnetic dipole moment of Mars to that of the earth (M(M)/M(E)) is surely less than 0.001 and probably is less than 0.0005. The corresponding upper limits on the equatorial magnetic field at the surface of Mars are 200 and 100 gammas, respectively. It appears possible that the solar wind interacts directly with the Martian atmosphere.

  9. Chaotic obliquity and the nature of the Martian climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    1995-01-01

    Recent calculations of the Martian obliquity suggests that it varies chaotically on timescales longer than about 10(exp 7) years and varies between about 0 and 60 deg. We examine the seasonal water behavior at obliquities between 40 and 60 deg. Up to several tens of centimeters of water may sublime from the polar caps each year, and possibly move to the equator, where it is more stable. The CO2 frost and CO2-H2O clathrate hydrate are stable in thepolar deposits below a few tens of meters depth, so that the polar cap could contain a significant CO2 reservoir. If CO2 is present, it could be left over from the early history of Mars; also, it could be released into the atmosphere during periods of high obliquity, causing occasional periods of more-clement climate.

  10. Did high energy astrophysical sources contribute to Martian atmospheric loss?

    CERN Document Server

    Atri, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Mars is believed to have had a substantial atmosphere in the past. Atmospheric loss led to depressurization and cooling, and is thought to be the primary driving force responsible for the loss of liquid water from its surface. Recently, MAVEN observations have provided new insight into the physics of atmospheric loss induced by ICMEs and solar wind interacting with the Martian atmosphere. In addition to solar radiation, it is likely that its atmosphere has been exposed to radiation bursts from high-energy astrophysical sources which become highly probable on timescales of ~Gy and beyond. These sources are capable of significantly enhancing the rates of photoionization and charged particle-induced ionization in the upper atmosphere. Here, we explore the possibility of damage from Galactic Gamma Ray Bursts, nearby supernovae, encounter with dense interstellar clouds and extreme solar events. We use Monte Carlo simulations to model the interaction of charged particles and photons from astrophysical sources in th...

  11. A classification of martian gullies from HiRISE imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auld, Katherine S.; Dixon, John C.

    2016-10-01

    Due to the large and varied population of gullies observed in Mars High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery that exhibit diverse characteristics, this paper develops a classification of martian gullies based on their morphological characteristics. This provides a firmer foundation for future investigation of the genesis of different gully morphologies. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) image catalog on the HiRISE website was examined and 869 images, chosen from the first 25,000 orbits, show a wide variety of gully morphologies. The images were analyzed using ENVI 4.4 and ENVI Zoom and the gullies were cataloged and divided into groups based on the presence and character of the dominant morphological components of alcove, channel, and apron associated with each gully. 7519 gullies were identified in the images and the length and width of the components were measured in ENVI to facilitate classification. Seven classes were developed based on morphology.

  12. Cosmic-ray exposure age of Martian meteorite GRV 99027

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the concentrations of 10Be and 26Al in GRV 99027 recovered by the 16th Chinese Antarctic expedition team, which are 14.1 ± 0.6 dpm/kg and 67.5 ± 3.4 dpm/kg, respectively. From the concentration of 10Be, we calculate a cosmic-ray exposure age of 4.4 ± 0.6 Ma for GRV 99027. The concentration of 26Al is too high compared to the 10Be exposure age, indicating extra production from solar ray. The exposure ages, petrologic and geochemical characteristics of mantle-derived Martian meteorites GRV 99027, LEW 88516, Y-793605, NWA 1950 and ALHA77005 are very similar, suggesting that these meteorites most probably were ejected from Mars in the same impact event.

  13. Could Giant Basin-Forming Impacts Have Killed Martian Dynamo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, W.; Jiang, W.; Roberts, J.; Frey, H. V.

    2014-01-01

    The observed strong remanent crustal magnetization at the surface of Mars suggests an active dynamo in the past and ceased to exist around early to middle Noachian era, estimated by examining remagnetization strengths in extant and buried impact basins. We investigate whether the Martian dynamo could have been killed by these large basin-forming impacts, via numerical simulation of subcritical dynamos with impact-induced thermal heterogeneity across the core-mantle boundary. We find that subcritical dynamos are prone to the impacts centered on locations within 30 deg of the equator but can easily survive those at higher latitudes. Our results further suggest that magnetic timing places a strong constraint on postimpact polar reorientation, e.g., a minimum 16 deg polar reorientation is needed if Utopia is the dynamo killer.

  14. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Apestigue, Victor; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Uspensky, Mikhail; Haukka, Harri

    2016-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. Strawman Scientific Payload The strawman payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: • MetBaro Pressure device • MetHumi Humidity device • MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: • PanCam Panoramic • MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer • DS Dust sensor Composition and Structure Devices: • Tri-axial magnetometer MOURA • Tri-axial System Accelerometer The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special

  15. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hari, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Siikonen, Timo; Palin, Matti

    2017-04-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Strawman Scientific Payload The strawman payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: - MetBaro Pressure device - MetHumi Humidity device - MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: - PanCam Panoramic - MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer - DS Dust sensor Composition and Structure Devices: Tri-axial magnetometer MOURA Tri-axial System Accelerometer The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis

  16. Physical and chemical weathering. [of Martian surface and rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, James L.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Zolotov, Mikhail IU.

    1992-01-01

    Physical and chemical weathering processes that might be important on Mars are reviewed, and the limited observations, including relevant Viking results and laboratory simulations, are summarized. Physical weathering may have included rock splitting through growth of ice, salt or secondary silicate crystals in voids. Chemical weathering probably involved reactions of minerals with water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, although predicted products vary sensitively with the abundance and physical form postulated for the water. On the basis of kinetics data for hydration of rock glass on earth, the fate of weathering-rind formation on glass-bearing Martian volcanic rocks is tentatively estimated to have been on the order of 0.1 to 4.5 cm/Gyr; lower rates would be expected for crystalline rocks.

  17. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. The image is presented here in false color that is used to bring out subtle differences in color.

  18. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil (Vertical)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. The image is presented here as a vertical projection, as if looking straight down, and in false color, which brings out subtle color differences.

  19. Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel. The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life. Multiple images taken with Spirit's panoramic camera are combined here into a stereo view that appears three-dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses, with the red lens on the left.

  20. Life on Mars: chemical arguments and clues from Martian meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, A; Pillinger, C T

    1998-08-01

    Primitive terrestrial life-defined as a chemical system able to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and to evolve-probably originated from the evolution of reduced organic molecules in liquid water. Several sources have been proposed for the prebiotic organic molecules: terrestrial primitive atmosphere (methane or carbon dioxide), deep-sea hydrothermal systems, and extraterrestrial meteoritic and cometary dust grains. The study of carbonaceous chondrites, which contain up to 5% by weight of organic matter, has allowed close examination of the delivery of extraterrestrial organic material. Eight proteinaceous amino acids have been identified in the Murchison meteorite among more than 70 amino acids. Engel reported that L-alanine was surprisingly more abundant than D-alanine in the Murchison meteorite. Cronin also found excesses of L-enantiomers for nonprotein amino acids. A large collection of micrometeorites has been recently extracted from Antarctic old blue ice. In the 50- to 100-micron size range, carbonaceous micrometeorites represent 80% of the samples and contain 2% of carbon, on average. They might have brought more carbon than that involved in the present surficial biomass. The early histories of Mars and Earth clearly show similarities. Liquid water was once stable on the surface of Mars, attesting the presence of an atmosphere capable of deccelerating C-rich micrometeorites. Therefore, primitive life may have developed on Mars as well and fossilized microorganisms may still be present in the near subsurface. The Viking missions to Mars in 1976 did not find evidence of either contemporary or past life, but the mass spectrometer on the lander aeroshell determined the atmospheric composition, which has allowed a family of meteorites to be identified as Martian. Although these samples are essentially volcanic in origin, it has been recognized that some of them contain carbonate inclusions and even veins that have a carbon isotopic

  1. The origin and evolution of terrestrial and Martian rock labyrinths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The morphological characteristics and evolutionary development of rock labyrinths on Earth (in sandstone, volcanics, and carbonates) are compared with those on Mars. On Earth rock labyrinths originate as parallel, an echelon, or intersecting narrow grabens, or develop where fault and joint networks are selectively eroded. Labyrinths frequently contain both downfaulted and erosional elements. Closed labyrinths contain depressions; open labyrinths do not, they are simple part of a fluvial network generally of low order. As closed labyrinths made up of intersecting grabens or made up of connected erosional depressions are extremely common on Mars, the research focussed on an understanding of these labyrinth types. Field investigations were carried out in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, and in the Chirachahua Mountains of Arizona. Martian labyrinths were investigated using Viking orbiter images. In addition, research was undertaken on apparent thermokarst features in Lunae Planum and Chryse Planitia where closed depressions are numerous and resemble atlas topography.

  2. Starting Conditions for Hydrothermal Systems Underneath Martian Craters: Hydrocode Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierazzo, E.; Artemieva, N. A.; Ivanov, B. A.

    2004-01-01

    Mars is the most Earth-like of the Solar System s planets, and the first place to look for any sign of present or past extraterrestrial life. Its surface shows many features indicative of the presence of surface and sub-surface water, while impact cratering and volcanism have provided temporary and local surface heat sources throughout Mars geologic history. Impact craters are widely used ubiquitous indicators for the presence of sub-surface water or ice on Mars. In particular, the presence of significant amounts of ground ice or water would cause impact-induced hydrothermal alteration at Martian impact sites. The realization that hydrothermal systems are possible sites for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth has given rise to the hypothesis that hydrothermal systems may have had the same role on Mars. Rough estimates of the heat generated in impact events have been based on scaling relations, or thermal data based on terrestrial impacts on crystalline basements. Preliminary studies also suggest that melt sheets and target uplift are equally important heat sources for the development of a hydrothermal system, while its lifetime depends on the volume and cooling rate of the heat source, as well as the permeability of the host rocks. We present initial results of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations of impacts on Mars aimed at constraining the initial conditions for modeling the onset and evolution of a hydrothermal system on the red planet. Simulations of the early stages of impact cratering provide an estimate of the amount of shock melting and the pressure-temperature distribution in the target caused by various impacts on the Martian surface. Modeling of the late stage of crater collapse is necessary to characterize the final thermal state of the target, including crater uplift, and distribution of the heated target material (including the melt pool) and hot ejecta around the crater.

  3. The development of a Martian atmospheric Sample collection canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, E.; Galey, C.; Kennedy, B.; Budney, C.; Bame, D.; Van Schilfgaarde, R.; Aisen, N.; Townsend, J.; Younse, P.; Piacentine, J.

    The collection of an atmospheric sample from Mars would provide significant insight to the understanding of the elemental composition and sub-surface out-gassing rates of noble gases. A team of engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology have developed an atmospheric sample collection canister for Martian application. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to collect two separately sealed 50 cubic centimeter unpressurized atmospheric samples with minimal sensing and actuation in a self contained pressure vessel; and second, to package this atmospheric sample canister in such a way that it can be easily integrated into the orbiting sample capsule for collection and return to Earth. Sample collection and integrity are demonstrated by emulating the atmospheric collection portion of the Mars Sample Return mission on a compressed timeline. The test results achieved by varying the pressure inside of a thermal vacuum chamber while opening and closing the valve on the sample canister at Mars ambient pressure. A commercial off-the-shelf medical grade micro-valve is utilized in the first iteration of this design to enable rapid testing of the system. The valve has been independently leak tested at JPL to quantify and separate the leak rates associated with the canister. The results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies mass, power, and sensing requirements for a Martian atmospheric Sample Collection (MASC) canister as outlined in the Mars Sample Return mission profile. Qualitative results include the selection of materials to minimize sample contamination, preliminary science requirements, priorities in sample composition, flight valve selection criteria, a storyboard from sample collection to loading in the orbiting sample capsule, and contributions to maintaining “ Earth” clean exterior surfaces on the orbiting sample capsule.

  4. Martian environmental simulation for a deployable lattice mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission (formerly Mars Environmental Survey or MESUR) is scheduled for launch in December 1996 and is designed to place a small lander on the surface of Mars. After impact, the lander unfolds to expose its solar panels and release a miniature rover. Also on board is the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) binocular camera which is elevated by a deployable mast to obtain a panoramic view of the landing area. The design of this deployable mast is based on similar designs which have a long and successful flight history. In the past when this type of self-deployable mast has been used, a rate limiter has been incorporated to control the speed of deployment. In this application, to reduce weight and complexity, it was proposed to eliminate the rate limiter so that the mast would deploy without restraint. Preliminary tests showed that this type of deployment was possible especially if the deployed length was relatively short, as in this application. Compounding the problem, however, was the requirement to deploy the mast at an angle of up to 30 degrees from vertical. The deployment process was difficult to completely analyze due to the effects of gravitational and inertial loads on the mast and camera during rapid extension. Testing in a realistic manner was imperative to verify the system performance. A deployment test was therefore performed to determine the maximum tilt angle at which the mast could reliably extend and support the camera on Mars. The testing of the deployable mast requires partial gravity compensation to simulate the smaller force of Martian gravity. During the test, mass properties were maintained while weight properties were reduced. This paper describes the testing of a deployable mast in a simulated Martian environment as well as the results of the tests.

  5. Lead in Martian Meteorites-- Observations and Inconsistencies: I. Chassigny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.; Simon, J. I.; Usui, T.

    2017-01-01

    The history of Pb isotope analyses of the martian meteorites (SNC) and their interpretations is laden with difficulties. Two different analytical groups have interpreted their ancient (= 4 Ga) shergottite Pb ages as primary [1-5]. A Nakhla age of approximately 4.3 Ga has been interpreted to be primary as well [2]. This is in stark contrast to the young (= 1.4 Ga) crystallization ages defined by the Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, Lu-Hf, and KAr systems [6]. Possibly, a better interpretation for the ancient Pb ages is that they reflect the formation times of the various SNC source regions [7]. A difficulty in dealing with Pb is that terrestrial contamination is ubiquitous, unlike the other chronometer systems noted above. This issue is complicated by the fact that radioactive decay causes localized mineral damage. So washing and leaching to remove Pb contamination tends to remove in situ radiogenic Pb. This issue is further compounded because U and Th are often concentrated in phosphates and other minor phases, so the leaching process tends to remove these, especially phosphates. Another difficulty is that it is not clear whether the observed Pb isotopic variation in leachates, residues, and ion-microprobe analyses is due to terrestrial or to indigenous martian Pb contamination [e.g., 8]. A third difficulty is that the shergottites on the one hand, and the nakhlites and chassignites on the other, appear to have come from separate source regions with different chemical compositions [e.g., 7]. Thus, it is expected that their Pb isotopic characteristics would be different. And even if all these meteorite types came from the same source region, their igneous ages differ considerably. The nakhlites and chassignites are 1.4 Ga and the shergottites are = 600 Ma [e.g., 6]. This age difference alone should assure that the two distinct SNC groups have differing Pb isotopic signatures.

  6. Robust System for Automated Identification of Martian Impact Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Mendenhall, M. P.

    2006-12-01

    Detailed analysis of the number and morphology of impact craters on Mars provides the worth of information about the geologic history of its surface. Global catalogs of Martian craters have been compiled (for example, the Barlow catalog) but they are not comprehensive, especially for small craters. Existing methods for machine detection of craters from images suffer from low efficiency and are not practical for global surveys. We have developed a robust two-stage system for an automated cataloging of craters from digital topography data (DEM). In the first stage an innovative crater-finding transform is performed on a DEM to identify centers of potential craters, their extents, and their basic characteristics. This stage produces a preliminary catalog. In the second stage a machine learning methods are employed to eliminate false positives. Using the MOLA derived DEMs with resolution of 1/128 degrees/pixel, we have applied our system to six ~ 106 km2 sites. The system has identified 3217 craters, 43% more than are present in the Barlow catalog. The extra finds are predominantly small craters that are most difficult to account for in manual surveys. Because our automated survey is DEM-based, the resulting catalog lists craters' depths in addition to their positions, sizes, and measures of shape. This feature significantly increases the scientific utility of any catalog generated using our system. Our initial calculations yield a training set that will be used to identify craters over the entire Martian surface with estimated accuracy of 95%. Moreover, because our method is pixel-based and scale- independent, the present training set may be used to identify craters in higher resolution DEMs derived from Mars Express HRSC images. It also can be applied to future topography data from Mars and other planets. For example, it may be utilized to catalog craters on Mercury and the Moon using altimetry data to be gathered by Messenger and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

  7. Two spacecraft measurements of the Martian plasma environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, David; Luhmann, Janet G.; Barabash, Stas; Fedorov, A.; Winningham, D. L.; Acuna, Mario; Frahm, Rudy

    For a period of nearly three years from early 2004 through late 2006, two spacecraft made complementary in situ measurements of the Martian plasma environment. The Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer and electron reflectometer (MGS MAG/ER) measured magnetic fields and suprathermal electrons from an orbit fixed in local time and altitude. The Mars Express Analyzer of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms (MEX ASPERA-3) measured and still measures ions and suprathermal electrons from a precessing elliptical orbit. MGS lacked an ion instrument, and MEX lacks a magnetometer. Study of the two sets of measurements together provides an opportunity to better understand the complete Martian plasma environment spatially and temporally. We will discuss several advantageous configurations of MEX and MGS, and present examples of each. 'Close conjunctions' are defined as periods when the spacecraft passed very close to each other, within an ion gyroradius or inertial length, allowing examination of more complete particle and field measurements in a given region. 'Delay conjunctions' are defined as instances when the two spacecraft passed through the same region of space separated by a time delay, allowing examination of the evolution of electron distributions in a given region. 'Flux tube conjunctions' are defined as instances when it was likely that the two spacecraft occupied the same flux tube some distance apart, allowing study of the spatial evolution of plasma as it moves along a flux tube. We will also present examples of other fortuitous configurations of MEX and MGS, such as times when they were on opposite sides of a given plasma boundary.

  8. Multi-spacecraft Observations of the Martian Plasma Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, David; Luhmann, J.; Halekas, J.; Frahm, R.; Winningham, J.; Barabash, S.

    2006-09-01

    Two spacecraft with complementary instrumentation and orbits are currently making in situ measurements of the Martian plasma environment. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) measures electrons and magnetic field from a 400 km circular mapping orbit with fixed local time. Mars Express (MEX) measures ions, electrons, and neutral particles from a precessing elliptical orbit. Each spacecraft's dataset has obvious strengths and shortcomings. Exploration of these two datasets in tandem provides an opportunity to increase our overall understanding of the Martian solar wind interaction and atmospheric escape. Close passes of spacecraft (conjunctions) are one particularly powerful means of increasing the utility of measurements, as evidenced by the Cluster mission. At Mars, conjunctions might be used to obtain more complete simultaneous and/or co-located plasma measurements, which can be used to study a variety of phenomena ranging from the motion and 3D shape of plasma boundaries to particle acceleration near crustal magnetic fields. We have identified 40 conjunctions (instances with spacecraft separation pass was 40 km. Conjunctions occur at mid-latitudes (when the surface-projected orbit tracks of the two spacecraft nearly overlap), and at the poles. We will present comparisons of MGS Magnetometer and Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) and MEX Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) data for these events, including intercomparison of MGS and MEX electron data, the addition of MGS magnetic field and MES ion data, and the inclusion of solar wind proxy information to establish context. Finally, we will present the results of a search for other useful configurations of MGS and MEX, including times when they are on the same flux tube, times when they pass through the same region of space separated by a delay, and times when they are on opposite sides of plasma boundaries.

  9. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haukka, Harri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Siikonen, Timo; Palin, Matti

    2016-10-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL).The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior.The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.Full Qualification Model (QM) of the MetNet landing unit with the Precursor Mission payload is currently under functional tests. In the near future the QM unit will be exposed to environmental tests with qualification levels including vibrations, thermal balance, thermal cycling and mechanical impact shock. One complete flight unit of the entry, descent and landing systems (EDLS) has been manufactured and tested with acceptance levels. Another flight-like EDLS has been exposed to most of the qualification tests, and hence it may be used for flight after refurbishments. Accordingly two flight-capable EDLS systems exist. The eventual goal is to create a network of atmospheric observational posts around the Martian surface. The next step in the MetNet Precursor Mission is the demonstration of the technical robustness and scientific capabilities of the MetNet type of landing vehicle. Definition of the Precursor Mission and discussions on launch opportunities are currently under way. The baseline program development funding exists for the next five years. Flight unit manufacture of the payload bay takes about 18 months, and it will be commenced after the Precursor Mission has been defined.

  10. Magnetometer Data Tests Models for the Origin of the Martian Crustal Dichotomy; Dichotomy Models Constrain Timing of Martian Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements recently supplied by the MGS Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER) on MGS can be applied to test theories of the origin of the martian crustal dichotomy. Strong (+/- 1500 nT) magnetic anomalies are observed in the Martian crust. The observations can be summarized as follows: 1) strong crustal magnetic sources are generally confined to the southern highlands, although weaker (approx. 40 nT) anomalies were observed during close periapsis; 2) strong magnetic anomalies are absent in the vicinity of Hellas and Argyre; 3) the anomalies in the region 0 deg to 90 deg S, 120 deg to 240 deg west have a linear geometry, strike generally east west for 1000s km, and show several reversals. This latter point has led to the suggestion that some form of lateral plate tectonics may have been operative in the southern highlands of Mars. These observations have led previous workers to hypothesize that the magnetic anomalies were present prior to and were destroyed by the formation of Hellas and Argyre. As such large impacts are confined to the era of heavy bombardment, this places the time of formation of large magnetic anomalies prior to approx. 3.9 Ga. One obvious extension of this is that the northern lowlands lack significant anomalies because they were erased by impacts and/or the northern lowlands represent crust completely reheated above the Curie temperature. Preliminary observations of the distributions of the large crustal magnetic anomalies show that many of them extend continuously over the highland lowland boundary. This occurs particularly north of the boundary between 30 deg W and 270 deg W, corresponding to northern Arabia, but also occurs in southern Elysium (approx. 10 deg S, 200 deg) and the SW portion of Tharsis (approx. 15 deg S, 140 deg). This suggests that, in these areas, Noachian crust containing the greater than 3.9 Ga magnetic signature, lies beneath the northern highlands. This geometry can be used to test models for the formation of

  11. Analysis of financial potential of engineering enterprises the example of JSC «TEMP»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Stasiuk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is the disclosure of theoretical foundations and methodological aspects regarding calculation of basic performance indicators of financial capacity building enterprises using the balance sheet Khmelnytskii JSC «Temp» for the period of 2009-2011 years. The results of the analysis. Intensification of competition between companies is becoming increasingly important. The financial potential of the company determines the competitiveness of business cooperation opportunities, assesses as far as are guaranteed economic interests of the company and its partners in the financial and production relationship. In the current economic conditions the company must improve production efficiency, product competitiveness on the basis of effective forms of management and production management, business revitalization. This generally determines the importance of control over the economic activities of enterprises, which is why determining the financial condition of the company and its optimization is one of the main conditions for successful development. The main objective of financial potential of the company is to optimize financial flows in order to increase the positive financial result. The main factor in shaping the financial capacity of serving the financial position of the company. Determining the financial condition of the company and its optimization is one of the basic conditions for its successful development. Analysis of the financial condition of the company involves determining the estimated characteristics, choice of methods of measurement and characterization of these features on certain principles, assessment of deviations from the standard, generally accepted values. The main target of financial analysis is its assessment and identification of reserves, its stabilization and improvement. Means of implementation of this setup is the organization of economic and financial policy. There is a need to

  12. Analysis of Volatile Fluids in Basalt: A Possible Source of Martian Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, S.; Parnell, J.; Blamey, N. J. F.

    2012-03-01

    Terrestrial basalts commonly yield methane when crushed into a sensitive mass spectrometer. Basalts are abundant on Mars, hence may be a source of martian methane, and should be targeted for analysis accordingly.

  13. Possible Habilability of Martian Regolity and Research of Ancient Life "Biomarkers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. K.

    2017-05-01

    We consider environments of modern subsurface martian regolith layer as possible habitats of the terrestrial like microorganisms. Recent experimental studies demonstrate that low atmospheric pressure, low temperature and high level of cosmic rays ionizing radiation are not able to sterilize the subsurface layer of Mars. Even nonextremofile microorganisms can reproduce in martian regolith using films of liquid water which are produced by absorption of water vapor of subsurface ice sublimation. Areas of possible seasonal subsurface water flow (recurring slope lineae, dark dune spots) and methane emission regions are discussed as perspective sites for discovering of modern life on Mars. Degradation of "biomarkers" (complex organic molecules and isotopic ratio 13C/12C) in martian soil under high level of cosmic rays radiation is analyzed. We show the ancient biomarkers are effectively destroyed within period 108 -109 years. As result, probability of its discovering in shallow subsurface martian layer is low.

  14. Development of a Martian regolith simulant for in-situ resource utilization testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A. N.; Oze, C.; Tang, Y.; O'Loughlin, A.

    2017-02-01

    Long-term human habitation of Mars will require in situ resources for construction and infrastructure development. In order to determine how to utilize in situ resources, such as Martian regolith, these materials need to be synthesized on Earth for testing and development. Here we address the process of synthesizing a targeted Martian simulant (i.e., Gusev Crater regolith near the Columbia Hills region on Mars) in sufficient quantities required for infrastructure development studies using volcanic material obtained from Banks Peninsula, New Zealand. Martian simulant produced via crushing, sieving, washing and blending of basalts and volcanic glass resulted in accurately reproducing material similar in particle size, chemistry and mineralogy to Gusev Crater regolith. Overall, our applied approach to synthesizing Martian regolith will aid in creating suitable quantities of material that can be used for a variety of research applications such as assessing aggregates for use in the production of construction materials.

  15. Properties of Martian Highlands Drainage from THEMIS Images and MOLA Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Carriere, M.; Molloy, I.

    2006-03-01

    Valley networks are mapped from 100 m/pixel THEMIS mosaics for eight sites in Martian highlands. Drainage basins are delineated and terrain parameters are calculated for each basin. This higher resolution mapping does not reveal smaller scale valleys.

  16. Chalcophile Siderophile Trace Element Systematics of Hydrothermal Pyrite from Martian Regolith Breccia NWA 7533

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorand, J.-P.; Hewins, R. H.; Humayun, M.; Remusat, L.; Zanda, B.; La, C.; Pont, S.

    2016-08-01

    Martian impact breccia NWA 7533 contains hydrothermal pyrite. Laser ablation ICPMS analyses show that its chalcophile siderophile element content was inherited from both early meteorite bombardment and later hydrothermal inputs from H2S fluids.

  17. Water Sorption on Martian Regolith Analogs: Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy and Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerol, A.; Schmitt, B.; Beck, P.; Brissaud, O.

    2009-03-01

    Adsorption of water by a suite of six plausible martian regolith analogs is experimentally investigated. Adsorption and desorption isotherms are measured as well as near-infrared reflectance spectra for each step of hydration/dehydration processes.

  18. Pizza or Pancake? Formation Models of Gas Escape Biosignatures in Terrestrial and Martian Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Fairen, A. G.; Baker, L.; McKay, C. P.; Willson, D.

    2016-05-01

    Fine-grained sedimentary hollowed structures were imaged in Gale Crater, but no biomarkers identified to support biology. Our observation-based (gas escape) terrestrial model could inform on possible martian paleoenvironments at time of formation.

  19. Mars Accreted a Volatile Element-Depleted Late Veneer Indicating Early Delivery of Martian Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H.; Wang, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Chalcophile elements in SNC meteorites are used to constrain abundances in the Martian mantle. Strong depletion of Te relative to highly siderophile elements suggests a volatile element-depleted late veneer, requiring that volatiles arrived earlier.

  20. Geologic history of Martian regolith breccia Northwest Africa 7034: Evidence for hydrothermal activity and lithologic diversity in the Martian crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis M.; Boyce, Jeremy W.; Novák-Szabó, Tímea; Santos, Alison R.; Tartèse, Romain; Muttik, Nele; Domokos, Gabor; Vazquez, Jorge; Keller, Lindsay P.; Moser, Desmond E.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.; Shearer, Charles K.; Steele, Andrew; Elardo, Stephen M.; Rahman, Zia; Anand, Mahesh; Delhaye, Thomas; Agee, Carl B.

    2016-10-01

    The timing and mode of deposition for Martian regolith breccia Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 were determined by combining petrography, shape analysis, and thermochronology. NWA 7034 is composed of igneous, impact, and brecciated clasts within a thermally annealed submicron matrix of pulverized crustal rocks and devitrified impact/volcanic glass. The brecciated clasts are likely lithified portions of Martian regolith with some evidence of past hydrothermal activity. Represented lithologies are primarily ancient crustal materials with crystallization ages as old as 4.4 Ga. One ancient zircon was hosted by an alkali-rich basalt clast, confirming that alkalic volcanism occurred on Mars very early. NWA 7034 is composed of fragmented particles that do not exhibit evidence of having undergone bed load transport by wind or water. The clast size distribution is similar to terrestrial pyroclastic deposits. We infer that the clasts were deposited by atmospheric rainout subsequent to a pyroclastic eruption(s) and/or impact event(s), although the ancient ages of igneous components favor mobilization by impact(s). Despite ancient components, the breccia has undergone a single pervasive thermal event at 500-800°C, evident by groundmass texture and concordance of 1.5 Ga dates for bulk rock K-Ar, U-Pb in apatite, and U-Pb in metamict zircons. The 1.5 Ga age is likely a thermal event that coincides with rainout/breccia lithification. We infer that the episodic process of regolith lithification dominated sedimentary processes during the Amazonian Epoch. The absence of pre-Amazonian high-temperature metamorphic events recorded in ancient zircons indicates source domains of static southern highland crust punctuated by episodic impact modification.

  1. Ultraviolet-radiation-induced methane emissions from meteorites and the Martian atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppler, F.; Vigano, I.; McLeod, A.; Ott, U.; Früchtl, M; Rockmann, T.

    2012-01-01

    Almost a decade after methane was first reported in the atmosphere of Mars1, 2 there is an intensive discussion about both the reliability of the observations3, 4—particularly the suggested seasonal and latitudinal variations5, 6—and the sources of methane on Mars. Given that the lifetime of methane

  2. Ultraviolet-radiation-induced methane emissions from meteorites and the Martian atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keppler, F.; Vigano, I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831956; McLeod, A.; Ott, U.; Früchtl, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372648096; Rockmann, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304838233

    2012-01-01

    Almost a decade after methane was first reported in the atmosphere of Mars1, 2 there is an intensive discussion about both the reliability of the observations3, 4—particularly the suggested seasonal and latitudinal variations5, 6—and the sources of methane on Mars. Given that the lifetime of methane

  3. USE OF METAL RESERVOIRS – JET DAMPERS ON MNLZ-3 OF JSC «BMZ – MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF HOLDING «BMK» AFTER RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Bondarenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the period from 2010 to 2013 MNLZ-3 of JSC BMZ has completely solved the problem of metal discharge from pouring boxes at their filling on the first melting in line at pouring of all assortment of steels due to use of metal reservoir jet damper of optimal design and chemical composition.

  4. Adaption of an Antarctic lichen to Martian niche conditions can occur within 34 days

    OpenAIRE

    de Vera, J. P.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Khan, A; Lorek, A.; Möhlmann, D.; T. Spohn

    2014-01-01

    Stresses occurring on the Martian surface were simulated in a Mars Simulation Chamber (MSC) and included high UV fluxes (Zarnecki andCatling,2002), low temperatures, low water activity, high atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and an atmospheric pressure of about 800Pa (Kasting, 1991; Head etal., 2003). The lichen Pleopsidium chlorophanum is an extremophile that lives in very cold, dry, high-altitude habitats, which are Earth's best approximation of the Martian surface. Samples with P.ch...

  5. First observations of the Martian cold oxygen corona by IUVS/MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Deighan, Justin; Chaffin, Michael; Schneider, Nick; McClintock, Bill; Stewart, Ian; Holsclaw, Greg; Clarke, John; Jakosky, Bruce

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution mission (MAVEN) has been recently inserted around Mars. This mission is motivated by the study of the Mars atmospheric erosion rates along its history. Most of the atmospheric erosion rates occur in the upper atmosphere and therefore the understanding of the energetics, chemistry and dynamics of the Martian upper atmosphere is crucial to constrain the contribution of the different escape channels to the Martian atmospheric erosion. The atomic oxygen, produced by photodissociation of the atmospheric carbon dioxid, becomes the main neutral species in the upper thermosphere and low exosphere of Mars. This species is a key species for several processes in the Martian upper atmosphere. For example, the collisions between atomic oxygen and carbon dioxid can effectively excite the ν2 vibrational state of CO2 leading to an increase of the 15 μm emission which in turn leads to an increase of the thermospheric cooling rate and therefore controls the Martian temperature at the exobase. The Martian ionosphere is mainly composed by O2+, CO2+, O+ whose abundances are chemically controlled by the amount of atomic oxygen in the thermosphere. According to recent GCM simulations, cold atomic oxygen is very sensitive to the thermospheric circulation and its expected diurnal variations could be used to constrain the dynamics of the Martian upper atmosphere. Finally, thermal exospheric oxygen can be ionized and picked up by the solar wind contributing to the erosion of the Martian atmosphere. The caracterization of the atomic oxygen in the Martian upper atmosphere can be derived from its UV emission at 130.4 nm mainly produced by resonant scattering of the solar flux. The UV spectrometer IUVS aboard the MAVEN mission routinely observes this emission at Mars. In this presentation we will present the first observations of the 130.4 nm resonant line performed by IUVS at different altitudes and solar zenith angles, we will compare these

  6. Morphological mapping of Martian outflow channels. [to facilitate terrestrial landform comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, V. R.; Kochel, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    Geomorphic mapping of selected portions of Martian outflow channels was performed in order to facilitate comparisons to terrestrial landforms. We interpret the maps to illustrate a correspondence between Martian channel features and terrestrial landforms developed by catastrophic flood erosion in the Channeled Scabland. The following features all occur in remarkably similar arrangements on the flood-channel floors of both planets: streamlined uplands, longitudinal grooves, scour marks, inner channel cataracts, etched zones, and possible pendant bars.

  7. JAWS: Just Add Water System - A device for detection of nucleic acids in Martian ice caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders J.; Willerslev, Eske; Mørk, Søren

    2002-01-01

    with a regulation of pH and salt concentrations e.g. the MOD systems and could be installed on a planetary probe melting its way down the Martian ice caps e.g. the NASA Cryobot. JAWS can be used for detection of remains of ancient life preserved in the Martian ice as well as for detection of contamination brought...... to the planet from Earth....

  8. Influence of tail-like magnetic field on O+ ion distribution in the Martian magnetosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the comparison with the Earth, using the LB magneticfield model, the distribution of O+ ion originating from the ionosphere in the Martian magnetosphere is theoretically studied under different conditions of the tail-like magnetic field. The results show that the tail-like magnetic field has influence on the O+ ion flux in the Martian magnetotail: (ⅰ) the O+ ion flux in the Martian tail will increase if the tail-like magnetic field increases; when the tail-like magnetic field increases from 5 nT to 20 nT, the O+ ion flux increases 3 times in the region of 2.8 Rm in the Martian tail; and (ⅱ) the O+ ion flux decreases with increasing intrinsic moment; when the intrinsic moment increases about 5 times, the flux decreases to one fourth in the region of 2.8 Rm in the Martian tail. According to the data on the O+ ion flux and theoretical result in this paper, the deduced Martian intrinsic moment is about 2×1021 Gcm3. This is consistent with the most recent observation by the USA satellite MGS.

  9. Evolution of Water Reservoirs on Mars: Constraints from Hydrogen Isotopes in Martian Meteorites

    CERN Document Server

    Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Ushioda, Masashi; Matsuyama, Takeshi; Moriwaki, Ryota; Dohm, James M; Usui, Tomohiro

    2014-01-01

    Martian surface morphology implies that Mars was once warm enough to maintain persistent liquid water on its surface. While the high D/H ratios (~6 times the Earth's ocean water) of the current martian atmosphere suggest that significant water has been lost from the surface during martian history, the timing, processes, and the amount of the water loss have been poorly constrained. Recent technical developments of ion-microprobe analysis of martian meteorites have provided accurate estimation of hydrogen isotope compositions (D/H) of martian water reservoirs at the time when the meteorites formed. Based on the D/H data from the meteorites, this study demonstrates that the water loss during the pre-Noachian (>41-99 m global equivalent layers, GEL) was more significant than in the rest of martian history (>10-53 m GEL). Combining our results with geological and geomorphological evidence for ancient oceans, we propose that undetected subsurface water/ice (~100-1000 m GEL) should have existed, and it exceeds the ...

  10. North-Polar Martian Cap as Habitat for Elementary Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, M. K.; Wickramasinghe, J. T.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2008-09-01

    North-polar cap over millenia Atmospheric water in Mars tends currently as for the past millenia to distil onto the polar caps and be buried under dust deposits. Diffusive release from ground-ice (and its excavation in meteorite impacts [1]) replenishes atmospheric water, allowing the gradual build up of polar ice-dust deposits. When sunlit, this warmed and sublimating ice-dust mix has interest as a potential habitat for micro-organisms. Modelling shows precipitable vapour at 10-50μm/yr, varying sensitively with small changes in orbitable obliquity around the present 25° [2]. The modelling applies to a globe with regionally uniform albedo, unlike the steep topography and dark layering of the north polar cap whose upper 300m have accumulated over the last 500 kyr [3]. The cliffs and ravines of the north-polar cap are thought to form through south-facing slopes sublimating and gaining a dirt-encrusted surface, while horizontal surfaces brighten through frost deposits. The two-phase surface derives from the dust and frost feedback on surface albedo [4] and the resulting terrain develops over diurnal cycles of frosting and sublimation, and over annual seasonal cycles. The steep south-facing sides of observed ravines when unshadowed would see for a few hours the full intensity of sunlight at near normal incidence, without the atmospheric dimming at similar inclinations on Earth. As exposed ice sublimates at T > 200K (partial pressure exceeds typical martian 0.1 Pa), a crust of dirt develops to maintain quasi-stability. The dirt crust's main function is to buffer the ice against diurnal temperature fluctuations, but it also slows down vapour diffusion - analogous to south polar ice sublimation [5] and the growth of ground-ice [6]. We envisage 1-10 mm/yr as the net sublimation rate, compatible with the 100 kyr life and scales of the north polar ravines. Modelling of icy-dirt crusts in the polar cap Plane-parallel layers have been used to model the changing temperature

  11. Partnering with NASA JSC for Community Research Needs; Collaborative and Student Opportunities via Jacobs and Psams Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Division houses a unique combination of laboratories and other assets for conducting cutting-edge planetary research. These facilities have been accessed for decades by outside scientists; over the past five years, the 16 full time contract research and technical staff members in our division have hosted a total of 223 visiting researchers, representing 35 institutions. We intend to submit a proposal to NASA specifically for facilities support and establishment of our laboratories as a collective, PSAMS, Planetary Sample Analyses and Mission Science, which should result in substantial cost savings to PIs who wish to use our facilities. JSC is a recognized NASA center of excellence for curation, and in future will allow PIs easy access to samples in Curation facilities that they have been approved to study. Our curation expertise could also be used for a collection of experimental run products and standards that could be shared and distributed to community members, products that could range from 1 bar controlled atmosphere furnace, piston cylinder, multi-anvil, to shocked products. Coordinated analyses of samples is one of the major strengths of our division, where a single sample can be prepared with minimal destruction for a variety of chemical and structural analyses, from macro to nano-scale. A CT scanner will be delivered August 2016 and installed in the same building as all the other division experimental and analytical facilities, allowing users to construct a 3 dimensional model of their run product and/or starting material before any destruction of their sample for follow up analyses. The 3D printer may also be utilized to construct containers for diamond anvil cell experiments. Our staff scientists will work with PIs to maximize science return and serve the needs of the community. We welcome student visitors, and a graduate semester internship is available through Jacobs.

  12. Cross-Linkable, Solvent-Resistant Fullerene Contacts for Robust and Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Increased JSC and VOC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Brian L; Rolston, Nicholas; Bush, Kevin A; Leijtens, Tomas; McGehee, Michael D; Dauskardt, Reinhold H

    2016-10-05

    The active layers of perovskite solar cells are also structural layers and are central to ensuring that the structural integrity of the device is maintained over its operational lifetime. Our work evaluating the fracture energies of conventional and inverted solution-processed MAPbI3 perovskite solar cells has revealed that the MAPbI3 perovskite exhibits a fracture resistance of only ∼0.5 J/m(2), while solar cells containing fullerene electron transport layers fracture at even lower values, below ∼0.25 J/m(2). To address this weakness, a novel styrene-functionalized fullerene derivative, MPMIC60, has been developed as a replacement for the fragile PC61BM and C60 transport layers. MPMIC60 can be transformed into a solvent-resistant material through curing at 250 °C. As-deposited films of MPMIC60 exhibit a marked 10-fold enhancement in fracture resistance over PC61BM and a 14-fold enhancement over C60. Conventional-geometry perovskite solar cells utilizing cured films of MPMIC60 showed a significant, 205% improvement in fracture resistance while exhibiting only a 7% drop in PCE (13.8% vs 14.8% PCE) in comparison to the C60 control, enabling larger VOC and JSC values. Inverted cells fabricated with MPMIC60 exhibited a 438% improvement in fracture resistance with only a 6% reduction in PCE (12.3% vs 13.1%) in comparison to those utilizing PC61BM, again producing a higher JSC.

  13. Development of an IVE/EVA Compatible Prototype Cold-Gas Cubesat Propulsion System at NASA/JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Christopher; Studak, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Cold-gas propulsion systems are well suited for some applications because they are simple to design and build, have low operating costs, and are non-toxic. The inherent tradeoff, however, is their relatively low impulse density. Nevertheless, a modest propulsion system, sized for Cubesats and designed for affordability, presents an attractive system solution for some missions, such as an on-orbit inspection free-flyer. NASA has a long-standing effort to develop propulsion systems appropriate for very high delta-V cubesat missions, such as geo transfer orbits, and there are commercially available Cubesat propulsion systems with considerably more impulse capability, but, these are both prohibitively expensive for some development customers and face compatibility constraints for crewed applications, such as operation within ISS. A relatively conventional cold-gas system has been developed at NASA/JSC taking advantage of existing miniature industrial components, additive manufacturing techniques and in-house qualification of the system. The result is a nearly modular system with a 1U form factor. Compressed nitrogen is stored in a small high-pressure tank, then regulated and distributed to 12 thrusters. Maneuvering thrust can be adjusted, with a typical value of 40 mN, and the delta-V delivered to a 3U Cubesat would be approximately 7 m/s. These values correspond to the performance parameters for an inspection mission previously established at JSC for inspection of the orbiter prior to reentry. Environmental testing was performed to meet ISS launch and workmanship standards, along with the expected thermal environment for an inspection mission. Functionality has been demonstrated, and performance in both vacuum and relevant blow down scenarios was completed. Several avenues for further improvement are also explored. Details of the system, components, integration, tests, and test data are presented in this paper.

  14. Global Monitoring of Martian Surface Albedo Changes from Orbital Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, P.; Enga, M.; Mukherjee, P.

    2013-12-01

    Martian surface changes were first observed from orbit during the Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter missions. They were found to be caused by eolian processes, produced by deposition of dust during regional and global dust storms and subsequent darkening of the surface through erosion and transportation of dust and sand. The albedo changes accumulated in the 20 years between Viking and Mars Global Surveyor were sufficient to alter the global circulation of winds and the climate of Mars according to model calculations (Fenton et al., Nature 2007), but little was known about the timing or frequency of the changes. Since 1999, we have had the benefit of continuous monitoring by a series of orbiting spacecraft that continues today with Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express. Daily synoptic observations enable us to determine whether the surface albedo changes are gradual or episodic in nature and to record the seasons that the changes take place. High resolution images of surface morphology and atmospheric phenomena help identify the physical mechanisms responsible for the changes. From these data, we hope to learn the combinations of atmospheric conditions and sediment properties that produce surface changes on Mars and possibly predict when they will take place in the future. Martian surface changes are particularly conspicuous in low albedo terrain, where even a thin layer of bright dust brightens the surface drastically. Equatorial dark areas are repeatedly coated and recoated by dust, which is later shed from the surface by a variety of mechanisms. An example is Syrtis Major, suddenly buried in bright dust by the global dust storm of 2001. Persistent easterly winds blew much of the dust cover away over the course of the next Martian year, but episodic changes continue today, particularly during southern summer when regional dust storms are rife. Another such region is Solis Planum, south of the Valles Marineris, where changes take place

  15. Meteor bodies entering the Martian atmosphere: possible impact consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Daria; Gritsevich, Maria

    The investigation of meteorite production on Mars has attracted considerable attention during the recent years. The possible meteorite showers are identified e.g. [1], and the estimates of meteorite fluxes on Mars are found e.g. [2,3]. In this study, we develop the theory describing a meteoroid entry into an atmosphere of a planet and apply our results to the Martian atmosphere. We introduce two key dimensionless parameters, which are based on physical parameterization and have unique values for every single meteoroid case. This allows us to derive the condition for the meteorite fall identification in a simple analytical form, which can be directly implemented for analysis and classification of the possible impact consequences. To describe the motion we use the classical equations of the model of meteor body deceleration [4,5]. The analytical dimensionless solution for the mass-velocity dependence and the height-velocity dependence can be expressed using two main parameters: (i) the ballistic coefficient alpha, which shows the ratio between the mass of the atmospheric column along the trajectory and the body's pre-entry mass, and (ii) the mass loss parameter beta, which is proportional to the ratio between the initial kinetic energy of the body and energy which is required to insure total mass loss of the body due to ablation and fragmentation [6-8]. To determine the possible consequences of impact for any given meteoroid, we use the meteorite-fall condition: the terminal mass of the meteoroid should exceed or be equal to a certain chosen value. This condition can be written using the parameters alpha and beta, so the impact consequences are described by the position of the case-under-investigation point relatively to the boundary curve in the (alpha,beta) space. Following a number of studies [9-11] we analyze the hypothesis that describes the possible evolution of Martian atmospheric density until present. Based on the properties of the meteorites recently found

  16. Thermal conductivity measurements of particulate materials under Martian conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, M. A.; Christensen, P. R.

    1993-01-01

    The mean particle diameter of surficial units on Mars has been approximated by applying thermal inertia determinations from the Mariner 9 Infrared Radiometer and the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper data together with thermal conductivity measurement. Several studies have used this approximation to characterize surficial units and infer their nature and possible origin. Such interpretations are possible because previous measurements of the thermal conductivity of particulate materials have shown that particle size significantly affects thermal conductivity under martian atmospheric pressures. The transfer of thermal energy due to collisions of gas molecules is the predominant mechanism of thermal conductivity in porous systems for gas pressures above about 0.01 torr. At martian atmospheric pressures the mean free path of the gas molecules becomes greater than the effective distance over which conduction takes place between the particles. Gas particles are then more likely to collide with the solid particles than they are with each other. The average heat transfer distance between particles, which is related to particle size, shape and packing, thus determines how fast heat will flow through a particulate material.The derived one-to-one correspondence of thermal inertia to mean particle diameter implies a certain homogeneity in the materials analyzed. Yet the samples used were often characterized by fairly wide ranges of particle sizes with little information about the possible distribution of sizes within those ranges. Interpretation of thermal inertia data is further limited by the lack of data on other effects on the interparticle spacing relative to particle size, such as particle shape, bimodal or polymodal mixtures of grain sizes and formation of salt cements between grains. To address these limitations and to provide a more comprehensive set of thermal conductivities vs. particle size a linear heat source apparatus, similar to that of Cremers, was assembled to

  17. Qualification of UHF Antenna for Extreme Martian Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Amaro, Luis R.; Brown, Paula R.; Usiskin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this development was to validate the use of the external Rover Ultra High Frequency (RUHF) antenna for space under extreme thermal environments to be encountered during the surface operations of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The antenna must survive all ground operations plus the nominal 670 Martian sol mission that includes summer and winter seasons of the Mars thermal environment.The qualification effort was to verify that the RUHF antenna design and its bonding and packaging processes are adequate to survive the harsh environmental conditions. The RUHF is a quadrifilar helix antenna mounted on the MSL Curiosity rover deck. The main components of the RUHF antenna are the helix structure, feed cables, and hybrid coupler, and the high-power termination load. In the case of MSL rover externally mounted hardware, not only are the expected thermal cycle depths severe, but there are temperature offsets between the Mars summer and winter seasons. The total number of temperature cycles needed to be split into two regimes of summer cycles and winter cycles. The qualification test was designed to demonstrate a survival life of three times more than all expected ground testing, plus a nominal 670 Martian sol missions. Baseline RF tests and a visual inspection were performed prior to the start of the qualification test. Functional RF tests were performed intermittently during chamber breaks over the course of the qualification test. For the RF return loss measurements, the antenna was tested in a controlled environment outside the thermal chamber with a vector network analyzer that was calibrated over the antenna s operational frequency range. A total of 2,010 thermal cycles were performed. Visual inspection showed a dulling of the solder material. This change will not affect the performance of the antenna. No other changes were observed. RF tests were performed on the RUHF helix antenna, hybrid, and load after the 2,010 qualification cycles test

  18. Evidence for a Heterogeneous Distribution of Water in the Martian Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, Francis; Boyce, Jeremy W.; Srinvasan, Poorna; Santos, Alison R.; Elardo, Stephen M.; Filiberto, Justin; Steele, Andrew; Shearer, Charles K.

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of H2O within the terrestrial planets, as well as its timing of delivery, is a topic of vital importance for understanding the chemical and physical evolution of planets and their potential for hosting habitable environments. Analysis of planetary materials from Mars, the Moon, and the eucrite parent body (i.e., asteroid 4Vesta) have confirmed the presence of H2O within their interiors. Moreover, H and N isotopic data from these planetary materials suggests H2O was delivered to the inner solar system very early from a common source, similar in composition to the carbonaceous chondrites. Despite the ubiquity of H2O in the inner Solar System, the only destination with any prospects for past or present habitable environments at this time, outside of the Earth, is Mars. Although the presence of H2O within the martian interior has been confirmed, very little is known regarding its abundance and distribution within the martian interior and how the martian water inventory has changed over time. By combining new analyses of martian apatites within a large number of martian meteorite types with previously published volatile data and recently determined mineral-melt partition coefficients for apatite, we report new insights into the abundance and distribution of volatiles in the martian crust and mantle. Using the subset of samples that did not exhibit crustal contamination, we determined that the enriched shergottite mantle source has 36-73 ppm H2O and the depleted shergottite mantle source has 14-23 ppm H2O. This result is consistent with other observed geochemical differences between enriched and depleted shergottites and supports the idea that there are at least two geochemically distinct reservoirs in the martian mantle. We also estimated the H2O content of the martian crust using the revised mantle H2O abundances and known crust-mantle distributions of incompatible lithophile elements. We determined that the bulk martian crust has

  19. Model of the Crustal Magnetic Field in the Martian Aurora Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Dong-Sheng; CHEN Chu-Xin

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that aurorae are prominent on planets with a global magnetic field and occur where open magnetic Geld lines converge. The UV spectrometer used for investigating the characteristics of the atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) on board the Mars Express made the first observation of auroral-type emission in the cusp region of the strong crustal magnetic field on Mars and found that the arc of the Martian aurora zone is very narrow in width, which obviously differs from that of other planets. Based on the observation, we put forward a model of a crustal magnetic field on the Martian aurora zone through the morphology of Martian aurorae. In the model, equivalent currents are proposed; the topology and magnitude of the magnetic field generated by these equivalent currents are consistent with that of the crustal magnetic field in the Martian aurora zone. The morphology of the Martian aurora zone generated through the model matches well with the observations made by the Mars Express orbiter.%It is well known that aurorae are prominent on planets with a global magnetic field and occur where open magnetic field lines converge.The UV spectrometer used for investigating the characteristics of the atmosphere of Mars (SPICAM) on board the Mars Express made the first observation of auroral-type emission in the cusp region of the strong crustal magnetic field on Mars and found that the arc of the Martian aurora zone is very narrow in width,which obviously differs from that of other planets.Based on the observation,we put forward a model of a crustal magnetic field on the Martian aurora zone through the morphology of Martian aurorae.In the model,equivalent currents are proposed;the topology and magnitude of the magnetic field generated by these equivalent currents are consistent with that of the crustal magnetic field in the Martian aurora zone.The morphology of the Martian aurora zone generated through the model matches well with the observations made by the Mars Express

  20. Martian slope streaks as plausible indicators of transient water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anshuman; Sam, Lydia; Martín-Torres, F Javier; Zorzano, María-Paz; Fonseca, Ricardo M

    2017-08-01

    Slope streaks have been frequently observed in the equatorial, low thermal inertia and dusty regions of Mars. The reason behind their formation remains unclear with proposed hypotheses for both dry and wet mechanisms. Here, we report an up-to-date distribution and morphometric investigation of Martian slope streaks. We find: (i) a remarkable coexistence of the slope streak distribution with the regions on Mars with high abundances of water-equivalent hydrogen, chlorine, and iron; (ii) favourable thermodynamic conditions for transient deliquescence and brine development in the slope streak regions; (iii) a significant concurrence of slope streak distribution with the regions of enhanced atmospheric water vapour concentration, thus suggestive of a present-day regolith-atmosphere water cycle; and (iv) terrain preferences and flow patterns supporting a wet mechanism for slope streaks. These results suggest a strong local regolith-atmosphere water coupling in the slope streak regions that leads to the formation of these fluidised features. Our conclusions can have profound astrobiological, habitability, environmental, and planetary protection implications.

  1. How many ions have escaped the Martian atmosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, David; McFadden, James; Halekas, Jasper; Connerney, J. E. P.; Eparvier, Frank; Mitchell, David; Bougher, Stephen W.; Bowers, Charlie; Curry, Shannon; Dong, Chuanfei; Dong, Yaxue; Egan, Hilary; Fang, Xiaohua; Harada, Yuki; Jakosky, Bruce; Lillis, Robert; Luhmann, Janet; Ma, Yingjuan; Modolo, Ronan; Weber, Tristan

    2016-10-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission has been making science measurements of the Martian upper atmosphere and its escape to space since November 2014. A key part of this effort is the measurement of the escape rates of charged particles (ions) at present and over solar system history. The lack of a global dynamo magnetic field at Mars leaves its upper atmosphere more directly exposed to the impinging solar wind than magnetized planets such as Earth. For this reason it is thought that ion escape at Mars may have played a significant role in long term climate change. MAVEN measures escaping planetary ions directly, with high energy, mass, and time resolution.With nearly two years of observations in hand, we will report the average ion escape rate and the spatial distribution of escaping ions as measured by MAVEN and place them in context with previous measurements of ion loss by other spacecraft (e.g. Phobos 2 and Mars Express). We will then report on the measured variability in ion escape rates with different drivers (e.g. solar EUV, solar wind pressure, etc.). Finally, we will use these results to provide an initial estimate of the total ion escape from Mars over billions of years.

  2. Microscope Image of a Martian Soil Surface Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This is the closest view of the material underneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This sample was taken from the top centimeter of the Martian soil, and this image from the lander's Optical Microscope demonstrates its overall composition. The soil is mostly composed of fine orange particles, and also contains larger grains, about a tenth of a millimeter in diameter, and of various colors. The soil is sticky, keeping together as a slab of material on the supporting substrate even though the substrate is tilted to the vertical. The fine orange grains are at or below the resolution of the Optical Microscope. Mixed into the soil is a small amount&mdashabout 0.5 percent&mdashof white grains, possibly of a salt. The larger grains range from black to almost transparent in appearance. At the bottom of the image, the shadows of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) beams are visible. This image is 1 millimeter x 2 millimeters. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Microscopic Comparison of Airfall Dust to Martian Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This pair of images taken by the Optical Microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander offers a side-by-side comparison of an airfall dust sample collected on a substrate exposed during landing (left) and a soil sample scooped up from the surface of the ground beside the lander. In both cases the sample is collected on a silicone substrate, which provides a sticky surface holding sample particles for observation by the microscope. Similar fine particles at the resolution limit of the microscope are seen in both samples, indicating that the soil has formed from settling of dust. The microscope took the image on the left during Phoenix's Sol 9 (June 3, 2008), or the ninth Martian day after landing. It took the image on the right during Sol 17 (June 11, 2008). The scale bar is 1 millimeter (0.04 inch). The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Summary of Martian Dust Filtering Challenges and Current Filter Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, William J., IV

    2017-01-01

    Traditional air particulate filtering in manned spaceflight (Apollo, Shuttle, ISS, etc.) has used cleanable or replaceable catch filters such as screens and High-Efficiency Particulate Arrestance (HEPA) filters. However, the human mission to Mars architecture will require a new approach. It is Martian dust that is the particulate of concern but the need also applies to particulates generated by crew. The Mars Exploration Program Analysis Group (MEPAG) high-lighted this concern in its Mars Science, Goals, Objectives, Investigations and Priorities document [7], by saying specifically that one high priority investigation will be to "Test ISRU atmospheric processing systems to measure resilience with respect to dust and other environmental challenge performance parameters that are critical to the design of a full-scale system." By stating this as high priority the MEPAG is acknowledging that developing and adequately verifying this capability is critical to success of a human mission to Mars. This architecture will require filtering capabilities that are highly reliable, will not restrict the flow path with clogging, and require little to no maintenance. This paper will summarize why this is the case, the general requirements for developing the technology, and the status of the progress made in this area.

  5. Escape of the martian protoatmosphere and initial water inventory

    CERN Document Server

    Erkaev, N V; Elkins-Tanton, L; Stökl, A; Odert, P; Marcq, E; Dorfi, E A; Kislyakova, K G; Kulikov, Yu N; Leitzinger, M; Güdel, M

    2013-01-01

    Latest research in planet formation indicate that Mars formed within a few million years (Myr) and remained a planetary embryo that never grew to a more massive planet. It can also be expected from dynamical models, that most of Mars' building blocks consisted of material that formed in orbital locations just beyond the ice line which could have contained ~0.1-0.2 wt. % of H2O. By using these constraints, we estimate the nebula-captured and catastrophically outgassed volatile contents during the solidification of Mars' magma ocean and apply a hydrodynamic upper atmosphere model for the study of the soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) driven thermal escape of the martian protoatmosphere during the early active epoch of the young Sun. The amount of gas that has been captured from the protoplanetary disk into the planetary atmosphere is calculated by solving the hydrostatic structure equations in the protoplanetary nebula. Depending on nebular properties such as the dust grain depletion factor, planetesimal...

  6. Evidence From Hydrogen Isotopes in Meteorites for a Martian Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, T.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Wang, J.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial landforms on Mars suggest that it was once warm enough to maintain persistent liquid water on its surface. The transition to the present cold and dry Mars is closely linked to the history of surface water, yet the evolution of surficial water is poorly constrained. We have investigated the evolution of surface water/ ice and its interaction with the atmosphere by measurements of hydrogen isotope ratios (D/H: deuterium/ hydrogen) of martian meteorites. Hydrogen is a major component of water (H2O) and its isotopes fractionate significantly during hydrological cycling between the atmosphere, surface waters, ground ice, and polar cap ice. Based on in situ ion microprobe analyses of three geochemically different shergottites, we reported that there is a water/ice reservoir with an intermediate D/H ratio (delta D = 1,000?2500 %) on Mars. Here we present the possibility that this water/ice reservoir represents a ground-ice/permafrost that has existed relatively intact over geologic time.

  7. Chemical, Mineralogical, and Physical Properties of Martian Dust and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    Global and regional dust storms on Mars have been observed from Earth-based telescopes, Mars orbiters, and surface rovers and landers. Dust storms can be global and regional. Dust is material that is suspended into the atmosphere by winds and has a particle size of 1-3 micrometer. Planetary scientist refer to loose unconsolidated materials at the surface as "soil." The term ''soil'' is used here to denote any loose, unconsolidated material that can be distinguished from rocks, bedrock, or strongly cohesive sediments. No implication for the presence or absence of organic materials or living matter is intended. Soil contains local and regional materials mixed with the globally distributed dust by aeolian processes. Loose, unconsolidated surface materials (dust and soil) may pose challenges for human exploration on Mars. Dust will no doubt adhere to spacesuits, vehicles, habitats, and other surface systems. What will be the impacts on human activity? The objective of this paper is to review the chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties of the martian dust and soil.

  8. Mineralogy of the Martian Surface: Crustal Composition to Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, John F.

    1997-01-01

    The main results have been published in the refereed literature, and thus this report serves mainly to summarize the main findings and indicate where the detailed papers may be found. Reflectance spectroscopy has been an important tool for determining the mineralogic makeup of the near surface materials on Mars. Analysis of the spectral properties of the surface have demonstrated that these attributes are heterogeneous from the coarse spatial but high spectral resolution spectra obtained with telescopes to the high spatial but coarse spectral resolution Viking data (e.g. Arvidson et al., 1989; McEwen et al., 1989). Low albedo materials show strong evidence for the presence of igneous rock forming minerals while bright materials are generally interpreted as representing heavily altered crustal material. How these materials are physically and genetically related has important implications for understanding martian surface properties and processes, weathering histories and paths, and crustal composition. The goal of this research is to characterize the physical and chemical properties of low albedo materials on Mars and the relationship to intermediate and high albedo materials. Fundamental science questions to be pursued include: (1) the observed distributions of soil, rock, and dust a function of physical processes or weathering and (2) different stages of chemical and physical alteration fresh rock identified. These objectives will be addressed through detailed analyses and modelling of the ISM data from the Phobos-2 mission with corroborating evidence of surface composition and properties provided by data from the Viking mission.

  9. Biologically Inspired Robots to Assist Areonauts on the Martian Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, G. P.; Saaj, C. M.

    Long before humans set foot on the surface of Mars, significant exploration of the surface will have been completed. Orbital spacecraft have certainly helped provide information about the surface to date, but significant advances are made through surface-based exploration. Not only does this include the Viking landers of years past, but also current and next generation mobile robots traversing the surface with scientific experiments for humans to better learn about this mostly unexplored environment. Many robotic vehicles have been proposed in recent years to assist astronauts on planetary surfaces. Only a few of these vehicles, or some aspects therein, have been inspired from biological creatures. With regards to the vehicle's locomotion system, looking into biologically inspired concepts is incredibly important because of the expectation of these astronauts exploring more complex terrain than current wheeled robotic explorers have yet traversed. This paper will review a number of robotic systems designed to assist Mars areonauts (astronauts specifically exploring Mars) before proposing a multi-purpose legged microrover assistant. This vehicle has a biologically inspired locomotion system which provides the capability to follow the areonauts over the most complex Martian terrain, or even traverse areas too complex for the areonaut to negotiate, in order to perform on-the-spot scientific experimentation as needed. The results of the biologically inspired vehicle's capability to traverse Mars terrain, both with regards to tractive capability in soil and ability to access more hostile terrain than its wheeled or tracked counterparts, will also be presented.

  10. Large sulfur isotope fractionations in Martian sediments at Gale crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, H. B.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Freissinet, C.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Eldridge, D. L.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; House, C. H.; Hurowitz, J. A.; McLennan, S. M.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Vaniman, D. T.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Dottin, J. W., III; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Farley, K. A.; Glavin, D. P.; Johnson, S. S.; Knudson, C. A.; Morris, R. V.; Navarro-González, R.; Pavlov, A. A.; Plummer, R.; Rampe, E. B.; Stern, J. C.; Steele, A.; Summons, R. E.; Sutter, B.

    2017-09-01

    Variability in the sulfur isotopic composition in sediments can reflect atmospheric, geologic and biological processes. Evidence for ancient fluvio-lacustrine environments at Gale crater on Mars and a lack of efficient crustal recycling mechanisms on the planet suggests a surface environment that was once warm enough to allow the presence of liquid water, at least for discrete periods of time, and implies a greenhouse effect that may have been influenced by sulfur-bearing volcanic gases. Here we report in situ analyses of the sulfur isotopic compositions of SO2 volatilized from ten sediment samples acquired by NASA’s Curiosity rover along a 13 km traverse of Gale crater. We find large variations in sulfur isotopic composition that exceed those measured for Martian meteorites and show both depletion and enrichment in 34S. Measured values of δ34S range from -47 +/- 14‰ to 28 +/- 7‰, similar to the range typical of terrestrial environments. Although limited geochronological constraints on the stratigraphy traversed by Curiosity are available, we propose that the observed sulfur isotopic signatures at Gale crater can be explained by equilibrium fractionation between sulfate and sulfide in an impact-driven hydrothermal system and atmospheric processing of sulfur-bearing gases during transient warm periods.

  11. Lifting particles in martian dust devils by pressure excursions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Marc; Wurm, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    The passage of a dust devil vortex goes along with a pressure reduction above ground. This leads to a sub-soil overpressure. It has been suggested that this enhances the lift on particles and facilitates dust entrainment by dust devils. We quantify the necessary pressure difference to lift fine sand from sand beds with thickness of 50, 150, and 250 mm in laboratory experiments with basalt samples consisting of 63-125 μm grains. The absolute pressure was varied between 1,300 and 3,600 Pa. In general, a pressure differences of about 30 Pa per mm depth is needed to lift sand grains. With slight systematic variations this is in agreement to simply accounting for the weight of a lifted particle layer. On Mars observed absolute pressure difference are several Pa. This limits particle lift to a layer smaller than 100 μm . However, it clearly allows Δp lifting if the top layer has a decreased permeability. This might be the case for dust layers sitting on top of a coarse grained sand bed. These measurements support the idea of enhanced dust entrainment due to the Δp -effect in Martian dust devils under certain conditions.

  12. Change of Martian surface height associated with polar cold spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, P. G.; Pettengill, G. H.

    2003-12-01

    For the past 30 years, orbiting microwave radiometers have observed anomalously low emission temperatures during Martian polar winters. While the physical surface temperature cannot drop significantly below 148K---the point at which CO2 starts to condense---radiometric temperatures of 110K or lower at 25μ wavelength are commonly found in isolated ``cold spots'' throughout both northern and southern polar winters. These form roughly circular patches, tens to hundreds of km in diameter, and persist for no more than a few days. Three models have been proposed to account for them: (a) an atmospheric effect that accompanies CO2 snowfall; (b) fresh surface deposits of CO2 snow; or (c) a change in the properties of CO2 slab ice. Following the success of Smith et al.1 in using the MOLA laser altimeter aboard Mars Global Surveyor to directly measure the growth of the winter polar caps, we have applied the same technique to ask whether cold spots are accompanied by a sudden change in surface height. To identify the cold spots, we first examined all polar observations made by the TES radiometer that was co-boresited with MOLA, and made gridded images of ∂ T / ∂ λ , the derivative of the brightness temperature wrt wavelength, 20μ 50cm) CO2 snow deposits, but it cannot help us decide between the alternatives of CO2 snowfall or a change in slab ice properties. 1 Smith, Zuber, and Neumann, Science, {294}, 2141-2146, 2001.

  13. Extraction of Martian valley networks from digital topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Collier, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a novel method for delineating valley networks on Mars. The valleys are inferred from digital topography by an autonomous computer algorithm as drainage networks, instead of being manually mapped from images. Individual drainage basins are precisely defined and reconstructed to restore flow continuity disrupted by craters. Drainage networks are extracted from their underlying basins using the contributing area threshold method. We demonstrate that such drainage networks coincide with mapped valley networks verifying that valley networks are indeed drainage systems. Our procedure is capable of delineating and analyzing valley networks with unparalleled speed and consistency. We have applied this method to 28 Noachian locations on Mars exhibiting prominent valley networks. All extracted networks have a planar morphology similar to that of terrestrial river networks. They are characterized by a drainage density of approx.0.1/km, low in comparison to the drainage density of terrestrial river networks. Slopes of "streams" in Martian valley networks decrease downstream at a slower rate than slopes of streams in terrestrial river networks. This analysis, based on a sizable data set of valley networks, reveals that although valley networks have some features pointing to their origin by precipitation-fed runoff erosion, their quantitative characteristics suggest that precipitation intensity and/or longevity of past pluvial climate were inadequate to develop mature drainage basins on Mars.

  14. Waves in the Martian Atmosphere: Results from MGS Radio Occultations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. M.; Hinson, D. P.; Tyler, G. L.

    1999-09-01

    Temperatures retrieved from Mars Global Surveyor radio occultations have been searched for evidence of waves. Emphasis has been on the initial series of occultations between 29(deg) N and 64(deg) S, obtained during the early martian southern summer, L_s=264(deg-308^deg) . The profiles exhibit an undulatory behavior that is suggestive of vertically propagating waves. Wavelengths ~ 10 km are often dominant, but structure on smaller scales is evident. The undulatory structure is most pronounced between latitudes 29(deg) N and 10(deg) S, usually in regions of ``interesting'' topography, e.g., in the Tharsis region and near the edge of Syrtis Major. Several temperature profiles, particularly within 30(deg) of the equator, exhibit lapse rates that locally become superadiabatic near the 0.4--mbar level or at higher altitudes. This implies that the waves are ``breaking'' and depositing horizontal momentum into the atmosphere. Such a deposition may play an important role in modulating the atmospheric winds, and characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of these momentum transfers can provide important clues to understanding how the global circulation is maintained.

  15. The role of igneous sills in shaping the Martian uplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelms, D. E.; Baldwin, R. J.

    Relations among geologic units and landforms suggest that igneous sills lie beneath much of the intercrater and intracrater terrain of the Martian uplands. The igneous rocks crop out along the upland-lowland front and in crater floors and other depressions that are low enough to intersect the sill's intrusion horizons. It is suggested that heat from the cooling sills melted some of the ice contained in overlying fragmental deposits, creating valley networks by subsurface flow of the meltwater. Terrains with undulatory, smooth surfaces and softened traces of valleys were created by more direct contact with the sills. Widespread subsidence following emplacement of the sills deformed both them and the nonvolcanic deposits that overlie them, accounting for the many structures that continue from ridged plains into the hilly uplands. Crater counts show that the deposit that became valleyed, softened, and ridged probably began to form (and to acquire interstitial ice) during or shortly after the Middle Noachian Epoch, and continued to form as late as the Early Hesperian Epoch. The upper layers of this deposit, many of the visible valleys, and the ridged plains and postulated sills all have similar Early Hesperian ages. Continued formation of valleys is indicated by their incision of fresh-appearing crater ejecta. The dependence of valley formation on internal processes implies that Mars did not necessarily have a dense early atmosphere or warm climate.

  16. Water in the Martian regolith from OMEGA/Mars Express

    CERN Document Server

    Audouard, Joachim; Vincendon, Mathieu; Milliken, Ralph E; Jouglet, Denis; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Here we discuss one of the current reservoirs of water on Mars, the regolith and rocks exposed at the surface. This reservoir is characterized by the presence of H_{2}O- and OH- bearing phases that produce a broad absorption at a wavelength of \\sim 3 \\mu m in near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra. This absorption is present in every ice-free spectrum of the Martian surface obtained thus far by orbital NIR spectrometers. We present a quantitative analysis of the global distribution of the 3 \\mu m absorption using the Observatoire pour la Min\\'eralogie, l\\'\\Eau, les Glaces et l\\'\\Activit\\'e (OMEGA) imaging spectrometer that has been mapping the surface of Mars at kilometer scale for more than ten years. Based on laboratory reflectance spectra of a wide range of hydrous minerals and phases, we estimate a model-dependent water content of 4\\pm 1 wt. \\% in the equatorial and mid-latitudes. Surface hydration increases with latitude, with an asymmetry in water content between the northern and southern hemispheres. ...

  17. The composition of the Eureka family of Martian Trojan asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, Galin; Christou, Apostolos; Bagnulo, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    The so-called Martian Trojan asteroids orbit the Sun just inside the terrestrial planet region. They are thought to date from the earliest period of the solar system's history (Scholl et al, Icarus, 2005). Recently, Christou (Icarus, 2013) identified an orbital concentration of Trojans, named the "Eureka" cluster after its largest member, 5261 Eureka. This asteroid belongs to the rare olivine-rich A taxonomic class (Rivkin et al, Icarus, 2007; Lim et al, DPS/EPSC 2011). Unlike asteroids belonging to other taxonomies (e.g. C or S), no orbital concentrations or families of A-types are currently known to exist. These asteroids may represent samples of the building blocks that came together to form Mars and the other terrestrial planets but have since been destroyed by collisions (Sanchez et al, Icarus, 2014, and references therein).We have used the X-SHOOTER echelle spectrograph on the ESO VLT KUEYEN to obtain vis-NIR reflectance spectra of asteroids in the cluster and test their genetic relationship to Eureka. During the presentation we will show the spectra, compare them with available spectra for Eureka itself and discuss the implications for the origin of this cluster and for other olivine-dominated asteroids in the Main Belt.Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla-Paranal Observatory under programme ID 296.C-5030 (PI: A. Christou). Astronomical Research at Armagh Observatory is funded by the Northern Ireland Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure (DCAL).

  18. Martian Surface Mineralogy from Rovers with Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2004, NASA has landed three well-instrumented rovers on the equatorial martian surface. The Spirit rover landed in Gusev crater in early January, 2004, and the Opportunity rover landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridian Planum 21 days later. The Curiosity rover landed in Gale crater to the west of Gusev crater in August, 2012. Both Opportunity and Curiosity are currently operational. The twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity carried Mossbauer spectrometers to determine the oxidation state of iron and its mineralogical composition. The Curiosity rover has an X-ray diffraction instrument for identification and quantification of crystalline materials including clay minerals. Instrument suites on all three rovers are capable of distinguishing primary rock-forming minerals like olivine, pyroxene and magnetite and products of aqueous alteration in including amorphous iron oxides, hematite, goethite, sulfates, and clay minerals. The oxidation state of iron ranges from that typical for unweathered rocks and soils to nearly completely oxidized (weathered) rocks and soils as products of aqueous and acid-sulfate alteration. The in situ rover mineralogy also serves as ground-truth for orbital observations, and orbital mineralogical inferences are used for evaluating and planning rover exploration.

  19. Experimental determination of photostability and fluorescence-based detection of PAHs on the Martian surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Lewis R.; Patel, Manish R.; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Ward, John M.; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2012-05-01

    Even in the absence of any biosphere on Mars, organic molecules, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are expected on its surface due to delivery by comets and meteorites of extraterrestrial organics synthesized by astrochemistry, or perhaps in situ synthesis in ancient prebiotic chemistry. Any organic compounds exposed to the unfiltered solar ultraviolet spectrum or oxidizing surface conditions would have been readily destroyed, but discoverable caches of Martian organics may remain shielded in the subsurface or within surface rocks. We have studied the stability of three representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a Mars chamber, emulating the ultraviolet spectrum of unfiltered sunlight under temperature and pressure conditions of the Martian surface. Fluorescence spectroscopy is used as a sensitive indicator of remaining PAH concentration for laboratory quantification of molecular degradation rates once exposed on the Martian surface. Fluorescence-based instrumentation has also been proposed as an effective surveying method for prebiotic organics on the Martian surface. We find the representative PAHs, anthracene, pyrene, and perylene, to have persistence half-lives once exposed on the Martian surface of between 25 and 60 h of noontime summer UV irradiation, as measured by fluorescence at their peak excitation wavelength. This equates to between 4 and 9.6 sols when the diurnal cycle of UV light intensity on the Martian surface is taken into account, giving a substantial window of opportunity for detection of organic fluorescence before photodegradation. This study thus supports the use of fluorescence-based instrumentation for surveying recently exposed material (such as from cores or drill tailings) for native Martian organic molecules in rover missions.

  20. Evidence from Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions that the Martian Mantle has a Chondritic D/H Ratio and that Some Young Basalts have Assimilated Old Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Tomohiro; Alexander, O'D.; Wang, J.; Simon, J. I.; Jones, J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Magmatic degassing of volatile elements affects the climate and near-surface environment of Mars. Telescopic and meteorite studies have revealed that the Martian atmosphere and near-surface materials have D/H ratios 5-6 times terrestrial values [e.g., 1, 2]. Such high D/H ratios are interpreted to result from the preferential loss of H relative to heavier D from the Martian atmosphere, assuming that the original Martian water inventory had a D/H ratio similar to terrestrial values and to H in primitive meteorites [e.g., 1, 3]. However, the primordial Martian D/H ratio has, until now, not been well constrained. The uncertainty over the Martian primordial D/H ratio has arisen both from the scarcity of primitive Martian meteorites and as a result of contamination by terrestrial and, perhaps, Martian surface waters that obscure the signature of the Martian mantle. This study reports a comprehensive dataset of magmatic volatiles and D/H ratios in Martian primary magmas based on low-contamination, in situ ion microprobe analyses of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from both depleted [Yamato 980459 (Y98)] and enriched [Larkman Nunatak 06319 (LAR06)] Martian basaltic meteorites. Analyses of these primitive melts provide definitive evidence that the Martian mantle has retained a primordial D/H ratio and that young Martian basalts have assimilated old Martian crust.

  1. Building a prototype of a Martian base in Poland, an architectural design overview and progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicki, Janek

    This talk focuses on recent advances in the construction of a prototype 1000 m2 Martian out-post for 8 inhabitants. The architectural design for such a Martian base has been presented previously on COSPAR 2008, the presentation being entitled ,,Architectural design proposal for a Martian base to continue NASA Mars Design Reference Mission". The presentation was welcomed with warm interest by various institutions, some of which offered help in building a prototype such as providing the building site or funding. This year's oral presentation will focus on a progress report and will briefly describe the architectural design. The architectural design is inspired by terrestrial pneumatic architecture. It has small volume, can be easily transported and provides a large habitable space. An architectural solution analo-gous to a terrestrial house with a studio and a workshop was assumed. The spatial placement of the following zones was carefully considered: residential, agricultural and science, as well as garage and workshop. Further attention was paid to transportation routes and a control and communications center. The issues of a life support system, energy, food, water and waste recycling were also discussed. This Martian base was designed to be crewed by a team of eight people to stay on Mars for at least one and a half year. An Open Plan architectural solution was assumed, with a high level of modularity. Walls of standardized sizes with zip-fasteners allow free rearrangement of the interior to adapt to a new situation. The prototype of such a Polish-origin Martian outpost will be used in a manner similar to MDRS or FMARS but to a larger extent. The prototype's design itself will be tested and corrected to achieve a design which can be used on Mars. The procedure of unfolding the pneumatic modules and floor leveling will be tested. The 1000 m2 interior will be used for various simulation exercises: socio-psychological testing, interior arrangement experiments

  2. The chemical reactivity of the Martian soil and implications for future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1994-01-01

    Possible interpretations of the results of the Viking Biology Experiments suggest that greater than 1 ppm of a thermally labile oxidant, perhaps H2O2, and about 10 ppm of a thermally stable oxidant are present in the martian soil. We reexamine these results and discuss implications for future missions, the search for organics on Mars, and the possible health and engineering effects for human exploration. We conclude that further characterization of the reactivity of the martian regolith materials is warrented-although if our present understanding is correct the oxidant does not pose a hazard to humans. There are difficulties in explaining the reactivity of the Martian soil by oxidants. Most bulk phase compounds that are capable of oxidizing H2O to O2 per the Gas Exchange Experiment (GEx) are thermally labile or unstable against reduction by atmospheric CO2. Models invoking trapped O2 or peroxynitrates (NOO2(-)) require an unlikely geologic history for the Viking Lander 2 site. Most suggested oxidants, including H2O2, are expected to decompose rapidly under martian UV. Nonetheless, we conclude that the best model for the martian soil contains oxidants produced by heterogeneous chemical reactions with a photochemically produced atmospheric oxidant. The GEx results may be due to catalytic decomposition of an unstable oxidizing material by H2O. We show that interfacial reaction sites covering less than 1% of the available soil surfaces could explain the Viking Biology Experiments results.

  3. Chemical interactions between the present-day Martian atmosphere and surface minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Ronald; Fegley, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Thermochemical and photochemical reactions between surface minerals and present-day atmospheric constituents are predicted to produce microscopic effects on the surfaces of mineral grains. Relevant reactions hypothesized in the literature include conversions of silicates and volcanic glasses to clay minerals, conversion of ferrous to ferric compounds, and formation of carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates. These types of surface-atmosphere interactions are important for addressing issues such as chemical weathering of minerals, biological potential of the surface environment, and atmospheric stability in both present and past Martian epochs. It is emphasized that the product of these reactions will be observable and interpretable on the microscopic surface layers of Martian surface rocks using modern techniques with obvious implications for sample return from Mars. Macroscopic products of chemical weathering reactions in past Martian epochs are also expected in Martian surface material. These products are expected not only as a result of reactions similar to those proceeding today but also due to aqueous reactions in past epochs in which liquid water was putatively present. It may prove very difficult or impossible however to determine definitively from the relic macroscopic product alone either the exact weathering process which led to its formation or the identity of its weathered parent mineral. The enormous advantages of studying Martian chemical weathering by investigating the microscopic products of present-day chemical reactions on sample surfaces are very apparent.

  4. Chemical interactions between the present-day Martian atmosphere and surface minerals: Implications for sample return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Ronald; Fegley, Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Thermochemical and photochemical reactions between surface minerals and present-day atmospheric constituents are predicted to produce microscopic effects on the surface of mineral grains. Relevant reactions hypothesized in the literature include conversions of silicates and volcanic glasses to clay minerals, conversion of ferrous to ferric compounds, and formation of carbonates, nitrates, and sulfates. These types of surface-atmosphere weathering of minerals, biological potential of the surface environment, and atmospheric stability in both present and past Martian epochs. It is emphasized that the product of these reactions will be observable and interpretable on the microscopic surface layers of Martian surface rocks using modern techniques with obvious implications for sample return from Mars. Macroscopic products of chemical weathering reactions in past Martian epochs are also expected in Martian surface materials. These products are expected not only as a result of reactions similar to those proceeding today but also due to aqueous reactions in past epochs in which liquid water was putatively present. It may prove very difficult or impossible, however, to determine definitively from the relic macroscopic product alone either the exact weathering process which led to its formation of the identity of its weathering parent mineral. The enormous advantages of studying the Martian chemical weathering by investigating the microscopic products of present-day chemical reactions on sample surfaces are very apparent.

  5. The chemical reactivity of the Martian soil and implications for future missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zent, Aaron P.; Mckay, Christopher P.

    1994-01-01

    Possible interpretations of the results of the Viking Biology Experiments suggest that greater than 1 ppm of a thermally labile oxidant, perhaps H2O2, and about 10 ppm of a thermally stable oxidant are present in the martian soil. We reexamine these results and discuss implications for future missions, the search for organics on Mars, and the possible health and engineering effects for human exploration. We conclude that further characterization of the reactivity of the martian regolith materials is warrented-although if our present understanding is correct the oxidant does not pose a hazard to humans. There are difficulties in explaining the reactivity of the Martian soil by oxidants. Most bulk phase compounds that are capable of oxidizing H2O to O2 per the Gas Exchange Experiment (GEx) are thermally labile or unstable against reduction by atmospheric CO2. Models invoking trapped O2 or peroxynitrates (NOO2(-)) require an unlikely geologic history for the Viking Lander 2 site. Most suggested oxidants, including H2O2, are expected to decompose rapidly under martian UV. Nonetheless, we conclude that the best model for the martian soil contains oxidants produced by heterogeneous chemical reactions with a photochemically produced atmospheric oxidant. The GEx results may be due to catalytic decomposition of an unstable oxidizing material by H2O. We show that interfacial reaction sites covering less than 1% of the available soil surfaces could explain the Viking Biology Experiments results.

  6. Evidence of atmospheric sulphur in the martian regolith from sulphur isotopes in meteorites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, J; Savarino, J; Jackson, T L; Thiemens, M H

    2000-03-02

    Sulphur is abundant at the martian surface, yet its origin and evolution over time remain poorly constrained. This sulphur is likely to have originated in atmospheric chemical reactions, and so should provide records of the evolution of the martian atmosphere, the cycling of sulphur between the atmosphere and crust, and the mobility of sulphur in the martian regolith. Moreover, the atmospheric deposition of oxidized sulphur species could establish chemical potential gradients in the martian near-surface environment, and so provide a potential energy source for chemolithoautotrophic organisms. Here we present measurements of sulphur isotopes in oxidized and reduced phases from the SNC meteorites--the group of related achondrite meteorites believed to have originated on Mars--together with the results of laboratory photolysis studies of two important martian atmospheric sulphur species (SO2 and H2S). The photolysis experiments can account for the observed sulphur-isotope compositions in the SNC meteorites, and so identify a mechanism for producing large abiogenic 34S fractionations in the surface sulphur reservoirs. We conclude that the sulphur data from the SNC meteorites reflects deposition of oxidized sulphur species produced by atmospheric chemical reactions, followed by incorporation, reaction and mobilization of the sulphur within the regolith.

  7. A record of igneous evolution in Elysium, a major martian volcanic province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, David; Karunatillake, Suniti; Kodikara, Gayantha; Skok, J R; Wray, James; Heldmann, Jennifer; Cousin, Agnes; Judice, Taylor

    2017-02-24

    A major knowledge gap exists on how eruptive compositions of a single martian volcanic province change over time. Here we seek to fill that gap by assessing the compositional evolution of Elysium, a major martian volcanic province. A unique geochemical signature overlaps with the southeastern flows of this volcano, which provides the context for this study of variability of martian magmatism. The southeastern lava fields of Elysium Planitia show distinct chemistry in the shallow subsurface (down to several decimeters) relative to the rest of the martian mid-to-low latitudes (average crust) and flows in northwest Elysium. By impact crater counting chronology we estimated the age of the southeastern province to be 0.85 ± 0.08 Ga younger than the northwestern fields. This study of the geochemical and temporal differences between the NW and SE Elysium lava fields is the first to demonstrate compositional variation within a single volcanic province on Mars. We interpret the geochemical and temporal differences between the SE and NW lava fields to be consistent with primary magmatic processes, such as mantle heterogeneity or change in depth of melt formation within the martian mantle due to crustal loading.

  8. Movement of Whole Martian Dunes Difficult to Detect or Confirm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    20 meters (66 ft) in 11 martian years (nearly 22 Earth years) is slower than some dunes of similar size and shape on Earth. Thus, it appears that martian dunes are not 'experiencing' the level of activity commonly reported for some of the modern desert dunes found on Earth. The dune field illustrated in these pictures is located in a western Arabia Terra crater at 1.6oN, 351.6oW. Both the Viking and MOC images are illuminated from the left.

  9. Source regions and water release mechanisms of Martian Valley Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Sander, T.; Gwinner, K.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Hauber, E.; Mertens, V.; Hoffmann, H.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    Martian valley networks have been cited as the best evidence that Mars maintained flow of liquid water across the surface. Although internal structures associated with a fluvial origin within valleys like inner channels, terraces, slip-off and undercut slopes are extremely rare on Mars (Carr and Malin, 2000) such features can be identified in high-resolution imagery (e.g. Malin and Edgett, 2001; Jaumann et al., 2005). However, besides internal features the source regions are an important indicator for the flow processes in Martian valleys because they define the drainage area and thus constrain the amount of available water for eroding the valley network. Furthermore, the morphology of the source regions and their topographic characteristics provide information about the origin of the water. On Mars valley networks are thought to be formed by retreating erosion where the water is supplied from the sub-surface. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for the release of ground water are poorly understood. The three dimensional highly resolved data of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express Mission (Neukum et al., 2004) allow the detailed examination of valley network source regions. A valley network in the western Lybia Montes region valley between 1.4°N to 3.5°N and 81.6°E to 82.5°E originates at a highland mountain region and drains down to Isidis Planitia over a distance of 400 km. Most of its distance the valley exhibits an interior channel that allows to constraint discharge and erosion budgets (Jaumann, et al., 2005). The valley was formed in the Noachian/Hesperian between 3.7 and 3.3 billion years. However, discharge and erosion budgets restrict the erosion time to a few million years in total, indicating single events rather than continuous flow over long periods. The source region of the valley is covered by a series of lava flows. Even the upstream part of the valley is covered by lava flows that cover the interior channel

  10. Three-dimensional structure of the Martian nightside Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, R. J.; Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D.

    2011-12-01

    The night side ionosphere of Mars is known to be highly variable: essentially nonexistent in certain regions, while occasionally nearly as strong as the photoionization-produced dayside ionosphere in others. Using a kinetic approach called MarMCET (Mars Monte Carlo Electron Transport) [3], we model the dynamics of precipitating electrons on the nightside of Mars to study the effects of magnetic field geometry and electron precipitation on ionospheric structure over the geographic region with the strongest crustal magnetic field (140°-220°E, 20°-70°S). As input, we use nightside precipitating electron energy spectra and pitch angle distributions from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Magnetometer & Electron Reflectometer (MAG/ER), as well as a vector sum of a typical external tail-lobe magnetic field and crustal magnetic field model. We thus calculate ionization rate in 3 dimensions, both for specific observations and average cases. We find that magnetic topology (via pitch angle distributions) plays an important part in determining peak ionization rates. Also, we see large geographic differences in average precipitating electron spectra, likely due to the dynamical coupling of the rotating planet-fixed crustal field with the draped interplanetary magnetic field. This leads to differences in peak ionization rates of more than 4 orders of magnitude across this region of the Martian nightside (see figure 1). We also see a strong dependence of peak ionization rate on magnetic elevation angle measured at MGS mapping orbit altitude of 400 km, as precipitating fluxes are generally lower in regions of closed magnetic topology where magnetic field is generally horizontal at this altitude.

  11. Using Wind Driven Tumbleweed Rovers to Explore Martian Gully Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Woodard, Stanley E.; Hajos, Gregory A.; Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Taylor, Bryant D.

    2005-01-01

    Gully features have been observed on the slopes of numerous Martian crater walls, valleys, pits, and graben. Several mechanisms for gully formation have been proposed, including: liquid water aquifers (shallow and deep), melting ground ice, snow melt, CO2 aquifers, and dry debris flow. Remote sensing observations indicate that the most likely erosional agent is liquid water. Debate concerns the source of this water. Observations favor a liquid water aquifer as the primary candidate. The current strategy in the search for life on Mars is to "follow the water." A new vehicle known as a Tumbleweed rover may be able to conduct in-situ investigations in the gullies, which are currently inaccessible by conventional rovers. Deriving mobility through use of the surface winds on Mars, Tumbleweed rovers would be lightweight and relatively inexpensive thus allowing multiple rovers to be deployed in a single mission to survey areas for future exploration. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is developing deployable structure Tumbleweed concepts. An extremely lightweight measurement acquisition system and sensors are proposed for the Tumbleweed rover that greatly increases the number of measurements performed while having negligible mass increase. The key to this method is the use of magnetic field response sensors designed as passive inductor-capacitor circuits that produce magnetic field responses whose attributes correspond to values of physical properties for which the sensors measure. The sensors do not need a physical connection to a power source or to data acquisition equipment resulting in additional weight reduction. Many of the sensors and interrogating antennae can be directly placed on the Tumbleweed using film deposition methods such as photolithography thus providing further weight reduction. Concepts are presented herein for methods to measure subsurface water, subsurface metals, planetary winds and environmental gases.

  12. On the link between martian total ozone and potential vorticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, James A.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that total ozone in the martian atmosphere is highly correlated with the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity, under certain conditions. The degree of correlation is investigated using a Mars global circulation model including a photochemical model. Potential vorticity is the quantity of choice to explore the dynamical nature of polar vortices because it contains information on winds and temperature in a single scalar variable. The correlation is found to display a distinct seasonal variation, with a strong positive correlation in both northern and southern winter at poleward latitudes in the northern and southern hemisphere respectively. The identified strong correlation implies variations in polar total ozone during winter are predominantly controlled by dynamical processes in these spatio-temporal regions. The weak correlation in northern and southern summer is due to the dominance of photochemical reactions resulting from extended exposure to sunlight. The total ozone/potential vorticity correlation is slightly weaker in southern winter due to topographical variations and the preference for ozone to accumulate in Hellas basin. In northern winter, total ozone can be used to track the polar vortex edge. The ozone/potential vorticity ratio is calculated for both northern and southern winter on Mars for the first time. Using the strong correlation in total ozone and potential vorticity in northern winter inside the polar vortex, it is shown that potential vorticity can be used as a proxy to deduce the distribution of total ozone where satellites cannot observe for the majority of northern winter. Where total ozone observations are available on the fringes of northern winter at poleward latitudes, the strong relationship of total ozone and potential vorticity implies that total ozone anomalies in the surf zone of the northern polar vortex can potentially be used to determine the origin of potential vorticity filaments.

  13. Martian Arctic Dust Devil and Phoenix Meteorology Mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander caught this dust devil in action west-southwest of the lander at 11:16 a.m. local Mars time on Sol 104, or the 104th Martian day of the mission, Sept. 9, 2008. Dust devils have not been detected in any Phoenix images from earlier in the mission, but at least six were observed in a dozen images taken on Sol 104. Dust devils are whirlwinds that often occur when the Sun heats the surface of Mars, or some areas on Earth. The warmed surface heats the layer of atmosphere closest to it, and the warm air rises in a whirling motion, stirring dust up from the surface like a miniature tornado. The vertical post near the left edge of this image is the mast of the Meteorological Station on Phoenix. The dust devil visible at the horizon just to the right of the mast is estimated to be 600 to 700 meters (about 2,000 to 2,300 feet) from Phoenix, and 4 to 5 meters (10 to 13 feet) in diameter. It is much smaller than dust devils that have been observed by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit much closer to the equator. It is closer in size to dust devils seen from orbit in the Phoenix landing region, though still smaller than those. The image has been enhanced to make the dust devil easier to see. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  14. Access of solar wind electrons into the Martian magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Dubinin

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrons with energy of ~40–80 eV measured by the instrument ASPERA-3 on Mars Express and MAG-ER onboard Mars Global Surveyor are used to trace an access of solar wind electrons into the Martian magnetosphere. Crustal magnetic fields create an additional protection from solar wind plasma on the dayside of the Southern Hemisphere by shifting the boundary of the induced magnetosphere (this boundary is often refereed as the magnetic pileup boundary above strong crustal sources to ~400 km as compared to the Northern Hemisphere. Localized intrusions through cusps are also observed. On the nightside an access into the magnetosphere depends on the IMF orientation. Negative values of the ByIMF component assist the access to the regions with strong crustal magnetizations although electron fluxes are strongly weakened below ~600 km. A precipitation pattern at lower altitudes is formed by intermittent regions with reduced and enhanced electron fluxes. The precipitation sites are longitudinally stretched narrow bands in the regions with a strong vertical component of the crustal field. Fluxes ≥109 cm−2 s−1 of suprathermal electrons necessary to explain the observed aurora emissions are maintained only for the periods with enhanced precipitation. The appearance of another class of electron distributions – inverted V structures, characterized by peaks on energy spectra, is controlled by the IMF. They are clustered in the hemisphere pointed by the interplanetary electric field that implies a constraint on their origin.

  15. Martian Dust Devil Electron Avalanche Process and Associated Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Telana L.; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Gregory T.; Nithianandam, Jeyasingh

    2010-01-01

    Mars' dynamic atmosphere displays localized dust devils and larger, global dust storms. Based on terrestrial analog studies, electrostatic modeling, and laboratory work these features will contain large electrostatic fields formed via triboelectric processes. In the low-pressure Martian atmosphere, these fields may create an electron avalanche and collisional plasma due to an increase in electron density driven by the internal electrical forces. To test the hypothesis that an electron avalanche is sustained under these conditions, a self-consistent atmospheric process model is created including electron impact ionization sources and electron losses via dust absorption, electron dissociation attachment, and electron/ion recombination. This new model is called the Dust Devil Electron Avalanche Model (DDEAM). This model solves simultaneously nine continuity equations describing the evolution of the primary gaseous chemical species involved in the electrochemistry. DDEAM monitors the evolution of the electrons and primary gas constituents, including electron/water interactions. We especially focus on electron dynamics and follow the electrons as they evolve in the E field driven collisional gas. When sources and losses are self-consistently included in the electron continuity equation, the electron density grows exponentially with increasing electric field, reaching an equilibrium that forms a sustained time-stable collisional plasma. However, the character of this plasma differs depending upon the assumed growth rate saturation process (chemical saturation versus space charge). DDEAM also shows the possibility of the loss of atmospheric methane as a function of electric field due to electron dissociative attachment of the hydrocarbon. The methane destruction rates are presented and can be included in other larger atmospheric models.

  16. The chemistry of protonated species in the martian ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jane L.

    2015-05-01

    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN) spacecraft entered orbit around Mars on 22 September 2014. The Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) instrument on this spacecraft will measure the ion densities with unprecedented sensitivity of ∼1 cm-3 above the nominal periapsis altitude ∼150 km. The upper region of the martian ionosphere consists of a suite of ions that have been modeled many times, and several protonated species, for which there are fewer models. We model here the density profiles for 14 major ions that have been modeled previously and 10 additional protonated species, which include the most important 4 species, HCO+, OCOH+, OH+, and N2H+, with smaller densities of several minor species, including H2+, H3+, HOx2+, HNO+, ArH+, and CH+. To the ∼220 reactions that were already in our ionospheric models, we add ∼75 reactions that are of relevance to protonated species, including ion-molecule reactions and dissociative recombination reactions. These reactions also largely complete the chemistry of thermospheric H and H2, which we also show. We first discuss the chemistry of protonated species in general, and then we justify our choices for the rate coefficients of the reactions that we add here. We then describe the major production and loss mechanisms for the four major protonated species. Finally we present density profiles for all 10 protonated species that we consider here for low and high solar activity models, and show that most of their peak densities are anticorrelated with solar activity. This will confer an advantage to the MAVEN mission, which will enter the ionosphere during a period of declining solar activity. We compare our model to two previous models, and show that there are significant differences between them. The results presented here will provide a guide for the mass settings on the NGIMS instrument.

  17. Water and Water Ions in the Martian Thermosphere/Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J. L.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present here the first model of the Martian thermosphere/ionosphere in which we predict the density profiles of water vapor and water ions in the altitude range 80 to 400 km. The model is based on data from the MAVEN spacecraft, including the NGIMS, LPW, EUVM and STATIC. The model includes 28 ions, of which 14 are protonated species, and 10 minor neutral species. The protonated species include H2O+ and H3O+, and the minor neutral species include H2O. These species are coupled to each other and to the background species by over 400 reactions. The peaks of the density profiles of water ions and OH+ are in fairly good agreement with the values measured by the NGIMS instrument. The density profiles of water vapor are computed with zero flux boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the model, which shows that water can be made in situ via ion chemistry, somewhat like in the interstelllar medium. It appears, however, that the predicted densities may be too small to account for the densities of H3O+ that are seen at low altitudes beyond the terminator. On the other hand, the densities of water vapor must be small enough so that HCO+ is not destroyed completely by proton transfer. The actual amount of water in the thermosphere is bracketed by these two requirements. The computed water vapor densities at the lower boundary are smaller than some of those at the upper boundaries of middle atmosphere models. We tentatively predict that there must be some influx of water from below. We also compute the Hn + species, where n=(1-3), and convincingly demonstrate the the mass-2 ion is H2+ and not D+, as it is on Venus.

  18. Martian Dust Devil Electron Avalanche Process and Associated Electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Telana L.; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Gregory T.; Nithianandam, Jeyasingh

    2010-01-01

    Mars' dynamic atmosphere displays localized dust devils and larger, global dust storms. Based on terrestrial analog studies, electrostatic modeling, and laboratory work these features will contain large electrostatic fields formed via triboelectric processes. In the low-pressure Martian atmosphere, these fields may create an electron avalanche and collisional plasma due to an increase in electron density driven by the internal electrical forces. To test the hypothesis that an electron avalanche is sustained under these conditions, a self-consistent atmospheric process model is created including electron impact ionization sources and electron losses via dust absorption, electron dissociation attachment, and electron/ion recombination. This new model is called the Dust Devil Electron Avalanche Model (DDEAM). This model solves simultaneously nine continuity equations describing the evolution of the primary gaseous chemical species involved in the electrochemistry. DDEAM monitors the evolution of the electrons and primary gas constituents, including electron/water interactions. We especially focus on electron dynamics and follow the electrons as they evolve in the E field driven collisional gas. When sources and losses are self-consistently included in the electron continuity equation, the electron density grows exponentially with increasing electric field, reaching an equilibrium that forms a sustained time-stable collisional plasma. However, the character of this plasma differs depending upon the assumed growth rate saturation process (chemical saturation versus space charge). DDEAM also shows the possibility of the loss of atmospheric methane as a function of electric field due to electron dissociative attachment of the hydrocarbon. The methane destruction rates are presented and can be included in other larger atmospheric models.

  19. Evolution of Martian atmospheric argon: Implications for sources of volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Kevin S.; Jakosky, Bruce M.

    We have examined processes affecting isotopes of argon (36Ar, 38Ar, 40Ar) in order to determine important atmospheric sources and sinks. Our simple model for argon evolution incorporates production of radiogenic argon in the mantle, outgassing of all argon species by extrusive and intrusive volcanism, and loss to space by knock-on sputtering above the exobase. Sputtering has been shown previously to be an important loss process for atmospheric species, especially isotopes of noble gases, which have few other mechanisms of escape. The integrated evolution of argon (36Ar, 38Ar, and 40Ar, respectively) is modeled in terms of these variables: (1) the planetary concentration of potassium, (2) the fraction of juvenile argon released catastrophically during the first 600 Myr., (3) potential variation in the time-history of sputtering loss from that suggested by Luhmann et al. [1992], and (4) the volume of total outgassing to the surface as compared to outgassing contributed by volcanic release. Our results indicate that Mars has lost between 85-95% of 36Ar and 70-88% of outgassed 40Ar. Due to this substantial loss, the planet must have outgassed the equivalent of between 10 and 100 times the total volume of gases released by extrusive and intrusive volcanics. This indicates that volcanic outgassing, alone, is insufficient to explain the present-day abundances of 36Ar and 40Ar in the Martian atmosphere. Similar calculations for 20Ne suggest outgassed volumes of between 100 and 1800 times in excess of that due to volcanism. This results in a distinct Ne/Ar elemental fractionation, with a preference for outgassing argon, of the order of 10 to 17. Although the results must be evaluated within the model uncertainties, the results are compelling in that they unequivocally show the existence of additional sources of atmospheric volatiles and helps define a means to identify them.

  20. Alteration of the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition in the Martian surface rocks due to cosmic ray exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. A.; Pavlov, A. K.; Ostryakov, V. M.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Mahaffy, P.; Steele, A.

    2014-06-01

    13C/12C and 15N/14N isotopic ratios are pivotal for our understanding of the Martian carbon cycle, history of the Martian atmospheric escape, and origin of the organic compounds on Mars. Here we demonstrate that the carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of the surface rocks on Mars can be significantly altered by the continuous exposure of Martian surface to cosmic rays. Cosmic rays can effectively produce 13C and 15N isotopes via spallation nuclear reactions on oxygen atoms in various Martian rocks. We calculate that in the top meter of the Martian rocks, the rates of production of both 13C and 15N due to galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) exposure can vary within 1.5-6 atoms/cm3/s depending on rocks' depth and chemical composition. We also find that the average solar cosmic rays can produce carbon and nitrogen isotopes at a rate comparable to GCRs in the top 5-10 cm of the Martian rocks. We demonstrate that if the total carbon content in a surface Martian rock is Mars can explain its high-temperature heavy nitrogen isotopic composition (15N/14N). Applications to Martian meteorites and the current Mars Science Laboratory mission are discussed.