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Sample records for jsc iss cell

  1. NASA/JSC ISSLive!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip D.; Price, Jennifer B.; Khan, Ahmed; Severance, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Just 150 miles above us, the International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting. Each day, the astronauts on board perform a variety of activities from exercise, science experiments, and maintenance. Yet, many on the ground do not know about these daily activities. National Aeronautics Space Agency/ Johnson Space Center (NASA/JSC) innovation creation ISSLive! - an education project - is working to bridge this knowledge gap with traditional education channels such as schools, but also non-traditional channels with the non-technical everyday public. ISSLive! provides a website that seamlessly integrates planning and telemetry data, video feeds, 3D models, and iOS and android applications. Through the site, users are able to view astronauts daily schedules, in plain English alongside the original data. As an example, when an astronaut is working with a science experiment, a user will be able to read about the activity and for more detailed activities follow provided links to view more information all integrated into the same site. Live telemetry data from a predefined set can also be provided alongside the activities. For users to learn more, 3D models of the external and internal parts of the ISS are available, allowing users to explore the station and even select sensors, such as temperature, and view a real-time chart of the data. Even ground operations are modeled with a 3D mission control center, providing users information on the various flight control disciplines and showing live data that they would be monitoring. Some unique activities are also highlighted and have dedicated spaces to explore in more detail. Education is the focus of ISSLive!, even from the beginning when university students participated in the development process as part of their master s projects. Focus groups at a Houston school showed interest in the project and excitement towards including ISSLive! in their classroom. Through this inclusion, students' knowledge can be assessed with projects

  2. Cold Stowage: An ISS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Garen

    2018-01-01

    NASA's vision for humans pursuing deep space flight involves the collection of science in low earth orbit aboard the International Space Station (ISS). As a service to the science community, Johnson Space Center (JSC) has developed hardware and processes to preserve collected science on the ISS and transfer it safely back to the Principal Investigators. This hardware includes an array of freezers, refrigerators, and incubators. The Cold Stowage team is part of the International Space Station (ISS) program. JSC manages the operation, support and integration tasks provided by Jacobs Technology and the University of Alabama Birmingham (UAB). Cold Stowage provides controlled environments to meet temperature requirements during ascent, on-orbit operations and return, in relation to International Space Station Payload Science.

  3. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; hide

    2004-01-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  4. JSC research and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The primary roles and missions of JSC incorporate all aspects of human presence in space. Therefore, the Center is involved in the development of technology that will allow humans to stay longer in Earth orbit, allow safe flight in space, and provide capabilities to explore the Moon and Mars. The Center's technology emphasis areas include human spacecraft development, human support systems and infrastructure, and human spacecraft operations. Safety and reliability are critical requirements for the technologies that JSC pursues for long-duration use in space. One of the objectives of technology development at the Center is to give employees the opportunity to enhance their technological expertise and project management skills by defining, designing, and developing projects that are vital to the Center's strategy for the future. This report is intended to communicate within and outside the Agency our research and technology (R&T) accomplishments, as well as inform Headquarters program managers and their constituents of the significant accomplishments that have promise for future Agency programs. While not inclusive of all R&T efforts, the report presents a comprehensive summary of JSC projects in which substantial progress was made in the 1992 fiscal year. At the beginning of each project description, names of the Principal Investigator (PI) and the Technical Monitor (TM) are given, followed by their JSC mail codes or their company or university affiliations. The funding sources and technology focal points are identified in the index.

  5. Early Communication System (ECOMM) for ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylor, Kent; Tu, Kwei

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Early Communications System (ECOMM) was a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Avionic Systems Division (ASD) in-house developed communication system to provide early communications between the ISS and the Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H). This system allows for low rate commands (link rate of 6 kbps) to be transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) from MCC-H to the ISS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Forward (SSA/) link service. This system also allows for low rate telemetry (link rate of 20.48 kbps) to be transmitted from ISS to MCC-H through the TDRSS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Return (SSAR) link service. In addition this system supports a JSC developed Onboard Communications Adapter (OCA) that allows for a two-way data exchange of 128 kbps between MCC-H and the ISS through TDRSS. This OCA data can be digital video/audio (two-way videoconference), and/or file transfers, and/or "white board". The key components of the system, the data formats used by the system to insure compatibility with the future ISS S-Band System, as well as how other vehicles may be able to use this system for their needs are discussed in this paper.

  6. ISS & Nordea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    on the core business of banking. In Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, some services had been outsourced to one of the leaders in the facility management (FM) market, the global service provider ISS. The relationship between Nordea and ISS on the delivery of facility services had a long history, but a new contract......Nordea Bank had emerged as the largest financial group in the Nordic region. As part of its consolidated approach, Nordea’s top management had made the strategic decision to outsource a number of the company’s peripheral activities, such as catering, security, and cleaning, in order to focus...

  7. ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie

    2004-01-01

    A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

  8. Center Innovation Fund: JSC CIF (also includes JSC IRAD) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JSC provides and applies its preeminent capabilities in science and technology to develop, operate, and integrate human exploration missions.  The Center...

  9. Suspended Cell Culture ANalysis (SCAN) Tool to Enhance ISS On-Orbit Capabilities, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aurora Flight Sciences and partner, Draper Laboratory, propose to develop an on-orbit immuno-based label-free Suspension Cell Culture ANalysis tool, SCAN tool, which...

  10. Three-dimensional growth of human endothelial cells in an automated cell culture experiment container during the SpaceX CRS-8 ISS space mission - The SPHEROIDS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Jessica; Gass, Samuel; Nebuloni, Stefano; Echegoyen, David; Riwaldt, Stefan; Baake, Christin; Bauer, Johann; Corydon, Thomas J; Egli, Marcel; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Human endothelial cells (ECs) were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the impact of microgravity on the formation of three-dimensional structures. For this project, an automatic experiment unit (EU) was designed allowing cell culture in space. In order to enable a safe cell culture, cell nourishment and fixation after a pre-programmed timeframe, the materials used for construction of the EUs were tested in regard to their biocompatibility. These tests revealed a high biocompatibility for all parts of the EUs, which were in contact with the cells or the medium used. Most importantly, we found polyether ether ketones for surrounding the incubation chamber, which kept cellular viability above 80% and allowed the cells to adhere as long as they were exposed to normal gravity. After assembling the EU the ECs were cultured therein, where they showed good cell viability at least for 14 days. In addition, the functionality of the automatic medium exchange, and fixation procedures were confirmed. Two days before launch, the ECs were cultured in the EUs, which were afterwards mounted on the SpaceX CRS-8 rocket. 5 and 12 days after launch the cells were fixed. Subsequent analyses revealed a scaffold-free formation of spheroids in space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial Challenge Testing of Single Liquid Cathode Feed Water Electrolysis Cells for the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Robert J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Diderich, Greg S.; Steele, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) operational performance may be adversely impacted by microbiological growth and biofilm formation over the electrolysis cell membranes. Biofilms could hinder the transport of water from the bulk fluid stream to the membranes and increase the cell concentration overpotential resulting in higher cell voltages and a shorter cell life. A microbial challenge test was performed on duplicate single liquid-cathode feed water electrolysis cells to evaluate operational performance with increasing levels of a mixture of five bacteria isolated from ISS and Space Shuttle potable water systems. Baseline performance of the single water electrolysis cells was determined for approximately one month with deionized water. Monthly performance was also determined following each inoculation of the feed tank with 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 cells/ml of the mixed suspension of test bacteria. Water samples from the feed tank and recirculating water loops for each cell were periodically analyzed for enumeration and speciation of bacteria and total organic carbon. While initially a concern, this test program has demonstrated that the performance of the electrolysis cell is not adversely impacted by feed water containing the five species of bacteria tested at a concentration measured as high as 1,000,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml. This paper presents the methodologies used in the conduct of this test program along with the performance test results at each level of bacteria concentration.

  12. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 5 Developed to Test Advanced Solar Cell Technology Aboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, David M.

    2004-01-01

    The testing of new technologies aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is facilitated through the use of a passive experiment container, or PEC, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The PEC is an aluminum suitcase approximately 2 ft square and 5 in. thick. Inside the PEC are mounted Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) plates that contain the test articles. The PEC is carried to the ISS aboard the space shuttle or a Russian resupply vehicle, where astronauts attach it to a handrail on the outer surface of the ISS and deploy the PEC, which is to say the suitcase is opened 180 deg. Typically, the PEC is left in this position for approximately 1 year, at which point astronauts close the PEC and it is returned to Earth. In the past, the PECs have contained passive experiments, principally designed to characterize the durability of materials subjected to the ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen present at the ISS orbit. The MISSE5 experiment is intended to characterize state-of-art (SOA) and beyond photovoltaic technologies.

  13. Analyzing an Aging ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ISS External Survey integrates the requirements for photographic and video imagery of the International Space Station (ISS) for the engineering, operations, and science communities. An extensive photographic survey was performed on all Space Shuttle flights to the ISS and continues to be performed daily, though on a level much reduced by the limited available imagery. The acquired video and photo imagery is used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of external deposition and contamination, surface degradation, dynamic events, and MMOD strikes. Many of these assessments provide important information about ISS surfaces and structural integrity as the ISS ages. The imagery is also used to assess and verify the physical configuration of ISS structure, appendages, and components.

  14. KSC ISS Logistics Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellado, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The presentation contains a status of KSC ISS Logistics Operations. It basically presents current top level ISS Logistics tasks being conducted at KSC, current International Partner activities, hardware processing flow focussing on late Stow operations, list of KSC Logistics POC's, and a backup list of Logistics launch site services. This presentation is being given at the annual International Space Station (ISS) Multi-lateral Logistics Maintenance Control Panel meeting to be held in Turin, Italy during the week of May 13-16. The presentatiuon content doesn't contain any potential lessons learned.

  15. Center Independent Research & Developments: JSC IRAD Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JSC provides and applies its preeminent capabilities in science and technology to develop, operate, and integrate human exploration missions.  The center...

  16. WetLab-2: Providing Quantitative PCR Capabilities on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy Kar Chuen; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis David; Schonfeld, Julie; Tran, Luan Hoang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of NASA Ames Research Centers WetLab-2 Project is to place on the ISS a system capable of conducting gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of biological specimens sampled or cultured on orbit. The WetLab-2 system is capable of processing sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. The project has developed a RNA preparation module that can lyse cells and extract RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for use as templates in qRT-PCR reactions. Our protocol has the advantage that it uses non-toxic chemicals, alcohols or other organics. The resulting RNA is transferred into a pipette and then dispensed into reaction tubes that contain all lyophilized reagents needed to perform qRT-PCR reactions. These reaction tubes are mounted on rotors to centrifuge the liquid to the reaction window of the tube using a cordless drill. System operations require simple and limited crew actions including syringe pushes, valve turns and pipette dispenses. The resulting process takes less than 30 min to have tubes ready for loading into the qRT-PCR unit.The project has selected a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) qRT-PCR unit, the Cepheid SmartCycler, that will fly in its COTS configuration. The SmartCycler has a number of advantages including modular design (16 independent PCR modules), low power consumption, rapid thermal ramp times and four-color detection. The ability to detect up to four fluorescent channels will enable multiplex assays that can be used to normalize for RNA concentration and integrity, and to study multiple genes of interest in each module. The WetLab-2 system will have the capability to downlink data from the ISS to the ground after a completed run and to uplink new programs. The ability to conduct qRT-PCR on-orbit eliminates the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms or the concern of RNA degradation of fixed samples. The

  17. Development and Certification of Ultrasonic Background Noise Test (UBNT) System for use on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2011-01-01

    As a next step in the development and implementation of an on-board leak detection and localization system on the International Space Station (ISS), there is a documented need to obtain measurements of the ultrasonic background noise levels that exist within the ISS. This need is documented in the ISS Integrated Risk Management System (IRMA), Watch Item #4669. To address this, scientists and engineers from the Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Johnson Space Center (JSC), proposed to the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and the ISS Vehicle Office a joint assessment to develop a flight package as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) that would perform ultrasonic background noise measurements within the United States (US) controlled ISS structure. This document contains the results of the assessment

  18. Evaluating the Medical Kit System for the International Space Station(ISS) - A Paradigm Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Melinda J.; Urbina, Michelle C.; Hughlett, Jessica L.; Gilmore, Stevan; Locke, James; Reyna, Baraquiel; Smith, Gwyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Medical capabilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been packaged to help astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) mitigate both urgent and non-urgent medical issues during their 6-month expeditions. Two ISS crewmembers are designated as CMOs for each 3-crewmember mission and are typically not physicians. In addition, the ISS may have communication gaps of up to 45 minutes during each orbit, necessitating medical equipment that can be reliably operated autonomously during flight. The retirement of the space shuttle combined with ten years of manned ISS expeditions led the Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to reassess the current ISS Medical Kit System. This reassessment led to the system being streamlined to meet future logistical considerations with current Russian space vehicles and future NASA/commercial space vehicle systems. Methods The JSC Space Medicine Division coordinated the development of requirements, fabrication of prototypes, and conducted usability testing for the new ISS Medical Kit System in concert with implementing updated versions of the ISS Medical Check List and associated in-flight software applications. The teams constructed a medical kit system with the flexibility for use on the ISS, and resupply on the Russian Progress space vehicle and future NASA/commercial space vehicles. Results Prototype systems were developed, reviewed, and tested for implementation. Completion of Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews resulted in a streamlined ISS Medical Kit System that is being used for training by ISS crews starting with Expedition 27 (June 2011). Conclusions The team will present the process for designing, developing, , implementing, and training with this new ISS Medical Kit System.

  19. JSC Orbital Debris Website Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The website provides information about the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office at JSC, which is the lead NASA center for orbital debris research. It is recognized world-wide for its leadership in addressing orbital debris issues. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has taken the international lead in conducting measurements of the environment and in developing the technical consensus for adopting mitigation measures to protect users of the orbital environment. Work at the center continues with developing an improved understanding of the orbital debris environment and measures that can be taken to control its growth. Major Contents: Orbital Debris research is divided into the following five broad efforts. Each area of research contains specific information as follows: 1) Modeling - NASA scientists continue to develop and upgrade orbital debris models to describe and characterize the current and future debris environment. Evolutionary and engineering models are described in detail. Downloadable items include a document in PDF format and executable software. 2) Measurements - Measurements of near-Earth orbital debris are accomplished by conducting ground-based and space-based observations of the orbital debris environment. The data from these sources provide validation of the environment models and identify the presence of new sources. Radar, optical and surface examinations are described. External links to related topics are provided. 3) Protection - Orbital debris protection involves conducting hypervelocity impact measurements to assess the risk presented by orbital debris to operating spacecraft and developing new materials and new designs to provide better protection from the environment with less weight penalty. The data from this work provides the link between the environment defined by the models and the risk presented by that environment to operating spacecraft and provides recommendations on design and operations procedures to reduce the risk as

  20. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  1. Unusual ISS Rate Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    On November 23, 2011 International Space Station Guidance, Navigation, and Control reported unusual pitch rate disturbance. These disturbances were an order of magnitude greater than nominal rates. The Loads and Dynamics team was asked to review and analyze current accelerometer data to investigate this disturbance. This paper will cover the investigation process under taken by the Loads and Dynamics group. It will detail the accelerometers used and analysis performed. The analysis included performing Frequency Fourier Transform of the data to identify the mode of interest. This frequency data is then reviewed with modal analysis of the ISS system model. Once this analysis is complete and the disturbance quantified, a forcing function was produced to replicate the disturbance. This allows the Loads and Dynamics team to report the load limit values for the 100's of interfaces on the ISS.

  2. ISS Local Environment Spectrometers (ISLES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Gilchrist, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the ISS and the ISS surface materials, we propose to use lowcost, high-TRL plasma sensors on the ISS robotic arm to probe the ISS space environment. During many years of ISS operation, we have been able to condut effective (but not perfect) extravehicular activities (both human and robotic) within the perturbed local ISS space environment. Because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the LEO space environment, there remain important questions, such as differential charging at solar panel junctions (the so-called "triple point" between conductor, dielectric, and space plasma), increased chemical contamination due to ISS surface charging and/or thruster activation, water dumps, etc, and "bootstrap" charging of insulating surfaces. Some compelling questions could synergistically draw upon a common sensor suite, which also leverages previous and current MSFC investments. Specific questions address ISS surface charging, plasma contactor plume expansion in a magnetized drifting plasma, and possible localized contamination effects across the ISS.

  3. JSC technician checks STS-44 DSO 316 bioreactor and rotating wall vessel hdwr

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    JSC technician Tacey Prewitt checks the progress on a bioreactor experiment in JSC's Life Sciences Laboratory Bldg 37 biotechnology laboratory. Similar hardware is scheduled for testing aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-44. Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) 316 Bioreactor/Flow and Particle Trajectory in Microgravity will checkout the rotating wall vessel hardware and hopefully will confirm researchers' theories and calculations about how flow fields work in space. Plastic beads of various sizes rather than cell cultures are being flown in the vessel for the STS-44 test.

  4. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  5. ISS Expeditions 16 through 20: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2-year span from Expedition 16 through Expedition 20, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified safe for crew consumption through the return and chemical analysis of archival water samples by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Reclaimed cabin humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water were the principal sources of potable water for Expeditions 16 through 18. During Expedition 18 the U.S. water processor assembly was delivered, installed, and tested during a 90-day checkout period. Beginning with Expedition 19, U.S. potable water recovered from a combined waste stream of humidity condensate and pretreated urine was also available for ISS crew use. A total of 74 potable water samples were collected using U.S. sampling hardware during Expeditions 16 through 20 and returned on both Shuttle and Soyuz vehicles. The results of JSC chemical analyses of these ISS potable water samples are presented in this paper. Eight potable water samples collected in flight with Russian hardware were also received for analysis, as well as 5 preflight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to ISS on Russian Progress vehicles 28 to 34. Analytical results for these additional potable water samples are also reported and discussed.

  6. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  7. Public Participation in Earth Science from the Iss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth (GAPE) is an online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov) of terrestrial astronaut photography that enables the public to experience the astronaut’s view from orbit. This database of imagery includes all NASA human-directed missions from the Mercury program of the early 1960’s to the current International Space Station (ISS). To date, the total number of images taken by astronauts is 1,025,333. Of the total, 621,316 images have been “cataloged” (image geographic center points determined and descriptive metadata added). The remaining imagery provides an opportunity for the citizen-scientist to become directly involved with NASA through cataloging of astronaut photography, while simultaneously experiencing the wonder and majesty of our home planet as seen by astronauts on board the ISS every day. We are currently developing a public cataloging interface for the GAPE website. When complete, the citizen-scientist will be able to access a selected subset of astronaut imagery. Each candidate will be required to pass a training tutorial in order to receive certification as a cataloger. The cataloger can then choose from a selection of images with basic metadata that is sorted by difficulty levels. Some guidance will be provided (template/pull down menus) for generation of geographic metadata required from the cataloger for each photograph. Each cataloger will also be able to view other contributions and further edit that metadata if they so choose. After the public inputs their metadata the images will be posted to an internal screening site. Images with similar geographic metadata and centerpoint coordinates from multiple catalogers will be reviewed by NASA JSC Crew Earth Observations (CEO) staff. Once reviewed and verified, the metadata will be entered into the GAPE database with the contributors identified by their chosen usernames as having cataloged the frame.

  8. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  9. Assessment of lnternational Space Station (ISS) Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Runaway (TR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graika, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This task was developed in the wake of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner lithium-ion battery TR incidents of January 2013 and January 2014. The Electrical Power Technical Discipline Team supported the Dreamliner investigations and has followed up by applying lessons learned to conduct an introspective evaluation of NASA's risk of similar incidents in its own lithium-ion battery deployments. This activity has demonstrated that historically NASA, like Boeing and others in the aerospace industry, has emphasized the prevention of TR in a single cell within the battery (e.g., cell screening) but has not considered TR severity-reducing measures in the event of a single-cell TR event. center dotIn the recent update of the battery safety standard (JSC 20793) to address this paradigm shift, the NASA community included requirements for assessing TR severity and identifying simple, low-cost severity reduction measures. This task will serve as a pathfinder for meeting those requirements and will specifically look at a number of different lithium-ion batteries currently in the design pipeline within the ISS Program batteries that, should they fail in a Dreamliner-like incident, could result in catastrophic consequences. This test is an abuse test to understand the heat transfer properties of the cell and ORU in thermal runaway, with radiant barriers in place in a flight like test in on orbit conditions. This includes studying the heat flow and distribution in the ORU. This data will be used to validate the thermal runaway analysis. This test does not cover the ambient pressure case. center dotThere is no pass/ fail criteria for this test.

  10. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  11. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and International Space Station (ISS) Coordination for CubeSat Deployments to Minimize Collision Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, James H.; Aviles, Jorge; Myers, Ralph; Parris, Joshua; Corley, Bryan; Hehn, Garrett; Pascucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe global precipitation, extending the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), which was launched by H-IIA from Tanegashima in Japan on February 28TH, 2014 directly into its 407km operational orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an international human research facility operated jointly by Russia and the USA from NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston Texas. Mission priorities lowered the operating altitude of ISS from 415km to 400km in early 2105, effectively placing both vehicles into the same orbital regime. The ISS has begun a program of deployments of cost effective CubeSats from the ISS that allow testing and validation of new technologies. With a major new asset flying at the same effective altitude as the ISS, CubeSat deployments became a serious threat to GPM and therefore a significant indirect threat to the ISS. This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.

  12. Quality assurance monitoring during nuclear fuel production in JSC 'TVEL'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filimonov, G.; Tchirkov, V.

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes Quality Assurance (QA) monitoring during fabrication of nuclear fuel in Russian Federation. Joint Stock Company 'TVEL', natural state monopoly of the type of holding that fabricates and supplies nuclear fuel for the NPPs of Russia, CIS and Europe, incorporates the major enterprises of the nuclear fuel cycle including JSC 'Mashinostroitelny zavod', Electrostal (fabrication of fuel pellets, rods and assemblies for different types of reactors), JSC 'Novosibirsky zavod khimconcentratov', Novosibirsk (fabrication of fuel rods and assemblies for WWER-440 and WWER-1000), JSC 'Tchepetsky mechanitchesky zavod', Tchepetsk (fabrication of Zr tubing). Monitoring of QA is an important element of Quality Management System (QMS) developed and implemented at the above-mentioned enterprises of the JSC 'TVEL' and it is performed on three levels including external and internal audits and author's supervision. Paper also describes short- and long-term policies of the JSC 'TVEL' in nuclear fuel quality field. (author)

  13. JSC “ALFA-BANK” marketing policy. problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillov, A.; Kuznetcova, E.; Martirosian, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the results of JSC “Alfa-Bank” consumers’ segmentation and the following complex marketing research. The article suggests the ways of the bank’s marketing policy improvement.

  14. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  15. Evaluation of Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Calle, Verónica; Slack, Abigail; Keane, Niamh; Luft, Susan; Pearce, Kathryn E; Ketterling, Rhett P; Jain, Tania; Chirackal, Sintosebastian; Reeder, Craig; Mikhael, Joseph; Noel, Pierre; Mayo, Angela; Adams, Roberta H; Ahmann, Gregory; Braggio, Esteban; Stewart, A Keith; Bergsagel, P Leif; Van Wier, Scott A; Fonseca, Rafael

    2018-04-06

    The International Myeloma Working Group has proposed the Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for risk stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. There are a limited number of studies that have validated this risk model in the autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) setting. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the applicability and value for predicting survival of the R-ISS model in 134 MM patients treated with new agents and ASCT at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona and the University Hospital of Salamanca in Spain. The patients were reclassified at diagnosis according to the R-ISS: 44 patients (33%) had stage I, 75 (56%) had stage II, and 15 (11%) had stage III. After a median follow-up of 60 months, R-ISS assessed at diagnosis was an independent predictor for overall survival (OS) after ASCT, with median OS not reached, 111 and 37 months for R-ISS I, II and III, respectively (P R-ISS II and having high-risk chromosomal abnormalities (CA) had a significant shorter median OS than those with R-ISS II without CA: 70 vs. 111 months, respectively. Therefore, this study lends further support for the R-ISS as a reliable prognostic tool for estimating survival in transplant myeloma patients and suggests the importance of high-risk CA in the R-ISS II group.

  16. CALET docked on the ISS

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 19 August, with a spectacular launch on board the Japanese H2-B rocket operated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) left the Tanegashima Space Center to reach the International Space Station five days later.   After berthing with the ISS, CALET was extracted by a robotic arm from the Japanese HTV-5 transfer vehicle and installed on the Japanese Exposure Facility (right) where it will start its first data-taking. (Image: NASA/JAXA.)   CALET is a space mission led by JAXA with the participation of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and NASA. It is a CERN-recognised experiment and the second high-energy astroparticle experiment to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) after AMS-02, which has been taking data since 2011. Designed to be a space observatory for long-term observations of cosmic radiation aboard the external platform JEM-EF of the Japanese module (KIBO) on the ISS, CALET aims to identify elect...

  17. Gas monitoring onboard ISS using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisi, Michael; Stettner, Armin; Seurig, Roland; Honne, Atle; Witt, Johannes; Rebeyre, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    In the confined, enclosed environment of a spacecraft, the air quality must be monitored continuously in order to safeguard the crew's health. For this reason, OHB builds the ANITA2 (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) technology demonstrator for trace gas monitoring onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The measurement principle of ANITA2 is based on the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) technology with dedicated gas analysis software from the Norwegian partner SINTEF. This combination proved to provide high sensitivity, accuracy and precision for parallel measurements of 33 trace gases simultaneously onboard ISS by the precursor instrument ANITA1. The paper gives a technical overview about the opto-mechanical components of ANITA2, such as the interferometer, the reference Laser, the infrared source and the gas cell design and a quick overview about the gas analysis. ANITA2 is very well suited for measuring gas concentrations specifically but not limited to usage onboard spacecraft, as no consumables are required and measurements are performed autonomously. ANITA2 is a programme under the contract of the European Space Agency, and the air quality monitoring system is a stepping stone into the future, as a precursor system for manned exploration missions.

  18. ISS National Laboratory Education Project: Enhancing and Innovating the ISS as an Educational Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Leland D.

    2011-01-01

    The vision is to develop the ISS National Laboratory Education Project (ISS NLE) as a national resource for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, utilizing the unique educational venue of the International Space Station per the NASA Congressional Authorization Act of 2005. The ISS NLE will serve as an educational resource which enables educational activities onboard the ISS and in the classroom. The ISS NLE will be accessible to educators and students from kindergarten to post-doctoral studies, at primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities. Additionally, the ISS NLE will provide ISS-related STEM education opportunities and resources for learners of all ages via informal educational institutions and venues Though U.S. Congressional direction emphasized the involvement of U.S. students, many ISS-based educational activities have international student and educator participation Over 31 million students around the world have participated in several ISS-related education activities.

  19. Lessons Learned from ISS Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, C.

    2002-01-01

    Forty years of human spaceflight activities are now culminating in the International Space Station program (ISS). The ISS involves fifteen nations, working together to create a permanently occupied orbital facility that will support scientific and potentially, commercial endeavours. The assembly of the ISS is scheduled to be completed later in this decade, after which it will be operated for at least ten years. At the strategic level, such a complex international project is highly dependent on the fifteen Partners' respective internal politics and foreign policies. On the operational level, Partners still have certain difficulties in issuing and agreeing to common technical procedures. As with almost all aspects of International Space Station cooperation, the Partners are going through a constant learning process, where they have to deal with complex political, legal and operational differences. Intergovernmental Agreement and the Memoranda of Understanding, the instruments forming the legal backbone of the International Space Station cooperation, are still lacking a fair number of arrangements that need to be created for completing and operating the Station. The whole endeavour is also a constant learning process at the operational level, as astronauts, cosmonauts, engineers and technicians on the ground with different cultural and educational backgrounds, learn to work together. One recent Space Shuttle mission to the Station showed the importance of standardising even trivial system components such as packaging labels, as it took the astronauts half a day more than planned to correctly unpack the equipment. This paper will provide a synthesis of some of the main lessons learned during the first few years of International Space Station's lifetime. Important political, legal and operational issues will be addressed and combined. This analysis will provide some guidelines and recommendations for future international space projects, such as an international human

  20. Overview of Power Quality and Integrated Testing at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2018-01-01

    This presentation describes the basic philosophy behind integrated testing and partially integrated testing. It lists some well known errors in space systems that were or could have been caught during integrated testing. Two examples of integrated testing at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) are mentioned, and then an overview of two test facilities that do power testing (partially integrated testing) at JSC are presented, with information on the capabilities of each. Finally a list of three projects that has problems caught during power quality or Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) testing is presented.

  1. Astronaut Ronald Sega with Wake Shield Facility on test stand at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Wake Shield Facility is displayed on a test stand at JSC. Astronaut Ronald M. Sega, mission specialist for STS-60, is seen with the facility during a break in testing in the acoustic and vibration facility at JSC.

  2. Simpler ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David W.; Cowart, Hugh; Stevens, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The heart of flight operations control involves a) communicating effectively in real time with other controllers in the room and/or in remote locations and b) tracking significant events, decisions, and rationale to support the next set of decisions, provide a thorough shift handover, and troubleshoot/improve operations. International Space Station (ISS) flight controllers speak with each other via multiple voice circuits or loops, each with a particular purpose and constituency. Controllers monitor and/or respond to several loops concurrently. The primary tracking tools are console logs, typically kept by a single operator and not visible to others in real-time. Information from telemetry, commanding, and planning systems also plays into decision-making. Email is very secondary/tertiary due to timing and archival considerations. Voice communications and log entries supporting ISS operations have increased by orders of magnitude because the number of control centers, flight crew, and payload operations have grown. This paper explores three developmental ground system concepts under development at Johnson Space Center s (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) and Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC). These concepts could reduce ISS control center voice traffic and console logging yet increase the efficiency and effectiveness of both. The goal of this paper is to kindle further discussion, exploration, and tool development.

  3. Best Practices: Power Quality and Integrated Testing at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lydia

    2018-01-01

    This presentation discusses Best Practices for Power Quality and Integrated Testing at JSC in regards to electrical systems. These high-level charts include mostly generic information; however, a specific issue is discussed involving flight hardware that could have been discovered prior to flight with an integrated test.

  4. JSC Case Study: Fleet Experience with E-85 Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Kirck

    2009-01-01

    JSC has used E-85 as part of an overall strategy to comply with Presidential Executive Order 13423 and the Energy Policy Act. As a Federal fleet, we are required to reduce our petroleum consumption by 2 percent per year, and increase the use of alternative fuels in our vehicles. With the opening of our onsite dispenser in October 2004, JSC became the second federal fleet in Texas and the fifth NASA center to add E-85 fueling capability. JSC has a relatively small number of GSA Flex Fuel fleet vehicles at the present time (we don't include personal vehicles, or other contractor's non-GSA fleet), and there were no reasonably available retail E-85 fuel stations within a 15-minute drive or within five miles (one way). So we decided to install a small 1000 gallon onsite tank and dispenser. It was difficult to obtain a supplier due to our low monthly fuel consumption, and our fuel supplier contract has changed three times in less than five years. We experiences a couple of fuel contamination and quality control issues. JSC obtained good information on E-85 from the National Ethanol Vehicle Coalition (NEVC). We also spoke with Defense Energy Support Center, (DESC), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and US Army Fort Leonard Wood. E-85 is a liquid fuel that is dispensed into our Flexible Fuel Vehicles identically to regular gasoline, so it was easy for our vehicle drivers to make the transition.

  5. Vitamin D: Spaceflight, Antarctic, and JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Locke, J.; Zwart, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining vitamin D is critical for space travelers because they lack ultraviolet light exposure and have an insufficient dietary supply of vitamin D. Despite the provision of vitamin D supplements to International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers, vitamin D status is consistently lower after flight than before flight, and in several crewmembers has decreased to levels considered clinically significant. Vitamin D has long been known to play a role in calcium metabolism, and more recently its non-calcitropic functions have been recognized. According to the results of several recent studies, functionally relevant measures indicate that the lower limit of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (a marker of vitamin D status) should be raised from the current 25 nmol/L to 80 nmol/L. The sub-optimal pre- and postflight vitamin D status is an issue that needs to be addressed, to allow NASA to better define the appropriate amount of supplemental vitamin D to serve as a countermeasure against vitamin D deficiency in astronaut crews. This is very important for long-duration crewmembers, and is critical for exploration-class missions. Ground-based models with limited sunlight exposure could be valuable for evaluating vitamin D supplementation efficacy. One such model is subjects spending the winter in Antarctica, where UV-B radiation levels are zero during the winter. Data from a study of such subjects will enable us to provide long-duration space flight crewmembers with evidence-based recommendations for vitamin D supplementation to achieve optimal vitamin D status before, during, and after flight. We report here results from a vitamin D supplementation study conducted in 2007 in Antarctica at McMurdo Station, and plans for a study to be implemented over the course of 2009. Additionally, in 2008, a study was initiated (and is ongoing) to assess efficacy and safety of supplementing with 2000 IU daily, 10,000 IU weekly, or 50,000 IU weekly for a month and then monthly after that. The data

  6. Reliability on ISS Talk Outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiora, Mike

    2015-01-01

    1. Overview of ISS 2. Space Environment and it effects a. Radiation b. Microgravity 3. How we ensure reliability a. Requirements b. Component Selection i. Note: I plan to stay away from talk about Rad Hardened components and talk about why we use older processors because they are less susceptible to SEUs. c. Testing d. Redundancy / Failure Tolerance e. Sparing strategies 4. Operational Examples a. Multiple MDM Failures on 6A due to hard drive failure In general, my plan is to only talk about data that is currently available via normal internet sources to ensure that I stay away from any topics that would be Export Controlled, ITAR, or NDA-controlled. The operational example has been well-reported on in the media and those are the details that I plan to cover. Additionally I am not planning on using any slides or showing any photos during the talk.

  7. Alternatives to the ISS Plasma Contacting Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2002-01-01

    A spacecraft in a high-density equatorial LEO plasma will float negative relative to the ambient plasma. Because of the electron collection of exposed conductors on its solar arrays, it may float negative by up to its array voltage. The floating potential depends on the relative areas of electron and ion collection of the spacecraft. Early estimates of the International Space Station (ISS) potential were about -140 V relative to the surrounding plasma, because of its 160 V solar array string voltage. Because of the possibility of arcing of ISS structures and astronaut EMUs (spacesuits) into the space plasma, Plasma Contacting Units (PCUs) were added to the ISS design, to reduce the highly negative floating potentials by emitting electrons (effectively increasing the ion collecting area). In addition to the now-operating ISS PCUs, safety rules require another independent arc-hazard control method. In this paper, I discuss alternatives to the ISS PCUs for keeping the ISS floating potential at values below the arc-thresholds of ISS and EMU surface materials. Advantages and disadvantages of all of the recline loss will be presented.

  8. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Takada, Kevin; Gazda, Daniel; Brown, Christopher; Bazley, Jesse; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2017-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2017 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  9. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  10. Development of the CELSS Emulator at NASA JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.

    1989-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Emulator is under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) with the purpose to investigate computer simulations of integrated CELSS operations involving humans, plants, and process machinery. This paper describes Version 1.0 of the CELSS Emulator that was initiated in 1988 on the JSC Multi Purpose Applications Console Test Bed as the simulation framework. The run module of the simulation system now contains a CELSS model called BLSS. The CELSS Emulator makes it possible to generate model data sets, store libraries of results for further analysis, and also display plots of model variables as a function of time. The progress of the project is presented with sample test runs and simulation display pages.

  11. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  12. The JSC Engineering Directorate Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Kenneth C.

    2009-01-01

    The JSC Engineering Directorate has developed a Product Peer Review process in support of NASA policies for project management and systems engineering. The process complies with the requirements of NPR 7120.5, NPR 7123.1 and NPR 7150.2 and follows the guidance in NASA/SP-2007-6105. This presentation will give an overview of the process followed by a brief demonstration of an actual peer review, with audience participation.

  13. ASTP crewmen have a meal during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Three ASTP crewmen have a meal in the Apollo Command Module trainer in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint crew training at JSC. They are, left to right, Cosmonaut Aleksay A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP first (prime) crew; Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot of the American ASTP prime crew; and Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American ASTP prime crew.

  14. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the

  15. Human Spaceflight Technology Needs - A Foundation for JSC's Technology Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2013-01-01

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which adds risks as well as provides a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation s primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (TechNeeds) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology

  16. Organic Contamination Baseline Study on NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Gloveboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Allton, J. H.; Allen, C. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Future planned sample return missions to carbon-rich asteroids and Mars in the next two decades will require strict handling and curation protocols as well as new procedures for reducing organic contamination. After the Apollo program, astromaterial collections have mainly been concerned with inorganic contamination [1-4]. However, future isolation containment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study was orchestrated to establish the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs.

  17. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Douglas, Grace L.; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Several varieties of leafy vegetables were evaluated with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic acceptability for ISS. Candidate species were narrowed to commercially available cultivars with desirable growth attributes for space (e.g., short stature and rapid growth). Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers under conditions similar to what might be found in the Veggie plant growth chamber on ISS. Eight varieties of leafy greens were grown: 'Tyee' spinach, 'Flamingo' spinach, 'Outredgeous' Red Romaine lettuce, 'Waldmann's Dark Green' leaf lettuce, 'Bull's Blood' beet, 'Rhubarb' Swiss chard, 'Tokyo Bekana' Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna. Plants were harvested at maturity and biometric data on plant height, diameter, chlorophyll content, and fresh mass were obtained. Tissue was ground and extractions were performed to determine the tissue elemental content of Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe). Following the biometric/elemental evaluation, four of the eight varieties were tested further for levels of anthocyanins, antioxidant (ORAC-fluorescein) capacity, lutein, zeaxanthin, and Vitamin K. For sensory evaluation, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, Swiss chard, Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna plants were grown, harvested when mature, packaged under refrigerated conditions, and sent to the JSC Space Food Systems Laboratory. Tasters evaluated overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, bitterness, flavor, texture, crispness and tenderness. All varieties received acceptable scores with overall ratings greater than 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Chinese cabbage was the highest rated, followed by Mizuna, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, and Swiss chard. Based on our results, the selected varieties of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard and Mizuna seem suitable for a pick-and-eat scenario on ISS with a ranking based on all factors analyzed to help establish priority.

  18. NASA ISS Portable Fan Assembly Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Andrew; Allen, Christopher S.; Hess, Linda F.

    2018-01-01

    The Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) is a variable speed fan that can be used to provide additional ventilation inside International Space Station (ISS) modules as needed for crew comfort or for enhanced mixing of the ISS atmosphere. This fan can also be configured with a Shuttle era lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canister for CO2 removal in confined areas partially of fully isolated from the primary Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on ISS which is responsible for CO2 removal. This report documents noise emission levels of the PFA at various speed settings and configurations. It also documents the acoustic attenuation effects realized when circulating air through the PFA inlet and outlet mufflers and when operating in its CO2 removal configuration (CRK) with a LiOH canister (sorbent bed) installed over the fan outlet.

  19. ISS Microgravity Research Payload Training Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Geveden, Rex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Research Discipline has multiple categories of science payloads that are being planned and currently under development to operate on various ISS on-orbit increments. The current program includes six subdisciplines; Materials Science, Fluids Physics, Combustion Science, Fundamental Physics, Cellular Biology and Macromolecular Biotechnology. All of these experiment payloads will require the astronaut various degrees of crew interaction and science observation. With the current programs planning to build various facility class science racks, the crew will need to be trained on basic core operations as well as science background. In addition, many disciplines will use the Express Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) to utilize the accommodations provided by these facilities for smaller and less complex type hardware. The Microgravity disciplines will be responsible to have a training program designed to maximize the experiment and hardware throughput as well as being prepared for various contingencies both with anomalies as well as unexpected experiment observations. The crewmembers will need various levels of training from simple tasks as power on and activate to extensive training on hardware mode change out to observing the cell growth of various types of tissue cultures. Sample replacement will be required for furnaces and combustion type modules. The Fundamental Physics program will need crew EVA support to provide module change out of experiment. Training will take place various research centers and hardware development locations. It is expected that onboard training through various methods and video/digital technology as well as limited telecommunication interaction. Since hardware will be designed to operate from a few weeks to multiple research increments, flexibility must be planned in the training approach and procedure skills to optimize the output as well as the equipment maintainability. Early increment lessons learned

  20. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  1. ISS Has an Attitude! Determining ISS Attitude at the ISS Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Using Landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runco, Susan K.; Pickard,Henry; Kowtha, Vijayanand; Jackson, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Universities and secondary schools can help solve a real issue for remote sensing from the ISS WORF through hands-on engineering and activities. Remote sensing technology is providing scientists with higher resolution, higher sensitivity sensors. Where is it pointing? - To take full advantage of these improved sensors, space platforms must provide commensurate improvements in attitude determination

  2. Shuttle and ISS Food Systems Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeris, Vickie

    2000-01-01

    Russia and the U.S. provide the current International Space Station (ISS) food system. Each country contributes half of the food supply in their respective flight food packaging. All of the packaged flight food is stowed in Russian provided containers, which interface with the Service Module galley. Each country accepts the other's flight worthiness inspections and qualifications. Some of the food for the first ISS crew was launched to ISS inside the Service Module in July of 2000, and STS-106 in September 2000 delivered more food to the ISS. All subsequent food deliveries will be made by Progress, the Russian re-supply vehicle. The U.S. will ship their portion of food to Moscow for loading onto the Progress. Delivery schedules vary, but the goal is to maintain at least a 45-day supply onboard ISS at all times. The shelf life for ISS food must be at least one year, in order to accommodate the long delivery cycle and onboard storage. Preservation techniques utilized in the US food system include dehydration, thermo stabilization, intermediate moisture, and irradiation. Additional fresh fruits and vegetables will be sent with each Progress and Shuttle flights as permitted by volume allotments. There is limited refrigeration available on the Service Module to store fresh fruits and vegetables. Astronauts and cosmonauts eat half U.S. and half Russian food. Menu planning begins 1 year before a planned launch. The flight crews taste food in the U.S. and in Russia and rate the acceptability. A preliminary menu is planned, based on these ratings and the nutritional requirements. The preliminary menu is then evaluated by the crews while training in Russia. Inputs from this evaluation are used to finalize the menu and flight packaging is initiated. Flight food is delivered 6 weeks before launch. The current challenge for the food system is meeting the nutritional requirements, especially no more than 10 mg iron, and 3500 mg sodium. Experience from Shuttle[Mir also indicated

  3. Photography of Coral Reefs from ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the uses of photography from the International Space Station (ISS) in studying Earth's coral reefs. The photographs include reefs in various oceans . The photographs have uses for science in assisting NASA mapping initiatives, distribution worldwide through ReefBase, and by biologist in the field.

  4. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  5. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayt, Robert L. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130) contains all technical, safety, and crew health medical requirements that are mandatory for achieving a Crew Transportation System Certification that will allow for International Space Station delivery and return of NASA crew and limited cargo. Previously approved on TN23183.

  6. ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

  7. Preventing Precipitation in the ISS Urine Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carter, Layne; Williamson, Jill; Chambers, Antja

    2017-01-01

    The ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) was initially designed to achieve 85% recovery of water from pretreated urine on ISS. Pretreated urine is comprised of crew urine treated with flush water, an oxidant (chromium trioxide), and an inorganic acid (sulfuric acid) to control microbial growth and inhibit precipitation. Unfortunately, initial operation of the UPA on ISS resulted in the precipitation of calcium sulfate at 85% recovery. This occurred because the calcium concentration in the crew urine was elevated in microgravity due to bone loss. The higher calcium concentration precipitated with sulfate from the pretreatment acid, resulting in a failure of the UPA due to the accumulation of solids in the Distillation Assembly. Since this failure, the UPA has been limited to a reduced recovery of water from urine to prevent calcium sulfate from reaching the solubility limit. NASA personnel have worked to identify a solution that would allow the UPA to return to a nominal recovery rate of 85%. This effort has culminated with the development of a pretreatment based on phosphoric acid instead of sulfuric acid. By eliminating the sulfate associated with the pretreatment, the brine can be concentrated to a much higher concentration before calcium sulfate reach the solubility limit. This paper summarizes the development of this pretreatment and the testing performed to verify its implementation on ISS.

  8. ITER ISS system alternative specification study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-08-01

    Recent comments suggested that the fuel systems, in particular the ISS, could be simplified if the ITER specifications were relaxed from the data specified for ITER. This interim report addresses the first part of the analysis, which considers the impact of design specifications on fuel systems design

  9. Spheres: from Ground Development to ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterhagen, A.

    2016-01-01

    SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) is an internal International Space Station (ISS) Facility that supports multiple investigations for the development of multi-spacecraft and robotic control algorithms. The SPHERES National Lab Facility aboard ISS is managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Field California. The SPHERES Facility on ISS consists of three self-contained eight-inch diameter free-floating satellites which perform the various flight algorithms and serve as a platform to support the integration of experimental hardware. SPHERES has served to mature the adaptability of control algorithms of future formation flight missions in microgravity (6 DOF (Degrees of Freedom) / long duration microgravity), demonstrate key close-proximity formation flight and rendezvous and docking maneuvers, understand fault diagnosis and recovery, improve the field of human telerobotic operation and control, and lessons learned on ISS have significant impact on ground robotics, mapping, localization, and sensing in three-dimensions - among several other areas of study.

  10. Developing drug formularies for the "National Medical Holding" JSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmadyar, N S; Khairulin, B E; Amangeldy-Kyzy, S; Ospanov, M A

    2015-01-01

    One of the main problems of drug provision of multidisciplinary hospitals is the necessity to improve the efficiency of budget spending. Despite the efforts undertaken in Kazakhstan for improving the mechanism of drug distribution (creation of the Kazakhstan National Formulary, Unified National Health System, the handbook of medicines (drugs) costs in the electronic register of inpatients (ERI), having a single distributor), the number of unresolved issues still remain."National Medical Holding" JSC (NMH) was established in 2008 and unites 6 innovational healthcare facilities with up to 1431 beds (700 children and 731 adults), located in the medical cluster - which are "National Research Center for Maternal and Child Health" JSC (NRCMC), "Republic Children's Rehabilitation Center" JSC (RCRC), "Republican Diagnostic Center" JSC (RDC), "National Centre for Neurosurgery" JSC (NCN), "National Research Center for Oncology and Transplantation" JSC (NRCOT) and "National Research Cardiac Surgery Center" JSC (NRCSC). The main purpose of NMH is to create an internationally competitive "Hospital of the Future", which will provide the citizens of Kazakhstan and others with a wide range of medical services based on advanced medical technology, modern hospital management, international quality and safety standards. These services include emergency care, outpatient diagnostic services, obstetrics and gynecology, neonatal care, internal medicine, neurosurgery, cardiac surgery, transplantation, cancer care for children and adults, as well as rehabilitation treatment. To create a program of development of a drug formulary of NMH and its subsidiaries. In order to create drug formularies of NMH, analytical, software and statistical methods were used.AII subsidiary organizations of NMH (5 out of 6) except for the NRCOT have been accredited by Joint Commission International (JCI) standards, which ensure the safety of patients and clinical staff, by improving the technological

  11. Reducing Organic Contamination in NASA JSC Astromaterial Curation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, M. J.; Allen, C. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Future robotic and human spaceflight missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and comets will require handling and storing astromaterial samples with minimal inorganic and organic contamination to preserve the scientific integrity of each sample. Much was learned from the rigorous attempts to minimize and monitor organic contamination during Apollo, but it was not adequate for current analytical requirements; thus [1]. OSIRIS-REx, Hayabusa-2, and future Mars sample return will require better protocols for reducing organic contamination. Future isolation con-tainment systems for astromaterials, possibly nitrogen enriched gloveboxes, must be able to reduce organic and inorganic cross-contamination. In 2012, a baseline study established the current state of organic cleanliness in gloveboxes used by NASA JSC astromaterials curation labs that could be used as a benchmark for future mission designs [2, 3]. After standard ultra-pure water (UPW) cleaning, the majority of organic contaminates found were hydrocarbons, plasticizers, silicones, and solvents. Hydro-carbons loads (> C7) ranged from 1.9 to 11.8 ng/cm2 for TD-GC-MS wafer exposure analyses and 5.0 to 19.5 ng/L for TD-GC-MS adsorbent tube exposure. Plasticizers included peracetic acid sterilization were used in the atmospheric de-contamination (R) cabinets. Later, Lunar curation gloveboxes were degreased with a pressurized Freon 113 wash. Today, UPW has replaced Freon as the standard cleaning procedure, but does not have the degreasing solvency power of Freon. Future Cleaning Studies: Cleaning experiments are cur-rently being orchestrated to study how to degrease and reduce organics in a JSC curation glovebox lower than the established baseline. Several new chemicals in the industry have replaced traditional degreasing solvents such as Freon and others that are now federally restricted. However, these new suites of chemicals remain untested for lowering organics in curation gloveboxes. 3M's HFE-7100DL and Du

  12. The JSC Research and Development Annual Report 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Issued as a companion to Johnson Space Center's Research and Technology Annual Report, which reports JSC accomplishments under NASA Research and Technology Operating Plan (RTOP) funding, this report describes 47 additional projects that are funded through sources other than the RTOP. Emerging technologies in four major disciplines are summarized: space systems technology, medical and life sciences, mission operations, and computer systems. Although these projects focus on support of human spacecraft design, development, and safety, most have wide civil and commercial applications in areas such as advanced materials, superconductors, advanced semiconductors, digital imaging, high density data storage, high performance computers, optoelectronics, artificial intelligence, robotics and automation, sensors, biotechnology, medical devices and diagnosis, and human factors engineering.

  13. Replacement/Refurbishment of JSC/NASA POD Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Willard L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Special NDE certification process requires demonstration of NDE capability by test per NASA-STD-5009. This test is performed with fatigue cracked specimens containing very small cracks. The certification test results are usually based on binomial statistics and must meet a 90/95 Probability of Detection (POD). The assumption is that fatigue cracks are tightly closed, difficult to detect, and inspectors and processes passing such a test are well qualified for inspecting NASA fracture critical hardware. The JSC NDE laboratory has what may be the largest inventory that exists of such fatigue cracked NDE demonstration specimens. These specimens were produced by the hundreds in the late 1980s and early 1990s. None have been produced since that time and the condition and usability of the specimens are questionable.

  14. [Taylor and Hill, Incorporated's JSC Cryo Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Rito

    2008-01-01

    NASA commissioned construction of an environmental simulation test chamber which was completed in 1964 at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. The facility, Chamber A, was invaluable for testing spacecraft and satellites before deployment to space. By testing spacecraft in an environment similar to the one they would be functioning in, potential problems could be addressed before launch. A new addition to NASA's observatory inventory is called the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), after a former Administrator of NASA. The new telescope will have 7 times the mirror area of the Hubble, with a target destination approximately one million miles from earth. Scheduled for launch in 2013, the JWST will allow scientists the ability to see, for the first time, the first galaxies that formed in the early Universe. Pre-launch testing of JWST must be performed in environments that approximate its final target space environment as closely as possible.

  15. Developing a Strategic Plan for NASA JSC's Technology Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, Jonette M.

    2012-01-01

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which adds risks as well as provides a major driver for costs. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cislunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars space, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA fs Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation's primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects that have been prioritized using four focus criteria, with appropriate importance weighting. These four focus criteria are the Human Space Flight Technology Needs, JSC Core Technology Competencies, Commercialization Potential, and Partnership Potential. The inherent coupling in these focus criteria have been captured in a database and have provided an initial prioritization for allocation of technology development research funding. This paper will describe this process and this database

  16. Service on demand for ISS users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüser, Detlev; Berg, Marco; Körtge, Nicole; Mildner, Wolfgang; Salmen, Frank; Strauch, Karsten

    2002-07-01

    Since the ISS started its operational phase, the need of logistics scenarios and solutions, supporting the utilisation of the station and its facilities, becomes increasingly important. Our contribution to this challenge is a SERVICE On DEMAND for ISS users, which offers a business friendly engineering and logistics support for the resupply of the station. Especially the utilisation by commercial and industrial users is supported and simplified by this service. Our industrial team, consisting of OHB-System and BEOS, provides experience and development support for space dedicated hard- and software elements, their transportation and operation. Furthermore, we operate as the interface between customer and the envisaged space authorities. Due to a variety of tailored service elements and the ongoing servicing, customers can concentrate on their payload content or mission objectives and don't have to deal with space-specific techniques and regulations. The SERVICE On DEMAND includes the following elements: ITR is our in-orbit platform service. ITR is a transport rack, used in the SPACEHAB logistics double module, for active and passive payloads on subrack- and drawer level of different standards. Due to its unique late access and early retrieval capability, ITR increases the flexibility concerning transport capabilities to and from the ISS. RIST is our multi-functional test facility for ISPR-based experiment drawer and locker payloads. The test program concentrates on physical and functional interface and performance testing at the payload developers site prior to the shipment to the integration and launch. The RIST service program comprises consulting, planning and engineering as well. The RIST test suitcase is planned to be available for lease or rent to users, too. AMTSS is an advanced multimedia terminal consulting service for communication with the space station scientific facilities, as part of the user home-base. This unique ISS multimedia kit combines

  17. ISS Habitability Data Collection and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry (Principal Investigator); Greene, Maya; Schuh, Susan; Williams, Thomas; Archer, Ronald; Vasser, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Habitability is the relationship between an individual and their surroundings (i.e. the interplay of the person, machines, environment, and mission). The purpose of this study is to assess habitability and human factors on the ISS to better prepare for future long-duration space flights. Scheduled data collection sessions primarily require the use of iSHORT (iPad app) to capture near real-time habitability feedback and analyze vehicle layout and space utilization.

  18. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  19. Characterization of the flocculating agent from the spontaneously flocculating microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Asraful; Wan, Chun; Guo, Suo-Lian; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Huang, Zih-You; Yang, Yu-Liang; Chang, Jo-Shu; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2014-07-01

    High cost of biomass recovery is one of the bottlenecks for developing cost-effective processes with microalgae, particularly for the production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals through biorefinery, and microalgal biomass recovery through cell flocculation is a promising strategy. Some microalgae are naturally flocculated whose cells can be harvested by simple sedimentation. However, studies on the flocculating agents synthesized by microalgae cells are still very limited. In this work, the cell flocculation of a spontaneously flocculating microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-7 was studied, and the flocculating agent was identified to be cell wall polysaccharides whose crude extract supplemented at low dosage of 0.5 mg/L initiated the more than 80% flocculating rate of freely suspended microalgae C. vulgaris CNW11 and Scenedesmus obliquus FSP. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis revealed a characteristic absorption band at 1238 cm(-1), which might arise from PO asymmetric stretching vibration of [Formula: see text] phosphodiester. The unique cell wall-associated polysaccharide with molecular weight of 9.86×10(3) g/mol, and the monomers consist of glucose, mannose and galactose with a molecular ratio of 5:5:2. This is the first time to our knowledge that the flocculating agent from C. vulgaris has been characterized, which could provide basis for understanding the cell flocculation of microalgae and breeding of novel flocculating microalgae for cost-effective biomass harvest. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT

  1. STS-30 crewmembers pose for informal portrait on JSC FB-SMS middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-30 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, crewmembers pause briefly from their training schedule to pose for informal portrait in JSC fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). On FB-SMS middeck are (left to right) Commander David M. Walker, Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Lee, MS Mary L. Cleave, Pilot Ronald J. Grabe, and MS Norman E. Thagard. FB-SMS is located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  2. STS-29 Commander Coats in JSC fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Michael L. Coats sits at commanders station forward flight deck controls in JSC fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). Coats, wearing communications kit assembly headset and flight coveralls, looks away from forward control panels to aft flight deck. Pilots station seat back appears in foreground. FB-SMS is located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  3. The need for health promotion in jsc „vilniaus baldai“

    OpenAIRE

    Melkūnaitė, Eglė

    2017-01-01

    The Need for Health Promotion in JSC „Vilniaus Baldai“ The relevance of the study. Health promotion in workplaces brings benefits to the employees, organizations, governments and society as a whole. In order to successfully implement the health promotion program in the workplace, it is important to evaluate facilities, demands and situation of the employer. The aim of the study. To measure the need of health promotion in the company JSC „Vilniaus baldai“. The objective of the study. Measure t...

  4. Human Thermal Model Evaluation Using the JSC Human Thermal Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Makinen, Janice; Cognata, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Human thermal modeling has considerable long term utility to human space flight. Such models provide a tool to predict crew survivability in support of vehicle design and to evaluate crew response in untested space environments. It is to the benefit of any such model not only to collect relevant experimental data to correlate it against, but also to maintain an experimental standard or benchmark for future development in a readily and rapidly searchable and software accessible format. The Human thermal database project is intended to do just so; to collect relevant data from literature and experimentation and to store the data in a database structure for immediate and future use as a benchmark to judge human thermal models against, in identifying model strengths and weakness, to support model development and improve correlation, and to statistically quantify a model s predictive quality. The human thermal database developed at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is intended to evaluate a set of widely used human thermal models. This set includes the Wissler human thermal model, a model that has been widely used to predict the human thermoregulatory response to a variety of cold and hot environments. These models are statistically compared to the current database, which contains experiments of human subjects primarily in air from a literature survey ranging between 1953 and 2004 and from a suited experiment recently performed by the authors, for a quantitative study of relative strength and predictive quality of the models.

  5. Foam generation and sample composition optimization for the FOAM-C experiment of the ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpy, R; Picker, G; Amann, B; Ranebo, H; Vincent-Bonnieu, S; Minster, O; Winter, J; Dettmann, J; Castiglione, L; Höhler, R; Langevin, D

    2011-01-01

    End of 2009 and early 2010 a sealed cell, for foam generation and observation, has been designed and manufactured at Astrium Friedrichshafen facilities. With the use of this cell, different sample compositions of 'wet foams' have been optimized for mixtures of chemicals such as water, dodecanol, pluronic, aethoxisclerol, glycerol, CTAB, SDS, as well as glass beads. This development is performed in the frame of the breadboarding development activities of the Experiment Container FOAM-C for operation in the ISS Fluid Science Laboratory (ISS). The sample cell supports multiple observation methods such as: Diffusing-Wave and Diffuse Transmission Spectrometry, Time Resolved Correlation Spectroscopy and microscope observation, all of these methods are applied in the cell with a relatively small experiment volume 3 . These units, will be on orbit replaceable sets, that will allow multiple sample compositions processing (in the range of >40).

  6. Foam generation and sample composition optimization for the FOAM-C experiment of the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpy, R.; Picker, G.; Amann, B.; Ranebo, H.; Vincent-Bonnieu, S.; Minster, O.; Winter, J.; Dettmann, J.; Castiglione, L.; Höhler, R.; Langevin, D.

    2011-12-01

    End of 2009 and early 2010 a sealed cell, for foam generation and observation, has been designed and manufactured at Astrium Friedrichshafen facilities. With the use of this cell, different sample compositions of "wet foams" have been optimized for mixtures of chemicals such as water, dodecanol, pluronic, aethoxisclerol, glycerol, CTAB, SDS, as well as glass beads. This development is performed in the frame of the breadboarding development activities of the Experiment Container FOAM-C for operation in the ISS Fluid Science Laboratory (ISS). The sample cell supports multiple observation methods such as: Diffusing-Wave and Diffuse Transmission Spectrometry, Time Resolved Correlation Spectroscopy [1] and microscope observation, all of these methods are applied in the cell with a relatively small experiment volume 40).

  7. Determine ISS Soyuz Orbital Module Ballistic Limits for Steel Projectiles Hypervelocity Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Frankel

    2013-01-01

    A new orbital debris environment model (ORDEM 3.0) defines the density distribution of the debris environment in terms of the fraction of debris that are low-density (plastic), medium-density (aluminum) or high-density (steel) particles. This hypervelocity impact (HVI) program focused on assessing ballistic limits (BLs) for steel projectiles impacting the enhanced Soyuz Orbital Module (OM) micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configuration. The ballistic limit was defined as the projectile size on the threshold of failure of the OM pressure shell as a function of impact speeds and angle. The enhanced OM shield configuration was first introduced with Soyuz 30S (launched in May 2012) to improve the MMOD protection of Soyuz vehicles docked to the International Space Station (ISS). This test program provides HVI data on U.S. materials similar in composition and density to the Russian materials for the enhanced Soyuz OM shield configuration of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz OM penetration risk assessments. The objective of this hypervelocity impact test program was to determine the ballistic limit particle size for 440C stainless steel spherical projectiles on the Soyuz OM shielding at several impact conditions (velocity and angle combinations). This test report was prepared by NASA-JSC/ HVIT, upon completion of tests.

  8. A commercial space technology testbed on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a significant and growing commercial market for new, more capable communications and remote sensing satellites. Competition in this market strongly motivates satellite manufacturers and spacecraft component developers to test and demonstrate new space hardware in a realistic environment. External attach points on the International Space Station allow it to function uniquely as a space technology testbed to satisfy this market need. However, space industry officials have identified three critical barriers to their commercial use of the ISS: unpredictable access, cost risk, and schedule uncertainty. Appropriate NASA policy initiatives and business/technical assistance for industry from the Commercial Space Center for Engineering can overcome these barriers. .

  9. Siivouksen laadunhallinta asuinkiinteistöissä

    OpenAIRE

    Huhmarkangas, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    Työssäni kehitettiin siivouksen laadunhallintaa VTS-kotien asuinkiinteistöissä. Pääpaino oli VTS Kiinteistöpalvelu Oy:n käytössä olevan laadunarviointiohjelman kehittämisessä. Työssäni kartoitettiin, mitä ja miten pitää kehittää asuinkiinteistösiivouksen laadunhallintaa myös tulevaisuudessa. Lähtökohtana oli se, että siivouksen taso tulee saada samalle linjalle kaikkien palveluntuottajien kanssa riippumatta siitä, kuka palvelua tuottaa. Jokaisessa VTS-kodissa tulisi siivouksen lopputulos ...

  10. Enhanced removal of Zn(2+) or Cd(2+) by the flocculating Chlorella vulgaris JSC-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Asraful; Wan, Chun; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Chen, Li-Jie; Chang, Jo-Shu; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2015-05-30

    Microalgae are attracting attention due to their potentials in mitigating CO2 emissions and removing environmental pollutants. However, harvesting microalgal biomass from diluted cultures is one of the bottlenecks for developing economically viable processes for this purpose. Microalgal cells can be harvested by cost-effective sedimentation when flocculating strains are used. In this study, the removal of Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) by the flocculating Chlorella vulgaris JSC-7 was studied. The experimental results indicated that more than 80% Zn(2+) and 60% Cd(2+) were removed by the microalgal culture within 3 days in the presence up to 20.0mg/L Zn(2+) and 4.0mg/L Cd(2+), respectively, which were much higher than that observed with the culture of the non-flocculating C. vulgaris CNW11. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon was explored by investigating the effect of Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) on the growth and metabolic activities of the microalgal strains. It was found that the flocculation of the microalga improved its growth, synthesis of photosynthetic pigments and antioxidation activity under the stressful conditions, indicating a better tolerance to the heavy metal ions for a potential in removing them more efficiently from contaminated wastewaters, together with a bioremediation of other nutritional components contributed to the eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pick-and-Eat Salad-Crop Productivity, Nutritional Value, and Acceptability to Supplement the ISS Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, G. D.; Wheeler, R. M.; Hummerick, M. E.; Morrow, R. C.; Mitchell, C. A.; Whitmire, A. M.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    The capability to grow nutritious, palatable food for crew consumption during spaceflight has the potential to provide health-promoting, bioavailable nutrients, enhance the dietary experience, and reduce launch mass as we move toward longer-duration missions. However, studies of edible produce during spaceflight have been limited, leaving a significant knowledge gap in the methods required to grow safe, acceptable, nutritious crops for consumption in space. Researchers from Kennedy Space Center, Johnson Space Center, Purdue University and ORBITEC have teamed up to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC, Purdue, and ORBITEC bring a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for ISS and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP), and statistics. The Veggie vegetable-production system on the ISS offers an opportunity to develop a pick-and-eat fresh vegetable component to the ISS food system as a first step to bioregenerative supplemental food production. We propose growing salad plants in the Veggie unit during spaceflight, focusing on the impact of light quality and fertilizer formulation on crop morphology, edible biomass yield, microbial food safety, organoleptic acceptability, nutritional value, and behavioral health benefits of the fresh produce. The first phase of the project will involve flight tests using leafy greens, with a small Chinese cabbage variety, Tokyo bekana, previously down selected through a series of research tests as a suitable candidate. The second phase will focus on dwarf tomato. Down selection of candidate varieties have been performed, and the dwarf cultivar Red Robin has been selected as the test crop. Four light treatments and three fertilizer treatments will be tested for each crop on the ground, to down select to two light

  12. Neutron production in a spherical phantom aboard ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasbaz, A.; Machrafi, R.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research program on radiation monitoring on International Space Station (ISS) that was established to analyze the radiation exposure levels onboard the ISS using different radiation instruments and a spherical phantom to simulate human body. Monte Carlo transport code was used to simulate the interaction of high energy protons and neutrons with the spherical phantom currently onboard ISS. The phantom has been exposed to individual proton energies and to a spectrum of neutrons. The internal to external neutron flux ratio was calculated and compared to the experimental data, recently, measured on the ISS. (author)

  13. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Antimicrobial resistance genes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The environmental samples were collected with the polyester wipes from eight different locations in the International Space Station (ISS) during two consecutive...

  14. Using ISS to develop telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Miller, David W.

    2005-08-01

    Future space telescope missions concepts have introduced new technologies such as precision formation flight, optical metrology, and segmented mirrors. These new technologies require demonstration and validation prior to deployment in final missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope, Terrestrial Planet Finder, and Darwin. Ground based demonstrations do not provide the precision necessary to obtain a high level of confidence in the technology; precursor free flyer space missions suffer from the same problems as the final missions. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of the International Space Station as an intermediate research environment where these technologies can be developed, demonstrated, and validated. The ISS provides special resources, such as human presence, communications, power, and a benign atmosphere which directly reduce the major challenges of space technology maturation: risk, complexity, cost, remote operations, and visibility. Successful design of experiments for use aboard the space station, by enabling iterative research and supporting multiple scientists, can further reduce the effects of these challenges of space technology maturation. This paper presents results of five previous MIT Space Systems Laboratory experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, MIR, and the ISS to illustrate successful technology maturation aboard these facilities.

  15. ISS protocol for EPR tooth dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onori, S.; Aragno, D.; Fattibene, P.; Petetti, E.; Pressello, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dose reconstruction with tooth enamel is affected by sample preparation, dosimetric signal amplitude evaluation and unknown dose estimate. Worldwide efforts in the field of EPR dose reconstruction with tooth enamel are focused on the optimization of the three mentioned steps in dose assessment. In the present work, the protocol implemented at ISS in the framework of the European Community Nuclear Fission Safety project 'Dose Reconstruction' is presented. A combined mechanical-chemical procedure for ground enamel sample preparation is used. The signal intensity evaluation is carried out with powder spectra simulation program. Finally, the unknown dose is evaluated individually for each sample with the additive dose method. The unknown dose is obtained by subtracting a mean native dose from the back-extrapolated dose. As an example of the capability of the ISS protocol in unknown dose evaluation, the results obtained in the framework of the 2nd International Intercomparison on EPR tooth enamel dosimetry are reported

  16. Tipprežissöör Leni / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Televisioon näitab kaht legendaarse Leni Riefenstahli (1902-2003) osalusega dokumentaalfilmi - "Leni Riefenstahl : Unistus Aafrikast" : režissöör Ray Müller : Saksamaa 2000 ja "Vetesügavuste lummus" : režissöör Leni Riefenstahl : Saksamaa 2002

  17. Development of the ISS EMU Dashboard Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Craig; Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    The EMU (Extra-Vehicular Mobility Unit) Dashboard was developed at NASA s Johnson Space Center to aid in real-time mission support for the ISS (International Space Station) and Shuttle EMU space suit by time synchronizing down-linked video, space suit data and audio from the mission control audio loops. Once the input streams are synchronized and recorded, the data can be replayed almost instantly and has proven invaluable in understanding in-flight hardware anomalies and playing back information conveyed by the crew to missions control and the back room support. This paper will walk through the development from an engineer s idea brought to life by an intern to real time mission support and how this tool is evolving today and its challenges to support EVAs (Extra-Vehicular Activities) and human exploration in the 21st century.

  18. ISS Destiny Laboratory Smoke Detection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, John E.; Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoke transport and detection were modeled numerically in the ISS Destiny module using the NIST, Fire Dynamics Simulator code. The airflows in Destiny were modeled using the existing flow conditions and the module geometry included obstructions that simulate the currently installed hardware on orbit. The smoke source was modeled as a 0.152 by 0.152 m region that emitted smoke particulate ranging from 1.46 to 8.47 mg/s. In the module domain, the smoke source was placed in the center of each Destiny rack location and the model was run to determine the time required for the two smoke detectors to alarm. Overall the detection times were dominated by the circumferential flow, the axial flow from the intermodule ventilation and the smoke source strength.

  19. ISS Interface Mechanisms and their Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John G.; Aksamentov, Valery; Hoffman, Thomas; Bruner, Wes

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station, by nurturing technological development of a variety of pressurized and unpressurized interface mechanisms fosters "competition at the technology level". Such redundancy and diversity allows for the development and testing of mechanisms that might be used for future exploration efforts. The International Space Station, as a test-bed for exploration, has 4 types of pressurized interfaces between elements and 6 unpressurized attachment mechanisms. Lessons learned from the design, test and operations of these mechanisms will help inform the design for a new international standard pressurized docking mechanism for the NASA Docking System. This paper will examine the attachment mechanisms on the ISS and their attributes. It will also look ahead at the new NASA docking system and trace its lineage to heritage mechanisms.

  20. A planetary telescope at the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, O.; Moroz, V.; Avanesov, G.; Rodin, V.; Bellucci, G.; Vid Machenko, A.; Tejfel, V.

    We present the development of a 40-cm telescope to be deployed at the Russian segment of International Space Station (ISS) dedicated to the observations of planets of Solar system, which primary goal will be tracking climate-related changes and other variable phenomena on planets. The most effective will be the observations of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and comets, while other interesting targets will be certainly considered. This space-based observatory will perform monitoring of Solar System objects on regular basis The observatory includes the 40-cm narrow-field (f:20) telescope at a pointing platform with guidance system assuring pointing accuracy of ~10", and an internal tracking system with an accuracy inferior to 1" during tens of minutes. Four focal plane instruments, a camera, two spectrometers and a spectropolarimeter, will perform imaging and spectral observations in the range from ~200 nm to ~3 μm.

  1. High spatial resolution infrared camera as ISS external experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckehard, Lorenz; Frerker, Hap; Fitch, Robert Alan

    High spatial resolution infrared camera as ISS external experiment for monitoring global climate changes uses ISS internal and external resources (eg. data storage). The optical experiment will consist of an infrared camera for monitoring global climate changes from the ISS. This technology was evaluated by the German small satellite mission BIRD and further developed in different ESA projects. Compared to BIRD the presended instrument uses proven sensor advanced technologies (ISS external) and ISS on board processing and storage capabili-ties (internal). The instrument will be equipped with a serial interfaces for TM/TC and several relay commands for the power supply. For data processing and storage a mass memory is re-quired. The access to actual attitude data is highly desired to produce geo referenced maps-if possible by an on board processing.

  2. ISS Biotechnology Facility - Overview of Analytical Tools for Cellular Biotechnology Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, A. S.; Towe, B. C.; Anderson, M. M.; Gonda, S. R.; Pellis, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    The ISS Biotechnology Facility (BTF) platform provides scientists with a unique opportunity to carry out diverse experiments in a microgravity environment for an extended period of time. Although considerable progress has been made in preserving cells on the ISS for long periods of time for later return to Earth, future biotechnology experiments would desirably monitor, process, and analyze cells in a timely way on-orbit. One aspect of our work has been directed towards developing biochemical sensors for pH, glucose, oxygen, and carbon dioxide for perfused bioreactor system developed at Johnson Space Center. Another aspect is the examination and identification of new and advanced commercial biotechnologies that may have applications to on-orbit experiments.

  3. MODERN RESOURCE-SAVING TECHNOLOGIES IN FOUNDRY PRODUCTION OF JSC «MINSK TRAKTOR PLANT»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Domotenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the main world tendencies of development of the production technology of sandy cores and value of this production in complex technology of manufacture of castings are considered. It is established that the most rational way of production technically and economically is manufacture of wafer sandy cores using the Cold-box-amin technology. Scientific, technical, technological and economic aspects of modernization of foundry production of JSC MTZ with complete transition to production of sandy cores on the resource-saving Cold-box-amin technology are provided. The main distinctive feature of this reequipment – all planned works are based on the domestic technological developments and the equipment created in the cooperation by specialists of JSC BELNIILIT and JSC MTZ. Within GNTP essential support to the provided works was given by the state.

  4. Overview of JSC “NIKIET” activity on ITER Procurement Arrangements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leshukov, A.Yu., E-mail: leshu@nikiet.ru [Joint-Stock Company “N.A. Dollezhall Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering”, (JSC “NIKIET”), 107140, Malaya Krasnoselskaya 2/8, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dragunov, Yu. G.; Strebkov, Yu. S.; Kirillov, S.Yu.; Makarov, S.V.; Trofimovich, P.D.; Dubinin, G.V.; Maksimov, V.A.; Sviridenko, M.N.; Razmerov, A.V.; Parshutin, E.V.; Khomyakov, S.E.; Kolganov, V.Yu.; Zhmakin, A.V. [Joint-Stock Company “N.A. Dollezhall Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering”, (JSC “NIKIET”), 107140, Malaya Krasnoselskaya 2/8, Moscow (Russian Federation); Belyakov, V.A.; Mazul, I.V.; Gervash, A.A. [JSC “NIIEFA” (D.V. Efremov Institute), 189631, Doroga na Metallostroy, 3, S. Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M.; Romannikov, A.N. [Institution “Project Center ITER”,123182, Square of Academic Kurchatov 1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Eaton, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon CS 90 046 − 13067 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); and others

    2016-11-01

    The two following ITER blanket-relevant Procurement Arrangements (PA) were signed by Russian Federation and ITER Organization in 2014: 1)1.6.P1ARF.01 “Blanket First Wall” (signed on 14-th of February, 2014); 2)1.6.P3.RF.01 “Blanket Module Connections” (signed on 19-th of December, 2014). The first PA is devoted to the development, manufacturing, testing and procuring to ITER site of 179 Enhanced Heat Flux (EHF) First Wall (FW) Panels. These FW panels are intended to withstand the heat flux from plasma up to 4.7 MW/m{sup 2}, and there are two institutions in Russian Federation responsible for the manufacturing, testing and delivering of these panels on the ITER site: JSC “NIIEFA” (Efremov Institute) and JSC “NIKIET”. JSC “NIIEFA” (Efremov Institute) will manufacture the plasma-facing components (PFC) of EHF FW Panels and perform the final assembling of the panels while JSC “NIKIET” will manufacture the FW beam structures, load-bearing structures of PFC and the all the elements of panel attachment system. As for the second PA (“Blanket Module Connectors”) the JSC “NIKIET” is the alone official Supplier and will manufacture and procure blanket flexible supports, electrical insulating key pads and shield block/vacuum vessel electrical connectors. This article briefly describes the joint activity of JSC “NIKIET” and Efremov Institute in the framework of 1.6.P1ARF.01 “Blanket First Wall” Procurement Arrangement and the material on the activity on the second PA. The main achievements on both PAs (during the period of 2014–2015) are presented and also critical issues and plans are underlined.

  5. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese 'Kibo' facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the 'Rad Gene' project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated P53 : gene (m P53 : ) and a parental wild-type P53 : gene (wt P53 : ) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation-induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type P53 : genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and

  6. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese ‘Kibo’ facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the ‘Rad Gene’ project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated p53 gene (mp53) and a parental wild-type p53 gene (wtp53) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation–induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing p53-dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing p53-dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type p53 genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024

  7. STS-31 crewmembers during simulation on the flight deck of JSC's FB-SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    On the flight deck of JSC's fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS), Mission Specialist (MS) Steven A. Hawley (left), on aft flight deck, looks over the shoulders of Commander Loren J. Shriver, seated at the commanders station (left) and Pilot Charles F. Bolden, seated at the pilots station and partially blocked by the seat's headrest (right). The three astronauts recently named to the STS-31 mission aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, go through a procedures checkout in the FB-SMS. The training simulation took place in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  8. Organic Contamination Baseline Study: In NASA JSC Astromaterials Curation Laboratories. Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    In preparation for OSIRIS-REx and other future sample return missions concerned with analyzing organics, we conducted an Organic Contamination Baseline Study for JSC Curation Labsoratories in FY12. For FY12 testing, organic baseline study focused only on molecular organic contamination in JSC curation gloveboxes: presumably future collections (i.e. Lunar, Mars, asteroid missions) would use isolation containment systems over only cleanrooms for primary sample storage. This decision was made due to limit historical data on curation gloveboxes, limited IR&D funds and Genesis routinely monitors organics in their ISO class 4 cleanrooms.

  9. Improvement of Operational Reliability Resource for JSC “Beltransgaz” Main Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Mayorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper considers prospects for modernization of the operating linear portion of JSC “Beltransgaz” gas transportation system, various methods and materials which are used while implementing  construction and installation works in the oil and gas sector. It has been shown that in the recent decade one of the most technically, technologically and economically efficient application of the material is double-composite polyurethane coating. The method for coating deposition has been tested and introduced by JSC “Beltransgaz” with significant economic efficiency.

  10. ASTP crewmen in Apollo Command Module Trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The three members of the American ASTP prime crew are photographed inside the Apollo Command Module (CM) trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egress training at JSC. They are, left to right, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; Vance D. Brand, command module pilot; and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot (23430); Slayton attaches his life preserver as he egresses an Apollo Command Module trainer in a water tank in bldg 260 during water egresss training at JSC. Astronauts Brand (on left) and Stafford have already egressed the trainer and are seated in a three-man life raft.

  11. 77 FR 31794 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Imposition of Special Measure Against JSC CredexBank as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...; Imposition of Special Measure Against JSC CredexBank as a Financial Institution of Primary Money Laundering... for concluding that JSC CredexBank is a financial institution of primary money laundering concern...- money laundering provisions of the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA), codified at 12 U.S.C. 1829b, 12 U.S.C. 1951...

  12. The ISS Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR): a Summary of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, F.; Hill, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    the top and bottom of the rack. Transmission of micro-gravity disturbances to and from the rack is minimized through the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). The environmental subsystem will utilize air and water to remove heat generated by facility and experimental hardware. The air will be circulated throughout the rack and will be cooled by an air-water heat exchanger. Water will be used directly to cool some of the FIR components and will also be available to cool experiment hardware as required. The electrical subsystem includes the Electrical Power Control Unit (EPCU), which provides 28 VDC and 120 VDC power to the facility and the experiment hardware. The EPCU will also provide power management and control functions, as well as fault protection capabilities. The FIR will provide access to the ISS gaseous nitrogen and vacuum systems. These systems are available to support experiment operations such as the purging of experimental cells, creating flows within experimental cells and providing dry conditions where needed. The FIR Command and Data Management subsystem (CDMS) provides command and data handling for both facility and experiment hardware. The Input Output Processor (IOP) provides the overall command and data management functions for the rack including downlinking or writing data to removable drives. The IOP will also monitor the health and status of the rack subsystems. The Image Processing and Storage Units (IPSU) will perform diagnostic control and image data acquisition functions. An IPSU will be able to control a digital camera, receive image data from that camera and process/ compress image data as necessary. The Fluids Science and Avionics Package (FSAP) will provide the primary control over an experiment. The FSAP contains various computer boards/cards that will perform data and control functions. To support the imaging needs, cameras and illumination sources will be available to the investigator. Both color analog and black and white digital

  13. STS-31 Pilot Bolden with beverages on the FB-SMS middeck during JSC training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-31 Pilot Charles F. Bolden holds three beverage containers while in front of the galley on the middeck of the fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) during a training simulation at JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. From the middeck, Bolden, wearing lightweight headset, simulates a communications link with ground controllers and fellow crewmembers.

  14. STS-31 crewmembers review checklist with instructor on JSC's FB-SMS middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    STS-31 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Bruce McCandless II (left) and Pilot Charles F. Bolden (right) discuss procedures with a training instructor on the middeck of JSC's fixed-based (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). The three are pointing to a checklist during this training simulation in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  15. STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Ross during simulation in JSC's FB-SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross 'borrows' the pilots station to rehearse some of his scheduled duties for his upcoming mission. He is on the flight deck of the fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) during this unsuited simulation. The SMS is part of JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  16. STS-44 Atlantis, OV-104, MS Musgrave on FB-SMS middeck during JSC training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) F. Story Musgrave, wearing lightweight headset (HDST), adjusts controls on communications module mounted on a middeck overhead panel. Musgrave is on the middeck of the Fixed Base (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. The STS-44 crewmembers are participating in a flight simulation.

  17. STS-44 Atlantis, OV-104, Pilot Henricks in FB-SMS training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Pilot Terence T. Henricks, seated at the pilots station on the forward flight deck, reviews checklists before a flight simulation in the Fixed Base (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Surrounding Henricks are the seat back, the overhead panels, forward panels, and forward windows.

  18. STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Godwin during simulation in JSC's FB-SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Mission Specialist (MS) Linda M. Godwin rehearses some phases of her scheduled duties on the middeck of the fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Godwin is inspecting supplies stowed in the middeck lockers during this unsuited simulation.

  19. STS-52 Mission Specialist (MS) Jernigan during food planning session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Mission Specialist (MS) Tamara E. Jernigan sips a beverage from a plastic container using a straw. She appears to be pondering what beverages she would like to have on her 10-day flight this coming autumn. Other crewmembers joined Jernigan for this food planning session conducted by JSC's Man-Systems Division.

  20. STS-48 MS Buchli and MS Gemar on MB SMS middeck during JSC training session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) James F. Buchli (left) and MS Charles D. Gemar listen to instructions while on the middeck of JSC's Motion Based (MB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Buchli and Gemar are reviewing inflight procedures during this preflight familiarization session held in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  1. STS-41 crew is briefed on camera equipment during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    STS-41 crewmembers are briefed on camera equipment during training session at JSC. Trainer Judy M. Alexander explains the use 16mm motion picture equipment to (left to right) Pilot Robert D. Cabana, Mission Specialist (MS) Bruce E. Melnick, and MS Thomas D. Akers.

  2. STS-30 Pilot Ronald J. Grabe during preflight press conference at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    During preflight press conference, STS-30 Pilot Ronald J. Grabe answers a question from the news media. The event was held in the JSC Auditorium and Public Affairs Facility Bldg 2 briefing room. STS-30 mission will fly onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, and is scheduled for an April 28 liftoff.

  3. System Interface for an Integrated Intelligent Safety System (ISS for Vehicle Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad A. Hannan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the interface-relevant activity of a vehicle integrated intelligent safety system (ISS that includes an airbag deployment decision system (ADDS and a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS. A program is developed in LabWindows/CVI, using C for prototype implementation. The prototype is primarily concerned with the interconnection between hardware objects such as a load cell, web camera, accelerometer, TPM tire module and receiver module, DAQ card, CPU card and a touch screen. Several safety subsystems, including image processing, weight sensing and crash detection systems, are integrated, and their outputs are combined to yield intelligent decisions regarding airbag deployment. The integrated safety system also monitors tire pressure and temperature. Testing and experimentation with this ISS suggests that the system is unique, robust, intelligent, and appropriate for in-vehicle applications.

  4. Finite temperature behaviour of the ISS-uplifted KKLT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papineau, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    We study the static phase structure of the ISS-KKLT model for moduli stabilisation and uplifting to a zero cosmological constant. Since the supersymmetry breaking sector and the moduli sector are only gravitationally coupled, we expect negligible quantum effects of the modulus upon the ISS sector, and the other way around. Under this assumption, we show that the ISS fields end up in the metastable vacua. The reason is not only that it is thermally favoured (second order phase transition) compared to the phase transition towards the supersymmetric vacua, but rather that the metastable vacua form before the supersymmetric ones. This nice feature is exclusively due to the presence of the KKLT sector. We also show that supergravity effects are negligible around the origin of the field space. Finally, we turn to the modulus sector and show that there is no destabilisation effect coming from the ISS sector.

  5. IVA Ultrasonic and Eddy Current NDE for ISS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project intends to develop a combined Ultrasonic and Eddy Current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) instrument for IVA use on ISS. A suite of IVA and EVA NDE...

  6. Environmental Effects on ISS Materials Aging (1998 to 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alred, John; Dasgupta, Rajib; Koontz, Steve; Soares, Carlos; Golden, John

    2009-01-01

    The performance of ISS spacecraft materials and systems on prolonged exposure to the low- Earth orbit (LEO) space flight are reported in this paper. In-flight data, flight crew observations, and the results of ground-based test and analysis directly supporting programmatic and operational decision-making are described. The space flight environments definitions (both natural and induced) used for ISS design, material selection, and verification testing are shown, in most cases, to be more severe than the actual flight environment accounting, in part, for the outstanding performance of ISS as a long mission duration spacecraft. No significant ISS material or system failures have been attributed to spacecraft-environments interactions. Nonetheless, ISS materials and systems performance data is contributing to our understanding of spacecraft material interactions with the spaceflight environment so as to reduce cost and risk for future spaceflight projects and programs. Orbital inclination (51.6 deg) and altitude (nominally near 360 km) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the functional life of materials and systems on ISS. ISS operates in an electrically conducting environment (the F2 region of Earth s ionosphere) with well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other charged and neutral ionospheric plasma species, solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays. The LEO micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an especially important determinant of spacecraft design and operations. The magnitude of several environmental factors varies dramatically with latitude and longitude as ISS orbits the Earth. The high latitude orbital environment also exposes ISS to higher fluences of trapped energetic electrons, auroral electrons, solar cosmic rays, and galactic cosmic rays than would be the case in lower inclination orbits, largely as a result of the overall shape and magnitude of the

  7. Positrusion Filament Recycling System for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Positrusion ISS Recycler enables recycling of scrap and waste plastics into high-quality filament for 3D printers to enable sustainable in-situ manufacturing on...

  8. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Geomagnetic Storm Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture geomagnetic storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of geomagnetic storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during geomagnetic storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.

  9. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodroci, M. P.; Gafka, G. K.; Lutomski, M. G.; Maher, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk - given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Hazard Level- 4 [THL] materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years

  10. Proposed configuration for ITER hydrogen isotope separation system (ISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, A.; Brad, S.; Sofalca, N.; Vijulie, M.; Cristescu, I.; Doer, L; Wurster, W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The isotope separation system utilizes cryogenic distillation and catalytic reaction for isotope exchange to separate elemental hydrogen isotope gas mixtures. The ISS shall separate hydrogen isotope mixtures from two sources to produce up to five different products. These are: protium, effluent for discharge to the atmosphere, deuterium for fuelling, deuterium for NB injector (NBI) source gas, 50 % and 90% T fuelling streams. The concept of equipment 3D layout for the ISS main components were developed using the Part Design, Assembly Design, Piping Design, Equipment Arrangement and Plant Layout application from CATIA V5. The 3D conceptual layouts for ISS system were created having as reference the DDD -32-B report, the drawings 0028.0001.2D. 0100. R 'Process Flow Diagram'; 0029.0001.2D. 0200.R 'Process Instrumentation Diagram -1' (in the cold box); 0030.0001.2D. 0100. R 'Process Instrumentation Diagram -2' (in the hard shell confinement) and imputes from TLK team. The main components designed for ISS are: ISS cold box system (CB) with cryogenic distillation columns (CD) and recovery heat exchangers (HX), ISS hard shell containment (HSC) system with metals bellow pumps (MB) and chemical equilibrators (RC), valve box system, instrumentation box system, vacuum system and hydrogen expansion vessels. Work related to these topics belongs to the contract FU06-CT-2006-00508 (EFDA 06-1511) from the EFDA Technology Workprogramm 2006 and was done in collaboration with FZK Association team during the period January 2007 - September 2008. (authors)

  11. Innovative Sea Surface Monitoring with GNSS-Reflectometry aboard ISS: Overview and Recent Results from GEROS-ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Bandeiras, J.

    GEROS-ISS (GEROS hereafter) stands for GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station. It is a scientific experiment, proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA)in 2011 for installation aboard the ISS. The main focus of GEROS is the dedicated use o...... of signals from the currently available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for remote sensing of the System Earth with focus to Climate Change characterisation. The GEROS mission idea and the current status are briefly reviewed....

  12. ISS Ammonia Leak Detection Through X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Skinner, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia leaks are a significant concern for the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS has external transport lines that direct liquid ammonia to radiator panels where the ammonia is cooled and then brought back to thermal control units. These transport lines and radiator panels are subject to stress from micrometeorites and temperature variations, and have developed small leaks. The ISS can accommodate these leaks at their present rate, but if the rate increased by a factor of ten, it could potentially deplete the ammonia supply and impact the proper functioning of the ISS thermal control system, causing a serious safety risk. A proposed ISS astrophysics instrument, the Lobster X-Ray Monitor, can be used to detect and localize ISS ammonia leaks. Based on the optical design of the eye of its namesake crustacean, the Lobster detector gives simultaneously large field of view and good position resolution. The leak detection principle is that the nitrogen in the leaking ammonia will be ionized by X-rays from the Sun, and then emit its own characteristic Xray signal. The Lobster instrument, nominally facing zenith for its astrophysics observations, can be periodically pointed towards the ISS radiator panels and some sections of the transport lines to detect and localize the characteristic X-rays from the ammonia leaks. Another possibility is to use the ISS robot arm to grab the Lobster instrument and scan it across the transport lines and radiator panels. In this case the leak detection can be made more sensitive by including a focused 100-microampere electron beam to stimulate X-ray emission from the leaking nitrogen. Laboratory studies have shown that either approach can be used to locate ammonia leaks at the level of 0.1 kg/day, a threshold rate of concern for the ISS. The Lobster instrument uses two main components: (1) a microchannel plate optic (also known as a Lobster optic) that focuses the X-rays and directs them to the focal plane, and (2) a CCD (charge

  13. Space Science Investigation: NASA ISS Stowage Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Gary

    2017-01-01

    During this internship the opportunity was granted to work with the Integrated, Graphics, Operations and Analysis Laboratory (IGOAL) team. The main assignment was to create 12 achievement patches for the Space Station training simulator called the "NASA ISS Stowage Training Game." This project was built using previous IGOAL developed software. To accomplish this task, Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator were used to craft the badges and other elements required. Blender, a 3D modeling software, was used to make the required 3D elements. Blender was a useful tool to make things such as a CTB bag for the "No More Bob" patch which shows a gentleman kicking a CTB bag into the distance. It was also used to pose characters to the positions that was optimal for their patches as in the "Station Sanitation" patch which portrays and astronaut waving on a U.S module on a truck. Adobe Illustrator was the main piece of software for this task. It was used to craft the badges and upload them when they were completed. The style of the badges were flat, meaning that they shouldn't look three dimensional in any way, shape or form. Adobe Photoshop was used when any pictures need brightening and was where the texture for the CTB bag was made. In order for the patches to be ready for the game's next major release, they have to go under some critical reviewing, revising and re-editing to make sure the other artists and the rest of the staff are satisfied with the final products. Many patches were created and revamped to meet the flat setting and incorporate suggestions from the IGOAL team. After the three processes were completed, the badges were implemented into the game (reference fig1 for badges). After a month of designing badges, the finished products were placed into the final game build via the programmers. The art was the final piece in showcasing the latest build to the public for testing. Comments from the testers were often exceptional and the feedback on the badges were

  14. A Case for Hypogravity Studies Aboard ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions being contemplated by NASA and other spacefaring nations include some that would require long stays upon bodies having gravity levels much lower than that of Earth. While we have been able to quantify the physiological effects of sustained exposure to microgravity during various spaceflight programs over the past half-century, there has been no opportunity to study the physiological adaptations to gravity levels between zero-g and one-g. We know now that the microgravity environment of spaceflight drives adaptive responses of the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor systems, causing bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, reduced aerobic capacity, motion sickness, and malcoordination. All of these outcomes can affect crew health and performance, particularly after return to a one-g environment. An important question for physicians, scientists, and mission designers planning human exploration missions to Mars (3/8 g), the Moon (1/6 g), or asteroids (likely negligible g) is: What protection can be expected from gravitational levels between zero-g and one-g? Will crewmembers deconditioned by six months of microgravity exposure on their way to Mars experience continued deconditioning on the Martian surface? Or, will the 3/8 g be sufficient to arrest or even reverse these adaptive changes? The implications for countermeasure deployment, habitat accommodations, and mission design warrant further investigation into the physiological responses to hypogravity. It is not possible to fully simulate hypogravity exposure on Earth for other than transient episodes (e.g., parabolic flight). However, it would be possible to do so in low Earth orbit (LEO) using the centrifugal forces produced in a live-aboard centrifuge. As we're not likely to launch a rotating human spacecraft into LEO anytime in the near future, we could take advantage of rodent subjects aboard the ISS if we had a centrifuge that could accommodate the rodent

  15. DRAGONS-A Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impact Sensor on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, J.-C.; Hamilton, J.; Liolios, S.; Anderson, C.; Sadilek, A.; Corsaro, R.; Giovane, F.; Burchell, M.

    2015-01-01

    by the NASA Science Mission Directorate and the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate, then by the NASA JSC Innovative Research and Development Program and the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office. The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office leads the effort with collaboration from the U.S. Naval Academy, Naval Research Laboratory, University of Kent at Canterbury in Great Britain, and Virginia Tech. The project recently reached a major milestone when DRAGONS was approved for a technology demonstration mission by the International Space Station (ISS) Program in October 2014. The plan is to deploy a 1 sq m DRAGONS on the ISS with the detection surface facing the ram-direction for 2 to 3 years. The tentative launch schedule is in early 2017. This mission will collect data on orbital debris in the sub-millimeter size regime to better define the small orbital debris environment at the ISS altitude. The mission will also advance the DRAGONS Technology Readiness Level to 9 and greatly enhance the opportunities to deploy DRAGONS on other spacecraft to high LEO orbits in the future.

  16. The International Space Station (ISS) Education Accomplishments and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Blue, Regina; Mayo, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers worldwide and thus stands as an invaluable learning platform for the advancement of proficiency in research and development and education. The presence of humans on board ISS for the past ten years has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines which will lead to an increase in quality of teachers, advancements in research and development, an increase in the global reputation for intellectual achievement, and an expanded ability to pursue unchartered avenues towards a brighter future. Over 41 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related activities since the year 2000. Projects such as the Amateur Radio on International Space Station (ARISS) and Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), among others, have allowed for global student, teacher, and public access to space through radio contacts with crewmembers and student image acquisition respectively. . With planned ISS operations at least until 2020, projects like the aforementioned and their accompanying educational materials will be available to enable increased STEM literacy around the world. Since the launch of the first ISS element, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed by each of the international partner agencies: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). Additionally, a number of non-participating countries, some under commercial agreements, have also participated in Station-related activities. Many of these programs still continue while others are being developed and added to the station crewmembers tasks

  17. The 2015-2016 SEPMAP Program at NASA JSC: Science, Engineering, and Program Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L.; Archer, D.; Bakalyar, J.; Berger, E.; Blome, E.; Brown, R.; Cox, S.; Curiel, P.; Eid, R.; Eppler, D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Project Management Advancement Program (SEPMAP) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is an employee development program designed to provide graduate level training in project management and systems engineering. The program includes an applied learning project with engineering and integrated science goals requirements. The teams were presented with a task: Collect a representative sample set from a field site using a hexacopter platform, as if performing a scientific reconnaissance to assess whether the site is of sufficient scientific interest to justify exploration by astronauts. Four teams worked through the eighteen-month course to design customized sampling payloads integrated with the hexacopter, and then operate the aircraft to meet sampling requirements of number (= 5) and mass (= 5g each). The "Mars Yard" at JSC was utilized for this purpose. This project activity closely parallels NASA plans for the future exploration of Mars, where remote sites will be reconnoitered ahead of crewed exploration.

  18. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  19. STS-36 crewmembers train in JSC's FB shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-36 Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, seated on the aft flight deck, discusses procedures with Commander John O. Creighton (left) and Pilot John H. Casper during a simulation in JSC's Fixed Based (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Casper reviews a checklist at the pilots station on the forward flight deck. The crewmembers are rehearsing crew cabin activities for their upcoming Department of Defense (DOD) mission aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104.

  20. STS-37 crewmembers train in JSC's FB shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Commander Steven R. Nagel (left) and Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross rehearse some of their scheduled duties on the flight deck of JSC's fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. During the unsuited simulation, Nagel reviews checklist while seated at the commanders station as Ross looks on from the pilots station.

  1. STS-44 Atlantis, OV-104, crewmembers participate in JSC FB-SMS training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Commander Frederick D. Gregory and Pilot Terence T. Henricks are stationed at their appointed positions on the forward flight deck of the Fixed Base (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Gregory (left) in the commanders seat and Henricks (right) in the pilots seat look back toward aft flight deck and the photographer. Seat backs appear in the foreground and forward flight deck control panels in the background.

  2. STS-44 Atlantis, OV-104, crewmembers participate in FB-SMS training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Commander Frederick D. Gregory (left) and Pilot Terence T. Henricks, positioned at their appointed stations on the forward flight deck, are joined by Mission Specialist (MS) F. Story Musgrave (center) and MS James S. Voss (standing). The crewmembers are participating in a flight simulation in the Fixed Base (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. A maze of panel switches appear overhead and in the background.

  3. STS-46 crewmembers participate in Fixed Base (FB) SMS training at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Pilot Andrew M. Allen hands Mission Specialist (MS) and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman checklists from middeck locker MF43E during training session in JSC's fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. European Space Agency (ESA) MS Claude Nicollier outfitted with communications kit assembly headset (HDST) and equipment looks beyond Hoffman to the opposite side of the middeck.

  4. STS-49 crew in JSC's FB Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) during simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers participate in a simulation in JSC's Fixed Base (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Wearing launch and entry suits (LESs) and launch and entry helmets (LEH) and seated on the FB-SMS middeck are (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Thomas D. Akers, MS Kathryn C. Thornton, and MS Pierre J. Thuot.

  5. STS-26 crew trains in JSC fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers (left to right) Commander Frederick H. Hauck, Pilot Richard O. Covey, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, MS David C. Hilmers, and MS John M. Lounge pose on the middeck in fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. A simulation for their anticipated June 1988 flight began 10-20-87.

  6. Boundary Layer Transition Protuberance Tests at NASA JSC Arc-Jet Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, Max E.; Marichalar, Jeremiah J.; Kinder, Gerald R.; Campbell, Charles H.; Riccio, Joseph R.; Nguyen, Tien Q.; Del Papa, Steven V.; Pulsonetti, Maria V.

    2010-01-01

    A series of tests conducted recently at the NASA JSC arc -jet test facility demonstrated that a protruding tile material can survive the exposure to the high enthalpy flows characteristic of the Space Shuttle Orbiter re-entry environments. The tests provided temperature data for the protuberance and the surrounding smooth tile surfaces, as well as the tile bond line. The level of heating needed to slump the protuberance material was achieved. Protuberance failure mode was demonstrated.

  7. ASTP crewmen in Soyuz orbital module mock-up during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An interior view of the Soyuz orbital module mock-up in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint crew training at JSC. The ASTP crewmen are Astronaut Vance D. Brand (on left), command module pilot of the American ASTP prime crew; and Cosmonaut Valeriy N. Kubasov, engineer on the Soviet ASTP first (prime) crew. The training session simulated activities on the second day in Earth orbit.

  8. ASTP crewmen in Docking Module trainer during training session at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An interior view of the Docking Module trainer in bldg 35 during Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) joint crew training at JSC. Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the American ASTP prime crew, is on the right. The other crewman is Cosmonaut Aleksey A. Leonov, commander of the Soviet ASTP prime crew. The training session simulated activities on the second day in Earth orbit. The Docking Module is designed to link the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft.

  9. STS-48 MS Gemar uses laptop during training session in JSC's MB SMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) Charles D. Gemar, wearing lightweight headset, enters data into a portable laptop computer on the middeck of JSC's Motion Based (MB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Gemar is participating in a preflight familiarization session in the MB-SMS located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Visible to Gemar's right is a stowed extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and on his left are forward locker mockups.

  10. Gas Phase Pressure Effects on the Apparent Thermal Conductivity of JSC-1A Lunar Regolith Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Kleinhenz, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    Gas phase pressure effects on the apparent thermal conductivity of a JSC-1A/air mixture have been experimentally investigated under steady state thermal conditions from 10 kPa to 100 kPa. The result showed that apparent thermal conductivity of the JSC-1A/air mixture decreased when pressure was lowered to 80 kPa. At 10 kPa, the conductivity decreased to 0.145 W/m/degree C, which is significantly lower than 0.196 W/m/degree C at 100 kPa. This finding is consistent with the results of previous researchers. The reduction of the apparent thermal conductivity at low pressures is ascribed to the Knudsen effect. Since the characteristic length of the void space in bulk JSC-1A varies over a wide range, both the Knudsen regime and continuum regime can coexist in the pore space. The volume ratio of the two regimes varies with pressure. Thus, as gas pressure decreases, the gas volume controlled by Knudsen regime increases. Under Knudsen regime the resistance to the heat flow is higher than that in the continuum regime, resulting in the observed pressure dependency of the apparent thermal conductivity.

  11. Utilizing ISS Camera Systems for Scientific Analysis of Lightning Characteristics and comparison with ISS-LIS and GLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, C. J.; Lang, T. J.; Leake, S.; Runco, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Video and still frame images from cameras aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are used to inspire, educate, and provide a unique vantage point from low-Earth orbit that is second to none; however, these cameras have overlooked capabilities for contributing to scientific analysis of the Earth and near-space environment. The goal of this project is to study how georeferenced video/images from available ISS camera systems can be useful for scientific analysis, using lightning properties as a demonstration. Camera images from the crew cameras and high definition video from the Chiba University Meteor Camera were combined with lightning data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), ISS-Lightning Imaging Sensor (ISS-LIS), the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and lightning mapping arrays. These cameras provide significant spatial resolution advantages ( 10 times or better) over ISS-LIS and GLM, but with lower temporal resolution. Therefore, they can serve as a complementarity analysis tool for studying lightning and thunderstorm processes from space. Lightning sensor data, Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) derived city light maps, and other geographic databases were combined with the ISS attitude and position data to reverse geolocate each image or frame. An open-source Python toolkit has been developed to assist with this effort. Next, the locations and sizes of all flashes in each frame or image were computed and compared with flash characteristics from all available lightning datasets. This allowed for characterization of cloud features that are below the 4-km and 8-km resolution of ISS-LIS and GLM which may reduce the light that reaches the ISS-LIS or GLM sensor. In the case of video, consecutive frames were overlaid to determine the rate of change of the light escaping cloud top. Characterization of the rate of change in geometry, more generally the radius, of light escaping cloud top was integrated with the NLDN, ISS-LIS and

  12. Report on ISS Oxygen Production, Resupply, and Partial Pressure Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaezler, Ryan; Ghariani, Ahmed; Leonard, Daniel; Lehman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The majority of oxygen used on International Space Station (ISS) is for metabolic support and denitrogenation procedures prior to Extra-Vehicular Activities. Oxygen is supplied by various visiting vehicles such as the Progress and Shuttle in addition to oxygen production capability on both the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) and Russian Segment (RS). To maintain a habitable atmosphere the oxygen partial pressure is controlled between upper and lower bounds. The full range of the allowable oxygen partial pressure along with the increased ISS cabin volume is utilized as a buffer allowing days to pass between oxygen production or direct addition of oxygen to the atmosphere from reserves. This paper summarizes amount of oxygen supplied and produced from all of the sources and describes past experience of managing oxygen partial pressure along with the range of management options available to the ISS.

  13. Thermally-Constrained Fuel-Optimal ISS Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Sagar; Svecz, Andrew; Alaniz, Abran; Jang, Jiann-Woei; Nguyen, Louis; Spanos, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Optimal Propellant Maneuvers (OPMs) are now being used to rotate the International Space Station (ISS) and have saved hundreds of kilograms of propellant over the last two years. The savings are achieved by commanding the ISS to follow a pre-planned attitude trajectory optimized to take advantage of environmental torques. The trajectory is obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Prior to use on orbit, OPM trajectories are screened to ensure a static sun vector (SSV) does not occur during the maneuver. The SSV is an indicator that the ISS hardware temperatures may exceed thermal limits, causing damage to the components. In this paper, thermally-constrained fuel-optimal trajectories are presented that avoid an SSV and can be used throughout the year while still reducing propellant consumption significantly.

  14. SPHERES: From Ground Development to Operations on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterhagen, A.

    2015-01-01

    SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) is an internal International Space Station (ISS) Facility that supports multiple investigations for the development of multi-spacecraft and robotic control algorithms. The SPHERES Facility on ISS is managed and operated by the SPHERES National Lab Facility at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Field California. The SPHERES Facility on ISS consists of three self-contained eight-inch diameter free-floating satellites which perform the various flight algorithms and serve as a platform to support the integration of experimental hardware. To help make science a reality on the ISS, the SPHERES ARC team supports a Guest Scientist Program (GSP). This program allows anyone with new science the possibility to interface with the SPHERES team and hardware. In addition to highlighting the available SPHERES hardware on ISS and on the ground, this presentation will also highlight ground support, facilities, and resources available to guest researchers. Investigations on the ISS evolve through four main phases: Strategic, Tactical, Operations, and Post Operations. The Strategic Phase encompasses early planning beginning with initial contact by the Principle Investigator (PI) and the SPHERES program who may work with the PI to assess what assistance the PI may need. Once the basic parameters are understood, the investigation moves to the Tactical Phase which involves more detailed planning, development, and testing. Depending on the nature of the investigation, the tactical phase may be split into the Lab Tactical Phase or the ISS Tactical Phase due to the difference in requirements for the two destinations. The Operations Phase is when the actual science is performed; this can be either in the lab, or on the ISS. The Post Operations Phase encompasses data analysis and distribution, and generation of summary status and reports. The SPHERES Operations and Engineering teams at ARC is composed of

  15. ISS Ambient Air Quality: Updated Inventory of Known Aerosol Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is of fundamental importance to crew health, with concerns encompassing both gaseous contaminants and particulate matter. Little opportunity exists for direct measurement of aerosol concentrations on the International Space Station (ISS), however, an aerosol source model was developed for the purpose of filtration and ventilation systems design. This model has successfully been applied, however, since the initial effort, an increase in the number of crewmembers from 3 to 6 and new processes on board the ISS necessitate an updated aerosol inventory to accurately reflect the current ambient aerosol conditions. Results from recent analyses of dust samples from ISS, combined with a literature review provide new predicted aerosol emission rates in terms of size-segregated mass and number concentration. Some new aerosol sources have been considered and added to the existing array of materials. The goal of this work is to provide updated filtration model inputs which can verify that the current ISS filtration system is adequate and filter lifetime targets are met. This inventory of aerosol sources is applicable to other spacecraft, and becomes more important as NASA considers future long term exploration missions, which will preclude the opportunity for resupply of filtration products.

  16. "Detsembrikuumuse" helirežissöör sai Emmy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Hollywoodis töötav helirežissöör Solange S. Schwalbe sai septembris Los Angeleses toimunud 2007-2008 Creative Arts Primetime Emmys tseremoonial Emmy minisarja "John Adams" heliefektide eest. Tema meeskond helindas ka meie uue mängufilmi

  17. An Evidence-Based Approach To Exercise Prescriptions on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes current exercise countermeasures and exercise equipment for astronauts onboard the ISS. Additionally, a strategy for evaluating evidence supporting spaceflight exercise is described and a new exercise prescription is proposed. The current exercise regimen is not fully effective as the ISS exercise hardware does not allow for sufficient exercise intensity, the exercise prescription is adequate and crew members are noncompliant with the prescription. New ISS hardware is proposed, Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED), which allows additional exercises, is instrumented for data acquisition and offers improved loading. The new T2 hardware offers a better harness and subject loading system, is instrumented to allow ground reaction force data, and offers improved speed. A strategy for developing a spaceflight exercise prescription is described and involves identifying exercise training programs that have been shown to maximize adaptive benefits of people exercising in both 0 and 1 g environments. Exercise intensity emerged as an important factor in maintaining physiologic adaptations in the spaceflight environment and interval training is suggested. New ISS exercise hardware should allow for exercise at intensities high enough to elicit adaptive responses. Additionally, new exercise prescriptions should incorporate higher intensity exercises and seek to optimize intensity, duration and frequency for greater efficiency.

  18. International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen High Pressure Storage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John R.; Dake, Jason; Cover, John; Leonard, Dan; Bohannon, Carl

    2004-01-01

    High pressure oxygen onboard the ISS provides support for Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) and contingency metabolic support for the crew. This high pressure 02 is brought to the ISS by the Space Shuttle and is transferred using the Oxygen Recharge Compressor Assembly (ORCA). There are several drivers that must be considered in managing the available high pressure 02 on the ISS. The amount of O2 the Shuttle can fly up is driven by manifest mass limitations, launch slips, and on orbit Shuttle power requirements. The amount of 02 that is used from the ISS high pressure gas tanks (HPGT) is driven by the number of Shuttle docked and undocked EVAs, the type of EVA prebreath protocol that is used and contingency use of O2 for metabolic support. Also, the use of the ORCA must be managed to optimize its life on orbit and assure that it will be available to transfer the planned amount of O2 from the Shuttle. Management of this resource has required long range planning and coordination between Shuttle manifest on orbit plans. To further optimize the situation hardware options have been pursued.

  19. ISS Potable Water Quality for Expeditions 26 through 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 26-30 spanned a 16-month period beginning in November of 2010 wherein the final 3 flights of the Space Shuttle program finished ISS construction and delivered supplies to support the post-shuttle era of station operations. Expedition crews relied on several sources of potable water during this period, including water recovered from urine distillate and humidity condensate by the U.S. water processor, water regenerated from humidity condensate by the Russian water recovery system, and Russian ground-supplied potable water. Potable water samples collected during Expeditions 26-30 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-133 (ULF5), STS-134 (ULF6), and STS-135 (ULF7), as well as Soyuz flights 24-27. The chemical quality of the ISS potable water supplies continued to be verified by the Johnson Space Center s Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) via analyses of returned water samples. This paper presents the chemical analysis results for water samples returned from Expeditions 26-30 and discusses their compliance with ISS potable water standards. The presence or absence of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) is specifically addressed, since DMSD was identified as the primary cause of the temporary rise and fall in total organic carbon of the U.S. product water that occurred in the summer of 2010.

  20. DSMC Simulations of Disturbance Torque to ISS During Airlock Depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, F. E., III; Stewart, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    The primary attitude control system on the International Space Station (ISS) is part of the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and uses Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMG). The secondary system is part of the Russian On orbit Segment (RSOS) and uses a combination of gyroscopes and thrusters. Historically, events with significant disturbances such as the airlock depressurizations associated with extra-vehicular activity (EVA) have been performed using the RSOS attitude control system. This avoids excessive propulsive "de-saturations" of the CMGs. However, transfer of attitude control is labor intensive and requires significant propellant. Predictions employing NASA's DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) of the disturbance torque to the ISS for depressurization of the Pirs airlock on the RSOS will be presented [1]. These predictions were performed to assess the feasibility of using USOS control during these events. The ISS Pirs airlock is vented using a device known as a "T-vent" as shown in the inset in figure 1. By orienting two equal streams of gas in opposite directions, this device is intended to have no propulsive effect. However, disturbance force and torque to the ISS do occur due to plume impingement. The disturbance torque resulting from the Pirs depressurization during EVAs is estimated by using a loosely coupled CFD/DSMC technique [2]. CFD is used to simulate the flow field in the nozzle and the near field plume. DSMC is used to simulate the remaining flow field using the CFD results to create an in flow boundary to the DSMC simulation. Due to the highly continuum nature of flow field near the T-vent, two loosely coupled DSMC domains are employed. An 88.2 cubic meter inner domain contains the Pirs airlock and the T-vent. Inner domain results are used to create an in flow boundary for an outer domain containing the remaining portions of the ISS. Several orientations of the ISS solar arrays and radiators have been investigated to find cases that result in minimal

  1. NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data Vb0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the...

  2. NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Provisional Science Data Vp0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Space Station (ISS) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) datasets were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the distribution and...

  3. Dose Calibration of the ISS-RAD Fast Neutron Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, C.

    2015-01-01

    The ISS-RAD instrument has been fabricated by Southwest Research Institute and delivered to NASA for flight to the ISS in late 2015 or early 2016. ISS-RAD is essentially two instruments that share a common interface to ISS. The two instruments are the Charged Particle Detector (CPD), which is very similar to the MSL-RAD detector on Mars, and the Fast Neutron Detector (FND), which is a boron-loaded plastic scintillator with readout optimized for the 0.5 to 10 MeV energy range. As the FND is completely new, it has been necessary to develop methodology to allow it to be used to measure the neutron dose and dose equivalent. This talk will focus on the methods developed and their implementation using calibration data obtained in quasi-monoenergetic (QMN) neutron fields at the PTB facility in Braunschweig, Germany. The QMN data allow us to determine an approximate response function, from which we estimate dose and dose equivalent contributions per detected neutron as a function of the pulse height. We refer to these as the "pSv per count" curves for dose equivalent and the "pGy per count" curves for dose. The FND is required to provide a dose equivalent measurement with an accuracy of ?10% of the known value in a calibrated AmBe field. Four variants of the analysis method were developed, corresponding to two different approximations of the pSv per count curve, and two different implementations, one for real-time analysis onboard ISS and one for ground analysis. We will show that the preferred method, when applied in either real-time or ground analysis, yields good accuracy for the AmBe field. We find that the real-time algorithm is more susceptible to chance-coincidence background than is the algorithm used in ground analysis, so that the best estimates will come from the latter.

  4. Spaceflight of HUVEC: An Integrated eXperiment- SPHINX Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, S.; Maier, J. A. M.; Norfini, A.; Zolesi, V.; Bradamante, S.

    2013-02-01

    The spaceflight orthostatic challenge can promote in astronauts inadequate cardiovascular responses defined as cardiovascular deconditioning. In particular, disturbance of endothelial functions are known to lead to altered vascular performances, being the endothelial cells crucial in the maintenance of the functional integrity of the vascular wall. In order to evaluate whether weightlessness affects endothelial functions, we designed, developed, and performed the experiment SPHINX - SPaceflight of HUVEC: an INtegrated eXperiment - where HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) were selected as a macrovascular cell model system. SPHINX arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) onboard Progress 40P, and was processed inside Kubik 6 incubator for 7 days. At the end, all of the samples were suitably fixed and preserved at 6°C until return on Earth on Soyuz 23S.

  5. The Planning of New Japanese Facilities for Life Science in ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takeo; Hoson, Takayuki

    Though basic rules and mechanisms of life have been rapidly advanced, in recent years, the most sciences are limited under earth environment. To clarify the universality and the real nature of life, it is necessary to perform the space experiments. We, Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space, schedule new five types of up-to-date facilities required for the forefront research in the Kibo Module for utilization during 2015-2020. The project was proposed to the Council of Japan and the utilization Committee of Space Environment Science. We aim (1) further high quality science, (2) widely utilization for various requirements among Japan and foreign scientists. The schedules are 2015-2016, manufacture of them and suitability for space experiments and safety tests; 2016-2018, settlement of the new facilities to ISS; 2018-2023, space experiments. At now stage, we are unable to use space shuttles any more. It is difficult to get the biological samples to the spot of launch. Tests of vibration and shock during launch and landing are required. We recommend the down-road of experimental results from ISS. Now, we schedule new facilities: (1) Plant culture system; culture of various kinds of plants for the cell cycle and the next generation, and space agriculture for long stay in space. (2) Whole-body animal culture system; fertilization, growth, development, movement, life keeping in closed environment and health life in space by many kinds of analysis. (3) Localization and movement of cellular components; gene expression, proteins, chromosome and organelles in the cell with a real time analysis. (4) Collection of biological samples from space and total analysis system; (a) settlement of samples in ISS, space experiments and analysis in space, (b) the collection the samples after space experiments. (5) Exposure area at ISS platform; biological effect and fine physical dosimetry of solar radiations and space radiations under various filters among different radiation

  6. Coordinated Analysis 101: A Joint Training Session Sponsored by LPI and ARES/JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, D. S.; Treiman, A. H.

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Division, part of the Exploration Integration and Science Directorate at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), co-sponsored a training session in November 2016 for four early-career scientists in the techniques of coordinated analysis. Coordinated analysis refers to the approach of systematically performing high-resolution and -precision analytical studies on astromaterials, particularly the very small particles typical of recent and near-future sample return missions such as Stardust, Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, and OSIRIS-REx. A series of successive analytical steps is chosen to be performed on the same particle, as opposed to separate subsections of a sample, in such a way that the initial steps do not compromise the results from later steps in the sequence. The data from the entire series can then be integrated for these individual specimens, revealing important in-sights obtainable no other way. ARES/JSC scientists have played a leading role in the development and application of this approach for many years. Because the coming years will bring new sample collections from these and other planned NASA and international exploration missions, it is timely to begin disseminating specialized techniques for the study of small and precious astromaterial samples. As part of the Cooperative Agreement between NASA and the LPI, this training workshop was intended as the first in a series of similar training exercises that the two organizations will jointly sponsor in the coming years. These workshops will span the range of analytical capabilities and sample types available at ARES/JSC in the Astromaterials Research and Astro-materials Acquisition and Curation Offices. Here we summarize the activities and participants in this initial training.

  7. Commissioning of the Liquid Nitrogen Thermo-Siphon System for NASA-JSC Chamber-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J.; Montz, M.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Garcia, S.; Garza, J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory's (SESL) Chamber A, located at the Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas has recently implemented major enhancements of its cryogenic and vacuum systems. The new liquid nitrogen (LN2) thermo-siphon system was successfully commissioned in August of 2012. Chamber A, which has 20 K helium cryo-panels (or shrouds ) which are shielded by 80 K nitrogen shrouds, is capable of simulating a deep space environment necessary to perform ground testing of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Chamber A s previous system used forced flow LN2 cooling with centrifugal pumps, requiring 200,000 liters of LN2 to cool-down and consuming 180,000 liters per day of LN2 in steady operation. The LN2 system did not have the reliability required to meet the long duration test of the JWST, and the cost estimate provided in the initial approach to NASA-JSC by the sub-contractor for refurbishment of the system to meet the reliability goals was prohibitive. At NASA-JSC's request, the JLab Cryogenics Group provided alternative options in 2007, including a thermo-siphon, or natural flow system. This system, eliminated the need for pumps and used one tenth of the original control valves, relief valves, and burst disks. After the thermo-siphon approach was selected, JLab provided technical assistance in the process design, mechanical design, component specification development and commissioning oversight, while the installation and commissioning operations of the system was overseen by the Jacobs Technology/ESC group at JSC. The preliminary commissioning data indicate lower shroud temperatures, 70,000 liters to cool-down and less than 90,000 liters per day consumed in steady operation. All of the performance capabilities have exceeded the design goals. This paper will outline the comparison between the original system and the predicted results of the selected design option, and the commissioning results of thermo-siphon system.

  8. Commissioning of the Liquid Nitrogen Thermo-Siphon System for NASA-JSC Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J.; Montz, M.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Garcia, S.; Garza, J.

    2013-01-01

    NASA s Space Environment Simulation Laboratory s (SESL) Chamber A, located at the Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas has recently implemented major enhancements of its cryogenic and vacuum systems. The new liquid nitrogen (LN) thermo-siphon system was successfully commissioned in August of 2012. Chamber A, which has 20 K helium cryo-panels (or shrouds ) which are shielded by 80 K nitrogen shrouds, is capable of simulating a deep space environment necessary to perform ground testing of NASA s James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). Chamber A s previous system used forced flow LN cooling with centrifugal pumps, requiring 220,000 liters of LN to cool-down and consuming 180,000 liters per day of LN in steady operation. The LN system did not have the reliability required to meet the long duration test of the JWST, and the cost estimate provided in the initial approach to NASA-JSC by the subcontractor for refurbishment of the system to meet the reliability goals was prohibitive. At NASA-JSC s request, the JLab Cryogenics Group provided alternative options in 2007, including a thermo-siphon, or natural flow system. This system, eliminated the need for pumps and used one tenth of the original control valves, relief valves, and burst disks. After the thermo-siphon approach was selected, JLab provided technical assistance in the process design, mechanical design, component specification development and commissioning oversight, while the installation and commissioning operations of the system was overseen by the Jacobs Technology/ESC group at JSC. The preliminary commissioning data indicate lower shroud temperatures, 68,000 liters to cool-down and less than 91,000 liters per day consumed in steady operation. All of the performance capabilities have exceeded the design goals. This paper will outline the comparison between the original system and the predicted results of the selected design option, and the commissioning results of thermo-siphon system.

  9. STS-57 crewmembers train in JSC's FB Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Nancy J. Sherlock, holding computer diskettes and procedural checklist, discusses equipment operation with Commander Ronald J. Grabe on the middeck of JSC's fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low points to a forward locker location as MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff switches controls on overhead panels MO42F and MO58F, and MS4 Janice E. Voss looks on. The FB-SMS is located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  10. Configuration Management (CM) Support for KM Processes at NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioletti, Louis

    2010-01-01

    Collection and processing of information are critical aspects of every business activity from raw data to information to an executable decision. Configuration Management (CM) supports KM practices through its automated business practices and its integrated operations within the organization. This presentation delivers an overview of JSC/Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and its methods to encourage innovation through collaboration and participation. Specifically, this presentation will illustrate how SLSD CM creates an embedded KM activity with an established IT platform to control and update baselines, requirements, documents, schedules, budgets, while tracking changes essentially managing critical knowledge elements.

  11. STS-37 crewmembers test CETA hand cart during training session in JSC's WETF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    STS-37 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross and MS Jerome Apt test crew and equipment translation aid (CETA) manual hand over hand cart during underwater session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), Ross pulls the CETA manual cart along the rail while Apt holds onto the back of the cart. The test will determine how difficult it is to maneuver cargo in such a manner when it is done in space on STS-37. The goal is to find the best method for astronauts to move around the exterior of Space Station Freedom (SSF).

  12. Human spaceflight technology needs-a foundation for JSC's technology strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklein, J. M.

    Human space exploration has always been heavily influenced by goals to achieve a specific mission on a specific schedule. This approach drove rapid technology development, the rapidity of which added risks and became a major driver for costs and cost uncertainty. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is now approaching the extension of human presence throughout the solar system by balancing a proactive yet less schedule-driven development of technology with opportunistic scheduling of missions as the needed technologies are realized. This approach should provide cost effective, low risk technology development that will enable efficient and effective manned spaceflight missions. As a first step, the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support future manned missions across a range of destinations, including in cis-lunar space, near earth asteroid visits, lunar exploration, Mars moons, and Mars exploration. The challenge now is to develop a strategy and plan for technology development that efficiently enables these missions over a reasonable time period, without increasing technology development costs unnecessarily due to schedule pressure, and subsequently mitigating development and mission risks. NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), as the nation's primary center for human exploration, is addressing this challenge through an innovative approach in allocating Internal Research and Development funding to projects. The HAT Technology Needs (Tech Needs) Database has been developed to correlate across critical technologies and the NASA Office of Chief Technologist Technology Area Breakdown Structure (TABS). The TechNeeds Database illuminates that many critical technologies may support a single technical capability gap, that many HAT technology needs may map to a single TABS technology discipline, and that a single HAT technology need may map to multiple TABS technology disciplines. Th

  13. ISS And Space Environment Interactions Without Operating Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Suggs,Rob; McCollum, Matt

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur. The details of interaction effects on spacecraft have not been addressed until driven by design. This was true for ISS. If the structure is allowed to float highly negative impinging ions can sputter exposed conductors which can degrade the primary surface and also generate contamination due to the sputtered material. Arcing has been known to occur on solar arrays that float negative of the ambient plasma. This can also generate electromagnetic interference and voltage transients. Much of the ISS structure and pressure module surfaces exposed to space is anodized aluminum. The anodization

  14. A novel marine bacterium Isoptericola sp. JS-C42 with the ability to saccharifying the plant biomasses for the aid in cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhi, Velayudhan Satheeja; Gupta, Ashutosh; Saranya, Somasundaram; Jebakumar, Solomon Robinson David

    2014-06-01

    The ever growing demands for food products such as starch and sugar produces; there is a need to find the sources for saccharification for cellulosic bioethanol production. This study provides the first evidence of the lignocellulolytic and saccharifying ability of a marine bacterium namely Isoptericola sp. JS-C42, a Gram positive actinobacterium with the cocci cells embedded on mycelia isolated from the Arabian Sea, India. It exhibited highest filter paper unit effect, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and ligninase effect. The hydrolytic potential of the enzymes displayed the efficient saccharification capability of steam pretreated biomass. It was also found to degrade the paddy, sorghum, Acacia mangium and Ficus religiosa into simple reducing sugars by its efficient lignocellulose enzyme complex with limited consumption of sugars. Production of ethanol was also achieved with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Overall, it offers a great potential for the cellulosic ethanol production in an economically reliable and eco-friendly point-of-care.

  15. Rapid Monitoring of Bacteria and Fungi aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Damon, M.; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms within spacecraft have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growth of environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies or return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. Data obtained over the past 4 decades have enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach has been limited by the following factors: i) Many microorganisms (estimated > 95%) in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags (3-5 days for incubation and up to several months to return samples to ground); iii) Condensation in contact slides hinders colony counting by crew; and iv) Growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gramnegative bacteria and fungi, respectively. The technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device, known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). LOCADPTS was launched to the ISS in December 2006, and here we present data obtained from Mach 2007 until the present day. These data include a comparative study between LOCADPTS analysis and existing culture-based methods; and an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan throughout the ISS. While a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not be expected, we will suggest new requirements for microbial monitoring based upon culture-independent parameters measured by LOCAD-PTS.

  16. Using the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) Is Not Feasible for Mars Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2016-01-01

    A review of two papers on improving the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) shows that it would not save substantial mass on a Mars transit. The ISS OGA requires redesign for satisfactory operation, even for the ISS. The planned improvements of the OGA for ISS would not be sufficient to make it suitable for Mars, because Mars transit life support has significantly different requirements than ISS. The OGA for Mars should have lower mass, better reliability and maintainability, greater safety, radiation hardening, and capability for quiescent operation. NASA's methodical, disciplined systems engineering process should be used to develop the appropriate system.

  17. Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.

    1998-01-01

    Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.

  18. Assessment of RFID Read Accuracy for ISS Water Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Directorate/Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch (SD4) is assessing the benefits Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for tracking items flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an initial study, the Avionic Systems Division Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) is collaborating with SD4 to affix RFID tags to a water kit supplied by SD4 and studying the read success rate of the tagged items. The tagged water kit inside a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB) was inventoried using three different RFID technologies, including the Johnson Space Center Building 14 Wireless Habitat Test Bed RFID portal, an RFID hand-held reader being targeted for use on board the ISS, and an RFID enclosure designed and prototyped by EV4.

  19. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) proposed dual-use technology investment program in intelligent robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Jon D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the proposed Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) precompetitive, dual-use technology investment project in robotics. New robotic technology in advanced robots, which can recognize and respond to their environments and to spoken human supervision so as to perform a variety of combined mobility and manipulation tasks in various sectors, is an obejective of this work. In the U.S. economy, such robots offer the benefits of improved global competitiveness in a critical industrial sector; improved productivity by the end users of these robots; a growing robotics industry that produces jobs and profits; lower cost health care delivery with quality improvements; and, as these 'intelligent' robots become acceptable throughout society, an increase in the standard of living for everyone. In space, such robots will provide improved safety, reliability, and productivity as Space Station evolves, and will enable human space exploration (by human/robot teams). The proposed effort consists of partnerships between manufacturers, universities, and JSC to develop working production prototypes of these robots by leveraging current development by both sides. Currently targeted applications are in the manufacturing, health care, services, and construction sectors of the U.S. economy and in the inspection, servicing, maintenance, and repair aspects of space exploration. But the focus is on the generic software architecture and standardized interfaces for custom modules tailored for the various applications allowing end users to customize a robot as PC users customize PC's. Production prototypes would be completed in 5 years under this proposal.

  20. The ISS National Inventory of Chemical Substances (INSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Roberto; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; Ceccarelli, Federica; D'angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Riva, Giovanni; Satalia, Susanna; Marcello, Ida

    2008-01-01

    The INSC (Inventario Nazionale delle Sostanze Chimiche), a factual data bank, produced by Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of an electronic tool on chemical information developed for routine and emergency purposes. Historical background, current status and future perspectives of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of information retrieval and the criteria for inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  1. Viewing ISS Data in Real Time via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Gerry; Chamberlain, Jim

    2004-01-01

    EZStream is a computer program that enables authorized users at diverse terrestrial locations to view, in real time, data generated by scientific payloads aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The only computation/communication resource needed for use of EZStream is a computer equipped with standard Web-browser software and a connection to the Internet. EZStream runs in conjunction with the TReK software, described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article, that coordinates multiple streams of data for the ground communication system of the ISS. EZStream includes server components that interact with TReK within the ISS ground communication system and client components that reside in the users' remote computers. Once an authorized client has logged in, a server component of EZStream pulls the requested data from a TReK application-program interface and sends the data to the client. Future EZStream enhancements will include (1) extensions that enable the server to receive and process arbitrary data streams on its own and (2) a Web-based graphical-user-interface-building subprogram that enables a client who lacks programming expertise to create customized display Web pages.

  2. Updated Performance Evaluation of the ISS Water Processor Multifiltration Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carter, Layne; Carpenter, Joyce; Orozco, Nicole; Weir, Natalee; Wilson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) produces potable water from a waste stream containing humidity condensate and urine distillate. The primary treatment process is achieved in the Multifiltration Beds, which include adsorbent media and ion exchange resin for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic contaminants. Two Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds) were replaced on ISS in July 2010 after initial indication of inorganic breakthrough of the first bed and an increasing Total Organic Carbon (TOC) trend in the product water. The first bed was sampled and analyzed Sept 2011 through March 2012. The second MF Bed was sampled and analyzed June 2012 through August 2012. The water resident in the both beds was analyzed for various parameters to evaluate adsorbent loading, performance of the ion exchange resin, microbial activity, and generation of leachates from the ion exchange resin. Portions of the adsorbent media and ion exchange resin were sampled and subsequently desorbed to identify the primary contaminants removed at various points in the bed in addition to microbial analysis. Analysis of the second bed will be compared to results from the first bed to provide a comprehensive overview of how the Multifiltration Beds function on orbit. New data from the second bed supplements the analysis of the first bed (previously reported) and gives a more complete picture of breakthrough compounds, resin breakdown products, microbial activity, and difficult to remove compounds. The results of these investigations and implications to the operation of the WPA on ISS are documented in this paper.

  3. Performance Evaluation of the ISS Water Processor Multifiltration Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carter, Layne; Wilson, Mark; Cole, Harold; Orozco, Nicole; Snowdon, Doug

    2012-01-01

    The ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) produces potable water from a waste stream containing humidity condensate and urine distillate. The primary treatment process is achieved in the Multifiltration Bed, which includes adsorbent media and ion exchange resin for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic contaminants. The first Multifiltration Bed was replaced on ISS in July 2010 after initial indication of inorganic breakthrough. This bed was returned to ground in July 2011 for an engineering investigation. The water resident in the bed was analyzed for various parameters to evaluate adsorbent loading, performance of the ion exchange resin, microbial activity, and generation of leachates from the ion exchange resin. Portions of the adsorbent media and ion exchange resin were sampled and subsequently desorbed to identify the primary contaminants removed at various points in the bed. In addition, an unused Multifiltration Bed was evaluated after two years in storage to assess the generation of leachates during storage. This assessment was performed to evaluate the possibility that these leachates are impacting performance of the Catalytic Reactor located downstream of the Multifiltration Bed. The results of these investigations and implications to the operation of the WPA on ISS are documented in this paper.

  4. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Thomas [German Aerospace Center - DLR, Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as 'operational' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on 'scientific' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  5. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as ''operational'' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on ''scientific'' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  6. The Columbus-CC—Operating the European laboratory at ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuch, T.; Sabath, D.

    2008-07-01

    The European ISS Columbus Control Center (Col-CC) joined the club of ISS mission control centers in Moscow, Houston and Huntsville. It took some time to reach that goal. In 1998 the European Space Agency (ESA) awarded the German Aerospace Center DLR to design, develop and implement the Col-CC at its premises in Oberpfaffenhofen, near Munich, Germany. In 2002 a core mission operations team was built up. An integrated team of ESA, industry and control center started to define processes and implemented first operations products and tools. This was accompanied by regular meetings with the international partners in the US and Russia. With intensive training and numerous simulations the team was able to gain experience and is now eagerly waiting for the launch of Columbus. However, thanks to the involvement in some operational activities the Col-CC staff has already been able to gain operational ISS experience. After the inauguration in October 2004 Col-CC supported the Eneide mission in April 2005 when the Italian ESA-Astronaut Roberto Vittori flew onboard a Soyuz to the ISS where he spent 10 days. Another very important milestone was the operations support for ESA's Astrolab mission. The Astrolab mission was of major importance for Europe and particularly for Germany because it implied the first long duration flight of ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter, an astronaut of German nationality. The tasks of Col-CC are described and also the experiences made with the first operational long-term mission which took place from July to December 2006. Meanwhile the Col-CC was able to reach the operational readiness status for the Columbus mission which is set for a launch date later in 2007. Despite the concentration on the challenging Columbus Assembly and Checkout phase emphasis is already laid on the following increments for the European ISS operations. Early 2006 ESA transferred the operational tasks and responsibilities to the hands of the industrial operator. This approach creates

  7. Emir Kusturica - maailmakuulus režissöör või lihtne bändi bassimees?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    26. aprillil esineb Tallinnas Serbia filmirežissöör Emir Kusturica koos Balkani ansambliga No Smoking Orchestra. Esitlusele tuleb muusika, mis kirjutatud režissööri filmile "Lubadus" ("Zavet"). Muusika autoriteks on ansambli juht Nele Karajlic ja režissöör ise. Režissöörist

  8. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, E; Rettberg, P; Baumstark-Khan, C; Horneck, G

    2003-01-01

    reacts with a dose-dependent reduction of GFP-fluorescence. Currently, a fully automated miniaturized hardware system for the bacterial set up, which includes measurements of luminescence and fluorescence or absorption and the image analysis based evaluation is under development. During the first mission of the SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-Test on the ISS, a standardized, DNA-damaging radiation source still to be determined will be used as a genotoxic inducer. A panel of recombinant Salmonella typhimurium strains carrying either the SOS-LUX plasmid or the fluorescence-mediating lac-GFPuv plasmid will be used to determine in parallel on one microplate the genotoxic and the cytotoxic action of the applied radiation in combination with microgravity. Either in addition to or in place of the fluorometric measurements of the cytotoxic agents, photometric measurements will simultaneously monitor cell growth, giving additional data on survival of the cells. The obtained data will be available on line during the TRIPLE-LUX mission time. Though it is the main goal during the TRIPLE-LUX mission to measure the radiation effect in microgravity, the SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test in principle is also applicable as a biomonitor for the detection and measurement of genotoxic substances in air or in the (recycled) water system on the ISS or on earth in general. c2003 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ANALYSIS OF TRAIN SHEET IN THE INFORMATION SYSTEM OF JSC «UKRZALIZNYTSIA»: PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Ovcharenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The system of train sheet analysis (TSA in the information system of JSC «Ukrzaliznytsia» provides work with passenger and suburban trains and has considerable potential. Therefore it is necessary to establish the prospects of development of the system. Methodology. Departments’ setup and the train delay causes should be carried out at every station and span, where such delays took place. This requires the fixation of condition deviations of infrastructure from normal and other adverse factors. In the sector of freight transportations the train schedule analysis is insufficient, since this analysis does not account for deviations from the terms of delivery. Therefore it also is necessary to analyze the delivery graphs. The basis for monitoring the cargo delivery is the method of control time points (CTP of technological operations performed with cargo at railway stations. On the basis of CTP to assess the quality of the transport process one should calculate the values of the analysis of cargo delivery schedule (performance level of the cargo delivery schedule, the coefficient of ahead of schedule/delay delivery. Findings. The article proposes to develop the system TSA using the input and display of the train delay causes on-line by transportation service employees, expansion of statistical databases and processing of the input delay causes during its calculation train sheet analysis of freight trains and quality assessment of the delivery schedule fulfillment. It is also appropriate before the new operator companies had appeared to make changes in the instructions TSCHU-TSD-0002 on the list of departments, which include delayed trains, by adding «the department» «The fault of operator companies» and corresponding causes of delays. Originality. The scheme of automated TSA in the information system of JSC «Ukrzaliznytsia» was improved. The author proposes to determine the cargo delivery quality on the certain polygon using the

  10. Measurement of Apparent Thermal Conductivity of JSC-1A Under Ambient Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Kleinhenz, Julie E.

    2011-01-01

    The apparent thermal conductivity of JSC-1A lunar regolith simulant was measured experimentally using a cylindrical apparatus. Eleven thermocouples were embedded in the simulant bed to obtain the steady state temperature distribution at various radial, axial, and azimuthal locations. The high aspect ratio of a cylindrical geometry was proven to provide a one-dimensional, axisymmetric temperature field. A test series was performed at atmospheric pressure with varying heat fluxes. The radial temperature distribution in each test fit a logarithmic function, indicating a constant thermal conductivity throughout the soil bed. However, thermal conductivity was not constant between tests at different heat fluxes. This variation is attributed to stresses created by thermal expansion of the simulant particles against the rigid chamber wall. Under stress-free conditions (20 deg C), the data suggest a temperature independent apparent conductivity of 0.1961 +/- 0.0070 W/m/ deg C

  11. Osiris-Rex and Hayabusa2 Sample Cleanroom Design and Construction Planning at NASA-JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin; Pace, Lisa F.; Messenger, Keiko

    2018-01-01

    Final Paper and not the abstract is attached. The OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission launched to asteroid Bennu September 8, 2016. The spacecraft will arrive at Bennu in late 2019, orbit and map the asteroid, and perform a touch and go (TAG) sampling maneuver in July 2020. After confirma-tion of successful sample stowage, the spacecraft will return to Earth, and the sample return capsule (SRC) will land in Utah in September 2023. Samples will be recovered from Utah and then transported and stored in a new sample cleanroom at NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston. All curation-specific ex-amination and documentation activities related to Ben-nu samples will be conducted in the dedicated OSIRIS-REx sample cleanroom to be built at NASA-JSC.

  12. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystem Productivity from ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemmrich, K. F.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Gao, B. C.; Flanagan, L. B.; Goulden, M.

    2017-12-01

    Data from the Hyperspectral Imager for Coastal Ocean (HICO), mounted on the International Space Station (ISS), were used to develop and test algorithms for remotely retrieving ecosystem productivity. The ISS orbit introduces both limitations and opportunities for observing ecosystem dynamics. Twenty six HICO images were used from four study sites representing different vegetation types: grasslands, shrubland, and forest. Gross ecosystem production (GEP) data from eddy covariance were matched with HICO-derived spectra. Multiple algorithms were successful relating spectral reflectance with GEP, including: Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVI), SVI in a light use efficiency model framework, spectral shape characteristics through spectral derivatives and absorption feature analysis, and statistical models leading to Multiband Hyperspectral Indices (MHI) from stepwise regressions and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). Algorithms were able to achieve r2 better than 0.7 for both GEP at the overpass time and daily GEP. These algorithms were successful using a diverse set of observations combining data from multiple years, multiple times during growing season, different times of day, with different view angles, and different vegetation types. The demonstrated robustness of the algorithms presented in this study over these conditions provides some confidence in mapping spatial patterns of GEP, describing variability within fields as well as the regional patterns based only on spectral reflectance information. The ISS orbit provides periods with multiple observations collected at different times of the day within a period of a few days. Diurnal GEP patterns were estimated comparing the half-hourly average GEP from the flux tower against HICO estimates of GEP (r2=0.87) if morning, midday, and afternoon observations were available for average fluxes in the time period.

  13. Corporate sponsored education initiatives on board the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Ian T.; Durham, Alyson S.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Brod, Lawrence B.; Durham, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of a corporate sponsored ``Lecture from Space'' program on board the International Space Station (ISS) with funding coming from a host of new technology and marketing spin-offs. This program would meld existing education initiatives in NASA with new corporate marketing techniques. Astronauts in residence on board the ISS would conduct short ten to fifteen minute live presentations and/or conduct interactive discussions carried out by a teacher in the classroom. This concept is similar to a program already carried out during the Neurolab mission on Shuttle flight STS-90. Building on that concept, the interactive simulcasts would be broadcast over the Internet and linked directly to computers and televisions in classrooms worldwide. In addition to the live broadcasts, educational programs and demonstrations can be recorded in space, and marketed and sold for inclusion in television programs, computer software, and other forms of media. Programs can be distributed directly into classrooms as an additional presentation supplement, as well as over the Internet or through cable and broadcast television, similar to the Canadian Discovery Channel's broadcasts of the Neurolab mission. Successful marketing and advertisement can eventually lead to the creation of an entirely new, privately run cottage industry involving the distribution and sale of educationally related material associated with the ISS that would have the potential to become truly global in scope. By targeting areas of expertise and research interest in microgravity, a large curriculum could be developed using space exploration as a unifying theme. Expansion of this concept could enhance objectives already initiated through the International Space University to include elementary and secondary school students. The ultimate goal would be to stimulate interest in space and space related sciences in today's youth through creative educational marketing initiatives while at the

  14. Orion Handling Qualities During ISS Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Stephens, J. P.; Spehar, P.; Bilimoria, K.; Foster, C.; Gonzalex, R.; Sullivan, K.; Jackson, B.; Brazzel, J.; Hart, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft was designed to rendezvous with multiple vehicles in low earth orbit (LEO) and beyond. To perform the required rendezvous and docking task, Orion must provide enough control authority to perform coarse translational maneuvers while maintaining precision to perform the delicate docking corrections. While Orion has autonomous docking capabilities, it is expected that final approach and docking operations with the International Space Station (ISS) will initially be performed in a manual mode. A series of evaluations was conducted by NASA and Lockheed Martin at the Johnson Space Center to determine the handling qualities (HQ) of the Orion spacecraft during different docking and rendezvous conditions using the Cooper-Harper scale. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities methodology, vehicle configuration, scenarios flown, data collection tools, and subject ratings and comments. The initial Orion HQ assessment examined Orion docking to the ISS. This scenario demonstrates the Translational Hand Controller (THC) handling qualities of Orion. During this initial assessment, two different scenarios were evaluated. The first was a nominal docking approach to a stable ISS, with Orion initializing with relative position dispersions and a closing rate of approximately 0.1 ft/sec. The second docking scenario was identical to the first, except the attitude motion of the ISS was modeled to simulate a stress case ( 1 degree deadband per axis and 0.01 deg/sec rate deadband per axis). For both scenarios, subjects started each run on final approach at a docking port-to-port range of 20 ft. Subjects used the THC in pulse mode with cues from the docking camera image, window views, and range and range rate data displayed on the Orion display units. As in the actual design, the attitude of the Orion vehicle was held by the automated flight control system at 0.5 degree deadband per axis. Several error sources were modeled including Reaction

  15. ISS External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Steagall, Courtney; Huang, Alvin; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    (1) The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit, (2) Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives, (3) Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle, and (4)The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  16. Productivity of Mizuna Cultivated in the Space Greenhouse Onboard the Russian Module of the Iss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    As stipulated by the science program of research into the processes of growth, development, metabolism and reproduction of higher plants in microgravity in view of their potential use in advanced life support systems, five experiments on Mizuna plants (Brassica rapa var. nipponisica) were performed using the Lada space greenhouse onboard the ISS Russian Module (RM) during Expeditions ISS-5, 17 and 20-22. One of the goals of the experiments was to evaluate the productivity of Mizuna plants grown at different levels of ISS RM air contamination. Mizuna plants were cultivated for 31 - 36 days when exposed to continuous illumination. The root growing medium was made of Turface enriched with a controlled release fertilizer Osmocote. In the course of the flight experiments major parameters of plant cultivation, total level of ISS RM air contamination and plant microbiological status were measured. The grown plants were returned to Earth as fresh or frozen samples. After the three last vegetation cycles the plants were harvested, packed and frozen at -80 0C in the MELFI freezer on the ISS U.S. Module and later returned to Earth onboard Space Shuttle. It was found that the productivity and morphometric (e.g., plant height and mass, number of leaves) parameters of the plants grown in space did not differ from those seen in ground controls. The T coefficient, which represents the total contamination level of ISS air), was 4 (ISS-5), 22 (ISS-17), 55 (ISS-20), 22 (ISS-21) and 28 (ISS-22) versus the norm of no more than 5. In summary, a significant increase in the total contamination level of the ISS RM air did not reduce the productivity of the leaf vegetable plant used in the flight experiments.

  17. GEROS-ISS: GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Cardellach, Estel; Bandeiras, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    GEROS-ISS stands for GNSS REflectometry, radio occultation, and scatterometry onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It is a scientific experiment, successfully proposed to the European Space Agency in 2011. The experiment as the name indicates will be conducted on the ISS. The main focus...... of GEROS-ISS is the dedicated use of signals from the currently available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) in L-band for remote sensing of the Earth with a focus to study climate change. Prime mission objectives are the determination of the altimetric sea surface height of the oceans...

  18. Phase Change Material Heat Sink for an ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Stieber, Jesse; Sheth, Rubik; Ahlstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A flight experiment is being constructed to utilize the persistent microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) to prove out operation of a microgravity compatible phase change material (PCM) heat sink. A PCM heat sink can help to reduce the overall mass and volume of future exploration spacecraft thermal control systems (TCS). The program is characterizing a new PCM heat sink that incorporates a novel phase management approach to prevent high pressures and structural deformation that often occur with PCM heat sinks undergoing cyclic operation in microgravity. The PCM unit was made using brazed aluminum construction with paraffin wax as the fusible material. It is designed to be installed into a propylene glycol and water cooling loop, with scaling consistent with the conceptual designs for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. This paper reports on the construction of the PCM heat sink and on initial ground test results conducted at UTC Aerospace Systems prior to delivery to NASA. The prototype will be tested later on the ground and in orbit via a self-contained experiment package developed by NASA Johnson Space Center to operate in an ISS EXPRESS rack.

  19. Human interactions in space: ISS vs. Shuttle/Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper compares findings from two NASA-funded studies of international long-duration missions to the Mir space station (Shuttle/Mir) and to the International Space Station (ISS). American and Russian crewmembers and mission control personnel participated. Issues examined included changes in mood and group social climate over time, displacement of group tension to outside monitoring personnel, cultural differences, and leadership roles. Findings were based on the completion of a weekly questionnaire that included items from the Profile of Mood States, the Group Environment Scale, and the Work Environment Scale. An examination of issues investigated in both studies revealed much similarity in findings. There was little support for the presence of changes in levels of mood and group climate over time, and no evidence for a "3rd quarter phenomenon". Both studies also provided evidence for the displacement of negative emotions to outside personnel in both crewmembers and mission control personnel. There were similar patterns of differences between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Finally, in both studies, the support role of the leader was related to group cohesion among crewmembers, and both the task and support roles of the leader were related to cohesion among mission control personnel. Thus, in these four areas, the ISS study substantially replicated the findings from the earlier Shuttle/Mir study, suggesting that common psychosocial issues affect people engaged in on-orbit space missions.

  20. The Mini-EUSO telescope on the ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Valentina, E-mail: scottiv@na.infn.it; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2017-02-11

    The Mini-EUSO project aims to perform observations of the UV-light night emission from Earth. The UV background produced in atmosphere is a key measurement for any experiment aiming at the observation of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays (EECR) from space, the most energetic component of the cosmic radiation. The Mini-EUSO instrument will be placed within the International Space Station (ISS) in the Russian Module and measures through a UV transparent window. The instrument comprises a compact telescope with a large field of view, based on an optical system employing two Fresnel lenses for increased light collection. The light is focused onto an array of photo-multipliers and the resulting signal is converted into digital, processed and stored via the electronics subsystems on-board. The instrument is designed and built by the members of the JEM-EUSO collaboration. JEM-EUSO is a wide-angle refractive UV telescope being proposed for attachment to the ISS, which has been designed to address basic problems of fundamental physics and high-energy astrophysics investigating the nature of cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 20} eV. Mini-EUSO will be able to study beside EECRs a wide range of scientific phenomena including atmospheric physics, strange quark matter and bioluminescence. The mission is approved by the Italian Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency. Scientific, technical and programmatic aspects of this project will be described.

  1. Analyzing Power Supply and Demand on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Pham, Tho; Halyard, Raymond; Conwell, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Station Power and Energy Evaluation Determiner (SPEED) is a Java application program for analyzing the supply and demand aspects of the electrical power system of the International Space Station (ISS). SPEED can be executed on any computer that supports version 1.4 or a subsequent version of the Java Runtime Environment. SPEED includes an analysis module, denoted the Simplified Battery Solar Array Model, which is a simplified engineering model of the ISS primary power system. This simplified model makes it possible to perform analyses quickly. SPEED also includes a user-friendly graphical-interface module, an input file system, a parameter-configuration module, an analysis-configuration-management subsystem, and an output subsystem. SPEED responds to input information on trajectory, shadowing, attitude, and pointing in either a state-of-charge mode or a power-availability mode. In the state-of-charge mode, SPEED calculates battery state-of-charge profiles, given a time-varying power-load profile. In the power-availability mode, SPEED determines the time-varying total available solar array and/or battery power output, given a minimum allowable battery state of charge.

  2. ISS and Shuttle Payload Research Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Kyle A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's ISS and Spacecraft Processing Directorate (UB) is charged with the performance of payload development for research originating through NASA, ISS international partners, and the National Laboratory. The Payload Development sector of the Directorate takes biological research approved for on orbit experimentation from its infancy stage and finds a way to integrate and implement that research into a payload on either a Shuttle sortie or Space Station increment. From solicitation and selection, to definition, to verification, to integration and finally to operations and analysis, Payload Development is there every step of the way. My specific work as an intern this summer has consisted of investigating data received by separate flight and ground control Advanced Biological Research Systems (ABRS) units for Advanced Plant Experiments (APEX) and Cambium research. By correlation and analysis of this data and specific logbook information I have been working to explain changes in environmental conditions on both the flight and ground control unit. I have then, compiled all of that information into a form that can be presentable to the Principal Investigator (PI). This compilation allows that PI scientist to support their findings and add merit to their research. It also allows us, as the Payload Developers, to further inspect the ABRS unit and its performance

  3. ISS-NIH Collaborative Programme: final report of the projects; Programma di collaborazione ISS-NIH: relazioni conclusive dei progetti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In July 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United States of America and the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) of Italy signed an agreement aimed at strengthening the ongoing research cooperation between USA and Italy. Over the years, the programme was able to create new partnerships and to foster the establishment of innovative synergies, the exchange of young researcher, and the merging of the best available skills, talents and know-how in different fields of biomedical sciences. This book contains the final report of the projects of the scientific cooperation between the two Countries. The report consists of two parts (in Italian and English) divided into four sections: Cancer, Neuroscience, Cardiovascular diseases, Infectious diseases. [Italian] Nel luglio 2003, i National Institutes of Health (NIH) americani e l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) hanno firmato un accordo mirato a rafforzare la cooperazione scientifica tra Italia e USA. Nel corso degli anni il programma ha permesso di ampliare le collaborazioni e di promuovere nuove sinergie attraverso lo scambio di giovani ricercatori e la condivisione delle migliori competenze, conoscenze e capacita in diversi campi delle scienze biomediche. Questo volume contiene le relazioni finali dei progetti del programma di cooperazione scientifica tra i due Paesi. Il rapporto e articolato in due parti (in italiano e inglese) divise in quattro sezioni: Tumori, Neuroscienze, Malattie cardiovascolari, Malattie infettive.

  4. 3D Printing in Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mallory M.; Werkheiser, Mary J.; Cooper, Kenneth G.; Snyder, Michael P.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station. The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/ objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up specialized manufacturing hardware to perform the entire range of function traditionally machining requires. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers unique design options that are not possible

  5. Tidal Control of Jet Eruptions Observed by Cassini ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, T. A.; Helfenstein, P.; Spitale, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Observations by Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) of Enceladus' south polar region at high phase angles has revealed jets of material venting into space. Observations by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) have also shown that the south polar region is anomalously warm with hotspots associated with geological features called the Tiger Stripes. The Tiger Stripes are large rifts near the south pole of Enceladus, which are typically about 130 km in length, 2 km wide, with a trough 500 m deep, and are l1anked on each side by 100m tall ridges. Preliminary triangulation of jets as viewed at different times and with different viewing geometries in Cassini ISS images taken between 2005 and 2007 have constrained the locations of eight major eruptions of material and found all of them associated with the south polar fractures unofficially the 'Tiger Stripes', and found four of them coincident with the hotspots reported in 2006 by CIRS. While published ISS observations of jet activity suggest that individual eruption sites stay active on the timescale of years, any shorter temporal variability (on timescales of an orbital period, or 1.3 Earth days, for example) is more difficult to establish because of the spotty temporal coverage and the difficulty of visually isolating one jet from the forest of many seen in a typical image. Consequently, it is not known whether individual jets are continuously active, randomly active, or if they erupt on a predictable, periodic schedule. One mechanism that may control the timing of eruptions is diurnal tidal stress, which oscillates between compression/tension as well as right and left lateral shear at any given location throughout Enceladus' orbit and may allow the cracks to open and close regularly. We examine the stresses on the Tiger Stripe regions to see how well diurnal tidal stress caused by Enceladus' orbital eccentricity may possibly correlate with and thus control the observed eruptions. We then identify

  6. Veggie ISS Validation Test Results and Produce Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Spencer, LaShelle; Smith, Trent

    2015-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system flew to the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2014. The first set of plants, Outredgeous red romaine lettuce, was grown, harvested, frozen, and returned to Earth in October. Ground control and flight plant tissue was sub-sectioned for microbial analysis, anthocyanin antioxidant phenolic analysis, and elemental analysis. Microbial analysis was also performed on samples swabbed on orbit from plants, Veggie bellows, and plant pillow surfaces, on water samples, and on samples of roots, media, and wick material from two returned plant pillows. Microbial levels of plants were comparable to ground controls, with some differences in community composition. The range in aerobic bacterial plate counts between individual plants was much greater in the ground controls than in flight plants. No pathogens were found. Anthocyanin concentrations were the same between ground and flight plants, while antioxidant and phenolic levels were slightly higher in flight plants. Elements varied, but key target elements for astronaut nutrition were similar between ground and flight plants. Aerobic plate counts of the flight plant pillow components were significantly higher than ground controls. Surface swab samples showed low microbial counts, with most below detection limits. Flight plant microbial levels were less than bacterial guidelines set for non-thermostabalized food and near or below those for fungi. These guidelines are not for fresh produce but are the closest approximate standards. Forward work includes the development of standards for space-grown produce. A produce consumption strategy for Veggie on ISS includes pre-flight assessments of all crops to down select candidates, wiping flight-grown plants with sanitizing food wipes, and regular Veggie hardware cleaning and microbial monitoring. Produce then could be consumed by astronauts, however some plant material would be reserved and returned for analysis. Implementation of

  7. Orbital Hub: a concept for human spaceflight beyond ISS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Stephan S.; Maiwald, Volker; Philpot, Claudia; Quantius, Dominik; Romberg, Oliver; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Vrakking, Vincent; Zeidler, Conrad

    2018-04-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the greatest endeavour in low-Earth orbit since the beginning of the space age and the culmination of human outposts like Skylab and Mir. While a clear schedule has yet to be drafted, it is expected that ISS will cease operation in the 2020s. What could be the layout for a human outpost in LEO with lessons learnt from ISS? What are the use cases and applications of such an outpost in the future? The System Analysis Space Segment group of the German Aerospace Center investigated these and other questions and developed the Orbital Hub concept. In this paper an overview is presented of how the overall concept has been derived and its properties and layouts are described. Starting with a workshop involving the science community, the scientific requirements have been derived and Strawman payloads have been defined for use in further design activities. These design activities focused on Concurrent Engineering studies, where besides DLR employees participants from the industry and astronauts were involved. The result is an expandable concept that is composed of two main parts, the Base Platform, home for a permanent crew of up to three astronauts, and the Free Flyer, an uncrewed autonomous research platform. This modular approach provides one major advantage: the decoupling of the habitat and payload leading to increased quality of the micro-gravity environment. The former provides an environment for human physiology experiments, while the latter allows science without the perturbations caused by a crew, e.g. material experiments or Earth observation. The Free Flyer is designed to operate for up to 3 months on its own, but can dock with the space station for maintenance and experiment servicing. It also has a hybrid propulsion system, chemical and electrical, for different applications. The hub's design allows launch with just three launches, as the total mass of all the hub parts is about 60,000 kg. The main focus of the design is

  8. Leak Rate Performance of Silicone Elastomer O-Rings Contaminated with JSC-1A Lunar Regolith Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravec, Heather Ann; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Contamination of spacecraft components with planetary and foreign object debris is a growing concern. Face seals separating the spacecraft cabin from the debris filled environment are particularly susceptible; if the seal becomes contaminated there is potential for decreased performance, mission failure, or catastrophe. In this study, silicone elastomer O-rings were contaminated with JSC- 1A lunar regolith and their leak rate performance was evaluated. The leak rate values of contaminated O-rings at four levels of seal compression were compared to those of as-received, uncontaminated, O-rings. The results showed a drastic increase in leak rate after contamination. JSC-1A contaminated O-rings lead to immeasurably high leak rate values for all levels of compression except complete closure. Additionally, a mechanical method of simulant removal was examined. In general, this method returned the leak rate to as-received values.

  9. The alpha-particle irradiator set up at the ISS for radiobiological studies on targeted and non-targeted effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, G.; Antonelli, F.; Belli, M.; Campa, A.; Simone, G.; Sorrentino, E.; Tabocchini, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe the alpha-particle irradiator that has been set up at the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) for controlled exposure of cultured mammalian cells. It can be equipped with two different sources, namely 2'4'4'Cm and 2'4'1'Am, allowing irradiation at different dose-rates (typically 1-100 mGy/min). The irradiator has dimensions small enough to be inserted into a standard cell culture incubator to perform irradiation of cultured cells in physiological conditions. The dose uniformity is such that the variations in the irradiation area are less than ± 12% of the average dose value on different irradiation areas up to ∼ 25 cm'2. Moreover, in the framework of the FP6 Euratom Integrated Project Non-targeted effects of ionizing radiation (NOTE), Petri dishes were realized for housing permeable membrane insert(s) to be used in co-culture experiments. Aluminium shields were also realized for half shield irradiation experiments. The alpha-particle irradiator of the ISS has been successfully used for studying DNA damage, namely double strand breaks (DSB, as measured by the γ-H2AX assay), in directly hit and in bystander primary human fibroblasts [it

  10. ISS and Space Environment Interactions in Event of Plasma Contactor Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS), illustrated in Figure 1, will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, and similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur.

  11. Potteri filmi režissöör murdis needuse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Harry Potteri viienda filmi "Harry Potter ja Fööniksi ordu" režissöör David Yates on andnud oma nõusoleku jätkata režissöörina ka järgmise, "Harry Potter ja segavereline prints" filmi juures. Esilinastus 21. nov. 2008

  12. ISS-NIH Collaborative Programme: final report of the projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In July 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United States of America and the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) of Italy signed an agreement aimed at strengthening the ongoing research cooperation between USA and Italy. Over the years, the programme was able to create new partnerships and to foster the establishment of innovative synergies, the exchange of young researcher, and the merging of the best available skills, talents and know-how in different fields of biomedical sciences. This book contains the final report of the projects of the scientific cooperation between the two Countries. The report consists of two parts (in Italian and English) divided into four sections: Cancer, Neuroscience, Cardiovascular diseases, Infectious diseases [it

  13. Simulations of MATROSHKA experiments at ISS using PHITS

    CERN Document Server

    Sihver, L; Puchalska, M; Reitz, G

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about the biological effects of space radiation are increasing rapidly due to the perspective of long-duration manned missions, both in relation to the International Space Station (ISS) and to manned interplanetary missions to Moon and Mars in the future. As a preparation for these long duration space missions it is important to ensure an excellent capability to evaluate the impact of space radiation on human health in order to secure the safety of the astronauts/cosmonauts and minimize their risks. It is therefore necessary to measure the radiation load on the personnel both inside and outside the space vehicles and certify that organ and tissue equivalent doses can be simulated as accurate as possible. In this paper we will present simulations using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) of long term dose measurements performed with the ESA supported experiment MATROSHKA (MTR), which is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detecto...

  14. Saturn's equatorial jet structure from Cassini/ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Melendo, Enrique; Legarreta, Jon; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hueso, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Detailed wind observations of the equatorial regions of the gaseous giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, are crucial for understanding the basic problem of the global circulation and obtaining new detailed information on atmospheric phenomena. In this work we present high resolution data of Saturn's equatorial region wind profile from Cassini/ISS images. To retrieve wind measurements we applied an automatic cross correlator to image pairs taken by Cassini/ISS with the MT1, MT2, MT3 filters centred at the respective three methane absorbing bands of 619nm, 727nm, and 889nm, and with the adjacent continuum CB1, CB2, and CB3 filters. We obtained a complete high resolution coverage of Saturn's wind profile in the equatorial region. The equatorial jet displays an overall symmetric structure similar to that shown the by same region in Jupiter. This result suggests that, in accordance to some of the latest compressible atmosphere computer models, probably global winds in gaseous giants are deeply rooted in the molecular hydrogen layer. Wind profiles in the methane absorbing bands show the effect of strong vertical shear, ~40m/s per scale height, confirming previous results and an important decay in the wind intensity since the Voyager era (~100 m/s in the continuum and ~200 m/s in the methane absorbing band). We also report the discovery of a new feature, a very strong and narrow jet on the equator, about only 5 degrees wide, that despite the vertical shear maintains its intensity (~420 m/s) in both, the continuum and methane absorbing band filters. Acknowledgements: Work supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of the Integrated Medical Model for ISS Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenow, D. A.; Myers, J. G.; Arellano, J.; Boley, L.; Garcia, Y.; Saile, L.; Walton, M.; Kerstman, E.; Reyes, D.; Young, M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis estimates the relative contribution of the uncertainty in input values to the uncertainty of model outputs. Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient (PRCC) and Standardized Rank Regression Coefficient (SRRC) are methods of conducting sensitivity analysis on nonlinear simulation models like the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The PRCC method estimates the sensitivity using partial correlation of the ranks of the generated input values to each generated output value. The partial part is so named because adjustments are made for the linear effects of all the other input values in the calculation of correlation between a particular input and each output. In SRRC, standardized regression-based coefficients measure the sensitivity of each input, adjusted for all the other inputs, on each output. Because the relative ranking of each of the inputs and outputs is used, as opposed to the values themselves, both methods accommodate the nonlinear relationship of the underlying model. As part of the IMM v4.0 validation study, simulations are available that predict 33 person-missions on ISS and 111 person-missions on STS. These simulated data predictions feed the sensitivity analysis procedures. The inputs to the sensitivity procedures include the number occurrences of each of the one hundred IMM medical conditions generated over the simulations and the associated IMM outputs: total quality time lost (QTL), number of evacuations (EVAC), and number of loss of crew lives (LOCL). The IMM team will report the results of using PRCC and SRRC on IMM v4.0 predictions of the ISS and STS missions created as part of the external validation study. Tornado plots will assist in the visualization of the condition-related input sensitivities to each of the main outcomes. The outcomes of this sensitivity analysis will drive review focus by identifying conditions where changes in uncertainty could drive changes in overall model output uncertainty. These efforts are an integral

  16. Discovery Of B Ring Propellers In Cassini UVIS, And ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sremcevic, Miodrag; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2012-10-01

    We present evidence for the existence of propellers in Saturn's B ring by combining data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We identify two propeller populations: (1) tens of degrees wide propellers in the dense B ring core, and (2) smaller, more A ring like, propellers populating the inner B ring. The prototype of the first population is an object observed at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. The ubiquitous propeller "S" shape is seen both in UVIS occultations as an optical depth depletion and in ISS as a 40 degrees wide bright stripe in unlit geometries and dark in lit geometries. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at orbital speed consistent with its radial location. From the radial separation of the propeller wings we estimate that the embedded body, which causes the propeller structure, is about 1.5km in size located at a=112,921km. The UVIS occultations indicate an asymmetric propeller "S" shape. Since the object is located at an edge between high and relatively low optical depth, this asymmetry is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient. We estimate that there are possibly dozen up to 100 other propeller objects in Saturn's B ring. The location of the discovered body, at an edge of a dense ringlet within the B ring, suggests a novel mechanism for the up to now illusive B ring irregular large-scale structure of alternating high and low optical depth ringlets. We propose that this B ring irregular structure may have its cause in the presence of many embedded bodies that shepherd the individual B ring ringlets.

  17. Cassini ISS Observations of Jupiter: An Exoplanet Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert A.; Knowles, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the optical and physical properties of planets in our solar system can guide our approach to the interpretation of observations of exoplanets. Although some work has already been done along these lines, there remain low-hanging fruit. During the Cassini Jupiter encounter, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) obtained an extensive set of images over a large range of phase angles (near-zero to 140 degrees) and in filters from near-UV to near-IR, including three methane bands and nearby continuum. The ISS also obtained images using polarizers. Much later in the mission we also obtained distant images while in orbit around Saturn. Some of these data have already been studied to reveal phase behavior (Dyudina et al., Astrophys. J.822, DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/822/2/76; Mayorga et al., 2016, Astron. J. 152, DOI: 10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/209). Here we examine rotational modulation to determine wavelength and phase angle dependence, and how these may depend on cloud and haze vertical structure and optical properties. The existence of an optically thin forward-scattering and longitudinally-homogeneous haze overlying photometrically-variable cloud fields tends to suppress rotational modulation as phase angle increases, although in the strong 890-nm methane band cloud vertical structure is important. Cloud particles (non-spherical ammonia ice, mostly) have very small polarization signatures at intermediate phase angles and rotational modulation is not apparent above the noise level of our instrument. Part of this work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Lab, Cal. Inst. Of Technology.

  18. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  19. Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data Vb0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to...

  20. Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Provisional Science Data Vp0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Space Station (ISS) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) datasets were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the distribution and...

  1. Application of combined TLD and CR-39 PNTD method for measurement of total dose and dose equivalent on ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Deme, S.; Apathy, I.

    2006-01-01

    To date, no single passive detector has been found that measures dose equivalent from ionizing radiation exposure in low-Earth orbit. We have developed the I.S.S. Passive Dosimetry System (P.D.S.), utilizing a combination of TLD in the form of the self-contained Pille TLD system and stacks of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (P.N.T.D.) oriented in three mutually orthogonal directions, to measure total dose and dose equivalent aboard the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille TLD system, consisting on an on board reader and a large number of Ca 2 SO 4 :Dy TLD cells, is used to measure absorbed dose. The Pille TLD cells are read out and annealed by the I.S.S. crew on orbit, such that dose information for any time period or condition, e.g. for E.V.A. or following a solar particle event, is immediately available. Near-tissue equivalent CR-39 P.N.T.D. provides Let spectrum, dose, and dose equivalent from charged particles of LET ∞ H 2 O ≥ 10 keV/μm, including the secondaries produced in interactions with high-energy neutrons. Dose information from CR-39 P.N.T.D. is used to correct the absorbed dose component ≥ 10 keV/μm measured in TLD to obtain total dose. Dose equivalent from CR-39 P.N.T.D. is combined with the dose component <10 keV/μm measured in TLD to obtain total dose equivalent. Dose rates ranging from 165 to 250 μGy/day and dose equivalent rates ranging from 340 to 450 μSv/day were measured aboard I.S.S. during the Expedition 2 mission in 2001. Results from the P.D.S. are consistent with those from other passive detectors tested as part of the ground-based I.C.C.H.I.B.A.N. intercomparison of space radiation dosimeters. (authors)

  2. A novel marine bacterium Isoptericola sp. JS-C42 with the ability to saccharifying the plant biomasses for the aid in cellulosic ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayudhan Satheeja Santhi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing demands for food products such as starch and sugar produces; there is a need to find the sources for saccharification for cellulosic bioethanol production. This study provides the first evidence of the lignocellulolytic and saccharifying ability of a marine bacterium namely Isoptericola sp. JS-C42, a Gram positive actinobacterium with the cocci cells embedded on mycelia isolated from the Arabian Sea, India. It exhibited highest filter paper unit effect, endoglucanase, exoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and ligninase effect. The hydrolytic potential of the enzymes displayed the efficient saccharification capability of steam pretreated biomass. It was also found to degrade the paddy, sorghum, Acacia mangium and Ficus religiosa into simple reducing sugars by its efficient lignocellulose enzyme complex with limited consumption of sugars. Production of ethanol was also achieved with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Overall, it offers a great potential for the cellulosic ethanol production in an economically reliable and eco-friendly point-of-care.

  3. An overview of NASA ISS human engineering and habitability: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, D; Architecture, B

    2000-09-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the first major NASA project to provide human engineering an equal system engineering an equal system engineering status to other disciplines. The incorporation and verification of hundreds of human engineering requirements applied across-the-board to the ISS has provided for a notably more habitable environment to support long duration spaceflight missions than might otherwise have been the case. As the ISS begins to be inhabited and become operational, much work remains in monitoring the effectiveness of the Station's built environment in supporting the range of activities required of a long-duration vehicle. With international partner participation, NASA's ISS Operational Habitability Assessment intends to carry human engineering and habitability considerations into the next phase of the ISS Program with constant attention to opportunities for cost-effective improvements that need to be and can be made to the on-orbit facility. Too, during its operations the ISS must be effectively used as an on-orbit laboratory to promote and expand human engineering/habitability awareness and knowledge to support the international space faring community with the data needed to develop future space vehicles for long-duration missions. As future space mission duration increases, the rise in importance of habitation issues make it imperative that lessons are captured from the experience of human engineering's incorporation into the ISS Program and applied to future NASA programmatic processes.

  4. Vitamin D: Findings from Antarctic, Bed Rest, Houston, and ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Locke, J.; Pierson, D.; Mehta, S.; Bourbeau, Y.; Parsons, H.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining vitamin D is critical for space travelers because they lack ultraviolet light exposure and have an insufficient dietary supply of vitamin D. Despite the provision of 400 IU vitamin D supplements to International Space Station (ISS) early crewmembers, vitamin D status was consistently lower after flight than before flight, and in several crewmembers has decreased to levels considered clinically significant. Vitamin D has long been known to play a role in calcium metabolism, and more recently its non-calcitropic functions have been recognized. According to the results of several recent studies, functionally relevant measures indicate that the lower limit of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (a marker of vitamin D status) should be raised from the current 23 nmol/L to 80 nmol/L. The mean preflight serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vit D) for U.S. ISS crewmembers to date is 63 +/- 16 nmol/L, and after a 4- to 6-mo space flight it typically decreases 25-30% despite supplementation (400 IU/d). The sub-optimal pre- and postflight vitamin D status is an issue that needs to be addressed, to allow NASA to better define the appropriate amount of supplemental vitamin D to serve as a countermeasure against vitamin D deficiency in astronaut crews. A series of ground-based and flight studies in multiple models have been conducted, including Antarctica in winter months when UV-B radiation levels are essentially zero, bed rest where subjects are not exposed to UV-B radiation for 60-90 days, in free-living individuals in Houston, and in International Space Station crewmembers. In these studies, we looked at dose regimen and efficacy, compliance issues, as well as toxicity. Preliminary results from these studies will be presented. Together, the data from these studies will enable us to provide space crews with evidence-based recommendations for vitamin D supplementation. The findings also have implications for other persons with limited UV light exposure, including polar workers and

  5. Thermal Modeling Method Improvements for SAGE III on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; McLeod, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload, which consists of multiple subsystems, has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Many innovative analysis methods have been used in developing this model; these will be described in the paper. This paper builds on a paper presented at TFAWS 2013, which described some of the initial developments of efficient methods for SAGE III. The current paper describes additional improvements that have been made since that time. To expedite the correlation of the model to thermal vacuum (TVAC) testing, the chambers and GSE for both TVAC chambers at Langley used to test the payload were incorporated within the thermal model. This allowed the runs of TVAC predictions and correlations to be run within the flight model, thus eliminating the need for separate models for TVAC. In one TVAC test, radiant lamps were used which necessitated shooting rays from the lamps, and running in both solar and IR wavebands. A new Dragon model was incorporated which entailed a change in orientation; that change was made using an assembly, so that any potential additional new Dragon orbits could be added in the future without modification of the model. The Earth orbit parameters such as albedo and Earth infrared flux were incorporated as time-varying values that change over the course of the orbit; despite being required in one of the ISS documents, this had not been done before by any previous payload. All parameters such as initial temperature, heater voltage, and location of the payload are defined based on the case definition. For one component, testing was performed in both air and vacuum; incorporating the air convection in a submodel that was

  6. Commissioning of a 20 K Helium Refrigeration System for NASA-JSC Chamber A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J.; Redman, R.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Norton, R.; Lauterbach, J.; Linza, R.; Vargas, G.

    2013-01-01

    A new 20 K helium refrigerator installed at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Environment Simulation Laboratory (SESL) was successfully commissioned and tested in 2012. The refrigerator is used to create a deep space environment within SESL s Chamber A to perform ground testing of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The chamber previously and currently still has helium cryo-pumping panels (CPP) and liquid nitrogen shrouds used to create low earth orbit environments. Now with the new refrigerator and new helium shrouds the chamber can create a deep space environment. The process design, system analysis, specification development, and commissioning oversight were performed by the cryogenics department at Jefferson Lab, while the contracts and system installation was performed by the ESC group at JSC. Commissioning data indicate an inverse coefficient of performance better than 70 W/W for a 18 kW load at 20 K (accounting for liquid nitrogen pre-cooling power) that remains essentially constant down to one third of this load. Even at 10 percent of the maximum capacity, the performance is better than 150 W/W at 20 K. The refrigerator exceeded all design goals and demonstrated the ability to support a wide load range from 10 kW at 15 K to 100 kW at 100 K. The refrigerator is capable of operating at any load temperature from 15 K to ambient with tight temperature stability. The new shroud (36 tons of aluminum) can be cooled from room temperature to 20 K in 24 hours. This paper will outline the process design and commissioning results.

  7. 20 K Helium Refrigeration System for NASA-JSC Chamber-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, J.; Redman, R.; Ganni, V.; Sidi-Yekhelef, A.; Knudsen, P.; Norton, R.; Lauterbach, J.; Linza, R.; Vargas, G.

    2013-01-01

    A new 20 K helium refrigerator installed at NASA Johnson Space Center's Space Environment Simulation Laboratory (SESL) was successfully commissioned and tested in 2012. The refrigerator is used to create a deep space environment within SESL s Chamber A to perform ground testing of the James Webb Space Telescope. The chamber previously and currently still has helium cryopumping panels (CPP) and LN2 shrouds used to create Low Earth Orbit environments. Now with the new refrigerator and new helium shrouds (45 x 65 ) the chamber can create a deep space environment. The process design, system analysis, specification development, and commissioning oversight were performed by the cryogenics department at Jefferson Labs, while the contracts and system installation was performed by the ESC group at JSC. Commissioning data indicate a inverse coefficient of performance better than 70 W/W for a 18 KW load at 20 K (accounting for liquid nitrogen precooling power) that remains essentially constant down to 1/3 of this load. Even at 10 percent of the maximum capacity, the performance is better than 140 W/W at 20K. The refrigerator exceeded all design goals and demonstrated the ability to support a wide load range from 10kW at 15 K to 100 kW at 100K. The refrigerator is capable of operating at any load temperature from 15K to ambient with tight temperature stability. The new shroud (36 tons of aluminum) can be cooled from room temperature to 20 K in 24 hours. This paper will outline the process design and commissioning results.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of the use of fixed assets defense enterprises (by the example of JSC “Concern ‘Sozvezdie’”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khorev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the problem of sustainable development of enterprises of the Russian military-industrial complex has not only military, but economic importance. The article provides an analysis of the availability, scope, composition and structure of the basic production assets of JSC "Concern "Sozvezdie" for 2013-2015, and analysis of efficiency of use of the basic production assets in JSC "Concern "Sozvezdie" for 2013-2015. JSC "Concern "Sozvezdie" JSC approved the program of innovative development and technological modernization, the development objective of which is the proved choice of the list and content of activities, the implementation of which should ensure the development of the Concern as a scientific and industrial socio-economic system – a holistic entity. Assessment of the dynamics of the basic production assets has shown that the security of JSC "Concern "Sozvezdie" OPF for 2013-2015 increased by 89,81%. The degree of updating of production assets during the period was 50.7%. The analysis of the efficiency of the basic production assets in JSC "Concern "Sozvezdie" has shown that for every 1% increase in revenue major funds have grown by 0.65%. The rate of fondamenti decreased by 18.2%. The assessment of efficiency of use of the basic production assets of JSC "Concern "Sozvezdie" shows that the total technical re-equipment of scientific and technological, testing and production and technological base of the enterprises of the Concern is directed on creation of production capacities to ensure serial production of advanced weapons, military and special equipment in the framework of the state defense order, as the main activity of the majority of the companies of the Group, and reconstruction, the expansion and creation of production to the production of innovative civilian products.

  9. Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of

  10. Innovations for ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Limited resources and increasing requirements will continue to influence decisions on ISS. The ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) supports power and data for utilization, systems, and daily operations through the Electrical Power System (EPS) Secondary Power/Data Subsystem. Given the fluid launch schedule, the focus of the Plug-In Plan has evolved to anticipate future requirements by judicious development and delivery of power supplies, power strips, Alternating Current (AC) power inverters, along with innovative deployment strategies. A partnership of ISS Program Office, Engineering Directorate, Mission Operations, and International Partners poses unique solutions with existing on-board equipment and resources.

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) Utilization Plan Assessment Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri; Iannello, Christopher J.; Garrett, Henry B.; Ging, Andrew T.; Katz, Ira; Keith, R. Lloyd; Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Schneider, Todd A.; Whittlesey, Edward J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) vehicle undergoes spacecraft charging as it interacts with Earth's ionosphere and magnetic field. The interaction can result in a large potential difference developing between the ISS metal chassis and the local ionosphere plasma environment. If an astronaut conducting extravehicular activities (EVA) is exposed to the potential difference, then a possible electrical shock hazard arises. The control of this hazard was addressed by a number of documents within the ISS Program (ISSP) including Catastrophic Safety Hazard for Astronauts on EVA (ISS-EVA-312-4A_revE). The safety hazard identified the risk for an astronaut to experience an electrical shock in the event an arc was generated on an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) surface. A catastrophic safety hazard, by the ISS requirements, necessitates mitigation by a two-fault tolerant system of hazard controls. Traditionally, the plasma contactor units (PCUs) on the ISS have been used to limit the charging and serve as a "ground strap" between the ISS structure and the surrounding ionospheric plasma. In 2009, a previous NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) team evaluated the PCU utilization plan (NESC Request #07-054-E) with the objective to assess whether leaving PCUs off during non-EVA time periods presented risk to the ISS through assembly completion. For this study, in situ measurements of ISS charging, covering the installation of three of the four photovoltaic arrays, and laboratory testing results provided key data to underpin the assessment. The conclusion stated, "there appears to be no significant risk of damage to critical equipment nor excessive ISS thermal coating damage as a result of eliminating PCU operations during non- EVA times." In 2013, the ISSP was presented with recommendations from Boeing Space Environments for the "Conditional" Marginalization of Plasma Hazard. These recommendations include a plan that would keep the PCUs off during EVAs when the

  12. SAGE III on ISS Lessons Learned on Thermal Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Warren

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument - the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring vertical distribution of aerosols, ozone, and other trace gases in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere - is currently scheduled for delivery to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2016. The Instrument Adapter Module (IAM), one of many SAGE III subsystems, continuously dissipates a considerable amount of thermal energy during mission operations. Although a portion of this energy is transferred via its large radiator surface area, the majority must be conductively transferred to the ExPRESS Payload Adapter (ExPA) to satisfy thermal mitigation requirements. The baseline IAM-ExPA mechanical interface did not afford the thermal conductance necessary to prevent the IAM from overheating in hot on-orbit cases, and high interfacial conductance was difficult to achieve given the large span between mechanical fasteners, less than stringent flatness specifications, and material usage constraints due to strict contamination requirements. This paper will examine the evolution of the IAM-ExPA thermal interface over the course of three design iterations and will include discussion on design challenges, material selection, testing successes and failures, and lessons learned.

  13. International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Mohammed K.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) provides the following three primary functions for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA): volume for concentrating/filtering pretreated urine, filtration of product distillate, and filtration of the Pressure Control and Pump Assembly (PCPA) effluent. The RFTAs, under nominal operations, are to be replaced every 30 days. This poses a significant logistical resupply problem, as well as cost in upmass and new tanks purchase. In addition, it requires significant amount of crew time. To address and resolve these challenges, NASA required Boeing to develop a design which eliminated the logistics and upmass issues and minimize recurring costs. Boeing developed the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) that allowed the tanks to be emptied on-orbit into disposable tanks that eliminated the need for bringing the fully loaded tanks to earth for refurbishment and relaunch, thereby eliminating several hundred pounds of upmass and its associated costs. The ARFTA will replace the RFTA by providing the same functionality, but with reduced resupply requirements

  14. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  15. Nuclear abundance measurements inside MIR and ISS with Sileye experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casolino, M.

    In this work we present measurements of cosmic ray nuclear abundances above 150 MeV/n performed inside Mir space station between 1998 and 2000. Data have been obtained with SilEye-2 detector, a 6 plane silicon strip detector telescope designed to measure environmental radiation and investigate on the Light Flash phenomenon. In standalone mode, SilEye-2 is capable to measure LET distribution spectra and identify nuclear species with energy above 100 MeV/n: a total of 100 sessions comprising more than 1000 hours of observation were perfomed in the years 1998-2000, recording also several Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Cosmic ray abundances inside a spacecraft can differ from the primary component due to interaction with the interposed material of the hull and the instruments. We report on LET measurements and relative abundances from Boron to Iron measured in different regions and at different geomagnetic cutoffs, in solar quiet conditions and during SEP events, showing how the composition varies in these different situations. We also report on preliminary results on cosmic ray measurements inside ISS (27/4/2002 - 4/5/2002) obtained with Sileye-3/Alteino experiment.

  16. Measuring CMB polarization from ISS: the SPOrt experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, L.P.L.

    2004-01-01

    The SPOrt (Sky Polarization Observatory) experiment aims to measure CMBP (cosmic microwave background polarization) on about 80% of the sky from space. Selected by ESA to fly on board the ISS in 2006, it is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). As shown also by the recent WMAP release, CMBP data, besides of removing various degeneracies among cosmological parameters, provided new and important information on the cosmic opacity τ and, therefore, on very early cosmic objects which reionized the world at z ∼ 15. Most such information is obtained from low-l spectral components, that SPOrt, with its HPBW resolution of 7 degrees will explore with a high level of sensitivity. The 4 polarimeters of SPOrt work at 22, 32 and (2x) 90 GHz. At lower frequencies they will provide a (nearly) all-sky survey of Galactic synchrotron polarized emission, while data at the higher frequency will measure the CMBP signal. Correlating SPOrt with anisotropy data, by other experiments, shall therefore provide significant cosmological information. We performed a number of simulations of SPOrt performance, aimed to determine how far τ and/or other parameter(s) concerning reionization are constrained by the expected data. We also considered a possible interplay between reionization histories and Dark Energy nature. Besides of information on technological developments for systematics reduction, long term stability and observing time efficiency, we report here recent outputs on the expected SPOrt performance in constraining cosmological models

  17. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Integration with the ISS Extravehicular Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiott, Victoria; Boyle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NASA has developed a Solid Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) to provide cooling for the next generation spacesuit. One approach to increasing the TRL of the system is to incorporate this hardware with the existing EMU. Several integration issues were addressed to support a potential demonstration of the SWME with the existing EMU. Systems analysis was performed to assess the capability of the SWME to maintain crewmember cooling and comfort as a replacement for sublimation. The materials of the SWME were reviewed to address compatibility with the EMU. Conceptual system placement and integration with the EMU via an EVA umbilical system to ensure crew mobility and Airlock egress were performed. A concept of operation for EVA use was identified that is compatible with the existing system. This concept is extensible as a means to provide cooling for the existing EMU. The cooling system of one of the EMUs on orbit has degraded, with the root cause undetermined. Should there be a common cause resident on ISS, this integration could provide a means to recover cooling capability for EMUs on orbit.

  18. ISS Material Science Research Rack HWIL Interface Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Philip J.; Ballard, Gary H.; Crumbley, Robert T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the first Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) interface simulation is described. Dynamic Concepts developed this HWIL simulation system with funding and management provided by the Flight Software group (ED14) of NASA-MSFC's Avionics Department. The HWIL system has been used both as a flight software development environment and as a software qualification tool. To fulfill these roles, the HWIL simulator accurately models the system dynamics of many MSRR-1 subsystems and emulates most of the internal interface signals. The modeled subsystems include the Experiment Modules, the Thermal Environment Control System, the Vacuum Access System, the Solid State Power Controller Module, and the Active Rack Isolation Systems. The emulated signals reside on three separate MIL-STD-1553B digital communication buses, the ISS Medium Rate Data Link, and several analog controller and sensor signals. To enhance the range of testing, it was necessary to simulate several off-nominal conditions that may occur in the interfacing subsystems.

  19. Longitudinal Ionospheric Variability Observed by LITES on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, A. W.; Finn, S. C.; Cook, T.; Geddes, G.; Chakrabarti, S.; Budzien, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Limb-Imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-Ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES) is an imaging spectrograph designed to measure altitude profiles (150-350 km) of extreme- and far-ultraviolet airglow emissions that originate from photochemical processes in the ionosphere and thermosphere. During the daytime, LITES observes the bright O+ 83.4 nm emission from which the ionospheric profile can be inferred. At night, recombination emissions at 91.1 and 135.6 nm provide a direct measure of the electron content along the line of sight. LITES was launched and installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in late February 2017 where it has been operating along with the highly complementary GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometry - Colocated (GROUP-C) experiment. We will present some of the first observations from LITES in April 2017 that show longitudinal patterns in ionospheric density and the daily variability in those patterns. LITES vertical imaging from a vantage point near 410 km enables a particularly unique perspective on the altitude of the ionospheric peak density at night that can complement and inform other ground- and space-based measurements, and track the longitude-altitude variability that is reflective of changes in equatorial electrodynamics.

  20. Radiation measured for ISS-Expedition 12 with different dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). These particles' radiation impact to astronauts depends strongly on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. It is important to investigate the LET spectrum for the radiation field and the influence of radiation on astronauts. At present, the best active dosimeters used for all LET are the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and silicon detectors; the best passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for low LET and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET. TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs, TLDs and OSLDs were used to investigate the radiation for space mission Expedition 12 (ISS-11S) in LEO. LET spectra and radiation quantities (fluence, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and quality factor) were measured for the mission with these different dosimeters. This paper introduces the operation principles for these dosimeters, describes the method to combine the results measured by CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs, presents the experimental LET spectra and the radiation quantities

  1. Radiation Measured with Different Dosimeters for ISS-Expedition 18-19/ULF2 on Board International Space Station during Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dazhuang; Gaza, R.; Roed, Y.; Semones, E.; Lee, K.; Steenburgh, R.; Johnson, S.; Flanders, J.; Zapp, N.

    2010-01-01

    Radiation field of particles in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly composed of galactic cosmic rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in SAA (South Atlantic Anomaly). GCR are modulated by solar activity, at the period of solar minimum activity, GCR intensity is at maximum and the main contributor for space radiation is GCR. At present for space radiation measurements conducted by JSC (Johnson Space Center) SRAG (Space Radiation Analysis Group), the preferred active dosimeter sensitive to all LET (Linear Energy Transfer) is the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC); the preferred passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) sensitive to low LET as well as CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) sensitive to high LET. For the method using passive dosimeters, radiation quantities for all LET can be obtained by combining radiation results measured with TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 PNTDs. TEPC, TLDs/OSLDs and CR-39 detectors were used to measure the radiation field for the ISS (International Space Station) - Expedition 18-19/ULF2 space mission which was conducted from 15 November 2008 to 31 July 2009 - near the period of the recent solar minimum activity. LET spectra (differential and integral fluence, absorbed dose and dose equivalent) and radiation quantities were measured for positions TEPC, TESS (Temporary Sleeping Station, inside the polyethylene lined sleep station), SM-P 327 and 442 (Service Module - Panel 327 and 442). This paper presents radiation LET spectra measured with TEPC and CR-39 PNTDs and radiation dose measured with TLDs/OSLDs as well as the radiation quantities combined from results measured with passive dosimeters.

  2. A Novel Ion Exchange System to Purify Mixed ISS Waste Water Brines for Chemical Production and Enhanced Water Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunn, Griffin; Spencer, LaShelle; Ruby, Anna-Maria; McCaskill, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Current International Space Station water recovery regimes produce a sizable portion of waste water brine. This brine is highly toxic and water recovery is poor: a highly wasteful proposition. With new biological techniques that do not require waste water chemical pretreatment, the resulting brine would be chromium-free and nitrate rich which can allow possible fertilizer recovery for future plant systems. Using a system of ion exchange resins we can remove hardness, sulfate, phosphate and nitrate from these brines to leave only sodium and potassium chloride. At this point modern chlor-alkali cells can be utilized to produce a low salt stream as well as an acid and base stream. The first stream can be used to gain higher water recovery through recycle to the water separation stage while the last two streams can be used to regenerate the ion exchange beds used here, as well as other ion exchange beds in the ISS. Conveniently these waste products from ion exchange regeneration would be suitable as plant fertilizer. In this report we go over the performance of state of the art resins designed for high selectivity of target ions under brine conditions. Using ersatz ISS waste water we can evaluate the performance of specific resins and calculate mass balances to determine resin effectiveness and process viability. If this system is feasible then we will be one step closer to closed loop environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for current or future applications.

  3. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments Using the International Space Station (ISS) Light Microscopy Module (LMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurk, Michael A. (Andy)

    2015-01-01

    Techshot, Inc., has developed an observation platform for the LMM on the ISS that will enable biomedical and biotechnology experiments. The LMM Dynamic Stage consists of an electronics module and the first two of a planned suite of experiment modules. Specimens and reagent solutions can be injected into a small, hollow microscope slide-the heart of the innovation-via a combination of small reservoirs, pumps, and valves. A life science experiment module allows investigators to load up to two different fluids for on-orbit, real-time image cytometry. Fluids can be changed to initiate a process, fix biological samples, or retrieve suspended cells. A colloid science experiment module conducts microparticle and nanoparticle tests for investigation of colloid self-assembly phenomena. This module includes a hollow glass slide and heating elements for the creation of a thermal gradient from one end of the slide to the other. The electronics module supports both experiment modules and contains a unique illuminator/condenser for bright and dark field and phase contrast illumination, power supplies for two piezoelectric pumps, and controller boards for pumps and valves. This observation platform safely contains internal fluids and will greatly accelerate the research and development (R&D) cycle of numerous experiments, products, and services aboard the ISS.

  4. Robotic, MEMS-based Multi Utility Sample Preparation Instrument for ISS Biological Workstation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a multi-functional, automated sample preparation instrument for biological wet-lab workstations on the ISS. The instrument is based on a...

  5. Synchronized Position and Hold Reorient Experimental Satellites - International Space Station (SPHERES-ISS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. (PSI) and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory (MIT-SSL) propose an innovative research program entitled SPHERES-ISS that uses their satellite...

  6. Režissöör Jaini film on omasuguste seas ainus / Berit Toodo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toodo, Berit

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu 22. dokumentaal- ja antropoloogiafilmide festivalil esilinastus india režissööri Rajele Jaini dokumentaalfilm "Silmalau üheksa liikumist". Filmis tegi oma viimase esinemise ka kuulus koreograaf Pina Bausch

  7. Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) for ISS Flight Control, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) intended for use by International Space Station (ISS) ground controllers to increase the...

  8. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and International Space Station (ISS) Coordination for Cubesat Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, James H.; Aviles, Jorge; Myers, Ralph; Parris, Joshua; Corley, Bryan; Hehn, Garrett; Pascucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.

  9. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments using the ISS Light Microscopy Module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed "Observation platform for dynamic biomedical and biotechnology experiments using the ISS Light Microscopy Module" consists of a platen sized to fit the...

  10. Analysis of dust samples from the Russian part of the ISS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our study focuses on the hardiest microorganisms inhabiting the ISS in order to assess their diversity and capabilities to resist certain stresses. We specifically...

  11. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Study of BSL-2 bacterial isolates from the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In an on-going Microbial Observatory experimental investigation on the International Space Station (ISS) multiple bacterial isolates of Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2)...

  12. Dedicated Slosh Dynamics Experiment on ISS using SPHERES (Advanced Space Operations in CR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) the Launch Services Program is leading an effort to conduct an experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to validate...

  13. Näitleja Tommy Lee Jonesi meditatsioon režissööritoolis / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Vestern "Melquiades Estrada kolm matust" ("The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada") : stsenarist Guillermo Arriaga : režissöör ja osatäitja Tommy Lee Jones : operaator Chris Menges : Ameerika Ühendriigid, 2005

  14. Complex biological testing of ground water quality in the area of sewage settler filtration fields of JSC 'Almaty Kanty'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrinskaya, N.I.; Goldobina, E.A.; Kosmukhambetov, A.R.; Kulikova, O.V.; Kozlova, N.V.; Ismailova, Zh.B.

    2001-01-01

    Results are given on the ground water ecological quality estimation of operating survey boreholes of JSC 'Almaty Kanty' industrial enterprise filtration fields using different methods of biological testing. Proved that various biological objects reacted differently onto the toxins present in the water. Concealment of toxic effect was performed at short-period testing at several testing objects (stimulation). Revealed during long period tests, that ground water from all the boreholes surveyed is not ecologically clean and pure, and can bring damage for ecosystem of water reservoirs adjacent and sources of drinking water if migration happens. (author)

  15. Noorte eesti režissööride uued filmid Sõpruses / Mari Peegel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peegel, Mari, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Sõpruse kinos esilinastub homme kaks eesti lühimängufilmi - "Vanameeste paradiis" : stsenaristid Ove Musting, Urmas Lennuk : režissöör Ove Musting : mängivad Tõnu Aav, Aleksander Eelmaa jt ning "Ukse taga" : stsenarist Margit Keerdo : režissöör Andrus Tuisk : osades Hele Kõre, Karin Lätsim, Kirill Käro, Igor Gavrilov

  16. Radiation Test Results on COTS and non-COTS Electronic Devices for NASA-JSC Space Flight Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allums, Kimberly K.; O'Neill, P. M.; Reddell, B. D.; Nguyen, K. V.; Bailey, C. R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation reports the results of recent proton and heavy ion Single Event Effect (SEE) testing on a variety of COTS and non-COTs electronic devices and assemblies tested for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV).

  17. The ISS 2B PVTCS Ammonia Leak: An Operational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareha, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) for the International Space Station's 2B power channel began leaking ammonia at a rate of approximately 1.5lbm/year (out of a starting approximately 53lbm system ammonia mass). Initially, the operations strategy was "feed the leak," a strategy successfully put into action via Extra Vehicular Activity during the STS-134 mission. During this mission the system was topped off with ammonia piped over from a separate thermal control system. This recharge was to have allowed for continued power channel operation into 2014 or 2015, at which point another EVA would have been required. Without these periodic EVAs to refill the 2B coolant system, the channel would eventually leak enough fluid as to risk pump cavitation and system failure, resulting in the loss of the 2B power channel - the most critical of the Space Station's 8 power channels. In mid-2012, the leak rate increased to approximately 5lbm/year. Once discovered, an EVA was planned and executed within a 5 week timeframe to drastically alter the architecture of the PVTCS via connection to a dormant thermal control system not intended to be utilized as anything other than spare components. The purpose of this rerouting of the TCS was to increase system volume and to isolate the photovoltaic radiator, thought to be the likely leak source. This EVA was successfully executed on November 1st, 2012 and left the 2B PVTCS in a configuration where the system was now being adequately cooled via a totally different radiator than what the system was designed to utilize. Unfortunately, data monitoring over the next several months showed that the isolated radiator was not leaking, and the system itself continued to leak steadily until May 9th, 2013. It was on this day that the ISS crew noticed the visible presence of ammonia crystals escaping from the 2B channel's truss segment, signifying a rapid acceleration of the leak from 5lbm/year to 5lbm/day. Within 48 hours of the

  18. Additive Manufacturing, Design, Testing, and Fabrication: A Full Engineering Experience at JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusack, Steven

    2016-01-01

    I worked on several projects this term. While most projects involved additive manufacturing, I was also involved with two design projects, two testing projects, and a fabrication project. The primary mentor for these was Richard Hagen. Secondary mentors were Hai Nguyen, Khadijah Shariff, and fabrication training from James Brown. Overall, my experience at JSC has been successful and what I have learned will continue to help me in my engineering education and profession long after I leave. My 3D printing projects ranged from less than a 1 cubic centimeter to about 1 cubic foot and involved several printers using different printing technologies. It was exciting to become familiar with printing technologies such as industrial grade FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), the relatively new SLA (Stereolithography), and PolyJet. My primary duty with the FDM printers was to model parts that came in from various sources to print effectively and efficiently. Using methods my mentor taught me and the Stratasys Insight software, I was able to minimize imperfections, hasten build time, improve strength for specific forces (tensile, shear, etc...), and reduce likelihood of a print-failure. Also using FDM, I learned how to repair a part after it was printed. This is done by using a special kind of glue that chemically melts the two faces of plastic parts together to form a fused interface. My first goal with SLA technology was to bring the printer back to operational readiness. In becoming familiar with the Pegasus SLA printer, I researched the leveling, laser settings, and different vats to hold liquid material. With this research, I was successfully able to bring the Pegasus back online and have successfully printed multiple sample parts as well as functional parts. My experience with PolyJet technology has been focused on an understanding of the abilities/limits, costs, and the maintenance for daily use. Still upcoming will be experience with using a composite printer that uses FDM

  19. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The air revitalization system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) provides the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation due to the microgravity environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) media filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Segment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. These filters see a replacement interval, as part of maintenance, of 2-5 years dependent on location in the ISS. In this work, we present particulate removal efficiency, pressure drop, and leak test results for a sample set of 8 BFEs returned from the ISS after filter replacement. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS beyond 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  20. Space Environment Effects on Materials at Different Positions and Operational Periods of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Miyazaki, Eiji; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Riyo; Suzuki, Mineo

    2009-01-01

    A space materials exposure experiment was condcuted on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Results reveal artificial environment effects such as sample contamination, attitude change effects on AO fluence, and shading effects of UV on ISS. The sample contamination was coming from ISS components. The particles attributed to micrometeoroids and/or debris captured by MPAC might originate from the ISS solar array. Another MPAC&SEED will be aboard the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposure Facility (EF) on ISS. The JEM/MPAC&SEED is attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) and is exposed to space. Actually, SEDA-AP is a payload on EF to be launched by Space Shuttle flight 2J/A. In fact, SEDA-AP has space environment monitors such as a high-energy particle monitor, atomic oxygen monitor, and plasma monitor to measure in-situ natural space environment data during JEM/MPAC&SEED exposure. Some exposure samples for JEM/MPAC&SEED are identical to SM/MPAC&SEED samples. Consequently, effects on identical materials at different positions and operation periods of ISS will be evaluated. This report summarizes results from space environment monitoring samples for atomic oxygen analysis on SM/MPAC&SEED, along with experimental plans for JEM/MPAC&SEED.

  1. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Coil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS. Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation. Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  2. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  3. Organization and Management of the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The Integrated Medical Group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial fourteen long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  4. Tidally modulated eruptions on Enceladus: Cassini ISS observations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmo, Francis; Porco, Carolyn; Mitchell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    We use images acquired by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) to investigate the temporal variation of the brightness and height of the south polar plume of Enceladus. The plume's brightness peaks around the moon's apoapse, but with no systematic variation in scale height with either plume brightness or Enceladus' orbital position. We compare our results, both alone and supplemented with Cassini near-infrared observations, with predictions obtained from models in which tidal stresses are the principal control of the eruptive behavior. There are three main ways of explaining the observations: (1) the activity is controlled by right-lateral strike slip motion; (2) the activity is driven by eccentricity tides with an apparent time delay of about 5 hr; (3) the activity is driven by eccentricity tides plus a 1:1 physical libration with an amplitude of about 0.°8 (3.5 km). The second hypothesis might imply either a delayed eruptive response, or a dissipative, viscoelastic interior. The third hypothesis requires a libration amplitude an order of magnitude larger than predicted for a solid Enceladus. While we cannot currently exclude any of these hypotheses, the third, which is plausible for an Enceladus with a subsurface ocean, is testable by using repeat imaging of the moon's surface. A dissipative interior suggests that a regional background heat source should be detectable. The lack of a systematic variation in plume scale height, despite the large variations in plume brightness, is plausibly the result of supersonic flow; the details of the eruption process are yet to be understood.

  5. Multi-User Hardware Solutions to Combustion Science ISS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Angel M.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the budget environment and to expand on the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), common hardware approach, the NASA Combustion Science Program shifted focus in 1999 from single investigator PI (Principal Investigator)-specific hardware to multi-user 'Minifacilities'. These mini-facilities would take the CIR common hardware philosophy to the next level. The approach that was developed re-arranged all the investigations in the program into sub-fields of research. Then common requirements within these subfields were used to develop a common system that would then be complemented by a few PI-specific components. The sub-fields of research selected were droplet combustion, solids and fire safety, and gaseous fuels. From these research areas three mini-facilities have sprung: the Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) for droplet research, Flow Enclosure for Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) for solids and fire safety, and the Multi-user Gaseous Fuels Apparatus (MGFA) for gaseous fuels. These mini-facilities will develop common Chamber Insert Assemblies (CIA) and diagnostics for the respective investigators complementing the capability provided by CIR. Presently there are four investigators for MDCA, six for FEANICS, and four for MGFA. The goal of these multi-user facilities is to drive the cost per PI down after the initial development investment is made. Each of these mini-facilities will become a fixture of future Combustion Science NASA Research Announcements (NRAs), enabling investigators to propose against an existing capability. Additionally, an investigation is provided the opportunity to enhance the existing capability to bridge the gap between the capability and their specific science requirements. This multi-user development approach will enable the Combustion Science Program to drive cost per investigation down while drastically reducing the time

  6. Sustainable development through innovation (the example of JSC «Concern» Constellation»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Ovchinnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the «economic growth» theoretical approaches to the terms and «sustainable development». It is indicated that «sustainable development» is related to the introduction of new technologies and innovations, as well as the mechanisms of perfection economic activity. The concept of «sustainable development» includes the principles of sustainability and balanced-ness, while economic growth is associated with the dominant country economic policy objectives, including innovative factors, with the well-being of its population level: the development of the social structure, from the labor market level and other factors. Prospects of development of the country based on the justification of the socio-economic model of its translational movement in the world civilization. Excessive political risks and economic sanctions have shown that Russia should not rely on foreign imports of high-tech, and the need to develop import substitution. Change the vector of development of the Russian economy made their adjustments to the development of the Voronezh region economy slowed down the speed of displacements, of capital, the regional financial centers develop poorly, due to lack of investment has slowed the growth of innovational and information development. There is a growing dependence of the region on the processes taking place at the international and national levels. In the example of the Voronezh area are considered factors of sustainable development such as the coordination of organizational efforts and financial resources in order to achieve a new quality of the region's population lives, and necessity of formation of a new development paradigm of management in the region, based on the modernization of diversified bath economy and the introduction of mechanisms to ensure the implementation of sustainable development. In view of the innovative-investment activity of JSC «Concern» Constellation «steady growth

  7. Dependence of the mean time to failure of a hydraulic balancing machine unit on different factors for sectional pumps of the Alrosa JSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, N. P.; Portnyagina, V. V.; Sobakina, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents factors that have a greater impact on the mean time to failure of a hydraulic balancing machine unit working in underground kimberlite mines of the Alrosa JSC, the hydraulic balancing machine unit being the least reliable structural elements in terms of error-free operation. In addition, a multifactor linear dependence of mean time to failure of a hydraulic balancing machine unit is shown regarding it being parts of stage sectional pumps in the underground kimberlite mines of the Alrosa JSC. In prospect, this diagram can allow us to predict the durability of the least reliable structural element of a sectional pump.

  8. The ISS as a platform for a fully simulated mars voyage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Reitz, Guenther

    2016-07-01

    The ISS can mimic the impact of microgravity, radiation, living and psychological conditions that astronauts will face during a deep space cruise, for example to Mars. This suggests the ISS as the most valuable "analogue" for deep space exploration. NASA has indeed suggested a 'full-up deep space simulation on last available ISS Mission: 6/7 crew for one year duration; full simulation of time delays & autonomous operations'. This idea should be pushed further. It is indeed conceivable to use the ISS as the final "analogue", performing a real 'dry-run' of a deep space mission (such as a mission to Mars), as close as reasonably possible to what will be the real voyage. This Mars ISS dry run (ISS4Mars) would last 500-800 days, mimicking most of the challenges which will be undertaken such as length, isolation, food provision, decision making, time delays, health monitoring diagnostic and therapeutic actions and more: not a collection of "single experiments", but a complete exploration simulation were all the pieces will come together for the first in space simulated Mars voyage. Most of these challenges are the same that those that will be encountered during a Moon voyage, with the most evident exceptions being the duration and the communication delay. At the time of the Mars ISS dry run all the science and technological challenges will have to be mostly solved by dedicated works. These solutions will be synergistically deployed in the dry run which will simulate all the different aspects of the voyage, the trip to Mars, the permanence on the planet and the return to Earth. During the dry run i) There will be no arrivals/departure of spacecrafts; 2) Proper communications delay with ground will be simulated; 3) Decision processes will migrate from Ground to ISS; 4) Permanence on Mars will be simulated. Mars ISS dry run will use just a portion of the ISS which will be totally isolated from the rest of the ISS, leaving to the other ISS portions the task to provide the

  9. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) improves the risk assessment of ISS staging in newly diagnosed MM patients treated upfront with novel agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, A; Parrinello, N L; Consoli, M L; Marchionni, L; Forte, S; Conticello, C; Pompa, A; Corso, A; Milone, G; Di Raimondo, F; Borrello, I

    2015-11-01

    Recent reports identify the ratio between absolute neutrophil count (ANC) and absolute lymphocyte count (ALC), called neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), as a predictor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in various malignancies. We retrospectively examined the NLR in a cohort of 309 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated upfront with novel agents. NLR was calculated using data obtained from the complete blood count (CBC) at diagnosis and subsequently correlated with PFS and OS. The median NLR was 1.9 (range 0.4-15.9). Higher NLR was independent of international staging system (ISS) stage, plasma cell infiltration or cytogenetics. The 5-year PFS and OS estimates were, respectively, 18.2 and 36.4 % for patients with NLR ≥ 2 versus 25.5 and 66.6 % in patients with NLR < 2. Among younger patients (age <65 years, N = 179), NLR ≥ 2 had a negative prognostic impact on both PFS and OS, in all ISS stages. By combining ISS stage and NLR in a model limited to young patients, we found that 19 % of the patients were classified as very low risk, 70 % standard risk and 11 % very high risk. The 5-year estimates were 39.3, 19.4 and 10.9 % for PFS and 95.8, 50.9 and 23.6 % for OS for very low, standard-risk and very high-risk groups. We found NLR to be a predictor of PFS and OS in MM patients treated upfront with novel agents. NLR can be combined with ISS staging system to identify patients with dismal outcome. However, larger cohorts and prospective studies are needed to use NLR as additional parameter to personalise MM therapy in the era of novel agents.

  10. Rodent Habitat On ISS: Spaceflight Effects On Mouse Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Padmanabhan, S.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011), Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, emphasized the importance of expanding NASA life sciences research to long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The first flight experiment carrying mice, Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1), was launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4, exposing the mice to a total of 37 days in space. Ground control groups were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Mouse health and behavior were monitored for the duration of the experiment via video streaming. Here we present behavioral analysis of two groups of five C57BL/6 female adult mice viewed via fixed camera views compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight (Flt) and Ground Control (GC) mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another, and they quickly learned to anchor themselves using tails and/or paws. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior including the development of organized ‘circling’ or ‘race-tracking’ behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. We quantified the bout frequency, duration and rate of circling with respect to characteristic behaviors observed in the varying stages of the progressive development of circling: flipping utilizing two sides of the

  11. Irregular Saturnian Moon Lightcurves from Cassini-ISS Observations: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, S.

    2013-10-01

    Cassini ISS-NAC observations of the irregular moons of Saturn revealed various physical information on these objects. 16 synodic rotational periods: Hati (S43): 5.45 h; Mundilfari (S25): 6.74 h; Suttungr (S23): ~7.4 h; Kari (S45): 7.70 h; Siarnaq (S29): 10.14 h; Tarvos (S21): 10.66 h; Ymir (S19, sidereal period): 11.92220 h ± 0.1 s; Skathi (S27): ~12 h; Hyrrokkin (S44): 12.76 h; Ijiraq (S22): 13.03 h; Albiorix (S26): 13.32 h; Bestla (S39): 14.64 h; Bebhionn (S37): ~15.8 h; Kiviuq (S24): 21.82 h; Thrymr (S30): ~27 h; Erriapus (S28): ~28 h. The average period for the prograde-orbiting moons is ~16 h, for the retrograde moons ~11½ h (includes Phoebe's 9.2735 h from Bauer et al., AJ, 2004). Phase-angle dependent behavior of lightcurves: The phase angles of the observations range from 2° to 105°. The lightcurves which were obtained at low phase (<40°) show the 2-maxima/ 2-minima pattern expected for this kind of objects. At higher phases, more complicated lightcurves emerge, giving rough indications on shapes. Ymir pole and shape: For satellite Ymir, a convex-hull shape model and the pole-axis orientation have been derived. Ymir's north pole points toward λ = 230°±180°, β = -85°±10°, or RA = 100°±20°, Dec = -70°±10°. This is anti-parallel to the rotation axes of the major planets, indicating that Ymir not just orbits, but also rotates in a retrograde sense. The shape of Ymir resembles a triangular prism with edge lengths of ~20, ~24, and ~25 km. The ratio between the longest 25 km) and shortest axis (pole axis, ~15 km) is ~1.7. Erriapus seasons: The pole direction of object Erriapus has probably a low ecliptic latitude. This gives this moon seasons similar to the Uranian regular moons with periods where the sun stands very high in the sky over many years, and with years-long periods of permanent night. Hati density: The rotational frequency of the fastest rotator (Hati) is close to the frequency where the object would lose material from the surface if

  12. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  13. WetLab-2: Tools for Conducting On-Orbit Quantitative Real-Time Gene Expression Analysis on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Macarena; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis; Jung, Jimmy; Schonfeld, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The objective of NASA Ames Research Centers WetLab-2 Project is to place on the ISS a research platform capable of conducting gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of biological specimens sampled or cultured on orbit. The project has selected a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) qRT-PCR system, the Cepheid SmartCycler and will fly it in its COTS configuration. The SmartCycler has a number of advantages including modular design (16 independent PCR modules), low power consumption, rapid ramp times and the ability to detect up to four separate fluorescent channels at one time enabling multiplex assays that can be used for normalization and to study multiple genes of interest in each module. The team is currently working with Cepheid to enable the downlink of data from the ISS to the ground and provide uplink capabilities for programming, commanding, monitoring, and instrument maintenance. The project has adapted commercial technology to design a module that can lyse cells and extract RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for use in qRT-PCR reactions while using a housekeeping gene to normalize RNA concentration and integrity. The WetLab-2 system is capable of processing multiple sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. The ability to conduct qRT-PCR on-orbit eliminates the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms or the concern of RNA degradation of fixed samples. The system can be used to validate terrestrial analyses of samples returned from ISS by providing on-orbit gene expression benchmarking prior to sample return. The ability to get on orbit data will provide investigators with the opportunity to adjust experiment parameters for subsequent trials based on the real-time data analysis without need for sample return and re-flight. Researchers will also be able to sample multigenerational changes in organisms. Finally, the system can be

  14. Phototropism experiments in microgravity-the Seedling Growth project in the EMCS on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, John; Edelmann, Richard; Herranz, Raul; Medina, Francisco Javier; Millar, Katherine

    The microgravity environment aboard orbiting spacecraft has provided a unique laboratory to explore important topics in basic plant biology. Our group has utilized the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to study plant growth, development, tropisms, and gene expression in a series of spaceflight experiments. The most current project performed on the ISS was termed Seeding Growth-1 (SG-1) which builds on the previous TROPI (for tropisms) experiments. TROPI-1 was the first EMCS experiment, and we discovered a novel red-light-based phototropism in hypocotyls of seedlings grown in microgravity (Millar et al. 2010). In TROPI-2, our experiments were extended to reduced gravity levels and found that 0.1-0.3 g can attenuate the red-light response (Kiss et al. 2012). In addition, we performed gene profiling studies and noted that approximately 280 genes that were differentially regulated at least two-fold in the space samples compared to the ground controls (Correll et al. 2013). Major technical and operational changes in SG-1 (launched in March 2013) compared to the TROPI experiments include: improvements in lighting conditions within the EMCS to optimize the environment for phototropism studies and the use of infrared illumination to provide high-quality images of the seedlings. In SG-1, the red-light-based phototropism in roots and hypocotyls of seedlings that was noted in TROPI-2 was confirmed and now can be more precisely characterized based on the improvements in procedures. As we move forward, the SG-2 experiments (to be launched in 2014), in addition to a continued focus on phototropism, will consider the cell cycle as well as the growth and proliferation of plant cells in microgravity (Matía et al. 2010). Furthermore, the lessons learned from sequential experiments from TROPI-1 to TROPI-2 to SG-1 can provide insights to other researchers developing space experiments in plant biology. References: Correll M.J., T

  15. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in utilization and hours of payload operations being executed onboard the International Space Station (ISS), upgrading the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) ISS Payload Control Area (PCA) was essential to gaining efficiencies and assurance of current and future payload health and science return. PCA houses the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) responsible for the execution of all NASA payloads onboard the ISS. POIC Flight Controllers are responsible for the operation of voice, stowage, command, telemetry, video, power, thermal, and environmental control in support of ISS science experiments. The methodologies and execution of the PCA refurbishment were planned and performed within a four-month period in order to assure uninterrupted operation of ISS payloads and minimal impacts to payload operations teams. To vacate the PCA, three additional HOSC control rooms were reconfigured to handle ISS real-time operations, Backup Control Center (BCC) to Mission Control in Houston, simulations, and testing functions. This involved coordination and cooperation from teams of ISS operations controllers, multiple engineering and design disciplines, management, and construction companies performing an array of activities simultaneously and in sync delivering a final product with no issues that impacted the schedule. For each console operator discipline, studies of Information Technology (IT) tools and equipment layouts, ergonomics, and lines of sight were performed. Infusing some of the latest IT into the project was an essential goal in ensuring future growth and success of the ISS payload science returns. Engineering evaluations led to a state of the art Video Wall implementation and more efficient ethernet cabling distribution providing the latest products and the best solution for the POIC. These engineering innovations led to cost savings for the project. Constraints involved in the management of

  16. Sorting variables for each case: a new algorithm to calculate injury severity score (ISS) using SPSS-PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, S

    One of the more often used measures of multiple injuries is the injury severity score (ISS). Determination of the ISS is based on the abbreviated injury scale (AIS). This paper suggests a new algorithm to sort the AISs for each case and calculate ISS. The program uses unsorted abbreviated injury scale (AIS) levels for each case and rearranges them in descending order. The first three sorted AISs representing the three most severe injuries of a person are then used to calculate injury severity score (ISS). This algorithm should be useful for analyses of clusters of injuries especially when more patients have multiple injuries.

  17. An Experiment Support Computer for Externally-Based ISS Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, S. W.; Chen, S. E.

    2002-01-01

    The Experiment Support Facility - External (ESF-X) is a computer designed for general experiment use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) Truss Site locations. The ESF-X design is highly modular and uses commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components wherever possible to allow for maximum reconfigurability to meet the needs of almost any payload. The ESF-X design has been developed with the EXPRESS Pallet as the target location and the University of Colorado's Micron Accuracy Deployment Experiment (MADE) as the anticipated first payload and capability driver. Thus the design presented here is configured for structural dynamics and control as well as optics experiments. The ESF-X is a small (58.4 x 48.3 x 17.8") steel and copper enclosure which houses a 14 slot VME card chassis and power supply. All power and data connections are made through a single panel on the enclosure so that only one side of the enclosure must be accessed for nominal operation and servicing activities. This feature also allows convenient access during integration and checkout activities. Because it utilizes a standard VME backplane, ESF-X can make use of the many commercial boards already in production for this standard. Since the VME standard is also heavily used in industrial and military applications, many ruggedized components are readily available. The baseline design includes commercial processors, Ethernet, MIL-STD-1553, and mass storage devices. The main processor board contains four TI 6701 DSPs with a PowerPC based controller. Other standard functions, such as analog-to-digital, digital-to-analog, motor driver, temperature readings, etc., are handled on industry-standard IP modules. Carrier cards, which hold 4 IP modules each, are placed in slots in the VME backplane. A unique, custom IP carrier board with radiation event detectors allows non RAD-hard components to be used in an extended exposure environment. Thermal control is maintained by conductive cooling through the copper

  18. Would Current International Space Station (ISS) Recycling Life Support Systems Save Mass on a Mars Transit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen and water are recycled on the International Space Station (ISS) to save the cost of launching their mass into orbit. Usually recycling systems are justified by showing that their launch mass would be much lower than the mass of the oxygen or water they produce. Short missions such as Apollo or space shuttle directly provide stored oxygen and water, since the needed total mass of oxygen and water is much less than that of there cycling equipment. Ten year or longer missions such as the ISS or a future moon base easily save mass by recycling while short missions of days or weeks do not. Mars transit and long Mars surface missions have an intermediate duration, typically one to one and a half years. Some of the current ISS recycling systems would save mass if used on a Mars transit but others would not.

  19. Opals: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In April of 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Flight System (FS) launched to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a planned 90-day baseline mission, the OPALS FS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) ground station in Wrightwood, California. Interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure have been established to facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes, such as pointing prediction and data processing, satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The ORTs have provided valuable insight into operational considerations for the instrument on the ISS.

  20. Assembling and supplying the ISS the space shuttle fulfills its mission

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2017-01-01

    The creation and utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is a milestone in space exploration. But without the Space Shuttle, it would have remained an impossible dream. Assembling and Supplying the ISS is the story of how, between 1998 and 2011, the Shuttle became the platform which enabled the construction and continued operation of the primary scientific research facility in Earth orbit. Fulfilling an objective it had been designed to complete decades before, 37 Shuttle missions carried the majority of the hardware needed to build the ISS and then acted as a ferry and supply train for early resident crews to the station. Building upon the decades of development and experience described in the companion volume Linking the Space Shuttle and Space Stations: Early Docking Technologies from Concept to Implementation, this book explores • a purpose-built hardware processing facility • challenging spacewalking objectives • extensive robotic operations • undocking a unmanned orbiter The experie...

  1. Visual assessment of the radiation distribution in the ISS Lab module: visualization in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganti, P. B.; Zapp, E. N.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The US Lab module of the International Space Station (ISS) is a primary working area where the crewmembers are expected to spend majority of their time. Because of the directionality of radiation fields caused by the Earth shadow, trapped radiation pitch angle distribution, and inherent variations in the ISS shielding, a model is needed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. We present the calculated radiation dose (rem/yr) values for over 3,000 different points in the working area of the Lab module and estimated radiation dose values for over 25,000 different points in the human body for a given ambient radiation environment. These estimated radiation dose values are presented in a three dimensional animated interactive visualization format. Such interactive animated visualization of the radiation distribution can be generated in near real-time to track changes in the radiation environment during the orbit precession of the ISS.

  2. The VASIMR[registered trademark] VF-200-1 ISS Experiment as a Laboratory for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover Tim W.; Squire, Jared P.; Longmier, Benjamin; Cassady, Leonard; Ilin, Andrew; Carter, Mark; Olsen, Chris S.; McCaskill, Greg; Diaz, Franklin Chang; Girimaji, Sharath; hide

    2010-01-01

    The VASIMR[R] Flight Experiment (VF-200-1) will be tested in space aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in about four years. It will consist of two 100 kW parallel plasma engines with opposite magnetic dipoles, resulting in a near zero-torque magnetic system. Electrical energy will come from ISS at low power level, be stored in batteries and used to fire the engine at 200 kW. The VF-200-1 project will provide a unique opportunity on the ISS National Laboratory for astrophysicists and space physicists to study the dynamic evolution of an expanding and reconnecting plasma loop. Here, we review the status of the project and discuss our current plans for computational modeling and in situ observation of a dynamic plasma loop on an experimental platform in low-Earth orbit. The VF-200-1 project is still in the early stages of development and we welcome new collaborators.

  3. How Do Lessons Learned on the International Space Station (ISS) Help Plan Life Support for Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    How can our experience in developing and operating the International Space Station (ISS) guide the design, development, and operation of life support for the journey to Mars? The Mars deep space Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) must incorporate the knowledge and experience gained in developing ECLSS for low Earth orbit, but it must also meet the challenging new requirements of operation in deep space where there is no possibility of emergency resupply or quick crew return. The understanding gained by developing ISS flight hardware and successfully supporting a crew in orbit for many years is uniquely instructive. Different requirements for Mars life support suggest that different decisions may be made in design, testing, and operations planning, but the lessons learned developing the ECLSS for ISS provide valuable guidance.

  4. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, C.; Sgobba, T.; Larsen, A.; Rose, S.; Heimann, T.; Ciancone, M.; Mulhern, V.

    2005-12-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998 the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre- existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and ISS. The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be considered when establishing the ESA PSRP. The paper will expound upon the detailed franchising model, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The paper will then address the resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date. Additionally, the paper presents ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  5. Preliminary Analysis of ISS Maintenance History and Implications for Supportability of Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin J.; Robbins, William W.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) enables the study of supportability issues associated with long-duration human spaceflight. The ISS is a large, complex spacecraft that must be maintained by its crew. In contrast to the Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle, but similar to spacecraft that will be component elements of future missions beyond low-Earth orbit, ISS does not return to the ground for servicing and provisioning of spares is severely constrained by transportation limits. Although significant technical support is provided by ground personnel, all hands-on maintenance tasks are performed by the crew. It is expected that future missions to distant destinations will be further limited by lack of resupply opportunities and will, eventually, become largely independent of ground support. ISS provides an opportunity to begin learning lessons that will enable future missions to be successful. Data accumulated over the first several years of ISS operations have been analyzed to gain a better understanding of maintenance-related workload. This analysis addresses both preventive and corrective maintenance and includes all U.S segment core systems. Systems and tasks that are major contributors to workload are identified. As further experience accrues, lessons will be learned that will influence future system designs so that they require less maintenance and, when maintenance is required, it can be performed more efficiently. By heeding the lessons of ISS it will be possible to identify system designs that should be more robust and point towards advances in both technology and design that will offer the greatest return on investment.

  6. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.; Clancey, William J.; McDonald, Aaron; Toschlog, Jason; Tucker, Tyson; Khan, Ahmed; Madrid, Steven (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organizations to find ways to reduce the cost of operations for supporting the International Space Station (ISS) in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to define and execute projects that would help them attain cost reductions by 2012. The MOD Operations Division Flight Planning Branch responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve console operations and reduce ISS console staffing and intern reduce operating costs. These tasks ranged from improving the management and integration mission plan changes, to automating the uploading and downloading of information to and from the ISS and the associated ground complex tasks that required multiple decision points. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture; as well as engaging a previously TRL 4-5 technology developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent-based system to manage and automate file traffic flow, archive data, and generate console logs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the goal of eliminating a second full time ISS console support position by 2012. The team will also reduce one long range planning console position by 2014. When complete, these Flight Planning Branch projects will account for the elimination of 3 console positions and a reduction in staffing of 11 engineering personnel (EP) for ISS.

  7. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Timothy; Larsen, Axel M.; Rose, Summer; Sgobba, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre-existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and International Space Station (ISS). The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper 1 then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be taken into account when establishing the ESA PSRP. The detailed franchising model will be expounded upon, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date will then be addressed. Additionally the paper presents the ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  8. Report by the International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation (IMCE) Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. Thomas; Kellogg, Yvonne (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation Task Force (IMCE) was chartered to conduct an independent external review and assessment of the ISS cost, budget, and management. In addition, the Task Force was asked to provide recommendations that could provide maximum benefit to the U.S. taxpayers and the International Partners within the President's budget request. The Task Force has made the following principal findings: (1) The ISS Program's technical achievements to date, as represented by on-orbit capability, are extraordinary; (2) The Existing ISS Program Plan for executing the FY 02-06 budget is not credible; (3) The existing deficiencies in management structure, institutional culture, cost estimating, and program control must be acknowledged and corrected for the Program to move forward in a credible fashion; (4) Additional budget flexibility, from within the Office of Space Flight (OSF) must be provided for a credible core complete program; (5) The research support program is proceeding assuming the budget that was in place before the FY02 budget runout reduction of $1B; (6) There are opportunities to maximize research on the core station program with modest cost impact; (7) The U.S. Core Complete configuration (three person crew) as an end-state will not achieve the unique research potential of the ISS; (8) The cost estimates for the U.S.-funded enhancement options (e.g., permanent seven person crew) are not sufficiently developed to assess credibility. After these findings, the Task Force has formulated several primary recommendations which are published here and include: (1) Major changes must be made in how the ISS program is managed; (2) Additional cost reductions are required within the baseline program; (3) Additional funds must be identified and applied from the Human Space Flight budget; (4) A clearly defined program with a credible end-state, agreed to by all stakeholders, must be developed and implemented.

  9. ISS Payload Operations: The Need for and Benefit of Responsive Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahay, Ed; Boster, Mandee

    2000-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) payload operations are controlled through implementation of a payload operations plan. This plan, which represents the defined approach to payload operations in general, can vary in terms of level of definition. The detailed plan provides the specific sequence and timing of each component of a payload's operations. Such an approach to planning was implemented in the Spacelab program. The responsive plan provides a flexible approach to payload operations through generalization. A responsive approach to planning was implemented in the NASA/Mir Phase 1 program, and was identified as a need during the Skylab program. The current approach to ISS payload operations planning and control tends toward detailed planning, rather than responsive planning. The use of detailed plans provides for the efficient use of limited resources onboard the ISS. It restricts flexibility in payload operations, which is inconsistent with the dynamic nature of the ISS science program, and it restricts crew desires for flexibility and autonomy. Also, detailed planning is manpower intensive. The development and implementation of a responsive plan provides for a more dynamic, more accommodating, and less manpower intensive approach to planning. The science program becomes more dynamic and responsive as the plan provides flexibility to accommodate real-time science accomplishments. Communications limitations and the crew desire for flexibility and autonomy in plan implementation are readily accommodated with responsive planning. Manpower efficiencies are accomplished through a reduction in requirements collection and coordination, plan development, and maintenance. Through examples and assessments, this paper identifies the need to transition from detailed to responsive plans for ISS payload operations. Examples depict specific characteristics of the plans. Assessments identify the following: the means by which responsive plans accommodate the dynamic nature of

  10. Onboard cross-calibration of the Pille-ISS Detector System and measurement of radiation shielding effect of the water filled protective curtain in the ISS crew cabin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szántó, P.; Apáthy, I.; Deme, S.; Hirn, A.; Nikolaev, I.V.; Pázmándi, T.; Shurshakov, V.A.; Tolochek, R.V.; Yarmanova, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    As a preparation for long duration space missions it is important to determine and minimize the impact of space radiation on human health. One of the methods to diminish the radiation burden is using an additional local shielding in the places where the crewmembers can stay for longer time. To increase the crew cabin shielding a special protective curtain was designed and delivered to ISS in 2010 containing four layers of hygienic wipes and towels providing an additional shielding thickness of about 8 g/cm"2 water-equivalent matter. The radiation shielding effect of the protective curtain, in terms of absorbed dose, was measured with the thermoluminescent Pille-ISS Detector System. In order to verify the reliability of the Pille system an onboard cross-calibration was also performed. The measurement proved that potentially 25% reduction of the absorbed dose rate in the crew cabin can be achieved, that results in 8% (∼16 μGy/day) decrease of the total absorbed dose to the crew, assuming that they spend 8 h in the crew cabin a day. - Highlights: • The dose level in the ISS Zvezda crew quarters is higher than the average dose level in the module. • A shielding made of hygienic wipes and towels was set up onboard as additional protection. • Onboard cross calibration of the Pille-ISS space dosimeter (TL) system was performed. • The shielding effect of the protective curtain in terms of absorbed dose was measured with the onboard Pille system. • The shielding effect of the protective water curtain is approximately 24 ± 9% in absorbed dose.

  11. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T. O.; Pavelitz, S. D.; Coker, C.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The observations included measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and its Optical Transient Detector (OTD) predecessor that acquired global observations of total lightning (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges) spanning a period from May 1995 through April 2015. As an exciting follow-on to these prior missions, a space-qualified LIS built as a flight-spare for TRMM will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 2 year or longer mission, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission. The STP-H5 payload containing LIS is scheduled launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center to the ISS in November 2016, aboard the SpaceX Cargo Resupply Services-10 (SpaceX-10) mission, installed in the unpressurized "trunk" of the Dragon spacecraft. After the Dragon is berth to ISS Node 2, the payload will be removed from the trunk and robotically installed in a nadir-viewing location on the external truss of the ISS. Following installation on the ISS, the LIS Operations Team will work with the STP-H5 and ISS Operations Teams to power-on LIS and begin instrument checkout and commissioning. Following successful activation, LIS orbital operations will commence, managed from the newly established LIS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at the National Space Science Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL. The well-established and robust processing, archival, and distribution infrastructure used for TRMM was easily adapted to the ISS mission, assuring that lightning

  12. Liquid Structures and Physical Properties -- Ground Based Studies for ISS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, K. F.; Bendert, J. C.; Mauro, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of electrostatically-levitated supercooled liquids have demonstrated strong short- and medium-range ordering in transition metal and alloy liquids, which can influence phase transitions like crystal nucleation and the glass transition. The structure is also related to the liquid properties. Planned ISS experiments will allow a deeper investigation of these results as well as the first investigations of a new type of coupling in crystal nucleation in primary crystallizing liquids, resulting from a linking of the stochastic processes of diffusion with interfacial-attachment. A brief description of the techniques used for ground-based studies and some results relevant to planned ISS investigations are discussed.

  13. Establishing a Distance Learning Plan for International Space Station (ISS) Interactive Video Education Events (IVEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Clint

    1999-01-01

    Educational outreach is an integral part of the International Space Station (ISS) mandate. In a few scant years, the International Space Station has already established a tradition of successful, general outreach activities. However, as the number of outreach events increased and began to reach school classrooms, those events came under greater scrutiny by the education community. Some of the ISS electronic field trips, while informative and helpful, did not meet the generally accepted criteria for education events, especially within the context of the classroom. To make classroom outreach events more acceptable to educators, the ISS outreach program must differentiate between communication events (meant to disseminate information to the general public) and education events (designed to facilitate student learning). In contrast to communication events, education events: are directed toward a relatively homogeneous audience who are gathered together for the purpose of learning, have specific performance objectives which the students are expected to master, include a method of assessing student performance, and include a series of structured activities that will help the students to master the desired skill(s). The core of the ISS education events is an interactive videoconference between students and ISS representatives. This interactive videoconference is to be preceded by and followed by classroom activities which help the students aftain the specified learning objectives. Using the interactive videoconference as the centerpiece of the education event lends a special excitement and allows students to ask questions about what they are learning and about the International Space Station and NASA. Whenever possible, the ISS outreach education events should be congruent with national guidelines for student achievement. ISS outreach staff should recognize that there are a number of different groups that will review the events, and that each group has different criteria

  14. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - the First Operational Payload on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.; McFadin, L.; Steiner, M.; Conley, C. L.

    2002-01-01

    As astronauts and cosmonauts have adapted to life on the International Space Station (ISS), they have found Amateur Radio and its connection to life on Earth to be a constant companion and a substantial psychological boost. Since its first use in November 2000, the first five expedition crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the FGB to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. Early in the development of ISS, an international organization called ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station) was formed to coordinate the construction and operation of amateur radio (ham radio) equipment on ISS. ARISS represents a melding of the volunteer teams that have pioneered the development and use of amateur radio equipment on human spaceflight vehicles. The Shuttle/Space Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) team enabled Owen Garriott to become the first astronaut ham to use amateur radio from space in 1983. Since then, amateur radio teams in the U.S. (SAREX), Germany, (SAFEX), and Russia (Mirex) have led the development and operation of amateur radio equipment on board NASA's Space Shuttle, Russia's Mir space station, and the International Space Station. The primary goals of the ARISS program are fourfold: 1) educational outreach through crew contacts with schools, 2) random contacts with the Amateur Radio public, 3) scheduled contacts with the astronauts' friends and families and 4) ISS-based communications experimentation. To date, over 65 schools have been selected from around the world for scheduled contacts with the orbiting ISS crew. Ten or more students at each school ask the astronauts questions, and the nature of these contacts embodies the primary goal of the ARISS program, -- to excite student's interest in science, technology and amateur radio. The ARISS team has developed various hardware elements for the ISS amateur radio station. These hardware elements have flown to ISS

  15. Suspending in School Suspension?: Is ISS a Valid Means of Disciplinary Action to Reduce Negative Student Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahynes, Leron M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explored whether or not In School Suspensions (ISS) is effective in reducing student behavioral problems. Research was conducted with 6-8th grade students in a rural middle school in the upstate of South Carolina for the purposes of determining if ISS, in its current design a viable and effective method to reduce negative student…

  16. What it takes to Fly in Space...Training to be an Astronaut and Daily Operations on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA requirements to become an astronaut, training astronauts must do to fly on the International Space Station (ISS), systems and other training, and day-to-day activities onboard ISS. Additionally, stowage, organization and methods of communication (email, video conferenceing, IP phone) are discussed.

  17. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Science's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Spearing, Scott F.; Jordan, Lee P.; McDaniel S. Greg

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. Provides two levels of containment via physical barrier, negative pressure, and air filtration. The MSG team and facilities provide quick access to space for exploratory and National Lab type investigations to gain an understanding of the role of gravity in the physics associated research areas. The MSG is a very versatile and capable research facility on the ISS. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been used for a large body or research in material science, heat transfer, crystal growth, life sciences, smoke detection, combustion, plant growth, human health, and technology demonstration. MSG is an ideal platform for gravity-dependent phenomena related research. Moreover, the MSG provides engineers and scientists a platform for research in an environment similar to the one that spacecraft and crew members will actually experience during space travel and exploration. The MSG facility is ideally suited to provide quick, relatively inexpensive access to space for National Lab type investigations.

  18. 76 FR 65752 - International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-0550, National Aeronautics and Space Administration... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-104)] International Space Station (ISS... National Laboratory Advisory Committee is in the public interest in connection with the performance of...

  19. Utilizing the ISS Mission as a Testbed to Develop Cognitive Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS provides an excellent opportunity for pioneering artificial intelligence software to meet the challenges of real-time communications (comm) link management. This opportunity empowers the ISS Program to forge a testbed for developing cognitive communications systems for the benefit of the ISS mission, manned Low Earth Orbit (LEO) science programs and future planetary exploration programs. In November, 1998, the Flight Operations Directorate (FOD) started the ISS Antenna Manager (IAM) project to develop a single processor supporting multiple comm satellite tracking for two different antenna systems. Further, the processor was developed to be highly adaptable as it supported the ISS mission through all assembly stages. The ISS mission mandated communications specialists with complete knowledge of when the ISS was about to lose or gain comm link service. The current specialty mandated cognizance of large sun-tracking solar arrays and thermal management panels in addition to the highly-dynamic satellite service schedules and rise/set tables. This mission requirement makes the ISS the ideal communications management analogue for future LEO space station and long-duration planetary exploration missions. Future missions, with their precision-pointed, dynamic, laser-based comm links, require complete autonomy for managing high-data rate communications systems. Development of cognitive communications management systems that permit any crew member or payload science specialist, regardless of experience level, to control communications is one of the greater benefits the ISS can offer new space exploration programs. The IAM project met a new mission requirement never previously levied against US space-born communications systems management: process and display the orientation of large solar arrays and thermal control panels based on real-time joint angle telemetry. However, IAM leaves the actual communications availability assessment to human judgement, which introduces

  20. ISS EarthKam: Taking Photos of the Earth from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Turtle

    2008-01-01

    NASA is involved in a project involving the International Space Station (ISS) and an Earth-focused camera called EarthKam, where schools, and ultimately students, are allowed to remotely program the EarthKAM to take images. Here the author describes how EarthKam was used to help middle school students learn about biomes and develop their…

  1. Validation of a self-reported HIV symptoms list: the ISS-HIV symptoms scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciardini, Raffaella; Pugliese, Katherina; Francisci, Daniela; Costantini, Andrea; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Cognigni, Miriam; Tontini, Chiara; Lucattini, Stefano; Fucili, Luca; Di Gregorio, Massimiliano; Mirra, Marco; Fragola, Vincenzo; Pompili, Sara; Murri, Rita; Vella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items). The internal consistence reliability was for all factors within the minimum accepted standard of 0.70. The results of this study provide a preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the ISS-HIV symptoms scale. In the new era where HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic diseases and patients are experiencing a complex range of symptoms, the ISS-HIV symptoms scale may represent an useful tool for a comprehensive symptom assessment with the advantage of being easy to fill out by patients and potentially attractive to physicians mainly because it is easy to understand and requires short time to interpret the results.

  2. CVB: The Constrained Vapor Bubble 40 mm Capillary Experiment on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Kundan, Akshay; Plawsky, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Discuss the Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) 40mm Fin experiment on the ISS and how it aims to achieve a better understanding of the physics of evaporation and condensation and how they affect cooling processes in microgravity using a remotely controlled microscope and a small cooling device

  3. The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) Payload Facility on the ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibaldi, Giuseppe; Nasca, Rosario; Neubert, Torsten

    ASIM is a payload facility to be mounted on a Columbus external platform on the International Space Station (ISS). ASIM will study the coupling of thunderstorm processes to the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation belts. ASIM is the most complex Earth Observation payload facility planned fo...

  4. Applying lessons learned to enhance human performance and reduce human error for ISS operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-09-01

    A major component of reliability, safety, and mission success for space missions is ensuring that the humans involved (flight crew, ground crew, mission control, etc.) perform their tasks and functions as required. This includes compliance with training and procedures during normal conditions, and successful compensation when malfunctions or unexpected conditions occur. A very significant issue that affects human performance in space flight is human error. Human errors can invalidate carefully designed equipment and procedures. If certain errors combine with equipment failures or design flaws, mission failure or loss of life can occur. The control of human error during operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be critical to the overall success of the program. As experience from Mir operations has shown, human performance plays a vital role in the success or failure of long duration space missions. The Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is developed a systematic approach to enhance human performance and reduce human errors for ISS operations. This approach is based on the systematic identification and evaluation of lessons learned from past space missions such as Mir to enhance the design and operation of ISS. This paper describes previous INEEL research on human error sponsored by NASA and how it can be applied to enhance human reliability for ISS.

  5. Atomic layer deposited ZnO:B as transparent conductive oxide for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatz, H.A.; Koushik, D.; Rath, J.K.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    A key factor to improve the performance of silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) is increasing their short circuit density (Jsc) by reducing the parasitic absorption of light in the front side of the cell. Therefore, we have investigated the replacement of the conventional sputtered ITO on the

  6. ISS External Payload Platform - a new opportunity for research in the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Christian; Pape, Uwe

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a widely accepted platform for research activities in low Earth orbit. To a wide extent these activities are conducted in the pressurised laboratories of the station and less in the outside environment. Suitable locations outside the ISS are rare, existing facilities fully booked for the coming years. To overcome this limitation, an external payload platform accessible for small size payloads on a commercial basis will be launched to the ISS and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module External Facility (JEM-EF) in the third quarter of 2014 and will be ready to be used by the scientific community on a fully commercial basis. The new External Payload Platform (EPP) and its opportunities and constraints assessed regarding future research activities on-board the ISS. The small size platform is realised in a cooperation between the companies NanoRacks, Astrium North America in the United States, and Airbus Defence and Space in Germany. The hardware allows the fully robotic installation and operation of payloads. In the nominal mission scenario payload items are installed not later than one year after the signature of the contract, stay in operation for 15 weeks, and can be returned to the scientist thereafter. Payload items are transported among the pressurised cargo usually delivered to the station with various supply vehicles. Due to the high frequency of flights and the flexibility of the vehicle manifests the risk of a delay in the payload readiness can be mitigated by delaying to the next flight opportunity which on average is available not more than two months later. The mission is extra-ordinarily fast and of low cost in comparison to traditional research conducted on-board the ISS and can fit into short-term funding cycles available on national and multi-national levels. The size of the payload items is limited by handling constraints on-board the ISS. Therefore, the standard experiment payload size is a multiple of a

  7. Lessons learned from the STS-120/ISS 10A robotics operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sarmad

    2010-01-01

    The STS-120/ISS 10A assembly mission was an unprecedented period during the life of the International Space Stations (ISS). The successful completion of the mission laid the foundation for the launch of the European and Japanese laboratories and continued assembly of the station. Unlike previous missions that concluded when the Space Shuttle undocked from the ISS, the 10A mission required critical assembly operations to continue after the Shuttle's departure to relocate the Harmony module to its permanent location and activate its systems. The end-to-end mission lasted for almost a month and required the execution of seven space walks, over 20 major robotics operations, and countless hours of ground commanding. The Canadian built mobile servicing system (MSS) and its robotics space station remote manipulator system (SSRMS) played a key a role in the success of the assembly operations. The mission presented the ISS robotics flight control team (ROBO) with unique challenges during the pre-mission planning and real-time execution of complex assembly tasks. The mission included the relocation of the P6 truss segment from the Z1 Node to its permanent location on the P5 truss; a three day marathon of highly choreographed sequence of robotics operations and space walks, and the reconfiguration of ISS structure to attach Harmony (Node 2) to the US destiny laboratory module; a six day sequence of complex robotics operations the majority of which was executed after the departure of the shuttle and included an unprecedented amount of ground commanded robotics operations. Of all the robotics operations executed during the mission, none were more challenging than supporting the repair of a torn P6 solar array that was damaged during its deployment; a dramatic space walk that pushed the MSS and the robotics flight control team to new limits and required the real-time planning and execution of an intricate series of operations that spanned two days. This paper will present an

  8. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), Space Science's Past, Present and Future Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Reggie; Spearing, Scott; Jordan, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS), which accommodates science and technology investigations in a "workbench' type environment. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. In fact, the MSG has been used for over 10,000 hours of scientific payload operations and plans to continue for the life of ISS. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume and allows researchers a controlled pristine environment for their needs. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, + 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. MSG investigations have involved research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, and plant growth technologies. Modifications to the MSG facility are currently under way to expand the capabilities and provide for investigations involving Life Science and Biological research. In addition, the MSG video system is being replaced with a state-of-the-art, digital video system with high definition/high speed capabilities, and with near real-time downlink capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, and an

  9. ``DMS-R, the Brain of the ISS'', 10 Years of Continuous Successful Operation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Bernd; Scheffers, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Space industries on both sides of the Atlantic were faced with a new situation of collaboration in the beginning of the 1990s.In 1995, industrial cooperation between ASTRIUM ST, Bremen and RSC-E, Moscow started aiming the outfitting of the Russian Service Module ZVEZDA for the ISS with computers. The requested equipments had to provide not only redundancy but fault tolerance and high availability. The design and development of two fault tolerant computers, (FTCs) responsible for the telemetry (Telemetry Computer: TC) and the central control (CC), as well as the man machine interface CPC were contracted to ASTRIUM ST, Bremen. The computer system is responsible e.g. for the life support system and the ISS re-boost control.In July 2000, the integration of the Russian Service Module ZVEZDA with Russian ZARYA FGB and American Node 1 bears witness for transatlantic and European cooperation.The Russian Service module ZVEZDA provides several basic functions as Avionics Control, the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) in the ISS and control of the docked Automatic Transfer Vehicle (ATV) which includes re-boost of ISS. If these elementary functions fail or do not work reliable the effects for the ISS will be catastrophic with respect to Safety (manned space) and ISS mission.For that reason the responsible computer system Data Management System - Russia (DMS-R) is also called "The brain of the ISS".The Russian Service module ZVEZDA, including DMS-R, was launched on 12th of July, 2000. DMS-R was operational also during launch and docking.The talk provide information about the definition, design and development of DMS-R, the integration of DMS-R in the Russian Service module and the maintenance of the system in space. Besides the technical aspects are also the German - Russian cooperation an important subject of this speech. An outlook finalises the talk providing further development activities and application of fault tolerant systems.The importance of the DMS

  10. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organization to find ways to reduce the costs of International Space station (ISS) console operations in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to identify projects that would help them attain a goal of a 30% reduction in operating costs by 2012. The MOD Operations and Planning organization responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve ISS console operations and reduce staffing and operating costs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the plan of eliminating two full time ISS console support positions by 2012. This will account for an overall 10 EP reduction in staffing for the Operations and Planning organization. These automation projects focused on utilizing software to automate many administrative and often repetitive tasks involved with processing ISS planning and daily operations information. This information was exchanged between the ground flight control teams in Houston and around the globe, as well as with the ISS astronaut crew. These tasks ranged from managing mission plan changes from around the globe, to uploading and downloading information to and from the ISS crew, to even more complex tasks that required multiple decision points to process the data, track approvals and deliver it to the correct recipient across network and security boundaries. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture between several planning tools; as well as a engaging a previously research level technology (TRL 2-3) developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent based system to manage and automate file traffic flow

  11. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Wharton, N. A.; Stewart, M. F.; Ellett, W. T.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Over two decades, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) provided global observations of tropical lightning for an impressive 17 years before that mission came to a close in April 2015. Now a space-qualified LIS, built as the flight spare for TRMM, has been installed on the International Space Station (ISS) for a minimum two year mission following its SpaceX launch on February 19, 2017. The LIS, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission, was robotically installed in an Earth-viewing position on the outside of the ISS, providing a great opportunity to not only extend the 17-year TRMM LIS record of tropical lightning measurements but also to expand that coverage to higher latitudes missed by the TRMM mission. Since its activation, LIS has continuously observed the amount, rate, and radiant energy lightning within its field-of-view as it orbits the Earth. A major focus of this mission is to better understand the processes which cause lightning, as well as the connections between lightning and subsequent severe weather events. This understanding is a key to improving weather predictions and saving lives and property here in the United States and around the world. The LIS measurements will also help cross-validate observations from the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) operating on NOAA's newest weather satellite GOES-16. An especially unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning data, especially valuable for operational forecasting and warning applications over data sparse regions such

  12. Experiences with Extra-Vehicular Activities in Response to Critical ISS Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cise, E. A.; Kelly, B. J.; Radigan, J. P.; Cranmer, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    The maturation of the International Space Station (ISS) design from the proposed Space Station Freedom to today's current implementation resulted in external hardware redundancy vulnerabilities in the final design. Failure to compensate for or respond to these vulnerabilities could put the ISS in a posture where it could no longer function as a habitable space station. In the first years of ISS assembly, these responses were to largely be addressed by the continued resupply and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities of the Space Shuttle. Even prior to the decision to retire the Space Shuttle, it was realized that ISS needed to have its own capability to be able to rapidly repair or replace external hardware without needing to wait for the next cargo resupply mission. As documented in a previous publication, in 2006 development was started to baseline Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA, or spacewalk) procedures to replace hardware components whose failure would expose some of the ISS vulnerabilities should a second failure occur. This development work laid the groundwork for the onboard crews and the ground operations and engineering teams to be ready to replace any of this failed hardware. In 2010, this development work was put to the test when one of these pieces of hardware failed. This paper will provide a brief summary of the planning and processes established in the original Contingency EVA development phase. It will then review how those plans and processes were implemented in 2010, highlighting what went well as well as where there were deficiencies between theory and reality. This paper will show that the original approach and analyses, though sound, were not as thorough as they should have been in the realm of planning for next worse failures, for documenting Programmatic approval of key assumptions, and not pursuing sufficient engineering analysis prior to the failure of the hardware. The paper will further highlight the changes made to the Contingency

  13. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Internal Corporate Controls in Coal Mines Illustrated By the Example of JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucherova Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives reasons for the need to develop the mechanism and tools of performance evaluation based on the implementation of specific management functions, as well as the integrated evaluation of the effectiveness of internal corporate controls. It presents the approbation of the proposed assessment methodology on the example of JSC “SUEK-Kuzbass”. The monitoring role as one of the functions of management is constantly increasing in the market economy. The participation of Russian companies in the international economy requires the organisation of internal company control. Moreover, with the enacting of the Law “On Accountings» № 402-FZ, for the majority of economic agents the organising of internal control became mandatory. Thus, the internal control means the process carried out by the Board of Directors and other staff of the organisation aimed at providing reasonable assurance that the objectives of the organisation such as ensuring the effectiveness and efficiency of operations, reliability of financial reporting and compliance with the legislation in force will be achieved.

  14. Assessment of business customers satisfaction with the products and service of Pnevmostroimashina, jsc, on the B2B market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kapustina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to development of a methodology for assessment of customer satisfaction with the products and services on the b2b market. The study of customer satisfaction is aimed at building strong and mutually beneficial supplier-customer relationship. The authors focus on the importance of customer satisfaction continuous monitoring intended for improvement of the company’s market performance. The research based on the works by Kano N., Lamben J.-J., Carter R., Parashuraman A., Zeitaml V. A., Berry L. L. and others, describes an algorithm study of consumers and offers a methodology to evaluate customer satisfaction with the industrial products. Based on the analysis of the economic crisis effects on the machine-building industry, the authors determine the performance of “Pnevmostroimashina”, JSC, on the road and construction equipment market and illustrate an example of practical use of the customer satisfaction assessment technique in the company. At the end of the paper some recommendations for development of an efficient customer satisfaction measurement procedure are introduced.

  15. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 with swine wastewater for simultaneous nutrient/COD removal and carbohydrate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Guo, Wanqian; Yen, Hong-Wei; Ho, Shih-Hsin; Lo, Yung-Chung; Cheng, Chieh-Lun; Ren, Nanqi; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-12-01

    Swine wastewater, containing a high concentration of COD and ammonia nitrogen, is suitable for the growth of microalgae, leading to simultaneous COD/nutrients removal from the wastewater. In this study, an isolated carbohydrate-rich microalga Chlorella vulgaris JSC-6 was adopted to perform swine wastewater treatment. Nearly 60-70% COD removal and 40-90% NH3-N removal was achieved in the mixotrophic and heterotrophic culture, depending on the dilution ratio of the wastewater, while the highest removal percentage was obtained with 20-fold diluted wastewater. Mixotrophic cultivation by using fivefold diluted wastewater resulted in the highest biomass concentration of 3.96 g/L. The carbohydrate content of the microalga grown on the wastewater can reach up to 58% (per dry weight). The results indicated that the microalgae-based wastewater treatment can efficiently reduce the nutrients and COD level, and the resulting microalgal biomass had high carbohydrate content, thereby having potential applications for the fermentative production of biofuels or chemicals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The OPALS Plan for Operations: Use of ISS Trajectory and Attitude Models in the OPALS Pointing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Oaida, Bogdan; Erkmen, Baris

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the OPALS pointing strategy, focusing on incorporation of ISS trajectory and attitude models to build pointing predictions. Methods to extrapolate an ISS prediction based on past data will be discussed and will be compared to periodically published ISS predictions and Two-Line Element (TLE) predictions. The prediction performance will also be measured against GPS states available in telemetry. The performance of the pointing products will be compared to the allocated values in the OPALS pointing budget to assess compliance with requirements.

  17. Converting the ISS to an Earth-Moon Transport System Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, John; Maise, George; Powell, James

    2008-01-01

    Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), the International Space Station (ISS) can be placed into a cyclic orbit between the Earth and the Moon for 2-way transport of personnel and supplies to a permanent Moon Base. The ISS cycler orbit apogees 470,000 km from Earth, with a period of 13.66 days. Once a month, the ISS would pass close to the Moon, enabling 2-way transport between it and the surface using a lunar shuttle craft. The lunar shuttle craft would land at a desired location on the surface during a flyby and return to the ISS during a later flyby. At Earth perigee 7 days later at 500 km altitude, there would be 2-way transport between it and Earth's surface using an Earth shuttle craft. The docking Earth shuttle would remain attached to the ISS as it traveled towards the Moon, while personnel and supplies transferred to a lunar shuttle spacecraft that would detach and land at the lunar base when the ISS swung around the Moon. The reverse process would be carried out to return personnel and materials from the Moon to the Earth. The orbital mechanics for the ISS cycle are described in detail. Based on the full-up mass of 400 metric tons for the ISS, an ISP of 900 seconds, and a delta V burn of 3.3 km/sec to establish the orbit, 200 metric tons of liquid H-2 propellant would be required. The 200 metric tons could be stored in 3 tanks, each 8 meters in diameter and 20 meters in length. An assembly of 3 MITEE NTP engines would be used, providing redundancy if an engine were to fail. Two different MITEE design options are described. Option 1 is an 18,000 Newton, 100 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 6.6/1; Option 2 is a 180,000 Newton, 1000 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 23/1. Burn times to establish the orbit are ∼1 hour for the large 3 engine assembly, and 10 hours for the small 3 engine assembly. Both engines would use W-UO2 cermet fuel at ∼2750 K which has demonstrated the capability to operate for at least 50 hours in 2750 K hydrogen

  18. Qualitative Validation of the IMM Model for ISS and STS Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, E.; Walton, M.; Reyes, D.; Boley, L.; Saile, L.; Young, M.; Arellano, J.; Garcia, Y.; Myers, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    To validate and further improve the Integrated Medical Model (IMM), medical event data were obtained from 32 ISS and 122 STS person-missions. Using the crew characteristics from these observed missions, IMM v4.0 was used to forecast medical events and medical resource utilization. The IMM medical condition incidence values were compared to the actual observed medical event incidence values, and the IMM forecasted medical resource utilization was compared to actual observed medical resource utilization. Qualitative comparisons of these parameters were conducted for both the ISS and STS programs. The results of these analyses will provide validation of IMM v4.0 and reveal areas of the model requiring adjustments to improve the overall accuracy of IMM outputs. This validation effort should result in enhanced credibility of the IMM and improved confidence in the use of IMM as a decision support tool for human space flight.

  19. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) for the International Space Station (ISS): Mission Description and Science Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T.; hide

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners have developed and demonstrated space-based lightning observations as an effective remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) continues to acquire global observations of total (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground) lightning after 17 years on-orbit. However, TRMM is now low on fuel, so this mission will soon be completed. As a follow on to this mission, a space-qualified LIS built as the flight spare for TRMM has been selected for flight as a science mission on the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS LIS will be flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program (STP) H5 mission, which has a January 2016 baseline launch date aboard a SpaceX launch vehicle for a 2-4 year or longer mission. The LIS measures the amount, rate, and radiant energy of total lightning over the Earth. More specifically, it measures lightning during both day and night, with storm scale resolution (approx. 4 km), millisecond timing, and high, uniform detection efficiency, without any land-ocean bias. Lightning is a direct and most impressive response to intense atmospheric convection. It has been found that lightning measured by LIS can be quantitatively related to thunderstorm and other geophysical processes. Therefore, the ISS LIS lightning observations will continue to provide important gap-filling inputs to pressing Earth system science issues across a broad range of disciplines, including weather, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and lightning physics. A unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning data, especially valuable for operational applications over data sparse regions such as the oceans. The ISS platform will also uniquely enable LIS to provide simultaneous and complementary observations

  20. High energy radiation fluences in the ISS-USLab: Ion discrimination and particle abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaconte, Veronica; Casolino, Marco; Di Fino, Luca; La Tessa, Chiara; Larosa, Marianna; Narici, Livio; Picozza, Piergiorgio

    2010-01-01

    The ALTEA (Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts) detector was used to characterize the radiation environment inside the USLab of the International Space Station (ISS), where it measured the abundances of ions from Be to Fe. We compare the ALTEA results with Alteino results obtained in the PIRS module of the Russian segment of the ISS, and normalize to the high energy Si abundances given by Simpson. These are the first particle spectral measurements, which include ions up to Fe, performed in the USLab. The small differences observed between those made inside the USLab and the Simpson abundances can be attributed to the transport through the spacecraft hull. However, the low abundance of Fe cannot be attributed to only this process.

  1. STS-110/Atlantic/ISS 8A Pre-Launch On Orbit-Landing-Crew Egress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The crew of STS-110, which consists of Commander Michael Bloomfield, Pilot Stephen Frick, and Mission Specialists Rex Walheim, Ellen Ochoa, Lee Morin, Jerry Ross, and Steven Smith is introduced at the customary pre-flight meal. The narrator provides background information on the astronauts during suit-up. Each crew member is shown in the White Room before boarding Space Shuttle Atlantis, and some display signs to loved ones. Launch footage includes the following replays: Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad B, Tower 1, DLTR-3, Grandstand, Cocoa Beach DOAMS, Playalinda DOAMS, UCS-23, SLF Convoy, OTV-154, OTV-163, OTV-170 (mislabeled), and OTV-171 (mislabeled). After the launch, NASA administrator Sean O'Keefe gives a speech to the Launch Control Center, with political dignitaries present. While on-orbit, Atlantis docks with the International Space Station (ISS), and Canadarm 2 on the ISS lifts the S0 Truss out of the orbiter's payload bay. The video includes highlights of three extravehicular activities (EVAs). In the first, the S0 Truss is fastened to the Destiny Laboratory Module on the ISS. During the third EVA, Walheim and Smith assist in the checkout of the handcart on the S0 Truss. The Atlantis crew is shown gathered together with the Expedition 4 crew of the ISS, and again by itself after undocking. Replays of the landing include: VAB, Tower 1, Mid-field, Runway South End, Runway North End, Tower 2, Playalinda DOAMS, Cocoa Beach DOAMS, and Pilot Point of View (PPOV). After landing, Commander Bloomfield lets each of his crew members give a short speech.

  2. ISS Contingency Attitude Control Recovery Method for Loss of Automatic Thruster Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Bhatt, Sagar; Alaniz, Abran; McCants, Edward; Nguyen, Louis; Chamitoff, Greg

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the attitude control issues associated with International Space Station (ISS) loss of automatic thruster control capability are discussed and methods for attitude control recovery are presented. This scenario was experienced recently during Shuttle mission STS-117 and ISS Stage 13A in June 2007 when the Russian GN&C computers, which command the ISS thrusters, failed. Without automatic propulsive attitude control, the ISS would not be able to regain attitude control after the Orbiter undocked. The core issues associated with recovering long-term attitude control using CMGs are described as well as the systems engineering analysis to identify recovery options. It is shown that the recovery method can be separated into a procedure for rate damping to a safe harbor gravity gradient stable orientation and a capability to maneuver the vehicle to the necessary initial conditions for long term attitude hold. A manual control option using Soyuz and Progress vehicle thrusters is investigated for rate damping and maneuvers. The issues with implementing such an option are presented and the key issue of closed-loop stability is addressed. A new non-propulsive alternative to thruster control, Zero Propellant Maneuver (ZPM) attitude control method is introduced and its rate damping and maneuver performance evaluated. It is shown that ZPM can meet the tight attitude and rate error tolerances needed for long term attitude control. A combination of manual thruster rate damping to a safe harbor attitude followed by a ZPM to Stage long term attitude control orientation was selected by the Anomaly Resolution Team as the alternate attitude control method for such a contingency.

  3. Lightning Observations from the International Space Station (ISS) for Science Research and Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T.; hide

    2015-01-01

    There exist several core science applications of LIS lightning observations, that range from weather and climate to atmospheric chemistry and lightning physics due to strong quantitative connections that can be made between lightning and other geophysical processes of interest. The space-base vantage point, such as provided by ISS LIS, still remains an ideal location to obtain total lightning observations on a global basis.

  4. Ionospheric Remote Sensing using GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometry aboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzien, S. A.; Powell, S. P.; O'Hanlon, B.; Humphreys, T.; Bishop, R. L.; Stephan, A. W.; Gross, J.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2017-12-01

    The GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometer Co-located (GROUP-C) experiment launched to the International Space Station (ISS) on February 19, 2017 as part of the Space Test Program Houston #5 payload (STP-H5). After early orbit testing, GROUP-C began routine science operations in late April. GROUP-C includes a high-sensitivity far-ultraviolet photometer measuring horizontal nighttime ionospheric gradients and an advanced software-defined GPS receiver providing ionospheric electron density profiles, scintillation measurements, and lower atmosphere profiles. GROUP-C and a companion experiment, the Limb-Imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-Ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES), offer a unique capability to study spatial and temporal variability of the thermosphere and ionosphere using multi-sensor approaches, including ionospheric tomography. Data are collected continuously across low- and mid-latitudes as the ISS orbit precesses through all local times every 60 days. The GROUP-C GPS sensor routinely collects dual-frequency GPS occultations, makes targeted raw signal captures of GPS and Galileo occultations, and includes multiple antennas to characterize multipath in the ISS environment. The UV photometer measures the 135.6 nm ionospheric recombination airglow emision along the nightside orbital track. We present the first analysis of ionospheric observations, discuss the challenges and opportunities of remote sensing from the ISS platform, and explore how these new data help address questions regarding the complex and dynamic features of the low and middle latitude ionosphere-thermosphere relevant to the upcoming GOLD and ICON missions.

  5. Ionizing radiation effects on ISS ePTFE jacketed cable assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, S. L.; Golden, J. L.; Lorenz, M. J.; Pedley, M. D.

    2003-09-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), which is susceptible to embrittlement by ionizing radiation, is used as a primary material in the Mobile Transporter's (MT) Trailing Umbilical System (TUS) cable on the International Space Station (ISS). The TUS cable provides power and data service between the ISS truss and the MT. The TUS cable is normally stowed in an uptake reel and is fed out to follow the MT as it moves along rails on the ISS truss structure. For reliable electrical and mechanical performance, TUS cable polymeric materials must be capable of >3.5% elongation without cracking or breaking. The MT TUS cable operating temperature on ISS is expected to range between -100°C and +130°C. The on-orbit functional life requirement for the MT TUS cable is 10 years. Analysis and testing were performed to verify that the MT TUS cable would be able to meet full-life mechanical and electrical performance requirements, despite progressive embrittlement by the natural ionizing radiation environment. Energetic radiation belt electrons (trapped electrons) are the principal contributor to TUS cable radiation dose. TUS cable specimens were irradiated, in vacuum, with both energetic electrons and gamma rays. Electron beam energy was chosen to minimize charging effects on the non-conductive ePTFE (expanded PTFE) targets. Tensile testing was then performed, over the expected range of operating temperatures, as a function of radiation dose. When compared to the expected in-flight radiation dose/depth profile, atomic oxygen (AO) erosion of the radiation damaged TUS cable jacket surfaces is more rapid than the development of radiation induced embrittlement of the same surfaces. Additionally, the layered construction of the jacket prevents crack growth propagation, leaving the inner layer material compliant with the design elongation requirements. As a result, the TUS cable insulation design was verified to meet performance life requirements.

  6. Cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation in peripheral lymphocytes of ISS crew members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra; Obe, Günter; Horstmann, Markus

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). The effect of the increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required.The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second sample was drawn within 3 days after return from their flights. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Metaphases were Giemsa stained or hybridised using multicolour FISH probes. All types of chromosome changes were scored in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to cosmic radiation exposure. Overall significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed in long-term crew members. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short-term stays on-board the ISS.

  7. Noored režissöörid esitlevad uusi filme / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Kino Suvepäevade raames esilinastuvad 3. juunil TPÜ filmi ja video õppetooli mängufilmi režissööride II kursuse kursusetööd-lühimängufilmid : "2.68" (Tanel Toom), "Teispool vihma" (Margus Paju), "Sünnipäev" (Kaupo Kruusiauk) ja "Liivakellade parandaja" (Anu Aun). Kursuse juhendaja on Jüri Sillart

  8. The Crew Earth Observations Experiment: Earth System Science from the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Wilkinson, M. Justin

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Astronaut Photography (AP) as taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in Earth System Science (ESS). Included are slides showing basic remote sensing theory, data characteristics of astronaut photography, astronaut training and operations, crew Earth observations group, targeting sites and acquisition, cataloging and database, analysis and applications for ESS, image analysis of particular interest urban areas, megafans, deltas, coral reefs. There are examples of the photographs and the analysis.

  9. Preparation and Launch of the JEM ISS Elements - A NASA Mission Manager's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The pre-flight launch site preparations and launch of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) elements of the International Space Station required an intense multi-year, international collaborative effort between US and Japanese personnel at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). This presentation will provide a brief overview of KSC, a brief overview of the ISS, and a summary of authors experience managing the NASA team responsible that supported and conducted the JEM element operations.

  10. Design and Delivery of a Filter for Removal of Siloxanes from the ISS Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Perry, Jay; Agui, Juan; Green, Robert; Gentry, Gregory; Bowman, Elizabeth; Wilson, Mark; Rector, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) has been identified as a problematic chemical contaminant aboard ISS. This contaminant was initially identified in the ISS condensate and in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) product water in 2010 when an increasing total organic carbon (TOC) trend was detected in the water produced by the WPA. DMSD is not a crew health hazard at the levels observed in the product water, but it may degrade the performance of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) which uses product produced by the WPA for electrolysis. In addition, DMSD can prevent the effective operation of the WPA catalytic reactor, and necessitates early replacement of Multifiltration Beds in the WPA. An investigation into the source of DMSD has determined that polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMSs) are hydrolyzing in the Condensing Heat Exchanger (CHX) to form DMSD. PDMSs are prevalent aboard ISS from a variety of sources, including crew hygiene products, adhesives, caulks, lubricants, and various nonmetallics. TPDMSs are also implicated in CHX hydrophilic coating degradation, rendering it hydrophobic and adversely affecting its ability to effectively transmit water to the condensate bus. Eventually this loss in performance results in water droplets in the air flow out of the CHX core, which can lead to microbial growth in the air ducts and can impact the performance of downstream systems. Design concepts have now been developed for removing PDMS in the air stream before it can reach the CHX core, thus preventing degradation of the coating and decomposition of the PDMS to DMSD. This paper summarizes the current status of the effort to deliver filters to ISS for removing PDMSs from the atmosphere before they can adversely impact the performance of the CHX coating and the WPA.

  11. BEOS-A new approach to promote and organize industrial ISS utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttmann, Helmut; Buchholz, Henning; Bratke, Burkhard; Hueser, Detlev; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2000-01-01

    In order to develop and to market innovative services and products for the operation of the ISS and its utilization, three players have teamed up together and established an entity called BEOS (Bremen Engineering Operations Science). The team is made up of DaimlerChrysler Aerospace, OHB-System and ZARM, the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity at the University of Bremen. It is the aim of BEOS to represent a competent industrial interface to potential ISS users from the space and non-space industries. In this effort BEOS is supporting and supplementing the activities of the space agencies, especially in the field of industrial and/or commercial ISS utilization. With this approach BEOS is creating new business opportunities not only for its team members but also for its customers from industry. Besides the fostering of industrial research in space, nontechnical fields of space utilization like entertainment, advertisement, education and space travel represent further key sectors for the marketing efforts of BEOS. .

  12. Improving the Geolocation Algorithm for Sensors Onboard the ISS: Effect of Drift Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyong Dou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The drift angle caused by the Earth’s self-rotation may introduce rotational displacement artifact on the geolocation results of imagery acquired by an Earth observing sensor onboard the International Space Station (ISS. If uncorrected, it would cause a gradual degradation of positional accuracy from the center towards the edges of an image. One correction method to account for the drift angle effect was developed. The drift angle was calculated from the ISS state vectors and positional information of the ground nadir point of the imagery. Tests with images acquired by the International Space Station Agriculture Camera (ISSAC using Google EarthTM as a reference indicated that applying the drift angle correction can reduce the residual geolocation error for the corner points of the ISSAC images from over 1000 to less than 500 m. The improved geolocation accuracy is well within the inherent geolocation uncertainty of up to 800 m, mainly due to imprecise knowledge of the ISS attitude and state parameters required to perform the geolocation algorithm.

  13. NASA's Plans for Materials Science on ISS: Cooperative Utilization of the MSRR-MSL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis; Szofran, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The ISS Research Project draws Life (non-human) and Physical Sciences investigations on the ISS, free flyer and ground-based into one coordinated project. The project has two categories: I. Exploration Research Program: a) Utilizes the ISS as a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) test bed for technology development, demonstration and problem resolution in the areas of life support, fire safety, power, propulsion, thermal management, materials technology, habitat design, etc.; b) Will include endorsement letters from other ETDP projects to show relevancy. II. Non-Exploration Research Program; a) Not directly related to supporting the human exploration program. Research conducted in the life (non-human) and physical sciences; b) The program will sustain, to the maximum extent practicable, the United States scientific expertise and research capability in fundamental microgravity research. Physical Sciences has about 44 grants, and Life Sciences has approximately 32 grants, mostly with universities, to conduct low TRL research; this includes grants to be awarded from the 2008 Fluid Physics and Life Science NRA's.

  14. A ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Network for Continuous Sound and Noise Level Monitoring on the ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Space Station (ISS) needs to keep quiet to maintain a healthy and habitable environment in which crewmembers can perform long-term and...

  15. A ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Network for Continuous Sound and Noise Level Monitoring on the ISS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acoustic survey is now performed using hand-held devices once every two months on the international space station (ISS). It takes quite a lot of precious crew time...

  16. Fundamental Space Biology-1: HHR and Incubator for ISS Space Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirven-Brooks, M.; Fahlen, T.; Sato, K.; Reiss-Bubenheim, D.

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is developing an Incubator and a Habitat Holding Rack (HHR) to support life science experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The HHR provides for cooling and power needs, and supports data transfer (including telemetry, commanding, video processing, Ethernet), video compression, and data and command storage). The Incubator is a habitat that provides for controlled temperature between +4 C and +45 C and air circulation. It has a set of connector ports for power, analog and digital sensors, and video pass-through to support experiment-unique hardware within the Incubator specimen chamber. The Incubator exchanges air with the ISS cabin. The Fundamental Space Biology-1 (FSB-1) Project will be delivering, the HHR and two Incubators to ISS. The two inaugural experiments to be conducted on ISS using this hardware will investigate the biological effects of the space environment on two model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae; yeast) and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans; nematode). The {M}odel {Y}east {C}ultures {o}n {S}tation (MYCOS) experiment will support examination of the effect of microgravity and cosmic radiation on yeast biology. In the second series of experiments during the same increment, the effects of microgravity and space environment radiation on C. elegans will be examined. The {F}undamental Space Biology {I}ncubator {E}xperiment {R}esearch using {C}. {e}legans (FIERCE) study is designed to support a long duration, multi-generational study of nematodes. FIERCE on-orbit science operations will include video monitoring, sub-culturing and periodic fixation and freezing of samples. For both experiments, investigators will be solicited via an International Space Life Sciences Research Announcement. In the near future, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module will be delivered to ISS, which will house the SSBRP 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor. The Incubator can be placed onto the Centrifuge

  17. SOLAR-ISS: A new reference spectrum based on SOLAR/SOLSPEC observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, M.; Damé, L.; Bolsée, D.; Hauchecorne, A.; Pereira, N.; Sluse, D.; Cessateur, G.; Irbah, A.; Bureau, J.; Weber, M.; Bramstedt, K.; Hilbig, T.; Thiéblemont, R.; Marchand, M.; Lefèvre, F.; Sarkissian, A.; Bekki, S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Since April 5, 2008 and up to February 15, 2017, the SOLar SPECtrometer (SOLSPEC) instrument of the SOLAR payload on board the International Space Station (ISS) has performed accurate measurements of solar spectral irradiance (SSI) from the middle ultraviolet to the infrared (165 to 3088 nm). These measurements are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and the impact of solar variability on climate. In particular, a new reference solar spectrum (SOLAR-ISS) is established in April 2008 during the solar minima of cycles 23-24 thanks to revised engineering corrections, improved calibrations, and advanced procedures to account for thermal and aging corrections of the SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrument. Aims: The main objective of this article is to present a new high-resolution solar spectrum with a mean absolute uncertainty of 1.26% at 1σ from 165 to 3000 nm. This solar spectrum is based on solar observations of the SOLAR/SOLSPEC space-based instrument. Methods: The SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrument consists of three separate double monochromators that use concave holographic gratings to cover the middle ultraviolet (UV), visible (VIS), and infrared (IR) domains. Our best ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectra are merged into a single absolute solar spectrum covering the 165-3000 nm domain. The resulting solar spectrum has a spectral resolution varying between 0.6 and 9.5 nm in the 165-3000 nm wavelength range. We build a new solar reference spectrum (SOLAR-ISS) by constraining existing high-resolution spectra to SOLAR/SOLSPEC observed spectrum. For that purpose, we account for the difference of resolution between the two spectra using the SOLAR/SOLSPEC instrumental slit functions. Results: Using SOLAR/SOLSPEC data, a new solar spectrum covering the 165-3000 nm wavelength range is built and is representative of the 2008 solar minimum. It has a resolution better than 0.1 nm below 1000 nm and 1 nm in the 1000-3000 nm wavelength range. The new

  18. Leadership Challenges in ISS Operations: Lessons Learned from Junior and Senior Mission Control Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, James L.; Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Saylor, Stephanie A.; Kanas, Nick

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is operated by a multi-national, multi-organizational team that is dispersed across multiple locations, time zones, and work schedules. At NASA, both junior and senior mission control personnel have had to find ways to address the leadership challenges inherent in such work, but neither have had systematic training in how to do so. The goals of this study were to examine the major leadership challenges faced by ISS mission control personnel and to highlight the approaches that they have found most effective to surmount them. We pay particular attention to the approaches successfully employed by the senior personnel and to the training needs identified by the junior personnel. We also evaluate the extent to which responses are consistent across the junior and senior samples. Further, we compare the issues identified by our interview survey to those identified by a standardized questionnaire survey of mission control personnel and a contrasting group of space station crewmembers. We studied a sample of 14 senior ISS flight controllers and a contrasting sample of 12 more junior ISS controllers. Data were collected using a semi-structured qualitative interview and content analyzed using an iterative process with multiple coders and consensus meetings to resolve discrepancies. To further explore the meaning of the interview findings, we also conducted new analyses of data from a previous questionnaire study of 13 American astronauts, 17 Russian cosmonauts, and 150 U.S. and 36 Russian mission control personnel supporting the ISS or Mir space stations. The interview data showed that the survey respondents had substantial consensus on several leadership challenges and on key strategies for dealing with them, and they offered a wide range of specific tactics for implementing these strategies. Interview data from the junior respondents will be presented for the first time at the meeting. The questionnaire data showed that the US mission

  19. ISS Assessment of the Influence of Nonpore Surface in the XPS Analysis of Oil-Producing Reservoir Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon; Toledo; Araujo

    1997-08-15

    The application of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to oil-producing reservoir rocks is new and has shown that pore surface concentrations can be related to rock wettability. In the preparation of fresh fractures of rocks, however, some nonpore surface corresponding to the connection regions in the rocks is created and exposed to XPS. To assess the potential influence of this nonpore surface in the XPS analysis of rocks here we use ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), which has a resolution comparable to the size of the pores, higher than that of XPS, with an ion gun of He+ at maximum focus. Sample charging effects are partially eliminated with a flood gun of low energy electrons. All the ISS signals are identified by means of a formula which corrects any residual charging on the samples. Three rock samples are analyzed by XPS and ISS. The almost unchanged ISS spectra obtained at different points of a given sample suggest that the nonpore surface created in the fracture process is negligibly small, indicating that XPS data, from a larger surface spot, represents the composition of true pore surfaces. The significant changes observed in ISS spectra from different samples indicate that ISS is sample specific. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  20. Gene expression variations during Drosophila metamorphosis in space: The GENE experiment in the Spanish cervantes missions to the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Raul; Benguria, Alberto; Medina, Javier; Gasset, Gilbert; van Loon, Jack J.; Zaballos, Angel; Marco, Roberto

    2005-08-01

    The ISS expedition 8, a Soyuz Mission, flew to the International Space Station (ISS) to replace the two- member ISS crew during October 2003. During this crew exchanging flight, the Spanish Cervantes Scientific Mission took place. In it some biological experiments were performed among them three proposed by our Team. The third member of the expedition, the Spanish born ESA astronaut Pedro Duque, returned within the Soyuz 7 capsule carrying the experiment containing transport box after almost 11 days in microgravity. In one of the three experiments, the GENE experiment, we intended to determine how microgravity affects the gene expression pattern of Drosophila with one of the current more powerful technologies , a complete Drosophila melanogaster genome microarray (AffymetrixTM, version 1.0). Due to the constrains in the current ISS experiments, we decided to limit our experiment to the organism rebuilding processes that occurs during Drosophila metamorphosis. In addition to the ISS samples, several control experiments have been performed including a 1g Ground control parallel to the ISS flight samples, a Random Position Machine microgravity simulated control and a parallel Hypergravity (10g) experiment. Extracted RNA from the samples was used to test the differences in gene expression during Drosophila development. A preliminary analysis of the results indicates that around five hundred genes change their expression profiles, many of them belonging to particular ontology classification groups.

  1. Using the ISS as a testbed to prepare for the next generation of space-based telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postman, Marc; Sparks, William B.; Liu, Fengchuan; Ess, Kim; Green, Joseph; Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Thronson, Harley; Goullioud, Renaud

    2012-09-01

    The infrastructure available on the ISS provides a unique opportunity to develop the technologies necessary to assemble large space telescopes. Assembling telescopes in space is a game-changing approach to space astronomy. Using the ISS as a testbed enables a concentration of resources on reducing the technical risks associated with integrating the technologies, such as laser metrology and wavefront sensing and control (WFS&C), with the robotic assembly of major components including very light-weight primary and secondary mirrors and the alignment of the optical elements to a diffraction-limited optical system in space. The capability to assemble the optical system and remove and replace components via the existing ISS robotic systems such as the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), or by the ISS Flight Crew, allows for future experimentation as well as repair if necessary. In 2015, first light will be obtained by the Optical Testbed and Integration on ISS eXperiment (OpTIIX), a small 1.5-meter optical telescope assembled on the ISS. The primary objectives of OpTIIX include demonstrating telescope assembly technologies and end-to-end optical system technologies that will advance future large optical telescopes.

  2. CIB: An Improved Communication Architecture for Real-Time Monitoring of Aerospace Materials, Instruments, and Sensors on the ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Krasowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Communications Interface Board (CIB is an improved communications architecture that was demonstrated on the International Space Station (ISS. ISS communication interfaces allowing for real-time telemetry and health monitoring require a significant amount of development. The CIB simplifies the communications interface to the ISS for real-time health monitoring, telemetry, and control of resident sensors or experiments. With a simpler interface available to the telemetry bus, more sensors or experiments may be flown. The CIB accomplishes this by acting as a bridge between the ISS MIL-STD-1553 low-rate telemetry (LRT bus and the sensors allowing for two-way command and telemetry data transfer. The CIB was designed to be highly reliable and radiation hard for an extended flight in low Earth orbit (LEO and has been proven with over 40 months of flight operation on the outside of ISS supporting two sets of flight experiments. Since the CIB is currently operating in flight on the ISS, recent results of operations will be provided. Additionally, as a vehicle health monitoring enabling technology, an overview and results from two experiments enabled by the CIB will be provided. Future applications for vehicle health monitoring utilizing the CIB architecture will also be discussed.

  3. Space Radiation Peculiarities in the Extra Vehicular Environment of the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, Tsvetan; Bankov, Nikolay; Tomov, Borislav; Matviichuk, Yury; Dimitrov, Plamen

    2013-12-01

    The space weather and the connected with it ionizing radiation were recognized as a one of the main health concern to the International Space Station (ISS) crew. Estimation the effects of radiation on humans in ISS requires at first order accurate knowledge of the accumulated by them absorbed dose rates, which depend of the global space radiation distribution and the local variations generated by the 3D surrounding shielding distribution. The R3DE (Radiation Risks Radiometer-Dosimeter (R3D) for the EXPOSE-E platform on the European Technological Exposure Facility (EuTEF) worked successfully outside of the European Columbus module between February 2008 and September 2009. Very similar instrument named R3DR for the EXPOSE-R platform worked outside Russian Zvezda module of ISS between March 2009 and August 2010. Both are Liulin type, Bulgarian build miniature spectrometers-dosimeters. They accumulated about 5 million measurements of the flux and absorbed dose rate with 10 seconds resolution behind less than 0.41 g cm-2 shielding, which is very similar to the Russian and American space suits [1-3] average shielding. That is why all obtained data can be interpreted as possible doses during Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) of the cosmonauts and astronauts. The paper first analyses the obtained long-term results in the different radiation environments of: Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), inner radiation belt trapped protons in the region of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and outer radiation belt (ORB) relativistic electrons. The large data base was used for development of an empirical model for calculation of the absorbed dose rates in the extra vehicular environment of ISS at 359 km altitude. The model approximate the averaged in a grid empirical dose rate values to predict the values at required from the user geographical point, station orbit or area in geographic coordinate system. Further in the paper it is presented an intercomparison between predicted by the model dose

  4. Cloning, expression and sequence diversity of iss gene from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC isolated in Brazil / Clonagem, expressão e diversidade na seqüência do gene iss de Escherichia coli patogênica para aves (APEC, isolada no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Carlos Vidotto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A proteína Iss (increased serum survival é uma importante característica de resistência ao sistema complemento da Escherichia coli patogênica para aves (APEC. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram clonar e verificar a diversidade da seqüência do gene iss de APEC e caracterizar a proteína Iss recombinante. O gene iss de 309 bp foi amplificado por PCR, clonado e expresso na E. coli BL21 (DE3 utilizando o vetor pET SUMO. O gene iss da APEC9 foi classificado como iss tipo 1 pela diferenciação entre 3 tipos de iss alelos. A proteína Iss foi expressa pela indução com IPTG, purificada em coluna com resina ligada ao íon níquel e utilizada na imunização de galinhas poedeiras. Anticorpos da classe IgY anti rIss reagiram com a proteina rIss, a qual apresentou massa molecular de 22 kDa, correspondendo 11kDa da Iss e 11 kDa da proteína SUMO. The Iss (Increased serum survival protein is an important characteristic of resistance to complement system of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC. The objectives of this work were to cloning and verify the sequence diversity of iss gene from APEC and characterize the recombinant Iss protein. The iss gene of 309 bp was amplified by PCR, cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 using the pET SUMO vector. The iss gene from APEC9 strain was classified as iss type 1 by differentiation of the three iss gene allele types. The protein was expressed by induction of IPTG and purified in resin charged with the nickel ion. Antibodies IgY anti rIss reacted with rIss showing a molecular mass of 22 kDa, corresponding 11KDa of Iss protein and 11 KDa SUMO protein.

  5. Dominant lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster natural populations flown on board ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    The resistance to mutagenic impacts represents an important issue of manned space missions. However the reasons of its individual variability as well as the factors which could induce mutations in space flight are not fully understood. Drosophila studies accomplished by several research teams at real space flights, revealed pronounced increase of mutations in somatic and reproductive cells, nonetheless, quite an opposite spaceflight effects also occurred, i.e., mei-41 laboratory strain showed postflight mutation rates lower than that in ground control. In order to monitor the influence of space flight on the mutational process, 4 series of space experiment with D. melanogaster wild type populations were performed at International Space Station (ISS). The appliance “Drosophila-2” used for breeding of drosophila in spaceflight conditions, enabled to conduct synchronous studies with two samples of fly populations. First instar drosophila larvae were placed into the experimental appliance 12 hours before the start of transport spacecraft. The duration of experiments was 7.9 through 19.7 days. In 19.7-day experiment, two generations of the flies were raised during the space flight, and then delivered to the earth. The frequency of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) was evaluated as the percentage of embryonic death in the progeny of experimental drosophila samples. DLM tests in VV-09 and Chas-09 natural populations, performed after the exposure to 10.9-day flight, showed the increase of DLM rate in Chas-09 (0.077 in flight series vs. 0.43 in earth-based control) while post-flight DLM value in VV-09 did not diverge from on-earth sample (0.025 and 0.027 correspondingly). The same results for VV-09 were obtained after the 14.7-day and 7.9-day flights with the only exception: 7.9-day flight experiment employed DLM measurements in two VV-09 spaceflight samples, differing by the age of the flies, and the above DLM rates were detected in “younger” VV-09 sample only. DLM

  6. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.

    2011-09-27

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Cascade Organic Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Schlenker, Cody W.; Barlier, Vincent S.; Chin, Stephanie W.; Whited, Matthew T.; McAnally, R. Eric; Forrest, Stephen R.; Thompson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate planar organic solar cells consisting of a series of complementary donor materials with cascading exciton energies, incorporated in the following structure: glass/indium-tin-oxide/donor cascade/C 60/bathocuproine/Al. Using a tetracene layer grown in a descending energy cascade on 5,6-diphenyl-tetracene and capped with 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyl- tetracene, where the accessibility of the π-system in each material is expected to influence the rate of parasitic carrier leakage and charge recombination at the donor/acceptor interface, we observe an increase in open circuit voltage (Voc) of approximately 40% (corresponding to a change of +200 mV) compared to that of a single tetracene donor. Little change is observed in other parameters such as fill factor and short circuit current density (FF = 0.50 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.55 ± 0.23 mA/cm2) compared to those of the control tetracene-C60 solar cells (FF = 0.54 ± 0.02 and Jsc = 2.86 ± 0.23 mA/cm2). We demonstrate that this cascade architecture is effective in reducing losses due to polaron pair recombination at donor-acceptor interfaces, while enhancing spectral coverage, resulting in a substantial increase in the power conversion efficiency for cascade organic photovoltaic cells compared to tetracene and pentacene based devices with a single donor layer. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Positioning Space Solar Power (SSP) as the Next Logical Step after the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charania, A.

    2002-01-01

    At the end of the first decade of the 21st century, the International Space Station (ISS) will stand as a testament of the engineering capabilities of the international community. The choices for the next logical step for this community remain vast and conflicting: a Mars mission, moon colonization, Space Solar Power (SSP), etc. This examination focuses on positioning SSP as one such candidate for consideration. A marketing roadmap is presented that reveals the potential benefits of SSP to both the space community and the global populace at large. Recognizing that scientific efficiency itself has no constituency large enough to persuade entities to outlay funds for such projects, a holistic approach is taken to positioning SSP. This includes the scientific, engineering, exploratory, economic, political, and development capabilities of the system. SSP can be seen as both space exploration related and a resource project for undeveloped nations. Coupling these two non-traditional areas yields a broader constituency for the project that each one alone could generate. Space exploration is many times seen as irrelevant to the condition of the populace of the planet from which the money comes for such projects. When in this new century, billions of people on the planet still have never made a phone call or even have access to clean water, the origins of this skepticism can be understandable. An area of concern is the problem of not living up to the claims of overeager program marketers. Just as the ISS may never live up to the claims of its advocates in terms of space research, any SSP program must be careful in not promising utopian global solutions to any future energy starved world. Technically, SSP is a very difficult problem, even harder than creating the ISS, yet the promise it can hold for both space exploration and Earth development can lead to a renaissance of the relevance of space to the lives of the citizens of the world.

  9. Evolution of International Space Station GN&C System Across ISS Assembly Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roscoe; Frank, K. D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) system for the International Space Station is initially implemented by the Functional Cargo Block (FGB) which was built by the Khrunichev Space Center under direct contract to Boeing. This element (Stage 1A/R) was launched on 20 November 1998 and is currently operating on-orbit. The components and capabilities of the FGB Motion Control System (MCS) are described. The next ISS element, which has GN&C functionality will be the Service Module (SM) built by Rocket Space Corporation-Energia. This module is scheduled for launch (Stage 1R) in early 2000. Following activation of the SM GN&C system, the FGB MCS is deactivated and no longer used. The components and capabilities of the SM GN&C system are described. When a Progress vehicle is attached to the ISS it can be used for reboost operations, based on commands provided by the Mission Control Center-Moscow. When a data connection is implemented between the SM and the Progress, the SM can command the Progress thrusters for attitude control and reboosts. On Stage 5A, the U.S. GN&C system will become activated when the U.S. Laboratory is de loyed and installed (launch schedule is currently TBD). The U.S. GN&C system provides non-propulsive control capabilities to support micro-gravity operations and minimize the use of propellant for attitude control, and an independent capability for determining the ISS state vector, attitude, attitude rate. and time.. The components and capabilities of the U.S. GN&C system are described and the interactions between the U.S. and Russian Segment GN&C systems are also described.

  10. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) on the International Space Station (ISS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Gasbarre, Joseph; Eckman, Richard; Topiwala, Nandkishore; Rodriquez-Alvarez, Otilia; Cheek, Dianne; Hall, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will provide the science community with high-vertical resolution and nearly global observations of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gas species in the stratosphere and upper-troposphere. SAGE III/ISS measurements will extend the long-term Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) and SAGE data record begun in the 1970s. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are considered the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Key objectives of the mission are to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to re-establish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The space station mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. The SAGE III instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring atmospheric constituents with high vertical resolution. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm. Science data is collected in solar occultation mode, lunar occultation mode, and limb scatter measurement mode. A SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle will provide access to space. Mounted in the unpressurized section of the Dragon trunk, SAGE III will be robotically removed from the Dragon and installed on the space station. SAGE III/ISS will be mounted to the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier-4 (ELC-4) location on the starboard side of the station. To facilitate a nadir view from this location, a Nadir Viewing Platform (NVP) payload was developed which mounts between the carrier and the SAGE III Instrument Payload (IP).

  11. Results of a Long-Term Demonstration of an Optical Multi-Gas Monitor on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Previously at SAMAP we reported on the development of tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) based instruments for measuring small gas molecules in real time. TDLS technology has matured rapidly over the last 5 years as a result of advances in low power diode lasers as well as better detection schemes. In collaboration with two small businesses Vista Photonics, Inc. and Nanoracks LLC, NASA developed a 4 gas TDLS based monitor for an experimental demonstration of the technology on the International Space Station (ISS). Vista invented and constructed the core TDLS sensor. Nanoracks designed and built the enclosure, and certified the integrated monitor as a payload. The device, which measures oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor, is called the Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM). MGM measures the 4 gases every few seconds and records a 30 second moving average of the concentrations. The relatively small unit draws only 2.5W. MGM was calibrated at NASA-Johnson Space Center in July 2013 and launched to ISS on a Soyuz vehicle in November 2013. Installation and activation of MGM occurred in February 2014, and the unit has been operating nearly continuously ever since in the Japanese Experiment Module. Data is downlinked from ISS about once per week. Oxygen and carbon dioxide data is compared with that from the central Major Constituents Analyzer. Water vapor data is compared with dew point measurements made by sensors in the Columbus module. The ammonia channel was tested by the crew using a commercial ammonia inhalant. MGM is remarkably stable to date. Results of 18 months of operation are presented and future applications including combustion product monitoring are discussed.

  12. Diagnostic instrumentation aboard ISS: just-in-time training for non-physician crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foale, C. Michael; Kaleri, Alexander Y.; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Melton, Shannon; Martin, David; Dulchavsky, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The performance of complex tasks on the International Space Station (ISS) requires significant preflight crew training commitments and frequent skill and knowledge refreshment. This report documents a recently developed "just-in-time" training methodology, which integrates preflight hardware familiarization and procedure training with an on-orbit CD-ROM-based skill enhancement. This "just-in-time" concept was used to support real-time remote expert guidance to complete ultrasound examinations using the ISS Human Research Facility (HRF). METHODS: An American and Russian ISS crewmember received 2 h of "hands on" ultrasound training 8 mo prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. A CD-ROM-based Onboard Proficiency Enhancement (OPE) interactive multimedia program consisting of memory enhancing tutorials, and skill testing exercises, was completed by the crewmember 6 d prior to the on-orbit ultrasound exam. The crewmember was then remotely guided through a thoracic, vascular, and echocardiographic examination by ultrasound imaging experts. RESULTS: Results of the CD-ROM-based OPE session were used to modify the instructions during a complete 35-min real-time thoracic, cardiac, and carotid/jugular ultrasound study. Following commands from the ground-based expert, the crewmember acquired all target views and images without difficulty. The anatomical content and fidelity of ultrasound video were adequate for clinical decision making. CONCLUSIONS: Complex ultrasound experiments with expert guidance were performed with high accuracy following limited preflight training and multimedia based in-flight review, despite a 2-s communication latency. In-flight application of multimedia proficiency enhancement software, coupled with real-time remote expert guidance, facilitates the successful performance of ultrasound examinations on orbit and may have additional terrestrial and space applications.

  13. Contrasting Perspectives Of Junior versus Senior NASA ISS Flight Controllers On Leadership And Cultural Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, James L.; Boyd, J. E.; Saylor, S.; Kanas, N.

    2007-01-01

    NASA flight controllers have always worked in a very demanding environment, but the International Space Station (ISS) poses even more challenges than prior missions. A recent NASA/Ames survey by Parke and Orasanu of NASA/Johnson flight controllers uncovered concerns about communications problems between American personnel and their international counterparts. To better understand these problems, we interviewed 14 senior and 12 junior ISS flight controllers at NASA/Johnson about leadership and cultural challenges they face and strategies for addressing these challenges. The qualitative interview data were coded and tabulated. Here we present quantitative analyses testing for differences between junior and senior controllers. Based on nonparametric statistical tests comparing responses across groups, the senior controllers were significantly more aware of the impact of working in dispersed teams, the context of constant change, and the upcoming multilateral challenges, while junior controllers were more aware of language and cultural issues. We consider our findings in light of other studies of controllers and other known differences between senior and junior controllers. For example, the fact that senior controllers had their formative early experience controlling pre-ISS short-duration Shuttle missions seems to have both positive and negative aspects, which are supported by our data. Our findings may also reflect gender differences, but we cannot unconfound this effect in our data because all the senior respondents were males. Many of the junior-senior differences are not only due to elapsed time on the job, but also due to a cohort effect. The findings of this study should be used for training curricula tailored differently for junior and senior controllers.

  14. Acoustic Noise Prediction of the Amine Swingbed ISS ExPRESS Rack Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, David; Smith, Holly; Wang, Shuo

    2010-01-01

    Acoustics plays a vital role in maintaining the health, safety, and comfort of crew members aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In order to maintain this livable and workable environment, acoustic requirements have been established to ensure that ISS hardware and payload developers account for the acoustic emissions of their equipment and develop acoustic mitigations as necessary. These requirements are verified by an acoustic emissions test of the integrated hardware. The Amine Swingbed ExPRESS (Expedite the PRocessing of ExperimentS to Space) rack payload creates a unique challenge to the developers in that the payload hardware is transported to the ISS in phases, making an acoustic emissions test on the integrated flight hardware impossible. In addition, the payload incorporates a high back pressure fan and a diaphragm vacuum pump, which are recognized as significant and complex noise sources. In order to accurately predict the acoustic emissions of the integrated payload, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are first characterized. These characterizations are conducted though a series of acoustic emissions tests on the individual payload components. Secondly, the individual acoustic noise sources and paths are incorporated into a virtual model of the integrated hardware. The virtual model is constructed with the use of hybrid method utilizing the Finite Element Acoustic (FEA) and Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) techniques, which predict the overall acoustic emissions. Finally, the acoustic model is validated though an acoustic characterization test performed on an acoustically similar mock-up of the flight unit. The results of the validated acoustic model are then used to assess the acoustic emissions of the flight unit and define further acoustic mitigation efforts.

  15. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Earth Science Capability for ISS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Scott, S.; Kupchock, A.; Selmer, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a lidar remote sensing instrument developed for deployment to the International Space Station (ISS). The CATS lidar will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud distributions and properties. The CATS instrument uses a high repetition rate laser operating at three wavelengths (1064, 532, and 355 nm) to derive properties of cloud/aerosol layers including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The CATS mission was designed to capitalize on the Space Station's unique orbit and facilities to continue existing Earth Science data records, to provide observational data for use in forecast models, and to demonstrate new technologies for use in future missions. The CATS payload will be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). The payload is designed to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. The payload is completed and currently scheduled for a mid-2014 launch. The ISS and, in particular, the JEM-EF, is an exciting new platform for spaceborne Earth observations. The ability to leverage existing aircraft instrument designs coupled with the lower cost possible for ISS external attached payloads permits rapid and cost effective development of spaceborne sensors. The CATS payload is based on existing instrumentation built and operated on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft. The payload is housed in a 1.5 m x 1 m x 0.8 m volume that attaches to the JEM-EF. The allowed volume limits the maximum size for the collecting telescope to 60 cm diameter. Figure 1 shows a schematic layout of the CATS payload, with the primary instrument components identified. Figure 2 is a photo of the completed payload. CATS payload cut-away view. Completed CATS payload assembly.

  16. The GEOFLOW experiment missions in the Fluid Science Laboratory on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, Gerold; Carpy, Rodrigo; Fabritius, Gerd; Dettmann, Jan; Minster, Olivier; Winter, Josef; Ranebo, Hans; Dewandre, Thierry; Castiglione, Luigi; Mazzoni, Stefano; Egbers, Christoph; Futterer, Birgit

    The GEOFLOW I experiment has been successfully performed on the International Space Sta-tion (ISS) in 2008 in the Columbus module in order to study the stability, pattern formation and transition to turbulence in a viscous incompressible fluid layer enclosed in two concentric co-rotating spheres subject to a radial temperature gradient and a radial volumetric force field. The objective of the study is the experimental investigation of large scale astrophysical and geophysical phenomena in spherical geometry stipulated by rotation, thermal convections and radial gravity fields. These systems include earth outer core or mantle convection, differen-tial rotation effects in the sun, atmosphere of gas planets as well as a variety of engineering applications. The GEOFLOW I experimental instrument consists of an experiment insert for operation in the Fluid Science Laboratory, which is part of the Columbus Module of the ISS. It was first launched in February 2008 together with Columbus Module on STS 122, operated periodically for 9 month and returned to ground after 14 month on orbit with STS 119. The primary objective was the experimental modelling of outer earth core convection flow. In order to allow for variations of the characteristic scaling for different physical phenomena, the experiment was designed and qualified for a total of nine flights to the ISS, with ground refurbishment and geometrical or fluid modification after each mission. The second mission of GEOFLOW (II) is currently under preparation in terms of hardware refurbishment and modification, as well as science parameter development in order to allow use of a new experimental model fluid with a strongly temperature dependent viscosity, a adaptation of the experimental thermal parameter range in order to provide a representative model for earth mantle convection. The GEOFLOW II instrument is foreseen to be launched with the second mission of the Eu-ropean Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). The flight to ISS

  17. i-LOVE: ISS-JEM lidar for observation of vegetation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Haruo; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Mizutani, Kohei; Ishii, Shoken; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Shimoda, Haruhisa; Honda, Yoshiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Takao, Gen; Hirata, Yasumasa; Saigusa, Nobuko; Hayashi, Masatomo; Oguma, Hiroyuki; Saito, Hideki; Awaya, Yoshio; Endo, Takahiro; Imai, Tadashi; Murooka, Jumpei; Kobatashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Keiko; Sato, Ryota

    2012-11-01

    It is very important to watch the spatial distribution of vegetation biomass and changes in biomass over time, representing invaluable information to improve present assessments and future projections of the terrestrial carbon cycle. A space lidar is well known as a powerful remote sensing technology for measuring the canopy height accurately. This paper describes the ISS(International Space Station)-JEM(Japanese Experimental Module)-EF(Exposed Facility) borne vegetation lidar using a two dimensional array detector in order to reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) of tree height due to sloped surface.

  18. Two-Phase Flow Research on the ISS for Thermal Control Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    With the era of full utilization of the ISS now upon us, this presentation will discuss some of the highest-priority areas for two-phase flow systems with thermal control applications. These priorities are guided by recommendations of a 2011 NRC Decadal Survey report, Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration, Life and Physical Sciences for a New Era as well as an internal NASA exercise in response to the NRC report conducted in early 2012. Many of these proposals are already in various stages of development, while others are still conceptual.

  19. International Space Station (ISS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) Beverage Adapter (BA) Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerly, Rachel; Benoit, Jace; Shindo, David

    2012-01-01

    The Potable Water Dispenser used on the International Space Station (ISS) interfaces with food and drink packages using the Beverage Adapter and Needle. Unexpected leakage has been seen in this interface. The Beverage Adapter used on ]orbit was returned to the ground for Test, Teardown, and Evaluation. The results of that investigation prompted a redesign of the Beverage Adapter and Needle. The Beverage Adapter materials were changed to be more corrosion resistant, and the Needle was redesigned to preclude leakage. The redesigns have been tested and proven.

  20. Behavioral Health and Performance at NASA JSC: Recent Successes and Future Plan for BHP Research and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveton, L. B.; VanderArk, S. T.

    2014-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance discipline at NASA Johnson Space Center is organized into two distinct Divisions (Biomedical Research and Environmental Science Division and Space and Clinical Operations Division) but is integrated and interrelated in its day-to-day work. Ongoing operations supporting NASA's spaceflight goals benefit from the research portfolios that address risks to mission success. Similarly, these research portfolios are informed by operations to ensure investigations stay relevant given the dynamic environment of spaceflight. There are many success stories that can be presented where initial work begun as a BHP Research project, and funded through the Human Research Program, was fully implemented in operations or addressed an operational need. Examples include improving effectiveness of the debriefings used within Mission Control by the Mission Operations Directorate and countermeasures for fatigue management. There is also ongoing collaboration with research and operations for developing selection methods for future generation astronauts, and to enhance and inform the current family support function. The objective of this panel is to provide examples of recent success stories, describe areas where close collaboration is benefitting ongoing research and operations, and summarize how this will come together as NASA plans for the one year ISS mission - a unique opportunity for both BHP operations and research to learn more about preparing and supporting crewmembers for extended missions in space. The proposed panel will be comprised of six presentations, each describing a unique aspect of research or operations and the benefits to current and future spaceflight.

  1. Devices and Methods for Collection and Concentration of Air and Surface Samples for Improved Detection of Microbes onboard ISS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Protecting the International Space Station (ISS) crew from microbial contaminants is of great importance. Bacterial and fungal contamination of air, surfaces and...

  2. Performances of photodiode detectors for top and bottom counting detectors of ISS-CREAM experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, H.J. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Anderson, T. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Angelaszek, D. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Baek, S.J. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Copley, M. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Coutu, S. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Han, J.H.; Huh, H.G. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Hwang, Y.S. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Im, S. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jeon, H.B.; Kah, D.H.; Kang, K.H.; Kim, H.J. [Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K.C.; Kwashnak, K. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Lee, J. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, M.H. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); Link, J.T. [NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); CRESST(USRA), Columbia, MD 21044 (United States); Lutz, L. [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740 (United States); and others

    2015-07-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) experiment at the International Space Station (ISS) aims to elucidate the source and acceleration mechanisms of high-energy cosmic rays by measuring the energy spectra from protons to iron. The instrument is planned for launch in 2015 at the ISS, and it comprises a silicon charge detector, a carbon target, top and bottom counting detectors, a calorimeter, and a boronated scintillator detector. The top and bottom counting detectors are developed for separating the electrons from the protons, and each of them comprises a plastic scintillator and a 20×20 silicon photodiode array. Each photodiode is 2.3 cm×2.3 cm in size and exhibits good electrical characteristics. The leakage current is measured to be less than 20 nA/cm{sup 2} at an operating voltage. The signal-to-noise ratio is measured to be better than 70 using commercial electronics, and the radiation hardness is tested using a proton beam. A signal from the photodiode is amplified by VLSI (very-large-scale integration) charge amp/hold circuits, the VA-TA viking chip. Environmental tests are performed using whole assembled photodiode detectors of a flight version. Herein, we present the characteristics of the developed photodiode along with the results of the environmental tests.

  3. Two Shuttle crews check equipment at SPACEHAB to be used on ISS Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    At Astrotech in Titusville, Fla., members of two Shuttle crews get a close look at components of a Russian cargo crane, the Strela, to be mounted to the exterior of the Russian station segment on the International Space Station (ISS). At left are STS-96 Mission Specialist Daniel T. Barry and Pilot Rick Douglas Husband. At center, STS-96 Mission Specialist Tamara E. Jernigan gives her attention to a technician with DaimlerChrysler while STS-101 Mission Specialist Edward Tsang Lu looks on. Both missions include the SPACEHAB Double Module, carrying internal and resupply cargo for Station outfitting. For the first time, STS-96 will include an Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) that will carry the Strela; the SPACEHAB Oceaneering Space System Box (SHOSS), which is a logistics items carrier; and a U.S.-built crane (ORU Transfer Device, or OTD) that will be stowed on the station for use during future ISS assembly missions. The ICC can carry up to 6,000 lb of unpressurized payload. It was built for SPACEHAB by DaimlerChrysler and RSC Energia of Korolev, Russia. STS-96 is targeted for launch on May 24 from Launch Pad 39B. STS-101 is scheduled to launch in early December 1999.

  4. Performances of photodiode detectors for top and bottom counting detectors of ISS-CREAM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, H.J.; Anderson, T.; Angelaszek, D.; Baek, S.J.; Copley, M.; Coutu, S.; Han, J.H.; Huh, H.G.; Hwang, Y.S.; Im, S.; Jeon, H.B.; Kah, D.H.; Kang, K.H.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, K.C.; Kwashnak, K.; Lee, J.; Lee, M.H.; Link, J.T.; Lutz, L.

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) experiment at the International Space Station (ISS) aims to elucidate the source and acceleration mechanisms of high-energy cosmic rays by measuring the energy spectra from protons to iron. The instrument is planned for launch in 2015 at the ISS, and it comprises a silicon charge detector, a carbon target, top and bottom counting detectors, a calorimeter, and a boronated scintillator detector. The top and bottom counting detectors are developed for separating the electrons from the protons, and each of them comprises a plastic scintillator and a 20×20 silicon photodiode array. Each photodiode is 2.3 cm×2.3 cm in size and exhibits good electrical characteristics. The leakage current is measured to be less than 20 nA/cm 2 at an operating voltage. The signal-to-noise ratio is measured to be better than 70 using commercial electronics, and the radiation hardness is tested using a proton beam. A signal from the photodiode is amplified by VLSI (very-large-scale integration) charge amp/hold circuits, the VA-TA viking chip. Environmental tests are performed using whole assembled photodiode detectors of a flight version. Herein, we present the characteristics of the developed photodiode along with the results of the environmental tests

  5. Improved Atlases of Mimas and Enceladus derived from Cassini-ISS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roatsch, T.; Kersten, E.; Matz, K. D.; Bland, M. T.; Becker, T. L.; Patterson, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) took a couple of high-resolution images of the Icy satellites Mimas and Enceladus during the last few years of the Cassini mission. Both satellites were captured over a period of non-targeted flybys: Mimas in 2016 and 2017 in orbits 230, 249, and 259 and Enceladus in 2015 and 2016 in orbits 224, 228, and 250. We used the new Mimas images to improve the existing semi-controlled mosaic of Mimas. A new controlled Enceladus mosaic was published recently [1] and was now updated using the latest Enceladus images. Both new mosaics are the baseline for improved atlases of Mimas in 3 tiles with a scale of 1:1,000,000 and Enceladus in 15 tiles with a scale of 1:500,000. The nomenclature for both satellites was proposed by the Cassini-ISS team and approved by the IAU and was not changed here. Examples of the improved atlases will be shown in this presentation. Reference: [1] Bland, M.T. et. al., A new Enceladus base map and global control network in support of geological mapping, 46th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2015) , abstract 2303.

  6. Development of a Human Behavior and Performance Training Curriculum for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderArk, Steve; Tomi, Leena; Vassin, Alexander; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Bessone, Lorendana; OConnor, Sharon; Mukai, Chiaki; Coffee, Emily; Sipes, Walter; Salnitskiy, Vyecheslav; hide

    2007-01-01

    The paper will describe the DACUM process and summarize the core competencies that were agreed upon, internationally, as important for ISS astronauts. The paper will further discuss the ongoing work being completed by the subgroup, Human Behaviour and Performance Training Working Group, including defining the competencies and behavioural markers. Finally, an overview of remaining work will be provided, including determining which competencies require formal training and which require no formal training, developing training objectives, sequencing the training, and establishing how to assess training effectiveness. DISCUSSION: Designing a common set of goals for behavioural training has been the desire of the SHBP WG since its inception in 1998. This group, along with training specialists and astronauts, are making great strides toward defining these competencies. The road ahead will be exceedingly challenging as training objectives are defined and a training flow is proposed to the MCOP; with proposed ISS crews increasing to six people in the near future, such enhanced behavioural training may be all the more essential for mission success.

  7. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Integration with the ISS Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiott, Victoria; Boyle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NASA has developed a Solid Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) to provide cooling for the next generation spacesuit. The current spacesuit team has looked at this technology from the standpoint of using the ISS EMU to demonstrate the SWME technology while EVA, and from the standpoint of augmenting EMU cooling in the case of a fouled EMU cooling system. One approach to increasing the TRL of the system is to incorporate this hardware with the existing EMU. Several integration issues were addressed to support a potential demonstration of the SWME with the existing EMU. Systems analysis was performed to assess the capability of the SWME to maintain crewmember cooling and comfort as a replacement for sublimation. The materials of the SWME were reviewed to address compatibility with the EMU. Conceptual system placement and integration with the EMU via an EVA umbilical system to ensure crew mobility and Airlock egress were performed. A concept of operation for EVA use was identified that is compatible with the existing system. This concept is extensible as a means to provide cooling for the existing EMU. The cooling system of one of the EMUs on orbit has degraded, with the root cause undetermined. Should there be a common cause resident on ISS, this integration could provide a means to recover cooling capability for EMUs on orbit.

  8. The New Hyperspectral Sensor Desis on the Multi-Payload Platform Muses Installed on the Iss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R.; Avbelj, J.; Carmona, E.; Eckardt, A.; Gerasch, B.; Graham, L.; Günther, B.; Heiden, U.; Ickes, J.; Kerr, G.; Knodt, U.; Krutz, D.; Krawczyk, H.; Makarau, A.; Miller, R.; Perkins, R.; Walter, I.

    2016-06-01

    The new hyperspectral instrument DLR Earth Sensing Imaging Spectrometer (DESIS) will be developed and integrated in the Multi-User-System for Earth Sensing (MUSES) platform installed on the International Space Station (ISS). The DESIS instrument will be launched to the ISS mid of 2017 and robotically installed in one of the four slots of the MUSES platform. After a four month commissioning phase the operational phase will last at least until 2020. The MUSES / DESIS system will be commanded and operated by the publically traded company TBE (Teledyne Brown Engineering), which initiated the whole program. TBE provides the MUSES platform and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops the instrument DESIS and establishes a Ground Segment for processing, archiving, delivering and calibration of the image data mainly used for scientific and humanitarian applications. Well calibrated and harmonized products will be generated together with the Ground Segment established at Teledyne. The article describes the Space Segment consisting of the MUSES platform and the instrument DESIS as well as the activities at the two (synchronized) Ground Segments consisting of the processing methods, product generation, data calibration and product validation. Finally comments to the data policy are given.

  9. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station (ARISS) - the First Educational Outreach Program on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, C. L.; Bauer, F. H.; Brown, D.; White, R.

    2002-01-01

    More than 40 missions over five years will be required to assemble the International Space Station in orbit. The astronauts and cosmonauts will work hard on these missions, but they plan to take some time off for educational activities with schools. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station represents the first Educational Outreach program that is flying on ISS. NASA's Division of Education is a major supporter and sponsor of this student outreach activity on the International Space Station. This meets NASA's educational mission objective: "To inspire the next generation of explorers...as only NASA can." As the International Space Station takes its place in the heavens, the amateur radio community is doing its part by helping to enrich the experience of those visiting and living on the station as well as the students on Earth. Through ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station), students on Earth have a once in a lifetime opportunity--to talk to the crew on-board ISS. Using amateur radio equipment set up in their classroom, students get a first-hand feel of what it is like to live and work in space. Each school gets a 10 minute question and answer interview with the on-orbit crew using a ground station located in their classroom or through a remote ground station. The ARISS opportunity has proven itself as a tremendous educational boon to teachers and students. Through ARISS, students learn about orbit dynamics, Doppler shift, radio communications, and working with the press. Since its first flight in 1983, amateur radio has flown on more than two-dozen space shuttle missions. Dozens of astronauts have used the predecessor program called SAREX (The Space Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment) to talk to thousands of kids in school and to their families on Earth while they were in orbit. The primary goals of the ARISS program are fourfold: 1) educational outreach through crew contacts with schools, 2) random contacts with the amateur radio public, 3

  10. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Cover, John

    2015-01-01

    Nov 2, 2014 marked the completion of the 14th year of continuous human presence in space on board the International Space Station (ISS). After 42 expedition crews, over 115 assembly & utilization flights, over 180 combined Shuttle/Station, US & Russian Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), the post-Assembly-Complete ISS continues to fly and the engineering teams continue to learn from operating its systems, particularly the life support equipment. Problems with initial launch, assembly and activation of ISS elements have given way to more long term system operating trends. New issues have emerged, some with gestation periods measured in years. Major events and challenges for each U.S. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) subsystem occurring during calendar years 2010 through 2014 are summarily discussed in this paper, along with look-aheads for what might be coming in the future for each U.S. ECLS subsystem.

  11. Improving the efficiency of copper indium gallium (Di-selenide (CIGS solar cells through integration of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index similar to aluminum doped zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burghoorn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Textured transparent conductors are widely used in thin-film silicon solar cells. They lower the reflectivity at interfaces between different layers in the cell and/or cause an increase in the path length of photons in the Si absorber layer, which both result in an increase in the number of absorbed photons and, consequently, an increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc and cell efficiency. Through optical simulations, we recently obtained strong indications that texturing of the transparent conductor in copper indium gallium (di-selenide (CIGS solar cells is also optically advantageous. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that the Jsc and efficiency of CIGS solar cells with an absorber layer thickness (dCIGS of 0.85 μm, 1.00 μm and 2.00 μm increase through application of a moth-eye textured resist with a refractive index that is sufficiently similar to AZO (nresist = 1.792 vs. nAZO = 1.913 at 633 nm to avoid large optical losses at the resist-AZO interface. On average, Jsc increases by 7.2%, which matches the average reduction in reflection of 7.0%. The average relative increase in efficiency is slightly lower (6.0%. No trend towards a larger relative increase in Jsc with decreasing dCIGS was observed. Ergo, the increase in Jsc can be fully explained by the reduction in reflection, and we did not observe any increase in Jsc based on an increased photon path length.

  12. Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP): Past Micro-Gravity Experiments and Future Experimental Plan on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Subhayu; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, F.; Dhindaw, B. K.; Curreri, P. A.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of an insoluble particle with a growing solid-liquid interface (SLI) has been a subject of investigation for the four decades. For a metallurgist or a material scientist understanding the fundamental physics of such an interaction is relevant for applications that include distribution of reinforcement particles in metal matrix composites, inclusion management in castings, and distribution of Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (211) precipitates (flux pinning sites) in Y1Ba2Cu3O7 (123) superconducting crystals. The same physics is also applicable to other areas including geological applications (frost heaving in soils) and preservation of biological cells. Experimentally this interaction can be quantified in terms of a critical growth velocity, Vcr, of the SLI below which particles are pushed ahead of the advancing interface, and above which the particles are engulfed. Past experimental evidence suggests that this Vcr is an inverse function of the particle radius, R. In order to isolate the fundamental physics that governs such a relationship it is necessary to minimize natural convection at the SLI that is inherent in ground based experiments. Hence for the purpose of producing benchmark data (Vcr vs. R) PEP is a natural candidate for micro-gravity experimentation. Accordingly, experiments with pure Al containing a dispersion of ZrO2 particles and an organic analogue, succinonitrile (SCN) containing polystyrene particles have been performed on the LMS and USMP-4 mission respectively. In this paper we will summarize the experimental data that was obtained during these two micro-gravity missions and show that the results differ compared to terrestrial experiments. We will also discuss the basic elements of our analytical and numerical model and present a comparison of the predictions of these models against micro-gravity experimental data. Finally. we will discuss our future experimental plan that includes the ISS glovebox and MSRRl.

  13. Filter Efficiency and Leak Testing of Returned ISS Bacterial Filter Elements After 2.5 Years of Continuous Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Berger, Gordon M.; Vijayakumar, R.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    The atmosphere revitalization equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provides the vital functions of maintaining a habitable environment for the crew as well as protecting the hardware from fouling by suspended particulate matter. Providing these functions are challenging in pressurized spacecraft cabins because no outside air ventilation is possible and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation in reduced gravity conditions. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each module. These filters are referred to as Bacteria Filter Elements (BFEs). As more experience has been gained with ISS operations, the BFE service life, which was initially one year, has been extended to two to five years, dependent on the location in the U.S. Segment. In previous work we developed a test facility and test protocol for leak testing the ISS BFEs. For this work, we present results of leak testing a sample set of returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years, along with particulate removal efficiency and pressure drop measurements. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS to 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  14. International Space Station (ISS) External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM) Jettison Options Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    On December 11, 2013, the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure of the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM). To minimize the number of extravehicular activities (EVA) required to replace the PM, jettisoning the faulty pump was evaluated. The objective of this study was to independently evaluate the jettison options considered by the ISS Trajectory Operations Officer (TOPO) and to provide recommendations for safe jettison of the ETCS Loop A PM. The simulation selected to evaluate the TOPO options was the NASA Engineering and Safety Center's (NESC) version of Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) developed to support another NESC assessment. The objective of the jettison analysis was twofold: (1) to independently verify TOPO posigrade and retrograde jettison results, and (2) to determine jettison guidelines based on additional sensitivity, trade study, and Monte Carlo (MC) analysis that would prevent PM recontact. Recontact in this study designates a propagated PM trajectory that comes within 500 m of the ISS propagated trajectory. An additional simulation using Systems Tool Kit (STK) was run for independent verification of the POST2 simulation results. Ultimately, the ISS Program removed the PM jettison option from consideration. However, prior to the Program decision, the retrograde jettison option remained part of the EVA contingency plan. The jettison analysis presented showed that, in addition to separation velocity/direction and the atmosphere conditions, the key variables in determining the time to recontact the ISS is highly dependent on the ballistic number (BN) difference between the object being jettisoned and the ISS.

  15. A NeISS collaboration to develop and use e-infrastructure for large-scale social simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Thomas; Skipsey, Samuel; Turner, Andy; Watt, John

    2011-01-01

    The National e-Infrastructure for Social Simulation (NeISS) project is focused on\\ud developing e-Infrastructure to support social simulation research. Part of NeISS aims to\\ud provide an interface for running contemporary dynamic demographic social simulation\\ud models as developed in the GENESIS project. These GENESIS models operate at the\\ud individual person level and are stochastic. This paper focuses on support for a simplistic\\ud demographic change model that has a daily time steps, an...

  16. Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography for the Packed Bed Reactor ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashdeh, Qussai; Motil, Brian; Wang, Aining; Liang-Shih, Fan

    2013-01-01

    Fixed packed bed reactors are compact, require minimum power and maintenance to operate, and are highly reliable. These features make this technology a highly desirable unit operation for long duration life support systems in space. NASA is developing an ISS experiment to address this technology with particular focus on water reclamation and air revitalization. Earlier research and development efforts funded by NASA have resulted in two hydrodynamic models which require validation with appropriate instrumentation in an extended microgravity environment. To validate these models, the instantaneous distribution of the gas and liquid phases must be measured.Electrical Capacitance Volume Tomography (ECVT) is a non-invasive imaging technology recently developed for multi-phase flow applications. It is based on distributing flexible capacitance plates on the peripheral of a flow column and collecting real-time measurements of inter-electrode capacitances. Capacitance measurements here are directly related to dielectric constant distribution, a physical property that is also related to material distribution in the imaging domain. Reconstruction algorithms are employed to map volume images of dielectric distribution in the imaging domain, which is in turn related to phase distribution. ECVT is suitable for imaging interacting materials of different dielectric constants, typical in multi-phase flow systems. ECVT is being used extensively for measuring flow variables in various gas-liquid and gas-solid flow systems. Recent application of ECVT include flows in risers and exit regions of circulating fluidized beds, gas-liquid and gas-solid bubble columns, trickle beds, and slurry bubble columns. ECVT is also used to validate flow models and CFD simulations. The technology is uniquely qualified for imaging phase concentrations in packed bed reactors for the ISS flight experiments as it exhibits favorable features of compact size, low profile sensors, high imaging speed, and

  17. HAMLET -Matroshka IIA and IIB experiments aboard the ISS: comparison of organ doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Zoltan; Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Hajek, Michael; Sihver, Lembit; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hager, Luke; Burmeister, Soenke

    The Matroshka experiments and the related FP7 HAMLET project aimed to study the dose burden of the cosmic rays in the organs of the crew working inside and outside the ISS. Two of the experiments will be discussed. They were performed in two different locations inside the ISS: during the Matroshka 2A (in 2006) the phantom was stored in the Russian Docking Module (Pirs), while during the Matroshka 2B (in 2007-08) it was inside the Russian Service Module (Zvezda). Both experiments were performed in the decreasing phase of the solar cycle. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were applied to investigate the dose contribution of the high LET radiation above ˜10 keV/µm. Two configurations of SSNTDs stacks were constructed: one for the exposure in the so called organ dose boxes (in the lung and kidney), another one for the skin dose measurements, embedded in the nomex poncho of the Phantom. In addition a reference package was placed outside the phantom. After exposure the detectors were transferred to the Earth for data evaluation. Short and long etching procedures were applied to distinguish the high and low LET particles, respectively. The particle tracks were evaluated by a semi automated image analyzer. Addi-tionally manual track parameter measurements were performed on very long tracks. As the result of measurements the LET spectra were deduced. Based on these spectra, the absorbed dose, the dose equivalent and the mean quality factor were calculated. The configuration of the stacks, the methods of the calibration and evaluation and finally the results will be presented and compared. The multiple etching and the combined evaluation method allowed to determine the fraction of the dose originated from HZE particles (Z>2 and range > major axis). Further on, data eval-uation was performed to separate the secondary particles (target fragments) from the primary particles. Although the number of high LET particles above a ˜80 keV/µm was found to be higher during

  18. Feasibility Assessment of an ISS Artificial Gravity Conditioning Facility by Means of Multi-Body Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Mario; Baldesi, Gianluigi; Moratto, Claudio; De Wilde, Don; Bureo Dacal, Rafael; Castellsaguer, Joaquim

    2012-07-01

    Even though human exploration of Mars is a distant objective, it is well understood that, for human space voyages of several years duration, crews would be at risk of catastrophic consequences should any of the systems that provide adequate air, water, food, or thermal protection fail. Moreover, crews will face serious health and/or safety risks resulting from severe physiologic deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. The principal ones are related to physical and functional deterioration of the regulation of the blood circulation, decreased aerobic capacity, impaired musculo-skeletal systems, and altered sensory- motor system performance. As the reliance of future space programmes on virtual modelling, simulation and justification has substantially grown together with the proto-flight hardware development approach, a range of simulation capabilities have become increasingly important in the requirements specification, design, verification, testing, launch and operation of new space systems. In this frame, multibody software is a key tool in providing a more coordinated and consistent approach from the preliminary development phases of the most complex systems. From a scientific prospective, an artificial gravity facility, such as the one evaluated in this paper, would be the first in-flight testing of the effectiveness and acceptability of short radius centrifuge as a countermeasure to human deconditioning on orbit. The ISS represents a unique opportunity to perform this research. From an engineering point of view, the preliminary assessment described in this paper, highlights the difficult engineering challenges of such a facility. The outcome proves that a human can be accommodated in the available volume, while respecting the human ergonomic basic requirements and preserving the global structural integrity of the hosting ISS module. In particular, analysis shows that, although the load capacity of the structural interfaces imposes a very low

  19. Maximizing Science Return from Future Rodent Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS): Tissue Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Lai, S.; Klotz, R.; Popova, Y.; Chakravarty, K.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how mammals adapt to long duration habitation in space, a system for performing rodent experiments on the ISS is under development; Rodent Research-1 is the first flight and will include validation of both on-orbit animal support and tissue preservation. To evaluate plans for on-orbit sample dissection and preservation, we simulated conditions for euthanasia, tissue dissection, and prolonged sample storage on the ISS, and we also developed methods for post-flight dissection and recovery of high quality RNA from multiple tissues following prolonged storage in situ for future science. Mouse livers and spleens were harvested under conditions that simulated nominal, on-orbit euthanasia and dissection operations including storage at -80 C for 4 months. The RNA recovered was of high quality (RNA Integrity Number, RIN(is) greater than 8) and quantity, and the liver enzyme contents and activities (catalase, glutathione reductase, GAPDH) were similar to positive controls, which were collected under standard laboratory conditions. We also assessed the impact of possible delayed on-orbit dissection scenarios (off-nominal) by dissecting and preserving the spleen (RNAlater) and liver (fast-freezing) at various time points post-euthanasia (from 5 min up to 105 min). The RNA recovered was of high quality (spleen, RIN (is) greater than 8; liver, RIN (is) greater than 6) and liver enzyme activities were similar to positive controls at all time points, although an apparent decline in select enzyme activities was evident at the latest time (105 min). Additionally, various tissues were harvested from either intact or partially dissected, frozen carcasses after storage for approximately 2 months; most of the tissues (brain, heart, kidney, eye, adrenal glands and muscle) were of acceptable RNA quality for science return, whereas some tissues (small intestine, bone marrow and bones) were not. These data demonstrate: 1) The protocols developed for future flight

  20. Cosmic ray studies on the ISS using SSNTD, BRADOS projects, 2001–2003

    CERN Document Server

    Pálfalvia, J K; Akatov, Y; Sajó-Bohus, L; Eördögh, I

    2005-01-01

    The BRADOS 1–3 projects were organised by the Russian Space Agency (RZA) between 2001 and 2003. The aim was to study the contribution of the primary galactic cosmic rays and of the secondary particles to the dose received by the crew of the International Space Station (ISS). Several laboratories participated in these experiments. Two different stacks (constructed by the team of the Atomic Energy Research Institute, AERI, Budapest, Hungary) composed of solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were exposed inside the Service Module at different locations. The calibrations were made at the CERN high-energy neutron reference field named CERF (Geneva, Swiss). Applying a multiple track etching technique (2–20 h etching time) and a sophisticated image analyser, the secondary neutron dose was deduced. The composition of stacks, the evaluation methods and the results will be presented here or referenced to previous papers.

  1. Tidal Control of Jet Eruptions on Enceladus as Observed by Cassini ISS between 2005 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, T. A.; Helfenstein, P.; Spitale, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Observations of Enceladus have revealed active jets of material erupting from cracks on its south polar surface. It has previously been proposed that diurnal tidal stress, driven by Enceladus' orbital eccentricity, may actively produce surface movement along these cracks daily and thus may regulate when eruptions occur. Our analysis of the stress on jet source regions identified in Cassini ISS images reveals tidal stress as a plausible controlling mechanism of jet activity. However, the evidence available in the published and preliminary observations of jet activity between 2005 and 2007 may not be able to solidify the link between tidal stress and eruptions from fissures. Ongoing, far more comprehensive analyses based on recent, much higher resolution jetting observations have the potential to prove otherwise.

  2. Development of an Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly for the ISS Urine Processor Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Carter, Donald Layne; Higbie, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Recovering water from urine is a process that is critical to supporting larger crews for extended missions aboard the International Space Station. Urine is collected, preserved, and stored for processing into water and a concentrated brine solution that is highly toxic and must be contained to avoid exposure to the crew. The brine solution is collected in an accumulator tank, called a Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) that must be replaced monthly and disposed in order to continue urine processing operations. In order to reduce resupply requirements, a new accumulator tank is being developed that can be emptied on orbit into existing ISS waste tanks. The new tank, called the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) is a metal bellows tank that is designed to collect concentrated brine solution and empty by applying pressure to the bellows. This paper discusses the requirements and design of the ARFTA as well as integration into the urine processor assembly.

  3. Fast Kalman Filtering for Relative Spacecraft Position and Attitude Estimation for the Raven ISS Hosted Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Joseph M.; Van Eepoel, John; D'Souza, Chris; Patrick, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The Raven ISS Hosted Payload will feature several pose measurement sensors on a pan/tilt gimbal which will be used to autonomously track resupply vehicles as they approach and depart the International Space Station. This paper discusses the derivation of a Relative Navigation Filter (RNF) to fuse measurements from the different pose measurement sensors to produce relative position and attitude estimates. The RNF relies on relative translation and orientation kinematics and careful pose sensor modeling to eliminate dependence on orbital position information and associated orbital dynamics models. The filter state is augmented with sensor biases to provide a mechanism for the filter to estimate and mitigate the offset between the measurements from different pose sensors

  4. The Strata-1 Regolith Dynamics Experiment: Class 1E Science on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Marc; Graham, Lee; John, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The Strata-1 experiment studies the evolution of small body regolith through long-duration exposure of simulant materials to the microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). This study will record segregation and mechanical dynamics of regolith simulants in a microgravity and vibration environment similar to that experienced by regolith on small Solar System bodies. Strata-1 will help us understand regolith dynamics and will inform design and procedures for landing and setting anchors, safely sampling and moving material on asteroidal surfaces, processing large volumes of material for in situ resource utilization (ISRU) purposes, and, in general, predicting the behavior of large and small particles on disturbed asteroid surfaces. This experiment is providing new insights into small body surface evolution.

  5. Characterization of anodic barrier films on tantalum and 1100 aluminum by ISS/SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCune, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    Ion scattering spectrometry (ISS) and concurrent secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were used to determine the depth profiles of anodic barrier oxide films grown on tantalum and type 1100 aluminum. The sputter rate in each case was determined from the film thickness measured by the anodic overvoltage, and the penetration time determined by the decrease in intensity of the metal oxide fragment observed using SIMS. A mixture of helium and neon ions was used to sputter aluminum oxide films in order to observe ion scattering of helium by oxygen, while taking advantage of the higher sputtering rate available with neon. A comparison of sputter rates for helium and neon on tantalum oxide indicated that neon sputtered the film at a rate eight times that of helium. SIMS depth profiling of the residual boron in the anodic aluminum oxide indicated a mixing effect which did not permit adequate resolution of the interface between the oxide film and the underlying metal

  6. Quantitative Validation of the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) for ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Millennia; Arellano, J.; Boley, L.; Garcia, Y.; Saile, L.; Walton, M.; Kerstman, E.; Reyes, D.; Goodenow, D. A.; Myers, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) provided observed medical event data on 33 ISS and 111 STS person-missions for use in further improving and validating the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). Using only the crew characteristics from these observed missions, the newest development version, IMM v4.0, will simulate these missions to predict medical events and outcomes. Comparing IMM predictions to the actual observed medical event counts will provide external validation and identify areas of possible improvement. In an effort to improve the power of detecting differences in this validation study, the total over each program ISS and STS will serve as the main quantitative comparison objective, specifically the following parameters: total medical events (TME), probability of loss of crew life (LOCL), and probability of evacuation (EVAC). Scatter plots of observed versus median predicted TMEs (with error bars reflecting the simulation intervals) will graphically display comparisons while linear regression will serve as the statistical test of agreement. Two scatter plots will be analyzed 1) where each point reflects a mission and 2) where each point reflects a condition-specific total number of occurrences. The coefficient of determination (R2) resulting from a linear regression with no intercept bias (intercept fixed at zero) will serve as an overall metric of agreement between IMM and the real world system (RWS). In an effort to identify as many possible discrepancies as possible for further inspection, the -level for all statistical tests comparing IMM predictions to observed data will be set to 0.1. This less stringent criterion, along with the multiple testing being conducted, should detect all perceived differences including many false positive signals resulting from random variation. The results of these analyses will reveal areas of the model requiring adjustment to improve overall IMM output, which will thereby provide better decision support for

  7. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  8. RadWorks Project. ISS REM - to - BIRD - to - HERA: The Evolution of a Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Catherine D.

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of particle detectors based on technologies developed for use in high-energy physics applications has enabled the development of a completely new generation of compact low-power active dosimeters and area monitors for use in space radiation environments. One such device, the TimePix, is being developed at CERN, and is providing the technology basis for the most recent line of radiation detection devices being developed by the NASA AES RadWorks project. The most fundamental of these devices, an ISS-Radiation Environment Monitor (REM), is installed as a USB device on ISS where it is monitoring the radiation environment on a perpetual basis. The second generation of this TimePix technology, the BIRD (Battery-operated Independent Radiation Detector), was flown on the NASA EFT-1 flight in December 2014. Data collected by BIRD was the first data made available from the Trapped Belt region of the Earth's atmosphere in over 40 years. The 3rdgeneration of this technology, the HERA (Hybrid Electronic Radiation Assessor), is planned to be integrated into the Orion EM-1, and EM-2 vehicles where it will monitor the radiation environment. For the EM-2 flight, HERA will provide Caution and Warning notification for SPEs as well as real time dose measurements for crew members. The development of this line of radiation detectors provide much greater information and characterization of charged particles in the space radiation environment than has been collected in the past, and in the process provide greater information to inform crew members of radiation related risks, while being very power and mass efficient.

  9. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  10. Laser Spectroscopy Multi-Gas Monitor: Results of Technology Demonstration on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgett, Paul D.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) is an up and coming trace and major gas monitoring technology with unmatched selectivity, range and stability. The technology demonstration of the 4 gas Multi-Gas Monitor (MGM), reported at the 2014 ICES conference, operated continuously on the International Space Station (ISS) for nearly a year. The MGM is designed to measure oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia and water vapor in ambient cabin air in a low power, relatively compact device. While on board, the MGM experienced a number of challenges, unplanned and planned, including a test of the ammonia channel using a commercial medical ammonia inhalant. Data from the unit was downlinked once per week and compared with other analytical resources on board, notably the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA), a magnetic sector mass spectrometer. MGM spent the majority of the time installed in the Nanoracks Frame 2 payload facility in front breathing mode (sampling the ambient environment of the Japanese Experiment Module), but was also used to analyze recirculated rack air. The capability of the MGM to be operated in portable mode (via internal rechargeable lithium ion polymer batteries or by plugging into any Express Rack 28VDC connector) was a part of the usability demonstration. Results to date show unprecedented stability and accuracy of the MGM vs. the MCA for oxygen and carbon dioxide. The ammonia challenge (approx. 75 ppm) was successful as well, showing very rapid response time in both directions. Work on an expansion of capability in a next generation MGM has just begun. Combustion products and hydrazine are being added to the measurable target analytes. An 8 to 10 gas monitor (aka Gas Tricorder 1.0) is envisioned for use on ISS, Orion and Exploration missions.

  11. Discovery and Identification of Dimethylsilanediol as a Contaminant in ISS Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Jeffrey A.; Schultz, John R.; Kuo, C. Mike; Curtis, Matthew; Jones, Patrick R.; Sparkman, O. David; McCoy, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, analysis of ISS potable water samples was undertaken to determine the contaminant(s) responsible for a rise of total organic carbon (TOC) in the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) product water. As analysis of the routine target list of organic compounds did not reveal the contaminant, efforts to look for unknown compounds were initiated, resulting in discovery of an unknown peak in the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis for glycols. A mass spectrum of the contaminant was then generated by concentrating one of the samples and analyzing it by GC/MS in full-scan mode. Although a computer match of the compound identity could not be obtained with the instrument database, a search with a more up-to-date mass spectral library yielded a good match with dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). Inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) analyses showed abnormally high silicon levels in the samples, confirming that the unknown compound(s) contained silicon. DMSD was then synthesized to confirm the identification and provide a standard to develop a calibration curve. Further confirmation was provided by external direct analysis in real time time of flight (DART TOF) mass spectrometry. To routinely test for DMSD in the future, a quantitative method was needed. A preliminary GC/MS method was developed and archived samples from various locations on ISS were analyzed to determine the extent of the contamination and provide data for troubleshooting. This paper describes these events in more detail as well as problems encountered in routine GC/MS analyses and the subsequent development of high performance liquid chromatography and LC/MS/MS methods for measuring DMSD.

  12. Robonaut 2 - IVA Experiments On-Board ISS and Development Towards EVA Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron; Hulse, Aaron; Badger, Julia; Thackston, Allison; Rogers, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Robonaut 2 (R2) has completed its fixed base activities on-board the ISS and is scheduled to receive its climbing legs in early 2014. In its continuing line of firsts, the R2 torso finished up its on-orbit activities on its stanchion with the manipulation of space blanket materials and performed multiple tasks under teleoperation control by IVA astronauts. The successful completion of these two IVA experiments is a key step in Robonaut's progression towards an EVA capability. Integration with the legs and climbing inside the ISS will provide another important part of the experience that R2 will need prior to performing tasks on the outside of ISS. In support of these on-orbit activities, R2 has been traversing across handrails in simulated zero-g environments and working with EVA tools and equipment on the ground to determine manipulation strategies for an EVA Robonaut. R2 made significant advances in robotic manipulation of deformable materials in space while working with its softgoods task panel. This panel features quarter turn latches that secure a space blanket to the task panel structure. The space blanket covers two cloth cubes that are attached with Velcro to the structure. R2 was able to open and close the latches, pull back the blanket, and remove the cube underneath. R2 simulated cleaning up an EVA worksite as well, by replacing the cube and reattaching the blanket. In order to interact with the softgoods panel, R2 has both autonomously and with a human in the loop identified and localized these deformable objects. Using stereo color cameras, R2 identified characteristic elements on the softgoods panel then extracted the location and orientation of the object in its field of view using stereo disparity and kinematic transforms. R2 used both vision processing and supervisory control to successfully accomplish this important task. Teleoperation is a key capability for Robonaut's effectiveness as an EVA system. To build proficiency, crewmembers have

  13. Implementation of ALARA radiation protection on the ISS through polyethylene shielding augmentation of the Service Module Crew Quarters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavers, M. R.; Zapp, N.; Barber, R. E.; Wilson, J. W.; Qualls, G.; Toupes, L.; Ramsey, S.; Vinci, V.; Smith, G.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2004-01-01

    With 5-7 month long duration missions at 51.6° inclination in Low Earth Orbit, the ionizing radiation levels to which International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers are exposed will be the highest planned occupational exposures in the world. Even with the expectation that regulatory dose limits will not be exceeded during a single tour of duty aboard the ISS, the "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) precept requires that radiological risks be minimized when possible through a dose optimization process. Judicious placement of efficient shielding materials in locations where crewmembers sleep, rest, or work is an important means for implementing ALARA for spaceflight. Polyethylene (C nH n) is a relatively inexpensive, stable, and, with a low atomic number, an effective shielding material that has been certified for use aboard the ISS. Several designs for placement of slabs or walls of polyethylene have been evaluated for radiation exposure reduction in the Crew Quarters (CQ) of the Zvezda (Star) Service Module. Optimization of shield designs relies on accurate characterization of the expected primary and secondary particle environment and modeling of the predicted radiobiological responses of critical organs and tissues. Results of the studies shown herein indicate that 20% or more reduction in equivalent dose to the CQ occupant is achievable. These results suggest that shielding design and risk analysis are necessary measures for reducing long-term radiological risks to ISS inhabitants and for meeting legal ALARA requirements. Verification of shield concepts requires results from specific designs to be compared with onboard dosimetry.

  14. A compact CMA spectrometer with axially integrated hybrid electron-ion gun for ISS, AES and sputter depth profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisler, E.; Bas, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    Until now, the combined application of electrons and ions in surface analysis required two separate sources for electrons and ions with different incidence angles. The newly developed hybrid electron-ion gun, however, allows bombardment of the same sample area both with noble gas ions and with electrons coming from the same direction. By integrating such a hybrid gun axially in a cylindrical mirror energy analyser (CMA) a sensitive compact single flange spectrometer obtains for ion scattering spectroscopy (ISS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and sputtering all within normal beam incidence. This concept makes accurate beam centering very easy. Additionally, the bombardment from the same direction both for sputtering and for surface analysis brings advantages in depth profiling. The scattering angle for ISS has a constant value of about 138 0 . The hybrid gun delivers typically an electron beam current of -20μA at 3keV for AES, and an ion beam current of +40 nA and +1.2μA at 2 keV for ISS and sputtering respectively. The switching time between ISS, AES, and sputtering mode is about 0.1 s. So this system is best suited for automatically controlled depth profile analysis. The design and operation of this new system will be described and some applications will be discussed. (author)

  15. The ISS flight of Richard Garriott: a template for medicine and science investigation on future spaceflight participant missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Richard T; Garriott, Owen K; Bogomolov, Valery V; Pochuev, Vladimir I; Morgun, Valery V; Garriott, Richard A

    2010-02-01

    A total of eight commercial spaceflight participants have launched to the International Space Station (ISS) on Soyuz vehicles. Based on an older mean age compared to career astronauts and an increased prevalence of medical conditions, spaceflight participants have provided the opportunity to learn about the effect of space travel on crewmembers with medical problems. The 12-d Soyuz TMA-13/12 ISS flight of spaceflight participant Richard Garriott included medical factors that required preflight intervention, risk mitigation strategies, and provided the opportunity for medical study on-orbit. Equally important, Mr. Garriott conducted extensive medical, scientific, and educational payload operations during the flight. These included 7 medical experiments and a total of 15 scientific projects such as protein crystal growth, Earth observations/photography, educational projects with schools, and amateur radio. The medical studies included the effect of microgravity on immune function, sleep, bone loss, corneal refractive surgery, low back pain, motion perception, and intraocular pressure. The overall mission success resulted from non-bureaucratic agility in mission planning, cooperation with investigators from NASA, ISS, International Partners, and the Korean Aerospace Research Institute, in-flight support and leadership from a team with spaceflight and Capcom experience, and overall mission support from the ISS program. This article focuses on science opportunities that suborbital and orbital spaceflight participant flights offer and suggests that the science program on Richard Garriott's flight be considered a model for future orbital and suborbital missions. The medical challenges are presented in a companion article.

  16. PHITS simulations of the Protective curtain experiment onboard the Service module of ISS: Comparison with absorbed doses measured with TLDs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ploc, Ondřej; Sihver, L.; Kartashov, D.; Shurshakov, V.; Tolochek, R. V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 11 (2013), s. 1911-1918 ISSN 0273-1177 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : protective curtain experiment * shielding of cosmic radiation * PHITS simulations * ISS Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.238, year: 2013

  17. Pöffi kaootilisel lõpupeol tunnistati parimaks Hispaania režissööri film / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2006-01-01

    10nda Pimedate Ööde Filmifestivali lõputseremoonia Vene Teatris (õhtujuht Mart Sander); võidufilm EurAasia võistluskavas "TumeSininePeaaeguMust", režissöör Daniel Sanchez Arevalo : Hispaania 2006. Parima Eesti filmi au sai Veiko Õunpuu "Tühirand". Lisatud nimekiri "Tähtsamad Pöffi auhinnad"

  18. ISS-studio: a prototype for a user-friendly tool for designing interactive experiments in problem solving environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Z.; van Albada, G.D.; Tirado-Ramos, A.; Zajac, K.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    In Problem Solving Environments (PSE), Interactive Simulation Systems (ISS) are an important interactive mode for studying complex scientific problems. But efficient and user-friendly tools for designing interactive experiments lack in many PSEs. Mechanisms, such as data flow and control flow

  19. The short circuit current improvement in P3HT:PCBM based polymer solar cell by introducing PSBTBT as additional electron donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lu; Shen, Liang; Mengd, Fanxu; Xu, Peng; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2014-05-01

    Here we demonstrate the influence of electron-donating polymer addition on the performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):1 -(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6) C61 (PCBM) solar cells. Poly[(4,42-bis(2-ethylhexyl) dithieno [3,2-b:22,32-d] silole)-2,6-diylalt-(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole)-4,7-diyl] (PSBTBT) was chosen as the electron-donating polymer to improve the short circuit current (J(sc)) due to its distinct absorption in the near-IR range and similar HOMO level with that of P3HT. In the study, we found that J(sc) was improved for ternary blend (P3HT:PSBTBT:PCBM) solar cells. The dependence of device performance was investigated. J(sc) got decreased with increasing the ratio of PSBTBT. Result showed that J(sc) of ternary blend solar cells was improved greatly after thermal annealing at 150 degrees C, close to that of the binary blend (PSBTBT:PCBM) solar cells.

  20. Rational design of tetraphenylethylene-based luminescent down-shifting molecules: photophysical studies and photovoltaic applications in a CdTe solar cell from small to large units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yilin; Li, Zhipeng; Ablekim, Tursunjan; Ren, Tianhui; Dong, Wen-Ji

    2014-12-21

    A rational design strategy of novel fluorophores for luminescent down-shifting (LDS) application was proposed and tested in this paper. Three new fluorophores (1a-c) with specific intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics were synthesized as LDS molecules for increasing the output short circuit current density (Jsc) of a CdTe solar cell. Photophysical studies of their solution and solid states, and photovoltaic measurements of their PMMA solid films applied on a CdTe solar cell suggested that the specific spectroscopic properties and Jsc enhancement effects of these molecules were highly related to their chemical structures. The Jsc enhancement effects of these fluorophores were measured on both a CdTe small cell and a large panel. An increase in the output Jsc by as high as 5.69% for a small cell and 8.88% for a large panel was observed. Compared to a traditional LDS molecule, Y083, these fluorophores exhibited more superior capabilities of LDS.

  1. Unique Capabilities of the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) Mission Concept to Study the Equatorial Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Minow, J. I.; Gallagher, D. L.; Hoegy, W. R.; Coffey, V. N.; Willis, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present an overview of a mission concept named Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) with a special focus here on low-latitude ionospheric plasma turbulence measurements relevant to equatorial spread-F. SASSI is a suite of sensors that improves Space Situational Awareness for the ISS local space environment, as well as unique ionospheric measurements and support active plasma experiments on the ISS. As such, the mission concept has both operational and basic research objectives. We will describe two compelling measurement techniques enabled by SASSI's unique mission architecture. That is, SASSI provides new abilities to 1) measure space plasma potentials in low Earth orbit over ~100 m relative to a common potential, and 2) to investigate multi-scale ionospheric plasma turbulence morphology simultaneously of both ~ 1 cm and ~ 10 m scale lengths. The first measurement technique will aid in the distinction of vertical drifts within equatorial plasma bubbles from the vertical motions of the bulk of the layer due to zonal electric fields. The second will aid in understanding ionospheric plasma turbulence cascading in scale sizes that affect over the horizon radar. During many years of ISS operation, we have conducted effective (but not perfect) human and robotic extravehicular activities within the space plasma environment surrounding the ISS structure. However, because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the space environment, there remain important sources of unpredictable environmental situations that affect operations. Examples of affected systems include EVA safety, solar panel efficiency, and scientific instrument integrity. Models and heuristically-derived best practices are well-suited for routine operations, but when it comes to unusual or anomalous events or situations, there is no substitute for real-time monitoring. SASSI is being designed to deploy and operate a suite of low-cost, medium/high-TRL plasma sensors on

  2. ASSESSMENT OF RELIABILITY AND RISK DEGREE FOR ACCIDENT INITIATION AT SLIME STORAGES OF 4th MINING ADMINISTRATION, JSC “BELARUSKALI”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Bohaslauchyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of reliability for dams of slime storage embankment is given on the basis of reliability theory and characteristics of reliability and their analysis are presented in the paper. The paper specifies qualitative indices for earth dams which are subdivided in two groups: applicability factors and structural reliability factors. A short analysis of all possible causes for accident initiation at earth dams has been made and the analysis has permitted to pinpoint eleven main objects for diagnosis for slime storage dams. In order to assess risk degree of accident initiation at JSC “Belaruskali” slime storages all possible causes of emergency cases and their probability of occurrence have been analyzed in the paper. The paper acknowledges the fact that dam malfunction is possible, as a rule, due to violation of operational rules and regulations. Main parameters of slime storage state which are to be controlled regularly in the process of its operation have been noted in the paper. Observation results over slime storages, calculations of dam slope stability for normal operation (a principal calculation case and operating irregularities in water seals (a special calculation case. As a stability margin factor is close to 1.0 for a special calculation case, an extreme position of depression curve has been determined for all design sections. It has been recommended to carry out a constant control over its position, and in the case when it reaches its peak value it is necessary to undertake appropriate measures in order to reduce its value. Final expert estimations on probability of accident initiation at the investigated slime storage dams of the 4th Mining Administration, JSC “Belaruskali” have been prepared on the basis of the analysis comprising all the required factors. A conclusion has been made about low risk degree of their destruction.

  3. ISS Squat and Deadlift Kinematics on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, N.; Caldwell, E.; Sibonga, J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2014-01-01

    Visual assessment of exercise form on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) on orbit is difficult due to the motion of the entire device on its Vibration Isolation System (VIS). The VIS allows for two degrees of device translational motion, and one degree of rotational motion. In order to minimize the forces that the VIS must damp in these planes of motion, the floor of the ARED moves as well during exercise to reduce changes in the center of mass of the system. To help trainers and other exercise personnel better assess squat and deadlift form a tool was developed that removes the VIS motion and creates a stick figure video of the exerciser. Another goal of the study was to determine whether any useful kinematic information could be obtained from just a single camera. Finally, the use of these data may aid in the interpretation of QCT hip structure data in response to ARED exercises performed in-flight. After obtaining informed consent, four International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers participated in this investigation. Exercise was videotaped using a single camera positioned to view the side of the crewmember during exercise on the ARED. One crewmember wore reflective tape on the toe, heel, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder joints. This technique was not available for the other three crewmembers, so joint locations were assessed and digitized frame-by-frame by lab personnel. A custom Matlab program was used to assign two-dimensional coordinates to the joint locations throughout exercise. A second custom Matlab program was used to scale the data, calculate joint angles, estimate the foot center of pressure (COP), approximate normal and shear loads, and to create the VIS motion-corrected stick figure videos. Kinematics for the squat and deadlift vary considerably for the four crewmembers in this investigation. Some have very shallow knee and hip angles, and others have quite large ranges of motion at these joints. Joint angle analysis showed that crewmembers

  4. Investigating the Response and Expansion of Plasma Plumes in a Mesosonic Plasma Using the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoegy, W. R.; Krause, L. Habash; Minow, J. I.; Coffey, V. N.

    2014-01-01

    To study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the International Space Station (ISS) and the ISS space vehicle, we are exploring a specialized suite of plasma sensors, manipulated by the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) to probe the near-ISS mesosonic plasma ionosphere moving past the ISS. It is proposed that SASSI consists of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Thermal Ion Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TICHS), Thermal Electron Capped Hemispherical Spectrometer (TECHS), Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), the Collimated PhotoElectron Gun (CPEG), and the University of Michigan Advanced Langmuir Probe (ALP). There are multiple expected applications for SASSI. Here, we will discuss the study of fundamental plasma physics questions associated with how an emitted plasma plume (such as from the ISS Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU)) responds and expands in a mesosonic magnetoplasma as well as emit and collect current. The ISS PCU Xe plasma plume drifts through the ionosphere and across the Earth's magnetic field, resulting in complex dynamics. This is of practical and theoretical interest pertaining to contamination concerns (e.g. energetic ion scattering) and the ability to collect and emit current between the spacecraft and the ambient plasma ionosphere. This impacts, for example, predictions of electrodynamic tether current performance using plasma contactors as well as decisions about placing high-energy electric propulsion thrusters on ISS. We will discuss the required measurements and connection to proposed instruments for this study.

  5. Analysis of Adult Female Mouse (Mus musculus) Group Behavior on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomides, P.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.; Ronca, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    As interest in long duration effects of space habitation increases, understanding the behavior of model organisms living within the habitats engineered to fly them is vital for designing, validating, and interpreting future spaceflight studies. A handful of papers have previously reported behavior of mice and rats in the weightless environment of space. The Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1; RR1) utilized the Rodent Habitat (RH) developed at NASA Ames Research Center to fly mice on the ISS (International Space Station). Ten adult (16-week-old) female C57BL/6 mice were launched on September 21st, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, and spent 37 days in microgravity. Here we report group behavioral phenotypes of the RR1 Flight (FLT) and environment-matched Ground Control (GC) mice in the Rodent Habitat (RH) during this long-duration flight. Video was recorded for 33 days on the ISS, permitting daily assessments of overall health and well-being of the mice, and providing a valuable repository for detailed behavioral analysis. We previously reported that, as compared to GC mice, RR1 FLT mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploration, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Overall activity was greater in FLT as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior, including organized 'circling' or 'race-tracking' behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight following a common developmental sequence, and comprised the primary dark cycle activity persisting throughout the remainder of the experiment. Participation by individual mice increased dramatically over the course of the flight. Here we present a detailed analysis of 'race-tracking' behavior in which we quantified: (1) Complete lap rotations by individual mice; (2) Numbers of collisions between circling mice; (3) Lap directionality; and (4) Recruitment of mice into a group

  6. Multiphase Transport in Porous Media: Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients International Space Station (ISS) Flight Experiment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation

  7. DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimerty used to follow the evolution of W/O emulsions versus time on ground and in space in the ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drelich Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of W/O emulsion versus time in microgravity conditions has been studied in the framework of the FASES (Fundamental and Applied Studies on Emulsion Stability project sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA. The objective of this study was to investigate the evolution of W/O emulsions made of water + paraffin oil + SPAN 80® under purely diffusive conditions (no gravity driven effects and to compare with evolution of similar emulsions observed on ground. A correlation between the state of dispersion of water and either the freezing temperature during cooling, or the freezing time at a fixed temperature was used to follow the emulsion evolution versus time. For that purpose, two identical calorimeters were built by Airbus (formerly EADS with the support of the French company SETARAM: The Flight Model (FM located onboard the International Space Station (ISS and the Engineering Model (EM located at the TELESPAZIO Centre in Naples. Dedicated cells were filled on ground with different formulations of W/O emulsions and identical experiments were performed with the FM and the EM models in order to highlight the differences in emulsion evolution. On ground, the experiments were performed by cooling and heating the calorimeter between 40 °C and −60 °C but due to technical constraints in the FM, the experiments performed in the FSL (Fluid Science Laboratory of the ISS were limited to a lowest temperature of −22 °C. The results obtained with the FM confirmed the formation of emulsions in the dedicated cell with the selected stirring system in space. These results also demonstrated that it is possible to detect the freezing and the melting of the water droplets with the designed calorimeter either during cooling and heating phases or versus time during a temperature holding period at −22 °C. Furthermore, the comparison between both results obtained with the EM on ground and with the FM in space revealed distinct

  8. A Decision Support Framework for Feasibility Analysis of International Space Station (ISS) Research Capability Enhancing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, James N.; Scott,Kelly; Smith, Harold

    2004-01-01

    The assembly and operation of the ISS has generated significant challenges that have ultimately impacted resources available to the program's primary mission: research. To address this, program personnel routinely perform trade-off studies on alternative options to enhance research. The approach, content level of analysis and resulting outputs of these studies vary due to many factors, however, complicating the Program Manager's job of selecting the best option. To address this, the program requested a framework be developed to evaluate multiple research-enhancing options in a thorough, disciplined and repeatable manner, and to identify the best option on the basis of cost, benefit and risk. The resulting framework consisted of a systematic methodology and a decision-support toolset. The framework provides quantifiable and repeatable means for ranking research-enhancing options for the complex and multiple-constraint domain of the space research laboratory. This paper describes the development, verification and validation of this framework and provides observations on its operational use.

  9. AVGS, AR and D for Satellites, ISS, the Moon, Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Geoffrey C.; Cornett, Keith G.; Rahmatipour, Michael H.; Heaton, Andrew F.; Newman, Larry E.; Fleischmann, Kevin D.; Hamby, Byron J.

    2007-01-01

    With the continuous need to rotate crew and re-supply the International Space Station (ISS) and the desire to return humans to the Moon and for the first time, place humans on Mars, NASA must develop a more robust and highly reliable capability to perform Autonomous Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) because, unlike the Apollo missions, NASA plans to send the entire crew to the Lunar or Martian surface and must be able to dock with the Orion spacecraft upon return. In 1997, NASA developed the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) which was flown and tested on STS-87 and STS-95. In 2001, NASA designed and built a more enhanced version of the VGS, called the Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS). The AVGS offered significant technology improvements to the precursor VGS design. This paper will describe the AVGS as it was in the DART mission of 2005 and the Orbital Express mission of 2007. The paper will describe the capabilities and design concepts of the AVGS as it was flown on the DART 2005 Mission and the DARPA Orbital Express Mission slated to fly in 2007. The paper will cover the Flight Software, problems encountered, testing for Orbital Express and where NASA is going in the future.

  10. 8 years of Solar Spectral Irradiance Observations from the ISS with the SOLAR/SOLSPEC Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, L.; Bolsée, D.; Meftah, M.; Irbah, A.; Hauchecorne, A.; Bekki, S.; Pereira, N.; Cessateur, G.; Marchand, M.; Thiéblemont, R.; Foujols, T.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate measurements of Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and of the impact of solar variability on climate (via Earth's atmospheric photochemistry). The acquisition of a top of atmosphere reference solar spectrum and of its temporal and spectral variability during the unusual solar cycle 24 is of prime interest for these studies. These measurements are performed since April 2008 with the SOLSPEC spectro-radiometer from the far ultraviolet to the infrared (166 nm to 3088 nm). This instrument, developed under a fruitful LATMOS/BIRA-IASB collaboration, is part of the Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR) payload, externally mounted on the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS). The SOLAR mission, with its actual 8 years duration, will cover almost the entire solar cycle 24. We present here the in-flight operations and performances of the SOLSPEC instrument, including the engineering corrections, calibrations and improved know-how procedure for aging corrections. Accordingly, a SSI reference spectrum from the UV to the NIR will be presented, together with its UV variability, as measured by SOLAR/SOLSPEC. Uncertainties on these measurements and comparisons with other instruments will be briefly discussed.

  11. Optical system for the Protein Crystallisation Diagnostics Facility (PCDF) on board the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joannes, Luc; Dupont, Olivier; Dewandel, Jean-Luc; Ligot, Renaud; Algrain, Hervé

    2004-06-01

    The Protein Crystallisation Diagnostic Facility (PCDF) is a multi-user facility to study the protein crystallisation under the conditions of micro-gravity onboard the International Space Station (ISS) Columbus facility. Large size protein crystals will growth under reduced gravity in thermally controlled reactors. A combination of diagnostic tools like video system, microscope, interferometer, and light scattering device shall help to understand the growth phenomena. Common methods of protein crystallisation shall be performed in PCDF: Dialysis where the protein solution and the salt solution are separated by a semi-permeable membrane. Extended Length Dialysis Batch where the saturation to get crystals is achieved by changing the concentration of the protein in the sample liquid. The overall ESA project is leaded by EADS Space Transportation, Friedrichshafen, Germany. Lambda-X is responsible for the Optical System (OS), with Verhaert Design and Development as sub-contractor for the mechanical design. The OS includes different compact parts: Original illumination systems based on LEDs of difference colours; Quantitative Mach-Zehnder interferometers to measure the concentration distribution around crystals; Imaging assemblies to visualize the protein volume with different field of views. The paper concentrates on the description of each part, and in particular on the imaging assembly which allow switching from one field of view to another by passive elements only.

  12. Opportunities for Maturing Precision Metrology with Ultracold Gas Studies Aboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; D'Incao, Jose

    2017-04-01

    Precision atom interferometers (AI) in space are expected to become an enabling technology for future fundamental physics research, with proposals including unprecedented tests of the validity of the weak equivalence principle, measurements of the fine structure and gravitational constants, and detection of gravity waves and dark matter/dark energy. We will discuss our preparation at JPL to use NASA's Cold Atom Lab facility (CAL) to mature the technology of precision, space-based, AIs. The focus of our flight project is three-fold: a) study the controlled dynamics of heteronuclear Feshbach molecules, at temperatures of nano-Kelvins or below, as a means to overcome uncontrolled density-profile-dependent shifts in differential AIs, b) demonstrate unprecedented atom-photon coherence times with spatially constrained AIs, c) use the imaging capabilities of CAL to detect and analyze spatial fringe patterns written onto the clouds after AI and thereby measure the rotational noise of the ISS. The impact from this work, and potential for follow-on studies, will also be reviewed in the context of future space-based fundamental physics missions. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project -2006 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. This paper presents a status of the coolant stability over the past year as well as results from destructive analyses of hardware removed from the on-orbit system and the current approach to coolant remediation.

  14. Realtime Knowledge Management (RKM): From an International Space Station (ISS) Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter I.; McDermott, William; Alena, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing automated methods to provide realtime access to spacecraft domain knowledge relevant a spacecraft's current operational state. The method is based upon analyzing state-transition signatures in the telemetry stream. A key insight is that documentation relevant to a specific failure mode or operational state is related to the structure and function of spacecraft systems. This means that diagnostic dependency and state models can provide a roadmap for effective documentation navigation and presentation. Diagnostic models consume the telemetry and derive a high-level state description of the spacecraft. Each potential spacecraft state description is matched against the predictions of models that were developed from information found in the pages and sections in the relevant International Space Station (ISS) documentation and reference materials. By annotating each model fragment with the domain knowledge sources from which it was derived we can develop a system that automatically selects those documents representing the domain knowledge encapsulated by the models that compute the current spacecraft state. In this manner, when the spacecraft state changes, the relevant documentation context and presentation will also change.

  15. Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews - The Ocular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C.; Barr, Y.; Platts, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sargsyan, A.; Alexander, D.; Riascos, R.; Gibson, C.; Patel, N.

    2015-01-01

    The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is currently NASA's number one human space flight risk. The syndrome, which is related to microgravity exposure, manifests with changes in visual acuity (hyperopic shifts, scotomas), changes in eye structure (optic disc edema, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, globe flattening, and dilated optic nerve sheaths), and in some cases with documented increased intracranial pressure (ICP) postflight. While the eye appears to be the main affected end organ of this syndrome, the ocular effects are thought to be related to underlying changes in the vascular system and the central nervous system. The leading hypotheses for the development of VIIP involve microgravity-induced head-ward fluid shifts along with a loss of gravity-assisted drainage of venous blood from the brain, leading to cephalic congestion, decreased CSF resorption and increased ICP. Since 70% of ISS crewmembers have manifested clinical signs or symptoms of the VIIP syndrome, it is assumed that the majority have some degree of ICP elevation in-flight compared to the ground. Prolonged elevations of ICP can cause long-term reduced visual acuity and loss of peripheral visual fields, and have been reported to cause mild cognitive impairment in the analog terrestrial population of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). These potentially irreversible health consequences underscore the importance of identifying the factors that lead to this syndrome and mitigating them.

  16. Industrial cost assessment for ITER tritium plant system (water distillation, VPCE and ISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, S.K.; Kalyanam, K.M.; Fong, C.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this Industrial Cost Assessment Task for ITER Tritium Plant System consists of providing and order of magnitude cost estimate for the following major subsystems, as outlined in the Scope of Task Agreement and Work Program: water distillation (WD) system, vapour phase catalytic exchange (VPCE) system and the isotope separation system (ISS). The methodology adopted in preparing the order of magnitude cost estimate for the above three subsystems of the ITER tritium plant system is based on building the estimate from the ground up, starting with equipment cost estimates, and adding labour activities separately for engineering, fabrication, assembly, testing installation commissioning, etc. The estimate has been developed assuming that the systems are to be engineered, fabricated and constructed in Canada, (to comply with the Codes, Standards, QA and Seismic Classification applicable in Canada) since information on ITER siting is not currently available. The estimate is based on Ontario Hydro in house cost data on similar systems and equipment, such as the heavy water upgrading plants. The cost estimates are not based on quotations from suppliers for specific ITER components, since this would require completion of detailed design and specifications. 4 refs., 9 tabs., 7 figs

  17. Aerobic Capacity Following Long Duration International Spaces Station (ISS) Missions: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, S.M.C.; Everett, M.E.; Guined, J.R.; Knudsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced immediately following space flights lasting 6%. WRmax also decreased on R+1/2 compared to preflight (Pre: 245+/-69, R+1/2: 210+/-45 W). On R+10, VO2max was 2.86+/-0.62 L(dot)/min, with 2 subjects still demonstrating a loss of > 6% from preflight. WRmax on R+10 was 240+/-49 W. HRmax did not change from pre to post-flight. Conclusions: These preliminary results, from the first 5 of 12 planned subjects of an ongoing ISS study, suggest that the majority of astronauts will experience a decrease in VO2max after long-duration space-flight. Interestingly, the two astronauts with the highest preflight VO2max had the greatest loss on R+1/2, and the astronaut with the lowest preflight VO2max increased by 13%. Thus, maintenance of VO2max may be more difficult in astronauts who have a high aerobic capacity, perhaps requiring more intense in-flight exercise countermeasure prescriptions.

  18. Chemical Characterization and Identification of Organosilicon Contaminants in ISS Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Gazda, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    2015 marked the 15th anniversary of continuous human presence on board the International Space Station. During the past year crew members from Expeditions 42-46, including two participating in a one-year mission, continued to rely on reclaimed water as their primary source of potable water. This paper presents and discusses results from chemical analyses performed on ISS water samples returned in 2015. Since the U.S. water processor assembly (WPA) became operational in 2008, there have been 5 instances of organic contaminants breaking through the treatment process. On each occasion, the breakthrough was signaled by an increase in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration in the product water measured by the onboard TOC analyzer (TOCA). Although the most recent TOC rise in 2015 was not unexpected, it was the first time where dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) was not the primary compound responsible for the increase. Results from ground analysis of a product water sample collected in June of 2015 and returned on Soyuz 41 showed that DMSD only accounted for 10% of the measured TOC. After considerable laboratory investigation, the compound responsible for the majority of the TOC was identified as monomethysilanetriol (MMST). MMST is a low-toxicity compound that is structurally similar to DMSD.

  19. Dose characteristics and LET spectra on and inside the spherical phantom onboard of ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadrnickova, I.; Brabcova, K.; Mrazova, Z.; Spurny, F.; Shurshakov, V.A.; Kartsev, I.S.; Tolochek, R.V.

    2010-01-01

    To estimate the radiation risk of spacecraft crew during the mission, it is necessary to measure dose distribution at various compartments, on and inside the human body that can be simulated using various phantoms. Due to some convenient characteristics (especially small weight and dimensions), passive detectors are used to measure dosimetric quantities onboard spacecraft. This contribution deals with the measurement of dosimetric characteristics and spectra of linear energy transfer (LET) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) during two experiments with tissue-equivalent spherical Russian phantom MATROSHKA-R realized in years 2006 and 2008. To obtain LET spectra, total absorbed doses, and dose equivalents, we used combination of plastic nuclear track detectors and thermoluminescence detectors. The detectors were placed at various locations on the surface of the MATROSHKA-R phantom; some detectors were also inserted inside this phantom. The variation of dosimetric quantities obtained during both missions is discussed. The dose characteristics vary with the position of the detectors on or inside the phantom; the absorbed dose and dose equivalent can differ almost twice.

  20. Haze and cloud structure of Saturn's North Pole and Hexagon Wave from Cassini/ISS imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Requena, J. F.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Antuñano, A.; Irwin, Patrick G. J.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we present a study of the vertical haze and cloud structure in the upper two bars of Saturn's Northern Polar atmosphere using the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) instrument onboard the Cassini spacecraft. We focus on the characterization of latitudes from 53° to 90° N. The observations were taken during June 2013 with five different filters (VIO, BL1, MT2, CB2 and MT3) covering spectral range from the 420 nm to 890 nm (in a deep methane absorption band). Absolute reflectivity measurements of seven selected regions at all wavelengths and several illumination and observation geometries are compared with the values produced by a radiative transfer model. The changes in reflectivity at these latitudes are mostly attributed to changes in the tropospheric haze. This includes the haze base height (from 600 ± 200 mbar at the lowest latitudes to 1000 ± 300 mbar in the pole), its particle number density (from 20 ± 2 particles/cm3 to 2 ± 0.5 particles/cm3 at the haze base) and its scale height (from 18 ± 0.1 km to 50 ± 0.1 km). We also report variability in the retrieved particle size distribution and refractive indices. We find that the Hexagonal Wave dichotomizes the studied stratospheric and tropospheric hazes between the outer, equatorward regions and the inner, Polar Regions. This suggests that the wave or the jet isolates the particle distribution at least at tropospheric levels.

  1. Time Distribution Using SpaceWire in the SCaN Testbed on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes an approach for timekeeping and time transfer among the devices on the CoNNeCT project s SCaN Testbed. It also describes how the clocks may be synchronized with an external time reference; e.g., time tags from the International Space Station (ISS) or RF signals received by a radio (TDRSS time service or GPS). All the units have some sort of counter that is fed by an oscillator at some convenient frequency. The basic problem in timekeeping is relating the counter value to some external time standard such as UTC. With SpaceWire, there are two approaches possible: one is to just use SpaceWire to send a message, and use an external wire for the sync signal. This is much the same as with the RS- 232 messages and l pps line from a GPS receiver. However, SpaceWire has an additional capability that was added to make it easier - it can insert and receive a special "timecode" word in the data stream.

  2. Exploratory Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Levels, Ultrasound and Optical Coherence Tomography Measures of the Eye During ISS Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C.; Coble, C.; Mason, S.; Young, M.; Wear, M. L.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Patel, N.; Gibson, C.; Alexander, D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on board the International Space Station (ISS) have typically averaged 2.3 to 5.3 mmHg, with large fluctuations occurring over periods of hours and days. CO2 has effects on cerebral vascular tone, resulting in vasodilation and alteration of cerebral blood flow (CBF). Increased CBF leads to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), a factor leading to visual disturbances, headaches, and other central nervous system symptoms. Ultrasound of the optic nerve and optical coherence tomography (OCT) provide surrogate measurements of ICP; in-flight measurements of both were implemented as enhanced screening tools for the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. This analysis examines the relationships between ambient CO2 levels on ISS, ultrasound and OCT measures of the eye in an effort to understand how CO2 may possibly be associated with VIIP and to inform future analysis of in-flight VIIP data.

  3. STS-105/Discovery/ISS 7A.1: Pre-Launch Activities, Launch, Orbit Activities and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The crew of Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-105 is introduced at their pre-launch meal and at suit-up. The crew members include Commander Scott Horowitz, Pilot Rick Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Patrick Forrester and Daniel Barry, together with the Expedition 3 crew of the International Space Station (ISS). The Expedition 3 crew includes Commander Frank Culbertson, Soyuz Commander Vladimir Dezhurov, and Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin. When the astronauts depart for the launch pad in the Astrovan, their convoy is shown from above. Upon reaching the launch pad, they conduct a walk around of the shuttle, display signs for family members while being inspected in the White Room, and are strapped into their seats onboard Disciovery. The video includes footage of Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility, and some of the pre-launch procedures at the Launch Control Center are shown. The angles of launch replays include: TV-1, Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad A, Tower 1, UCS-15, Grandstand, OTV-70, Onboard, IGOR, and UCS-23. The moment of docking between Discovery and the ISS is shown from inside Discovery's cabin. While in orbit, the crew conducted extravehicular activities (EVAs) to attach an experiments container, and install handrails on the Destiny module of the ISS. The video shows the docking and unloading of the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) onto the ISS. The deployment of a satellite from Discovery with the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the background is shown. Cape Canaveral is also shown from space. Landing replays include VAB, Tower 1, mid-field, South End SLF, North End SLF, Tower 2, Playalinda DOAMS, UCS-23, and Pilot Point of View (PPOV). NASA Administrator Dan Goldin meets the crew upon landing and participates in their walk around of Discovery. The video concludes with a short speech by commander Horowitz.

  4. Measurement of dose distribution in the spherical phantom onboard the ISS-KIBO module -MATROSHKA-R in KIBO-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodaira, Satoshi; Kawashima, Hajime; Kurano, Mieko; Uchihori, Yukio; Nikolaev, Igor; Ambrozova, Iva; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kartsev, Ivan; Tolochek, Raisa; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav

    The measurement of dose equivalent and effective dose during manned space missions on the International Space Station (ISS) is important for evaluating the risk to astronaut health and safety when exposed to space radiation. The dosimetric quantities are constantly changing and strongly depend on the level of solar activity and the various spacecraft- and orbit-dependent parameters such as the shielding distribution in the ISS module, location of the spacecraft within its orbit relative to the Earth, the attitude (orientation) and altitude. Consequently, the continuous monitoring of dosimetric quantities is required to record and evaluate the personal radiation dose for crew members during spaceflight. The dose distributions in the phantom body and on its surface give crucial information to estimate the dose equivalent in the human body and effective dose in manned space mission. We have measured the absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates using passive dosimeters installed in the spherical phantom in Japanese Experiment Module (“KIBO”) of the ISS in the framework of Matroshka-R space experiment. The exposure duration was 114 days from May 21 to September 12, 2012. The phantom consists of tissue-equivalent material covered with a poncho jacket with 32 pockets on its surface and 20 container rods inside of the phantom. The phantom diameter is 35 cm and the mass is 32 kg. The passive dosimeters consisted of a combination of luminescent detectors of Al _{2}O _{3};C OSL and CaSO _{4}:Dy TLD and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. As one of preliminary results, the dose distribution on the phantom surface measured with OSL detectors installed in the jacket pockets is found to be ranging from 340 muGy/day to 260 muGy/day. In this talk, we will present the detail dose distributions, and variations of LET spectra and quality factor obtained outside and inside of the spherical phantom installed in the ISS-KIBO.

  5. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: long-term dose monitoring onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on Earth, consisting mostly of highly energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on Earth for occupational radiation workers. Since the beginning of the space era, the radiation exposure during space missions has been monitored with various active and passive radiation instruments. Also onboard the International Space Station (ISS, a number of area monitoring devices provide data related to the spatial and temporal variation of the radiation field in and outside the ISS. The aim of the DOSIS (2009–2011 and the DOSIS 3D (2012–ongoing experiments was and is to measure the radiation environment within the European Columbus Laboratory of the ISS. These measurements are, on the one hand, performed with passive radiation detectors mounted at 11 locations within Columbus for the determination of the spatial distribution of the radiation field parameters and, on the other, with two active radiation detectors mounted at a fixed position inside Columbus for the determination of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. Data measured with passive radiation detectors showed that the absorbed dose values inside the Columbus Laboratory follow a pattern, based on the local shielding configuration of the radiation detectors, with minimum dose values observed in the year 2010 of 195–270 μGy/day and maximum values observed in the year 2012 with values ranging from 260 to 360 μGy/day. The absorbed dose is modulated by (a the variation in solar activity and (b the changes in ISS altitude.

  6. Human Behavior and Performance Support for ISS Operations and Astronaut Selections: NASA Operational Psychology for Six-Crew Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderArk, Steve; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert; Cockrell, Gabrielle

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioral Health and Performance group at NASA Johnson Space Center provides psychological support services and behavioral health monitoring for ISS astronauts and their families. The ISS began as an austere outpost with minimal comforts of home and minimal communication capabilities with family, friends, and colleagues outside of the Mission Control Center. Since 1998, the work of international partners involved in the Space Flight Human Behavior and Performance Working Group has prepared high-level requirements for behavioral monitoring and support. The "buffet" of services from which crewmembers can choose has increased substantially. Through the process of development, implementation, reviewing effectiveness and modifying as needed, the NASA and Wyle team have proven successful in managing the psychological health and well being of the crews and families with which they work. Increasing the crew size from three to six brought additional challenges. For the first time, all partners had to collaborate at the planning and implementation level, and the U.S. served as mentor to extrapolate their experiences to the others. Parity in available resources, upmass, and stowage had to be worked out. Steady progress was made in improving off-hours living and making provisions for new technologies within a system that has difficulty moving quickly on certifications. In some respect, the BHP support team fell victim to its previous successes. With increasing numbers of crewmembers in training, requests to engage our services spiraled upward. With finite people and funds, a cap had to placed on many services to ensure that parity could be maintained. The evolution of NASA BHP services as the ISS progressed from three- to six-crew composition will be reviewed, and future challenges that may be encountered as the ISS matures in its assembly-complete state will be discussed.

  7. International Scientific Studies Conference (ISS09), Vienna, Austria, 10-12 June 2009. First announcement and call for papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The results of the scientific studies carried out will be presented at the International Scientific Studies Conference - the ISS09 Conference - in Vienna, Austria. The Conference will focus on issues related to the capability and readiness of the CTBT's verification regime to detect nuclear explosions worldwide. It will also address how the verification regime has benefited from scientific and technical developments since the Treaty opened for signature in 1996.

  8. Metal Matrix Composite Solar Cell Metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilt David M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced solar cells are moving to ever thinner formats in order to save mass and in some cases improve performance. As cells are thinned, the possibility that they may fracture or cleave due to mechanical stresses is increased. Fractures of the cell can degrade the overall device performance if the fracture propagates through the contact metallization, which frequently occurs. To address this problem, a novel semiconductor metallization system based on multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT reinforcement, termed metal matrix composite (MMC metallization is under investigation. Electro-mechanical characterization of MMC films demonstrate their ability to provide electrical conductivity over >40 micron wide cracks in the underlying semiconductor, with the carbon nanotubes bridging the gap. In addition, these materials show a “self-healing” behaviour, electrically reconnecting at ~30 microns when strained past failure. Triple junction (TJ space cells with MMC metallization demonstrated no loss in Jsc after intentional fracture, whereas TJ cells with conventional metallization suffer up to 50% Jsc loss.

  9. Utilization of ISS to Develop and Test Operational Concepts and Hardware for Low-Gravity Terrestrial EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA has considerable experience in two areas of Extravehicular Activities (EVA). The first can be defined as microgravity, orbital EVAs. This consists of everything done in low Earth orbit (LEO), from the early, proof of concept EVAs conducted during the Gemini program of the 1960s, to the complex International Space Station (ISS) assembly tasks of the first decade of the 21st century. The second area of expertise is comprised of those EVAs conducted on the lunar surface, under a gravitational force one-sixth that of Earth. This EVA expertise encapsulates two extremes - microgravity and Earthlike gravitation - but is insufficient as humans expand their exploration purview, most notably with respect to spacewalks conducted on very low-gravity bodies, such as near- Earth objects (NEO) and the moons of Mars. The operational and technical challenges of this category of EVA have yet to be significantly examined, and as such, only a small number of operational concepts have been proposed thus far. To ensure mission success, however, EVA techniques must be developed and vetted to allow the selection of operational concepts that can be utilized across an assortment of destinations whose physical characteristics vary. This paper examines the utilization of ISS-based EVAs to test operational concepts and hardware in preparation for a low-gravity terrestrial EVA. While the ISS cannot mimic some of the fundamental challenges of a low-gravity terrestrial EVA - such as rotation rate and surface composition - it may be the most effective test bed available.

  10. The Story Behind the Numbers: Lessons Learned from the Integration of Monitoring Resources in Addressing an ISS Water Quality Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Torin; Flint, Stephanie; Straub, John, II; Gazda, Dan; Schultz, John

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in June of 2010 an environmental mystery was unfolding on the International Space Station (ISS). The U.S. Water Processor Assembly (WPA) began to produce water with increasing levels of total organic carbon (TOC). A surprisingly consistent upward TOC trend was observed through weekly in-flight total organic carbon analyzer (TOCA) monitoring. As TOC is a general organics indicator, return of water archive samples was needed to make better-informed crew health decisions and to aid in WPA troubleshooting. TOCA-measured TOC was more than halfway to its health-based screening limit before archive samples could be returned on Soyuz 22 and analyzed. Although TOC was confirmed to be elevated, somewhat surprisingly, none of the typical target compounds were the source. After some solid detective work, it was confirmed that the TOC was associated with a compound known as dimethylsilanediol (DMSD). DMSD is believed to be a breakdown product of silicon-containing compounds present on ISS. A toxicological limit was set for DMSD and a forward plan developed for operations given this new understanding of the source of the TOC. This required extensive coordination with ISS stakeholders and innovative use of available in-flight and archive monitoring resources. Behind the numbers and scientific detail surrounding this anomaly, there exists a compelling story of multi-disciplinary awareness, teamwork, and important environmental lessons learned.

  11. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Molecular characterization of Bacillus issensis sp. nov. isolated from various quarters of the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of an ongoing effort to catalogue microbial communities inhabiting the International Space Station (ISS) crew-associated environmental samples were collected...

  12. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  13. ISS modeling strategy for the numerical simulation of turbulent sub-channel liquid-vapor flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier Lebaigue; Benoit Mathieu; Didier Jamet

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The general objective is to perform numerical simulation of the liquid-vapor turbulent two-phase flows that occur in sub-channels of a nuclear plant assembly under nominal or incidental situations. Additional features concern nucleate boiling at the surface of fuel rods and the sliding of vapor bubbles on this surface with possible dynamic contact lines. The Interfaces and Sub-grid Scales (ISS) modeling strategy for numerical simulations is one of the possible two-phase equivalents for the one-phase LES concept. It consists in solving the two-phase flows features at the scales that are resolved by the grid of the numerical method, and to take into account the unresolved scales with sub-grid models. Interfaces are tracked in a DNS-like approach while specific features of the behavior of interfaces such as contact line physics, coalescence and fragmentation, and the smallest scales of turbulence within each phase have an unresolved scale part that is modeled. The problem of the modeling of the smallest scales of turbulence is rather simple even if the classical situation is altered by the presence of the interfaces. In a typical sub-channel situation (e.g., 15 MPa and 3.5 m.s -1 water flow in a PWR sub-channel), the Kolmogorov scale is ca. 1 μm whereas typical bubble size are supposed to be close to 150 μm. Therefore, the use of a simple sub-grid model between, e.g., 1 and 20 μm allows a drastic reduction of the number of nodes in the space discretization while it remains possible to validate by comparison to true DNS results. Other sub-grid models have been considered to recover physical phenomena that cannot be captured with a realistic discretization: they rely on physical scales from molecular size to 1 μm. In these cases, the use of sub-grid model is no longer a matter of CPU-time and memory saving only, but also a corner stone to recover physical behavior. From this point of view at least we are no longer performing true

  14. Rodent Habitat on ISS: Advances in Capability for Determining Spaceflight Effects on Mammalian Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, R. K.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Ronca, A.; Taylor, E.; Beegle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Rodent research is a valuable essential tool for advancing biomedical discoveries in life sciences on Earth and in space. The National Research Counsel's Decadal survey (1) emphasized the importance of expanding NASAs life sciences research to perform long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, new flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities were developed at NASA ARC to support commercial and government-sponsored research. The flight phases of two separate spaceflight missions (Rodent Research-1 and Rodent Research-2) have been completed and new capabilities are in development. The first flight experiments carrying 20 mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4; Rodent Research-1 was dedicated to achieving both NASA validation and CASIS science objectives, while Rodent Reesearch-2 extended the period on orbit to 60 days. Groundbased control groups (housed in flight hardware or standard cages) were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Crewmembers previously trained in animal handling transferred mice from the Transporter into Habitats under simultaneous veterinary supervision by video streaming and were deemed healthy. Health and behavior of all mice on the ISS was monitored by video feed on a daily basis, and post-flight quantitative analyses of behavior were performed. The 10 mice from RR-1 Validation (16wk old, female C57Bl6/J) ambulated freely and actively throughout the Habitat, relying heavily on their forelimbs for locomotion. The first on-orbit dissections of mice were performed successfully, and high quality RNA (RIN values>9) and liver enzyme activities were obtained, validating the quality of sample recovery. Post-flight sample analysis revealed that body weights of FLT animals did not differ from ground controls (GC) housed in the same hardware, or vivarium controls (VIV) housed in standard cages. Organ weights analyzed post

  15. All-inorganic inverse perovskite solar cells using zinc oxide nanocolloids on spin coated perovskite layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Naoyuki; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Fukumoto, Shota; Baranwal, Ajay K.; Segawa, Hiroshi; Miyasaka, Tsutomu; Ito, Seigo

    2017-07-01

    We confirmed the influence of ZnO nanoparticle size and residual water on performance of all inorganic perovskite solar cells. By decreasing the size of the ZnO nanoparticles, the short-circuit current density ( Jsc) and open circuit photovoltage ( Voc) values are increased and the conversion efficiency is improved. Although the Voc value is not affected by the influence of residual water in the solution for preparing the ZnO layer, the Jsc value drops greatly. As a result, it was found that it is important to use the oxide nanoparticles with a small particle diameter and to reduce the water content in the oxide forming material in order to manufacture a highly efficient all inorganic perovskite solar cells.

  16. Dynamics of Saturn’s 2010 Great White Spot from high-resolution Cassini ISS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.

    2012-10-01

    On December 5th 2010 a storm erupted in Saturn’s North Temperate latitudes which were experiencing early spring season. The storm quickly developed to a planet-wide disturbance of the Great White Spot type. The ISS instrument onboard Cassini acquired its first images of the storm on 23th December 2010 and performed repeated observations with a variety of spatial resolutions over the nearly 10 months period the storm continued active. Here we present an analysis of two of the image sequences with better spatial resolution of the mature storm when it was fully developed and very active. We used an image correlation algorithm to measure the cloud motions obtained from images separated 20 minutes and obtained 16,000 wind tracers in a domain of 60 degrees longitude per 20 degrees in latitude. Intense zonal and meridional motions accompanied the storm and reached values of 120 m/s in particular regions of the active storm. The storm released a chain of anticyclonic and cyclonic vortices at planetocentric latitudes of 36° and 32° respectively. The short time difference between the images results in estimated wind uncertainties of 15 m/s that did not allow to perform a complete analysis of the turbulence and kinetic spectrum of the motions. We identify locations of the updrafts and link those with the morphology in different observing filters. The global behaviour of the storm was examined in images separated by 10 hours confirming the intensity of the winds and the global behaviour of the vortices. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN project AYA2009-10701 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55.

  17. A Strong High Altitude Narrow Jet At Saturn'S Equator From Cassini/ISS Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Melendo, Enrique; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Legarreta, J.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Hueso, R.

    2010-10-01

    The intense equatorial eastward jets observed at cloud level in Jupiter and Saturn, represent a major challenge for geophysical fluid dynamics. Saturn's equatorial jet is of particular interest in view of its three dimensional structure, suspected large temporal variability, and related stratospheric semiannual oscillation. Here we report the discovery at the upper cloud level of an extremely narrow and strong jet centered in the middle of the broad equatorial jet. Previously published works on Saturn's equatorial winds at cloud level provided only a partial coverage. Automatic correlation of brightness scans and manually tracked cloud features, retrieved from images obtained by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), show that the jet reaches 430 ms-1 with a peak speed difference of 180 ms-1 relative to nearby latitudes at 60 mbar and 390 ms-1 at depths > 500 mbar. Images were obtained in two filters: MT3, centred at the 889nm strong methane absorption band, and CB3 centred at the near infrared 939nm continuum, which are sensitive to different altitude levels at the upper clouds and hazes. Contrarily to what is observed in other latitudes, its velocity increases with altitude. Our findings helps to extend the view we have of the equatorial stratospheric dynamics of fast rotating planets beyond the best known terrestrial environment, and extract more general consequences of the interaction between waves and mean flow. It remains to be known if this equatorial jet structure, now determined in detail in three dimensions, is permanent or variable with the seasonal solar insolation cycle, including the variable shadow cast by the rings. EGM, ASL, JL, SPH, and RH have been funded by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and ASL, JL, SPH, and RH by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07

  18. Investigation of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes Using Cassini ISS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, David S.; Showman, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present updated analysis of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology from Cassini observations. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach, the ISS onboard regularly imaged the atmosphere. We created time-lapse movies from this period in order to analyze the dynamics of equatorial 5-micron hot spots and their interactions with adjacent latitudes. Hot spots are quasi-stable, rectangular dark areas on visible-wavelength images, with defined eastern edges that sharply contrast with surrounding clouds, but a diffuse western edge serving as a nebulous boundary with adjacent equatorial plumes. Hot spots exhibit significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes correspond with passing vortex systems from adjacent latitudes interacting with hot spots. Strong anticyclonic gyres present to the south and southeast of the dark areas appear to circulate into hot spots. Impressive, bright white plumes occupy spaces in between hot spots. Compact cirrus-iike 'scooter' clouds flow rapidly through the plumes before disappearing within the dark areas. This raises the possibility that the plumes and fast-moving clouds are at higher altitudes, because their speed does not match previously published zonal wind profiles. Most profiles represent the drift speed of the hot spots at their latitude from pattern matching of the entire longitudinal image strip. If a downward branch of an equatorially-trapped Rossby waves controls the overall appearance of hot spots, however, the westward phase velocity of the wave leads to underestimates of the true jet stream speed. Instead, our expanded data set demonstrating the rapid flow of these scooter clouds may be more illustrative of the actual jet stream speed at these latitudes. This research was supported by a NASA JDAP grant and the NASA Postdoctoral Program.

  19. Tiger Stripes and Cassini ISS High-Resolution Imaging of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Denk, T.; Giese, B.; McEwen, A. S.; Neukum, G.; Perry, J.; Porco, C. C.; Thomas, P. C.; Turtle, E.; Verbiscer, A.; Veverka, J.

    2008-09-01

    Deciphering the mechanisms of Enceladus’ plumes is one of the most important and challenging tasks for planetary science. Cassini has provided a wealth of data by remote and in-situ data collection, but fundamental details of the vents and their context remain elusive. Three flybys of Enceladus by Cassini in 2008, on August 11 (altitude: 50km), October 9 (30km), and October 31 (200 km) are designed to further our knowledge of Enceladus’ geology and geophysics. Anticipated data include images as good as 7 m/pixel of parts of the geologically active South Polar Terrain (SPT). We targeted six different known eruption sites (Spitale and Porco 2007, Nature 449, 695-697) along Cairo Sulcus, Baghdad Suclus, and Damascus Sulcus, as well as non-active portions of the the "tiger stripes" and bright grooved terrain in between. On each of the three flybys we also plan contiguous ISS broadband multi-spectral mosaics of the entire SPT region so that we can search for volcanically and tectonically driven temporal changes and construct detailed digital terrain maps. Previous images of the tiger stripes and other rift systems on Enceladus resolve geomorphic structures on hundred meter scales or larger. Within those resolution limits, tiger stripes are morphologically distinguished most strongly from comparably sized young looking rifts elsewhere on Enceladus by their prominent upturned flanks, the muted appearance of their surface relief, and their relative absence of distinct cliff faces, probably of solid ice along scarps. The anticipated new high-resolution images will provide critical structural details needed to identify the extent to which unique attributes of tiger stripes are caused by mantling by plume fallout, tectonic deformation, seismic disruption, or perhaps thermal processes. Here, we present a first analysis of the August 11 close flyby images.

  20. Considerations for Conducting Plant Research in Open Atmosphere Chambers on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond; Hummerick, Mary; Graham, Thomas; Dixit, Anirudha; Massa, Gioia

    The access to spaceflight and now the International Space Station has provided plant researchers a laboratory that is in continuous freefall (near weightlessness). As veteran spaceflight investigators know too well, research in space is difficult to conduct and the experiments are often confounded by secondary events. An example of this is the distribution of water and gases in rooting systems in µ-gravity. Since the water does not settle to the ”bottom” of the rooting media in space, there can be poor distribution and movement of water and oxygen, which in turn can stress the plants. This also creates challenges for conducting ground controls where the logical approach is to use the same volume of water as in space. But under 1-g, the water does settle to the bottom of the root zone, which leaves less in the upper profile of the rooting medium. In addition, some chambers such as the Russian Svet (on Mir), Lada (ISS), and NASA’s Veggie chamber were or are open to the cabin air. This simplifies the hardware development and allows the use of cabin air for cooling and supplying CO2 to the plants. Yet it also exposes the plants to the cabin air, which could have very high CO2 levels (e.g., 3000 to 6000 ppm), low humidity, and trace contaminants that might be below the limits for human concerns but could still affect plants. A known effect of these “super-elevated” CO2 levels on many dicot species is increased transpiration due to elevated stomatal conductance, both during the light and the dark cycles. Examples of these secondary effects will be discussed, along with potential approaches for conducting adequate ground controls.

  1. Gravity-Dependent Combustion and Fluids Research - From Drop Towers to Aircraft to the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David L.; Singh, Bhim S.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by the need for knowledge related to the low-gravity environment behavior of fluids in liquid fuels management, thermal control systems and fire safety for spacecraft, NASA embarked on a decades long research program to understand, accommodate and utilize the relevant phenomena. Beginning in the 1950s, and continuing through to today, drop towers and aircraft were used to conduct an ever broadening and increasingly sophisticated suite of experiments designed to elucidate the underlying gravity-dependent physics that drive these processes. But the drop towers and aircraft afford only short time periods of continuous low gravity. Some of the earliest rocket test flights and manned space missions hosted longer duration experiments. The relatively longer duration low-g times available on the space shuttle during the 1980s and 1990s enabled many specialized experiments that provided unique data for a wide range of science and engineering disciplines. Indeed, a number of STS-based Spacelab missions were dedicated solely to basic and applied microgravity research in the biological, life and physical sciences. Between 1980 and 2000, NASA implemented a vigorous Microgravity Science Program wherein combustion science and fluid physics were major components. The current era of space stations from the MIR to the International Space Station have opened up a broad range of opportunities and facilities that are now available to support both applied research for technologies that will help to enable the future exploration missions and for a continuation of the non-exploration basic research that began over fifty years ago. The ISS-based facilities of particular value to the fluid physics and combustion/fire safety communities are the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack and the Fluids Integrated Rack.

  2. STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF BREAKWATER STRUCTURES OF THE “EASTERN PETROCHEMICAL COMPANY” JSC OIL REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICAL PLANTS PORT COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prikhod’ko Oleg Alekseevich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the research of MGSU Corporation for testing of design solutions of the “Eastern petrochemical company” JSC oil refinery and petrochemical plants port complex using the physical modeling method. Construction of the marine terminal of the oil refinery and petrochemical plants port complex is planned to be on the Eastern shore of the Vostok Bay which is the part of Peter the Great Bay in the Sea of Japan. The port area is created by means of an artificial land site. The water area of the terminal will be guarded against sea waves by a breakwater. Experiments on the study of wave propagation in the port model water area at the Eastern and Western breakwaters were performed in the laboratory wave basin in three-dimensional layout, with the aim of obtaining of data about wave heights at berthing facilities. Effectiveness of the breakwater designs was studied in two-dimensional layout in a wave flume. During the port model construction all the designed waterworks as well as the project bathymetry of the port water area were reproduced at a scale of 1:100. Analysis of the experiment results with the slope protection embodiment version demonstrates that this engineering solution is able to withstand waves of the design parameters.

  3. Increased short circuit current in an azafullerene-based organic solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambarau, Werther; Fritze, Urs F; Viterisi, Aurélien; Palomares, Emilio; von Delius, Max

    2015-01-21

    We report the synthesis of a solution-processable, dodecyloxyphenyl-substituted azafullerene monoadduct (DPC59N) and its application as electron acceptor in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells (BHJ-OSCs). Due to its relatively strong absorption of visible light, DPC59N outperforms PC60BM in respect to short circuit current (JSC) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) in blends with donor P3HT.

  4. Ethephonin vaikutus marjojen irtoamiseen ja kypsymiseen eräissä Suomessa viljellyissä herukkalajikkeissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Kaukovirta

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethephonin (2-kloorietyylifosforihapon abskissiovaikutusta eräissä Suomessa viljeltävissä herukkalajikkeissa tutkittiin kolmessa kokeessa, joissa kaikissa koelajikkeena oli ’Brödtorp’-mustaherukka sekä lisäksi Paimiossa mustaherukat ’Wellington XXX’ ja ’Risager’ ja punaherukka ’Rondoin’. Ethephon ruiskutettiin 4 päivää ennen sadon korjuutta. Ethephon lisäsi irronneiden marjojen määrää kaikissa koelajikkeissa ja kaikilla koepaikoilla. Ethephonin teho suureni ruiskutteen pitoisuuden kasvaessa. Ennen koesuunnitelman mukaista korjuupäivää (4 vrk käsittelyn jälkeen pudonneiden marjojen osuus koko sadosta oli lajikkeesta ja koeoloista riippuen 0.6—13.1 % 250 ppm:n, 16.7-78.9% 500 ppm:n ja 34.1—84.0 % 1000 ppm:n ruiskuteväkevyyttä käytettäessä. Ennen poimintaa varisseiden marjojen määrä oli pienin ’Wellington XXX’ mustaherukalla ja ’Rondom’punaherukalla. Poimitun sadon raakojen marjojen suhteellinen osuus pieneni ethephon-käsittelyn johdosta vain nuorissa 'Brödtorp’-pensaissa. Ethephon ei nopeuttanut raakojen marjojen jälkikypsymistä, mutta sen sijaan ylikypsien marjojen osuus kypsissä marjoissa lisääntyi ’Rondom’-punaherukalla kaikissa ethephon-käsittelyissä, 500 ja 1000 ppm:n käsittelyissä ’Wellington XXX’- ja 500 ppm:n käsittelyssä ’ Risager’-mustaherukalla. Ethephonin vaikutus marjojen sokeri- ja askorbiinihappopitoisuuteen oli epäyhtenäinen. Ethephon-käsittelyt lisäsivät lehtien irtoamista herkemmin ’Risager’- ja ’Brödtorp’-lajikkeilla kuin ’Wellington’- ja ’Rondom’-lajikkeilla. ’Risager’lajikkeella lehtien variseminen ilmeni jo 4 vrk käsittelyn jälkeen kaikissa ethephon-käsittelyissä, kun taas ’Brödtorp’-lajikkeella pienin käyttömäärä (250 ppm lisäsi lehtien varisemista vasta 2 viikkoa käsittelyn jälkeen.

  5. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments in ISS Resupply Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the fire safety risk in manned spacecraft has been limited by the small scale of the testing we have been able to conduct in low-gravity. Fire growth and spread cannot be expected to scale linearly with sample size so we cannot make accurate predictions of the behavior of realistic scale fires in spacecraft based on the limited low-g testing to date. As a result, spacecraft fire safety protocols are necessarily very conservative and costly. Future crewed missions are expected to be longer in duration than previous exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low-gravity, the need for realistic scale testing at reduced gravity has been demonstrated. To address this concern, a spacecraft fire safety research project is underway to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing at nearly full scale in low-gravity. This project is supported by the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program Office in the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies to maximize the utility of the data and to ensure the widest possible scrutiny of the concept. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted on three missions; each in an Orbital Sciences Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has deberthed from the ISS. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew allows the fire products to be released into the cabin. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the

  6. The Caviar software package for the astrometric reduction of Cassini ISS images: description and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, N. J.; Lainey, V.; Meunier, L.-E.; Murray, C. D.; Zhang, Q.-F.; Baillie, K.; Evans, M. W.; Thuillot, W.; Vienne, A.

    2018-02-01

    Aims: Caviar is a software package designed for the astrometric measurement of natural satellite positions in images taken using the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) of the Cassini spacecraft. Aspects of the structure, functionality, and use of the software are described, and examples are provided. The integrity of the software is demonstrated by generating new measurements of the positions of selected major satellites of Saturn, 2013-2016, along with their observed minus computed (O-C) residuals relative to published ephemerides. Methods: Satellite positions were estimated by fitting a model to the imaged limbs of the target satellites. Corrections to the nominal spacecraft pointing were computed using background star positions based on the UCAC5 and Tycho2 star catalogues. UCAC5 is currently used in preference to Gaia-DR1 because of the availability of proper motion information in UCAC5. Results: The Caviar package is available for free download. A total of 256 new astrometric observations of the Saturnian moons Mimas (44), Tethys (58), Dione (55), Rhea (33), Iapetus (63), and Hyperion (3) have been made, in addition to opportunistic detections of Pandora (20), Enceladus (4), Janus (2), and Helene (5), giving an overall total of 287 new detections. Mean observed-minus-computed residuals for the main moons relative to the JPL SAT375 ephemeris were - 0.66 ± 1.30 pixels in the line direction and 0.05 ± 1.47 pixels in the sample direction. Mean residuals relative to the IMCCE NOE-6-2015-MAIN-coorb2 ephemeris were -0.34 ± 0.91 pixels in the line direction and 0.15 ± 1.65 pixels in the sample direction. The reduced astrometric data are provided in the form of satellite positions for each image. The reference star positions are included in order to allow reprocessing at some later date using improved star catalogues, such as later releases of Gaia, without the need to re-estimate the imaged star positions. The Caviar software is available for free download from: ftp

  7. Expert assessments and content analysis of crew communication during ISS missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusupova, Anna

    During the last seven years, we have analyzed the communication patterns between ISS crewmembers and mission control personnel and identified a number of different communication styles between these two groups (Gushin et al, 2005). In this paper, we will report on an external validity check we conducted that compares our findings with those of another study using the same research material. For many years the group of psychologists at the Medical Center of Space Flight Control (TCUMOKO) at the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in Moscow has been analyzing audio communication sessions of Russian space crews with the ground-based Mission Control during long-duration spaceflight conditions. We compared week by week texts of the standard weekly monitoring reports made by the TsUP psychological group and audiocommunication of space crews with mission control centers. Expert assessments of the crewmembers' psychological state are made by IBMP psychoneurologists on the basis of daily schedule fulfillment, video and audio materials, and psychophysiological data from board. The second approach was based on the crew-ground communication analysis. For both population of messages we applied two corresponding schemas of content analysis. All statements made in communication sessions and weekly reports were divided into three groups in terms of their communication function (Lomov, 1981): 1) informative function (e.g., demands for information, requests, professional slang); 2) socio-regulatory function (e.g., rational consent or discord, operational complaint, refusal to cooperate); and 3) affective (emotional) function (e.g., encouragement, sympathy, emotional consent or discord). Number of statements of the audiocommunication sessions correlated with corresponding functions (informative, regulatory, affective) of communication in weekly monitioring reports made by experts. Crewmembers verbal behavior expresses its psycho-emotional state which is formulated by expert

  8. Differences in Pre and Post Vascular Patterning of Retinas from ISS Crew Members and HDT Subjects by VESGEN Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M. C.; Vizzeri, G.; Taibbi, G.; Mason, S. S.; Young, M. H.; Zanello, S. B.; Parsons-Wingerter, P. A.

    2018-01-01

    Accelerated research by NASA [1] has investigated the significant risks for visual and ocular impairments Spaceflight Associated Neuro-Ocular Syndrome /Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (SANS/VIIP) incurred by microgravity spaceflight, especially long-duration missions. Our study investigates the role of blood vessels in the incidence and etiology of SANS/VIIP within the retinas of Astronaut crewmembers pre-and post-flight to the International Space Station (ISS) by NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN). The response of retinal vessels in crewmembers to microgravity was compared to that of retinal vessels to Head-Down Tilt (HDT) in subjects undergoing 70-Day Bed Rest. The study tests the proposed hypothesis that cephalad fluid shifts missions, resulting in ocular and visual impairments, are necessarily mediated in part by retinal blood vessels, and are therefore accompanied by significant remodeling of retinal vasculature.Vascular patterns in the retinas of crew members and HDTBR subjects extracted from 30° infrared (IR) Heidelberg Spectralis® images collected pre/postflight and pre/post HDTBR, respectively, were analyzed by VESGEN (patent pending). a mature, automated software developed as a research discovery tool for progressive vascular diseases in the retina and other tissues [2]. The weighted, multi-parametric VESGEN analysis generates maps of branching arterial and venous trees and quantification by parameters such as the fractal dimension (Df, a modern measure of vascular space-filling capacity), vessel diameters, and densities of vessel length and number classified into specific branching generations by vascular physiological branching rules [2,3]. The retrospective study approved by NASA’s Institutional Review Board included six HDT subjects (NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit [FARU] Campaign 11; for example, [4]) and eight ISS crewmembers monitored by routine occupational surveillance who provided their study consents to NASA’s Lifetime

  9. Clinical and molecular evaluation of SHOX/PAR1 duplications in Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Sanz, S; Barroso, E; Heine-Suñer, D; Hisado-Oliva, A; Romanelli, V; Rosell, J; Aragones, A; Caimari, M; Argente, J; Ross, J L; Zinn, A R; Gracia, R; Lapunzina, P; Campos-Barros, A; Heath, K E

    2011-02-01

    Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature and the Madelung deformity of the forearm. SHOX mutations and pseudoautosomal region 1 deletions encompassing SHOX or its enhancers have been identified in approximately 60% of LWD and approximately 15% of idiopathic short stature (ISS) individuals. Recently SHOX duplications have been described in LWD/ISS but also in individuals with other clinical manifestations, thus questioning their pathogenicity. The objective of the study was to investigate the pathogenicity of SHOX duplications in LWD and ISS. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification is routinely used in our unit to analyze for SHOX/pseudoautosomal region 1 copy number changes in LWD/ISS referrals. Quantitative PCR, microsatellite marker, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis were undertaken to confirm all identified duplications. During the routine analysis of 122 LWD and 613 ISS referrals, a total of four complete and 10 partial SHOX duplications or multiple copy number (n > 3) as well as one duplication of the SHOX 5' flanking region were identified in nine LWD and six ISS cases. Partial SHOX duplications appeared to have a more deleterious effect on skeletal dysplasia and height gain than complete SHOX duplications. Importantly, no increase in SHOX copy number was identified in 340 individuals with normal stature or 104 overgrowth referrals. MLPA analysis of SHOX/PAR1 led to the identification of partial and complete SHOX duplications or multiple copies associated with LWD or ISS, suggesting that they may represent an additional class of mutations implicated in the molecular etiology of these clinical entities.

  10. Self-supervised learning as an enabling technology for future space exploration robots: ISS experiments on monocular distance learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Kevin; de Croon, Guido C. H. E.; Hennes, Daniel; Setterfield, Timothy P.; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Izzo, Dario

    2017-11-01

    Although machine learning holds an enormous promise for autonomous space robots, it is currently not employed because of the inherent uncertain outcome of learning processes. In this article we investigate a learning mechanism, Self-Supervised Learning (SSL), which is very reliable and hence an important candidate for real-world deployment even on safety-critical systems such as space robots. To demonstrate this reliability, we introduce a novel SSL setup that allows a stereo vision equipped robot to cope with the failure of one of its cameras. The setup learns to estimate average depth using a monocular image, by using the stereo vision depths from the past as trusted ground truth. We present preliminary results from an experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) performed with the MIT/NASA SPHERES VERTIGO satellite. The presented experiments were performed on October 8th, 2015 on board the ISS. The main goals were (1) data gathering, and (2) navigation based on stereo vision. First the astronaut Kimiya Yui moved the satellite around the Japanese Experiment Module to gather stereo vision data for learning. Subsequently, the satellite freely explored the space in the module based on its (trusted) stereo vision system and a pre-programmed exploration behavior, while simultaneously performing the self-supervised learning of monocular depth estimation on board. The two main goals were successfully achieved, representing the first online learning robotic experiments in space. These results lay the groundwork for a follow-up experiment in which the satellite will use the learned single-camera depth estimation for autonomous exploration in the ISS, and are an advancement towards future space robots that continuously improve their navigation capabilities over time, even in harsh and completely unknown space environments.

  11. Overview of the ISS Radiation Environment Observed during the ESA EXPOSE-R2 Mission in 2014-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, T. P.; Bankov, N. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Matviichuk, Yu. N.; Dimitrov, Pl. G.; Häder, D.-P.; Horneck, G.

    2017-11-01

    The radiation risk radiometer-dosimeter (R3D)-R2 solid-state detector performed radiation measurements at the European Space Agency EXPOSE-R2 platform outside of the Russian "Zvezda" module at the International Space Station (ISS) from 24 October 2014 to 11 January 2016. The ISS orbital parameters were average altitude of 415 km and 51.6° inclination. We developed special software and used experimentally obtained formulas to determine the radiation flux-to-dose ratio from the R3DR2 Liulin-type deposited-energy spectrometer. We provide for the first time simultaneous, long-term estimates of radiation dose external to the ISS for four source categories: (i) galactic cosmic ray particles and their secondary products; (ii) protons in the South Atlantic Anomaly region of the inner radiation belt (IRB); (iii) relativistic electrons and/or bremsstrahlung in the outer radiation belt (ORB); and (iv) solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The latter category is new in this study. Additionally, in this study, secondary particles (SP) resulting from energetic particle interaction with the detector and nearby materials are identified. These are observed continuously at high latitudes. The detected SPs are identified using the same sorting requirements as SEP protons. The IRB protons provide the highest consistent hourly dose, while the ORB electrons and SEPs provide the most extreme hourly doses. SEPs were observed 11 times during the study interval. The R3DR2 data support calculation of average equivalent doses. The 30 day and 1 year average equivalent doses are much smaller than the skin and eyes doses recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection (Report 132), which provides radiation protection guidance for Low Earth Orbit.

  12. ISS Regenerative Life Support: Challenges and Success in the Quest for Long-Term Habitability in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, Jesse A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the International Space Station s (ISS) Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) operations with discussion of the on-orbit lessons learned, specifically regarding the challenges that have been faced as the system has expanded with a growing ISS crew. Over the 10 year history of the ISS, there have been numerous challenges, failures, and triumphs in the quest to keep the crew alive and comfortable. Successful operation of the ECLSS not only requires maintenance of the hardware, but also management of the station resources in case of hardware failure or missed re-supply. This involves effective communication between the primary International Partners (NASA and Roskosmos) and the secondary partners (JAXA and ESA) in order to keep a reserve of the contingency consumables and allow for re-supply of failed hardware. The ISS ECLSS utilizes consumables storage for contingency usage as well as longer-term regenerative systems, which allow for conservation of the expensive resources brought up by re-supply vehicles. This long-term hardware, and the interactions with software, was a challenge for Systems Engineers when they were designed and require multiple operational workarounds in order to function continuously. On a day-to-day basis, the ECLSS provides big challenges to the on console controllers. Main challenges involve the utilization of the resources that have been brought up by the visiting vehicles prior to undocking, balance of contributions between the International Partners for both systems and resources, and maintaining balance between the many interdependent systems, which includes providing the resources they need when they need it. The current biggest challenge for ECLSS is the Regenerative ECLSS system, which continuously recycles urine and condensate water into drinking water and oxygen. These systems were brought to full functionality on STS-126 (ULF-2) mission. Through system failures and recovery

  13. Area radiation monitoring on ISS Increments 17 to 22 using PADLES in the Japanese Experiment Module Kibo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamatsu, A.; Murakami, K.; Kitajo, K.; Shimada, K.; Kumagai, H.; Tawara, H.

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of radiation environmental parameters in space is essential to support radiation risk assessments for astronauts and establish a benchmark for space radiation models for present and future human space activities. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is performing a continuous area radiation monitoring experiment using the “PAssive Dosimeters for Lifescience Experiments in Space” (PADLES) system inside the Japanese Experiment Module Kibo on board the International Space Station (ISS). The PADLES dosimeter consists of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs). JAXA has run the Area PADLES experiment since the Kibo module was attached to the ISS in June 2008, using 17 dosimeters in fixed locations on the Pressurized Module (PM) and the Experiment Logistics Module-Pressurized Section (ELM-PS) of Kibo, which are replaced every 6 months or every Increment, respectively. For three monitoring periods, known as Area PADLES experiment series no. 1 to no. 3, of 301, 180, and 232 days in June 2008 to April 2010 over ISS Increments 17 to 22, the average absorbed dose (dose equivalent) rates of 12 positions in the PM of Kibo were 319 ± 30 μGy/day (618 ± 102 μSv/day), 276 ± 30 μGy/day (608 ± 94 μSv/day), and 293 ± 33 μGy/day (588 ± 84 μSv/day), respectively. The radiation measurement in the ELM-PS was conducted in only Area PADLES experiment series no. 3 from August 2009 to April 2010 (232 days) over ISS Increments 21 to 22, the average absorbed dose (dose equivalent) rates of 5 positions was 297 ± 28 μGy/day (661 ± 65 μSv/day). The directional dependence of the radiation field was also investigated by installing PADLES dosimeters located in the zenith of ELM-PS of Kibo. -- Highlights: • This article shows the first results of dose measurement inside the Japanese Experiment Module Kibo with the PADLES system. • Generating spatial dose distribution data with the PADLES system are key

  14. Interface Engineering of Organic Schottky Barrier Solar Cells and Its Application in Enhancing Performances of Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fangming Jin; Zisheng Su; Bei Chu; Pengfei Cheng; Junbo Wang; Haifeng Zhao; Yuan Gao; Xingwu Yan; Wenlian Li

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe the performance of organic Schottky barrier solar cells with the structure of ITO/molybdenum oxide (MoOx)/boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc)/bathophenanthroline (BPhen)/Al. The SubPc-based Schottky barrier solar cells exhibited a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.59?mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06?V, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.82% under simulated AM1.5?G solar illumination at 100?mW/cm2. Device performance was substantiall...

  15. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanosilicate platelets in gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan

    2009-10-01

    Two kinds of gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), composed of two types of electrolytes, were constructed and the respective cell performance was evaluated in this study. One electrolyte, TEOS-Triton X-100 gel, was based on a hybrid organic/inorganic gel electrolyte made by the sol-gel method and the other was based on poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. TEOS-Triton X-100 gel was based on the reticulate structure of silica, formed by hydrolysis, and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), while its organic subphase was a mixture of surfactant (Triton X-100) and ionic liquid electrolytes. Both DSSC gel-type electrolytes were composed of iodine, 1-propy-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide, and 3-methoxypropionitrile to create the redox couple of I3 -/I-. Based on the results obtained from the I-V characteristics, it was found that the optimal iodine concentrations for the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte are 0.05 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Although the increase in the iodine concentration could enhance the short-circuit current density (JSC), a further increase in the iodine concentration would reduce the JSC due to increased dark current. Therefore, the concentration of I2 is a significant factor in determining the performance of DSSCs. In order to enhance cell performance, the addition of nanosilicate platelets (NSPs) in the above-mentioned gel electrolytes was investigated. By incorporating NSP-Triton X-100 into the electrolytes, the JSC of the cells increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, while the open circuit voltage (VOC) remained almost the same. As the loading of the NSP-Triton X-100 in the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte increased to 0.5 wt%, the JSC and the conversion efficiency increased from 8.5 to 12 mA/cm2 and from 3.6% to 4.7%, respectively. However, the JSC decreased as the loading of NSP-Triton X-100 exceeded 0.5 wt%. At higher NSP-Triton X-100 loading, NSPs acted as

  16. Development and Implementation of Efficiency-Improving Analysis Methods for the SAGE III on ISS Thermal Model Originating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; Scola, Salvatore; Tobin, Steven; McLeod, Shawn; Mannu, Sergio; Guglielmo, Corrado; Moeller, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2015. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Several novel methods have been implemented to facilitate efficient payload-level thermal analysis, including the use of a design of experiments (DOE) methodology to determine the worst-case orbits for SAGE III while on ISS, use of TD assemblies to move payloads from the Dragon trunk to the Enhanced Operational Transfer Platform (EOTP) to its final home on the Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (ExPRESS) Logistics Carrier (ELC)-4, incorporation of older models in varying unit sets, ability to change units easily (including hardcoded logic blocks), case-based logic to facilitate activating heaters and active elements for varying scenarios within a single model, incorporation of several coordinate frames to easily map to structural models with differing geometries and locations, and streamlined results processing using an Excel-based text file plotter developed in-house at LaRC. This document presents an overview of the SAGE III thermal model and describes the development and implementation of these efficiency-improving analysis methods.

  17. Comparison of the Cloud Morphology Spatial Structure Between Jupiter and Saturn Using JunoCam and Cassini ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Justin; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Blalock, John J.; Gunnarson, Jacob; McCabe, Ryan M.; Gallego, Angelina; Hansen, Candice; Orton, Glenn S.

    2017-10-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial-scales contained in the cloud morphology of Jupiter’s southern high latitudes using images captured by JunoCam in 2016 and 2017, and compare them to those on Saturn using images captured using the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) on board the Cassini orbiter. For Jupiter, the characteristic spatial scale of cloud morphology as a function of latitude is calculated from images taken in three visual (600-800, 500-600, 420-520 nm) bands and a near-infrared (880- 900 nm) band. In particular, we analyze the transition from the banded structure characteristic of Jupiter’s mid-latitudes to the chaotic structure of the polar region. We apply similar analysis to Saturn using images captured using Cassini ISS. In contrast to Jupiter, Saturn maintains its zonally organized cloud morphology from low latitudes up to the poles, culminating in the cyclonic polar vortices centered at each of the poles. By quantifying the differences in the spatial scales contained in the cloud morphology, our analysis will shed light on the processes that control the banded structures on Jupiter and Saturn. Our work has been supported by the following grants: NASA PATM NNX14AK07G, NASA MUREP NNX15AQ03A, and NSF AAG 1212216.

  18. The new EC FP7 MatISSE project: materials' innovations for a safe and sustainable nuclear in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabet, C.; Michaux, A.; Fazio, C.; Malerba, L.; Maday, M.F.; Serrano, M.; Nilsson, K.F.; )

    2015-01-01

    The European Energy Research Alliance (EERA), set-up under the European SET-Plan, has launched an initiative for a Joint Programme on Nuclear Materials (JPNM). The JNMP aims to establish key priorities in the area of advanced nuclear materials, identify funding opportunities and harmonise this scientific and technical domain at the European level by maximising complementarities and synergies with the major actors of the field. The JPNM partners submitted the MatISSE proposal which was accepted by the European Commission. The MatISSE project has the ambition to prepare the building of a European integrated research programme on materials innovation for a safe and sustainable nuclear. Emphasis is on advanced nuclear systems in particular sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) and gas-cooled fast reactor (GFR). The aim of the selected scientific and technical work is to make progress in the fields of conventional materials, advanced materials and predictive capabilities for fuel elements and structural components. (authors)

  19. Estimated Probability of a Cervical Spine Injury During an ISS Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, John E.; Weaver, Aaron S.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) utilizes historical data, cohort data, and external simulations as input factors to provide estimates of crew health, resource utilization and mission outcomes. The Cervical Spine Injury Module (CSIM) is an external simulation designed to provide the IMM with parameter estimates for 1) a probability distribution function (PDF) of the incidence rate, 2) the mean incidence rate, and 3) the standard deviation associated with the mean resulting from injury/trauma of the neck. Methods: An injury mechanism based on an idealized low-velocity blunt impact to the superior posterior thorax of an ISS crewmember was used as the simulated mission environment. As a result of this impact, the cervical spine is inertially loaded from the mass of the head producing an extension-flexion motion deforming the soft tissues of the neck. A multibody biomechanical model was developed to estimate the kinematic and dynamic response of the head-neck system from a prescribed acceleration profile. Logistic regression was performed on a dataset containing AIS1 soft tissue neck injuries from rear-end automobile collisions with published Neck Injury Criterion values producing an injury transfer function (ITF). An injury event scenario (IES) was constructed such that crew 1 is moving through a primary or standard translation path transferring large volume equipment impacting stationary crew 2. The incidence rate for this IES was estimated from in-flight data and used to calculate the probability of occurrence. The uncertainty in the model input factors were estimated from representative datasets and expressed in terms of probability distributions. A Monte Carlo Method utilizing simple random sampling was employed to propagate both aleatory and epistemic uncertain factors. Scatterplots and partial correlation coefficients (PCC) were generated to determine input factor sensitivity. CSIM was developed in the SimMechanics/Simulink environment with a

  20. Structure–property relationships of oligothiophene–isoindigo polymers for efficient bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Zaifei

    2014-01-01

    A series of alternating oligothiophene (nT)-isoindigo (I) copolymers (PnTI) were synthesized to investigate the influence of the oligothiophene block length on the photovoltaic (PV) properties of PnTI:PCBM bulk-heterojunction blends. Our study indicates that the number of thiophene rings (n) in the repeating unit alters both polymer crystallinity and polymer-fullerene interfacial energetics, which results in a decreasing open-circuit voltage (Voc) of the solar cells with increasing n. The short-circuit current density (Jsc) of P1TI:PCBM devices is limited by the absence of a significant driving force for electron transfer. Instead, blends based on P5TI and P6TI feature large polymer domains, which limit charge generation and thus Jsc. The best PV performance with a power conversion efficiency of up to 6.9% was achieved with devices based on P3TI, where a combination of a favorable morphology and an optimal interfacial energy level offset ensures efficient exciton separation and charge generation. The structure-property relationship demonstrated in this work would be a valuable guideline for the design of high performance polymers with small energy losses during the charge generation process, allowing for the fabrication of efficient solar cells that combine a minimal loss in Voc with a high Jsc. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Enhancing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells by incorporating nanosilicate platelets in gel electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yi-Hsuan; Chiu, Chih-Wei; Chen, Jian-Ging; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Lin, Jiang-Jen; Lin, King-Fu; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of gel-type dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), composed of two types of electrolytes, were constructed and the respective cell performance was evaluated in this study. One electrolyte, TEOS-Triton X-100 gel, was based on a hybrid organic/inorganic gel electrolyte made by the sol-gel method and the other was based on poly(vinyidene fluoride-co-hexafluoro propylene) (PVDF-HFP) copolymer. TEOS-Triton X-100 gel was based on the reticulate structure of silica, formed by hydrolysis, and condensation of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), while its organic subphase was a mixture of surfactant (Triton X-100) and ionic liquid electrolytes. Both DSSC gel-type electrolytes were composed of iodine, 1-propy-3-methyl-imidazolium iodide, and 3-methoxypropionitrile to create the redox couple of I3 -/I-. Based on the results obtained from the I-V characteristics, it was found that the optimal iodine concentrations for the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte and PVDF-HFP gel electrolyte are 0.05 M and 0.1 M, respectively. Although the increase in the iodine concentration could enhance the short-circuit current density (JSC), a further increase in the iodine concentration would reduce the JSC due to increased dark current. Therefore, the concentration of I2 is a significant factor in determining the performance of DSSCs. In order to enhance cell performance, the addition of nanosilicate platelets (NSPs) in the above-mentioned gel electrolytes was investigated. By incorporating NSP-Triton X-100 into the electrolytes, the JSC of the cells increased due to the decrease of diffusion resistance, while the open circuit voltage (VOC) remained almost the same. As the loading of the NSP-Triton X-100 in the TEOS-Triton X-100 gel electrolyte increased to 0.5 wt%, the JSC and the conversion efficiency increased from 8.5 to 12 mA/cm2 and from 3.6% to 4.7%, respectively. However, the JSC decreased as the loading of NSP-Triton X-100 exceeded 0.5 wt%. At higher NSP-Triton X-100 loading, NSPs acted as

  2. Transferability of ASTM/NIST alanine-polyethylene recipe at ISS. American Society for Testing and Materials/National Institute for Standards and Technology. Istituto Superiore de Sanita

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis C; Fattibene; Onori; Petetti; Bartolotta; Sansone Santamaria A

    2000-05-01

    Alanine-polyethylene solid state dosimeters were prepared at Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) following the recipe proposed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with the goal of testing its transferability. Dosimeters were prepared using 95% alanine and 5% polyethylene, by weight. They are rugged and of increased sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility as respect to the ISS alanine-paraffin pellets. Reproducibility of about 1% was obtained at 10 Gy and at 3 Gy if one single pellet or a stack of five dosimeters were used, respectively.

  3. JSC Wireless Sensor Network Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Sensor nodes composed of three basic components... radio module: COTS radio module implementing standardized WSN protocol; treated as WSN modem by main board main board: contains application processor (TI MSP430 microcontroller), memory, power supply; responsible for sensor data acquisition, pre-processing, and task scheduling; re-used in every application with growing library of embedded C code sensor card: contains application-specific sensors, data conditioning hardware, and any advanced hardware not built into main board (DSPs, faster A/D, etc.); requires (re-) development for each application.

  4. JSC Human Life Sciences Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This section of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) publication includes articles entitled: (1) E029 - Magnetic Resonance Imaging after Exposure to Microgravity; (2) E030 - Extended Studies of Pulmonary Function in Weightlessness; (3) E074 - Direct Measurement of the Initial Bone Response to Spaceflight in Humans; (4) E401 - The Effects of Microgravity on Skeletal Muscle Contractile Properties; (5) E407 - Effects of Microgravity on the Biochemical and Bioenergetic Characteristics of Human Skeletal Muscle; (6) E410 - Torso Rotation Experiment; (7) E920 - Effect of Weightlessness on Human Single Muscle Fiber Function; (8) E948 - Human Sleep, Circadian Rhythms and Performance in Space; (9) E963 - Microgravity Effects on Standardized Cognitive Performance Measures; and (10) E971 - Measurement of Energy Expenditures During Spaceflight Using the Doubly Labeled Water Method

  5. A contribution towards establishing more comfortable space weather to cope with increased human space passengers for ISS shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A.

    Space Weather is a specialized scienctific descipline in Meteorology which has recently emerged from man's continued research efforts to create a familiar spacecraft environment which is physiologically stable and life sustaining for astronauts and human passengers in distant space travels. As the population of human passengers in space shuttles rapidly increases, corresponding research on sustained micro-climate of spacecrafts is considered necessary and timely. This is because existing information is not meant for a large population in spacecrafts. The paper therefore discusses the role of meteorology (specifically micrometeorology) in relation to internal communication, spacecraft instrumentation and physiologic comfort of astronauts and space passengers (the later may not necessarily be trained astronauts, but merely business men or tourist space travellers for business transactions in the International Space Station (ISS)). It is recognized that me eorology which is a fundamental science amongt multidiscplinary sciences has been found to be vital in space travels and communication. Space weather therefore appears in slightly different format where temperature and humidity changes and variability within the spacecraft exert very significant influences on the efficiency of astronauts and the effectiveness of the various delicate instrument gadgets aimed at reducing the frequency of computer failures and malfunction of other instruments on which safety of the spacecraft depends. Apart from the engineering and technological problems which space scientists must have to overcome when human population in space shuttles increases as we now expect, based on evidence from successful missions to ISS, the maint enace of physiologic comfort state of astronauts, which, as far as scientifically possible, should be as near as possible to their Earth-Atmosphere condition. This is one of the most important and also most difficult conditions to attain. It demands a mor e

  6. Status of the Correlation Process of the V-HAB Simulation with Ground Tests and ISS Telemetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetner, P.; Roth, C.; Zhukov, A.; Czupalla, M.; Anderson, M.; Ewert, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Virtual Habitat (V-HAB) is a dynamic Life Support System (LSS) simulation, created for investigation of future human spaceflight missions. It provides the capability to optimize LSS during early design phases. The focal point of the paper is the correlation and validation of V-HAB against ground test and flight data. In order to utilize V-HAB to design an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) it is important to know the accuracy of simulations, strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, simulations of real systems are essential. The modeling of the International Space Station (ISS) ECLSS in terms of single technologies as well as an integrated system and correlation against ground and flight test data is described. The results of the simulations make it possible to prove the approach taken by V-HAB.

  7. Effects of Surfactant Contamination on the Next Generation Gas Trap for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Previous testing has shown that a hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal in clean deionized water. This paper presents results of testing to evaluate the effects of surfactant contamination on the steady-state performance of the hydrophobic-only design.

  8. Cassini ISS Observations Of The Early Stages Of The Formation Of Titan's South Polar Hood And Vortex In 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert A.; Del Genio, A.; Perry, J.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Turtle, E. P.; Porco, C.; Ovanessian, A.

    2012-10-01

    Northern spring equinox on Titan occurred on August 11, 2009. In March of 2012 the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) on the Cassini spacecraft saw the first evidence for the formation of a polar hood in the atmosphere above Titan’s south pole. Views of the limb showed an optical thickening primarily at about 360 km altitude across a few degrees of latitude centered on the pole. Images of Titan in front of Saturn provide a nearly direct measure of the line-of-sight optical depth as a function of latitude and altitude from about 250 km and higher. Two or more distinct layers are seen, both near the pole and at other latitudes. The highest of these, near 360 km altitude, hosts the embryonic polar hood. On June 27, 2012 ISS observed the pole from high latitude. These images show a distinct and unusual cloudy patch, elongated and not centered on the pole and with an elevated perimeter. The morphology and color indicate an unfamiliar (for Titan) composition and dynamical regime. The interior of the feature consists of concentrations of cloud/haze organized on spatial scales of tens of kilometers. Its morphology is reminiscent of the open cellular convection sometimes seen in the atmospheric boundary layer over Earth’s oceans under conditions of large-scale subsidence. Unlike Earth, where such convection is forced by large surface heat fluxes or the onset of drizzle, convection at 360 km on Titan is more likely to be driven from above by radiative cooling. During the 9 hours we observed Titan, this feature completed a little over one rotation around the pole, providing direct evidence for a polar vortex rotating at a rate roughly consistent with angular-momentum-conserving flow for air displaced from the equator. Part of this work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  9. Examination of Communication Delays on Team Performance: Utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a Test Bed for Analog Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.

    2011-01-01

    Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.

  10. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Boeing North America are responsible for constructing the electrical power system for the International Space Station (ISS), which circles the Earth every 90 minutes in a low Earth orbit (LEO). For approximately 55 minutes of this orbit, the ISS is in sunlight, and for the remaining 35 minutes, the ISS is in the Earth s shadow (eclipse). The electrical power system must not only provide power during the sunlight portion by means of the solar arrays, but also store energy for use during the eclipse. Nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells were selected as the energy storage systems for ISS. Each battery Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) comprises 38 individual series-connected Ni/H2 battery cells, and there are 48 battery ORU s on the ISS. On the basis of a limited Ni/H2 LEO data base on life and performance characteristics, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field commenced testing through two test programs: one in-house and one at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, Indiana.

  11. Major influence of interobserver reliability on polytrauma identification with the Injury Severity Score (ISS): Time for a centralised coding in trauma registries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduz, Roman; Kugelmeier, Patrick; Meili, Severin; Döring, Robert; Meier, Christoph; Wahl, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS) find increasingly widespread use to assess trauma burden and to perform interhospital benchmarking through trauma registries. Since 2015, public resource allocation in Switzerland shall even be derived from such data. As every trauma centre is responsible for its own coding and data input, this study aims at evaluating interobserver reliability of AIS and ISS coding. Interobserver reliability of the AIS and ISS is analysed from a cohort of 50 consecutive severely injured patients treated in 2012 at our institution, coded retrospectively by 3 independent and specifically trained observers. Considering a cutoff ISS≥16, only 38/50 patients (76%) were uniformly identified as polytraumatised or not. Increasing the cut off to ≥20, this increased to 41/50 patients (82%). A difference in the AIS of ≥ 1 was present in 261 (16%) of possible codes. Excluding the vast majority of uninjured body regions, uniformly identical AIS severity values were attributed in 67/193 (35%) body regions, or 318/579 (55%) possible observer pairings. Injury severity all too often is neither identified correctly nor consistently when using the AIS. This leads to wrong identification of severely injured patients using the ISS. Improving consistency of coding through centralisation is recommended before scores based on the AIS are to be used for interhospital benchmarking and resource allocation in the treatment of severely injured patients. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Noored režissöörid väärtustavad eneseleidmist / Maiju Ingman, Anu Aun ; interv. Karin Klaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ingman, Maiju

    2007-01-01

    Pärnus näidatakse noortefilme : soomlanna Maiju Ingmani TÜ lõputööd "Mida iganes, Aleksander" (teekonnafilm, osades Jaak Prints, Arvo Kukumägi) ja Anu Auna lühifilmi "Indigo tuba" (mängivad Mirtel Pohla, Alo Kõrve). Režissöörid oma otsingutest ja filmidest

  13. In-Flight Water Quality Monitoring on the International Space Station (ISS): Measuring Biocide Concentrations with Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Schultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Flint, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    The colorimetric water quality monitoring kit (CWQMK) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) on STS-128/17A and was initially deployed in September 2009. The kit was flown as a station development test objective (SDTO) experiment to evaluate the acceptability of colorimetric solid phase extraction (CSPE) technology for routine water quality monitoring on the ISS. During the SDTO experiment, water samples from the U.S. water processor assembly (WPA), the U.S. potable water dispenser (PWD), and the Russian system for dispensing ground-supplied water (SVO-ZV) were collected and analyzed with the CWQMK. Samples from the U.S. segment of the ISS were analyzed for molecular iodine, which is the biocide added to water in the WPA. Samples from the SVOZV system were analyzed for ionic silver, the biocide used on the Russian segment of the ISS. In all, thirteen in-flight analysis sessions were completed as part of the SDTO experiment. This paper provides an overview of the experiment and reports the results obtained with the CWQMK. The forward plan for certifying the CWQMK as operational hardware and expanding the capabilities of the kit are also discussed.

  14. An ARC less InGaP/GaAs DJ solar cell with hetero tunnel junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, G. S.; Nayak, P. P.; Mishra, G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Multi junction solar cell has not achieved an optimum performance yet. To acquire more conversion efficiency research on multi junction solar cell are in progress. In this work we have proposed a dual junction solar cell with conversion efficiency of 43.603%. Mainly the focus is given on the tunnel diode, window layer and back surface field (BSF) layer of the cell, as all of them plays important role on the cell performance. Here we have designed a hetero InGaP/GaAs tunnel diode which makes tunnel diode more transparent to the bottom cell as well as reduces the recombination at the interfaces. The thickness of the window and BSF layer are optimized to achieve higher conversion efficiency. The simulation is carried out using Silvaco ATLAS TCAD under 1000 sun of AM1.5G spectrum. Different performance parameters of the cell like short circuit current density (Jsc), open circuit voltage (Voc), external quantum efficiency (EQE), fill factor (FF), conversion efficiency (η), spectral response and photogeneration rate of the cell are examined and compared with previously reported literatures. For the proposed model a Voc of 2.7043 V, Jsc of 1898.52 mA/cm2, FF of 88.88% and η of 43.6% are obtained.

  15. Asymmetrical squaraines for high-performance small-molecule organic solar cells with a short circuit current of over 12 mA cm(-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yao; Zhu, Youqin; Yang, Daobin; Luo, Qian; Yang, Lin; Huang, Yan; Zhao, Suling; Lu, Zhiyun

    2015-04-11

    An asymmetrical squaraine dye (Py-3) with its two electron-donating aryl groups directly linked to the electron-withdrawing squaric acid core possesses an ideal bandgap of 1.33 eV, together with an intense and broad absorption band in the range 550-950 nm. Hence, the resulting solution-processed solar cells display an impressive Jsc of 12.03 mA cm(-2) and a PCE of 4.35%.

  16. Rapid Thermal Annealing and Hydrogen Passivation of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Low-Temperature Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason L. Terry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in open-circuit voltage (Voc, short-circuit current density (Jsc, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE of aLuminum induced crystallization, ion-assisted deposition (ALICIA polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on low-temperature glass substrates due to rapid thermal anneal (RTA treatment and subsequent remote microwave hydrogen plasma passivation (hydrogenation are examined. Voc improvements from 130 mV to 430 mV, Jsc improvements from 1.2 mA/cm2 to 11.3 mA/cm2, and peak IQE improvements from 16% to > 70% are achieved. A 1-second RTA plateau at 1000°C followed by hydrogenation increases the Jsc by a factor of 5.5. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements are used to determine the concentration profiles of dopants, impurities, and hydrogen. Computer modeling based on simulations of the measured IQE data reveals that the minority carrier lifetime in the absorber region increases by 3 orders of magnitude to about 1 nanosecond (corresponding to a diffusion length of at least 1 μm due to RTA and subsequent hydrogenation. The evaluation of the changes in the quantum efficiency and Voc due to RTA and hydrogenation with computer modeling significantly improves the understanding of the limiting factors to cell performance.

  17. Seven Years of Permanent Running of MELFI-1 on Board the ISS and Utilisation of the Three MELFI Units Refrigeration Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegancas, Jean; Stephan, Hubertus; Jimenez, Jesus; Campana, Sharon; Hutchison, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The pool of three Minus Eighty Laboratory freezer for ISS (MELFI) units continues providing the scientific community with robust and permanent freezer and refrigeration capabilities for life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). Launched in 2006, the first unit will complete, by summer 2013, seven years of continuous operations without intervention on the internal Nitrogen gas cycle, while all necessary hardware and operations were initially planned for preventive maintenance every two years. This unit has demonstrated outstanding performance on orbit and proved the technical decisions made during the development program. Current utilization of MELFI units in the ISS is taking full benefit of the initial specifications, which allows for wide adaptations to cope with the mission scenario imposed by the life extension in orbit. The two other MELFI units, launched respectively in 2008 and 2009, are supporting the first unit providing additional conditioned volume necessary for the science on board, and also for preparing thermal mass used to protect the samples on their way down to earth. The MELFI pool is outfitted with all supporting hardware to allow for extended operation on orbit including preventive and corrective maintenance. The internal components were designed to allow for easy on board maintenance. Spare equipment was installed in the MELFI rack on ISS and specific maintenance means were developed which required crew training before the cold gas cycle could be accessed. The paper will present first how the design choices made for the initial missions are identifying features necessary for extended duration missions, and will then give highlights on the utilization of the MELFI refrigeration pool during the recent years in ISS.

  18. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: radiation measurements with the DOSTEL instruments onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the ISS in the years 2009–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO differs significantly in composition and energy from that found on Earth. The space radiation field consists of high energetic protons and heavier ions from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR, as well as of protons and electrons trapped in the Earth’s radiation belts (Van Allen belts. Protons and some heavier particles ejected in occasional Solar Particle Events (SPEs might in addition contribute to the radiation exposure in LEO. All sources of radiation are modulated by the solar cycle. During solar maximum conditions SPEs occur more frequently with higher particle intensities. Since the radiation exposure in LEO exceeds exposure limits for radiation workers on Earth, the radiation exposure in space has been recognized as a main health concern for humans in space missions from the beginning of the space age on. Monitoring of the radiation environment is therefore an inevitable task in human spaceflight. Since mission profiles are always different and each spacecraft provides different shielding distributions, modifying the radiation environment measurements needs to be done for each mission. The experiments “Dose Distribution within the ISS (DOSIS” (2009–2011 and “Dose Distribution within the ISS 3D (DOSIS 3D” (2012–onwards onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS use a detector suite consisting of two silicon detector telescopes (DOSimetry TELescope = DOSTEL and passive radiation detector packages (PDP and are designed for the determination of the temporal and spatial variation of the radiation environment. With the DOSTEL instruments’ changes of the radiation composition and the related exposure levels in dependence of the solar cycle, the altitude of the ISS and the influence of attitude changes of the ISS during Space Shuttle dockings inside the Columbus Laboratory have been monitored. The absorbed doses measured at the end of May 2016

  19. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: radiation measurements with the DOSTEL instruments onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the ISS in the years 2009-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Burmeister, Sönke; Matthiä, Daniel; Przybyla, Bartos; Reitz, Günther; Bilski, Pawel; Hajek, Michael; Sihver, Lembit; Szabo, Julianna; Ambrozova, Iva; Vanhavere, Filip; Gaza, Ramona; Semones, Edward; Yukihara, Eduardo G.; Benton, Eric R.; Uchihori, Yukio; Kodaira, Satoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Boehme, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    The natural radiation environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) differs significantly in composition and energy from that found on Earth. The space radiation field consists of high energetic protons and heavier ions from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR), as well as of protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts (Van Allen belts). Protons and some heavier particles ejected in occasional Solar Particle Events (SPEs) might in addition contribute to the radiation exposure in LEO. All sources of radiation are modulated by the solar cycle. During solar maximum conditions SPEs occur more frequently with higher particle intensities. Since the radiation exposure in LEO exceeds exposure limits for radiation workers on Earth, the radiation exposure in space has been recognized as a main health concern for humans in space missions from the beginning of the space age on. Monitoring of the radiation environment is therefore an inevitable task in human spaceflight. Since mission profiles are always different and each spacecraft provides different shielding distributions, modifying the radiation environment measurements needs to be done for each mission. The experiments "Dose Distribution within the ISS (DOSIS)" (2009-2011) and "Dose Distribution within the ISS 3D (DOSIS 3D)" (2012-onwards) onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS) use a detector suite consisting of two silicon detector telescopes (DOSimetry TELescope = DOSTEL) and passive radiation detector packages (PDP) and are designed for the determination of the temporal and spatial variation of the radiation environment. With the DOSTEL instruments' changes of the radiation composition and the related exposure levels in dependence of the solar cycle, the altitude of the ISS and the influence of attitude changes of the ISS during Space Shuttle dockings inside the Columbus Laboratory have been monitored. The absorbed doses measured at the end of May 2016 reached up to 286

  20. Nanographite-TiO2 photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Khushboo; Sharma, Vinay

    2016-05-01

    Nanographite-TiO2 (NG-TiO2) composite was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method and its performance as the photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was investigated. Environmental Scanning electron microscope (E-SEM) micrographs show the uniform distribution of TiO2 nanoflowers deposited over nanographite sheets. The average performance characteristics of the assembled cell in terms of short-ciruit current density (JSC), open circuit voltage (VOC), fill factor (FF) and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) were measured.

  1. Nanographite-TiO_2 photoanode for dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S. S.; Sharma, Khushboo; Sharma, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    Nanographite-TiO_2 (NG-TiO_2) composite was successfully synthesized by the hydrothermal method and its performance as the photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was investigated. Environmental Scanning electron microscope (E-SEM) micrographs show the uniform distribution of TiO_2 nanoflowers deposited over nanographite sheets. The average performance characteristics of the assembled cell in terms of short-ciruit current density (J_S_C), open circuit voltage (V_O_C), fill factor (FF) and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) were measured.

  2. Three-dimensional self-branching anatase TiO_2 nanorods with the improved carrier collection for SrTiO_3-based perovskite solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yajing; Wang, Chen; Tang, Ying; Huang, Lu; Fu, Jianxun; Shi, Weimin; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2016-01-01

    The organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells based on ternary oxide SrTiO_3 shows a higher Voc, attributed to its slightly higher conduction band edge and better morphology of absorber material. However, its less efficient carrier collection and limited overall interfacial areas between the absorber material and the electron-transport layer (ETL), dramatically reducing the Jsc. Here, By adjusting the concentrations of the Ti(OBu)_4, we successfully prepared the three-dimensional (3D) self-branching anatase TiO_2 nanorod/SrTiO_3 nanocomposites, and slightly tuned the particle size of SrTiO_3. With the incorporation of the three-dimensional (3D) self-branching anatase TiO_2 nanorod, the Jsc of the device based on SrTiO_3 was highly boosted. The best performing solar cell we obtained exhibited a PCE of 9.99% with a Jsc of 19.48 mA/cm"2. The excellent performance could be ascribed to the improvement of charge carrier collection of SrTiO_3, better surface coverage and crystallinity of CH_3NH_3PbI_3, and enhanced light scattering ability caused by 3D self-branching anatase TiO_2 nanorods. - Highlights: • The three-dimensional (3D) self-branching anatase TiO_2 nanorod/SrTiO_3 nanocomposites were prepared. • The particle sizes of SrTiO_3 can be slightly tuned. • The best performing solar cell we obtained exhibited a PCE of 9.99% with the Jsc of 19.48 mA/cm"2.

  3. A numerical model for charge transport and energy conversion of perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yecheng; Gray-Weale, Angus

    2016-02-14

    Based on the continuity equations and Poisson's equation, we developed a numerical model for perovskite solar cells. Due to different working mechanisms, the model for perovskite solar cells differs from that of silicon solar cells and Dye Sensitized Solar Cells. The output voltage and current are calculated differently, and in a manner suited in particular to perovskite organohalides. We report a test of our equations against experiment with good agreement. Using this numerical model, it was found that performances of solar cells increase with charge carrier's lifetimes, mobilities and diffusion lengths. The open circuit voltage (Voc) of a solar cell is dependent on light intensities, and charge carrier lifetimes. Diffusion length and light intensity determine the saturated current (Jsc). Additionally, three possible guidelines for the design and fabrication of perovskite solar cells are suggested by our calculations. Lastly, we argue that concentrator perovskite solar cells are promising.

  4. TEMPERATUREEFFECT OFELECTRICALPROPERTIES OF CIGS SOLAR CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ferouani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are interested in studying the copper–indium–gallium–selenium (CIGS solar cells sandwiched between cadmium sulfide (CdS and ZnO as buffer layers, and Molybdenum (Mo. Thus, we report our simulation results using the capacitance simulator (SCAPS in terms of layer thickness, absorber layer band gap and operating temperature to find out the optimum choice. An efficiency of 20.61% (with Voc of 635.2mV, Jsc of 44.08 mA/cm2 and fill factor of 0.73 has been achieved with CdS used as buffer layer as the reference case. It is also found that the high efficiency CIGS cells with the low temperature were a very high efficiency conversion.

  5. Microscope-Based Fluid Physics Experiments in the Fluids and Combustion Facility on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Motil, Susan M.; Snead, John H.; Malarik, Diane C.

    2000-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the Microgravity Science Program is planning to conduct a large number of experiments on the International Space Station in both the Fluid Physics and Combustion Science disciplines, and is developing flight experiment hardware for use within the International Space Station's Fluids and Combustion Facility. Four fluids physics experiments that require an optical microscope will be sequentially conducted within a subrack payload to the Fluids Integrated Rack of the Fluids and Combustion Facility called the Light Microscopy Module, which will provide the containment, changeout, and diagnostic capabilities to perform the experiments. The Light Microscopy Module is planned as a fully remotely controllable on-orbit microscope facility, allowing flexible scheduling and control of experiments within International Space Station resources. This paper will focus on the four microscope-based experiments, specifically, their objectives and the sample cell and instrument hardware to accommodate their requirements.

  6. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  7. Influence of geometrical thickness of SnO2 based photoanode on the performance of Eosin-Y dye sensitized solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arote, Sandeep; Rajendra Prasad, M. B.; Tabhane, Vilas; Pathan, Habib

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, efforts have been taken to tune the optical parameters of SnO2 photoelectrode film to enhance the performance SnO2 based Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). Influence of geometrical thickness of SnO2 based photoelectrode on light scattering magnitude and light harvesting capability was investigated using optical diffused reflectance and electrochemical impedance measurements. The short circuit current density (JSC) of the DSSC assembled using these photoanodes was apparently the decisive photovoltaic parameter in finalizing its photovoltaic efficiency (η). The variation in the light harvesting efficiency and the electron transfer yield were studied as a function of thickness of the photoanode by virtue of the light scattering magnitude in the films. These two factors appeared to have profoundly influenced JSC and so the photovoltaic performance of DSSC.

  8. TiO2 hierarchical porous film constructed by ultrastable foams as photoanode for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xing; He, Xuan; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Hui; Li, Weixin; Fang, Wei; Zhang, Wanqiu; Wang, Junjie; Chen, Huan

    2016-11-01

    It reported a novel and simple method for the first time to prepare TiO2 hierarchical porous film (THPF) using ultrastable foams as a soft template to construct porous structures. Moreover, dodecanol as one foam component was creatively used as solvent during the synthesis of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) to decrease reaction temperature and simplify precipitation process. The result showed that hierarchical pores in scale of microns introduced by foams were regarded to benefit for high coverage and unimodal distribution of QDs on the surface of THPF to increase the efficiencies of light-harvesting, charge-collection and charge-transfer. The increased efficiencies caused an enhancement in quantum efficiency of the cell and thus remarkably increased the short circuit current density (Jsc). In addition, the decrease of charge recombination resulted in the increase of the open circuit voltage (Voc) as well. The QDSSC based on THPF exhibited about 2-fold higher power conversion efficiency (η = 2.20%, Jsc = 13.82 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.572 V) than that of TiO2 nanoparticles film (TNF) (η = 1.06%, Jsc = 6.70 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.505 V). It provided a basis to use foams both as soft template and carrier to realize simultaneously construction and in-situ sensitization of photoanode in further work.

  9. Simultaneous improvement in short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor of polymer solar cells through ternary strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Fujun; Li, Lingliang; Wang, Jian; Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Weihua; Deng, Zhenbo

    2015-02-18

    We present a smart strategy to simultaneously increase the short circuit current (Jsc), the open circuit voltage (Voc), and the fill factor (FF) of polymer solar cells (PSCs). A two-dimensional conjugated small molecule photovoltaic material (SMPV1), as the second electron donor, was doped into the blend system of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl (PC71BM) to form ternary PSCs. The ternary PSCs with 5 wt % SMPV1 doping ratio in donors achieve 4.06% champion power conversion efficiency (PCE), corresponding to about 21.2% enhancement compared with the 3.35% PCE of P3HT:PC71BM-based PSCs. The underlying mechanism on performance improvement of ternary PSCs can be summarized as (i) harvesting more photons in the longer wavelength region to increase Jsc; (ii) obtaining the lower mixed highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level by incorporating SMPV1 to increase Voc; (iii) forming the better charge carrier transport channels through the cascade energy level structure and optimizing phase separation of donor/acceptor materials to increase Jsc and FF.

  10. Equilibrium Kinetics Studies and Crystallization Aboard the International Space Station (ISS) Using the Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity (PCAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achari, Aniruddha; Roeber, Dana F.; Barnes, Cindy L.; Kundrot, Craig E.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Protein Crystallization Apparatus in Microgravity (PCAM) trays have been used in Shuttle missions to crystallize proteins in a microgravity environment. The crystallization experiments are 'sitting drops' similar to that in Cryschem trays, but the reservoir solution is soaked in a wick. From early 2001, crystallization experiments are conducted on the International Space Station using mission durations of months rather than two weeks on previous shuttle missions. Experiments were set up in April 2001 on Flight 6A to characterize the time crystallization experiments will take to reach equilibrium in a microgravity environment using salts, polyethylene glycols and an organic solvent as precipitants. The experiments were set up to gather data for a series of days of activation with different droplet volumes and precipitants. The experimental set up on ISS and results of this study will be presented. These results will help future users of PCAM to choose precipitants to optimize crystallization conditions for their target macromolecules for a particular mission with known mission duration. Changes in crystal morphology and size between the ground and space grown crystals of a protein and a protein -DNA complex flown on the same mission will also be presented.

  11. La alimentación en los viajes espaciales tripulados: desde el Programa Gemini hasta la ISS/Shuttle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Gomar-Serrano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Los alimentos espaciales han tenido una gran importancia en el desarrollo de las misiones espaciales tripuladas ya que constituyen la única fuente de energía y nutrientes para el ser humano fuera del planeta Tierra. Dichos alimentos han experimentado una gran evolución desde el inicio del Programa Mercury hasta las actuales misiones a la International Space Station (ISS. En un primer momento eran diseñados para ofrecer una gran densidad energética y nutritiva y actualmente se da prioridad a las características organolépticas y psicológicas, ya que contribuyen a un mayor consumo y un mejor estado nutricional de los astronautas. El objetivo del presente estudio es hacer un análisis retrospectivo de las publicaciones hasta la fecha sobre alimentos espaciales para ver si los disponibles actualmente son apropiados para mantener un buen estado nutricional de los astronautas en el marco de una misión espacial tripulada al espacio profundo. Para la búsqueda de estos artículos se ha utilizado la base de datos de PubMed y de la web del Jet Propulsion Laboratory de la National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, de los artículos publicados hasta el año 2012.

  12. 8 years of Solar Spectral Irradiance Variability Observed from the ISS with the SOLAR/SOLSPEC Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, Luc; Bolsée, David; Meftah, Mustapha; Irbah, Abdenour; Hauchecorne, Alain; Bekki, Slimane; Pereira, Nuno; Cessateur, Marchand; Gäel; , Marion; et al.

    2016-10-01

    Accurate measurements of Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) are of primary importance for a better understanding of solar physics and of the impact of solar variability on climate (via Earth's atmospheric photochemistry). The acquisition of a top of atmosphere reference solar spectrum and of its temporal and spectral variability during the unusual solar cycle 24 is of prime interest for these studies. These measurements are performed since April 2008 with the SOLSPEC spectro-radiometer from the far ultraviolet to the infrared (166 nm to 3088 nm). This instrument, developed under a fruitful LATMOS/BIRA-IASB collaboration, is part of the Solar Monitoring Observatory (SOLAR) payload, externally mounted on the Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS). The SOLAR mission, with its actual 8 years duration, will cover almost the entire solar cycle 24. We present here the in-flight operations and performances of the SOLSPEC instrument, including the engineering corrections, calibrations and improved know-how procedure for aging corrections. Accordingly, a SSI reference spectrum from the UV to the NIR will be presented, together with its variability in the UV, as measured by SOLAR/SOLSPEC for 8 years. Uncertainties on these measurements and comparisons with other instruments will be briefly discussed.

  13. ISS Solar Array Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Bearing Failure and Recovery: Technical and Project Management Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Krantz, Timothy L.; Dube, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The photovoltaic solar panels on the International Space Station (ISS) track the Sun through continuous rotating motion enabled by large bearings on the main truss called solar array alpha rotary joints (SARJs). In late 2007, shortly after installation, the starboard SARJ had become hard to turn and had to be shut down after exceeding drive current safety limits. The port SARJ, of the same design, had been working well for over 2 years. An exhaustive failure investigation ensued that included multiple extravehicular activities to collect information and samples for engineering forensics, detailed structural and thermal analyses, and a careful review of the build records. The ultimate root cause was determined to be kinematic design vulnerability coupled with inadequate lubrication, and manufacturing flaws; this was corroborated through ground tests, metallurgical studies, and modeling. A highly successful recovery plan was developed and implemented that included replacing worn and damaged components in orbit and applying space-compatible grease to improve lubrication. Beyond the technical aspects, however, lie several key programmatic lessons learned. These lessons, such as running ground tests to intentional failure to experimentally verify failure modes, are reviewed and discussed so they can be applied to future projects to avoid such problems.

  14. Failure Analysis and Recovery of a 50 MM Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearing for an ISS Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Moore, Lewis E., III

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Distillation Assembly centrifuge is the pathfinder application for 50mm bore, deep-groove ball bearings made from the highly elastic intermetallic material 60NiTi. Superior corrosion and shock resistance are required to withstand the acidic wastewater exposure and heavy spacecraft launch related loads that challenge conventional steel bearings. During early ground testing one bearing unexpectedly and catastrophically failed after operating for only 200 hours of run time. A second bearing running on the same shaft was completely unaffected. A thorough investigation into the root cause of the failure determined that an excessively tight press-fit of the bearing outer race coupled with NiTis relatively low elastic modulus were key contributing factors. The proposed failure mode was successfully duplicated by experiment. To further corroborate the root cause theory, a successful bearing life test using improved installation practices (selective fitting) was conducted. The results show that NiTi bearings are suitable for space applications provided that care is taken to accommodate their unique material characteristics.

  15. Failure Analysis and Recovery of a 50-mm Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearing for an ISS Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Moore, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Ball bearings used inside the ISS Distillation Assembly centrifuge require superior corrosion and shock resistance to withstand acidic wastewater exposure and heavy spacecraft launch related loads. These requirements challenge conventional steel bearings and provide an ideal pathfinder application for 50-mm bore, deep-groove ball bearings made from the corrosion immune and highly elastic intermetallic material 60NiTi. During early ground testing in 2014 one 60NiTi bearing unexpectedly and catastrophically failed after operating for only 200 hr. A second bearing running on the same shaft was completely unaffected. An investigation into the root cause of the failure determined that an excessively tight press fit of the bearing outer race coupled with NiTi's relatively low elastic modulus were key contributing factors. The proposed failure mode was successfully replicated by experiment. To further corroborate the root cause theory, a successful bearing life test using improved installation practices (selective fitting) was conducted. The results show that NiTi bearings are suitable for space applications provided that care is taken to accommodate their unique material characteristics.

  16. Nano imprint lithography of textures for light trapping in thin film silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soppe, W.J.; Dorenkamper, M.S.; Notta, J.B.; Pex, P.P.A.C. [ECN-Solliance, High Tech Campus 5, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Schipper, W.; Wilde, R. [Nanoptics GmbH, Innungsstrasse 5, 21244 Buchholz (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Nano Imprint Lithography (NIL) is a versatile and commercially viable technology for fabrication of structures for light trapping in solar cells. We demonstrate the applicability of NIL in thin film silicon solar cells in substrate configuration, where NIL is used to fabricate a textured rear contact of the solar cells. We applied random structures, based on the natural texture of SnO:F grown by APCVD, and designed 2D periodic structures and show that for single junction {mu}c-Si cells these textured rear contacts lead to an increase of Jsc of more than 40 % in comparison to cells with flat rear contacts. Cells on optimized periodic textures showed higher fill factors which can be attributed to reduced microcrack formation, leading to less shunting in comparison to cells on random textures.

  17. Using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM) on the International Space Station (ISS), The Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE) and MacroMolecular Biophysics (MMB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William; Foster, William