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Sample records for jr materials science

  1. Rudiments of materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Pillai, SO

    2007-01-01

    Writing a comprehensive book on Materials Science for the benefit of undergraduate courses in Science and Engineering was a day dream of the first author, Dr. S.O. Pillai for a long period. However, the dream became true after a lapse of couple of years. Lucid and logical exposition of the subject matter is the special feature of this book.

  2. Materials Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  3. Materials science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.

    1997-02-01

    During FY-96, work within the Materials Science and Engineering Thrust Area was focused on material modeling. Our motivation for this work is to develop the capability to study the structural response of materials as well as material processing. These capabilities have been applied to a broad range of problems, in support of many programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These studies are described in (1) Strength and Fracture Toughness of Material Interfaces; (2) Damage Evolution in Fiber Composite Materials; (3) Flashlamp Envelope Optical Properties and Failure Analysis; (4) Synthesis and Processing of Nanocrystalline Hydroxyapatite; and (5) Room Temperature Creep Compliance of Bulk Kel-E.

  4. Materials science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, T.M.

    1995-10-01

    The science-based stockpile stewardship program emphasizes a better understanding of how complex components function through advanced computer calculations. Many of the problem areas are in the behavior of materials making up the equipment. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) can contribute to solving these problems by providing diagnostic tools to examine parts noninvasively and by providing the experimental tools to understand material behavior in terms of both the atomic structure and the microstructure. Advanced computer codes need experimental information on material behavior in response to stress, temperature, and pressure as input, and they need benchmarking experiments to test the model predictions for the finished part.

  5. Contributions in the Preparation and Processing of Composite Material Type Silumin 3 - Reinforced Matrix with S235JR Steel Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Belu-Nica

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the paper are presented concrete data on developing technological batches of metal composite material (MCM type Silumin 3-reinforced matrix with steel mesh S235JR, with the indicating of the parameter and of the distinct stages of work. The samples from prepared batches were cut along and across by water jet abrasive process and were subjected to a destructive testing program and microstructural examination, obtaining results in concordance with the desired quality. The abrasive material used for cut was GMA granite with the average mesh of 80, the particle size ranging between 150-300 µm, density 2300 kg/m3 and melting point 1240°C.

  6. EDITORIAL: Computational materials science Computational materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Gerhard; Kresse, Georg

    2011-10-01

    Special issue in honour of Jürgen Hafner On 30 September 2010, Jürgen Hafner, one of the most prominent and influential members within the solid state community, retired. His remarkably broad scientific oeuvre has made him one of the founding fathers of modern computational materials science: more than 600 scientific publications, numerous contributions to books, and a highly cited monograph, which has become a standard reference in the theory of metals, witness not only the remarkable productivity of Jürgen Hafner but also his impact in theoretical solid state physics. In an effort to duly acknowledge Jürgen Hafner's lasting impact in this field, a Festsymposium was held on 27-29 September 2010 at the Universität Wien. The organizers of this symposium (and authors of this editorial) are proud to say that a large number of highly renowned scientists in theoretical condensed matter theory—co-workers, friends and students—accepted the invitation to this celebration of Hafner's jubilee. Some of these speakers also followed our invitation to submit their contribution to this Festschrift, published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, a journal which Jürgen Hafner served in 2000-2003 and 2003-2006 as a member of the Advisory Editorial Board and member of the Executive Board, respectively. In the subsequent article, Volker Heine, friend and co-worker of Jürgen Hafner over many decades, gives an account of Hafner's impact in the field of theoretical condensed matter physics. Computational materials science contents Theoretical study of structural, mechanical and spectroscopic properties of boehmite (γ-AlOOH) D Tunega, H Pašalić, M H Gerzabek and H Lischka Ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by chlorine-promoted silver oxide M O Ozbek, I Onal and R A Van Santen First-principles study of Cu2ZnSnS4 and the related band offsets for photovoltaic applicationsA Nagoya, R Asahi and G Kresse Renormalization group study of random quantum magnetsIstván A Kovács and

  7. Using materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W O

    1981-01-23

    The science of the solid state has joined nuclear science and molecular biology as a field of major importance in the latter half of the 20th century. It took particular shape during the genesis of solid-state electronics and the post-transistor era of integrated circuits for telecommunications, computers, and digital signal machines. However, these developments were soon joined by techniques from the ancient fields of metallurgy and ceramics and contributions from the more current fields of synthetic polymers, rubbers, plastics, and modified bioorganic substances. This vast realm was characterized by a National Academy of Sciences study of the 1970's as "materials science and engineering." The public, as well as the scientific and engineering community, are currently concerned about the uses of research and development and the applications of knowledge for national progress. Consideration is given here to how well we are using the science of materials for industrial strength and such governmental objectives as national security and energy economy.

  8. Lasers in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Ossi, Paolo; Zhigilei, Leonid

    2014-01-01

    This book covers various aspects of lasers in materials science, including a comprehensive overview on basic principles of laser-materials interactions and applications enabled by pulsed laser systems.  The material is organized in a coherent way, providing the reader with a harmonic architecture. While systematically covering the major current and emerging areas of lasers processing applications, the Volume provides examples of targeted modification of material properties achieved through careful control of the processing conditions and laser irradiation parameters. Special emphasis is placed on specific strategies aimed at nanoscale control of material structure and properties to match the stringent requirements of modern applications.  Laser fabrication of novel nanomaterials, which expands to the domains of photonics, photovoltaics, sensing, and biomedical applications, is also discussed in the Volume. This book assembles chapters based on lectures delivered at the Venice International School on Lasers...

  9. Evaluation of DSA effects on SA516-Gr. 70 steel for reactor coolant piping elbow material. (Dynamic and quasi-static J-R curve characteristics.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Sang; Hong, Jun Hwa; Yoon, Ji Hyun; Oh, Jong Myung; Kim, Jin Won [Korea Atomic Energy Reserach Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    Dynamic and quasi-static J-R curve tests for RCS piping elbow material (SA516-Gr.70) were performed by DCPD method at various temperatures (25 deg C - 316 deg C). The objective of this project was to qualify that DSA would not affect the design safety margin for LBB analysis in the normal operating temperature region. This report describes the effects of temperature and loading rate on J-R characteristics of SA516-Gr. 70 steel for reactor coolant piping elbow material. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs. (author)

  10. Panel 3 - material science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrao, John L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yip, Sidney [MIT

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades, NNSA's national security challenge has evolved, and the role of simulation and computation has grown dramatically. The process of certifying nuclear weapons performance has changed from one based on integrated tests to science-based certification in which underground nuclear tests have been replaced by large-scale simulations, appropriately validated with fundamental experimental data. Further, the breadth of national security challenges has expanded beyond stewardship of a nuclear deterrent to a broad range of global and asymmetric threats. Materials challenges are central to the full suite of these national security challenges. Mission requirements demand that materials perform predictably in extreme environments -- high pressure, high strain rate, and hostile irradiation and chemical conditions. Considerable advances have been made in incorporating fundamental materials physics into integrated codes used for component certification. On the other hand, significant uncertainties still remain, and materials properties, especially at the mesoscale, are key to understanding uncertainties that remain in integrated weapons performance codes and that at present are treated as empirical knobs. Further, additional national security mission challenges could be addressed more robustly with new and higher performing materials.

  11. Teaching materials science and engineering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bernhard Ilschner

    2003-06-01

    This paper is written with the intention of simulating discussion on teaching materials science and engineering in the universities. The article illustrates the tasks, priorities, goals and means lying ahead in the teaching of materials science and engineering for a sustainable future.

  12. Making lemonade from lemons: a case study on loss of space at the Dolph Briscoe, Jr. Library, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Rajia C; Feldman, Jonquil D

    2010-01-01

    The setting for this case study is the Dolph Briscoe, Jr. Library, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, a health sciences campus with medical, dental, nursing, health professions, and graduate schools. During 2008-2009, major renovations to the library building were completed including office space for a faculty development department, multipurpose classrooms, a 24/7 study area, study rooms, library staff office space, and an information commons. The impetus for changes to the library building was the decreasing need to house collections in an increasingly electronic environment, the need for office space for other departments, and growth of the student body. About 40% of the library building was remodeled or repurposed, with a loss of approximately 25% of the library's original space. Campus administration proposed changes to the library building, and librarians worked with administration, architects, and construction managers to seek renovation solutions that meshed with the library's educational mission.

  13. Computer simulation in materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, R.J.; Beeler, J.R.; Esterling, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers on the subject of modeling in materials science. Topics include thermodynamics of metallic solids and fluids, grain-boundary modeling, fracture from an atomistic point of view, and computer simulation of dislocations on an atomistic level.

  14. Physical foundations of materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Gottstein, Günter

    2004-01-01

    In this vivid and comprehensible introduction to materials science, the author expands the modern concepts of metal physics to formulate basic theory applicable to other engineering materials, such as ceramics and polymers. Written for engineering students and working engineers with little previous knowledge of solid-state physics, this textbook enables the reader to study more specialized and fundamental literature of materials science. Dozens of illustrative photographs, many of them Transmission Electron Microscopy images, plus line drawings, aid developing a firm appreciation of this complex topic. Hard-to-grasp terms such as "textures" are lucidly explained - not only the phenomenon itself, but also its consequences for the material properties. This excellent book makes materials science more transparent.

  15. Weightless Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Gravity affects everything we do. Only in very recent years have we been able to carry out experiments in orbit around the Earth and see for the first time how things behave in its absence. This has allowed us to understand fundamental processes better and to design new materials using this knowledge. (Contains 6 figures.)

  16. Research in Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-31

    236. (1966) 836. 11. Noah Hendelsohn, S.B. Thesis, MIT (Physics, 1974) unpublished; Myron Hale Frommer , Ph.D. Thesis, MIT (Metallurgy and Materials...iiiK±\\fju\\mki^m\\IUW<MfW.imK-VlWW I 1 ■77- 12. J. Bostock, Kofi Agyeman, M.ll. Frommer , and M.L.A. MacVicar, J. Appl. Phys. 44 (1973) 5567. 13. W. N

  17. Materials Science in Ancient Rome

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Two books, the "De Architectura" by Vitruvius and the "Naturalis Historia" by Pliny the Elder, give us a portrait of the Materials Science, that is, the knowledge of materials, in Rome at the beginning of the Empire. Here, I am reporting some very attractive contents that we can find in these books. The reader will see the discussion proposed in fours case studies: concretes, coatings, amorphous materials and colloidal crystals, to describe them in modern words.

  18. Material Science Smart Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubinstein, A. I. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Sabirianov, R. F. [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Namavar, Fereydoon [Univ. of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of electrostatic interactions to the free energy of binding between model protein and a ceramic implant surface in the aqueous solvent, considered in the framework of the nonlocal electrostatic model, is calculated as a function of the implant low-frequency dielectric constant. We show that the existence of a dynamically ordered (low-dielectric) interfacial solvent layer at the protein-solvent and ceramic-solvent interface markedly increases charging energy of the protein and ceramic implant, and consequently makes the electrostatic contribution to the protein-ceramic binding energy more favorable (attractive). Our analysis shows that the corresponding electrostatic energy between protein and oxide ceramics depends nonmonotonically on the dielectric constant of ceramic, εC. Obtained results indicate that protein can attract electrostatically to the surface if ceramic material has a moderate εC below or about 35 (in particularly ZrO2 or Ta2O5). This is in contrast to classical (local) consideration of the solvent, which demonstrates an unfavorable electrostatic interaction of protein with typical metal oxide ceramic materialsC>10). Thus, a solid implant coated by combining oxide ceramic with a reduced dielectric constant can be beneficial to strengthen the electrostatic binding of the protein-implant complex.

  19. Biological materials: a materials science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Marc A; Chen, Po-Yu; Lopez, Maria I; Seki, Yasuaki; Lin, Albert Y M

    2011-07-01

    The approach used by Materials Science and Engineering is revealing new aspects in the structure and properties of biological materials. The integration of advanced characterization, mechanical testing, and modeling methods can rationalize heretofore unexplained aspects of these structures. As an illustration of the power of this methodology, we apply it to biomineralized shells, avian beaks and feathers, and fish scales. We also present a few selected bioinspired applications: Velcro, an Al2O3-PMMA composite inspired by the abalone shell, and synthetic attachment devices inspired by gecko.

  20. Materials Science with Ion Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bernas, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This book introduces materials scientists and designers, physicists and chemists to the properties of materials that can be modified by ion irradiation or implantation. These techniques can help design new materials or to test modified properties; novel applications already show that ion-beam techniques are complementary to others, yielding previously unattainable properties. Also, ion-beam interactions modify materials at the nanoscale, avoiding the often detrimental results of lithographic or chemical techniques. Here, the effects are related to better-known quasi-equilibrium thermodynamics, and the consequences to materials are discussed with concepts that are familiar to materials science. Examples addressed concern semiconductor physics, crystal and nanocluster growth, optics, magnetism, and applications to geology and biology.

  1. Setting science free from materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary science is based on the claim that all reality is material or physical. There is no reality but material reality. Consciousness is a by-product of the physical activity of the brain. Matter is unconscious. Evolution is purposeless. This view is now undergoing a credibility crunch. The biggest problem of all for materialism is the existence of consciousness. Panpsychism provides a way forward. So does the recognition that minds are not confined to brains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Phase change materials science and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Raoux, Simone

    2009-01-01

    ""Phase Change Materials: Science and Applications"" provides a unique introduction of this rapidly developing field. This clearly written volume describes the material science of these fascinating materials from a theoretical and experimental perspective.

  3. Applied Mathematics in the Humanities: Review of Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences by Sidney Siegel and N. John Castellan, Jr. (2nd ed., 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H. Grawe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydney Siegel and N. John Castellan, Jr. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Second Edition (New York NY: McGraw Hill, 1988. 399 pp. ISBN: 9780070573574. Almost 60 years ago, Sidney Siegel wrote a stellar book helping anyone in academe to use nonparametric statistics, but ironically, 60 years after that achievement, American higher education confesses itself to be in the worst Quantitative Teaching Crisis of all time. The key clue to solving that crisis may be in Siegel and Castellan’s title, Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, which quietly and perhaps unconsciously excludes the Humanities. Yet it is in humanistic realities that students read, write, and think. This book review considers what could be done if the Humanities were made aware of the enormous power of nonparametric statistics for advancing both their disciplines and their students’ ability to think quantitatively. A potentially revolutionary, humanistic, nonparametric finding is considered in detail along with a brief account of tens of humanistic discoveries deriving from Siegel and Castellan’s impetus.

  4. Materials science experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, S. H.; Giessen, B. C.; Glicksman, M. E.; Margrave, J. L.; Markovitz, H.; Nowick, A. S.; Verhoeven, J. D.; Witt, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The criteria for the selection of the experimental areas and individual experiments were that the experiment or area must make a meaningful contribution to the field of material science and that the space environment was either an absolute requirement for the successful execution of the experiment or that the experiment can be more economically or more conveniently performed in space. A number of experimental areas and individual experiments were recommended for further consideration as space experiments. Areas not considered to be fruitful and others needing additional analysis in order to determine their suitability for conduct in space are also listed. Recommendations were made concerning the manner in which these materials science experiments are carried out and the related studies that should be pursued.

  5. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  6. Ground based materials science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  7. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division`s annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  8. Materials Sciences Division 1990 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report is the Materials Sciences Division's annual report. It contains abstracts describing materials research at the National Center for Electron Microscopy, and for research groups in metallurgy, solid-state physics, materials chemistry, electrochemical energy storage, electronic materials, surface science and catalysis, ceramic science, high tc superconductivity, polymers, composites, and high performance metals.

  9. Study of T L LiF: Mg,Ti (Model JR1152C) material for its use in the environmental monitoring; Estudio del material TL LiF: Mg, Ti (JR1152C) para su empleo en el monitoreo ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina P, D.; Diaz B, E.; Prendes A, M. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones, CPHR, Apdo. postal 6195, Habana 6, CP 10600, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)

    1999-07-01

    In order to evaluate the possibility to use the T L material of LiF: Mg,Ti (Model JR1152C) as environmental dosemeter it was realized its characterization of it according to the established criterion in the standard IEC-1066. The properties studied were: homogeneity of the lot, reproducibility, response linearity, detection threshold, auto irradiation, residual signal, response pride (fading) and angular dependence. The results prove the compliment of the IEC requirements and therefore the applicability of this dosemeter in the environmental monitoring. (Author)

  10. Nanoscale tomography in materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Möbus

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In materials science, various techniques for three-dimensional reconstruction of microstructures have been applied successfully for decades, such as X-ray tomography and mechanical sectioning. However, in the last decade the family tree of methods has grown significantly. This is partly through advances in instrumentation. The introduction of the focused ion beam microscope and the transformation of transmission electron microscopy into a multipurpose analytical and structural tool have made major impacts. The main driving force for progress is perhaps the advent of nanotechnology with the need to achieve nanometer-scale resolution and the desire to get a real three-dimensional view of the nanoscale world.

  11. Phospholipid Vesicles in Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granick, Steve [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2016-05-11

    The objective of this research was to develop the science basis needed to deploy phospholipid vesicles as functional materials in energy contexts. Specifically, we sought to: (1) Develop an integrated molecular-level understanding of what determines their dynamical shape, spatial organization, and responsiveness to complex, time-varying environments; and (2) Develop understanding of their active transportation in crowded environments, which our preliminary measurements in cells suggest may hold design principles for targeting improved energy efficiency in new materials systems. The methods to do this largely involved fluorescence imaging and other spectroscopy involving single particles, vesicles, particles, DNA, and endosomes. An unexpected importance outcome was a new method to image light-emitting diodes during actual operation using super-resolution spectroscopy.

  12. Materials sciences programs, Fiscal year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in materials science topics important to the mission of the Department of Energy. The programmatic divisions under the Office of Basic Energy Sciences are Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geosciences, and Energy Biosciences. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship among synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences subfields include: physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 517 research programs including 255 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 262 research grants (233 of which are at universities), and 29 Small Business Innovation Research Grants. Five cross-cutting indices located at the rear of this book identify all 517 programs according to principal investigator(s), materials, techniques, phenomena, and environment.

  13. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-04

    Producing Kovar-To-Glass Seals by Heating With Light From Xenon^Arc Lamps CM. 1, Oparin , V. B. Redchits; SVAROCHNOYE PROIZVODSTVO, No 11, Nov 87) 28...10-11 iArticle by M, I, Oparin , candidate of technical sciences, and V, B. Redchits, engineer] [Abstract] Hermetic Kovar-to-glass seals were

  14. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-15

    of Smelting 12Crl2NiCu Cast Steel for Water-Turbine Blades (I.A. Kuntsevich , V.V. Kobzistyy et al.; LITEYNOYE PROIZVODSTVO, No 4, Apr 87) Alloying...Moscow LITEYNOYE PROIZVODSTVO in Russian No 4, Apr 87 pp 9-10 [Article by I.A. Kuntsevich , candidate of technical sciences, V.V. Kobzistyy, engineer

  15. Inertial Confinement Fusion Materials Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, A V

    2004-06-01

    Demonstration of thermonuclear ignition and gain on a laboratory scale is one of science's grand challenges. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is committed to achieving inertial confinement fusion (ICF) by 2010. Success in this endeavor depends on four elements: the laser driver performance, target design, experimental diagnostics performance, and target fabrication and target materials performance. This article discusses the current state of target fabrication and target materials performance. The first three elements will only be discussed insofar as they relate to target fabrication specifications and target materials performance. Excellent reviews of the physics of ICF are given by Lindl [Lindl 1998] and Lindl et al. [Lindl 2004]. To achieve conditions under which inertial confinement is sufficient to achieve thermonuclear burn, an imploded fuel capsule is compressed to conditions of high density and temperature. In the laboratory a driver is required to impart energy to the capsule to effect an implosion. There are three drivers currently being considered for ICF in the laboratory: high-powered lasers, accelerated heavy ions, and x rays resulting from pulsed power machines. Of these, high-powered lasers are the most developed, provide the most symmetric drive, and provide the most energy. Laser drive operates in two configurations. The first is direct drive where the laser energy impinges directly on the ICF capsule and drives the implosion. The second is indirect drive, where the energy from the laser is first absorbed in a high-Z enclosure or hohlraum surrounding the capsule, and the resulting x-rays emitted by the hohlraum material drives the implosion. Using direct drive the laser beam energy is absorbed by the electrons in the outer corona of the target. The electrons transport the energy to the denser shell region to provide the ablation and the resulting implosion. Laser direct drive is generally less efficient and more hydrodynamically unstable

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Semiconductor Physics Institute, Siberian Department, USSR Academy of Sciences] [Abstract] An experimental study was made concerning use of binary Bi...begun at the "round table". We are waiting for letters with your opinions and suggestions which, we hope, will help accelerate the solution of the...received 23 Jun 86) pp 516-520 [Article "by B. I. Kosilo, L. I. Polezhayeva, L. P. Polyakova, Ye. G. Polyakov and A. B. Smirnov, Institute of the

  17. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-20

    JPRS-UPIS-90-Q03 1 MAY 1990 S#J1%\\ ■ ■■in FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE .JPRS Report — 19981021 129 Science & Technology USSR... entity , with average temperature of its own, engaged in heat exchange with the two-phase zone according to the convection law. However, such a model...it represents a definite technological complication and requires separate solution. 7. Problems of mechanizing the loading of the initial blank

  18. The value and potential of multisited ethnography for science education research: a review of Jrène Rahm's Science in the Making at the Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeman-Cadwallader, Nicole

    2012-03-01

    Rahm sought to illuminate how children and youth make meaning of science in three out-of-school time programs, and the identity work that is done through the trajectory of their youth toward their young adulthood. Through using multisited ethnography, she asserts that we can learn more about what the youth say about their science learning and science literacy development in these programs. She has revealed through her rich data the potential value of multisited ethnography for science education research. A similar theme of insider/outsider status to science emerged in each of the three sites. The nature of the data collected in Rahm's multisited ethnography allowed for the unveiling of the similarities in this theme, but also made evident the nuanced ways that this theme presented itself differently across the three sites. The additional potential came through in the varied data Rahm could have delved into and did not. A unique characteristic of ethnographic research, that is not necessarily present in other research methods, is that a wide array of varied data is collected. An analysis of documents, images, and observational field notes, which go beyond interview data, may provide deeper understandings previously untouched in science education.

  19. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-11

    material possess special heat-stability. The optical characteristics of metals usually used as selective solar cell absorbers (high absorbability in the...single-phase crystalline (spinel- perovskite -, garnet-like materials), as well as composite. Electrical, mechanical, optical, magnetic, and biological...Dielectrics Ferroelectries Piezoelectrics Semiconductors Electron-ion semiconductors Ion conductors AI2O3, BeO BaTi03, SrTi03 Pb (Ti, Zr)Oß

  20. Materials sciences programs: Fiscal year 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the DOE in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in strategic materials science topics of critical importance to the mission of the Department and its Strategic Plan. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship amongst the synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences sub-fields include physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 458 research programs including 216 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 242 research grants (233 for universities), and 9 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Grants. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the SBIR Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F contains descriptions of other user facilities; G, a summary of funding levels; and H, indices characterizing research projects.

  1. Materials sciences programs, fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Division of Materials Sciences is located within the DOE in the Office of Basic Energy Sciences. The Division of Materials Sciences is responsible for basic research and research facilities in strategic materials science topics of critical importance to the mission of the Department and its Strategic Plan. Materials Science is an enabling technology. The performance parameters, economics, environmental acceptability and safety of all energy generation, conversion, transmission and conservation technologies are limited by the properties and behavior of materials. The Materials Sciences programs develop scientific understanding of the synergistic relationship amongst the synthesis, processing, structure, properties, behavior, performance and other characteristics of materials. Emphasis is placed on the development of the capability to discover technologically, economically, and environmentally desirable new materials and processes, and the instruments and national user facilities necessary for achieving such progress. Materials Sciences sub-fields include physical metallurgy, ceramics, polymers, solid state and condensed matter physics, materials chemistry, surface science and related disciplines where the emphasis is on the science of materials. This report includes program descriptions for 458 research programs including 216 at 14 DOE National Laboratories, 242 research grants (233 for universities), and 9 Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Grants. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the SBIR Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F contains descriptions of other user facilities; G, a summary of funding levels; and H, indices characterizing research projects.

  2. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    structural materials and the formation of macroscopic and microscopic over- growth on them. Specimens measuring 100x50x2 mm were attached by PVC ...composition, in percent: 0.10 C; 0.39 Mn; 0.019 S; 0.020 P. A boron-containing slag-forming mixture was placed in the mold before pouring of one of the...steel making system consisting of oxygen converters, steel-pouring ladles, installations for blowing argon through the steel and continuous casting

  3. Perspectives on Materials Science in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    Materials characterization in 3D has opened a new era in materials science, which is discussed in this paper. The original motivations and visions behind the development of one of the new 3D techniques, namely the three dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) method, are presented and the route...... to its implementation is described. The present status of materials science in 3D is illustrated by examples related to recrystallization. Finally, challenges and suggestions for the future success for 3D Materials Science relating to hardware evolution, data analysis, data exchange and modeling...

  4. The Science of Smart Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boohan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, smart materials have become increasingly important in the design of products. Essentially, a smart material is one that has been designed to respond to a stimulus, such as a change in temperature or magnetic field, in a particular and useful way. This article looks at a range of smart materials that are relatively…

  5. JPRS report: Science and technology. Central Eurasia: Materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    A bibliography is given of Central Eurasian research in materials science. Topics covered include analysis and testing; corrosion resistance; ferrous metals; nonferrous alloys, brazes, and solders; heat treatment; welding, brazing, and soldering; and extractive metallurgy.

  6. Materials science for nuclear detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Peurrung

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of nuclear detection technology has led to a variety of research efforts that seek to accelerate the discovery and development of useful new radiation detection materials. These efforts aim to improve our understanding of how these materials perform, develop formalized discovery tools, and enable rapid and effective performance characterization. We provide an overview of these efforts along with an introduction to the history, physics, and taxonomy of radiation detection materials.

  7. Recent progress in hybrid materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Clément; Shea, Kenneth J; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2011-02-01

    This themed issue of Chemical Society Reviews reviews recent progress made in hybrid materials science. Guest editors Clément Sanchez, Susumu Kitagawa and Ken Shea introduce the issue and the academic and industrial importance of the field.

  8. Overview of HVEM Investigations in Materials Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaro Mori

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High-voltage electron microscopy possesses a number of advantages that cannot be afforded by conventional electron microscopy. Topics in recent investigations with HVEMs in materials science are reviewed.

  9. Computational materials science: Nanoscale plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2002-01-01

    How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour.......How does plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials with grain sizes less than 100 nm look at the atomic scale? A large-scale molecular dynamics simulation of nanocrystalline alluminium reveals some surprising behaviour....

  10. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Bennett, Nancy; McCauley, Dannah; Murphy, Karen; Poindexter, Samantha

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 3 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was close

  11. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 2 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Materials Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the Microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference- In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference %%,its to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in material,, science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance

  12. Microgravity Materials Science Conference 2000. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); Poindexter, Samantha (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This is Volume 1 of 3 of the 2000 Microgravity Material Science Conference that was held June 6-8 at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the fourth NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approx. 200 investigators, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. In addition, posters and exhibits covering NASA microgravity facilities, advanced technology development projects sponsored by the NASA Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and commercial interests were exhibited. The purpose of the conference was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity and to highlight the Spring 2001 release of the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) to solicit proposals for future investigations. It also served to review the current research and activities in materials science, to discuss the envisioned long-term goals. and to highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to MRD. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A workshop on in situ resource utilization (ISRU) was held in conjunction with the conference with the goal of evaluating and prioritizing processing issues in Lunar and Martian type environments. The workshop participation included invited speakers and investigators currently funded in the material science program under the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative. The conference featured a plenary session every day with an invited speaker that was followed by three parallel breakout sessions in subdisciplines. Attendance was

  13. BUILDING MATERIAL SUPPORT FOR TEACHING OF MATERIALS SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús García-Lira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows a number of materials that have processor is presented to facilitate and enhance the learning process of the subject of materials science by students who are studying mechanical engineering, with the always present possibility of use in other common or related field. These materials can be accessible to students in the virtual field, as new more active and participatory teaching methodologies focused on learning are presented.

  14. Carbon Nanotubes: Miracle of Materials Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Bradley S.; Mayeaux, Brian M.

    1999-01-01

    Article to be sent to Advanced Materials and Processes, journal of ASM International, as attached. This is a news-type technical journal for a large organization of scientists, engineers, salesmen, and managers. The article is quite general, meant to be an introduction to the properties of nanotubes. This is a materials science organization, therefore the article is geared toward using nanotubes for materials uses. Pictures have not been included in this version.

  15. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, James Patton

    2012-01-01

    The microgravity materials program was nearly eliminated in the middle of the aughts due to budget constraints. Hardware developments were eliminated. Some investigators with experiments that could be performed using ISS partner hardware received continued funding. Partnerships were established between US investigators and ESA science teams for several investigations. ESA conducted peer reviews on the proposals of various science teams as part of an ESA AO process. Assuming he or she was part of a science team that was selected by the ESA process, a US investigator would submit a proposal to NASA for grant funding to support their part of the science team effort. In a similar manner, a US materials investigator (Dr. Rohit Trivedi) is working as a part of a CNES selected science team. As funding began to increase another seven materials investigators were selected in 2010 through an NRA mechanism to perform research related to development of Materials Science Research Rack investigations. One of these has since been converted to a Glovebox investigation.

  16. Materials Science and Technology Teachers Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieda, Karen J.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Bliss, Mary; Pitman, Stan G.; Eschbach, Eugene A.

    2008-09-04

    The Materials Science and Technology (MST) Handbook was developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, in Richland, Washington, under support from the U.S. Department of Energy. Many individuals have been involved in writing and reviewing materials for this project since it began at Richland High School in 1986, including contributions from educators at the Northwest Regional Education Laboratory, Central Washington University, the University of Washington, teachers from Northwest Schools, and science and education personnel at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Support for its development was also provided by the U.S. Department of Education. This introductory course combines the academic disciplines of chemistry, physics, and engineering to create a materials science and technology curriculum. The course covers the fundamentals of ceramics, glass, metals, polymers and composites. Designed to appeal to a broad range of students, the course combines hands-on activities, demonstrations and long term student project descriptions. The basic philosophy of the course is for students to observe, experiment, record, question, seek additional information, and, through creative and insightful thinking, solve problems related to materials science and technology. The MST Teacher Handbook contains a course description, philosophy, student learning objectives, and instructional approach and processes. Science and technology teachers can collaborate to build the course from their own interests, strengths, and experience while incorporating existing school and community resources. The course is intended to meet local educational requirements for technology, vocational and science education.

  17. Density functional theory in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Jörg; Hickel, Tilmann

    2013-09-01

    Materials science is a highly interdisciplinary field. It is devoted to the understanding of the relationship between (a) fundamental physical and chemical properties governing processes at the atomistic scale with (b) typically macroscopic properties required of materials in engineering applications. For many materials, this relationship is not only determined by chemical composition, but strongly governed by microstructure. The latter is a consequence of carefully selected process conditions (e.g., mechanical forming and annealing in metallurgy or epitaxial growth in semiconductor technology). A key task of computational materials science is to unravel the often hidden composition-structure-property relationships using computational techniques. The present paper does not aim to give a complete review of all aspects of materials science. Rather, we will present the key concepts underlying the computation of selected material properties and discuss the major classes of materials to which they are applied. Specifically, our focus will be on methods used to describe single or polycrystalline bulk materials of semiconductor, metal or ceramic form.

  18. Material Science Experiments on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity materials experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. There were six experiments, all of which investigated some aspect of diffusivity in liquid melts. The Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD) experiment investigated the diffusivity of molten Indium samples at 185 C using a radioactive tracer, In-114m. By monitoring two different gamma ray energies (190 keV and 24 keV) emitted by the samples it was possible to measure independently the diffusion rates in the bulk and at the surface of the samples. The Queens University Experiment in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD) was the furnace facility used to process 213 samples for the five other experiments. These experiments investigated the diffusion, ripening, crystal growth, and glass formation in metal, semiconductor, and glass samples. This facility had the capability to process samples in an isothermal or gradient configuration for varying periods of time at temperatures up to 900 C. Both the LMD and the QUELD furnaces were mounted on the Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM) which provided isolation from g-jitter. All the microgravity experiments were supported by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS); a three head three axes acceleration monitoring system which measured and recorded the acceleration environment.

  19. Material Science Experiments on Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Roger L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the microgravity materials experiments carried out on the Shuttle/Mir program. There were six experiments, all of which investigated some aspect of diffusivity in liquid melts. The Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD) experiment investigated the diffusivity of molten Indium samples at 185 C using a radioactive tracer, In-114m. By monitoring two different gamma ray energies (190 keV and 24 keV) emitted by the samples it was possible to measure independently the diffusion rates in the bulk and at the surface of the samples. The Queens University Experiment in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD) was the furnace facility used to process 213 samples for the five other experiments. These experiments investigated the diffusion, ripening, crystal growth, and glass formation in metal, semiconductor, and glass samples. This facility had the capability to process samples in an isothermal or gradient configuration for varying periods of time at temperatures up to 900 C. Both the LMD and the QUELD furnaces were mounted on the Microgravity Isolation Mount (MIM) which provided isolation from g-jitter. All the microgravity experiments were supported by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS); a three head three axes acceleration monitoring system which measured and recorded the acceleration environment.

  20. Metallurgy, the Father of Materials Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The evolution of the discipline of materials science during the second half of the twentieth century is outlined. The concept emerged in the USA, almost simultaneously in an academic metallurgy department and in an avant-garde industrial research laboratory, and its development subsequently all over the world has been a joint enterprise involving universities, industrial laboratories and government establishments. The initial impetus came unambiguously from the well established discipline of physical metallurgy, but from the 1960s onwards, the input from solid-state physicists grew very rapidly, while materials chemistry is a later addition. Of all the many subdivisions of modern materials science, polymer science has been the slowest to fit under the umbrella of the broad discipline; its concepts are very different from those familiar to metallurgists. Two fields have contributed mightily to the creation of modern materials science: One is nuclear energy and, more specifically, the study of radiation damage, the other is the huge field of electronic and opto-electronic materials in which physics, chemistry and metallurgy are seamlessly combined.

  1. Steels from materials science to structural engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sha, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Steels and computer-based modelling are fast growing fields in materials science as well as structural engineering, demonstrated by the large amount of recent literature. Steels: From Materials Science to Structural Engineering combines steels research and model development, including the application of modelling techniques in steels.  The latest research includes structural engineering modelling, and novel, prototype alloy steels such as heat-resistant steel, nitride-strengthened ferritic/martensitic steel and low nickel maraging steel.  Researchers studying steels will find the topics vital to their work.  Materials experts will be able to learn about steels used in structural engineering as well as modelling and apply this increasingly important technique in their steel materials research and development. 

  2. Materials and Chemical Sciences Division annual report, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    Research programs from Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory in materials science, chemical science, nuclear science, fossil energy, energy storage, health and environmental sciences, program development funds, and work for others is briefly described. (CBS)

  3. Materials Sciences programs, Fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    This report provides a compilation and index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs; the compilation is to assist administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into 7 sections: laboratory projects, contract research projects, small business innovation research, major user facilities, other user facilities, funding level distributions, and indexes.

  4. Chemistry and Materials Science Strategic Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodie, K B; Mailhiot, C; Eaglesham, D; Hartmann-Siantar, C L; Turpin, L S; Allen, P G

    2004-04-21

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's mission is as clear today as it was in 1952 when the Laboratory was founded--to ensure our country's national security and the safety and reliability of its nuclear deterrent. As a laboratory pursuing applied science in the national interest, we strive to accomplish our mission through excellence in science and technology. We do this while developing and implementing sound and robust business practices in an environment that emphasizes security and ensures our safety and the safety of the community around us. Our mission as a directorate derives directly from the Laboratory's charter. When I accepted the assignment of Associate Director for Chemistry and Materials Science (CMS), I talked to you about the need for strategic balance and excellence in all our endeavors. We also discussed how to take the directorate to the next level. The long-range CMS strategic plan presented here was developed with this purpose in mind. It also aligns with the Lab's institutional long-range science and technology plan and its 10-year facilities and infrastructure site plan. The plan is aimed at ensuring that we fulfill our directorate's two governing principles: (1) delivering on our commitments to Laboratory programs and sponsors, and (2) anticipating change and capitalizing on opportunities through innovation in science and technology. This will require us to attain a new level of creativity, agility, and flexibility as we move forward. Moreover, a new level of engagement in partnerships with other directorates across the Laboratory as well as with universities and other national labs will also be required. The group of managers and staff that I chartered to build a strategic plan identified four organizing themes that define our directorate's work and unite our staff with a set of common goals. The plan presented here explains how we will proceed in each of these four theme areas: (1) Materials properties and

  5. Understanding solids the science of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tilley, Richard J D

    2005-01-01

    A modern introduction to the subject taking a unique integrated approach designed to appeal to both science and engineering students. Covering a broad spectrum of topics, this book includes numerous up-to-date examples of real materials with relevant applications and a modern treatment of key concepts. The science bias allows this book to be equally accessible to engineers, chemists and physicists. * Carefully structured into self-contained bite-sized chapters to enhance student understanding * Questions have been designed to reinforce the concepts presented * Includes coverage of radioactivit

  6. Surface analysis methods in materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Sexton, Brett; Smart, Roger

    1992-01-01

    The idea for this book stemmed from a remark by Philip Jennings of Murdoch University in a discussion session following a regular meeting of the Australian Surface Science group. He observed that a text on surface analysis and applica­ tions to materials suitable for final year undergraduate and postgraduate science students was not currently available. Furthermore, the members of the Australian Surface Science group had the research experience and range of coverage of sur­ face analytical techniques and applications to provide a text for this purpose. A of techniques and applications to be included was agreed at that meeting. The list intended readership of the book has been broadened since the early discussions, particularly to encompass industrial users, but there has been no significant alter­ ation in content. The editors, in consultation with the contributors, have agreed that the book should be prepared for four major groups of readers: - senior undergraduate students in chemistry, physics, metallur...

  7. Brilliant Light in Life and Material Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tsakanov, Vasili

    2007-01-01

    The present book contains an excellent overview of the status and highlights of brilliant light facilities and their applications in biology, chemistry, medicine, materials and environmental sciences. Overview papers on diverse fields of research by leading experts are accompanied by the highlights in the near and long-term perspectives of brilliant X-Ray photon beam usage for fundamental and applied research. The book includes advanced topics in the fields of high brightness photon beams, instrumentation, the spectroscopy, microscopy, scattering and imaging experimental techniques and their applications. The book is strongly recommended for students, engineers and scientists in the field of accelerator physics, X-ray optics and instrumentation, life, materials and environmental sciences, bio and nanotechnology.

  8. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  9. Material science experiments at the ATLAS facility

    CERN Document Server

    Keinigs, R K; Atchison, W L; Bartsch, R R; Faehl, R J; Flower-Maudlin, E C; Hammerberg, J E; Holtkamp, D B; Kyrala, G A; Oro, D M; Parker, J V; Preston, D L; Removsky, R E; Scudder, D W; Sheehey, P T; Shlachter, J S; Taylor, A J; Tonks, D L; Turchi, P J; Chandler, E A

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Three experimental campaigns designed for fielding on the Atlas Pulsed Power Facility are discussed. The foci of these experiments are directed toward a better understanding of three material science issues; (1) strength at high strain and high strain rate, (2) friction at material interfaces moving at high relative velocities, and (3) material failure in convergent geometry. Atlas provides an environment for investigating these problems in parameter regimes and geometries that are inaccessible with standard techniques. For example, flow stress measurements of material strength using conventional Hopkinson bar experiments are limited to strain rates ~10/sup 4/ sec/sup -1/. Atlas will be capable of imploding metal shells to combined strains of 200% and strain rates >10/sup 6/ sec/sup -1/. Data obtained regimes is used to test different constitutive strength models used in several Los Alamos hydrocodes. Dynamic friction has been investigated for nearly 300 years, but a first...

  10. Thermal Boundary Conductance: A Materials Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monachon, Christian; Weber, Ludger; Dames, Chris

    2016-07-01

    The thermal boundary conductance (TBC) of materials pairs in atomically intimate contact is reviewed as a practical guide for materials scientists. First, analytical and computational models of TBC are reviewed. Five measurement methods are then compared in terms of their sensitivity to TBC: the 3ω method, frequency- and time-domain thermoreflectance, the cut-bar method, and a composite effective thermal conductivity method. The heart of the review surveys 30 years of TBC measurements around room temperature, highlighting the materials science factors experimentally proven to influence TBC. These factors include the bulk dispersion relations, acoustic contrast, and interfacial chemistry and bonding. The measured TBCs are compared across a wide range of materials systems by using the maximum transmission limit, which with an attenuated transmission coefficient proves to be a good guideline for most clean, strongly bonded interfaces. Finally, opportunities for future research are discussed.

  11. Numerical modeling in materials science and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rappaz, Michel; Deville, Michel

    2003-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts and methodologies related to the modelling of the complex phenomena occurring in materials processing. After a short reminder of conservation laws and constitutive relationships, the authors introduce the main numerical methods: finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements. These techniques are developed in three main chapters of the book that tackle more specific problems: phase transformation, solid mechanics and fluid flow. The two last chapters treat inverse methods to obtain the boundary conditions or the material properties and stochastic methods for microstructural simulation. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students in materials science and engineering, mechanical engineering and physics and for engineering professionals or researchers who want to get acquainted with numerical simulation to model and compute materials processing.

  12. Materials sciences programs fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is primarily intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F describes other user facilities, G as a summary of funding levels and H has indices characterizing research projects.

  13. Materials sciences programs: Fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient compilation and index of the DOE Materials Science Division programs. This compilation is primarily intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research. The report is divided into eight sections. Section A contains all Laboratory projects, Section B has all contract research projects, Section C has projects funded under the Small Business Innovation Research Program, Section D describes the Center of Excellence for the Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials and E has information on major user facilities. F describes other user facilities, G as a summary of funding levels and H has indices characterizing research projects.

  14. Chemistry and materials science research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-31

    The research reported here in summary form was conducted under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The period covered is the first half of FY90. The results reported here are for work in progress; thus, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Research in the following areas are briefly described: energetic materials, tritium, high-Tc superconductors, interfaces, adhesion, bonding, fundamental aspects of metal processing, plutonium, synchrotron-radiation-based materials science, photocatalysis on doped aerogels, laser-induced chemistry, laser-produced molecular plasmas, chemistry of defects, dta equipment development, electronic structure study of the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Al-Li Alloys, and the structure-property link in sub-nanometer materials.

  15. Progress in the materials science of silicene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada-Takamura, Yukiko; Friedlein, Rainer

    2014-12-01

    In its freestanding, yet hypothetical form, the Si counterpart of graphene called silicene is predicted to possess massless Dirac fermions and to exhibit an experimentally accessible quantum spin Hall effect. Such interesting electronic properties are not realized in two-dimensional (2D) Si honeycomb lattices prepared recently on metallic substrates where the crystal and hybrid electronic structures of these 'epitaxial silicene' phases are strongly influenced by the substrate, and thus different from those predicted for isolated 2D structures. While the realization of such low-dimensional Si π materials has hardly been imagined previously, it is evident that the materials science behind silicene remains challenging. In this contribution, we will review our recent results that lead to an enhanced understanding of epitaxial silicene formed on diboride thin films, and discuss the remaining challenges that must be addressed in order to turn Si 2D nanostructures into technologically interesting nanoelectronic materials.

  16. Material science lesson from the biological photosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Lee, Jun Ho; Ha, Heonjin; Im, Sang Won; Nam, Ki Tae

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by photosynthesis, artificial systems for a sustainable energy supply are being designed. Each sequential energy conversion process from light to biomass in natural photosynthesis is a valuable model for an energy collection, transport and conversion system. Notwithstanding the numerous lessons of nature that provide inspiration for new developments, the features of natural photosynthesis need to be reengineered to meet man's demands. This review describes recent strategies toward adapting key lessons from natural photosynthesis to artificial systems. We focus on the underlying material science in photosynthesis that combines photosystems as pivotal functional materials and a range of materials into an integrated system. Finally, a perspective on the future development of photosynthesis mimetic energy systems is proposed.

  17. Perspective: Materials informatics and big data: Realization of the "fourth paradigm" of science in materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Ankit; Choudhary, Alok

    2016-05-01

    Our ability to collect "big data" has greatly surpassed our capability to analyze it, underscoring the emergence of the fourth paradigm of science, which is data-driven discovery. The need for data informatics is also emphasized by the Materials Genome Initiative (MGI), further boosting the emerging field of materials informatics. In this article, we look at how data-driven techniques are playing a big role in deciphering processing-structure-property-performance relationships in materials, with illustrative examples of both forward models (property prediction) and inverse models (materials discovery). Such analytics can significantly reduce time-to-insight and accelerate cost-effective materials discovery, which is the goal of MGI.

  18. Nanobiotechnology: synthetic biology meets materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Michael C; Patolsky, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Nanotechnology, the area of science focused on the control of matter in the nanometer scale, allows ground-breaking changes of the fundamental properties of matter that are often radically different compared to those exhibited by the bulk counterparts. In view of the fact that dimensionality plays a key role in determining the qualities of matter, the realization of the great potential of nanotechnology has opened the door to other disciplines such as life sciences and medicine, where the merging between them offers exciting new applications, along with basic science research. The application of nanotechnology in life sciences, nanobiotechnology, is now having a profound impact on biological circuit design, bioproduction systems, synthetic biology, medical diagnostics, disease therapy and drug delivery. This special issue is dedicated to the overview of how we are learning to control biopolymers and biological machines at the molecular- and nanoscale. In addition, it covers far-reaching progress in the design and synthesis of nanoscale materials, thus enabling the construction of integrated systems in which the component blocks are comparable in size to the chemical and biological entities under investigation.

  19. Ultra light weight jet engine JR100; Chokeiryo jet engine JR100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuki, M. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan)

    1999-03-20

    As a part of the jet lift V/STOL research by National Aerospace Laboratory, a study of trial manufacture of ultra light weight jet engine JR 100 started in FY 1964. The study was aimed at obtaining a lift engine for VTOL and founding the base for the future jet lift VTOL, and at taking in the results of the jet engine element study accumulated so far and manufacturing an advanced engine. Decided on the use of domestic materials for JR 100, the materials to be used are almost iron-based ones. Through the efforts for weight reduction in structure and processing, a thrust/weight ratio of 10 was realized. At the same time, the production/processing of light weight materials such as titanium alloys was proceeded with, and by adopting the materials to JR 200 system, a thrust/weight ratio of 15 was realized. Together with these, for the purpose of reducing the fuel consumption rate, studies started on fan for lift fan engine and high temperature turbine (an inlet temperature of 1250 degrees C was achieved), to get low noise/high efficiency fan. By the research results, the basis for jet lift VTOL was established, and it became the basis for the development of turbo fan engine FJR 710. (NEDO)

  20. Ukrainian Program for Material Science in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Oleg

    Ukrainian Program for Material Sciences in Microgravity O.P. Fedorov, Space Research Insti-tute of NASU -NSAU, Kyiv, The aim of the report is to present previous and current approach of Ukrainian research society to the prospect of material sciences in microgravity. This approach is based on analysis of Ukrainian program of research in microgravity, preparation of Russian -Ukrainian experiments on Russian segment of ISS and development of new Ukrainian strategy of space activity for the years 2010-2030. Two parts of issues are discussed: (i) the evolution of our views on the priorities in microgravity research (ii) current experiments under preparation and important ground-based results. item1 The concept of "space industrialization" and relevant efforts in Soviet and post -Soviet Ukrainian research institutions are reviewed. The main topics are: melt supercooling, crystal growing, testing of materials, electric welding and study of near-Earth environment. The anticipated and current results are compared. item 2. The main experiments in the framework of Ukrainian-Russian Research Program for Russian Segment of ISS are reviewed. Flight installations under development and ground-based results of the experiments on directional solidification, heat pipes, tribological testing, biocorrosion study is presented. Ground-based experiments and theoretical study of directional solidification of transparent alloys are reviewed as well as preparation of MORPHOS installation for study of succinonitrile -acetone in microgravity.

  1. Multicultural Science Education and Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes multicultural science education and explains the purposes of multicultural science curricula. It also serves as an introductory article for the other multicultural science education activities in this special issue of "Science Activities".

  2. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Mogensen, C. T.; VonderHeydt, M. O.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. M.; Johnson, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Organic Check Material (OCM) has been developed for use on the Mars Science Laboratory mission to serve as a sample standard for verification of organic cleanliness and characterization of potential sample alteration as a function of the sample acquisition and portioning process on the Curiosity rover. OCM samples will be acquired using the same procedures for drilling, portioning and delivery as are used to study martian samples with The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite during MSL surface operations. Because the SAM suite is highly sensitive to organic molecules, the mission can better verify the cleanliness of Curiosity's sample acquisition hardware if a known material can be processed through SAM and compared with the results obtained from martian samples.

  3. Tribute to A. W. Castleman, Jr.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappenberger, Jr., Kenneth L.; Johnson, Grant E.; El-Sayed, Mostafa A.

    2014-09-18

    It is with great pleasure that we join our many colleagues who contributed to this special issue of The Journal of Physical Chemistry A in dedicating it in honor of Professor A. W. “Will” Castleman, Jr. Will is a pioneer in the field of cluster science, and the far-reaching impact of his career is demonstrated by the broad range of topics covered in this issue. This diversity validates Will’s teaching that “fundamental research in cluster science allows you to explore any problem you want”. This ability to extend to other research areas comes because, as Will has shown both rigorously and elegantly, clusters are an intermediate state of matter that bridge the gap between molecular and bulk levels.

  4. A new direction in mathematics for materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first volume of the SpringerBriefs in the Mathematics of Materials and provides a comprehensive guide to the interaction of mathematics with materials science. The anterior part of the book describes a selected history of materials science as well as the interaction between mathematics and materials in history. The emergence of materials science was itself a result of an interdisciplinary movement in the 1950s and 1960s. Materials science was formed by the integration of metallurgy, polymer science, ceramics, solid state physics, and related disciplines. We believe that such historical background helps readers to understand the importance of interdisciplinary interaction such as mathematics–materials science collaboration. The middle part of the book describes mathematical ideas and methods that can be applied to materials problems and introduces some examples of specific studies—for example, computational homology applied to structural analysis of glassy materials, stochastic models for ...

  5. Gender Equity in Materials Science and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus Rockett

    2008-12-01

    At the request of the University Materials Council, a national workshop was convened to examine 'Gender Equity Issues in Materials Science and Engineering.' The workshop considered causes of the historic underrepresentation of women in materials science and engineering (MSE), with a goal of developing strategies to increase the gender diversity of the discipline in universities and national laboratories. Specific workshop objectives were to examine efforts to level the playing field, understand implicit biases, develop methods to minimize bias in all aspects of training and employment, and create the means to implement a broadly inclusive, family-friendly work environment in MSE departments. Held May 18-20, 2008, at the Conference Center at the University of Maryland, the workshop included heads and chairs of university MSE departments and representatives of the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (DOE-BES), and the national laboratories. The following recommendations are made based on the outcomes of the discussions at the workshop. Many or all of these apply equally well to universities and national laboratories and should be considered in context of industrial environments as well. First, there should be a follow-up process by which the University Materials Council (UMC) reviews the status of women in the field of MSE on a periodic basis and determines what additional changes should be made to accelerate progress in gender equity. Second, all departments should strengthen documentation and enforcement of departmental procedures such that hiring, promotion, compensation, and tenure decisions are more transparent, that the reasons why a candidate was not selected or promoted are clear, and that faculty are less able to apply their biases to personnel decisions. Third, all departments should strengthen mentoring of junior faculty. Fourth, all departments must raise awareness of gender biases

  6. Polyoxometalates: from inorganic chemistry to materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casañ-Pastor, Nieves; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2004-05-01

    Polyoxometalates have been traditionally the subject of study of molecular inorganic chemistry. Yet, these polynuclear molecules, reminiscent of oxide clusters, present a wide range of structures and with them ideal frameworks for the deployment of a plethora of useful magnetic, electroionic, catalytic, bioactive and photochemical properties. With this in mind, a new trend towards the application of these remarkable species in materials science is beginning to develop. In this review we analyze this trend and discuss two main lines of thought for the application of polyoxometalates as materials. On the one hand, there is their use as clusters with inherently useful properties on themselves, a line which has produced fundamental studies of their magnetic, electronic or photoelectrochemical properties and has shown these clusters as models for quantum-sized oxides. On the other hand, the encapsulation or integration of polyoxometalates into organic, polymeric or inorganic matrices or substrates opens a whole new field within the area of hybrid materials for harnessing the multifunctional properties of these versatile species in a wide variety of applications, ranging from catalysis to energy storage to biomedicine.

  7. Innovative Video Diagnostic Equipment for Material Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, G.; Titomanlio, D.; Soellner, W.; Seidel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Materials science experiments under microgravity increasingly rely on advanced optical systems to determine the physical properties of the samples under investigation. This includes video systems with high spatial and temporal resolution. The acquisition, handling, storage and transmission to ground of the resulting video data are very challenging. Since the available downlink data rate is limited, the capability to compress the video data significantly without compromising the data quality is essential. We report on the development of a Digital Video System (DVS) for EML (Electro Magnetic Levitator) which provides real-time video acquisition, high compression using advanced Wavelet algorithms, storage and transmission of a continuous flow of video with different characteristics in terms of image dimensions and frame rates. The DVS is able to operate with the latest generation of high-performance cameras acquiring high resolution video images up to 4Mpixels@60 fps or high frame rate video images up to about 1000 fps@512x512pixels.

  8. Molecular forensic science analysis of nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Dallas David

    Concerns over the proliferation and instances of nuclear material in the environment have increased interest in the expansion of nuclear forensics analysis and attribution programs. A new related field, molecular forensic science (MFS) has helped meet this expansion by applying common scientific analyses to nuclear forensics scenarios. In this work, MFS was applied to three scenarios related to nuclear forensics analysis. In the first, uranium dioxide was synthesized and aged at four sets of static environmental conditions and studied for changes in chemical speciation. The second highlighted the importance of bulk versus particle characterizations by analyzing a heterogeneous industrially prepared sample with similar techniques. In the third, mixed uranium/plutonium hot particles were collected from the McGuire Air Force Base BOMARC Site and analyzed for chemical speciation and elemental surface composition. This work has identified new signatures and has indicated unexpected chemical behavior under various conditions. These findings have lead to an expansion of basic actinide understanding, proof of MFS as a tool for nuclear forensic science, and new areas for expansion in these fields.

  9. Medipix3 CT for material sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procz, S.; Wartig, K.-A.; Fauler, A.; Zwerger, A.; Luebke, J.; Ballabriga, R.; Blaj, G.; Campbell, M.; Mix, M.; Fiederle, M.

    2013-01-01

    Innovative detector systems for non-destructive material analysis and for medical diagnosis are an important development to improve the performance and the quality of examination methods. For a number of years now photon-counting X-ray detectors are being developed to process incoming X-ray photons as single events. These detectors facilitate a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) than conventional, non-photon-counting, scintillator based detector systems, which detect X-ray photons indirectly through conversion into visible light. The Medipix is a pixelated photon counting semiconductor detector which features adjustable energy thresholds allowing energy selective, multispectral X-ray imaging. The Medipix chip is under continued development by the ``Medipix2 Collaboration'' and ``Medipix3 Collaboration'' at CERN [1]. The Medipix electronic offers 256 × 256 pixels with a pixel pitch of 55 × 55 μm2 and can be hybridized with different sensor materials like Si, CdTe or GaAs. The newest member of the Medipix family is the Medipix3 (ASIC in 0.13 μm CMOS technology) providing up to eight separate 12-bit counters per pixel. It offers a couple of different working modes [2], which are useful for X-ray imaging applications. A Medipix3 CT X-ray measuring station was built up for small animal X-ray imaging and non-destructive material analysis [3]. The combination of the low energy threshold ( ~ 4 keV) of the Medipix3 with its multispectral capability enables tomographic investigations on objects with low absorption contrast. The advantage of photon counting, multispectral detectors like Medipix3 for material sciences will be presented here as well as a comparison with a scintillator based CT.

  10. Focuses of material science development in recent years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing

    2011-01-01

    Materials science is an interdisciplinary field applying the properties of matter to various areas of science and engineering.This scientific field investigates the relationship between the structure of materials at atomic or molecular scales and their macroscopic properties.It incorporates elements of applied physics and chemistry.With significant media attention focused on nanoscience and nanotechnology in recent years,materials science has been propelled to the forefront at many universities.Materials science encompasses various classes of materials,including electronic materials,functional ceramics,magnesium,material and processes for flat-panel displays,eco/environmental materials,sustainable energy materials,transportation materials,electronic packaging materials,etc.

  11. Chemistry and Materials Science progress report, FY 1994. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Thrust areas of the weapons-supporting research include surface science, fundamentals of the physics and processing of metals, energetic materials, etc. The laboratory directed R and D include director`s initiatives, individual projects, and transactinium science studies.

  12. Pulsed Neutron Powder Diffraction for Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyama, T.

    2008-03-01

    The accelerator-based neutron diffraction began in the end of 60's at Tohoku University which was succeeded by the four spallation neutron facilities with proton accelerators at the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (Japan), Argonne National Laboratory and Los Alamos Laboratory (USA), and Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK). Since then, the next generation source has been pursued for 20 years, and 1MW-class spallation neutron sources will be appeared in about three years at the three parts of the world: Japan, UK and USA. The joint proton accelerator project (J-PARC), a collaborative project between KEK and JAEA, is one of them. The aim of the talk is to describe about J-PARC and the neutron diffractometers being installed at the materials and life science facility of J-PARC. The materials and life science facility of J-PARC has 23 neutron beam ports and will start delivering the first neutron beam of 25 Hz from 2008 May. Until now, more than 20 proposals have been reviewed by the review committee, and accepted proposal groups have started to get fund. Those proposals include five polycrystalline diffractometers: a super high resolution powder diffractometer (SHRPD), a 0.2%-resolution powder diffractometer of Ibaraki prefecture (IPD), an engineering diffractometers (Takumi), a high intensity S(Q) diffractometer (VSD), and a high-pressure dedicated diffractometer. SHRPD, Takumi and IPD are being designed and constructed by the joint team of KEK, JAEA and Ibaraki University, whose member are originally from the KEK powder group. These three instruments are expected to start in 2008. VSD is a super high intensity diffractometer with the highest resolution of Δd/d = 0.3%. VSD can measure rapid time-dependent phenomena of crystalline materials as well as glass, liquid and amorphous materials. The pair distribution function will be routinely obtained by the Fourier transiformation of S(Q) data. Q range of VSD will be as wide as 0.01 Å-1industries based on

  13. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Washington State Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia, WA. Div. of Instructional Programs and Services.

    The Washington State Resource Guide on Martin Luther King, Jr., supplies a wide variety of materials for use with all grade levels in classroom and assembly presentations in public schools. The goal is for every child enrolled in Washington State schools to learn about Dr. King during the days of January 15 to January 17. Resolutions supporting an…

  14. ION BEAM TECHNOLOGY IN MATERIALS SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Dutt

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ion beam processing of materials in general and semiconductors in particular, started with ion implantation in semiconductors; first used by Ohl at Bell Labs in 1952 toimprove the electrical characteristics of silicon point contact diodes by implanting H, He, N and Ar ions.The improvement was obvious but it was caused by surface damage and notthe ion implantation. However, in the process, ion implantation had an entry and slowly it became popular among the scientists and the technocrats. Thus, over the last six decades, demands continued for new and improved materials and devices that has pushed ion implanter to expand to ion beam technology. In the semiconductor industry alone, the processes have evolved so much so that in today’s world, there are morethan 4000 ion implanters in the IC fab lines apart from otherion beam-assisted processing machines. Ion beam deposition techniques, ion beam lithography, ion beam etching, ion beammilling are all ion beam beam-assisted techniques that arebeing extensively used in semiconductor industries. In this backdrop, it was thought that a compilation of uses of allthese techniques together with relevant tools of analysis toserve as a guide to the semiconductor scientists and technologists for a glimpse of the ongoing efforts being madein this direction. Fortunately enough, Indian research is not lagging in use of all these modern day technologies that will be evident as the reader will go from one article to the other of this special volume.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(4, pp.328-328, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1530

  15. Leo Piilonen appointed William E. Hassinger, Jr. Senior Faculty Fellow in Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Owczarski, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Leo Piilonen, professor of physics in the College of Science at Virginia Tech, was recently appointed the William E. Hassinger, Jr., Senior Faculty Fellow in Physics by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors.

  16. Chemistry and materials science progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Research is reported in the areas of surface science, fundamentals of the physics and processing of metals, energetic materials, transactinide materials and properties and other indirectly related areas of weapons research.

  17. Chemistry and materials science progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    Research is reported in the areas of surface science, fundamentals of the physics and processing of metals, energetic materials, transactinide materials and properties and other indirectly related areas of weapons research.

  18. CSIR eNews: Materials science and manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available knowledge and networks within these fields. A major competitive advantage is the wide coverage of materials (e.g. fibres, textiles, polymers, ceramics, composites, metals) and manufacturing disciplines within one unit. This enables CSIR Materials Science...

  19. CSIR eNews: Materials science and manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available knowledge and networks within these fields. A major competitive advantage is the wide coverage of materials (e.g. fibres, textiles, polymers, ceramics, composites, metals) and manufacturing disciplines within one unit. This enables CSIR Materials Science...

  20. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, Bio-Functional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-17

    BIO -Functional Materials Selected abstracts on the design, structure, and functions of bio -functional materials; "priority areas of research" sponsored by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture

  1. FWP executive summaries: basic energy sciences materials sciences and engineering program (SNL/NM).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, George A.; Simmons, Jerry A.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents an Executive Summary of the various elements of the Materials Sciences and Engineering Program which is funded by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico. A general programmatic overview is also presented.

  2. Materials and Chemical Sciences Division annual report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    This report describes research conducted at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, programs are discussed in the following topics: materials sciences; chemical sciences; fossil energy; energy storage systems; health and environmental sciences; exploratory research and development funds; and work for others. A total of fifty eight programs are briefly presented. References, figures, and tables are included where appropriate with each program.

  3. Jules Verne Voyager, Jr: An Interactive Map Tool for Teaching Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburger, M. W.; Meertens, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    simultaneously and does not require any special software installation on users' systems. In addition, a javascript-based educational interface, dubbed "Exploring our Dynamic Planet", incorporates the map tool, explanatory material, background scientific material, and curricular activities that encourage users to explore Earth processes using the Jules Verne Voyager, Jr. tool. Exploring our Dynamic Planet can be viewed at http://www.dpc.ucar.edu/VoyagerJr/. Because of its flexibility, the map utilities can be used for hands-on exercises exploring plate interaction in a range of academic settings, from high school science classes to entry-level undergraduate to graduate-level tectonics courses.

  4. The Words of Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today's Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Excerpts from speeches by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., are reprinted. Topics discussed include discrimination, the South, education, nonviolent resistance, poverty, economic opportunity, and world peace. (LH)

  5. The Usage of Recycle Materials for Science Practicum: Is There Any Effect on Science Process Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajoko, Setiyo; Amin, Mohamad; Rohman, Fatchur; Gipayana, Muhana

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the effect of recycle materials usage for science practicum on students' basic science process skills of the Open University, Surakarta. Recycle materials are the term used for the obtained materials and equipment from the students' environment by taking back the garbage or secondhand objects into goods or new…

  6. PREFACE: Tsukuba International Conference on Materials Science 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Masashi; Ohshima, Kenichi; Kojima, Seiji; Nagasaki, Yukio; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Kim, Hee Young; Kadowaki, Kazuo; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Nakamura, Junji; Yamamoto, Yohei; Goto, Hiromasa

    2014-03-01

    Tsukuba International Conference on Materials Science (TICMS) was held from 28th August to 6th September, 2013 for the celebration of 40th year anniversary of the University of Tsukuba. The conference was organized by the Division of Materials Science, in cooperation with the Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, and Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science. The purpose of the conference was to provide a unique forum for researchers and students working in various fields of materials science, which have been progressing so rapidly that no single society could cover. The conference consists of following seven workshops to cover various fields. The organizing committee believed that the conference gave all participants new insights into the widespread development of materials science and enhanced the circulation, among them, of information released at the conference. The organizers are grateful for the financial support from University of Tsukuba. This volume contains 25 selected papers from invited and contributed papers, all of which have been screened on the basis of the standard review process of the program committee. The editors express their thanks to those authors who contributed the papers published in this proceedings, which reflects the scientific value of the conference. Nov. 20, 2013 Seiji Kojima, Prof. Dr. Chair, Division of Materials Science Chair, Doctoral Program in Materials Science TICMS 2013 (http://www.ticonfms.tsukuba.ac.jp/) Workshop list The 13th Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Materials Science Summer School of Biomaterials Science The Japan-Korea Joint Workshop on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies The 2nd Workshop on THz Radiation from Intrinsic Josephson Junctions The 3rd German-Japan Nanoworkshop TICMS and IWP Joint Workshop on Conjugated Polymers International Workshop on Science and Patents (IWP) 2013

  7. The materiality of materials and artefacts used in science classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy

    and ends of artefacts/ materials. They explored artefacts/materials and how they could be used and through this exemplified materiality in the objects. More deliberate and focused attention to what constitutes materiality can support collaboration and communication to support and enhance learning...... materials as natural objects in this world and artefacts as manmade objects. We are aware that in a classroom material objects and artefacts shape, and are shaped by classroom practice through the way they selectively present scientific explanations. However, materials and artefacts have no intrinsic...... and constrain forms of action and insights that are likely to “emerge” (Wells, 2003). Methods The study's teachers considered that students enjoy and benefit from “hands–on” learning activities and many commented that tasks and interactions incorporated the use of materials. These included material objects...

  8. Materials Centered Science and Manipulative Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struve, Nancy L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Evaluated were effects of experience with two physical science units adapted for use by the visually impaired on the manipulative skills of 14 visually impaired low income students from 9 to 19 years of age. (DB)

  9. Materials science: Lessons from tooth enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D.; Soler-Crespo, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    A remarkable composite material has been made that mimics the structure of tooth enamel. This achievement opens up the exploration of new composite materials and of computational methods that reliably predict their properties. See Letter p.95

  10. Materials science: Chemistry and physics happily wed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiete, Gregory A.

    2017-07-01

    A major advance in the quantum theory of solids allows materials to be identified whose electronic states have a non-trivial topology. Such materials could have many computing and electronics applications. See Article p.298

  11. Piezoelectric materials and devices applications in engineering and medical sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Vijaya, M S

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric Materials and Devices: Applications in Engineering and Medical Sciences provides a complete overview of piezoelectric materials, covering all aspects of the materials starting from fundamental concepts. The treatment includes physics of piezoelectric materials, their characteristics and applications. The author uses simple language to explain the theory of piezoelectricity and introduce readers to the properties and design of different types of piezoelectric materials, such as those used in engineering and medical device applications.This book: Introduces various types of dielect

  12. The use of historical materials in elementary science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafai, Yasmin B.; Gilliland-Swetland, Anne J.

    2001-07-01

    Science educators have stressed in recent years the importance of providing students with an historical understanding of the development of scientific knowledge. Although many approaches have been suggested for building historical understanding of science, historical source materials have often been deemed too difficult to use with elementary school students. This article reports on a case study that used archival and contemporary source materials in project activities, such as photographs and field notes, to engage students in the processes of data generation, selection, annotation, and evaluation. The curricular science activities of one elementary classroom with 29 fourth and fifth grade students are decribed and analyzed as they build and use archives of historical and contemporary naturalist materials. The article concludes with a discussion of the feasibility and benefits of using historical source materials within elementary science education, as well as the implications for selecting and preparing historical source materials in digital format for use in elementary education.

  13. Making Audio-Visual Teaching Materials for Elementary Science

    OpenAIRE

    永田, 四郎

    1980-01-01

    For the elementary science, some audio-visual teaching materials were made by author and our students. These materials are slides for projector, transparencies and materials for OHP, 8 mm sound films and video tapes. We hope this kind of study will continue.

  14. Diamond detector - material science, design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaowei, Mengjia

    Modern synchrotrons, such as the NSLS-II, will enable unprecedented science by having extremely high brightness and flux with exceptional beam stability. These capabilities create a harsh and demanding environment for measuring the characteristics of the x-ray beam. In many cases, existing measurement techniques fail completely, requiring the development of new detectors which can meet the demands of the synchrotron. The combination of diamond properties ranked diamond an appealing candidate in the field of radiation detection in extreme conditions and it has been used as x-ray sensor material for decades. However, only until the development of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process in the synthesis of diamond that has it been considered for wider applications in the state-of-art synchrotron light sources as part of beamline diagnostics, including the detection of x-ray beam flux and position. While defects and dislocations in CVD grown single crystal diamonds are inevitable, there are solutions in other aspects of a device fabrication to compensate this technological downside, including improving device performance in engineering diamond surface electrode materials and patterns and slicing and polishing diamond plates into thinner pieces. The content of this dissertation summarizes our effort in addressing several problems we encounter in the process of design and fabrication of single crystal CVD diamond based electronic devices. In order to study the generation of post-anneal photoconductive gain in our devices we have discussed in section 3 and 4 the two criteria for the observation of photoconductive current. In section 3 we reveal the correlation between structural defects in diamond and the post-anneal photoconductive regions. Section 4 introduces the measurements of hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) we applied to investigate the diamond-metal Schottky barrier height for several metals and diamond surface terminations. The position of the

  15. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  16. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  17. 2005 Research Briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  18. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials for Inquiry-Based Elementary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.

    2011-01-01

    Curriculum materials are important resources with which teachers make pedagogical decisions about the design of science learning environments. To become well-started beginning elementary teachers capable of engaging their students in inquiry-based science, preservice elementary teachers need to learn to use science curriculum materials…

  19. Materials science for solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Granqvist, CG

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in materials technology are creating many novel forms of coatings for energy efficient applications in solar energy. Insulating heat mirrors, selective absorbers, transparent insulation and fluorescent concentrators are already available commercially. Radiative cooling, electrochromic windows and polymeric light pipes hold promise for future development, while chemical and photochemical processes are being considered for energy storage. This book investigates new material advances as well as applications, costs, reliability and industrial production of existing materials. Each c

  20. Biological issues in materials science and engineering: Interdisciplinarity and the bio-materials paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L. E.

    2006-07-01

    Biological systems and processes have had, and continue to have, important implications and applications in materials extraction, processing, and performance. This paper illustrates some interdisciplinary, biological issues in materials science and engineering. These include metal extraction involving bacterial catalysis, galvanic couples, bacterial-assisted corrosion and degradation of materials, biosorption and bioremediation of toxic and other heavy metals, metal and material implants and prostheses and related dental and medical biomaterials developments and applications, nanomaterials health benefits and toxicity issue, and biomimetics and biologically inspired materials developments. These and other examples provide compelling evidence and arguments for emphasizing biological sicences in materials science and engineering curricula and the implementation of a bio-materials paradigm to facilitate the emergence of innovative interdisciplinarity involving the biological sciences and materials sciences and engineering.

  1. Materials Science Experiment Module Accommodation within the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D. B.; Jayroe, R. R.; McCarley, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility designed to accommodate two Experiment Modules (EM) simultaneously on board the International Space Station (ISS). One of these EMs will be the NASA/ESA EM being, developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency. The other EM position will be occupied by various multi-user EMs that will be exchanged in-orbit to accommodate a variety of materials science investigations. This paper discusses the resources, services, and allocations available to the EMs and briefly describes performance capabilities of the EMs currently planned for flight.

  2. First Materials Science Research Rack Capabilities and Design Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D.; King, R.; Cobb, S.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The first Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) will accommodate dual Experiment Modules (EM's) and provide simultaneous on-orbit processing operations capability. The first international Materials Science Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 is an international cooperative research activity between NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the European Space Agency's (ESA) European Space Research and Technology Center. (ESTEC). This International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) will contain the Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) developed by ESA as an Experiment Module. The MSL Experiment Module will accommodate several on-orbit exchangeable experiment-specific Module Inserts. Module Inserts currently planned are a Quench Module Insert, Low Gradient Furnace, Solidification with Quench Furnace, and Diffusion Module Insert. The second Experiment Module for the MSRR-1 configuration is a commercial device supplied by MSFC's Space Products Department (SPD). It includes capabilities for vapor transport processes and liquid metal sintering. This Experiment Module will be replaced on-orbit with other NASA Materials Science EMs.

  3. The materiality of materials and artefacts used in science classrooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowie, Bronwen; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin; Moreland, Judy

    materials as natural objects in this world and artefacts as manmade objects. We are aware that in a classroom material objects and artefacts shape, and are shaped by classroom practice through the way they selectively present scientific explanations. However, materials and artefacts have no intrinsic...... such as fossils, plant samples and artefacts like test tubes, worksheets and digital tools along with written inscriptions produced during interactions and that served as artefacts in subsequent interactions (Roehl, 2012). Data sources Data were generated via classroom observation using video, student work sample....... d) Artefacts as an adjunct to talk. The use of sets of cards or actual objects. Students changed the position of the cards/ objects as a dynamic visual representation of consensus thinking. Significance The teachers in our study did not view materials as being neutral objects but thought about means...

  4. Materials science. Materials that couple sensing, actuation, computation, and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, M A; Correll, N

    2015-03-20

    Tightly integrating sensing, actuation, and computation into composites could enable a new generation of truly smart material systems that can change their appearance and shape autonomously. Applications for such materials include airfoils that change their aerodynamic profile, vehicles with camouflage abilities, bridges that detect and repair damage, or robotic skins and prosthetics with a realistic sense of touch. Although integrating sensors and actuators into composites is becoming increasingly common, the opportunities afforded by embedded computation have only been marginally explored. Here, the key challenge is the gap between the continuous physics of materials and the discrete mathematics of computation. Bridging this gap requires a fundamental understanding of the constituents of such robotic materials and the distributed algorithms and controls that make these structures smart.

  5. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 4 covers articles on single crystal compound semiconductors and complex polycrystalline materials. The book discusses narrow gap semiconductors and solid state batteries. The text then describes the advantages of hot-pressed microcrystalline compacts of oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics over single crystal materials, as well as heterostructure junction lasers. Solid state physicists, materials scientists, electrical engineers, and graduate students studying the subjects being discussed will find the book invaluable.

  6. Surface physics of materials materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Blakely, J M

    2013-01-01

    Surface Physics of Materials presents accounts of the physical properties of solid surfaces. The book contains selected articles that deal with research emphasizing surface properties rather than experimental techniques in the field of surface physics. Topics discussed include transport of matter at surfaces; interaction of atoms and molecules with surfaces; chemical analysis of surfaces; and adhesion and friction. Research workers, teachers and graduate students in surface physics, and materials scientist will find the book highly useful.

  7. Materials science: Nanomagnets boost thermoelectric output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boona, Stephen R.

    2017-09-01

    The direct conversion of heat into electricity -- a reversible process known as the thermoelectric effect -- can be greatly enhanced in some materials by embedding them with a small number of magnetic nanoparticles. See Letter p.247

  8. Critical materialism: science, technology, and environmental sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Richard; Clark, Brett

    2010-01-01

    There are widely divergent views on how science and technology are connected to environmental problems. A view commonly held among natural scientists and policy makers is that environmental problems are primarily technical problems that can be solved via the development and implementation of technological innovations. This technologically optimistic view tends to ignore power relationships in society and the political-economic order that drives environmental degradation. An opposed view, common among postmodernist and poststructuralist scholars, is that the emergence of the scientific worldview is one of the fundamental causes of human oppression. This postmodernist view rejects scientific epistemology and often is associated with an anti-realist stance, which ultimately serves to deny the reality of environmental problems, thus (unintentionally) abetting right-wing efforts to scuttle environmental protection. We argue that both the technologically optimistic and the postmodernist views are misguided, and both undermine our ability to address environmental crises. We advocate the adoption of a critical materialist stance, which recognizes the importance of natural science for helping us to understand the world while also recognizing the social embeddedness of the scientific establishment and the need to challenge the manipulation of science by the elite.

  9. Materials science: Like cartilage, but simpler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    The properties of articular cartilage, which lines bones in joints, depend partlyon repulsion between components of the material. A new synthetic gel that mimics this feature has rare, direction-dependent properties.......The properties of articular cartilage, which lines bones in joints, depend partlyon repulsion between components of the material. A new synthetic gel that mimics this feature has rare, direction-dependent properties....

  10. Using Federally Funded Curricular Materials to meet Next Geneartion Science Standards in Earth System Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) describe teaching and learning goals for Earth system science at all levels of K-12, including elementary, middle school, and high school. Teachers must consider science and engineering practices, cross-cutting concepts, and disciplinary core ideas. The National Science Foundation and other federal organizations have supported the development of reformed curricular materials at the K-12 level for many years. Although developed before the adoption of NGSS, many of these Earth system science resources are, in fact, NGSS congruent. Such resources include those developed by TERC, SERC, EDC, NASA, NOAA, USGS, and others. This session features NGSS congruent materials, carefully examining and dissecting the performance expectations that embody these materials. It also shares a process of tagging these materials via NSTA's, NGSS portal guidelines.

  11. MateriApps — a Portal Site of Materials Science Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yusuke; Igarashi, Ryo; Kasamatsu, Shusuke; Kato, Takeo; Kawashima, Naoki; Kawatsu, Tsutomu; Kouta, Hikaru; Noda, Masashi; Sasaki, Shoichi; Terada, Yayoi; Todo, Synge; Tsuchida, Shigehiro; Yoshimi, Kazuyoshi; Yoshizawa, Kanako

    "MateriApps" is a portal website of computational materials science simulation that has a database containing over 100 application software including density functional theory calculation, quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc. On the MateriApps website, researchers can find applications suitable for their own research in materials science by browsing the website or searching by keywords. We also provide forums and tutorial courses of applications. In order to avoid troublesome installation procedures and provide users an environment in which they can try out various applications easily, we develop and freely distribute "MateriApps LIVE!," a live Linux system, in which several applications introduced in MateriApps are pre-installed.

  12. Understanding structural conservation through materials science:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical properties and the structure of materials are key elements in understanding how structural interventions in conservation treatments affect cultural heritage objects. In this context, engineering mechanics can help determine the strength and stability found in art objects as it can...... with tools to avoid future problems, it should be present in all conservation-restoration training programs to help promote students’ understanding of the degradation mechanisms in cultural materials (and their correlation with chemical and biological degradation) as well as the implications behind...

  13. Materials science: Crystals aligned through graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minjoo Larry

    2017-04-01

    Graphene has been used as a 'transparent' layer that allows single crystals of a material to be grown on a substrate, and then lifted off -- in much the same way that baking paper lets cakes be removed easily from tins. See Letter p.340

  14. The science and engineering of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askeland, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The book includes contents from atomic and crystal structure through strengthening mechanisms to service behaviour and failure analysis. The range of materials studied include metals, alloys, ceramics, polymers, and composites-is truly catholic. Properties covered include mechanical (creep, hardness, brittle, failure, etc.), electrical (dielectric and magnetic), optical, thermal, and elastic.

  15. Understanding structural conservation through materials science:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuster-López, Laura; Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    with tools to avoid future problems, it should be present in all conservation-restoration training programs to help promote students’ understanding of the degradation mechanisms in cultural materials (and their correlation with chemical and biological degradation) as well as the implications behind...

  16. Understanding solids: the science of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Tilley, Richard J. D.

    2013-01-01

    This edition contains new sections on the use of computing methods to solve materials problems and has been thoroughly updated to include the many developments and advances made in the past 10 years, e.g.  batteries, solar cells, lighting technology, laser...

  17. Edward Wheeler Hones Jr. (1922-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel N.; McPherron, Robert L.; Birn, Joachim

    2013-02-01

    Space physicist Edward Wheeler Hones Jr. died on 17 September 2012 at his home in Los Alamos, N. M. He was 90 years old. The cause of death was a heart attack that came following a brief hospitalization.

  18. Computer information resources of inorganic chemistry and materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselyova, N N; Dudarev, V A; Zemskov, V S [A.A.Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-28

    Information systems used in inorganic chemistry and materials science are considered. The following basic trends in the development of modern information systems in these areas are highlighted: access to information via the Internet, merging of documental and factual databases, involvement of experts in the evaluation of the data reliability, supplementing databases with information analysis tools on the properties of inorganic substances and materials.

  19. Preservice Elementary Teachers' Critique of Instructional Materials for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Science teachers must adapt curriculum materials, so preservice teachers must develop beginning proficiency with this authentic task of teaching. What criteria do they use when they critique these materials in preparation for adapting them, when they develop the criteria themselves and when they are given a set of criteria from which to choose?…

  20. International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials Science and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book gathers the proceedings of the plenary sessions, invited lectures, and papers presented at the International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials Science and Applications (ICRTMSA-2016). It also features revealing presentations on various aspects of Materials Science, such as nanomaterials, photonic crystal fibers, quantum dots, thin film techniques, crystal growth, spectroscopic procedures, fabrication and characterisation of new materials / compounds with enhanced features, and potential applications in nonlinear optical and electro-optic devices, solar cell device, chemical sensing, biomedical imaging, diagnosis and treatment of cancer, energy storage device etc. This book will be of great interest to beginning and seasoned researchers alike.

  1. Application of nuclear-physics methods in space materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, L. S.; Voronina, E. N.; Galanina, L. I.; Chirskaya, N. P.

    2017-07-01

    The brief history of the development of investigations at the Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) in the field of space materials science is outlined. A generalized scheme of a numerical simulation of the radiation impact on spacecraft materials and elements of spacecraft equipment is examined. The results obtained by solving some of the most important problems that modern space materials science should address in studying nuclear processes, the interaction of charged particles with matter, particle detection, the protection from ionizing radiation, and the impact of particles on nanostructures and nanomaterials are presented.

  2. FWP executive summaries, Basic Energy Sciences Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1997-05-01

    The BES Materials Sciences Program has the central theme of Scientifically Tailored Materials. The major objective of this program is to combine Sandia`s expertise and capabilities in the areas of solid state sciences, advanced atomic-level diagnostics and materials synthesis and processing science to produce new classes of tailored materials as well as to enhance the properties of existing materials for US energy applications and for critical defense needs. Current core research in this program includes the physics and chemistry of ceramics synthesis and processing, the use of energetic particles for the synthesis and study of materials, tailored surfaces and interfaces for materials applications, chemical vapor deposition sciences, artificially-structured semiconductor materials science, advanced growth techniques for improved semiconductor structures, transport in unconventional solids, atomic-level science of interfacial adhesion, high-temperature superconductors, and the synthesis and processing of nano-size clusters for energy applications. In addition, the program includes the following three smaller efforts initiated in the past two years: (1) Wetting and Flow of Liquid Metals and Amorphous Ceramics at Solid Interfaces, (2) Field-Structured Anisotropic Composites, and (3) Composition-Modulated Semiconductor Structures for Photovoltaic and Optical Technologies. The latter is a joint effort with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Separate summaries are given of individual research areas.

  3. Learning about materials science and technology by deconstructing modern products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsewell, Andy

    Get the attention of young engineering students, interest and inspire them. Encourage them to think about materials science and technology by looking at the consumer products and gadgets that interest them. Analyse what modern products are constructed of, and how and why the materials...... and the processes have been chosen in their manufacture i.e. deconstruct modern products. Suitable items can easily be found in personal communication and entertainment, including all manner of sports goods. Further, the current pace of materials product development ensures that using these objects to focus...... teaching encourages and demands constant modernisation of the course and the materials being presented. A consideration of material and process selection for components in a modern product can be a dynamic starting point for a course on materials science and engineering; providing inspiration and showing...

  4. Understanding Materials Science History · Properties · Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Rolf E

    2005-01-01

    This introduction to materials science both for students of engineering and physics and for the interested general public examines not only the physical and engineering properties of virtually all kinds of materials, but also their history, uses, development, and some of the implications of resource depletion and recycling. It covers all topics on materials from an entirely novel perspective: the role materials have played throughout history in the development of humankind and technologies. Specifically, it shows the connection between the technical and the cultural, economic, ecological, and societal aspects of materials science. It aims to whet the appetite of its readers and inspire them to further explore the properties and applications of metals, alloys, ceramics, plastics, and electronic materials by presenting easily understandable explanations and entertaining historical facts. It is also intended to raise the reader’s awareness of their obligations to society as practicing engineers and scientists....

  5. Assessment of J-R Curves Obtained from Precracked Charpy Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    16 3. J-R curves for A723, Class 1, Grade 4 pressure vessel steel . 17 4. J-R curves for HY80 steel . 18 5. J-R curves for HY130 steel . 19 DTIC t,. 1 NV...In HY80 and KY130 steels , it is clear that significant strain-hardening occurred. The effect of strain-hardening could be crack growth at peak load...aimmoSO ff nwoa MW Identify b black nrnmsbm’) 3-R curves were determined for five materials (7075-T651; 2024-T351; HY13O; HY80 ; and A723, Class 1

  6. Chemistry and Materials Science 2004 Annual Report, Preview Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang, S; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Rennie, G

    2005-05-16

    Thriving from change is a constant element at LLNL. Through our commitment to scientific accomplishments, we have met the challenges posed by our evolving missions in 2004. It is the scientific breakthroughs that substantiate our strategic directions. Investments based on our strategic directions are bearing fruit, as illustrated in this preview of the 2004 Annual Report. We describe how our science is built around a strategic plan with four organizing themes: {sm_bullet} Materials properties and performance under extreme conditions {sm_bullet} Chemistry under extreme conditions and chemical engineering in support of national-security programs {sm_bullet} Science supporting national objectives at the intersection of chemistry, materials science, and biology {sm_bullet} Applied nuclear science for human health and national security We are particularly pleased with achievements within the 'intersection of chemistry, materials science, and biology,' an emerging area of science that may reshape the landscape of our national-security mission. CMS continues to have an unambiguous role both as a technology leader and as a partner for all of the four theme areas. We look forward to expanding the frontiers of science and continuing our partnership with the worldwide scientific community, as we firmly respond to the changing environment with agility and flexibility.

  7. Addgene: making materials sharing "science as usual".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Kamens

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addgene (www.addgene.org is a nonprofit organization that facilitates biomedical research and discovery by improving access to useful research materials and information. To fulfill this mission, Addgene works with hundreds of laboratories all over the world to collect high-quality published plasmids and data for the repository that can then be distributed to academic institutions and used to further research. Biological resource centers such as Addgene are an important part of the scientific infrastructure. They play a key role in helping scientists overcome logistical barriers to sharing, improving experimental reproducibility, and optimizing use of limited resources.

  8. Analytical Chemistry at the Interface Between Materials Science and Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Janese C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-21

    Likedlessentid sciences, anal~cd chetis~continues toreinvent itself. Moving beyond its traditional roles of identification and quantification, analytical chemistry is now expanding its frontiers into areas previously reserved to other disciplines. This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and two of these disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detection of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry’s newest forays into these disciplines. The introduction section to this dissertation provides a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work. In advance of the materials science discussion, a brief introduction into electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) and sol-gel chemistry is provided. In advance of the biological discussions, brief overviews of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and the oxidative chemistry used to construct our biological arrays are provided. This section is followed by four chapters, each of which is presented as a separate manuscript, and focuses on work that describes some of our cross-disciplinary efforts within materials science and biology. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and future prospectus.

  9. Development Approach for the Accommodation of Materials Science Research for the Materials Science Research Facility on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility comprised of autonomous Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR's) for research in the microgravity environment afforded by the International Space Station (ISS). The initial MSRF concept consists of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR-1, MSRR-2, and MSRR-3) which will be developed for a phased deployment beginning on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3). The facility will house materials processing apparatus and common subsystems required for operating each device. Each MSRR is a stand alone autonomous rack and will be comprised of either on-orbit replaceable Experiment Modules, Module Inserts, investigation unique apparatus, and/or multiuser generic processing apparatus. Each MSRR will support a wide range of materials science themes in the NASA research program and will use the ISS Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS). MSRF is being developed for the United States Laboratory Module and will provide the apparatus for satisfying near-term and long-range Materials Science Discipline goals and objectives.

  10. Learning physical descriptors for materials science by compressed sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Vybiral, Jan; Ahmetcik, Emre; Ouyang, Runhai; Levchenko, Sergey V.; Draxl, Claudia; Scheffler, Matthias

    2017-02-01

    The availability of big data in materials science offers new routes for analyzing materials properties and functions and achieving scientific understanding. Finding structure in these data that is not directly visible by standard tools and exploitation of the scientific information requires new and dedicated methodology based on approaches from statistical learning, compressed sensing, and other recent methods from applied mathematics, computer science, statistics, signal processing, and information science. In this paper, we explain and demonstrate a compressed-sensing based methodology for feature selection, specifically for discovering physical descriptors, i.e., physical parameters that describe the material and its properties of interest, and associated equations that explicitly and quantitatively describe those relevant properties. As showcase application and proof of concept, we describe how to build a physical model for the quantitative prediction of the crystal structure of binary compound semiconductors.

  11. Materials Knowledge Systems in Python - A Data Science Framework for Accelerated Development of Hierarchical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, David B; Wheeler, Daniel; Kalidindi, Surya R

    2017-03-01

    There is a critical need for customized analytics that take into account the stochastic nature of the internal structure of materials at multiple length scales in order to extract relevant and transferable knowledge. Data driven Process-Structure-Property (PSP) linkages provide systemic, modular and hierarchical framework for community driven curation of materials knowledge, and its transference to design and manufacturing experts. The Materials Knowledge Systems in Python project (PyMKS) is the first open source materials data science framework that can be used to create high value PSP linkages for hierarchical materials that can be leveraged by experts in materials science and engineering, manufacturing, machine learning and data science communities. This paper describes the main functions available from this repository, along with illustrations of how these can be accessed, utilized, and potentially further refined by the broader community of researchers.

  12. Contribution of Frenkel's theory to the development of materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović V.B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The original and comprehensive research of Yakov Ilich Frenkel in physics and physical chemistry of condensed states, nuclear physics, electrodynamics, science of sintering has significantly contributed to the development of modern scientific knowledge and his scientific ideas are still an inspiration to many scientists. Having in mind the wealth of scientific ideas he had in the research of electroconductivity in metals, crystal structure imperfections and phase transitions and in founding the science of sintering, the contribution of individual theories of Frenkel of significance to materials science are presented in this paper.

  13. Materials Science Standard Rack on Interntional Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Line drawing depicts the location of one of three racks that will make up the Materials Science Research Facility in the U.S. Destiny laboratory module to be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Other positions will be occupied by a variety of racks supporting research in combustion, fluids, biotechnology, and human physiology, and racks to support lab and station opertions. The Materials Science Research Facility is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  14. Basic Research in Materials Science and Economic Sustainable Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermeier, H.-U.

    2000-09-01

    The necessity of public funding of basic research has been proclaimed by V. Bush 1945 in the `social contract for science' and this concept has been unanimously accepted as a vital prerequisite for the wealth of nations during the past 50 years. Recent developments gave rise to a paradigm shift away from the Bush's concept. In this paper this development is critically explored and the economical impact of research is discussed. Current evolution in knowledge generation and a change of the political boundary conditions require a new concept for an integrated research system. Examples taken from the semiconductor industry serve as an indicator of the enabling importance of materials science and condensed matter physics in the past. Basic research in materials science of functional ceramics generated new developments that are believed to have similar impact in the future. Already appearing and in the years ahead more emphasized nature of materials science as an multidisciplinary activity serves a model for the proposal of the vision of an integrated system of basic research and education. This is a prerequisite to master the challenges we are facind in the next century. A science based winning culture is the model for the future.

  15. Biomimetics in materials science self-healing, self-lubricating, and self-cleaning materials

    CERN Document Server

    Nosonovsky, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Biomimetics in Materials Science provides a comprehensive theoretical and practical review of biomimetic materials with self-healing, self-lubricating and self-cleaning properties. These three topics are closely related and constitute rapidly developing areas of study. The field of self-healing materials requires a new conceptual understanding of this biomimetic technology, which is in contrast to traditional  engineering processes such as wear and fatigue.  Biomimetics in Materials Science is the first monograph to be devoted to these materials. A new theoretical framework for these processes is presented based on the concept of multi-scale structure of entropy and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, together with a detailed review of the available technology. The latter includes experimental, modeling, and simulation results obtained on self-healing/lubricating/cleaning materials since their emergence in the past decade. Describes smart, biomimetic materials in the context of nanotechnology, biotechnology, an...

  16. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, S. E.; Lehman, J. R.; Frazier, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400degC. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  17. Research in Materials Science: Superconducting Transition Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-07-31

    Myron Hale Frommer , Ph.D. Thesis, MIT (Metallurgy and Materials Science, 1973) unpublished. t-1.■>-’-■ ^mm^m^^^m^^ßm^^^^f*rm**^^1**^^^*mi^^~*^^^^^m...77- 12. J. Bostock, Kofi Agyeman, M.H. Frommer , and M.L.A. MacVicar, J. Appl. Phys. 44 (1973j 5567. 13. W. N. Cheung (unpublished

  18. Mathematical Research in Materials Science: Opportunities and Perspectives. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    mainly involves classical mathematics and therefore little knowledge of modern mathematics , especially tools that might be beneficial for exploring...application. The committee believes that a considerable amount of modern mathematics and statistics would be useful in resolving problems of materials science

  19. Polymerization Simulator for Introductory Polymer and Material Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdon, William M.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes how molecular simulation of polymerization reactions can be used to enrich introductory polymer or material science courses to give students a deeper understanding of free-radical chain and stepwise growth polymerization reactions. These simulations have proven to be effective media for instruction that do not require material…

  20. Introduction of Materials Science Through Solid State Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, William M.

    Presented is a report of a program of the American Society for Metals, designed to introduce materials science principles via solid state chemistry into high school chemistry courses. At the time of the inception of this program in the mid-sixties, it was felt that high school students were not being adequately exposed to career opportunities in…

  1. Materials for construction and civil engineering science, processing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Margarido, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    This expansive volume presents the essential topics related to construction materials composition and their practical application in structures and civil installations. The book's diverse slate of expert authors assemble invaluable case examples and performance data on the most important groups of materials used in construction, highlighting aspects such as nomenclature, the properties, the manufacturing processes, the selection criteria, the products/applications, the life cycle and recyclability, and the normalization. Civil Engineering Materials: Science, Processing, and Design is ideal for practicing architects; civil, construction, and structural engineers, and serves as a comprehensive reference for students of these disciplines. This book also: ·       Provides a substantial and detailed overview of traditional materials used in structures and civil infrastructure ·       Discusses properties of natural and synthetic materials in construction and materials' manufacturing processes ·  �...

  2. Computational Materials Science and Chemistry: Accelerating Discovery and Innovation through Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Glotzer, Sharon [University of Michigan; McCurdy, Bill [University of California Davis; Roberto, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-07-26

    This report is based on a SC Workshop on Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation on July 26-27, 2010, to assess the potential of state-of-the-art computer simulations to accelerate understanding and discovery in materials science and chemistry, with a focus on potential impacts in energy technologies and innovation. The urgent demand for new energy technologies has greatly exceeded the capabilities of today's materials and chemical processes. To convert sunlight to fuel, efficiently store energy, or enable a new generation of energy production and utilization technologies requires the development of new materials and processes of unprecedented functionality and performance. New materials and processes are critical pacing elements for progress in advanced energy systems and virtually all industrial technologies. Over the past two decades, the United States has developed and deployed the world's most powerful collection of tools for the synthesis, processing, characterization, and simulation and modeling of materials and chemical systems at the nanoscale, dimensions of a few atoms to a few hundred atoms across. These tools, which include world-leading x-ray and neutron sources, nanoscale science facilities, and high-performance computers, provide an unprecedented view of the atomic-scale structure and dynamics of materials and the molecular-scale basis of chemical processes. For the first time in history, we are able to synthesize, characterize, and model materials and chemical behavior at the length scale where this behavior is controlled. This ability is transformational for the discovery process and, as a result, confers a significant competitive advantage. Perhaps the most spectacular increase in capability has been demonstrated in high performance computing. Over the past decade, computational power has increased by a factor of a million due to advances in hardware and software. This rate of improvement, which shows no sign of

  3. Perspective: Codesign for materials science: An optimal learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lookman, Turab; Alexander, Francis J.; Bishop, Alan R.

    2016-05-01

    A key element of materials discovery and design is to learn from available data and prior knowledge to guide the next experiments or calculations in order to focus in on materials with targeted properties. We suggest that the tight coupling and feedback between experiments, theory and informatics demands a codesign approach, very reminiscent of computational codesign involving software and hardware in computer science. This requires dealing with a constrained optimization problem in which uncertainties are used to adaptively explore and exploit the predictions of a surrogate model to search the vast high dimensional space where the desired material may be found.

  4. Ultrasonic spectroscopy applications in condensed matter physics and materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Leisure, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic spectroscopy is a technique widely used in solid-state physics, materials science, and geology that utilizes acoustic waves to determine fundamental physical properties of materials, such as their elasticity and mechanical energy dissipation. This book provides complete coverage of the main issues relevant to the design, analysis, and interpretation of ultrasonic experiments. Topics including elasticity, acoustic waves in solids, ultrasonic loss, and the relation of elastic constants to thermodynamic potentials are covered in depth. Modern techniques and experimental methods including resonant ultrasound spectroscopy, digital pulse-echo, and picosecond ultrasound are also introduced and reviewed. This self-contained book includes extensive background theory and is accessible to students new to the field of ultrasonic spectroscopy, as well as to graduate students and researchers in physics, engineering, materials science, and geophysics.

  5. Nature of science in instruction materials of science through the model of educational reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah, Nur; Mudzakir, Ahmad

    2016-02-01

    The study was carried out to reconstruct the science teaching materials charged view of the nature of science (VNOS). This reconstruction process using the Model of Educational Reconstruction (MER), which is the framework for research and development of science education as well as a guide for planning the teaching of science in the schools is limited in two stages, namely: content structure analysis, and empirical studies of learners. The purpose of this study is to obtain a pre-conception of learners and prospective scientists to the topic of the nature of the material and utilization. The method used to descriptive with the instruments is guidelines for interviews for 15 students of class VIII, text analysis sheet, sheet analysis of the concept, and the validation sheet indicators and learning objectives NOS charged on cognitive and affective aspects. The results obtained in the form of pre-conceptions of learners who demonstrate almost 100% of students know the types of materials and some of its nature, the results of the scientist's perspective on the topic of the nature of the material and its use, as well as the results of the validation indicators and learning objectives charged NOS and competencies PISA 2015 cognitive and affective aspects with CVI value of 0.99 and 1.0 after being validated by five experts. This suggests that the indicators and the resulting learning objectives feasible and can proceed to the reconstruction of teaching materials on the topic of material properties and utilization.

  6. An Interdisciplinary Program in Materials Science at James Madison University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Chris

    2008-03-01

    Over the past decade a core group of faculty at James Madison University has created an interdisciplinary program in materials science that provides our students with unique courses and research experiences that augment the existing, high-quality majors in physics and astronomy, chemistry and biochemistry, geology and environmental science, mathematics and statistics, and integrated science and technology. The university started this program by creating a Center for Materials Science whose budget is directly allocated by the provost. This source of funds acts as seed money for research, support for students, and a motivating factor for each of the academic units to support the participation of their faculty in the program. Courses were created at the introductory and intermediate level that are cross-listed by the departments to encourage students to enroll in them as electives toward their majors. Furthermore, the students are encouraged to participate in undergraduate research in materials since this is the most fundamental unifying theme across the disciplines. This talk will cover some of the curricular innovations that went into the design of the program to make it successful, examples of faculty and student research and how that feeds back into the classroom, and success stories of the interactions that have developed between departments because of this program. Student outcomes and future plans to improve the program will also be discussed.

  7. Living history: G. Edgar Folk, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2008-06-01

    In 2005, the American Physiological Society (APS) initiated the Living History Project to recognize senior members who have made significant contributions during their career to the advancement of the discipline and profession of physiology. During 2007, the APS Section of Environmental and Exercise Physiology selected Prof. G. Edgar Folk, Jr., of the University of Iowa to be profiled in Advances in Physiology Education.

  8. Martin Luther King, Jr. Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Civil Rights and Intercultural Relations.

    This resource guide was developed to commemorate Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s birthday by providing school personnel with background information and hands-on activities for use with students in Grades K-12. The activities in the guide can be implemented throughout the school year to help students become aware of the social, economic, and…

  9. Martin Luther King, Jr. Teacher's Resource Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

    This Connecticut teachers' manual on Martin Luther King, Jr. includes: (1) teacher background information; (2) five excerpts from King's speeches; (3) four themes for lesson plans; and (4) sample lesson plans. The teacher's background information provides biographical sketches of King and his precursors. The five speeches reproduced here are…

  10. Views of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan H.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses views of Martin Luther King, Jr., including concepts of human rights, related counseling approaches, and ethics. Claims King's views provide helpful insights for counselors and clients. Concludes King invited individuals to view challenging life situations as moral opportunities. (Author/ABL)

  11. Books about Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woll, Christina B.

    1990-01-01

    Briefly reviews three recent biographies of Martin Luther King, Jr. that also deal with the civil rights movement. Summarizes contents and identifies reading ability levels appropriate for elementary and junior high students. Recommends six additional King biographies for children. Also endorses two filmstrips on King and the movement. Gives full…

  12. Materials Science Experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    The Performance Goal for NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program reads "Use microgravity to establish and improve quantitative and predictive relationships between the structure, processing and properties of materials." The advent of the International Space Station will open up a new era in Materials Science Research including the ability to perform long term and frequent experiments in microgravity. As indicated the objective is to gain a greater understanding of issues of materials science in an environment in which the force of gravity can be effectively switched off. Thus gravity related issues of convection, buoyancy and hydrostatic forces can be reduced and the science behind the structure/processing/properties relationship can more easily be understood. The specific areas of research covered within the program are (1) the study of Nucleation and Metastable States, (2) Prediction and Control of Microstructure (including pattern formation and morphological stability), (3) Phase Separation and Interfacial Stability, (4) Transport Phenomena (including process modeling and thermophysical properties measurement), and (5) Crystal Growth, and Defect Generation and Control. All classes of materials, including metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, polymers, electronic materials (including organic and inorganic single crystals), aerogels and nanostructures, are included in these areas. The principal experimental equipment available to the materials scientist on the International Space Station (ISS) will be the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). Each of these systems will be accommodated in a single ISS rack, which can operate autonomously, will accommodate telescience operations, and will provide real time data to the ground. Eventual plans call for three MSRF racks, the first of which will be shared with the European Space Agency (ESA). Under international agreements, ESA and other partners will provide some of the equipment, while NASA covers launch

  13. Materials Science Experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    The Performance Goal for NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program reads "Use microgravity to establish and improve quantitative and predictive relationships between the structure, processing and properties of materials." The advent of the International Space Station will open up a new era in Materials Science Research including the ability to perform long term and frequent experiments in microgravity. As indicated the objective is to gain a greater understanding of issues of materials science in an environment in which the force of gravity can be effectively switched off. Thus gravity related issues of convection, buoyancy and hydrostatic forces can be reduced and the science behind the structure/processing/properties relationship can more easily be understood. The specific areas of research covered within the program are (1) the study of Nucleation and Metastable States, (2) Prediction and Control of Microstructure (including pattern formation and morphological stability), (3) Phase Separation and Interfacial Stability, (4) Transport Phenomena (including process modeling and thermophysical properties measurement), and (5) Crystal Growth, and Defect Generation and Control. All classes of materials, including metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, polymers, electronic materials (including organic and inorganic single crystals), aerogels and nanostructures, are included in these areas. The principal experimental equipment available to the materials scientist on the International Space Station (ISS) will be the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). Each of these systems will be accommodated in a single ISS rack, which can operate autonomously, will accommodate telescience operations, and will provide real time data to the ground. Eventual plans call for three MSRF racks, the first of which will be shared with the European Space Agency (ESA). Under international agreements, ESA and other partners will provide some of the equipment, while NASA covers launch

  14. Walter Rowe Courtenay, Jr. (1933–2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    WALTER R. COURTENAY, JR., ichthyologist and retired professor, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, died in Gainesville, Florida, on 30 January 2014 at age 80. Walt was born in Neenah, Wisconsin, on 6 November 1933, son of Walter and Emily Courtenay. Walt's interest in fish began at a young age as evidenced by a childhood diary in which at 13 years of age he wrote about his first catch—a two-and-a-half pound “pike” from Lake Winnebago. When Walt turned ten, the family moved from Wisconsin to Nashville, Tennessee, the move precipitated by his father accepting a position as pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. During those early days in Nashville, Walt's father would take summers off and travel to Michigan to teach at Camp Miniwanca along the shore of Lake Michigan where father and son honed their angling skills. It was also at that time Walt's father had definite views on what his son should be doing in adult life—in Walt's case it was to become a medical doctor. However, his Woods Hole internship in marine biology and oceanography toward the end of his undergraduate years was a transformative experience for him so much so that he abandoned all ideas of becoming a medical doctor and instead specialized in ichthyology and oceanography. Apart from the inherent interest and opportunities Woods Hole opened to him, being back at the shore of a large body of water, in this case the Atlantic Ocean, was far more interesting than sitting in lectures on organic chemistry. With that, Walt completed his B.A. degree at Vanderbilt University in 1956. In 1960 while in graduate school in Miami, Walt met and married Francine Saporito, and over the next several years had two children, Walter III and Catherine. He went on to receive his M.S. in 1961 from The Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami on the systematics of the genus Haemulon (grunts) and his Ph.D. degree in 1965 working under his advisor C. Richard

  15. Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital and community involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M M

    1973-07-01

    Community involvement is not just one facet of the new Martin Luther King, Jr., General Hospital's existence. It is the mainstream from which all other activities flow. In addition to meeting the conventional needs of a conventional hospital staff with the core collection of texts and journals, this library goes one step further. It acts as a resource for its community health workers, dietitians, and nurses in their various outreach programs. It serves as a stimulus for the high school or community college student who may be curious about a health career. It also finds time to provide reading material for its patients.

  16. Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz De La Rubia, T; Fluss, M J; Rath, K; Rennie, G; Shang, S; Kitrinos, G

    2006-08-08

    In 1952, we began laboratory operations in the barracks building of the Naval Air Station with approximately 50 employees. Today, the Chemistry and Materials Science (CMS) Directorate is a major organization at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with more than 500 employees who continue to contribute to our evolving national security mission. For more than half a century, the mission of the Laboratory revolved primarily around nuclear deterrence and associated defense technologies. Today, Livermore supports a broad-based national security mission, and our specialized capabilities increasingly support emerging missions in human health and energy security. In the future, CMS will play a significantly expanded role in science and technology at the intersection of national security, energy and environment, and health. Our world-class workforce will provide the science and technology base for radically innovative materials to our programs and sponsors. Our 2005 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. Organized into two major sections-research themes and dynamic teams, this report focuses on achievements arising from earlier investments that address future challenges. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national security mission. Research Themes: (1) Materials Properties and Performance under Extreme Conditions--We are developing ultrahard nanocrystalline metals, exploring the properties of nanotubes when exposed to very high temperatures, and engineering stronger materials to meet future needs for materials that can withstand extreme conditions. (2) Chemistry under Extreme Conditions and Chemical Engineering to Support National-Security Programs--Our recent

  17. Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate 2005 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz De La Rubia, T; Fluss, M J; Rath, K; Rennie, G; Shang, S; Kitrinos, G

    2006-08-08

    In 1952, we began laboratory operations in the barracks building of the Naval Air Station with approximately 50 employees. Today, the Chemistry and Materials Science (CMS) Directorate is a major organization at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory with more than 500 employees who continue to contribute to our evolving national security mission. For more than half a century, the mission of the Laboratory revolved primarily around nuclear deterrence and associated defense technologies. Today, Livermore supports a broad-based national security mission, and our specialized capabilities increasingly support emerging missions in human health and energy security. In the future, CMS will play a significantly expanded role in science and technology at the intersection of national security, energy and environment, and health. Our world-class workforce will provide the science and technology base for radically innovative materials to our programs and sponsors. Our 2005 Annual Report describes how our successes and breakthroughs follow a path set forward by our strategic plan and four organizing research themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. Organized into two major sections-research themes and dynamic teams, this report focuses on achievements arising from earlier investments that address future challenges. The research presented in this annual report gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with our national security mission. Research Themes: (1) Materials Properties and Performance under Extreme Conditions--We are developing ultrahard nanocrystalline metals, exploring the properties of nanotubes when exposed to very high temperatures, and engineering stronger materials to meet future needs for materials that can withstand extreme conditions. (2) Chemistry under Extreme Conditions and Chemical Engineering to Support National-Security Programs--Our recent

  18. Perspective: Materials Informatics and Big Data: Realization of the Fourth Paradigm of Science in Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-17

    regression techniques can be used for predic- tive modeling and if it is categorical (e.g., whether a compound is metallic or not), classification... clustering and relationship mining depending on the goal of the project, for instance, to find group similar materials or discovering hidden patterns and...analytics framework on simulation data from quantum mechanical DFT calculations. Performing a DFT simulation on a material requires its composition and

  19. William T. Carpenter Jr: 35 years of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Robert W

    2014-03-01

    William T. Carpenter Jr has had a major impact on the design and conduct of clinical trials in schizophrenia. His contributions range from the decisive evaluation of the efficacy of hemodialysis to the development of novel approaches to evaluate new treatments for cognitive impairments and negative symptoms. He has developed innovative dosage reduction strategies. He has led efforts to focus drug development on those illness components that are not responsive to antipsychotic treatment. He has emphasized throughout his career the use of translational science to provide the conceptual framework for clinical trial interventions. This article reviews highlights of his many contributions, with an emphasis on 3 areas: (1) dosage reduction studies; (2) the use of the domains of psychopathology to identify drug development targets; and (3) the use of translational science to guide new drug development.

  20. Semiconductor Nanowires from Materials Science and Device Physics Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Lars

    2005-03-01

    Realization of extremely down-scaled devices gives tough challenges related to technology and materials science. One reason for the concern is that top-down fabricated nano-devices tend to have their properties dominated by process-induced damage, rendering ultra-small devices not so useful. Alternatively, bottom-up fabrication methods may allow dimensions on the scale even below 10 nm, still with superb device properties. I will in this talk describe our research on catalytically induced growth of semiconductor nanowires. Our method uses catalytic gold nanoparticles, allowing tight control of diameter as well as position of where the nanowire grows, with our work completely focused on epitaxially nucleated nanowires in which the nanowire structure can be seen as a coherent, monolithic extension of the crystalline substrate material. One of the most important achievements in this field of research is the realization of atomically abrupt heterostructures within nanowires, in which the material composition can be altered within only one or a few monolayers, thus allowing 1D heterostructure devices to be realized. This has allowed a variety of quantum devices to be realized, such as single-electron transistors, resonant tunneling devices as well as memory storage devices. A related recent field of progress has been the realization of ideally nucleated III-V nanowires on Si substrates, cases where we have also reported functioning III-V heterostructure device structures on Si. All of these device related challenges evolve from an improved understanding of the materials science involved in nucleation of nanowires, in altering of composition of the growing nanowire, in control of the growth direction etc. I will give examples of these materials science issues and will especially dwell on the opportunities to form new kinds of materials, e.g. as 3D complex nanowire structures, resembling nanotrees or nanoforests.

  1. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmott, P. R., E-mail: philip.willmott@psi.ch; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-16

    The wiggler X-ray source of the Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been replaced with a 14 mm-period cryogenically cooled in-vacuum undulator. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics have been redesigned. The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs.

  2. [Advances of poly (ionic liquid) materials in separation science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cuicui; Guo, Ting; Su, Rina; Gu, Yuchen; Deng, Qiliang

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids, as novel ionization reagents, possess beneficial characteristics including good solubility, conductivity, thermal stability, biocompatibility, low volatility and non-flammability. Ionic liquids are attracting a mass of attention of analytical chemists. Poly (ionic liquid) materials have common performances of ionic liquids and polymers, and have been successfully applied in separation science area. In this paper, we discuss the interaction mechanisms between the poly(ionic liquid) materials and analytes including hydrophobic/hydrophilic interactions, hydrogen bond, ion exchange, π-π stacking and electrostatic interactions, and summarize the application advances of the poly(ionic liquid) materials in solid phase extraction, chromatographic separation and capillary electrophoresis. At last, we describe the future prospect of poly(ionic liquid) materials.

  3. Computational Materials Science and Chemistry: Accelerating Discovery and Innovation through Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Glotzer, Sharon [University of Michigan; McCurdy, Bill [University of California Davis; Roberto, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-07-26

    This report is based on a SC Workshop on Computational Materials Science and Chemistry for Innovation on July 26-27, 2010, to assess the potential of state-of-the-art computer simulations to accelerate understanding and discovery in materials science and chemistry, with a focus on potential impacts in energy technologies and innovation. The urgent demand for new energy technologies has greatly exceeded the capabilities of today's materials and chemical processes. To convert sunlight to fuel, efficiently store energy, or enable a new generation of energy production and utilization technologies requires the development of new materials and processes of unprecedented functionality and performance. New materials and processes are critical pacing elements for progress in advanced energy systems and virtually all industrial technologies. Over the past two decades, the United States has developed and deployed the world's most powerful collection of tools for the synthesis, processing, characterization, and simulation and modeling of materials and chemical systems at the nanoscale, dimensions of a few atoms to a few hundred atoms across. These tools, which include world-leading x-ray and neutron sources, nanoscale science facilities, and high-performance computers, provide an unprecedented view of the atomic-scale structure and dynamics of materials and the molecular-scale basis of chemical processes. For the first time in history, we are able to synthesize, characterize, and model materials and chemical behavior at the length scale where this behavior is controlled. This ability is transformational for the discovery process and, as a result, confers a significant competitive advantage. Perhaps the most spectacular increase in capability has been demonstrated in high performance computing. Over the past decade, computational power has increased by a factor of a million due to advances in hardware and software. This rate of improvement, which shows no sign of

  4. Neutron scattering treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Kostorz, G

    1979-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 15: Neutron Scattering shows how neutron scattering methods can be used to obtain important information on materials. The book discusses the general principles of neutron scattering; the techniques used in neutron crystallography; and the applications of nuclear and magnetic scattering. The text also describes the measurement of phonons, their role in phase transformations, and their behavior in the presence of crystal defects; and quasi-elastic scattering, with its special merits in the study of microscopic dynamical phenomena in solids and

  5. SCOPE OF MEDICINE BIOINORGANIC CHEMISTRY, HYDRO AND MATERIALS SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Beyer, L.; Universidad de Leipzig/Alemania, Facultad de Química y Mineralogía,Instituto de Química Inorgánica.Talstr. 35 041034 Leipzig República Federal Alemana; Angulo Cornejo, J.; Universidad Mayor de San Marcos, Facultad de química e Ingeniería Química. Departamento de Química inorgánica. Av. Venezuela S/N, Ciudad universitaria, Apartado 05-018 Breña, Lima-Perú

    2014-01-01

    The Bioinorganic Chemistry is the newest discipline of Inorganic Chemistry. Despite his youth, has found many applications in various fields such as medicine, Hidrometalugia and Materials Science. in this article an overview of the current status of research in this area is presented through concrete examples of the principles and applications as the study of biominerals, biomineralization processes, bioceramic, bioleaching and metal complexes for medicinal use (therapeutic and diagnostic). T...

  6. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 1 presents articles about junction electroluminescence; metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) physics; ion implantation in semiconductors; and electron transport through insulating thin films. The book describes the basic physics of carrier injection; energy transfer and recombination mechanisms; state of the art efficiencies; and future prospects for light emitting diodes. The text then discusses solid state spectroscopy, which is the pair spectra observed in gallium phosphide photoluminescence. The extensive studies

  7. Mounting a Curricular Revolution: An Interview with Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zastrow, Claus

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Henry Louis Gates, Jr., Harvard professor and cultural critic who has captured 25 million viewers with his PBS documentary series, African American Lives (WNET). Using genealogical research and DNA science, Gates traces the family history of 19 famous African Americans. What results is a rich and moving…

  8. Accelerating the design of biomimetic materials by integrating RNA-seq with proteomics and materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerette, Paul A; Hoon, Shawn; Seow, Yiqi; Raida, Manfred; Masic, Admir; Wong, Fong T; Ho, Vincent H B; Kong, Kiat Whye; Demirel, Melik C; Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Amini, Shahrouz; Tay, Gavin Z; Ding, Dawei; Miserez, Ali

    2013-10-01

    Efforts to engineer new materials inspired by biological structures are hampered by the lack of genomic data from many model organisms studied in biomimetic research. Here we show that biomimetic engineering can be accelerated by integrating high-throughput RNA-seq with proteomics and advanced materials characterization. This approach can be applied to a broad range of systems, as we illustrate by investigating diverse high-performance biological materials involved in embryo protection, adhesion and predation. In one example, we rapidly engineer recombinant squid sucker ring teeth proteins into a range of structural and functional materials, including nanopatterned surfaces and photo-cross-linked films that exceed the mechanical properties of most natural and synthetic polymers. Integrating RNA-seq with proteomics and materials science facilitates the molecular characterization of natural materials and the effective translation of their molecular designs into a wide range of bio-inspired materials.

  9. Computational materials science: The emergence of predictive capabilities of material behaviour

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vijay Kumar

    2003-06-01

    The availability of high performance computers and development of efficient algorithms has led to the emergence of computational materials science as the third branch of materials research complementing the traditional theoretical and experimental approaches. It has created new virtual realities in materials design that are either experimentally not realizable easily or are prohibitively expensive. The possibilities of doing calculations from first principles have led to predictive capabilities that open up new avenues of discovering novel materials with desired properties, understanding material behaviour on the nano- to the macroscopic scale and helping research in new frontiers that could interface between nano-materials and drug design, as well as in understanding biological systems. Here, we describe some significant recent developments related to alloy and steel design as well as the study of matter on the nano-scale — an area that has gained much prominence in current materials research.

  10. Mineral Surface Reactivity in teaching of Science Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo Martínez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    In the last fifty years, science materials issues has required the study of air pollution, water and soil to prevent and remedy the adverse effects of waste originating from anthropogenic activity and the development of new energies and new materials. The teaching of this discipline has been marked by lectures on general lines, materials, disciplines, who explained biased objects of reality, but often forgot the task of reconstruction and integration of such visions. Moving from that model, otherwise quite static, to a dynamic relational model, would in our view, a real revolution in education. This means taking a systematic approach to complex both in interpreting reality and in favor when learning. Children relationships are as important or more than single objects, and it is to discover fundamental organizational principles of phenomena we seek to interpret or in other words, find the pattern that connects. Thus, we must work on relationships and also take into account the relation between the observer and the observed. Educate about relationships means that studies should always be considered within a framework of probabilities, not absolute certainties. This model of systemic thinking, dealing with complexity, is a possibility to bring coherence to our educational work, because the complexity is not taught, complexity is live, so that complex thinking is extended (and fed) in a form educate complex. It is the task of teaching to help people move from level to level of decision reviews. This means that systems thinking should be extended in a local action, action that engages the individual and the environment. Science Materials has emerged as a discipline of free choice for pupils attending chemical engineering which has been assigned 6.0 credits. The chemical engineer's professional profile within the current framework is defined as a professional knowledge as a specialization technical / functional, working in a learning organization and the formation of

  11. The Future of Boundary Plasma and Material Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Dennis

    2012-03-01

    The boundary of magnetic confinement devices, from the pedestal through to the surrounding surfaces, encompasses an enormous range of plasma and material physics, and their integrated coupling. It is becoming clear that due to fundamental limits of plasma stability and material response the boundary will largely define the viability of an MFE reactor. However we face an enormous knowledge deficit in stepping from present devices and ITER towards a demonstration power plant. We outline the future of boundary research required to address this deficit. The boundary should be considered a multi-scale system of coupled plasma and material science regulated through the non-linear interface of the sheath. Measurement, theory and modeling across these scales are assessed. Dimensionless parameters, often used to organized core plasma transport on similarity arguments, can be extended to the boundary plasma, plasma-surface interactions and material response. This methodology suggests an intriguing way forward to prescribe and understand the boundary issues of an eventual reactor in intermediate devices. A particularly critical issue is that the physical chemistry of the material, which is mostly determined by the material temperature, has been too neglected; pointing to the requirement for boundary plasma experiments at appropriate material temperatures. Finally the boundary plasma requirements for quiescent heat exhaust and control of transient events, such as ELMs, will be examined.

  12. Teleconferences and Audiovisual Materials in Earth Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, L. M.

    2007-05-01

    Unidad de Educacion Continua y a Distancia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Coyoaca 04510 Mexico, MEXICO As stated in the special session description, 21st century undergraduate education has access to resources/experiences that go beyond university classrooms. However in some cases, resources may go largely unused and a number of factors may be cited such as logistic problems, restricted internet and telecommunication service access, miss-information, etc. We present and comment on our efforts and experiences at the National University of Mexico in a new unit dedicated to teleconferences and audio-visual materials. The unit forms part of the geosciences institutes, located in the central UNAM campus and campuses in other States. The use of teleconference in formal graduate and undergraduate education allows teachers and lecturers to distribute course material as in classrooms. Course by teleconference requires learning and student and teacher effort without physical contact, but they have access to multimedia available to support their exhibition. Well selected multimedia material allows the students to identify and recognize digital information to aid understanding natural phenomena integral to Earth Sciences. Cooperation with international partnerships providing access to new materials and experiences and to field practices will greatly add to our efforts. We will present specific examples of the experiences that we have at the Earth Sciences Postgraduate Program of UNAM with the use of technology in the education in geosciences.

  13. E-learning on the example of materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of this article is to present the use of the Moodle educational platform in teaching Fundamentals of Materials Science and Metal Materials in the Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials at Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, and to analyse the efficacy of e-learning as the means of introducing education within a traditional model.Design/methodology/approach: This article contains the description of learning within the mixed mode, which is education embracing a face to face method and distance learning method for the first-year students. The comparison of the efficacy of mixed mode learning versus traditional learning will be presented.Findings: The efficient method of assisting remotely the e-learning students acquiring skills and knowledge at a varying pace has been developed, providing them with the personalised support.Research limitations/implications: Larger population of students should be tested so as to give measurable results, which would imply what needs to be worked on and what changes to introduce in order to improve the e-learning process.Originality/value: The course presented in this article confirms that e-learning enables the introduction of the new education formula, which may embrace advantages of traditional teaching and distance education as far as Materials Science is concerned.

  14. Components of abstracts in materials science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Šauperl

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the structure of abstracts in Slovenian and international journals in the field of materials and technology. The aim of the study was to analyze the adherence of the abstracts published in Materials and Technology (MIT and Materials Science and Technology (MST to two different instructions for the preparation of abstracts (scheme based on ISO 214:1976 and Spanring system. 25 abstracts from each journal were divided into sentences. We tried to place the sentences into one of the categories of the above mentioned schemes. The research was a part of the postgraduate study in the Department of Library and Information Science and Book Studies (Faculty of Arts, Ljubljana in September and October 2008. There are no important differences between MIT and MST. Spanring system seems more appropriate for the field of materials and technology. The place and the time of the research should be added to abstracts and the Hu-bit category should be distributed into two parts: Hu-M (method and Hu-R (results. The recommended Spanring system should be harmonized with authors, who publish in these serials and the effect of the instructions should be analyzed, too.

  15. Recent trends in physics of material science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Shrivastava, Keshav; Akhtar, Jamil

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the recent trends in Computational Physics, Nano-physics and Devices Technology. Numerous modern devices with very high accuracy, are explored In conditions such as longevity and extended possibilities to work in wide temperature and pressure ranges, aggressive media, etc. This edited volume presents 32 selected papers  of the 2013 International Conference on Science & Engineering in Mathematics, Chemistry and Physics . The book is divided into three  scientific Sections: (i) Computational Physics, (ii) Nanophysics and Technology, (iii) Devices and Systems and is addressed to Professors, post-graduate students, scientists and engineers taking part in R&D of nano-materials, ferro-piezoelectrics, computational Physics and devices system, and also different devices based on broad applications in different areas of modern science and technology.

  16. Statistical analysis and interpolation of compositional data in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenson, Misha Z; Suram, Santosh K; Gregoire, John M

    2015-02-01

    Compositional data are ubiquitous in chemistry and materials science: analysis of elements in multicomponent systems, combinatorial problems, etc., lead to data that are non-negative and sum to a constant (for example, atomic concentrations). The constant sum constraint restricts the sampling space to a simplex instead of the usual Euclidean space. Since statistical measures such as mean and standard deviation are defined for the Euclidean space, traditional correlation studies, multivariate analysis, and hypothesis testing may lead to erroneous dependencies and incorrect inferences when applied to compositional data. Furthermore, composition measurements that are used for data analytics may not include all of the elements contained in the material; that is, the measurements may be subcompositions of a higher-dimensional parent composition. Physically meaningful statistical analysis must yield results that are invariant under the number of composition elements, requiring the application of specialized statistical tools. We present specifics and subtleties of compositional data processing through discussion of illustrative examples. We introduce basic concepts, terminology, and methods required for the analysis of compositional data and utilize them for the spatial interpolation of composition in a sputtered thin film. The results demonstrate the importance of this mathematical framework for compositional data analysis (CDA) in the fields of materials science and chemistry.

  17. Chemistry and Materials Science Department annual report, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, R.J.; Sugihara, T.T.; Cherniak, J.C.; Corey, C.W. [eds.

    1989-12-31

    This is the first annual report of the Chemistry & Materials Science (C&MS) Department. The principal purpose of this report is to provide a concise summary of our scientific and technical accomplishments for fiscal years 1988 and 1989. The report is also tended to become part of the archival record of the Department`s activities. We plan to publish future editions annually. The activities of the Department can be divided into three broad categories. First, C&MS staff are assigned by the matrix system to work directly in a program. These programmatic assignments typically involve short deadlines and critical time schedules. A second category is longer-term research and development in technologies important to Laboratory programs. The focus and direction of this technology-base work are generally determined by programmatic needs. Finally, the Department manages its own research program, mostly long-range in outlook and basic in orientation. These three categories are not mutually exclusive but form a continuum of technical activities. Representative examples of all three are included in this report. The principal subject matter of this report has been divided into six sections: Innovations in Analysis and Characterization, Advanced Materials, Metallurgical Science and Technology, Surfaces and Interfaces, Energetic Materials and Chemical Synthesis, and Energy-Related Research and Development.

  18. Living in a Materials World: Materials Science Engineering Professional Development for K-12 Educators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anne Seifert; Louis Nadelson

    2011-06-01

    Advances in materials science are fundamental to technological developments and have broad societal impacs. For example, a cellular phone is composed of a polymer case, liquid crystal displays, LEDs, silicon chips, Ni-Cd batteries, resistors, capacitors, speakers, microphones all of which have required advances in materials science to be compacted into a phone which is typically smaller than a deck of cards. Like many technological developments, cellular phones have become a ubiquitous part of society, and yet most people know little about the materials science associated with their manufacture. The probable condition of constrained knowledge of materials science was the motivation for developing and offering a 20 hour fourday course called 'Living in a Materials World.' In addition, materials science provides a connection between our every day experiences and the work of scientists and engineers. The course was offered as part of a larger K-12 teacher professional development project and was a component of a week-long summer institute designed specifically for upper elementary and middle school teachers which included 20 hour content strands, and 12 hours of plenary sessions, planning, and collaborative sharing. The focus of the institute was on enhancing teacher content knowledge in STEM, their capacity for teaching using inquiry, their comfort and positive attitudes toward teaching STEM, their knowledge of how people learn, and strategies for integrating STEM throughout the curriculum. In addition to the summer institute the participating teachers were provided with a kit of about $300 worth of materials and equipment to use to implement the content they learned in their classrooms. As part of this professional development project the participants were required to design and implement 5 lesson plans with their students this fall and report on the results, as part of the continuing education course associated with the project. 'Living in a

  19. Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology Based on NASA's Materials Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, James A.

    2003-01-01

    The grant NAG-1 -2125, Technical Education Outreach in Materials Science and Technology, based on NASA s Materials Research, involves collaborative effort among the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC), Norfolk State University (NSU), national research centers, private industry, technical societies, colleges and universities. The collaboration aims to strengthen math, science and technology education by providing outreach related to materials science and technology (MST). The goal of the project is to transfer new developments from LaRC s Center for Excellence for Structures and Materials and other NASA materials research into technical education across the nation to provide educational outreach and strengthen technical education. To achieve this goal we are employing two main strategies: 1) development of the gateway website and 2) using the National Educators Workshop: Update in Engineering Materials, Science and Technology (NEW:Updates). We have also participated in a number of national projects, presented talks at technical meetings and published articles aimed at improving k-12 technical education. Through the three years of this project the NSU team developed the successful MST-Online site and continued to upgrade and update it as our limited resources permitted. Three annual NEW:Updates conducted from 2000 though 2002 overcame the challenges presented first by the September 11,2001 terrorist attacks and the slow U.S. economy and still managed to conduct very effective workshops and expand our outreach efforts. Plans began on NEW:Update 2003 to be hosted by NASA Langley as a part of the celebration of the Centennial of Controlled Flight.

  20. Low Gravity Materials Science Research for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Semmes, Edmund B.; Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Cook, Mary Beth; Wargo, Michael J.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    2004-01-01

    On January 14, 2004, the President of the United States announced a new vision for the United States civil space program. The Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the responsibility to implement this new vision. The President also created a Presidential Commission 'to obtain recommendations concerning implementation of the new vision for space exploration.' The President's Commission recognized that achieving the exploration objectives would require significant technical innovation, research, and development in focal areas defined as 'enabling technologies.' Among the 17 enabling technologies identified for initial focus were advanced structures; advanced power and propulsion; closed-loop life support and habitability; extravehicular activity system; autonomous systems and robotics; scientific data collection and analysis; biomedical risk mitigation; and planetary in situ resource utilization. The Commission also recommended realignment of NASA Headquarters organizations to support the vision for space exploration. NASA has aggressively responded in its planning to support the vision for space exploration and with the current considerations of the findings and recommendations from the Presidential Commission. This presentation will examine the transformation and realignment activities to support the vision for space exploration that are underway in the microgravity materials science program. The heritage of the microgravity materials science program, in the context of residence within the organizational structure of the Office of Biological and Physical Research, and thematic and sub-discipline based research content areas, will be briefly examined as the starting point for the ongoing transformation. Overviews of future research directions will be presented and the status of organizational restructuring at NASA Headquarters, with respect to influences on the microgravity materials science program, will be discussed

  1. 10th International School of Materials Science and Technology : Intercalation in Layered Materials "Ettore Majorana"

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This volume is prepared from lecture notes for the course "Intercalation in Layered Materials" which was held at the Ettore Majorana Centre for Scientific Culture at Erice, Sicily in July, 1986, as part of the International School of Materials Science and Tech­ nology. The course itself consisted of formal tutorial lectures, workshops, and informal discussions. Lecture notes were prepared for the formal lectures, and short summaries of many of the workshop presentations were prepared. This volume is based on these lecture notes and research summaries. The material is addressed to advanced graduate students and postdoctoral researchers and assumes a background in basic solid state physics. The goals of this volume on Intercalation in Layered Materials include an introduc­ tion to the field for potential new participants, an in-depth and broad exposure for stu­ dents and young investigators already working in the field, a basis for cross-fertilization between workers on various layered host materials...

  2. Materials science symposium 'heavy ion science in tandem energy region'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Suehiro (eds.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-11-01

    The facility of the JAERI tandem accelerator and its booster has been contributing to obtain plenty of fruitful results in the fields of nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, atomic and solid state physics and materials science, taking an advantage of its prominent performances of heavy ion acceleration. The previous meeting held in 1999 also offered an opportunity to scientists from all over the heavy ion science fields, including nuclear physics, solid state physics and cross-field physics to have active discussions. This meeting included oral presentations with a new plan and with a new scope of fields expected from now on, as an occasion for opening the 21st century in heavy ion science. The 50 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Multiscale paradigms in integrated computational materials science and engineering materials theory, modeling, and simulation for predictive design

    CERN Document Server

    Runge, Keith; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge concepts, paradigms, and research highlights in the field of computational materials science and engineering, and provides a fresh, up-to-date perspective on solving present and future materials challenges. The chapters are written by not only pioneers in the fields of computational materials chemistry and materials science, but also experts in multi-scale modeling and simulation as applied to materials engineering. Pedagogical introductions to the different topics and continuity between the chapters are provided to ensure the appeal to a broad audience and to address the applicability of integrated computational materials science and engineering for solving real-world problems.

  4. Multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes for nanoarchitectonic materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomonobu; Shingaya, Yoshitaka; Aono, Masakazu

    2016-11-01

    Nanoarchitectonic systems are of interest for utilizing a vast range of nanoscale materials for future applications requiring a huge number of elemental nanocomponents. To explore the science and technology of nanoarchitectonics, advanced characterization tools that can deal with both nanoscale objects and macroscopically extended nanosystems are demanded. Multiple-probe scanning probe microscopes (MP-SPMs) are powerful tools that meet this demand because they take the advantages of conventional scanning probe microscopes and realize atomically precise electrical measurements, which cannot be done with conventional microprobing systems widely used in characterizing materials and devices. Furthermore, an MP-SPM can be used to operate some nanoarchitectonic systems. In this review, we overview the indispensable features of MP-SPMs together with the past, present and future of MP-SPM technology.

  5. Materials science of Mg-Ni-based new hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orimo, S.; Fujii, H. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences

    2001-02-01

    One of the advantageous functional properties of Mg alloys (or compounds) is to exhibit the reversible hydriding reaction. In this paper, we present our systematic studies regarding the relationship between nanometer- or atomistic-scale structures and the specific hydriding properties of the Mg-Ni binary system, such as(1) nanostructured (n)-Mg{sub 2}Ni, (2) a mixture of n-Mg{sub 2}Ni and amorphous (a)-MgNi,(3) pure a-MgNi, and(4) n-MgNi{sub 2}. Further studies on(5) an a-MgNi-based system for clarifying the effect of the short-range ordering on the structural and hydriding properties and(6) a MgNi{sub 2}-based system for synthesizing the new Laves phase structure are also presented. The materials science of Mg-Ni-based new hydrides will provide indispensable knowledge for practically developing the Mg alloys as hydrogen-storage materials. (orig.)

  6. The material science of minimally invasive esthetic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nový, Brian B; Fuller, Cameron E

    2008-01-01

    The term esthetic dentistry usually conjures up mental images of porcelain crowns and veneers. To some dentists, the term minimally invasive dentistry evokes thoughts of observing early lesions, and postponing treatment until lesions are closer to the pulp. (The World Congress of Minimally Invasive Dentistry defines minimally invasive dentistry as those techniques which respect health, function, and esthetics of oral tissue by preventing disease from occurring, or intercepting its progress with minimal tissue loss.) It would seem these two niches within dentistry are on opposite ends of the spectrum; however, composite resin and glass ionomer restorative materials unite these two ideologies. Understanding the limitations, benefits, and science behind each material allows clinicians to produce highly esthetic restorations that can resist future decay, internally remineralize the tooth, and help protect adjacent teeth from cariogenic attack.

  7. Materials Science Constraints on the Development of Aluminium Reduction Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metson, James; McIntosh, Grant; Etzion, Ronny

    The Hall-Heroult process for the production of Aluminium metal is some 125 years old. The process is energy constrained by the need to shed around half of the (electrical) energy supplied to the cell as waste heat. The molten cryolite electrolyte is sufficiently aggressive that the only reliable method of protecting the side wall of the cell is to maintain a frozen layer of electrolyte at the hot face of the sidewall. Thus the lack of a cryolite resistant sidewall is but one of several materials science constraints which still limit the energy efficiency of the process. An inert anode and non-consumable cathode are also significant challenges which limit cell life and energy efficiency. Thus there are major challenges in both materials development and new conceptual cell designs to improve the efficiency of this process.

  8. Materials Sciences Programs. Fiscal Year 1980, Office of Basic Energy Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This report provides a convenient compilation index of the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs and is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index (the investigator index is in two parts - laboratory and contract research).

  9. Object-Oriented Heterogeneous Database for Materials Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hansen

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the scientific database research underway at the Oregon Graduate Institute, we are collaborating with materials scientists in the research and development of an extensible modeling and computation environment for materials science. Materials scientists are prolific users of computers for scientific research. Modeling techniques and algorithms are well known and refined, and computerized databases of chemical and physical property data abound. However, applications are typically developed in isolation, using information models specifically tailored for the needs of each application. Furthermore, available computerized databases in the form of CDs and on-line information services are still accessed manually by the scientist in an off-line fashion. Thus researchers are repeatedly constructing and populating new custom databases for each application. The goal of our research is to bridge this gulf between applications and sources of data. We believe that object-oriented technology in general and data-bases in particular, provide powerful tools for transparently bridging the gap between programs and data. An object-oriented database that not only manages data generated by user applications, but also provides access to relevant external data sources can be used to bridge this gap. An object-oriented database for materials science data is described that brings together data from heterogeneous non-object-oriented sources and formats, and presents the user with a single, uniform object-oriented schema that transparently integrates these diverse databases. A unique multilevel architecture is presented that provides a mechanism for efficiently accessing both heterogeneous external data sources and new data stored within the database.

  10. Reconstructing the history of science education through its materiality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Davida Pizzigoni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available “Things of Science” is a project promoted in 2014 by the Polytechnic of Turin in partnership with several other scientific territorial institutions that intended to survey and study the educational scientific historical heritage of schools in Turin. It aims to derive from material traces some testimonies of teaching science in different historical periods. Through the project, over 47.000 historical teaching aids have been made available representing a significant basis for numerous studies and insights as well as a safeguard action towards this important source for scientific research in terms of the materiality of the school and in particular of science in school. Ricostruire la storia della didattica scientifica attraverso la sua materialità“Cose di Scienza” è un progetto promosso nel 2014 dal Politecnico di Torino in partenariato con diverse altre realtà scientifiche territoriali che ha inteso censire e studiare il patrimonio didattico scientifico storico presente nelle scuole torinesi, al fine di ricavare dalle tracce materiali alcune testimonianze di didattica della scienza nei diversi periodi storici. Attraverso il progetto sono stati reperiti oltre 47.000 supporti didattici storici che costituiscono da un lato una significativa base per numerosi studi e approfondimenti, e dall’altro una azione di salvaguardia verso questa importante fonte per la ricerca scientifica costituita dalla materialità della scuola e in particolare della scienza a scuola.

  11. Customization of Curriculum Materials in Science: Motives, Challenges, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Banerjee, Tanvi

    2012-02-01

    Exemplary science instructors use inquiry to tailor content to student's learning needs; traditional textbooks treat science as a set of facts and a rigid curriculum. Publishers now allow instructors to compile pieces of published and/or self-authored text to make custom textbooks. This brings numerous advantages, including the ability to produce smaller, cheaper text and added flexibility on the teaching models used. Moreover, the internet allows instructors to decentralize textbooks through easy access to educational objects such as audiovisual simulations, individual textbook chapters, and scholarly research articles. However, these new opportunities bring with them new problems. With educational materials easy to access, manipulate and duplicate, it is necessary to define intellectual property boundaries, and the need to secure documents against unlawful copying and use is paramount. Engineers are developing and enhancing information embedding technologies, including steganography, cryptography, watermarking, and fingerprinting, to label and protect intellectual property. While these are showing their utility in securing information, hackers continue to find loop holes in these protection schemes, forcing engineers to constantly assess the algorithms to make them as secure as possible. As newer technologies rise, people still question whether custom publishing is desirable. Many instructors see the process as complex, costly, and substandard in comparison to using traditional text. Publishing companies are working to improve attitudes through advertising. What lacks is peer reviewed evidence showing that custom publishing improves learning. Studies exploring the effect of custom course materials on student attitude and learning outcomes are a necessary next step.

  12. Transmission electron microscopy a textbook for materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, David B

    1996-01-01

    Electron microscopy has revolutionized our understanding the extraordinary intellectual demands required of the mi­ of materials by completing the processing-structure-prop­ croscopist in order to do the job properly: crystallography, erties links down to atomistic levels. It now is even possible diffraction, image contrast, inelastic scattering events, and to tailor the microstructure (and meso structure ) of materials spectroscopy. Remember, these used to be fields in them­ to achieve specific sets of properties; the extraordinary abili­ selves. Today, one has to understand the fundamentals ties of modem transmission electron microscopy-TEM­ of all of these areas before one can hope to tackle signifi­ instruments to provide almost all of the structural, phase, cant problems in materials science. TEM is a technique of and crystallographic data allow us to accomplish this feat. characterizing materials down to the atomic limits. It must Therefore, it is obvious that any curriculum in modem mate­ be use...

  13. Evaluation of Online Teacher and Student Materials for the Framework for K-12 Science Education Science and Engineering Crosscutting Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The National Research Council developed and published the "Framework for K-12 Science Education," a new set of concepts that many states were planning on adopting. Part of this new endeavor included a set of science and engineering crosscutting concepts to be incorporated into science materials and activities, a first in science…

  14. Chemistry and Materials Science Directorate Annual Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz de la Rubia, T; Shang, S P; Kitrinos, G A; Fluss, M; Westbrook, C; Rennie, G

    2004-04-21

    Evolving challenges and solid accomplishments define the year 2003 for us. Our scientific breakthroughs validate our strategic directions and reaffirm our critical role in fulfilling the Laboratory's missions. Our growth continues in new research projects and significant new programmatic support. Our mission is clear: to enable the Laboratory to accomplish its primary mission through excellence in the chemical and materials sciences. The directorate's common theme and determination has remained constant: Deliver on our commitments, while anticipating and capitalizing on opportunities through innovation in science and technology. In this, the 2003 Annual Report, we describe how our science is built around a strategic plan with four organizing themes, each with key scientific accomplishments by our staff and collaborators. Our strategic plan is synergistic with the Laboratory's Long-Range Science and Technology Plan, which identifies six areas of institutional research and development strategy. This 2003 CMS Annual Report is organized into two major sections: research themes and dynamic teams. The research-theme section addresses challenges, achievements, and new frontiers within each of the four research themes. The dynamic-teams section illustrates the directorate's organizational structure of divisions, centers, and institutes that supports a team environment across disciplinary and institutional boundaries. The research presented gives substantive examples of how we are proceeding in each of these four theme areas and how they are aligned with the institutional strategy. Our organizational structure offers an environment of collaborative problem-solving opportunities, an environment that attracts and retains the best and the brightest from across the Laboratory and around the world.

  15. Martin Luther King, Jr.: A Lesson with Interdisciplinary Connections for Middle-Level Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Mary Frances; Terry, Cynthia

    This lesson begins with a very brief biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. The lesson identifies its educational objectives; addresses National Standards for Music Education; lists materials needed; details six step-by-step classroom procedures for lesson implementation; and provides curriculum connections for language arts, visual art, physical…

  16. Pre-Service Science Teachers Views on STEM Materials and STEM Competition in Instructional Technologies and Material Development Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ali; Balta, Nuri

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to introduce STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics) activities to preservice science teachers and identify their views about STEM materials. In this context, a competition was organized with 42 preservice science teachers (13 male- 29 female) who took Instructional Technologies and Material…

  17. Bipolar electrochemistry: from materials science to motion and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loget, Gabriel; Zigah, Dodzi; Bouffier, Laurent; Sojic, Neso; Kuhn, Alexander

    2013-11-19

    Bipolar electrochemistry, a phenomenon which generates an asymmetric reactivity on the surface of conductive objects in a wireless manner, is an important concept for many purposes, from analysis to materials science as well as for the generation of motion. Chemists have known the basic concept for a long time, but it has recently attracted additional attention, especially in the context of micro- and nanoscience. In this Account, we introduce the fundamentals of bipolar electrochemistry and illustrate its recent applications, with a particular focus on the fields of materials science and dynamic systems. Janus particles, named after the Roman god depicted with two faces, are currently in the heart of many original investigations. These objects exhibit different physicochemical properties on two opposite sides. This makes them a unique class of materials, showing interesting features. They have received increasing attention from the materials science community, since they can be used for a large variety of applications, ranging from sensing to photosplitting of water. So far the great majority of methods developed for the generation of Janus particles breaks the symmetry by using interfaces or surfaces. The consequence is often a low time-space yield, which limits their large scale production. In this context, chemists have successfully used bipolar electrodeposition to break the symmetry. This provides a single-step technique for the bulk production of Janus particles with a high control over the deposit structure and morphology, as well as a significantly improved yield. In this context, researchers have used the bipolar electrodeposition of molecular layers, metals, semiconductors, and insulators at one or both reactive poles of bipolar electrodes to generate a wide range of Janus particles with different size, composition and shape. In using bipolar electrochemistry as a driving force for generating motion, its intrinsic asymmetric reactivity is again the

  18. Computed Tomography Support for Microgravity Materials Science Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Engel, H. Peter; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The accurate measurement of density in both liquid and solid samples is of considerable interest to Principal Investigators with materials science experiments slated for the ISS. The work to be described is an innovative application of a conventional industrial nondestructive evaluation instrument. Traditional applications of industrial computed tomography (CT) rely on reconstructing cross sections of large structures to provide two-dimensional planar views which can identify defects such as porosity, or other material anomalies. This has been done on microgravity materials science experiments to check the integrity of ampoule-cartridge assemblies for safety purposes. With a substantially monoenergetic flux, as can be obtained with a radioactive cobalt source, there will be a direct correlation between absorption and density. Under such conditions it then becomes possible to make accurate measurements of density throughout a sample, and even when the sample itself is enclosed within a furnace and a safety required cartridge. Such a system has been installed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and is available to PIs to examine samples before and after flight. The CT system is being used to provide density information for two purposes. Firstly, the determination of density changes from liquid to solid is vital information to the PI for purposes of modeling the solidification behavior of his sample, and to engineers who have to design containment ampoules and must allow for shrinkage and other volume changes that may occur during processing. While such information can be obtained by pycnometric measurements, the possibility of using a furnace installed on the CT system enables one to examine potentially dangerous materials having high vapor pressures, while not needing visible access to the material. In addition, uniform temperature can readily be obtained, and the system can be controlled to ramp up, hold, and ramp down while collecting data over a wide range of

  19. Computed Tomography Support for Microgravity Materials Science Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Engel, H. Peter; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The accurate measurement of density in both liquid and solid samples is of considerable interest to Principal Investigators with materials science experiments slated for the ISS. The work to be described is an innovative application of a conventional industrial nondestructive evaluation instrument. Traditional applications of industrial computed tomography (CT) rely on reconstructing cross sections of large structures to provide two-dimensional planar views which can identify defects such as porosity, or other material anomalies. This has been done on microgravity materials science experiments to check the integrity of ampoule-cartridge assemblies for safety purposes. With a substantially monoenergetic flux, as can be obtained with a radioactive cobalt source, there will be a direct correlation between absorption and density. Under such conditions it then becomes possible to make accurate measurements of density throughout a sample, and even when the sample itself is enclosed within a furnace and a safety required cartridge. Such a system has been installed at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and is available to PIs to examine samples before and after flight. The CT system is being used to provide density information for two purposes. Firstly, the determination of density changes from liquid to solid is vital information to the PI for purposes of modeling the solidification behavior of his sample, and to engineers who have to design containment ampoules and must allow for shrinkage and other volume changes that may occur during processing. While such information can be obtained by pycnometric measurements, the possibility of using a furnace installed on the CT system enables one to examine potentially dangerous materials having high vapor pressures, while not needing visible access to the material. In addition, uniform temperature can readily be obtained, and the system can be controlled to ramp up, hold, and ramp down while collecting data over a wide range of

  20. Teachers and Science Curriculum Materials: Where We Are and Where We Need to Go

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; Janssen, Fred J. J. M.; Van Driel, Jan H.

    2016-01-01

    Curriculum materials serve as a key conceptual tool for science teachers, and better understanding how science teachers use these tools could help to improve both curriculum design and theory related to teacher learning and decision-making. The authors review the literature on teachers and science curriculum materials. The review is organised…

  1. Trends in the Use of Supplementary Materials in Environmental Science Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Jeremy; Sprague, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Our research examined the use of supplementary materials in six environmental science disciplines: atmospheric sciences, biology, fisheries, forestry, geology, and plant sciences. Ten key journals were selected from each of these disciplines and the number of supplementary materials, such as data files or videos, in each issue was noted over a…

  2. Trends in the Use of Supplementary Materials in Environmental Science Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Jeremy; Sprague, Nancy R.

    2014-01-01

    Our research examined the use of supplementary materials in six environmental science disciplines: atmospheric sciences, biology, fisheries, forestry, geology, and plant sciences. Ten key journals were selected from each of these disciplines and the number of supplementary materials, such as data files or videos, in each issue was noted over a…

  3. 75 FR 39664 - Grant of Authority For Subzone Status Materials Science Technology, Inc. (Specialty Elastomers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority For Subzone Status Materials Science Technology, Inc... Materials Science Technology, Inc., located in Conroe, Texas, (FTZ Docket 46-2009, filed October 27, 2009... Science Technology, Inc., located in Conroe, Texas (Subzone 265C), as described in the application...

  4. To Kit or Not to Kit? Evaluating and Implementing Science Materials and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ellen; Melin, Jacque; Bair, Mary

    2016-01-01

    With the release of the "Next Generation Science Standards," many schools are reexamining the science materials they are using. Textbook companies and kit developers are eager to meet the demand for "NGSS"-aligned teaching materials. Teacher may have been asked to serve on a science curriculum committee, or to evaluate current…

  5. Remote Monitoring and Controlling of a Material Science Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wattanapong KURDTHONGMEE

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The computer industry’s remarkable ability to integrate more transistors into a small area of silicon is increasing the intelligence of our devices and simultaneously decreasing their cost and power consumption. In addition, the proliferation of wired and wireless networking spurred by the development of the world-wide web and demands for mobile access are enabling low-cost connectivity among computing devices. It is now possible to connect every computing device into a true world-wide web that connects the physical world of sensors and actuators to the virtual world of our information utilities and services. This paper examines an application of an integration of the intelligent chip with the network connectivity into a material science experiment designed to study the sorption of woods. The intelligence and network connectivity infrastructures of the system eliminate laborious tasks previously required during experiment control and data collection processes.

  6. Obituary: Leverett Davis, Jr., 1914-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, Jack Randolph

    2004-12-01

    Professor Leverett Davis Jr., Professor of theoretical physics at the California Institute of Technology, died on June 15, 2003 after a long illness. He was 89 years old. He contributed many important ideas and concepts to theoretical astrophysics and was a pioneer in the in situ scientific exploration of space using observations from spacecraft. Davis was born in Elgin, Illinois on March 3, 1914, the eldest of four children of Louis Leverett Davis and Susan Gulick Davis. His parents moved several times as he grew up because his father, a mining engineer, became involved in different mining operations in the American West. Leverett married Victoria Stocker in June 1943. They had two children who died in childhood and subsequently adopted a son, Jeffrey. His wife and son survive him. Davis's early education was rather fractured and uneven because of the many family moves, with periods of home schooling alternating with regular school. His high school education was, on the other hand, reasonably normal. It was while in high school that he decided that he wanted to do physics or mathematics. He went on to earn his Bachelor of Science degree at Oregon State College in 1936, after which he started graduate studies at the California Institute of Technology, to pursue a graduate degree in physics. His advisor was William V. Houston and Davis received his PhD in 1941 for a thesis on electrical properties in nerves. He briefly entertained the idea of changing to work in biophysics. During World War II, Davis became an integral member of the Caltech project for rockets, which developed a number of different types of rockets used in the war. As a result of this war work, Davis wrote a book on Exterior Ballistics, published by Van Nostrand in 1958. He joined the faculty at the California Institute of Technology in 1946, after several years on campus as an instructor. In all, he taught there for nearly four decades before retiring as Professor of Theoretical Physics in 1981

  7. Material Science Activities for Fusion Reactors in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, I.; Kenzhin, E.; Kulsartov, T. [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Shestakov, V. [Kazakhstan State University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Chikhray, Y. [Kazakh National University, Kourmangazy 15, app.lO, 480100 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Azizov, E. [TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Filatov, O. [Effremov Institute, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Chernov, V.M. [Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials, P.O. Box 369, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    techniques for prevention of failures of intra-chamber components. High parameters of power loads (up to 20 MWt/m{sup 2}), wide range of used techniques and diagnostics allow for carrying out the studies and tests in divertor volume and at first wall, including mockups of DEMO vanadium module and lithium divertor module on the basis of capillary-porous system. The paper contains description of tokamak KTM features and material science program in support of creation of experimental modules for DEMO, ITER and fusion power reactors. (authors)

  8. Diffraction phase microscopy: monitoring nanoscale dynamics in materials science [invited].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Chris; Zhou, Renjie; Hwang, Suk-Won; McKeown, Steven J; Wang, Kaiyuan; Bhaduri, Basanta; Ganti, Raman; Yunker, Peter J; Yodh, Arjun G; Rogers, John A; Goddard, Lynford L; Popescu, Gabriel

    2014-09-20

    Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) utilizes the fact that the phase of an imaging field is much more sensitive than its amplitude. As fields from the source interact with the specimen, local variations in the phase front are produced, which provide structural information about the sample and can be used to reconstruct its topography with nanometer accuracy. QPI techniques do not require staining or coating of the specimen and are therefore nondestructive. Diffraction phase microscopy (DPM) combines many of the best attributes of current QPI methods; its compact configuration uses a common-path off-axis geometry which realizes the benefits of both low noise and single-shot imaging. This unique collection of features enables the DPM system to monitor, at the nanoscale, a wide variety of phenomena in their natural environments. Over the past decade, QPI techniques have become ubiquitous in biological studies and a recent effort has been made to extend QPI to materials science applications. We briefly review several recent studies which include real-time monitoring of wet etching, photochemical etching, surface wetting and evaporation, dissolution of biodegradable electronic materials, and the expansion and deformation of thin-films. We also discuss recent advances in semiconductor wafer defect detection using QPI.

  9. A materials science vision of extracellular matrix mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznikov, N.; Steele, J. A. M.; Fratzl, P.; Stevens, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    From an engineering perspective, skeletal tissues are remarkable structures because they are lightweight, stiff and tough, yet produced at ambient conditions. The biomechanical success of skeletal tissues is largely attributable to the process of biomineralization — a tightly regulated, cell-driven formation of billions of inorganic nanocrystals formed from ions found abundantly in body fluids. In this Review, we discuss nature's strategies to produce and sustain appropriate biomechanical properties in mineralizing (by the promotion of mineralization) and non-mineralizing (by the inhibition of mineralization) tissues. We review how perturbations of biomineralization are controlled over a continuum that spans from the desirable (or defective in disease) mineralization of the skeleton to pathological cardiovascular mineralization, and to mineralization of bioengineered constructs. A materials science vision of mineralization is presented with an emphasis on the micro- and nanostructure of mineralized tissues recently revealed by state-of-the-art analytical methods, and on how biomineralization-inspired designs are influencing the field of synthetic materials.

  10. Advances in materials science, metals and ceramics division. Triannual progress report, June-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhan, J.J.; Hopper, R.W.; Gordon, K.M. (eds.)

    1980-10-28

    Information is presented concerning the magnetic fusion energy program; the laser fusion energy program; geothermal research; nuclear waste management; Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) research; diffusion in silicate minerals; chemistry research resources; and chemistry and materials science research.

  11. 75 FR 69078 - Workshop To Review Draft Materials for the Lead (Pb) Integrated Science Assessment (ISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... AGENCY Workshop To Review Draft Materials for the Lead (Pb) Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) AGENCY... a workshop to evaluate initial draft materials for the Pb Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) is... the scientific content of initial draft materials or sections for the draft ISA. Workshop...

  12. Elementary Students' Learning of Materials Science Practices through Instruction Based on Engineering Design Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Kristen Bethke; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Materials science, which entails the practices of selecting, testing, and characterizing materials, is an important discipline within the study of matter. This paper examines how third grade students' materials science performance changes over the course of instruction based on an engineering design challenge. We conducted a case study of nine…

  13. Educators Guide to Free Science Materials, 11th Annual Edition--1970.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saterstrom, Mary Horkheimer; Renner, John W.

    This eleventh edition of the Educators Guide to Free Science Materials is devoted exclusively to free science materials, based on the cross-media approach. It is designed to provide a continuing means of identifying existing materials that are currently available. It is a complete, up-to-date, annotated schedule of selected free or inexpensive…

  14. Obituary: Ernest Hurst Cherrington, Jr., 1909-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    2003-12-01

    Ernest H. Cherrington, Jr., a long-time member of the AAS, died in San Jose, California on 13 July 1996, following a long illness. He had a short but active career as a research astronomer at Perkins Observatory at Ohio Wesleyan University in Delaware, Ohio before World War II, in which he served as an officer in the Army Air Force. After the war ended he turned to full-time teaching and administration at the University of Akron, and then at Hood College in Frederick, Maryland. Ernest was born on 10 September 1909 in Westerville, Ohio, where his father, Ernest H. Cherrington, Sr., was a leader in the temperance movement and publisher of "American Issue", a Prohibitionist magazine. Ernest Jr.'s mother, Betty Clifford (née Denny) Cherrington, was a homemaker. He was an outstanding student in high school and at Ohio Wesleyan University, which he entered in 1927. The little university's Perkins Observatory with its 69-inch reflector, briefly the second largest telescope in the United States, had just been built and gone into operation. After graduating with a BA magna cum laude in astronomy in 1931, Ernest stayed on one more year and earned his MS with a thesis on the motion of material in the tail of Comet Morehouse, supervised by Nicholas T. Bobrovnikoff. In 1932 Ernest entered the University of California at Berkeley as a graduate student, with a one-year teaching assistantship in the Astronomical Department. This was followed by a two-year Lick Observatory Fellowship. In June 1933 he married Ann McAfee Naylor, who had been a classmate at Delaware High School and Ohio Wesleyan. Ernest did his PhD thesis on spectrophotometry of the Mg I b lines in the solar spectrum, using a high-resolution grating spectrograph on the Berkeley campus, designed by C. Donald Shane, his adviser. In this thesis, Ernest tested and improved the then current theory of strong absorption lines in stellar atmospheres. He also spent several short periods at Lick Observatory on Mount Hamilton

  15. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science progress report summary of selected research and development topics, FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, L.

    1997-12-01

    This report contains summaries of research performed in the Chemistry and Materials Science division. Topics include Metals and Ceramics, High Explosives, Organic Synthesis, Instrument Development, and other topics.

  16. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  17. Forging the Solution to the Energy Challenge: The Role of Materials Science and Materials Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    The energy challenge is central to the most important strategic problems facing the United States and the world. It is increasingly clear that even large-scale deployments of the best technologies available today cannot meet the rising energy demands of a growing world population. Achieving a secure and sustainable energy future will require full utilization of, and substantial improvements in, a comprehensive portfolio of energy systems and technologies. This goal is complicated by several factors. First, energy strategies are inextricably linked to national security and health issues. Second, in developing and deploying energy technologies, it is vital to consider not only environmental issues, such as global climate change, but also economic considerations, which strongly influence both public and political views on energy policy. Third, a significant and sustained effort in basic and applied research and development (R&D) will be required to deliver the innovations needed to ensure a desirable energy future. Innovations in materials science and engineering are especially needed to overcome the limits of essentially all energy technologies. A wealth of historical evidence demonstrates that such innovations are also the key to economic prosperity. From the development of the earliest cities around flint-trading centers, to the Industrial Revolution, to today’s silicon-based global economy, the advantage goes to those who lead in exploiting materials. I view our challenge by considering the rate of innovation and the transition of discovery to the marketplace as the relationship among R&D investment, a skilled and talented workforce, business innovations, and the activities of competitors. Most disturbing in analyzing this relationship is the need for trained workers in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). To develop the STEM workforce needed for innovation, we need sustainable, positive change in STEM education at all levels from preschool

  18. Applications of density functional theory in materials science and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Manuel, Jr.

    Density Functional Theory (DFT) is a powerful tool that can be used to model various systems in materials science. Our research applies DFT to two problems of interest. First, an organic/inorganic complex dye system known as a Mayan pigment is modeled to determine chemical binding sites, verifying each model with physical data such as UV/Vis spectra. Preliminary studies on palygorskite-based mayan pigments (mayacrom blue, mayacrom purple) show excellent agreement with experimental studies when using a dimer dye geometry binding with tetrahedrally-coordinated aluminum impurity sites in palygorksite. This approach is applied to a sepiolite-based organic/inorganic dye system using thioindigo attached to a tetrahedral aluminum impurity site with an additional aluminum impurity site in close proximity to the binding site. As a second application of DFT, various grain orientations in beta-Sn are modeled under imposed strains in order to calculate elastic properties of this system. These calculations are intended to clarify discrepancies in published, experimental crystal compliance values.

  19. Progress on research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishigaki, Isao [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Research of materials science and biotechnology by ion beam application in Takasaki Establishment was reviewed. Especially, the recent progresses of research on semiconductors in space, creation of new functional materials and topics in biotechnology were reported. (author)

  20. Advances in materials science, Metals and Ceramics Division. Triannual progress report, October 1979-January 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-31

    Progress is summarized concerning magnetic fusion energy materials, laser fusion energy, aluminium-air battery and vehicle, geothermal research, oil-shale research, nuclear waste management, office of basic energy sciences research, and materials research notes. (FS)

  1. Information technologies and software packages for education of specialists in materials science [In Russian

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Krzhizhanovskaya; S. Ryaboshuk

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents methodological materials, interactive text-books and software packages developed and extensively used for education of specialists in materials science. These virtual laboratories for education and research are equipped with tutorials and software environment for modeling complex

  2. Materials science symposium 'heavy ion science in tandem energy region'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takeuchi, Suehiro [eds.

    2000-01-01

    The tandem accelerator established at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in 1982 has been one of the most prominent electrostatic accelerators in the world. The accelerator has been serving for many researches planned by not only JAERI staff but also researchers of universities and national institutes. After the completion of the tandem booster in 1993, four times higher beam energy became available. These two facilities, the tandem accelerator and the booster, made great strides in heavy ion physics and a lot of achievements have been accumulated until now. The research departments of JAERI were reformed in 1998, and the accelerators section came under the Department of Materials Science. On this reform of the research system, the symposium 'Heavy Ion Science in Tandem Energy Region' was held in cooperation with nuclear and solid state physicists although there has been no such symposium for many years. The symposium was expected to stimulate novel development in both nuclear and solid state physics, and also interdisciplinary physics between nuclear and solid state physics. The 68 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Future Directions for Selected Topics in Physics and Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    in the last decade? • New materials: (-materials (CNTs, graphene ) Correlated solids/oxides Metamaterials Superatoms/nanodroplets Highly spin...nanostructured materials, where the best multiferroics might be metamaterials . In addition to this important area, other types of materials that can...rather is engineered by purposeful nanostructuring. One of the more interesting metamaterials is the negative index of refraction materials that can

  4. Center for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Status report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, D.M.; Boring, A.M. [comps.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Center for Materials Science (CMS) from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991, and is the nineth such annual report. It has been a year of remarkable progress in building the programs of the Center. The extent of this progress is described in detail. The CMS was established to enhance the contribution of materials science and technology to the Laboratory`s defense, energy and scientific missions, and the Laboratory. In carrying out these responsibilities it has accepted four demanding missions: (1) Build a core group of highly rated, established materials scientists and solid state physicists. (2) Promote and support top quality, interdisciplinary materials research programs at Los Alamos. (3) Strengthen the interactions of materials science and Los Alamos with the external materials science community. and (4) Establish and maintain modern materials research facilities in a readily accessible, central location.

  5. J-R Curve Determination for Disk-shaped Compact Specimens Based on the Normalization Method and Direct Current Potential Drop Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiang [ORNL; Nanstad, Randy K [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Material ductile fracture toughness can be described by J-integral versus crack extension relationship (J-R curve). As a conventional J-R curve measurement method, unloading compliance (UC) becomes impractical in elevated temperature testing due to relaxation of the material and a friction induced back-up shape of the J-R curve. In addition, the UC method may underpredict the crack extension for standard disk-shaped compact (DC(T)) specimens. In order to address these issues, the normalization method and direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique were applied for determining J-R curves at 24 C and 500 C for 0.18T DC(T) specimens made from type 316L stainless steel. For comparison purchase, the UC method was also applied in 24 C tests. The normalization method was able to yield valid J-R curves in all tests. The J-R curves from the DCPD technique need adjustment to account for the potential drop induced by plastic deformation, crack blunting, etc. and after applying a newly-developed DCPD adjustment procedure, the post-adjusted DCPD J-R curves essentially matched J-R curves from the normalization method. In contrast, the UC method underpredicted the crack extension in all tests resulting in substantial deviation in the derived J-R curves manifested by high Jq values than the normalization or DCPD method. Only for tests where the UC method underpredicted the crack extension by a very small value, J-R curves determined by the UC method were similar to those determined by the normalization or DCPD method.

  6. Bayer MaterialScience Is Committed to PC Market in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Wang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Bayer MaterialScience' Business Unit Polycarbonates is firmly committed to its customers in China and the wider Asia Pacific region. On May 22nd, at the Chinaplas 2007 exhibition in Guangzhou, Bayer MaterialScience announced further steps of its strategy aimed at improving its responsiveness to customer needs.

  7. Framework for Reducing Teaching Challenges Relating to Improvisation of Science Education Equipment and Materials in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuma, Fru Vitalis; Callaghan, Ronel

    2016-01-01

    The science education budget of many secondary schools has decreased, while shortages and environmental concerns linked to conventional Science Education Equipment and Materials (SEEMs) have emerged. Thus, in some schools, resourceful educators produce low-cost equipment from basic materials and use these so-called improvised SEEMs in practical…

  8. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending December 31, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J. (comp.)

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The major elements of the Materials Sciences Program can be grouped under the areas of (1) structural characterization, (2) high-temperature alloy studies, (3) structural ceramics, and (4) radiation effects.

  9. Book Review: Materials Science aAnd Engineering: An Introduction by William D. Callister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Malik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available For a number of decades, Materials Science and Engineering an Introduction, has been an essential and trusted source of literature, as an introduction to Materials Science and Engineering. Now revised and updated the sixth edition is now available.

  10. Merton and Ziman's modes of science: the case of biological and similar material transfer agreements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes a connection between recent studies on research materials exchange and its effect on the progress of science. Academia fears that scientific development could be hampered by the privatised practices of research material exchange. Since post-academic science represents a sufficient d

  11. Materials Science Research Rack-1 Fire Suppressant Distribution Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, P. O.

    2002-01-01

    Fire suppressant distribution testing was performed on the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1), a furnace facility payload that will be installed in the U.S. Lab module of the International Space Station. Unlike racks that were tested previously, the MSRR-1 uses the Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) to reduce vibration on experiments, so the effects of ARIS on fire suppressant distribution were unknown. Two tests were performed to map the distribution of CO2 fire suppressant throughout a mockup of the MSRR-1 designed to have the same component volumes and flowpath restrictions as the flight rack. For the first test, the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 60 percent, achieved within 45 s of discharge initiation, meeting the requirement to reach 50 percent throughout the rack within 1 min. For the second test, one of the experiment mockups was removed to provide a worst-case configuration, and the average maximum CO2 concentration for the rack was 58 percent. Comparing the results of this testing with results from previous testing leads to several general conclusions that can be used to evaluate future racks. The MSRR-1 will meet the requirements for fire suppressant distribution. Primary factors that affect the ability to meet the CO2 distribution requirements are the free air volume in the rack and the total area and distribution of openings in the rack shell. The length of the suppressant flowpath and degree of tortuousness has little correlation with CO2 concentration. The total area of holes in the rack shell could be significantly increased. The free air volume could be significantly increased. To ensure the highest maximum CO2 concentration, the PFE nozzle should be inserted to the stop on the nozzle.

  12. Obituary: Ralph Robert Robbins, Jr., 1938-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, Mary Kay; Jefferys, William H.; Lambert, David L.

    2007-12-01

    education. While teaching all the mathematics instructors of the polytechnic institutes of the country, he co-authored a textbook "Polytechnic Mathematics." Bob also was active for many years in Commission 46 of the International Astronomical Union, including compiling overviews of educational materials available in English for over a decade and serving on the organizing committee for several international meetings. In the 1970s, Bob and William Jefferys refined their view of how introductory astronomy should be taught — pioneering a "minds-on, hands-on" approach that emphasized "learning by doing" even in the non-science majors courses. This innovative work in astronomy education led to several co-authored books: a general-level textbook (Discovering Astronomy), a book to accompany upper-division laboratory courses (Modern Astronomy: an Activities Approach), and a workbook for college teachers (Effective Astronomy Teaching and Student Reasoning Ability). Bob also popularized self-paced astronomy courses that demanded in-depth understanding from students as well as requiring observations of the sky and small experiments. Bob was named a Piper Professor in 1972, a statewide award that recognized his teaching excellence. For many years Bob served both as an American Astronomical Society Shapley Visiting Lecturer and as a National Science Foundation Chautauqua lecturer, thus bringing his expertise to colleges and college instructors across the nation. Bob was fascinated with not only how undergraduate students learn, but also how people of past civilizations learned about astronomy and used it in their lives and rituals. Bob's colleague William Jefferys recalled a 1967 Spring Break trip: "We got into Bob's white and purple Dodge and went to Mexico with a large tent, big enough for the party of six. We camped on the beach and by the side of the road, got royally bitten by mosquitoes, suffered a broken spring and flat tire on the car (both of which were fixed in Mexico, but

  13. In Memoriam of John T. Yates Jr. (August 3, 1935 - September 26, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, John N.; Beebe, Thomas P.

    2016-10-01

    John T. Yates, Jr., Professor of Chemistry at the University of Virginia, member of the US National Academy of Sciences, and a pioneer of modern surface science, passed away at his home on Saturday morning September 26, 2015, from a recurring glioblastoma. John was both courageous, pragmatic and forthright about his diagnosis right to the end. His wife, Kerin, related that John, upon learning of his diagnosis, said that he had had a great life and was not going to 'let the last 1.25%' define him. It did not. He had a wonderful family and a stellar career.

  14. William Pepper Jr, MD (1843-1898): portrait of a nineteenth-century medical educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Re, Vincent; Bellini, Lisa M

    2006-08-01

    Dr William Pepper Jr was a prominent Philadelphia physician whose contributions to medicine in the late 19th century are not widely known. As a young physician he rose in stature rapidly due to his abilities as a diagnostician, teacher, writer and researcher. His primary interest, however, was to improve the education of physicians. He orchestrated the creation of America's first university-controlled teaching hospital, the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, enabling substantial improvements in clinical training. Pepper later became Provost of the University of Pennsylvania and ambitiously transformed the curriculum of the medical school, providing greater basic science and clinical training. He also worked to establish several institutes and museums in Philadelphia in order to promote academic pursuits, particularly in medicine. William Pepper Jr was one of the 19th century's foremost medical educators and his accomplishments helped reshape the way medicine was taught throughout the United States.

  15. An Analysis of the Tvergaard Parameters at Low Initial Stress Triaxiality for S235JR Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kossakowski Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of the Tvergaard parameters, qi, which are basic constants of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN material model, on the numerically simulated load-carrying capacity of tensile elements made of S235JR steel. The elements were considered to be under static tension at low initial stress triaxiality σm/σe = 1/3. Two sets of the Tvergaard parameters qi were analyzed: those typical of structural steels and those dependent on material strength properties. The results showed that the Tvergaard parameters, qi, had influence on the load-carrying capacity of tensile elements at low initial stress triaxiality. They affected the strength curves and the changes in the void volume fractions determined for S235JR steel elements

  16. Small-angle neutron scattering in materials science - an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratzl, P. [Vienna Univ., Inst. fuer Materialphysik, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    The basic principles of the application of small-angle neutron scattering to materials research are summarized. The text focusses on the classical methods of data evaluation for isotropic and for anisotropic materials. Some examples of applications to the study of alloys, porous materials, composites and other complex materials are given. (author) 9 figs., 38 refs.

  17. Obituary: Edward W. Burke, Jr. (1924-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Raymond, Jr.

    2011-12-01

    Dr. Edward W. Burke Jr. passed away on June 15, 2011, after suffering a heart attack. Dr. Burke devoted his professional life to the research and teaching of physics and astronomy at King College in Bristol, Tennessee. Edward W. Burke, Jr., was born in Macon, Georgia, on September 16, 1924. He was a Navy veteran, having been commissioned as an ensign in 1944. He served in the Pacific near the end of World War II. He proceeded to complete his undergraduate degree in mathematics from Presbyterian College in 1947 and pursued the M.S. and Ph.D. in physics (1949 and 1954, respectively) at the University of Wisconsin. Under the direction of Professor Julian Mack, his thesis was titled "Isotope Shift in the Spectra of Boron." Although he did research in atomic spectra in the early part of his career, his interest in astronomy and variable stars in particular were his primary interests during his long academic career. Dr. Burke began his illustrious career at King College in 1949. He initiated the astronomy program there in 1950, included constructing a 12.5 inch Newtonian telescope, homemade as was most everything in those days. Many of his students learned about photometry at the Burke Observatory on the college campus. Burke was known for his trips to the Kitt Peak and Lowell observatories accompanied by undergraduate students on his trips, all of which were made by automobile which he preferred over flying. His initial interest in Ap stars later broadened into variable and especially eclipsing binary stars. His motivation was maintained by his desire to have his students experience basic research and to spark their interest in advanced degrees. Numerous students achieved advanced science and medical degrees because of Burke's encouragement and mentoring. In 1959, Dr. Burke was awarded a Fulbright professorship and traveled to Chile where he taught physics for a year in the Engineering School at the University of Chile in Santiago. He worked to establish a physics

  18. Piezoelectric and Electrostrictive Materials for Transducer Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Structure Ferroelastic Silicates" Alan Hain, Jr. B.S. Engineering Science, May 1984. "New Bimorph Structures with High Flexural Resonance Frequency" Eric ...Applications of PZT/Polymer Composite Materials,’ Ferroelectrics 39, 1245-1248 (1981). 22. Erikson , K.R. ’Tone-Burst Testing of Pulse-Echo Transducer...burst pulse-echo method described by Erikson [2]. A schematic diagram of the experimental set up is shown in Figure 1. The composite transducer was

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDED INQUIRY SCIENCE LEARNING MATERIALS TO IMPROVE SCIENCE LITERACY SKILL OF PROSPECTIVE MI TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. S. Putra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to produce valid, practical and effective guided inquiry model science learning materials to enhance science literacy skill of prospective MI teachers. The tryout of the materials was implementedto students of MI teacher educationof Unipdu Jombang at academic year of 2015/2016 semesters 3 using One Group Pretest Posttest Design. The data collections were done using observation, testing, and questionnaires. Data were analysed using descriptive analysis of quantitative, qualitative and non-parametric statistical tests. The findings of the research were: 1 the learning materials were valid; 2 Practicality of the materials was tested through the implementation of lesson plans, while the learners’ activity wereappropriate to the guided inquirymodel; and 3 The effectiveness of the learning materials in terms of improvement of learning outcomes of students was seen from the n-gain with high category and increasing mastery of science literacy skills of learners also scored n-gain with high category and the response of students to the device and the implementation of learning is very positive. It was concluded that the materials were valid, practical, and effective to enhance science literacy skills of prospective MI teachers.

  20. Draft genome sequence of Therminicola potens strain JR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrne-Bailey, K.G.; Wrighton, K.C.; Melnyk, R.A.; Agbo, P.; Hazen, T.C.; Coates, J.D.

    2010-07-01

    'Thermincola potens' strain JR is one of the first Gram-positive dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria (DMRB) for which there is a complete genome sequence. Consistent with the physiology of this organism, preliminary annotation revealed an abundance of multiheme c-type cytochromes that are putatively associated with the periplasm and cell surface in a Gram-positive bacterium. Here we report the complete genome sequence of strain JR.

  1. The Development Materials from Substances Waste for Some Topics in Science and Technology Textbook for Primary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study is to develop instructional materials from substances waste in which students teachers have problems to learn, taught in Instructional Technology and Materials Course at the third year of primary science teacher education program. The study was carried out with 54 primary science student teachers attending primary science teacher education program in Ahi Evran University Faculty of Education, in the fall term of the 2009-2010 academic year. Material design or development of prospective teachers' views were taken before and after. The findings from the material prepared were supported by the data obtained from the interviews conducted with 16 head student teachers. It was concluded that, based on the findings obtained from the material design the environmental pollution by waste products are designed for visual teaching materials. Can be taken into account the materials designed or developed by nominated teacher, during revised to be name of last books.

  2. Non-Structured Materials Science Data Sharing Based on Semantic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The explosion of non-structured materials science data makes it urgent for materials researchers to resolve the problem of how to effectively share this information. Materials science image data is an important class of non-structured data. This paper proposes a semantic annotation method to resolve the problem of materials science image data sharing. This method is implemented by a four-layer architecture, which includes ontology building, semantic annotation, reasoning service, and application. We take metallographic image data as an example and build a metallographic image OWL-ontology. Users can accomplish semantic annotation of metallographic image according to the ontology. Reasoning service is provided in a data sharing application to demonstrate the effective sharing of materials science image data through adding semantic annotation.

  3. Marginalization of Socioscientific Material in Science-Technology-Society Science Curricula: Some Implications for Gender Inclusivity and Curriculum Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Gwyneth

    2000-05-01

    Science education reformers have argued that presenting science in the abstract is neither motivating nor inclusive of the majority of students. Science-technology-society (STS) curricula that give science an accessible social context have developed in response, but controversy surrounds the extent to which students should be introduced to socioscientific debate. Using material from a case study of Salters' Advanced Chemistry in the United Kingdom, this article demonstrates how socioscientific material is marginalized through the structures and language of syllabus texts and through classroom practices. This means students are unlikely to engage with socioscientific aspects in their course. Socioscientific content is gendered through association with social concerns and epistemological uncertainty, and because gender is asymmetric, socioscience is devalued with respect to the masculinity of abstract science. Teachers fear that extensive coverage of socioscience devalues the curriculum, alienates traditional science students and jeopardizes their own status as gatekeepers of scientific knowledge. Thus, although STS curricula such as Salters' offer potential for making science more accessible, the article concludes that greater awareness of, and challenges to, gender binaries could result in more effective STS curriculum reform.

  4. Analytical techniques for thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1988-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 27: Analytical Techniques for Thin Films covers a set of analytical techniques developed for thin films and interfaces, all based on scattering and excitation phenomena and theories. The book discusses photon beam and X-ray techniques; electron beam techniques; and ion beam techniques. Materials scientists, materials engineers, chemical engineers, and physicists will find the book invaluable.

  5. Life Science Research Facility materials management requirements and concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.

    1986-01-01

    The Advanced Programs Office at NASA Ames Research Center has defined hypothetical experiments for a 90-day mission on Space Station to allow analysis of the materials necessary to conduct the experiments and to assess the impact on waste processing of recyclable materials and storage requirements of samples to be returned to earth for analysis as well as of nonrecyclable materials. The materials include the specimens themselves, the food, water, and gases necessary to maintain them, the expendables necessary to conduct the experiments, and the metabolic products of the specimens. This study defines the volumes, flow rates, and states of these materials. Process concepts for materials handling will include a cage cleaner, trash compactor, biological stabilizer, and various recycling devices.

  6. Applications of synchrotron radiation techniques to materials science 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mini, S.M. [ed.] [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stock, S.R. [ed.] [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States); Perry, D.L. [ed.] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Terminello, L.J. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    As more synchrotron facilities are constructed and go online both in the US and in other countries, even more applications of synchrotron radiation will be realized. Both basic and applied research possibilities are manifold, including studies of materials mentioned below and those that are yet to be discovered. Also, the combination of synchrotron-based spectroscopic techniques with ever increasing high-resolution microscopy allows researchers to study very small domains of materials in an attempt to understand their chemical and electronic properties. This is especially important in the areas of composites and other related materials involving material bonding interfaces. The topics covered in this symposium include surfaces, interfaces, electronic materials, metal oxides, solar cells, thin films, carbides, polymers, alloys, nanoparticles, and graphitic materials. Results reported at this symposium relate recent advances in X-ray absorption and scattering, imaging, tomography, microscopy, and topography methods.

  7. The application of Principal Component Analysis to materials science data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwon Suh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between apparently disparate sets of data is a critical component of interpreting materials' behavior, especially in terms of assessing the impact of the microscopic characteristics of materials on their macroscopic or engineering behavior. In this paper we demonstrate the value of principal component analysis of property data associated with high temperature superconductivity to examine the statistical impact of the materials' intrinsic characteristics on high temperature superconducting behavior

  8. Tribology of ceramics and composites materials science perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Bikramjit

    2011-01-01

    This book helps students and practicing scientists alike understand that a comprehensive knowledge about the friction and wear properties of advanced materials is essential to further design and development of new materials. With important introductory chapters on the fundamentals, processing, and applications of tribology, the book then examines in detail the nature and properties of materials, the friction and wear of structural ceramics, bioceramics, biocomposites, and nanoceramics, as well as lightweight composites and the friction and wear of ceramics in a cryogenic environment.

  9. The material co-construction of hard science fiction and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, Cathrine

    2015-12-01

    This article explores the relationship between hard science fiction and physics and a gendered culture of science. Empirical studies indicate that science fiction references might spur some students' interest in physics and help develop this interest throughout school, into a university education and even further later inspire the practice of doing science. There are many kinds of fiction within the science fiction genre. In the presented empirical exploration physics students seem particularly fond of what is called `hard science fiction': a particular type of science fiction dealing with technological developments (Hartwell and Cramer in The hard SF renaissance, Orb/TOR, New York, 2002). Especially hard science fiction as a motivating fantasy may, however, also come with a gender bias. The locally materialized techno-fantasies spurring dreams of the terraforming of planets like Mars and travels in time and space may not be shared by all physics students. Especially female students express a need for other concerns in science. The entanglement of physics with hard science fiction may thus help develop some students' interest in learning school physics and help create an interest for studying physics at university level. But research indicates that especially female students are not captured by the hard techno-fantasies to the same extent as some of their male colleagues. Other visions (e.g. inspired by soft science fiction) are not materialized as a resource in the local educational culture. It calls for an argument of how teaching science is also teaching cultural values, ethics and concerns, which may be gendered. Teaching materials, like the use of hard science fiction in education, may not just be (yet another) gender bias in science education but also carrier of particular visions for scientific endeavours.

  10. Materials science tetrahedron--a useful tool for pharmaceutical research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2009-05-01

    The concept of materials science tetrahedron (MST) concisely depicts the inter-dependent relationship among the structure, properties, performance, and processing of a drug. Similar to its role in traditional materials science, MST encompasses the development in the emerging field of pharmaceutical materials science and forms a scientific foundation to the design and development of new drug products. Examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of MST to both pharmaceutical research and product development. It is proposed that a systematic implementation of MST can expedite the transformation of pharmaceutical product development from an art to a science. By following the principle of MST, integration of research among different laboratories can be attained. The pharmaceutical science community as a whole can conduct more efficient, collaborative, and coherent research.

  11. Overview of the NIST Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    mechanical routes to weakened products were identified in polybenzoxazole (Zylon) fibers . [This work included testing on materials which had failed...to characterize the processing, structure, mechanics and long-term reliability of high performance polymeric fibers used for ballistic protection...Apparatus, modified for fiber testing •Measurement techniques and instrumentation for characterizing next generation hybrid materials which

  12. Models and Materials: Bridging Art and Science in the Secondary Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, D.; Cavazos, L.

    2006-12-01

    Creating and sustaining student engagement in science is one challenge facing secondary teachers. The visual arts provide an alternative means of communicating scientific concepts to students who may not respond to traditional formats or identify themselves as interested in science. We have initiated a three-year teacher professional development program at U C Santa Barbara focused on bridging art and science in secondary curricula, to engage students underrepresented in science majors, including girls, English language learners and non-traditional learners. The three-year format provides the teams of teachers with the time and resources necessary to create innovative learning experiences for students that will enhance their understanding of both art and science content. Models and Materials brings together ten secondary art and science teachers from six Santa Barbara County schools. Of the five participating science teachers, three teach Earth Science and two teach Life Science. Art and science teachers from each school are teamed and challenged with the task of creating integrated curriculum projects that bring visual art concepts to the science classroom and science concepts to the art classroom. Models and Materials were selected as unifying themes; understanding the concept of models, their development and limitations, is a prominent goal in the California State Science and Art Standards. Similarly, the relationship between composition, structure and properties of materials is important to both art and science learning. The program began with a 2-week institute designed to highlight the natural links between art and science through presentations and activities by both artists and scientists, to inspire teachers to develop new ways to present models in their classrooms, and for the teacher teams to brainstorm ideas for curriculum projects. During the current school year, teachers will begin to integrate science and art and the themes of modeling and materials

  13. U.S. Materials Science on the International Space Station: Status and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Kelton, Kenneth F.; Matson, Douglas M.; Poirier, David R.; Trivedi, Rohit K.; Su, Ching-Hua; Volz, Martin P.; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the current status and NASA plans for materials science on the International Space Station. The contents include: 1) Investigations Launched in 2009; 2) DECLIC in an EXPRESS rack; 3) Dynamical Selection of Three-Dimensional Interface Patterns in Directional Solidification (DSIP); 4) Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR); 5) Materials Science Laboratory; 6) Comparison of Structure and Segregation in Alloys Directionally Solidified in Terrestrial and Microgravity Environments (MICAST/CETSOL); 7) Coarsening in Solid Liquid Mixtures 2 Reflight (CSLM 2R); 8) Crystal Growth Investigations; 9) Levitator Investigations; 10) Quasi Crystalline Undercooled Alloys for Space Investigation (QUASI); 11) The Role of Convection and Growth Competition in Phase Selection in Microgravity (LODESTARS); 12) Planned Additional Investigations; 13) SETA; 14) METCOMP; and 15) Materials Science NRA.

  14. Advances in materials science, Metals and Ceramics Division. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truhan, J.J.; Weld, F.N.

    1979-10-25

    Research is reported on materials for magnetic fusion energy, laser fusion energy, Al-air batteries, geothermal energy, oil shale, nuclear waste management, thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production, chemistry, and basic energy science. (FS)

  15. 75 FR 16514 - Bayer Material Science, LLC, Formally Known as Sheffield Plastics, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bayer Material Science, LLC, Formally Known as Sheffield Plastics... Material Science, LLC, formally known as Sheffield Plastics, including on-site leased workers from... that Bayer Material Science, LLC was formally known as Sheffield Plastics. Some workers separated...

  16. Science of Materials: A Case Study of Intentional Teaching in the Early Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Barratt-Pugh, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Australia's Early Years Learning Framework and leading international researchers argue for more intentional and purposeful teaching of science in the early years. This case study of exemplary practice illustrates intentional teaching of science materials which opened-up learning opportunities in literacy and number. Student-led hands-on…

  17. Dispositions Supporting Elementary Interns in the Teaching of Reform-Based Science Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Charles J.; Stewart, Bethany

    2010-01-01

    Dispositions supporting the teaching of science as structured inquiry by four elementary candidates are presented. Candidates were studied during student teaching based on their positive attitudes toward teaching science with reform-based materials in their methods course. Personal learning histories informed their attitudes, values, and beliefs…

  18. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd R. Allen

    2011-12-01

    This is a document required by Basic Energy Sciences as part of a mid-term review, in the third year of the five-year award period and is intended to provide a critical assessment of the Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels (strategic vision, scientific plans and progress, and technical accomplishments).

  19. Electromagnetic Spectrum. 7th and 8th Grade Agriculture Science Curriculum. Teacher Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This curriculum guide, the second in a set of six, contains teacher and student materials for a unit on the electromagnetic spectrum prepared as part of a seventh- and eighth-grade agricultural science curriculum that is integrated with science instruction. The guide contains the state goals and sample learning objectives for each goal for…

  20. The Efficacy of Educative Curriculum Materials to Support Geospatial Science Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Peffer, Tamara; Kulo, Violet

    2012-01-01

    Teaching and learning about geospatial aspects of energy resource issues requires that science teachers apply effective science pedagogical approaches to implement geospatial technologies into classroom instruction. To address this need, we designed educative curriculum materials as an integral part of a comprehensive middle school energy…

  1. Lynn White Jr. and the greening-of-religion hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bron; Van Wieren, Gretel; Zaleha, Bernard Daley

    2016-10-01

    Lynn White Jr.'s "The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis," which was published in Science in 1967, has played a critical role in precipitating interdisciplinary environmental studies. Although White advances a multifaceted argument, most respondents focus on his claim that the Judeo-Christian tradition, especially Christianity, has promoted anthropocentric attitudes and environmentally destructive behaviors. Decades later, some scholars argue contrarily that Christianity in particular and the world's predominant religions in general are becoming more environmentally friendly, known as the greening-of-religion hypothesis. To test these claims, we conducted a comprehensive review of over 700 articles-historical, qualitative, and quantitative-that are pertinent to them. Although definitive conclusions are difficult, we identified many themes and dynamics that hinder environmental understanding and mobilization, including conservative theological orientations and beliefs about the role of divine agency in preventing or promoting natural events, whether the religion is an Abrahamic tradition or originated in Asia. On balance, we found the thrust of White's thesis is supported, whereas the greening-of-religion hypothesis is not. We also found that indigenous traditions often foster proenvironmental perceptions. This finding suggests that indigenous traditions may be more likely to be proenvironmental than other religious systems and that some nature-based cosmologies and value systems function similarly. Although we conclude White's thesis and subsequent claims are largely born out, additional research is needed to better understand under what circumstances and communication strategies religious or other individuals and groups may be more effectively mobilized to respond to contemporary environmental challenges. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. 3D construction and repair from welding and material science perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean-Yves

    2016-10-01

    Additive manufacturing, based on layer-by-layer deposition of a feedstock material from a 3D data, can be mechanistically associated to welding. With feedstock fusion based processes, both additive manufacturing and welding implement similar heat sources, feedstock materials and translation mechanisms. From material science perspectives, additive manufacturing can take clue from lessons learned by millennium old welding technology to rapidly advance in its quest to generate fit for service metallic parts. This paper illustrates material science highlights extracted from the fabrication of a 316 L air vent and the functional repair of a Monel K500 (UNS N0500) with Inconel 625.

  3. Science of materials. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The research program includes studies of the microchemistry, microstructure, deformation, corrosion and fracture of metals, ceramics and alloy materials, of the hydrogen embrittlement of metals, the mechanism of heat transfer across interfacts, catalytic properties of surfaces, and erosion of surfaces by fluid suspended particles. The structure of liquids, polymers and disordered solids is under investigation with emphasis on molecular interactions and bonding, on ionic conduction, phase transitions and radiation damage. Ferro- and pyro-electric materials with potential for solar energy applications are under development. The study of optical properties includes the mechanism of luminescence, the design of molecular photoreceptors, and new semiconductor materials for photovoltaic devices.

  4. RIMS International Conference : Mathematical Challenges in a New Phase of Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Kotani, Motoko

    2016-01-01

    This volume comprises eight papers delivered at the RIMS International Conference "Mathematical Challenges in a New Phase of Materials Science", Kyoto, August 4–8, 2014. The contributions address subjects in defect dynamics, negatively curved carbon crystal, topological analysis of di-block copolymers, persistence modules, and fracture dynamics. These papers highlight the strong interaction between mathematics and materials science and also reflect the activity of WPI-AIMR at Tohoku University, in which collaborations between mathematicians and experimentalists are actively ongoing.

  5. Coal conversion processes and their materials requirements. Physical sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, J.B.; Voorde, M. van de; Betteridge, W.

    1984-01-01

    The coal conversion processes combustion, gasification and liquefaction are discussed with respect to current industrial developments and material problems in industrial plants due to fouling, corrosion and erosion. The available materials are discussed by means of high temperature corrosion, erosion, ductibility, creep, fatigue and physical properties. Ceramics and refractories which are particularly used as thermal insulation are also discussed by means of corrosion and erosion and mechanical properties.

  6. Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction, 7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, William D., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Now in its seventh edition, this accessible book provides readers with clear and concise discussions of key concepts while also incorporating familiar terminology. The author treats the important properties of the three primary types of materials (metals, ceramics, and polymers) and composites, as well as the relationships that exist between the structural elements of materials and their properties. Throughout, the emphasis is placed on mechanical behavior and failure, including techniques that are employed to improve performance.

  7. New Hydrophobic IOL Materials and Understanding the Science of Glistenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetz, Manfred; Jorgensen, Matthew R

    2015-01-01

    An introduction to the history of intraocular lenses (IOLs) is given, leading up to modern hydrophobic examples. The roles of hydrophobicity, hygroscopy, materials chemistry, and edge design are discussed in the context of IOLs. The four major types of IOL materials are compared in terms of their chemistry and biocompatibility. An example of a modern "hydrophobic" acrylic polymer with higher water content is discussed in detail.

  8. Chemistry and Materials Science, 1990--1991. [Second annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, T.T.; Bruner, J.M.; McElroy, L.A. [eds.

    1991-12-31

    This 2-year (FY 1990-91) contains 49 technical articles in ten sections: research sampler, metals and alloys, energetic materials, chemistry and physics of advanced materials, bonding and reactions at surfaces and interfaces, superconductivity, energy R and D, waste processing and management, characterization and analysis, and facilities and instrumentation. Two more sections list department personnel, their publications etc., consultants, and summary of department budgets. The articles are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  9. Multiscale Materials Science - A Mathematical Approach to the Role of Defects and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0034 Multiscale materials science - a mathematical approach to the role of defects and uncertainty Claude Le Bris ECOLE... science - a mathematical approach to the role of defects and uncertainty 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA8655-13-1-3061 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT...1FORM SF 298 10/31/2016https://livelink.ebs.afrl.af.mil/livelink/llisapi.dll Contract FA 8655-13-1-3061 Multiscale materials science : a mathematical

  10. Academic Entrepreneurship and Exchange of Scientific Resources: Material Transfer in Life and Materials Sciences in Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Sotaro; Walsh, John P.; Baba, Yasunori

    2012-01-01

    This study uses a sample of Japanese university scientists in life and materials sciences to examine how academic entrepreneurship has affected the norms and behaviors of academic scientists regarding sharing scientific resources. Results indicate that high levels of academic entrepreneurship in a scientific field are associated with less reliance…

  11. The NASA Materials Science Research Program: It's New Strategic Goals and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Stagg, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    In the past year, the NASA s Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) has formulated a long term plan to perform strategical and fundamental research bringing together physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering to solve problems needed for current and future agency mission goals. Materials Science is one of basic disciplines within the Enterprise s Division of Physical Sciences Research. The Materials Science Program participates to utilize effective use of International Space Station (ISS) and various world class ground laboratory facilities to solve new scientific and technology questions and transfer these results for public and agency benefits. The program has recently targeted new investigative research in strategic areas necessary to expand NASA knowledge base for exploration of the universe and some of these experiments will need access to the microgravity of space. The program is implementing a wide variety of traditional ground and flight based research related types of fundamental science related to materials crystallization, fundamental processing, and properties characterization in order to obtain basic understanding of various phenomena effects and relationships to the structures, processing, and properties of materials. , In addition new initiatives in radiation protection, materials for propulsion and In-space fabrication and repair focus on research helping the agency solve problems needed for future transportation into the solar system. A summary of the types and sources for this research is presented including those experiments planned for a low gravity environment. Areas to help expand the science basis for NASA future missions are described. An overview of the program is given including the scope of the current and future NASA Research Announcements with emphasis on new materials science initiatives. A description of the planned flight experiments to be conducted on the International Space Station program along with the planned

  12. Ultrafast laser inscribed integrated photonics: material science to device development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gross S.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Detailed studies of intense light – material interactions has led to new insights into fs laser induced refractive index change in a range of glass types. This body of knowledge enables the development of advanced processing methodologies, resulting in novel planar and 3D guided wave devices. We will review the chemistry and morphology associated with fs laser induced refractive index change in multi-component glasses such as ZBLAN, phosphates and silicates, and discuss how these material changes inform our research programs developing a range of active and passive lightwave systems.

  13. Colloid and materials science for the conservation of cultural heritage: cleaning, consolidation, and deacidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Piero; Chelazzi, David; Giorgi, Rodorico; Poggi, Giovanna

    2013-04-30

    Serendipity and experiment have been a frequent approach for the development of materials and methodologies used for a long time for either cleaning or consolidation of works of art. Recently, new perspectives have been opened by the application of materials science, colloid science, and interface science frameworks to conservation, generating a breakthrough in the development of innovative tools for the conservation and preservation of cultural heritage. This Article is an overview of the most recent contributions of colloid and materials science to the art conservation field, mainly focusing on the use of amphiphile-based fluids, gels, and alkaline earth metal hydroxide nanoparticles dispersions for the cleaning of pictorial surfaces, the consolidation of artistic substrates, and the deacidification of paper, canvas, and wood. Future possible directions for solving several conservation issues that still need to be faced are also highlighted.

  14. Oxygen Transport Membranes: A Material Science and Process Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis describes several fundamental aspects on the membrane-integrated oxy-fuel combustion process and can be divided in two parts: 1) The development and characterization of membrane materials; 2) The design, simulation and evaluation of a coal-fired power plant, coupled with a membrane modul

  15. Detection of Nuclear Weapons and Materials: Science, Technologies, Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    between Z=57 (lanthanum) and Z=72 ( hafnium ), inclusive, are very rare in commerce, making 72 a reasonable boundary between high Z and lower Z elements...materials used in nuclear weapons of other nations (e.g., for alloys ) for purposes of nuclear forensics. (2) Another task is to develop the algorithms

  16. Materials science challenges for high-temperature superconducting wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltyn, S R; Civale, L; Macmanus-Driscoll, J L; Jia, Q X; Maiorov, B; Wang, H; Maley, M

    2007-09-01

    Twenty years ago in a series of amazing discoveries it was found that a large family of ceramic cuprate materials exhibited superconductivity at temperatures above, and in some cases well above, that of liquid nitrogen. Imaginations were energized by the thought of applications for zero-resistance conductors cooled with an inexpensive and readily available cryogen. Early optimism, however, was soon tempered by the hard realities of these new materials: brittle ceramics are not easily formed into long flexible conductors; high current levels require near-perfect crystallinity; and--the downside of high transition temperature--performance drops rapidly in a magnetic field. Despite these formidable obstacles, thousands of kilometres of high-temperature superconducting wire have now been manufactured for demonstrations of transmission cables, motors and other electrical power components. The question is whether the advantages of superconducting wire, such as efficiency and compactness, can outweigh the disadvantage: cost. The remaining task for materials scientists is to return to the fundamentals and squeeze as much performance as possible from these wonderful and difficult materials.

  17. Proton Conducting Fuel Cells where Electrochemistry Meets Material Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices which directly convert the chemical energy of fuels into electrical energy. They are featured of high energy conversion efficiency and minimized pollutant emission. Proton conducting electrolytes are primarily used as separator materials for low and intermed...

  18. CSIR eNews: Materials science and manufacturing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR is in a unique position to add value and impact to the materials and manufacturing industries in Africa and to develop human capital through its critical mass of multi-disciplinary researchers, its equipment and infrastructure and its...

  19. Analyzing Science Textbook Materials to Determine How "Persuasive" They Are.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Marilyn J.

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates the difference between typical textbook fare and textbook material designed to be comprehensive and built upon the reader's understanding, arguing that the hallmark of persuasion and learning must include comprehensibility and understandability. A taxonomy of text types is presented, examining the argument and explanation patterns and…

  20. [Science and Technology and Recycling: Instructional Materials on Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Association, New York, NY.

    Educational materials on the manufacture and use of aluminum are assembled in this multi-media unit for use by junior high and secondary school students. Student booklets and brochures include: "The Story of Aluminum,""Uses of Aluminum,""Independent Study Guide for School Research Projects,""Questions and Answers About Litter, Solid Waste, and…

  1. Chemistry and Materials Science. Progress report, first half, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    Thrust areas of the weapons-supporting research are growth, structure, and reactivity of surfaces and thin films; uranium research; physics and processing of metals; energetic materials; etc. The laboratory-directed R and D include director`s initiatives and individual projects, and transactinium institute studies.

  2. Curriculum Design for Inquiry: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Mobilization and Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Curriculum materials are crucial tools with which teachers engage students in science as inquiry. In order to use curriculum materials effectively, however, teachers must develop a robust capacity for pedagogical design, or the ability to mobilize a variety of personal and curricular resources to promote student learning. The purpose of this study…

  3. Materials science approaches to solve problems with emerging mycotoxins in corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materials science technology is an attractive, cost effective, and robust alternative to address the limitations of highly selective natural receptors. These materials are especially well suited to address issues with emerging toxins for which a better understanding is needed to establish levels of ...

  4. Three-diemensional materials science: An intersection of three-dimensional reconstructions and simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Katsuyo; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2008-01-01

    . Combined with three-dimensional (3D) simulations and analyses that are capable of handling the complexity of these microstructures, 3D reconstruction, or tomography, has become a powerful tool that provides clear insights into materials processing and properties. This introductory article provides...... an overview of this emerging field of materials science, as well as brief descriptions of selected methods and their applicability....

  5. Puesta en marcha del sensor fuerza-par JR3

    OpenAIRE

    Hoz Najarro, Carlos de la

    2011-01-01

    Este estudio se engloba dentro de los proyectos realizados por el grupo de trabajo Robotic Lab de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid para el desarrollo del nuevo Humanoide RH-2. Concretamente, implementaremos sobre software libre (Linux) una aplicación C++ que nos permita obtener de la tarjeta de adquisición de datos de 4 puertos PCI P/N 1593 de JR3 inc., en tiempo real, los valores de fuerza/par del sensor industrial Force Moment Sensor 85M35A3-I40-DH12, de la compañía JR3 inc., que llevará...

  6. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station Hardware and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.; Johnson, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has performed virtually flawlessly, logging more than 620 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. Currently the NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) which accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample-Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400 C. Once an SCA is installed, the experiment can be run by automatic command or science conducted via

  7. JPRS Report - Science & Technology Japan: New Functional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Liquid Crystals Useful as a High-Performance Material [Akihiro Abe ] 7 Fundamental Analysis on the Effect of the Structural Modification on the...Optical Property of Conducting Polymer and Origin of Its Functionality [Katsumi Yoshino, Masanori Ozaki] lk Ab Initio Molecular Orbital Calculations of...Nishida, et al. ] 1+8 - d - Molecular Design of Polycationic Functional Elastomers [ Shinzo Yamashita, Shinzo Kohjiya] , ^9 Synthesis of

  8. Materials science research for sodium cooled fast reactors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baldev Raj

    2009-06-01

    The paper gives an insight into basic as well as applied research being carried out at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research for the development of advanced materials for sodium cooled fast reactors towards extending the life of reactors to nearly 100 years and the burnup of fuel to 2,00,000 MWd/t with an objective of providing fast reactor electricity at an affordable and competitive price.

  9. Collimation and material science studies (ColMat) at GSI.

    CERN Document Server

    Stadlmann, J; Kollmus, H; Krause, M; Mustafin, E; Petzenhauser, I; Spiller, P; Strasik, I; Tahir, N; Tomut, M; Trautmann, C

    2010-01-01

    Within the frame of the EuCARD program, the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt is performing accelerator R&D in workpackage 8: ColMat. The coordinated effort is focussed on materials aspects important for building the FAIR accelerator facility at GSI and the LHC upgrade at CERN. Accelerator components and especially protection devices have to be operated in high dose environments. The radiation hazard occurs either by the primary proton and ion beams or the secondary radiation after initial beam loss. Detailed numerical simulations have been carried out to study the damage caused to solid targets by the full impact of the LHC beam as well as the SPS beam. Tungsten, copper and graphite as possible collimator materials have been studied. Experimental an theoretical studies on radiation damage on materials used for the LHC upgrade and the FAIR accelerators are performed at the present GSI experimental facilities. Technical decisions based on these results will have an impact on the F...

  10. The High Energy Materials Science Beamline (HEMS) at PETRA III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Norbert; King, Andrew; Beckmann, Felix; Ruhnau, Hans-Ulrich; Kirchhof, René; Kiehn, Rüdiger; Müller, Martin; Schreyer, Andreas

    2010-06-01

    The HEMS Beamline at the German high-brilliance synchrotron radiation storage ring PETRA III is fully tunable between 30 and 250 keV and optimized for sub-micrometer focusing. Approximately 70 % of the beamtime will be dedicated to Materials Research. Fundamental research will encompass metallurgy, physics and chemistry with first experiments planned for the investigation of the relationship between macroscopic and micro-structural properties of polycrystalline materials, grain-grain-interactions, and the development of smart materials or processes. For this purpose a 3D-microsctructure-mapper has been designed. Applied research for manufacturing process optimization will benefit from high flux in combination with ultra-fast detector systems allowing complex and highly dynamic in-situ studies of micro-structural transformations, e.g. during welding processes. The beamline infrastructure allows accommodation of large and heavy user provided equipment. Experiments targeting the industrial user community will be based on well established techniques with standardized evaluation, allowing full service measurements, e.g. for tomography and texture determination. The beamline consists of a five meter in-vacuum undulator, a general optics hutch, an in-house test facility and three independent experimental hutches working alternately, plus additional set-up and storage space for long-term experiments. HEMS is under commissioning as one of the first beamlines running at PETRA III.

  11. Structural properties of porous materials and powders used in different fields of science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Volfkovich, Yury Mironovich; Bagotsky, Vladimir Sergeevich

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and concise description of most important aspects of experimental and theoretical investigations of porous materials and powders, with the use and application of these materials in different fields of science, technology, national economy and environment. It allows the reader to understand the basic regularities of heat and mass transfer and adsorption occurring in qualitatively different porous materials and products, and allows the reader to optimize the functional properties of porous and powdered products and materials. Written in an straightforward and transparent manner, this book is accessible to both experts and those without specialist knowledge, and it is further elucidated by drawings, schemes and photographs. Porous materials and powders with different pore sizes are used in many areas of industry, geology, agriculture and science. These areas include (i) a variety of devices and supplies; (ii) thermal insulation and building materials; (iii) oil-bearing geologic...

  12. Ethnic Diversity in Materials Science and Engineering. A report on the workshop on ethnic diversity in materials science and engineering.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Justin

    2014-06-30

    The immediate goal of the workshop was to elevate and identify issues and challenges that have impeded participation of diverse individuals in MSE. The longerterm goals are to continue forward by gathering and disseminating data, launching and tracking initiatives to mitigate the impediments, and increase the number of diverse individuals pursuing degrees and careers in MSE. The larger goal, however, is to create over time an ever-increasing number of role models in science fields who will, in turn, draw others in to contribute to the workforce of the future.

  13. Introduction to materials science: Preparation and characterization techniques. Introduccion a la ciencia de los materiales: tecnicas de preparacion y caracterizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albella, J.M.; Cintas, A.M.; Miranda, T.

    1993-01-01

    The materials science in this book is analyzed. Through 18 chapters the materials type, their structure, chemical reactions, mechanical properties are studied. Also optical properties of materials, magnetic properties, thin films, electronic microscopy and electric optic spectroscopy are analyzed.

  14. Metals and Ceramics Division Materials Science Program. Annual progress report for period ending June 30, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHargue, C.J. (comp.)

    1984-11-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Materials Sciences Program in the Metals and Ceramics Division for the period January 1, 1983, to June 30, 1984. These activities constitute about one-fourth of the research and development conducted by the division. The emphasis of the program can be described as the scientific design of materials. The efforts are directed toward three classes of materials: high-temperature metallic alloys based on intermetallic compounds, structural ceramics, and radiation-resistant alloys.

  15. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 2

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 2 covers topics about complex oxide materials such as the garnets, which dominate the field of magnetoelasticity and are among the most important laser hosts, and sodalite, which is one of the classic photochromic materials. The book discusses the physics of the interactions of electromagnetic, elastic, and spin waves in single crystal magnetic insulators. The text then describes the mechanism on which inorganic photochromic materials are based, as observed in a variety of materials in single crystal, powder, and gl

  16. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, USSR: Materials Science, Mechanics and Technology of Metal and Metal Ceramic Composite Material Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-27

    produced, their phase composition and bending strength, as well as investigation of the promise of adding niobium carbide NbC to these materials. The...time increases, NbC does not inhibit shrink- niobium carbide was the same — 3 %. This content of age, which is a technological advantage. NbC is

  17. Chemistry and material science at the cell surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weian Zhao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell surfaces are fertile ground for chemists and material scientists to manipulate or augment cell functions and phenotypes. This not only helps to answer basic biology questions but also has diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances in the engineering of the cell surface. In particular, we focus on the potential applications of surface engineered cells for 1 targeting cells to desirable sites in cell therapy, 2 programming assembly of cells for tissue engineering, 3 bioimaging and sensing, and ultimately 4 manipulating cell biology.

  18. Graphene: A Rising Star on the Horizon of Materials Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ujjal Kumar Sur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene, a one-atom thick planar sheet of sp2 bonded carbon atoms packed in a honeycomb lattice, is considered to be the mother of all graphitic materials like fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, and graphite. Graphene has created tremendous interest to both physicists and chemists due to its various fascinating properties, both observed and predicted with possible potential applications in nanoelectronics, supercapacitors, solar cells, batteries, flexible displays, hydrogen storage, and sensors. In this paper, a brief overview on various aspects of graphene such as synthesis, functionalization, self-assembly, and some of its amazing properties along with its various applications ranging from sensors to energy storage devices had been illustrated.

  19. Obituary: Raymond Edwin White Jr., 1933-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebert, James William

    2004-12-01

    traditions. Earlier in 1971-72, Ray served as Program Officer for Stars and Stellar Evolution in the Astronomy Section of the National Science Foundation. Ray was one of the three "originators" of "The Inspiration of Astronomical Phenomena" (INSAP) Conferences. These conferences provide scholarly discussions on the many and variegated cultural impacts of the perceptions about the day- and night-time sky, thus providing a forum for a broad sampling of artists, historians, philosophers, and scientists to get together, compare notes, and ask questions of one another. The INSAP Conferences have taken place near Castel Gandolfo Italy, on the island of Malta, near Palermo Italy, and at Oxford University in England. Ray's scholarship also was manifest in his activities as editor. For some years in the 1990s, he edited two astronomy journals, The Astronomy Quarterly and Vistas in Astronomy. Raymond E. White, Jr., is survived by his wife Ruby E. (nee Fisk), his high school sweetheart at Heidelberg High in Germany. Their children include Raymond E. White III (Professor of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa), Kathleen M. (White) Wade, and Kevin D. White. Ray was proud of two beautiful granddaughters, Charlotte R. Wade and Sarah E. Wade. Ray was proud of his early role with Steward Observatory Director Bart Bok in the commissioning of the "90-inch" reflector at the University of Arizona site on Kitt Peak in 1969. He built the direct camera, and was invited by his close friend Bok to share the "first light" of this telescope, now renamed the Bok 2.3-m telescope. When Professor Bok passed away, the astronomy magazine Sky & Telescope invited Ray to write an article which was entitled "Bart J. Bok (1906-83): Personal Memoir from a Grandson." (Bok mentored Ivan R. King, who was Ray's thesis advisor.) In his concluding remarks, Ray wrote, "The aspect of Bart J. Bok I will miss the most is his exuberance for the art of astronomy." We will also miss greatly this

  20. Physical Oceanography: Project Earth Science. Material for Middle School Teachers in Earth Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Brent A.; Smith, P. Sean

    This book is one in a series of Earth science books and contains a collection of 18 hands-on activities/demonstrations developed for the middle/junior high school level. The activities are organized around three key concepts. First, students investigate the unique properties of water and how these properties shape the ocean and the global…

  1. OCRWM SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM MATERIALS PERFORMANCE TARGETED THRUST FACT SHEET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE

    2005-10-06

    In severe corrosive or abrasive environments, steel is rarely used since the range of properties available, in existing steels, are insufficient, resulting in the prevalent usage of either corrosion resistant materials like nickel based superalloys or abrasion resistant materials like tungsten carbide based hardmetals. Recently, a host of carbide based alloys including WC-Co-Cr, NiCr-Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}, WC-Cr{sub 3}C{sub 2}-Ni etc. have been developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between providing both wear and corrosion protection. In this presentation, data will be presented showing how a newly developed steel coating, SAM2X5, with an amorphous/nanocomposite structure can bridge the gap between conventional metallic alloys and ceramic hardmetal performance with excellent combinations of properties including corrosion resistance superior to nickel superalloys in a number of environments and wear resistance approaching that of tungsten carbide cobalt. The unique combination of damage tolerance developed should be especially applicable for the replacement of electrolytic hard chromium.

  2. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  3. Writing, Teaching, and Researching: An Interview with Rene Saldana, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldana, Rene, Jr.; Moore, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Rene Saldana, Jr., an assistant professor at Texas Tech University, is a writer of short stories, poetry, and novels. In order to get his storytelling right, he has relied on his memory when writing memoirs and consulted popular culture and family when writing fiction. In order to get his university teaching right, he reads seminal texts on…

  4. Martin Luther King, Jr.: The Dream of Peaceful Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Della

    This biography for younger readers depicts the life of Martin Luther King, Jr., the Nobel Peace Prize winner who dedicated himself to the struggle for equal rights for African Americans while embracing the principle of nonviolent resistance. The book presents an overview of the civil rights movement and chronicles King's role as national leader…

  5. Celebrate the legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazenby, Jenna

    2006-01-01

    In celebration of the life and legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Virginia Tech will host a variety of educational and cultural programs and community service events Jan. 14-19, 2007. All events are free and open to the public.

  6. A Conservation with...Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Lynne V.

    1991-01-01

    Presents an interview between National Endowment for the Humanities chairman, Lynne V. Cheney, and Harvard professor, Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Includes discussion of multiculturalism as it relates to free speech, sexism, racism, hate speech, and ethnocentrism. Emphasizes both the open tradition of Western culture and the recent pressure for…

  7. Celebrate the legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.

    OpenAIRE

    Lazenby, Jenna

    2006-01-01

    In celebration of the life and legacy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Virginia Tech will host a variety of educational and cultural programs and community service events Jan. 14-19, 2007. All events are free and open to the public.

  8. Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brent

    1995-01-01

    Presents a five-lesson, high school instructional unit on the ideas and activities of Henry David Thoreau and Martin Luther King, Jr. Includes student objectives, step-by-step instructional procedures, and discussion questions. Provides quotations by Thoreau and King. (CFR)

  9. Martin Luther King Jr.: The Crozer Seminary Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Clayborne

    1997-01-01

    As an undergraduate at Morehouse College, Martin Luther King Jr. was not a strong student, although he excelled in oratory, but in his years at Crozer Theological Seminary in Pennsylvania he applied himself to become a straight-A student. The development of his theological perspective is described. (SLD)

  10. A Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Curriculum: Playing the Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Sydney Gurewitz

    1988-01-01

    Discusses curriculum for young children centered around the beliefs and teachings of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. His works are interpreted in a human rights context in which children find their voice in the peaceable resolution of everyday conflicts. Describes the Child of the Day program. (Author/RWB)

  11. Finding the Right Formula: Edwin H. Walker Jr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keels, Crystal L.

    2005-01-01

    Edwin H. Walker Jr earned his doctorate in chemistry at age 27 and has barely looked back. With 13 publications under his belt before coming out of graduate school, he has also given more than 20 poster presentations in national venues, most recently at the American Chemical Society. He can also include securing a half-million-dollar National…

  12. Fundamentals of radiation materials science metals and alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Was, Gary S

    2017-01-01

    The revised second edition of this established text offers readers a significantly expanded introduction to the effects of radiation on metals and alloys. It describes the various processes that occur when energetic particles strike a solid, inducing changes to the physical and mechanical properties of the material. Specifically it covers particle interaction with the metals and alloys used in nuclear reactor cores and hence subject to intense radiation fields. It describes the basics of particle-atom interaction for a range of particle types, the amount and spatial extent of the resulting radiation damage, the physical effects of irradiation and the changes in mechanical behavior of irradiated metals and alloys. Updated throughout, some major enhancements for the new edition include improved treatment of low- and intermediate-energy elastic collisions and stopping power, expanded sections on molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo methodologies describing collision cascade evolution, new treatment of t...

  13. Advanced Bioinks for 3D Printing: A Materials Science Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimene, David; Lennox, Kimberly K; Kaunas, Roland R; Gaharwar, Akhilesh K

    2016-06-01

    Advanced bioinks for 3D printing are rationally designed materials intended to improve the functionality of printed scaffolds outside the traditional paradigm of the "biofabrication window". While the biofabrication window paradigm necessitates compromise between suitability for fabrication and ability to accommodate encapsulated cells, recent developments in advanced bioinks have resulted in improved designs for a range of biofabrication platforms without this tradeoff. This has resulted in a new generation of bioinks with high print fidelity, shear-thinning characteristics, and crosslinked scaffolds with high mechanical strength, high cytocompatibility, and the ability to modulate cellular functions. In this review, we describe some of the promising strategies being pursued to achieve these goals, including multimaterial, interpenetrating network, nanocomposite, and supramolecular bioinks. We also provide an overview of current and emerging trends in advanced bioink synthesis and biofabrication, and evaluate the potential applications of these novel biomaterials to clinical use.

  14. The Science of Electrode Materials for Lithium Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fultz, Brent

    2007-03-15

    Rechargeable lithium batteries continue to play the central role in power systems for portable electronics, and could play a role of increasing importance for hybrid transportation systems that use either hydrogen or fossil fuels. For example, fuel cells provide a steady supply of power, whereas batteries are superior when bursts of power are needed. The National Research Council recently concluded that for dismounted soldiers "Among all possible energy sources, hybrid systems provide the most versatile solutions for meeting the diverse needs of the Future Force Warrior. The key advantage of hybrid systems is their ability to provide power over varying levels of energy use, by combining two power sources." The relative capacities of batteries versus fuel cells in a hybrid power system will depend on the capabilities of both. In the longer term, improvements in the cost and safety of lithium batteries should lead to a substantial role for electrochemical energy storage subsystems as components in fuel cell or hybrid vehicles. We have completed a basic research program for DOE BES on anode and cathode materials for lithium batteries, extending over 6 years with a 1 year phaseout period. The emphasis was on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the lithiation reaction, and how these pertain to basic electrochemical properties that we measure experimentally — voltage and capacity in particular. In the course of this work we also studied the kinetic processes of capacity fade after cycling, with unusual results for nanostructued Si and Ge materials, and the dynamics underlying electronic and ionic transport in LiFePO4. This document is the final report for this work.

  15. [Authentication of Trace Material Evidence in Forensic Science Field with Infrared Microscopic Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-quan; Hu, Ke-liang

    2016-03-01

    In the field of forensic science, conventional infrared spectral analysis technique is usually unable to meet the detection requirements, because only very a few trace material evidence with diverse shapes and complex compositions, can be extracted from the crime scene. Infrared microscopic technique is developed based on a combination of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopic technique and microscopic technique. Infrared microscopic technique has a lot of advantages over conventional infrared spectroscopic technique, such as high detection sensitivity, micro-area analysisand nondestructive examination. It has effectively solved the problem of authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science. Additionally, almost no external interference is introduced during measurements by infrared microscopic technique. It can satisfy the special need that the trace material evidence must be reserved for witness in court. It is illustrated in detail through real case analysis in this experimental center that, infrared microscopic technique has advantages in authentication of trace material evidence in forensic science field. In this paper, the vibration features in infrared spectra of material evidences, including paints, plastics, rubbers, fibers, drugs and toxicants, can be comparatively analyzed by means of infrared microscopic technique, in an attempt to provide powerful spectroscopic evidence for qualitative diagnosis of various criminal and traffic accident cases. The experimental results clearly suggest that infrared microscopic technique has an incomparable advantage and it has become an effective method for authentication of trace material evidence in the field of forensic science.

  16. Opportunities for Teacher Learning During Enactment of Inquiry Science Curriculum Materials: Exploring the Potential for Teacher Educative Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2013-03-01

    The development of curriculum materials that are also educative for teachers has been proposed as a strategy to support teachers learning to teach inquiry science. In this study, one seventh-grade teacher used five inquiry science units with varying support for teachers over a two-year period. Teacher journals, interviews, and classroom videotape were collected. Analysis focused on engagement in planning and teaching, pedagogical content knowledge, and the match to teacher learning needs. Findings indicate that this teacher's ideas developed as she interacted with materials and her students. Information about student ideas, task- and idea-specific support, and model teacher language was most helpful. Supports for understanding goals, assessment, and the teacher's role, particularly during discussions and group work, were most needed.

  17. Ultra Fast Tomography: New Developments for 4D Studies in Material Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhuissier, Pierre; Scheel, Mario; Di Michiel, Marco; Boller, Elodie; Adrien, Jerome; Maire, Eric; Salvo, Luc; Blandin, Jean-Jacques; Suery, Michel

    X-ray tomography has become a widely used 3D characterization technique in materials science using either laboratory tomographs or large X-ray facilities. The two main improvements in the last decade are the decrease of the spatial resolution down to tens of nanometers and also the decrease in acquisition time of a complete scan down to 1 second with 2 µm spatial resolution. The aim of this presentation is to focus on the second point. We will present the technical problems arising due to ultra fast acquisition (development of specific sample environment) and its application in material science. We will show, that thanks to ultra fast tomography, it is now possible to investigate material science problems in 4D (crack propagation in metals and high temperature deformation).

  18. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U

    2011-01-01

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from ~65 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently ~15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of ~80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions i...

  19. Materials Science Experiments Under Microgravity - A Review of History, Facilities, and Future Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Materials science experiments have been a key issue already since the early days of research under microgravity conditions. A microgravity environment facilitates processing of metallic and semiconductor melts without buoyancy driven convection and sedimentation. Hence, crystal growth of semiconductors, solidification of metallic alloys, and the measurement of thermo-physical parameters are the major applications in the field of materials science making use of these dedicated conditions in space. In the last three decades a large number of successful experiments have been performed, mainly in international collaborations. In parallel, the development of high-performance research facilities and the technological upgrade of diagnostic and stimuli elements have also contributed to providing optimum conditions to perform such experiments. A review of the history of materials science experiments in space focussing on the development of research facilities is given. Furthermore, current opportunities to perform such experiments onboard ISS are described and potential future options are outlined.

  20. The material realization of science from Habermas to experimentation and referential realism

    CERN Document Server

    Radder, Hans

    2012-01-01

    This book develops a conception of science as a multi-dimensional practice, which includes experimental action and production, conceptual-theoretical interpretation, and formal-mathematical work. On this basis, it addresses the topical issue of scientific realism and expounds a detailed, referentially realist account of the natural sciences. This account is shown to be compatible with the frequent occurrence of conceptual discontinuities in the historical development of the sciences. Referential realism exploits several fruitful ideas of Jürgen Habermas, especially his distinction between objectivity and truth; it builds on a in-depth analysis of scientific experiments, including their material realization; and it is developed through an extensive case study in the history and philosophy of quantum mechanics. The new postscript explains how the book relates to several important issues in recent philosophy of science and science studies.

  1. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferred and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing

  2. Interfacing materials science and biology for drug carrier design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Georgina K; Yan, Yan; Johnston, Angus P R; Gunawan, Sylvia T; Caruso, Frank

    2015-04-08

    Over the last ten years, there has been considerable research interest in the development of polymeric carriers for biomedicine. Such delivery systems have the potential to significantly reduce side effects and increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble therapeutics. The design of carriers has relied on harnessing specific variations in biological conditions, such as pH or redox potential, and more recently, by incorporating specific peptide cleavage sites for enzymatic hydrolysis. Although much progress has been made in this field, the specificity of polymeric carriers is still limited when compared with their biological counterparts. To synthesize the next generation of carriers, it is important to consider the biological rationale for materials design. This requires a detailed understanding of the cellular microenvironments and how these can be harnessed for specific applications. In this review, several important physiological cues in the cellular microenvironments are outlined, with a focus on changes in pH, redox potential, and the types of enzymes present in specific regions. Furthermore, recent studies that use such biologically inspired triggers to design polymeric carriers are highlighted, focusing on applications in the field of therapeutic delivery.

  3. Education and training for implementation science: our interest in manuscripts describing education and training materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Sharon E; Sales, Anne; Wensing, Michel; Michie, Susan; Kent, Bridie; Foy, Robbie

    2015-09-28

    Alongside the growth in interest in implementation science, there has been a marked increase in training programs, educational courses, degrees, and other offerings in implementation research and practice to meet the demand for this expertise. We believe that the science of capacity building has matured but that we can advance it further by shining light on excellent work in this area and by highlighting gaps for future research. At Implementation Science, we regularly receive manuscripts that describe or evaluate training materials, competencies, and competency development in implementation curricula. We are announcing a renewed interest in manuscripts in this area, with specifications described below.

  4. Teachers' use of educative curriculum materials to engage students in science practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Anna Maria; Davis, Elizabeth A.; Marino, John-Carlos; Kademian, Sylvie M.; Sullivan Palincsar, Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    New reform documents underscore the importance of integrating science practices into the learning of science. This integration requires sophisticated teaching that does not often happen. Educative curriculum materials - materials explicitly designed to support teacher and student learning - have been posited as a way to support teachers to achieve these ambitious goals, yet little is known about how elementary teachers actually use educative curriculum materials to support student engagement in science practices. To address this gap, this study investigated how five upper elementary teachers supported students to engage in science practices during an enactment of two curriculum units. Three of the teachers had units enhanced with educative features, informed by current research and reforms, while two of the teachers had units without these features. The teachers varied in how they supported students in the science practices of justifying predictions, constructing evidence-based claims, recording observations, and planning investigations. For example, some of the teachers with the educative features supported students in constructing evidence-based claims and justifying predictions in ways called for by the educative features. Implications for curriculum developers and teacher educators are discussed based on the patterns found in the teachers' use of the educative curriculum materials.

  5. Fostering Student Sense Making in Elementary Science Learning Environments: Elementary Teachers' Use of Science Curriculum Materials to Promote Explanation Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangori, Laura; Forbes, Cory T.; Biggers, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    While research has shown that elementary (K-5) students are capable of engaging in the scientific practice of explanation construction, commonly-used elementary science curriculum materials may not always afford them opportunities to do so. As a result, elementary teachers must often adapt their science curriculum materials to better support…

  6. Design Features and Capabilities of the First Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, P. J.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Cobb, S. D.; Holloway, T.; Kitchens, L.

    2003-01-01

    The First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will offer many unique capabilities and design features to facilitate a wide range of materials science investigations. The initial configuration of MSRR-1 will accommodate two independent Experiment Modules (EMS) and provide the capability for simultaneous on-orbit processing. The facility will provide the common subsystems and interfaces required for the operation of experiment hardware and accommodate telescience capabilities. MSRR1 will utilize an International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) equipped with an Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for vibration isolation of the facility.

  7. Design Features and Capabilities of the First Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, P. J.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Cobb, S. D.; Holloway, T.; Kitchens, L.

    2003-01-01

    The First Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will offer many unique capabilities and design features to facilitate a wide range of materials science investigations. The initial configuration of MSRR-1 will accommodate two independent Experiment Modules (EMS) and provide the capability for simultaneous on-orbit processing. The facility will provide the common subsystems and interfaces required for the operation of experiment hardware and accommodate telescience capabilities. MSRR1 will utilize an International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) equipped with an Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) for vibration isolation of the facility.

  8. Materials science in microelectronics I the relationships between thin film processing and structure

    CERN Document Server

    Machlin, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    Thin films play a key role in the material science of microelectronics, and the subject matter of thin-films divides naturally into two headings: processing / structure relationship, and structure / properties relationship.The first volume of Materials Science in Microelectronics focuses on the first relationship - that between processing and the structure of the thin-film. The state of the thin film's surface during the period that one monolayer exists - before being buried in the next layer - determines the ultimate structure of the thin film, and thus its properties. This

  9. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 3

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 3 covers reviews that are directly related to the two devices which are the epitome of applied solid state science - the transistor and the laser. The book discusses the physics of multilayer-gate IGFET memories; the application of the transient charge technique in drift velocity; and trapping in semiconductors and in materials used in xerography, nuclear particle detectors, and space-charge-limited devices; as well as thin film transistors. The text describes the manipulation of laser beams in solids and discusses

  10. The use of laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, D B; Heuer, A H

    2010-12-01

    Laser scanning confocal microscopes are essential and ubiquitous tools in the biological, biochemical and biomedical sciences, and play a similar role to scanning electron microscopes in materials science. However, modern laser scanning confocal microscopes have a number of advantages for the study of materials, in addition to their obvious uses for high resolution reflected and transmitted light optical microscopy. In this paper, we provide several examples that exploit the laser scanning confocal microscope's capabilities of pseudo-infinite depth of field imaging, topographic imaging, photo-stimulated luminescence imaging and Raman spectroscopic imaging. © 2010 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering: An Integrated Approach, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, William D., Jr.

    2004-04-01

    This Second Edition of Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering continues to take an integrated approach to the topic organization. One specific structure, characteristic, or property type at a time is discussed for all three basic material types--metals, ceramics, and polymeric materials. This order of presentation allows for early introduction of non-metals and supports the engineer's role of choosing a material based on its characteristics. New copies of this text include a CD at no additional charge. The CD is an integral part of the text package and features animated software modules and the last five text chapters in .pdf format.

  12. Neutrons and synchrotron radiation in engineering materials science from fundamentals to material and component characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Reimers, W; Schreyer, A; Clemens, H; Kaysser-Pyzalla, Anke Rita

    2008-01-01

    Besides its coverage of the four important aspects of synchrotron sources, materials and material processes, measuring techniques, and applications, this ready reference presents both important method types: diffraction and tomography. Following an introduction, a general section leads on to methods, while further sections are devoted to emerging methods and industrial applications. In this way, the text provides new users of large-scale facilities with easy access to an understanding of both the methods and opportunities offered by different sources and instruments.

  13. Electronic materials high-T(sub c) superconductivity polymers and composites structural materials surface science and catalysts industry participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The fifth year of the Center for Advanced Materials was marked primarily by the significant scientific accomplishments of the research programs. The Electronics Materials program continued its work on the growth and characterization of gallium arsenide crystals, and the development of theories to understand the nature and distribution of defects in the crystals. The High Tc Superconductivity Program continued to make significant contributions to the field in theoretical and experimental work on both bulk materials and thin films and devices. The Ceramic Processing group developed a new technique for cladding YBCO superconductors for high current applications in work with the Electric Power Research Institute. The Polymers and Composites program published a number of important studies involving atomistic simulations of polymer surfaces with excellent correlations to experimental results. The new Enzymatic Synthesis of Materials project produced its first fluorinated polymers and successfully began engineering enzymes designed for materials synthesis. The structural Materials Program continued work on novel alloys, development of processing methods for advanced ceramics, and characterization of mechanical properties of these materials, including the newly documented characterization of cyclic fatigue crack propagation behavior in toughened ceramics. Finally, the Surface Science and Catalysis program made significant contributions to the understanding of microporous catalysts and the nature of surface structures and interface compounds.

  14. Electronic materials high-T(sub c) superconductivity polymers and composites structural materials surface science and catalysts industry participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The fifth year of the Center for Advanced Materials was marked primarily by the significant scientific accomplishments of the research programs. The Electronics Materials program continued its work on the growth and characterization of gallium arsenide crystals, and the development of theories to understand the nature and distribution of defects in the crystals. The High Tc Superconductivity Program continued to make significant contributions to the field in theoretical and experimental work on both bulk materials and thin films and devices. The Ceramic Processing group developed a new technique for cladding YBCO superconductors for high current applications in work with the Electric Power Research Institute. The Polymers and Composites program published a number of important studies involving atomistic simulations of polymer surfaces with excellent correlations to experimental results. The new Enzymatic Synthesis of Materials project produced its first fluorinated polymers and successfully began engineering enzymes designed for materials synthesis. The structural Materials Program continued work on novel alloys, development of processing methods for advanced ceramics, and characterization of mechanical properties of these materials, including the newly documented characterization of cyclic fatigue crack propagation behavior in toughened ceramics. Finally, the Surface Science and Catalysis program made significant contributions to the understanding of microporous catalysts and the nature of surface structures and interface compounds.

  15. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-06-21

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of "hybrid organic-inorganic" nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called "chimie douce" which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  16. Hybrid materials science: a promised land for the integrative design of multifunctional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole, Lionel; Laberty-Robert, Christel; Rozes, Laurence; Sanchez, Clément

    2014-05-01

    For more than 5000 years, organic-inorganic composite materials created by men via skill and serendipity have been part of human culture and customs. The concept of ``hybrid organic-inorganic'' nanocomposites exploded in the second half of the 20th century with the expansion of the so-called ``chimie douce'' which led to many collaborations between a large set of chemists, physicists and biologists. Consequently, the scientific melting pot of these very different scientific communities created a new pluridisciplinary school of thought. Today, the tremendous effort of basic research performed in the last twenty years allows tailor-made multifunctional hybrid materials with perfect control over composition, structure and shape. Some of these hybrid materials have already entered the industrial market. Many tailor-made multiscale hybrids are increasingly impacting numerous fields of applications: optics, catalysis, energy, environment, nanomedicine, etc. In the present feature article, we emphasize several fundamental and applied aspects of the hybrid materials field: bioreplication, mesostructured thin films, Lego-like chemistry designed hybrid nanocomposites, and advanced hybrid materials for energy. Finally, a few commercial applications of hybrid materials will be presented.

  17. Material science and Condensed matter Physics. 8th International Conference. Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyuk, L. L.; Paladi, Florentin; Canter, Valeriu; Nikorich, Valentina; Filippova, Irina

    2016-08-01

    The book includes the abstracts of the communications presented at the 8th International Conference on Materials Science and Condensed Matter Physics (MSCMP 2016), a traditional biennial meeting organized by the Institute of Applied Physics of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova (IAP).A total of 346 abstracts has been included in the book. The Conference programm included plenary lectures, topical keynote lectures, contributed oral and poster presentations distributed into 7 sections: * Condensed Matter Theory; * Advanced Bulk Materials; * Design and Structural Characterization of Materials; * Solid State Nanophysics and Nanotechnology; * Energy Conversion and Storage. Solid State Devices; * Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry; * Digital and Optical holography: Materials and Methods. The abstracts are arranged according to the sections mentioned above. The Abstracts book includes a table of matters at the beginning of the book and an index of authors at the finish of the book.

  18. FWP executive summaries. Basic Energy Sciences/Materials Sciences Programs (SNL/NM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samara, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This report is divided into: budget, capital equipment requests, general programmatic overview and institutional issues, DOE center of excellence for synthesis and processing of advanced materials, industrial interactions and technology transfer, and research program summaries (new proposals, existing programs). Ceramics, semiconductors, superconductors, interfaces, CVD, tailored surfaces, adhesion, growth and epitaxy, boron-rich solids, nanoclusters, etc. are covered.

  19. Martin Luther King Jr. contest winning posters to be displayed in downtown Blacksburg

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon, Kelly Baker

    2010-01-01

    Each year as part of the Martin Luther King Jr. celebration at Virginia Tech area kindergarten through 12th grade students are invited to participate in the annual Martin Luther King Jr. poster contest.

  20. Materials Science Research Hardware for Application on the International Space Station: an Overview of Typical Hardware Requirements and Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, D. A.; Cobb, S.; Fiske, M. R.; Srinivas, R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the lead center for Materials Science Microgravity Research. The Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a key development effort underway at MSFC. The MSRF will be the primary facility for microgravity materials science research on board the International Space Station (ISS) and will implement the NASA Materials Science Microgravity Research Program. It will operate in the U.S. Laboratory Module and support U. S. Microgravity Materials Science Investigations. This facility is being designed to maintain the momentum of the U.S. role in microgravity materials science and support NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise goals and objectives for Materials Science. The MSRF as currently envisioned will consist of three Materials Science Research Racks (MSRR), which will be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in phases, Each rack is being designed to accommodate various Experiment Modules, which comprise processing facilities for peer selected Materials Science experiments. Phased deployment will enable early opportunities for the U.S. and International Partners, and support the timely incorporation of technology updates to the Experiment Modules and sensor devices.

  1. Giant and universal magnetoelectric coupling in soft materials and concomitant ramifications for materials science and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling-the ability of a material to magnetize upon application of an electric field and, conversely, to polarize under the action of a magnetic field-is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Intense research activity has recently ensued on materials development, fundamental scientific issues, and applications related to this phenomenon. This tantalizing property, if present in adequate strength at room temperature, can be used to pave the way for next-generation memory devices such as miniature magnetic random access memories and multiple state memory bits, sensors, energy harvesting, spintronics, among others. In this Rapid Communication, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain mediated nonlinear mechanism that can be used to universally induce the giant magnetoelectric effect in all (sufficiently) soft dielectric materials. For soft polymer foams-which, for instance, may be used in stretchable electronics-we predict room-temperature magnetoelectric coefficients that are comparable to the best known (hard) composite materials created. We also argue, based on a simple quantitative model, that magnetoreception in some biological contexts (e.g., birds) most likely utilizes this very mechanism.

  2. New developments in the application of synchrotron radiation to material science.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, S. K.

    1999-04-21

    Recent developments in the application of synchrotrons radiation to materials science are discussed, using techniques which exploit the high brilliance of the newer synchrotrons sources, such as microbeam techniques and correlation spectroscopy. These include studies of environmental systems, residual stress, slow dynamics of condensed matter systems and studies of liquid surfaces and thin magnetic films.

  3. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  4. Exploring Preservice Elementary Teachers' Critique and Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials in Respect to Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here represents a preliminary effort undertaken to address the role of teachers in supporting students' learning and decision-making about socioscientific issues (SSI) by characterizing preservice elementary teachers' critique and adaptation of SSI-based science curriculum materials and identifying factors that serve to mediate…

  5. Identifying and Addressing Student Difficulties and Misconceptions: Examples from Physics and from Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Here I present my work identifying and addressing student difficulties with several materials science and physics topics. In the first part of this thesis, I present my work identifying student difficulties and misconceptions about the directional relationships between net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension. This is accomplished…

  6. The Influence of Materials Science and Engineering Undergraduate Research Experiences on Public Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing, Marsha; Fung, Wenson W.; Kisailus, David

    2013-01-01

    Communicating research findings with others is a skill essential to the success of future STEM professionals. However, little is known about how this skill can be nurtured through participating in undergraduate research. The purpose of this study is to quantify undergraduate participation in research in a materials science and engineering…

  7. A Place for Materials Science: Laboratory Buildings and Interdisciplinary Research at the University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsub; Shields, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LRSM), University of Pennsylvania, was built in 1965 as part of the Advanced Research Projects Agency's (ARPA) Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDL) program intended to foster interdisciplinary research and training in materials science. The process that led to the construction of the…

  8. College-Mentored Polymer/Materials Science Modules for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Robert G.; Lewis, Maurica S.; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2011-01-01

    Polymers are materials with vast environmental and economic ramifications, yet are generally not discussed in secondary education science curricula. We describe a program in which college mentors develop and implement hands-on, polymer-related experiments to supplement a standard, state regents-prescribed high school chemistry course, as well as a…

  9. Identifying Characteristics of Science Teaching/Learning Materials Promoting Students' Intrinsic Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotkas, Tormi; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on concerns related to a lack of students' perception of relevance in school science seen as differing from educators' perception of relevance. In order to determine how relevance is portrayed in teaching and learning materials (TLMs), the titles and introductory texts (scenarios) from 77 TLMs, aiming to induce students'…

  10. Developing Teaching Materials PISA-Based for Mathematics and Science of Junior High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somakim; Suharman, Andi; Madang, Kodri; Taufiq

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop valid and practical teaching materials for mathematics and science lesson PISA-based for junior high school students and to determine potential effects on students in scientific activity. Subjects of this study were students of Junior High School 9 Palembang (SMP Negeri 9 Palembang). The method used in this study is…

  11. Using Organic Light-Emitting Electrochemical Thin-Film Devices to Teach Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevian, Hannah; Muller, Sean; Rudmann, Hartmut; Rubner, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    Materials science can be taught by applying organic light-emitting electrochemical thin-film devices and in this method students were allowed to make a light-emitting device by spin coating a thin film containing ruthenium (II) complex ions onto a glass slide. Through this laboratory method students are provided with the opportunity to learn about…

  12. AREAL low energy electron beam applications in life and materials sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Aroutiounian, R.M. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Amatuni, G.A. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Aloyan, L.R.; Aslanyan, L.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Avagyan, V.Sh. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Babayan, N.S. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Institute of Molecular Biology NAS, 0014 Yerevan (Armenia); Buniatyan, V.V. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Dalyan, Y.B.; Davtyan, H.D. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Derdzyan, M.V. [Institute for Physical Research NAS, 0203 Ashtarak (Armenia); Grigoryan, B.A. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Grigoryan, N.E. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (YerPhi), 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Hakobyan, L.S. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Haroutyunian, S.G. [Yerevan State University, 0025 Yerevan (Armenia); Harutiunyan, V.V. [A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (YerPhi), 0036 Yerevan (Armenia); Hovhannesyan, K.L. [Institute for Physical Research NAS, 0203 Ashtarak (Armenia); Khachatryan, V.G. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Martirosyan, N.W. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); Melikyan, G.S. [State Engineering University of Armenia, 0009 Yerevan (Armenia); and others

    2016-09-01

    The AREAL laser-driven RF gun provides 2–5 MeV energy ultrashort electron pulses for experimental study in life and materials sciences. We report the first experimental results of the AREAL beam application in the study of molecular-genetic effects, silicon-dielectric structures, ferroelectric nanofilms, and single crystals for scintillators.

  13. 3D-Printing Crystallographic Unit Cells for Learning Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbough, Philip P.; Vanti, William B.; Chan, Siu-Wai

    2015-01-01

    Introductory materials science and engineering courses universally include the study of crystal structure and unit cells, which are by their nature highly visual 3D concepts. Traditionally, such topics are explored with 2D drawings or perhaps a limited set of difficult-to-construct 3D models. The rise of 3D printing, coupled with the wealth of…

  14. College-Mentored Polymer/Materials Science Modules for Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Robert G.; Lewis, Maurica S.; Montclare, Jin Kim

    2011-01-01

    Polymers are materials with vast environmental and economic ramifications, yet are generally not discussed in secondary education science curricula. We describe a program in which college mentors develop and implement hands-on, polymer-related experiments to supplement a standard, state regents-prescribed high school chemistry course, as well as a…

  15. Computational techniques in tribology and material science at the atomic level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, J.; Bozzolo, G. H.

    1992-01-01

    Computations in tribology and material science at the atomic level present considerable difficulties. Computational techniques ranging from first-principles to semi-empirical and their limitations are discussed. Example calculations of metallic surface energies using semi-empirical techniques are presented. Finally, application of the methods to calculation of adhesion and friction are presented.

  16. Materials Sciences programs, fiscal year 1978: Office of Basic Energy Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    A compilation and index are provided of the the DOE Materials Sciences Division programs. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs. The report is divided into Sections A and B, listing all the projects, Section C, a summary of funding levels, and Section D, an index.

  17. Population and Family Education. Draft Sample Instructional Materials. Science/Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The sample first-draft materials, produced by participants at a UNESCO regional workshop on population and family life, are designed as a reference tool to be used by curriculum developers. Divided into two major parts -- in biological science and in mathematics -- the teaching guide is for secondary level students. The first part, consisting of…

  18. Review on the EFDA programme on tungsten materials technology and science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieth, M., E-mail: Michael.rieth@imf.fzk.de [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Boutard, J.L. [EFDA-Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Dudarev, S.L. [Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Ahlgren, T. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland); Antusch, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Baluc, N. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Barthe, M.-F. [CNRS, UPR3079 CEMHTI, 1D Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Universite d' Orleans, Polytech ou Faculte des Sciences, Avenue du Parc Floral, BP 6749, 45067 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Becquart, C.S. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ciupinski, L. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Correia, J.B. [IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Domain, C. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux, Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Fikar, J. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), Lausanne (Switzerland); Fortuna, E. [Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw (Poland); Fu, C.-C. [CEA, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Saclay (France); Gaganidze, E. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Materials Research, Karlsruhe (Germany); Galan, T.L. [Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Materials Science and Engineering, Madrid (Spain); Garcia-Rosales, C. [CEIT, San Sebastian (Spain); Gludovatz, B. [OAW, Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Leoben (Austria); Greuner, H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Heinola, K. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-10-01

    All the recent DEMO design studies for helium cooled divertors utilize tungsten materials and alloys, mainly due to their high temperature strength, good thermal conductivity, low erosion, and comparably low activation under neutron irradiation. The long-term objective of the EFDA fusion materials programme is to develop structural as well as armor materials in combination with the necessary production and fabrication technologies for future divertor concepts. The programmatic roadmap is structured into four engineering research lines which comprise fabrication process development, structural material development, armor material optimization, and irradiation performance testing, which are complemented by a fundamental research programme on 'Materials Science and Modeling'. This paper presents the current research status of the EFDA experimental and testing investigations, and gives a detailed overview of the latest results on fabrication, joining, high heat flux testing, plasticity, modeling, and validation experiments.

  19. Dr. John H. Hopps Jr. Research Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-20

    graduates’ majors, honors/awards and their acceptance to a doctoral program. Also, assisting with securing the keynote speaker, Dr. Jimmie Lee Davis, Jr...experiences during school semesters and in the summers, and scholastic information such as college majors, minors, graduations, degree pursuits, fellowships...climate change. The Morehouse Hopps Alumni Panel included seven graduates who are currently in various levels of graduate school. Their candid

  20. Informatics for materials science and engineering data-driven discovery for accelerated experimentation and application

    CERN Document Server

    Rajan, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Materials informatics: a 'hot topic' area in materials science, aims to combine traditionally bio-led informatics with computational methodologies, supporting more efficient research by identifying strategies for time- and cost-effective analysis. The discovery and maturation of new materials has been outpaced by the thicket of data created by new combinatorial and high throughput analytical techniques. The elaboration of this ""quantitative avalanche""-and the resulting complex, multi-factor analyses required to understand it-means that interest, investment, and research are revisiting in

  1. TOPICAL REVIEW: Metallo-supramolecular modules as a paradigm for materials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk G Kurth

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal ion coordination in discrete or extended metallo-supramolecular assemblies offers ample opportunity to fabricate and study devices and materials that are equally important for fundamental research and new technologies. Metal ions embedded in a specific ligand field offer diverse thermodynamic, kinetic, chemical, physical and structural properties that make these systems promising candidates for active components in functional materials. A key challenge is to improve and develop methodologies for placing these active modules in suitable device architectures, such as thin films or mesophases. This review highlights recent developments in extended, polymeric metallo-supramolecular systems and discrete polyoxometalates with an emphasis on materials science.

  2. Applied solid state science advances in materials and device research 6

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Applied Solid State Science: Advances in Materials and Device Research, Volume 6 covers the application of composites in electronic systems. The book discusses different types of composite-composite materials consisting of finely dispersed mixtures of metals and insulators; composite devices in which two distinct semiconductor devices are combined in one package; and composite glass fibers with the core and cladding differing in their optical properties. The text describes articles dealing with properties that can be achieved in versatile materials; light-emitting diodes and photodetectors th

  3. Development and validation of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) based instructional material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustiani, Ineu; Widodo, Ari; Suwarma, Irma Rahma

    2017-05-01

    This study is intended to examine the development and validation of simple machines instructional material that developed based on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) framework that provides guidance to help students learn and practice for real life and enable individuals to use knowledge and skills they need to be an informed citizen. Sample of this study consist of one class of 8th grader at a junior secondary school in Bandung, Indonesia. To measure student learning, a pre-test and post-test were given before and after implementation of the STEM based instructional material. In addition, a questionnaire of readability was given to examine the clarity and difficulty level of each page of instructional material. A questionnaire of students' response towards instructional material given to students and teachers at the end of instructional material reading session to measure layout aspects, content aspects and utility aspects of instructional material for being used in the junior secondary school classroom setting. The results show that readability aspect and students' response towards STEM based instructional material of STEM based instructional material is categorized as very high. Pretest and posttest responses revealed that students retained significant amounts information upon completion of the STEM instructional material. Student overall learning gain is 0.67 which is categorized as moderate. In summary, STEM based instructional material that was developed is valid enough to be used as educational materials necessary for conducting effective STEM education.

  4. The Science and Technology Challenges of the Plasma-Material Interface for Magnetic Fusion Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Dennis

    2013-09-01

    The boundary plasma and plasma-material interactions of magnetic fusion devices are reviewed. The boundary of magnetic confinement devices, from the high-temperature, collisionless pedestal through to the surrounding surfaces and the nearby cold high-density collisional plasmas, encompasses an enormous range of plasma and material physics, and their integrated coupling. Due to fundamental limits of material response the boundary will largely define the viability of future large MFE experiments (ITER) and reactors (e.g. ARIES designs). The fusion community faces an enormous knowledge deficit in stepping from present devices, and even ITER, towards fusion devices typical of that required for efficient energy production. This deficit will be bridged by improving our fundamental science understanding of this complex interface region. The research activities and gaps are reviewed and organized to three major axes of challenges: power density, plasma duration, and material temperature. The boundary can also be considered a multi-scale system of coupled plasma and material science regulated through the non-linear interface of the sheath. Measurement, theory and modeling across these scales are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on establishing the use dimensionless parameters to understand this complex system. Proposed technology and science innovations towards solving the PMI/boundary challenges will be examined. Supported by US DOE award DE-SC00-02060 and cooperative agreement DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  5. PREFACE: 26th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-26)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    26th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-26) Takayuki Watanabe The 26th Symposium on Plasma Science for Materials (SPSM-26) was held in Fukuoka, Japan on September 23-24, 2013. SPSM has been held annually since 1988 under the sponsorship of The 153rd Committee on Plasma Materials Science, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). This symposium is one of the major activities of the Committee, which is organized by researchers in academia and industry for the purpose of advancing intersectional scientific information exchange and discussion of science and technology of plasma materials processing. Plasma processing have attracted extensive attention due to their unique advantages, and it is expected to be utilized for a number of innovative industrial applications such as synthesis of high-quality and high-performance nanomaterials. The advantages of plasmas including high chemical reactivity in accordance with required chemical reactions are beneficial for innovative processing. In recent years, plasma materials processing with reactive plasmas has been extensively employed in the fields of environmental issues and biotechnology. This conference seeks to bring different scientific communities together to create a forum for discussing the latest developments and issues. The conference provides a platform for the exploration of both fundamental topics and new applications of plasmas by the contacts between science, technology, and industry. The conference was organized in plenary lectures, invited, contributed oral presentations, and poster sessions. At this meeting, we had 142 participants from 10 countries and 104 presentations, including 11 invited presentations. This year, we arranged special topical sessions that cover Plasma Medicine and Biotechnologies, Business and Academia Cooperation, Plasma with Liquids, Plasma Processes for Nanomaterials, together with Basic, Electronics, and Thermal Plasma sessions. This special issue presents 28

  6. Nuclear Forensic Science: Analysis of Nuclear Material Out of Regulatory Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristo, Michael J.; Gaffney, Amy M.; Marks, Naomi; Knight, Kim; Cassata, William S.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear forensic science seeks to identify the origin of nuclear materials found outside regulatory control. It is increasingly recognized as an integral part of a robust nuclear security program. This review highlights areas of active, evolving research in nuclear forensics, with a focus on analytical techniques commonly employed in Earth and planetary sciences. Applications of nuclear forensics to uranium ore concentrates (UOCs) are discussed first. UOCs have become an attractive target for nuclear forensic researchers because of the richness in impurities compared to materials produced later in the fuel cycle. The development of chronometric methods for age dating nuclear materials is then discussed, with an emphasis on improvements in accuracy that have been gained from measurements of multiple radioisotopic systems. Finally, papers that report on casework are reviewed, to provide a window into current scientific practice.

  7. Materials Science Division coal technology fifth quarterly report, October--December 1975. [Gasification plant materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1975-01-01

    Results on refractories tested in the slag-corrosion-cup test indicate that attack by acidic slag is less severe than by basic slag. The first (200 h) test in the slag-abrasion-corrosion test rig was completed. Nondestructive tests have been conducted at the CO/sub 2/ Acceptor plant and the HYGAS plant, and an instrumented piping section is being prepared for the Synthane plant. Carburization studies, which have been performed on several alloys, indicate that the extent of carburization increases with an increase in the chromium content of the alloy. Present erosion models predict greater erosion rates than found experimentally, but they assume all particles impact the surface. Failure analyses have been conducted for HYGAS materials, and support in materials identification was given to Synthane plant personnel. (auth)

  8. The Materials Data Facility: Data Services to Advance Materials Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaiszik, B.; Chard, K.; Pruyne, J.; Ananthakrishnan, R.; Tuecke, S.; Foster, I.

    2016-08-01

    With increasingly strict data management requirements from funding agencies and institutions, expanding focus on the challenges of research replicability, and growing data sizes and heterogeneity, new data needs are emerging in the materials community. The materials data facility (MDF) operates two cloud-hosted services, data publication and data discovery, with features to promote open data sharing, self-service data publication and curation, and encourage data reuse, layered with powerful data discovery tools. The data publication service simplifies the process of copying data to a secure storage location, assigning data a citable persistent identifier, and recording custom (e.g., material, technique, or instrument specific) and automatically-extracted metadata in a registry while the data discovery service will provide advanced search capabilities (e.g., faceting, free text range querying, and full text search) against the registered data and metadata. The MDF services empower individual researchers, research projects, and institutions to (I) publish research datasets, regardless of size, from local storage, institutional data stores, or cloud storage, without involvement of third-party publishers; (II) build, share, and enforce extensible domain-specific custom metadata schemas; (III) interact with published data and metadata via representational state transfer (REST) application program interfaces (APIs) to facilitate automation, analysis, and feedback; and (IV) access a data discovery model that allows researchers to search, interrogate, and eventually build on existing published data. We describe MDF's design, current status, and future plans.

  9. Obituary: Benjamin Franklin Peery Jr. (1922-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Charles

    2011-12-01

    Professor Benjamin F. Peery, Jr. died at his home in Silver Spring, MD of natural causes on 30 November 2010. His full life began in St. Joseph, MO (home of the Pony Express) on 4 March 1922. His father was a railway mail clerk, so his family moved frequently. Most of his childhood was spent in southeastern Minnesota. He enlisted in the army in 1942, and served in campaigns in North Africa and Italy. After his discharge in 1945, he enrolled in the University of Minnesota, earning a BS in Physics in 1949. One of his early hobbies was to build and fly model airplanes. His intention to pursue aeronautical engineering changed to physics, but after receiving a MS in physics from Fisk University in 1955, he decided on a career in astronomy. He told the editors of the PBS series The Astronomers (1991, in which his career is highlighted) he thought it was shamefully absurd not to know what made the stars shine. So he began PhD studies in astronomy at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor). His dissertation was on the complex eclipsing binary VV Cephei, where a compact hot star passes behind a cool giant star, revealing the structure of that giant's atmosphere. This task was especially demanding because of the complexity of the system's spectrum and the formidable array of observations assembled by Ben's advisor, Dean McLaughlin. Fortunately, Ben's strong physics background enabled him to design and construct one of the first oscilloscope measuring engines, which his fellow students called the PeeryScope. The final (1961) dissertation is an impressive combination of observational and astrophysical analysis. His degree was obtained in 1962; he had already begun a career at the University of Indiana, where he taught and did research (1959--1976). The Indiana years were highly productive. In addition to his own research, he was advisor on six PhD dissertations, and a master's thesis. Several of his students have also had productive careers. An ADS search on his students' names

  10. Computer Related Mathematics and Science Curriculum Materials - A National Science Foundation Cooperative College-School Science Program in Computing Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chuan C.

    Reported is the Cooperative College-School Science Program in Computing Science Education which was conducted by the University of Colorado Department of Civil Engineering in the summer of 1967. The program consisted of two five-week terms. The course work was composed of two formal lecture courses in Computer Related Mathematics and Computer…

  11. Energy Frontier Research Center, Center for Materials Science of Nuclear Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd R. Allen, Director

    2011-04-01

    The Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, has funded the INL as one of the Energy Frontier Research Centers in the area of material science of nuclear fuels. This document is the required annual report to the Office of Science that outlines the accomplishments for the period of May 2010 through April 2011. The aim of the Center for Material Science of Nuclear Fuels (CMSNF) is to establish the foundation for predictive understanding of the effects of irradiation-induced defects on thermal transport in oxide nuclear fuels. The science driver of the center’s investigation is to understand how complex defect and microstructures affect phonon mediated thermal transport in UO2, and achieve this understanding for the particular case of irradiation-induced defects and microstructures. The center’s research thus includes modeling and measurement of thermal transport in oxide fuels with different levels of impurities, lattice disorder and irradiation-induced microstructure, as well as theoretical and experimental investigation of the evolution of disorder, stoichiometry and microstructure in nuclear fuel under irradiation. With the premise that thermal transport in irradiated UO2 is a phonon-mediated energy transport process in a crystalline material with defects and microstructure, a step-by-step approach will be utilized to understand the effects of types of defects and microstructures on the collective phonon dynamics in irradiated UO2. Our efforts under the thermal transport thrust involved both measurement of diffusive phonon transport (an approach that integrates over the entire phonon spectrum) and spectroscopic measurements of phonon attenuation/lifetime and phonon dispersion. Our distinct experimental efforts dovetail with our modeling effort involving atomistic simulation of phonon transport and prediction of lattice thermal conductivity using the Boltzmann transport framework.

  12. Science, value and material decay in the conservation of historic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglas-Jones, Rachel; Hughes, John; Jones, Sian

    2016-01-01

    The historic environment undergoes cycles of material deterioration, and these processes have a powerful impact on the meanings and values associated with it. In particular, decay informs the experience of authenticity, as a tangible mark of age and ‘the real’. This article examines...... the intersection between material transformation, scientific intervention and cultural value. Drawing on qualitative social research at three Scottish historic buildings, we show that there are a complex range of cultural values and qualities associated with material transformation. Furthermore, we highlight how...... the use of science-based conservation to characterise, and intervene in, processes of material transformation can affect these values and qualities. We argue that it is necessary and important to consider the cultural ramifications of such interventions alongside their material effects. This requires...

  13. Biological Science as an Audio-Tutorial System of Instruction for the Non-Science Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacket, Dorothy; Holt Imy V.

    1973-01-01

    Describes an audiotutorial program in Biological Science offered to non-science majors at Western Michigan University and reports the results of an evaluative investigation relating to this program. (JR)

  14. Global Systems Science and Hands-On Universe Course Materials for High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, A.

    2011-09-01

    The University of California Berkeley's Lawrence Hall of Science has a project called Global Systems Science (GSS). GSS produced a set of course materials for high school science education that includes reading materials, investigations, and software for analyzing satellite images of Earth focusing on Earth systems as well as societal issues that require interdisciplinary science for full understanding. The software has general application in analysis of any digital images for a variety of purposes. NSF and NASA funding have contributed to the development of GSS. The current NASA-funded project of GSS is Lifelines for High School Climate Change Education (LHSCCE), which aims to establish professional learning communities (PLCs) to share curriculum resources and best practices for teaching about climate change in grades 9-12. The project explores ideal ways for teachers to meet either in-person or using simple yet effective distance-communication techniques (tele-meetings), depending on local preferences. Skills promoted include: how to set up a website to share resources; initiating tele-meetings with any available mechanism (webinars, Skype, telecons, moodles, social network tools, etc.); and easy ways of documenting and archiving presentations made at meetings. Twenty teacher leaders are forming the PLCs in their regions or districts. This is a national effort in which teachers share ideas, strategies, and resources aimed at making science education relevant to societal issues, improve students' understanding of climate change issues, and contribute to possible solutions. Although the binding theme is climate change, the application is to a wide variety of courses: Earth science, environmental science, biology, physics, and chemistry. Moreover, the PLCs formed can last as long as the members find it useful and can deal with any topics of interest, even if they are only distantly related to climate change.

  15. Teaching-materials study of the elementary science using an extraterrestrial material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, N.; Matsumoto, I.

    2013-12-01

    The schoolchild of a Japan likes the universe primarily and an inquisitive mind is also considered to be a high. It appears also in children having raised interest concern to astronomical phenomena, such as the space probe "Hayabusa", solar eclipse, and solar Face passage of Venus, in recent Japan. However, generally aside from a child's interest concern, a time and a space concept are difficult for the astronomical phenomenon requested by school education. It is a big problem not only for student but also for teacher. In this presentation, we propose the teaching-materials development which used a meteorite and cosmic dust. Since these teaching materials can touch thing, a student actually taking in his hand, or observing under a microscope, leading to the study understanding accompanied by realization is expected. It looks up at and observes a Star Burst and a constellation. However, acquisition of recognition that it is possible to take in its hand simultaneously and to observe is important. About the meteorite to observe, we can purchase from a special contractor. About cosmic dust, the sample extraction from the concrete floor of the roof of a school building is possible.

  16. Ab initio density-functional calculations in materials science: from quasicrystals over microporous catalysts to spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Jürgen

    2010-09-29

    During the last 20 years computer simulations based on a quantum-mechanical description of the interactions between electrons and atomic nuclei have developed an increasingly important impact on materials science, not only in promoting a deeper understanding of the fundamental physical phenomena, but also enabling the computer-assisted design of materials for future technologies. The backbone of atomic-scale computational materials science is density-functional theory (DFT) which allows us to cast the intractable complexity of electron-electron interactions into the form of an effective single-particle equation determined by the exchange-correlation functional. Progress in DFT-based calculations of the properties of materials and of simulations of processes in materials depends on: (1) the development of improved exchange-correlation functionals and advanced post-DFT methods and their implementation in highly efficient computer codes, (2) the development of methods allowing us to bridge the gaps in the temperature, pressure, time and length scales between the ab initio calculations and real-world experiments and (3) the extension of the functionality of these codes, permitting us to treat additional properties and new processes. In this paper we discuss the current status of techniques for performing quantum-based simulations on materials and present some illustrative examples of applications to complex quasiperiodic alloys, cluster-support interactions in microporous acid catalysts and magnetic nanostructures.

  17. Materials science and engineering. An introduction; Materialwissenschaften und Werkstofftechnik. Eine Einfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callister, William D. Jr. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical Engineering; Rethwisch, David G. [Utah Univ., UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    2013-02-01

    William Callister's bestseller ''Materials Science and Engineering'' is THE textbook of materials science. This is the new German language edition, whose contents have been adapted optimally to the requirements of German students. The ''Callister'' covers all aspects of materials science and engineering for studies and preparation of exams. It follows a well-tried didactic concept, favouring understanding over formalism, and supports the students' learning process: 1. Clearly defined learning goals; 2. At regular intervals, questions to check the understanding of the subject matter just learned; 3. Summaries at the end of each chapter comprising subject matter, equations, key words and cross-references to other chapters; 4. Exemplary calculations, questions and answers, problems and solutions; 5. Digressions to industrial applications; 6. Units and materials names adapted to the German language area. [German] William Callisters englischsprachiger Bestseller ''Materials Science and Engineering'' ist das klassische Lehrbuch der Materialwissenschaften. Nun erscheint die deutsche Ausgabe, deren Inhalte optimal auf die Beduerfnisse der hiesigen Studenten angepasst wurden. Der ''Callister'' bietet den gesamten Stoff der Materialwissenschaften und Werkstofftechnik fuer Studium und Pruefungsvorbereitung. Das erprobte didaktische Konzept zielt ab auf ''Verstaendnis vor Formalismus'' und unterstuetzt den Lernprozess der Studierenden: 1. ausformulierte Lernziele; 2. regelmaessig eingestreute Verstaendnisfragen zum gerade vermittelten Stoff; 3. Kapitelzusammenfassungen mit Lernstoff, Gleichungen, Schluesselwoertern und Querverweisen auf andere Kapitel; 4. durchgerechnete Beispiele, Fragen und Antworten sowie Aufgaben und Loesungen; 5. Exkurse in die industrielle Anwendung; und 6. an den deutschen Sprachraum angepasste Einheiten und Werkstoffbezeichnungen.

  18. PREFACE: 1st Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science 2013 (LPBMS2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumai, Reiji; Murakami, Youichi

    2014-04-01

    From 29-31 August 2013, the 1st International Conference on Light and Particle Beams in Materials Science, LPBMS 2013, took place in the Tsukuba International Congress Center in the city of Tsukuba, Japan. The conference was a continuation of the international series Synchrotron Radiation in Materials Science (SRMS), which started in 1994. The last one, SRMS-7, was held in Oxford UK 11-14 July 2010, where the International Advisory Committee (IAC) recommended the conference be enlarged to incorporate Materials Research from Neutron, Muon, and Slow Positron Sources, as well as the science emerging from Synchrotron Light Sources. The conference brought together contributions from academics and industrial researchers with a diverse background and experience from the physics, chemistry and engineering communities. The topics covered in the LPBMS2013 include strongly correlated electron systems, magnetism and magnetic materials, soft matter, interface and surface defects, catalysts, biomaterials, and ceramics. In the 3-day scientific program, the conference consisted of 9 plenary talks, 33 invited talks, 20 oral presentations, and 126 poster presentations. We are pleased to publish the proceedings of the LPBMS2013 in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. This volume contains 58 papers representing the work that was presented and discussed at the conference. We hope that this volume will promote further development of this interdisciplinary materials research emerging from synchrotron light, neutron, muon, and slow positron sciences. Finally, we would like to thank the International Advisory Committee (Chair: Professor G N Greaves), sponsors, all the participants and contributors for making possible this international meeting of researchers. Reiji Kumai & Youichi Murakami Conference photograph Details of the program and organizing committees are available in the pdf

  19. Beating the numbers through strategic intervention materials (SIMs): Innovative science teaching for large classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboruto, Venus M.

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to find out the effectiveness of using Strategic Intervention Materials (SIMs) as an innovative teaching practice in managing large Grade Eight Science classes to raise the performance of the students in terms of science process skills development and mastery of science concepts. Utilizing experimental research design with two groups of participants, which were purposefully chosen, it was obtained that there existed a significant difference in the performance of the experimental and control groups based on actual class observation and written tests on science process skills with a p-value of 0.0360 in favor of the experimental class. Further, results of written pre-test and post-test on science concepts showed that the experimental group with the mean of 24.325 (SD =3.82) performed better than the control group with the mean of 20.58 (SD =4.94), with a registered p-value of 0.00039. Therefore, the use of SIMs significantly contributed to the mastery of science concepts and the development of science process skills. Based on the findings, the following recommendations are offered: 1. that grade eight science teachers should use or adopt the SIMs used in this study to improve their students' performance; 2. training-workshop on developing SIMs must be conducted to help teachers develop SIMs to be used in their classes; 3. school administrators must allocate funds for the development and reproduction of SIMs to be used by the students in their school; and 4. every division should have a repository of SIMs for easy access of the teachers in the entire division.

  20. Preservice elementary teachers learning to use curriculum materials to plan and teach science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunckel, Kristin Lee

    New elementary teachers rely heavily on curriculum materials, but available science curriculum materials do not often support teachers in meeting specified learning goals, engaging students in the inquiry and application practices of science, or leveraging students' intellectual and cultural resources for learning. One approach to supporting new elementary teachers in using available science curriculum materials is to provide frameworks to scaffold preservice teachers' developing lesson planning and teaching practices. The Inquiry-Application Instructional Model (I-AIM) and the Critical Analysis and Planning (CA&P) tool were designed to scaffold preservice teachers' developing practice to use curriculum materials effectively to plan and teach science. The I-AIM identifies functions for each activity in an instructional sequence. The CA&P provides guides preservice teachers in modifying curriculum materials to better fit I-AIM and leverage students' resources for learning. This study followed three elementary preservice teachers in an intern-level science method course as they learned to use the I-AIM and CA&P to plan and teach a science unit in their field placement classrooms. Using a sociocultural perspective, this study focused on the ways that the interns used the tools and the mediators that influenced how they used the tools. A color-coding analysis procedure was developed to identify the teaching patterns in the interns' planned instructional approaches and enacted activity sequences and compare those to the patterns implied by the I-AIM and CA&P tools. Interviews with the interns were also conducted and analyzed, along with the assignments they completed for their science methods course, to gain insight into the meanings the interns made of the tools and their experiences planning and teaching science. The results show that all three interns had some successes using the I-AIM and CA&P to analyze their curriculum materials and to plan and teach science

  1. Curriculum-Dependent and Curriculum-Independent Factors in Preservice Elementary Teachers' Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials for Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.

    2013-01-01

    In this nested mixed methods study I investigate factors influencing preservice elementary teachers' adaptation of science curriculum materials to better support students' engagement in science as inquiry. Analyses focus on two "reflective teaching assignments" completed by 46 preservice elementary teachers in an undergraduate elementary science…

  2. Curriculum-Dependent and Curriculum-Independent Factors in Preservice Elementary Teachers' Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials for Inquiry-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.

    2013-02-01

    In this nested mixed methods study I investigate factors influencing preservice elementary teachers' adaptation of science curriculum materials to better support students' engagement in science as inquiry. Analyses focus on two `reflective teaching assignments' completed by 46 preservice elementary teachers in an undergraduate elementary science methods course in which they were asked to adapt existing science curriculum materials to plan and enact inquiry-based science lessons in elementary classrooms. Data analysis involved regression modeling of artifacts associated with these lessons, as well as in-depth, semester-long case studies of six of these preservice teachers. Results suggest that features of the existing science curriculum materials, including measures of how inquiry-based they were, have a relatively small influence on the preservice teachers' curricular adaptations, while teacher-specific variables account for a much greater percentage of the variance. Evidence from the case studies illustrates the critical impact of the preservice teachers' field placement contexts as an explanatory, teacher-specific factor in their curricular adaptations. These findings have important implications for science teacher educators and science curriculum developers, in terms of not only better understanding how preservice teachers engage with curriculum materials, but also how programmatic features of teacher education programs influence their ability to do so.

  3. The Jahn-Teller and pseudo Jahn-Teller effect in materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersuker, I. B.

    2017-05-01

    Defining materials science as a translation from microscopic foundations of matter to macroscopic performance in applications, this mostly review paper is devoted to the special features of matter with Jahn-Teller (JT) and pseudo JT (PJT) centers that makes it outstanding in the search of novel properties and applications as novel materials. There are three kinds of problems in this respect. The first is related to the difficulties in the use of computer simulation of observable properties (a methodology widely employed in materials science) in application to systems with dynamic JT and PJT effects. The second is due to the specifics of such systems in interaction with external perturbations, which contribute with a strong orientational effect that enhances the observable properties by orders of magnitude. The third kind of problems relevant to materials science is in the use of the JT and PJT effects in revealing the origin of structural properties of a relevant polyatomic system and working out methods to influence them in designing novel materials. The paper formulates these problems and provides for examples that demonstrate their importance. For the second group of problems, illustrative examples include flexoelectricity, permittivity, and electrostriction in systems with dynamical JT and PJT centers, and it is shown that the latter enhance the observable properties by several orders of magnitude. Also related to this group of problems are the magnetic-dielectric bistabilities in molecular systems and solids induced by JT and PJT effect, illustrated on molecules like CuF3 and crystals of the type LiCuO2. The third group of problems is shown by the already multiply used application of the PJTE to reveal the origin of distortions of planar configuration in 2D (graphene-like) and quasi-2D materials and to work out methods of restoration of their planar configurations by means of external perturbations.

  4. Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy development for materials science at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, T.; Padmore, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Ade, H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Hitchcock, A.P. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Rightor, E.G. [Dow Texas Polymer Center, Freeport, TX (United States); Tonner, B.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Several third generation synchrotron radiation facilities are now operational and the high brightness of these photon sources offers new opportunities for x-ray microscopy. Well developed synchrotron radiation spectroscopy techniques are being applied in new instruments capable of imaging the surface of a material with a spatial resolution smaller than one micron. There are two aspects to this. One is to further the field of surface science by exploring the effects of spatial variations across a surface on a scale not previously accessible to x-ray measurements. The other is to open up new analytical techniques in materials science using x-rays, on a spatial scale comparable to that of the processes or devices to be studied. The development of the spectromicroscopy program at the Advanced Light Source will employ a variety of instruments, some are already operational. Their development and use will be discussed, and recent results will be presented to illustrate their capabilities.

  5. Versatile compact X-ray radiography module for materials science under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargl, F.; Balter, M.; Stenzel, Ch; Gruhl, Th; Daneke, N.; Meyer, A.

    2011-12-01

    A versatile compact microfocus X-ray radiography facility is presented. The facility serves as a technology demonstrator showing the applicability of X-ray radiography to experiments in space. It has been designed as an insert fully compatible with requirements of the Materials Science Laboratory aboard the International Space Station. The facility consists of a microfocus X-ray source delivering up to 20 W X-ray power at 100kV acceleration voltage and a 49.2×49.3mm RadEye2 sensor with a Scint-X scintillator at 48μm per pixel resolution with a 14bit dynamic range. The total device weight including sample chamber is 43 kg. The facility is classified as a fully protected radiography equipment according to German radiation safety laws. The capabilities of the facility for research in materials sciences are demonstrated in ground-based experiments.

  6. Particle Accelerator Applications: Ion and Electron Irradiation in Materials Science, Biology and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernández, Luis

    2010-09-01

    Although the developments of particle accelerators are devoted to basic study of matter constituents, since the beginning these machines have been applied with different purposes in many areas also. Today particle accelerators are essential instruments for science and technology. This work presents an overview of the main application for direct particle irradiation with accelerator in material science, biology and medicine. They are used for material synthesis by ion implantation and charged particle irradiation; to make coatings and micromachining; to characterize broad kind of samples by ion beam analysis techniques; as mass spectrometers for atomic isotopes determination. In biomedicine the accelerators are applied for the study of effects by charged particles on cells. In medicine the radiotherapy by electron irradiation is widely used, while hadrontherapy is still under development. Also, they are necessary for short life radioisotopes production required in radiodiagnostic.

  7. [Application progress of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for surface analysis in materials science field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Yun-Hai; Chen, Ji-Wen; Liu, Ying; Shen, Xue-Jing; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Shu-Ming; Yu, Hong; Han, Peng-Cheng; Qu, Hua-Yang; Liu, Shao-Zun

    2012-06-01

    As a truly surface analytical tool, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was developed in recent ten years, and in this paper, fundamental theory, instrumentation and it's applications in material science are reviewed in detail. Application progress of elemental distribution and depth profile analysis are mainly discussed in the field of metallurgy, semiconductor and electronical materials at home and abroad. It is pointed out that the pulse energy, ambient gas and it's pressure, and energy distribution of laser beam strongly influence spatial and depth resolution, and meanwhile a approach to improving resolution considering analytical sensitivity is provided. Compared with traditional surface analytical methods, the advantage of LIBS is very large scanning area, high analytical speed, and that conducting materials or non-conducting materials both can be analyzed. It becomes a powerful complement of traditional surface analytical tool.

  8. Opportunities in chemistry and materials science for topological insulators and their nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Kong, Desheng

    2011-10-24

    Electrical charges on the boundaries of topological insulators favour forward motion over back-scattering at impurities, producing low-dissipation, metallic states that exist up to room temperature in ambient conditions. These states have the promise to impact a broad range of applications from electronics to the production of energy, which is one reason why topological insulators have become the rising star in condensed-matter physics. There are many challenges in the processing of these exotic materials to use the metallic states in functional devices, and they present great opportunities for the chemistry and materials science research communities. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Uses of DARPA Materials Sciences Technology in DoD Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Optics and Lasers University of Central Florida Orlando, Florida May 1996 Sponsored by: Dr. Ben Wilcox Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Defense...agencies. The author of this report, Dr. C. Martin Stickley, was selected to carry out this study by Dr. Ben Wilcox of the Materials Sciences Division of...Aids for VLSI Modeling 1975 - 1993* NDE 1975 - 1980 Rapid Solidification Rate Processing 1975 - 1986 HgCdTe Focal Plane Arrays 1975 - Present

  10. Materials science and biophysics applications at the ISOLDE radioactive ion beam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, U., E-mail: uwahl@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Prof. Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-12-15

    The ISOLDE isotope separator facility at CERN provides a variety of radioactive ion beams, currently more than 800 different isotopes from {approx}70 chemical elements. The radioisotopes are produced on-line by nuclear reactions from a 1.4 GeV proton beam with various types of targets, outdiffusion of the reaction products and, if possible, chemically selective ionisation, followed by 60 kV acceleration and mass separation. While ISOLDE is mainly used for nuclear and atomic physics studies, applications in materials science and biophysics account for a significant part (currently {approx}15%) of the delivered beam time, requested by 18 different experiments. The ISOLDE materials science and biophysics community currently consists of {approx}80 scientists from more than 40 participating institutes and 21 countries. In the field of materials science, investigations focus on the study of semiconductors and oxides, with the recent additions of nanoparticles and metals, while the biophysics studies address the toxicity of metal ions in biological systems. The characterisation methods used are typical radioactive probe techniques such as Moessbauer spectroscopy, perturbed angular correlation, emission channeling, and tracer diffusion studies. In addition to these 'classic' methods of nuclear solid state physics, also standard semiconductor analysis techniques such as photoluminescence or deep level transient spectroscopy profit from the application of radioactive isotopes, which helps them to overcome their chemical 'blindness' since the nuclear half life of radioisotopes provides a signal that changes in time with characteristic exponential decay or saturation curves. In this presentation an overview will be given on the recent research activities in materials science and biophysics at ISOLDE, presenting some of the highlights during the last five years, together with a short outlook on the new developments under way.

  11. Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Monirul Islam, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    This volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society (TJS 2014) held at Gammarth, Republic of Tunisia on November 28-30, 2014. The TJS 2014 is based on the network of the Tunisia-Japan Symposium on Science, Society and Technology (TJASSST) which has been regularly organized since 2000. The symposium was focused on the technological developments of energy and materials for the realization of sustainable society. To generate technological breakthrough and innovation, it seems to be effective to discuss with various fields of researchers such as solid-state physicists, chemists, surface scientists, process engineers and so on. In this symposium, there were as many as 109 attendees from a wide variety of research fields. The technical session consisted of 106 contributed presentations including 3 plenary talks and 7 key-note talks. We hope the Conference Series and publications like this volume will contribute to the progress in research and development in the field of energy and material sciences for sustainable society and in its turn contribute to the creation of cultural life and peaceful society.

  12. DCEG Symposium to Honor Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr. | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer On May 6, the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) will sponsor a symposium to honor 50 years of leadership from its founding director, Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., M.D., who stepped down from the position in July 2012. The conference, entitled “Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations,” will highlight critical findings in cancer epidemiology from the last 50 years, as well as opportunities for future research directions. Long History of Leadership and Discovery

  13. LANSCE '90: The Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pynn, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes progress that has been made at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) during the past two years. Presently, LANSCE provides a higher peak neutron flux than any other pulsed spallation neutron source. There are seven spectrometers for neutron scattering experiments that are operated for a national user program sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Two more spectrometers are under construction. Plans have been made to raise the number of beam holes available for instrumentation and to improve the efficiency of the target/moderator system. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Mancur Lloyd Olson, Jr. 1932-1998 Personal Recollections

    OpenAIRE

    Martin C McGuire

    1998-01-01

    This article memorializes the life and professional work of Mancur Lloyd Olson, Jr. The forty-two years of Mancur Olson's scholarly life were devoted to an inspiring pursuit of his vision of "macro." His ideas may occupy the core of macroeconomics fifty or one hundred years from now, or they may signify only one strand, but surely they will be present and influential in all future study of economics, of society and of interactions between them. Here in 1998, we don't know. But we do know that...

  15. NASA's Plans for Materials Science on ISS: Cooperative Utilization of the MSRR-MSL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaramonte, Francis; Szofran, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The ISS Research Project draws Life (non-human) and Physical Sciences investigations on the ISS, free flyer and ground-based into one coordinated project. The project has two categories: I. Exploration Research Program: a) Utilizes the ISS as a low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) test bed for technology development, demonstration and problem resolution in the areas of life support, fire safety, power, propulsion, thermal management, materials technology, habitat design, etc.; b) Will include endorsement letters from other ETDP projects to show relevancy. II. Non-Exploration Research Program; a) Not directly related to supporting the human exploration program. Research conducted in the life (non-human) and physical sciences; b) The program will sustain, to the maximum extent practicable, the United States scientific expertise and research capability in fundamental microgravity research. Physical Sciences has about 44 grants, and Life Sciences has approximately 32 grants, mostly with universities, to conduct low TRL research; this includes grants to be awarded from the 2008 Fluid Physics and Life Science NRA's.

  16. PREFACE: APCTP-ASEAN Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology (AMSN08)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hieu, Nguyen

    2009-09-01

    Dear friends To contribute to the enhancement of the international scientific cooperation of the ASEAN countries and in reply to the proposal of the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), the Asia-Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics (APCTP) and the Sub Committee on Materials Science and Technology (SCMST) of the ASEAN Committee of Science and Technology (ASEAN COST) agreed to organize this APCTP-ASEAN Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology with the participation of the Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam, the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Rencontres du Vietnam, the Vietnam Physical Society, the Vietnam National University in Ho Chi Minh City and the Vietnam National University in Hanoi. As well as the participants from 9 of the 10 ASEAN countries and many other countries/regions of APCTP (Australia, China, Chinese Taipei, Japan and Korea) we warmly welcome the guests from Europe, the United States, Canada and Israel. Without the financial support of the Asia-Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics APCTP, Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics ICTP, the Asian Office of Aerospace Research and Development AOARD, the US Office of Naval Research Global-Asia ONRG, the Ministry of Science and Technology of Vietnam MOST, the Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology VAST, the Vietnam National University in Ho Chi Minh City VNU HCMC and other Sponsors, we would have been unable to hold this Workshop. On behalf of the International and Local Organizing Committees I would like to express our deep gratitude to the Sponsors. We highly appreciate the support and advice of the members of the International Advisory Committee, the scientific contribution of the invited speakers and all participants. We acknowledge the warm reception of the Khanh Hoa province Administration and citizens, and the hard work of the VAST staff for the success of the Workshop. We cordially wish all participants lively scientific

  17. Designing Reading Materials for the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences at UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Yusnita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to design reading materials for the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, UIN Syarif HIdayatullah Jakarta, due to the absence of such specific materials in the market. To produce satisfactory teaching materials, the researcher did some steps i.e. doing needs analysis, reviewing the principles of materials design and reading strategies, designing course framework, designing syllabus, designing the reading materials, and implementing the sample lessons. The needs analysis was intended to find out what the students needed and to find out the subjects the students learned from the institution in order to produce adequate reading materials. Based on the needs analysis, the researcher then identified the global aims of the course, thereby, the writer designed course framework. This course framework contained general points of reading themes and topics, information of classroom activities that followed up reading, the length of study session, the number of the course meetings, and the number of participants. The course framework became the basis to write the syllabus. Finally the syllabus became the basis for designing reading materials.

  18. Application of chemical structure and bonding of actinide oxide materials for forensic science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkerson, Marianne Perry [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We are interested in applying our understanding of actinide chemical structure and bonding to broaden the suite of analytical tools available for nuclear forensic analyses. Uranium- and plutonium-oxide systems form under a variety of conditions, and these chemical species exhibit some of the most complex behavior of metal oxide systems known. No less intriguing is the ability of AnO{sub 2} (An: U, Pu) to form non-stoichiometric species described as AnO{sub 2+x}. Environmental studies have shown the value of utilizing the chemical signatures of these actinide oxide materials to understand transport following release into the environment. Chemical speciation of actinide-oxide samples may also provide clues as to the age, source, or process history of the material. The scientific challenge is to identify, measure and understand those aspects of speciation of actinide analytes that carry information about material origin and history most relevant to forensics. Here, we will describe our efforts in material synthesis and analytical methods development that we will use to provide the fundamental science to characterize actinide oxide molecular structures for forensic science. Structural properties and initial results to measure structural variability of uranium oxide samples using synchrotron-based X-ray Absorption Fine Structure will be discussed.

  19. Material Science Image Analysis using Quant-CT in ImageJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela M.; Bianchi, Andrea G. C.; DeBianchi, Christina; Bethel, E. Wes

    2015-01-05

    We introduce a computational analysis workflow to access properties of solid objects using nondestructive imaging techniques that rely on X-ray imaging. The goal is to process and quantify structures from material science sample cross sections. The algorithms can differentiate the porous media (high density material) from the void (background, low density media) using a Boolean classifier, so that we can extract features, such as volume, surface area, granularity spectrum, porosity, among others. Our workflow, Quant-CT, leverages several algorithms from ImageJ, such as statistical region merging and 3D object counter. It also includes schemes for bilateral filtering that use a 3D kernel, for parallel processing of sub-stacks, and for handling over-segmentation using histogram similarities. The Quant-CT supports fast user interaction, providing the ability for the user to train the algorithm via subsamples to feed its core algorithms with automated parameterization. Quant-CT plugin is currently available for testing by personnel at the Advanced Light Source and Earth Sciences Divisions and Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC), LBNL, as part of their research on porous materials. The goal is to understand the processes in fluid-rock systems for the geologic sequestration of CO2, and to develop technology for the safe storage of CO2 in deep subsurface rock formations. We describe our implementation, and demonstrate our plugin on porous material images. This paper targets end-users, with relevant information for developers to extend its current capabilities.

  20. MILLS B. LANE, JR. AND ENTERPRISE IN A NEW SOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall L. Patton

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For a century, Citizens & Southern Bank was a fixture in Georgia. In 1991, the C&S brand name disappeared in a merger with North Carolina National Bank. This was one of the bittersweet consequences of the slow, confusing swirl of bank deregulation after 1970, when institutions such as C&S simply disappeared, swallowed by the “winners” in the new competitive environment of interstate banking in the 1980s and 1990s. Even earlier, however, the Lane family had ceased to control the bank started by Mills Lane, Sr. in 1891. Mills B. Lane, Jr. was the last member of the Lane family to run C&S. After his retirement in 1973, Mills handpicked his successor and tried to retain some influence, but the bank began slipping away from the Lanes. By the early 80s, a decade before Hugh McColl’s NCNB acquired C&S, Mills Lane, Jr. was deeply alienated from the institution that had been, according to many, “Georgia’s cornerstone bank.”

  1. A new nearby PWN overlapping the Vela Jr SNR

    CERN Document Server

    Acero, F; Terrier, R; Renaud, M; Ballet, J

    2011-01-01

    PSR J0855-4644 is an energetic pulsar (Edot = 1.1x10^36 erg/s, P=65 ms) discovered near the South-East rim of the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852.0-4622 (aka Vela Jr) by the Parkes Multibeam Survey. The position of the pulsar is in spatial coincidence with an enhancement in X-rays and TeV gamma-rays, which could represent its pulsar wind nebula (PWN). We have revealed with an XMM-Newton observation the X-ray counterpart of the pulsar together with a surrounding extended emission thus confirming the suggestion of a PWN. The comparison of the absorption column density derived in X-rays from the pulsar with 12CO observations (tracing the dense gas) is used to derive an upper limit to the distance of the pulsar (d< 900 pc) and to discuss a possible association of the pulsar with the Vela Jr SNR. This new distance estimate implies that the pulsar is nearby and could therefore significantly contribute to the observed spectrum of cosmic-ray leptons (e-/e+).

  2. Auger- and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in materials science a user-oriented guide

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    To anyone who is interested in surface chemical analysis of materials on the nanometer scale, this book is prepared to give appropriate information. Based on typical application examples in materials science, a concise approach to all aspects of quantitative analysis of surfaces and thin films with AES and XPS is provided. Starting from basic principles which are step by step developed into practically useful equations, extensive guidance is given to graduate students as well as to experienced researchers. Key chapters are those on quantitative surface analysis and on quantitative depth profiling, including recent developments in topics such as surface excitation parameter and backscattering correction factor. Basic relations are derived for emission and excitation angle dependencies in the analysis of bulk material and of fractional nano-layer structures, and for both smooth and rough surfaces. It is shown how to optimize the analytical strategy, signal-to-noise ratio, certainty and detection limit. Worked e...

  3. Self-assembled selenium monolayers: from nanotechnology to materials science and adaptive catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romashov, Leonid V; Ananikov, Valentine P

    2013-12-23

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of selenium have emerged into a rapidly developing field of nanotechnology with several promising opportunities in materials chemistry and catalysis. Comparison between sulfur-based self-assembled monolayers and newly developed selenium-based monolayers reveal outstanding complimentary features on surface chemistry and highlighted the key role of the headgroup element. Diverse structural properties and reactivity of organosulfur and organoselenium groups on the surface provide flexible frameworks to create new generations of materials and adaptive catalysts with unprecedented selectivity. Important practical utility of adaptive catalytic systems deals with development of sustainable technologies and industrial processes based on natural resources. Independent development of nanotechnology, materials science and catalysis has led to the discovery of common fundamental principles of the surface chemistry of chalcogen compounds.

  4. Development of tomographic reconstruction methods in materials science with focus on advanced scanning methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyckegaard, Allan

    Techniques for obtaining 3 dimensional information of individual crystals, socalled grains, in polycrystalline materials are important within the field of materials science for understanding and modeling the behavior of materials.In the last decade, a number of nondestructive X-ray diffraction...... techniques. Combining this with a novel 6-dimensional indexing routine it is possible to determine grain centers, radii and orientations of hundreds of individual grains in a sample. The grain centers are found with a precision which is better than the stepping size, and thus provides a road towards future......-stable beta titanium alloy comprising 1265 grains has been produced as part of a collaboration on spatial resolved strain measurements with Cornell University, USA, and the Advanced Photon Source, USA....

  5. Materials science studies of high-temperature superconducting ceramic oxides. Final report, May 1988-March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezzoli, G.C.; Chen, M.F.; Craver, F.; Katz, R.N.

    1997-12-01

    Herein is presented the results of a comprehensive program of research aimed at understanding the materials science and the mechanistic physics of high-temperature superconducting oxides. This comprehensive research program has identified the materials properties that are consistently associated with high-Tc superconductors and has shown that the mechanism that gives rise to the phenomenon of high-Tc superconductivity is associated with bound holes that are due to charge-transfer excitations at high frequency. The latter are a result of the high internal electric field present in high-Tc materials, owing to the asymmetry of the crystal structure. The interaction of bound holes with free electrons and the interaction of local spin fluctuations with the spin of free electrons generate a charge density wave and a spin density wave that cause Cooper pairing.

  6. Developing secondary science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge through effective curriculum materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoni, Michael H.

    This study investigates the degree to which the Delaware Science Coalition tenth grade biology kit curriculum supports the development of teachers' pedagogical content knowledge. A research-based construct for PCK was developed to serve as the foundation for how PCK was defined in this study. An analysis tool was created using the Davis and Krajcik (2005) nine heuristics of effectiveness of curriculum materials to develop science teachers' PCK. The tool was created to analyze the relative effectiveness of curriculum materials in supporting and developing teachers' PCK. The Delaware Science Coalition tenth grade biology kit curriculum was analyzed against this heuristic tool, and was found to be inconsistent in developing teachers' PCK. In addition, this study addressed teachers' conceptions of PCK, and their perceptions of professional development, through a survey and through subsequent interviews. The results from the survey and interviews showed that teachers consistently adapt the curriculum to fit their needs, and also had different feelings about the professional development they experienced with the state, and at their home school. A new model for professional development was created using the research-based construct of PCK, the heuristic tool to develop teachers' PCK, and teachers' experiences with curriculum and professional development.

  7. 1995 Federal Research and Development Program in Materials Science and Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-12-01

    The Nation's economic prosperity and military security depend heavily on development and commercialization of advanced materials. Materials are a key facet of many technologies, providing the key ingredient for entire industries and tens of millions of jobs. With foreign competition in many areas of technology growing, improvements in materials and associated processes are needed now more than ever, both to create the new products and jobs of the future and to ensure that U.S. industry and military forces can compete and win in the international arena. The Federal Government has invested in materials research and development (R&D) for nearly a century, helping to lay the foundation for many of the best commercial products and military components used today. But while the United States has led the world in the science and development of advanced materials, it often has lagged in commercializing them. This long-standing hurdle must be overcome now if the nation is to maintain its leadership in materials R&D and the many technologies that depend on it. The Administration therefore seeks to foster commercialization of state-of-the-art materials for both commercial and military use, as a means of promoting US industrial competitiveness as well as the procurement of advanced military and space systems and other products at affordable costs. The Federal R&D effort in Fiscal Year 1994 for materials science and technology is an estimated $2123.7 million. It includes the ongoing R&D base that support the missions of nine Federal departments and agencies, increased strategic investment to overcome obstacles to commercialization of advanced materials technologies, interagency cooperation in R&D areas of mutual benefit to leverage assets and eliminate duplicative work, cost-shared research with industrial and academic partners in critical precompetitive technology areas, and international cooperation on selected R&D topics with assured benefits for the United States. The

  8. Science in the community: An ethnographic account of social material transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart Henry

    This dissertation is about the learning and use of science at the level of local community. It is an ethnographic account, and its theoretical approach draws on actor-network theory as well as neo-Marxist practice theory and the related notion of situated cognition. This theoretical basis supports a work that focuses on the many heterogeneous transformations that materials and people undergo as science is used to help bring about social and political change in a quasi-rural community. The activities that science becomes involved in, and the hybrid formations as it encounters local issues are stressed. Learning and knowing as outcomes of community action are theorized. The dissertation links four major themes throughout its narrative: scientific literacy, representations, relationships and participatory democracy. These four themes are not treated in isolation. Different facets of their relation to each other are stressed in different chapters, each of which analyze different particular case studies. This dissertation argues for the conception of a local scientific praxis, one that is markedly different than the usual notion of science, yet is necessary for the uptake of scientific information into a community.

  9. Fluids and Materials Science Studies Utilizing the Microgravity-vibration Isolation Mount (MIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Rodney; Tryggvason, Bjarni; Duval, Walter

    1998-01-01

    Canada's Microgravity Sciences Program (MSP) is the smallest program of the ISS partners and so can participate in only a few, highly focused projects in order to make a scientific and technological impact. One focused project involves determining the effect of accelerations (g-jitter) on scientific measurements in a microgravity environment utilizing the Microgravity-vibration Isolation Mount (MIM). Many experiments share the common characteristic of having a fluid stage in their process. The quality of the experimental measurements have been expected to be affected by g-jitters which has lead the ISS program to include specifications to limit the level of acceleration allowed on a subset of experimental racks. From finite element analysis (FEM), the ISS structure will not be able to meet the acceleration specifications. Therefore, isolation systems are necessary. Fluid science results and materials science results show significant sensitivity to g-jitter. The work done to date should be viewed only as a first look at the issue of g-jitter sensitivity. The work should continue with high priority such that the international science community and the ISS program can address the requirement and settle on an agreed to overall approach as soon as possible.

  10. Knowledge of childhood: materiality, text, and the history of science - an interdisciplinary round table discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietmann, Felix; Schildmann, Mareike; Arni, Caroline; Cook, Daniel Thomas; Giuriato, Davide; Göhlsdorf, Novina; Muigai, Wangui

    2017-03-01

    This round table discussion takes the diversity of discourse and practice shaping modern knowledge about childhood as an opportunity to engage with recent historiographical approaches in the history of science. It draws attention to symmetries and references among scientific, material, literary and artistic cultures and their respective forms of knowledge. The five participating scholars come from various fields in the humanities and social sciences and allude to historiographical and methodological questions through a range of examples. Topics include the emergence of children's rooms in US consumer magazines, research on the unborn in nineteenth-century sciences of development, the framing of autism in nascent child psychiatry, German literary discourses about the child's initiation into writing, and the sociopolitics of racial identity in the photographic depiction of African American infant corpses in the early twentieth century. Throughout the course of the paper, childhood emerges as a topic particularly amenable to interdisciplinary perspectives that take the history of science as part of a broader history of knowledge.

  11. Collected Papers in Structural Mechanics Honoring Dr. James H. Starnes, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr. (Compiler); Nemeth, Michael P. (Compiler); Malone, John B. (Compiler)

    2006-01-01

    This special publication contains a collection of structural mechanics papers honoring Dr. James H. Starnes, Jr. presented at the 46th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics, and Materials Conference held in Austin, Texas, April 18-21, 2005. Contributors to this publication represent a small number of those influenced by Dr. Starnes' technical leadership, his technical prowess and diversity, and his technical breath and depth in engineering mechanics. These papers cover some of the research areas Dr. Starnes investigated, which included buckling, postbuckling, and collapse of structures; composite structural mechanics, residual strength and damage tolerance of metallic and composite structures; and aircraft structural design, certification and verification. He actively pursued technical understanding and clarity, championed technical excellence, and modeled humility and perseverance.

  12. PREFACE: 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruda, H. E.; Khotsianovsky, A.

    2015-12-01

    IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering is publishing a volume of conference proceedings that contains a selection of papers presented at the 4th Global Conference on Materials Science and Engineering (CMSE 2015), which is an annual event that started in 2012. CMSE 2015, technically supported by the Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering of University of Macau, organized by Wuhan Advance Materials Society, was successfully held at the University of Macau-new campus located on Hengqin Island from August 3rd-6th, 2015. It aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and scholars to exchange and share their experience and research results on all aspects of Materials Science and Engineering, and to discuss the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted. Macau, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, where East meets West, turned out to be an ideal meeting place for domestic and overseas participants of this annual international conference. The conference program included keynote presentations, special sessions, oral and poster contributions. From several hundred submissions, 52 of the most promising and mainstream, IOP-relevant, contributions were included in this volume. The submissions present original ideas or results of general significance, supported by clear reasoning, compelling evidence and methods, theories and practices relevant to the research. The authors state clearly the problems and the significance of their research to theory and practice. Being a successful conference, this event gathered more than 200 qualified and high-level researchers and experts from over 40 countries, including 10 keynote speakers from 6 countries, which created a good platform for worldwide researchers and engineers to enjoy the academic communication. Taking advantage of this opportunity, we would like to thank all participants of this conference, and particularly the

  13. Secondary Science and Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Roger

    1973-01-01

    Argues for an increased emphasis on teaching the history of science in secondary school science courses. A greater understanding of the nature of the scientific enterprise in the past should make students more aware of the interrelationships of science and society. (JR)

  14. Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi eHabuchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has been revolutionizing the way in which we investigate the structures, dynamics, and functions of a wide range of nanoscale systems. In this review, I describe the current state of various super-resolution fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the super-resolution microscopy. I discuss the applications of super-resolution microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative molecular imaging and nanoscale functional imaging. These studies open new opportunities for unraveling the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a wide range of nanoscale architectures together with their nanostructures and will enable the development of new (bio-nanotechnology.

  15. Super-Resolution Molecular and Functional Imaging of Nanoscale Architectures in Life and Materials Science

    KAUST Repository

    Habuchi, Satoshi

    2014-06-12

    Super-resolution (SR) fluorescence microscopy has been revolutionizing the way in which we investigate the structures, dynamics, and functions of a wide range of nanoscale systems. In this review, I describe the current state of various SR fluorescence microscopy techniques along with the latest developments of fluorophores and labeling for the SR microscopy. I discuss the applications of SR microscopy in the fields of life science and materials science with a special emphasis on quantitative molecular imaging and nanoscale functional imaging. These studies open new opportunities for unraveling the physical, chemical, and optical properties of a wide range of nanoscale architectures together with their nanostructures and will enable the development of new (bio-)nanotechnology.

  16. Handbook of Coherent-Domain Optical Methods Biomedical Diagnostics, Environmental Monitoring, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This Handbook provides comprehensive coverage of laser and coherent-domain methods as applied to biomedicine, environmental monitoring, and materials science. Worldwide leaders in these fields describe the fundamentals of light interaction with random media and present an overview of basic research. The latest results on coherent and polarization properties of light scattered by random media, including tissues and blood, speckles formation in multiple scattering media, and other non-destructive interactions of coherent light with rough surfaces and tissues, allow the reader to understand the principles and applications of coherent diagnostic techniques. The expanded second edition has been thoroughly updated with particular emphasis on novel coherent-domain techniques and their applications in medicine and environmental science. Volume 1 describes state-of-the-art methods of coherent and polarization optical imaging, tomography and spectroscopy; diffusion wave spectroscopy; elastic, quasi-elastic and inelasti...

  17. A Model for Science Teaching in High Schools- Toward Better Retention of The Learnt Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshed, Tahira

    1998-04-01

    The time arrangement of science courses in most high schools results in promoting short term memory with little incentive to retain the learned material in any of the sciences. Consequently, much of the subject matter has to be re-taught in college. This takes time meant for teaching college level topics. Weakness in knowledge base is carried over from year to year in high school, building up to higher levels in college and causing stress and anxiety to both students and teachers. From personel experience of teaching in five countries, a model is developed by which the problem can be overcome. This involves a collaborative effort on the part of teachers and educational policy makers and support of college faculty. The results are measurable within five years and do not incur any increase in funding. Suggestions for practical adoption of the system will be presented. The outcomes are measurable and hold promise in view of success in other countries.

  18. Obituary: Richard L. (Dick) Walker, Jr., 1938-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pier, Jeffrey R.; Mason, Brian

    2005-12-01

    Koch Center for Science, Math, and Technology at Deerfield Academy in Massachusetts. He also consulted with James Turrell, providing astronomical position information for the design of the Roden Crater Project outside of Flagstaff. While he will be remembered for his significant scientific contributions to the field of astronomy, those who knew Dick, both scientists and non-scientists alike, will probably remember him best for his humility, his humanity, and his loyal and abiding friendship. He was a man with a terrific sense of humor and an infectious laugh. It was always an honor and pleasure to be in his company. Richard L. Walker, Jr. is survived by his wife, Patricia, two daughters from his first marriage: Brenda Walker of Las Vegas, NV, and Pamela Hepburn of Holland, OH, as well as four children from Patricia's first marriage: Doug Browning of Lake Havasu City, AZ, Michael Browning of Kingman, AZ, Kim Bructo of Orient, OH, and Jennifer Brown of Lake Havasu City, AZ. He is also survived by ten grandchildren and three great-grandchildren. He was preceded in death by his father Richard, mother Mary, and daughter, Paula Jean Elizabeth Stone.

  19. Obituary: George Hamilton Bowen Jr. (1925-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Lee Anne; Struck, Curtis

    2011-12-01

    Our colleague and collaborator George Hamilton Bowen, Jr., passed away November 1, 2009 in Ames, Iowa. George was born June 20, 1925 in Tulsa, Oklahoma to George and Dorothy (Huntington) Bowen. He married Marjorie Brown June 19, 1948 in Redondo Beach, California; they had five children, with eight grandchildren and five great-grandchildren at the time of his death. George H. Bowen's third or perhaps his fourth career was in astronomy. He was drafted into the navy in 1944, at the end of his first year as a student at Caltech, and ended his war-time service as an electronic technician on the aircraft carrier Shangri-La. He later said "In just nine months, starting from scratch (Ohm's law!), we learned an amazing amount - not by memorization, of course, but by study and real understanding of the basic function of the most advanced AC circuits then being used for instrumentation, measurements, communications, control systems, and much more." He gained a confidence that he could quickly and accurately diagnose and solve technical problems that stood him well in future work. One accomplishment he took particular pride in was figuring out how the radar control used cams and gears to solve the trigonometry for accurate pointing. He also described how the captain was alarmed when weather conditions changed so that refraction no longer showed them distant, small boats around the curvature of Earth. After the war, George Bowen returned to undergraduate and eventually graduate study at Caltech, where he was recruited to the biophysics research group headed by future Nobel Laureate Max Delbrück. George often described his joy in working with these first-rate scientists and finding himself accepted as a part of the effort. He finished his BS with honors in 1949 and his PhD in 1953 with a thesis on "Kinetic Studies on the Mechanism of Photoreactivation of Bacteriophase T2 Inactivated by Ultraviolet Light" involving work with E Coli. This work was supported by grants from the U

  20. SUPPORTING SAFE STORAGE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS THROUGH SCIENCE, ENGINEERING AND SURVEILLANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K.; Chandler, G.; Gardner, C.; Louthan, M.; Mcclard, J.

    2009-11-10

    Reductions in the size of the U. S. nuclear weapons arsenal resulted in the need to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing metals and oxides for prolonged periods of time. To assure that the excess plutonium from the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites was stored in a safe and environmentally friendly manner the plutonium-bearing materials are stabilized and packaged according to well developed criteria published as a DOE Standard. The packaged materials are stored in secure facilities and regular surveillance activities are conducted to assure continuing package integrity. The stabilization, packaging, storage and surveillance requirements were developed through extensive science and engineering activities including those related to: plutonium-environment interactions and container pressurization, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking, plutonium-container material interactions, loss of sealing capability and changes in heat transfer characteristics. This paper summarizes some of those activities and outlines ongoing science and engineering programs that assure continued safe and secure storage of the plutonium-bearing metals and oxides.

  1. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science program report, Weapons Resarch and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, L.

    1997-03-01

    This report is the annual progress report for the Chemistry Materials Science Program: Weapons Research and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development. Twenty-one projects are described separately by their principal investigators.

  2. Materials Science of Electrodes and Interfaces for High-Performance Organic Photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Tobin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2016-11-18

    The science of organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells has made dramatic advances over the past three years with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) now reaching ~12%. The upper PCE limit of light-to-electrical power conversion for single-junction OPVs as predicted by theory is ~23%. With further basic research, the vision of such devices, composed of non-toxic, earth-abundant, readily easily processed materials replacing/supplementing current-generation inorganic solar cells may become a reality. Organic cells offer potentially low-cost, roll-to-roll manufacturable, and durable solar power for diverse in-door and out-door applications. Importantly, further gains in efficiency and durability, to that competitive with inorganic PVs, will require fundamental, understanding-based advances in transparent electrode and interfacial materials science and engineering. This team-science research effort brought together an experienced and highly collaborative interdisciplinary group with expertise in hard and soft matter materials chemistry, materials electronic structure theory, solar cell fabrication and characterization, microstructure characterization, and low temperature materials processing. We addressed in unconventional ways critical electrode-interfacial issues underlying OPV performance -- controlling band offsets between transparent electrodes and organic active-materials, addressing current loss/leakage phenomena at interfaces, and new techniques in cost-effective low temperature and large area cell fabrication. The research foci were: 1) Theory-guided design and synthesis of advanced crystalline and amorphous transparent conducting oxide (TCO) layers which test our basic understanding of TCO structure-transport property relationships, and have high conductivity, transparency, and tunable work functions but without (or minimizing) the dependence on indium. 2) Development of theory-based understanding of optimum configurations for the interfaces between oxide electrodes

  3. Structural integrity for DEMO: An opportunity to close the gap from materials science to engineering needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porton, M., E-mail: michael.porton@ccfe.ac.uk [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Wynne, B.P. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire S10 2TN (United Kingdom); Bamber, R.; Hardie, C.D.; Kalsey, M. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Key shortfalls in the current approaches to verification of structural integrity are outlined. • Case studies for high integrity applications in other demanding environments are examined. • Relevant lessons are drawn from fission and space for the design stage and through service life. • Future efforts are suggested to align materials and engineering for DEMO structural integrity. - Abstract: It is clear that fusion demonstration devices offer unique challenges due to the myriad, interacting material degradation effects and the numerous, conflicting requirements that must be addressed in order for in-vessel components to deliver satisfactory performance over the required lifetime. The link between mechanical engineering and materials science is pivotal to assure the timely realisation and exploitation of successful fusion power. A key aspect of this link is the verification of structural integrity, achieved at the design stage via structural design criteria against which designs are judged to be sufficiently resilient (or not) to failure, for a given set of loading conditions and desired lifetime. As various demonstration power plant designs progress through their current conceptual design phases, this paper seeks to highlight key shortfalls in this vital link between engineering needs and materials science, offering a perspective on where future attention can be prioritised to maximise impact. Firstly, issues in applying existing structural design criteria to demonstration power plant designs are identified. Whilst fusion offers particular challenges, there are significant insights to be gained from attempts to address such issues for high performance, high integrity applications in other demanding environments. Therefore case studies from beyond fusion are discussed. These offer examples where similar shortfalls have been successfully addressed, via approaches at the design stage and through service lifetime in order to deliver significant

  4. The Effects of Activity and Gain Based Virtual Material on Student's Success, Permanency and Attitudes towards Science Lesson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Erol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to research the effects of a student gains and activity based virtual material on students' success, permanence and attitudes towards science lesson, developed for science and technology lesson 6th grade "Systems in our body" unit. The study, which had a quasi-experimental design, was conducted with…

  5. Active matter at the interface between materials science and cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Daniel; Dogic, Zvonimir

    2017-09-01

    The remarkable processes that characterize living organisms, such as motility, self-healing and reproduction, are fuelled by a continuous injection of energy at the microscale. The field of active matter focuses on understanding how the collective behaviours of internally driven components can give rise to these biological phenomena, while also striving to produce synthetic materials composed of active energy-consuming components. The synergistic approach of studying active matter in both living cells and reconstituted systems assembled from biochemical building blocks has the potential to transform our understanding of both cell biology and materials science. This methodology can provide insight into the fundamental principles that govern the dynamical behaviours of self-organizing subcellular structures, and can lead to the design of artificial materials and machines that operate away from equilibrium and can thus attain life-like properties. In this Review, we focus on active materials made of cytoskeletal components, highlighting the role of active stresses and how they drive self-organization of both cellular structures and macroscale materials, which are machines powered by nanomachines.

  6. A Study on Developing a Guide Material for Science Classes Supported by Out-of-School Learningi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakioglu, Büsra; Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to develop a guide material in line with learning outcomes of the unit for the 5th Graders titled Solving the Puzzle: Our Body in order to be utilized during out-of-school learning activities by science teachers. There is no guide material developed in our country for science teachers to be used in out-of…

  7. PREFACE: 1st International Conference in Applied Physics and Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    We are delighted to come up with thirty two (32) contributed research papers in these proceedings, focusing on Materials Science and Applied Physics as an output of the 2013 International Conference in Applied Physics and Materials Science (ICAMS2013) held on October 22-24, 2013 at the Ateneo de Davao University, Davao City, Philippines. The conference was set to provide a high level of international forum and had brought together leading academic scientists, industry professionals, researchers and scholars from universities, industries and government agencies who have shared their experiences, research results and discussed the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted as well as the advances in the fields of Applied Physics and Materials Science. This conference has provided a wide opportunity to establish multidisciplinary collaborations with local and foreign experts. ICAMS2013, held concurrently with 15th Samahang Pisika ng Visayas at Mindanao (SPVM) National Physics Conference and 2013 International Meeting for Complex Systems, was organized by the Samahang Pisika ng Visayas at Mindanao (Physics Society of Visayas and Mindanao) based in MSU-Iligan Institute of Technology, Iligan City, Philippines. The international flavor of converging budding researchers and experts on Materials Science and Applied Physics was the first to be organized in the 19 years of SPVM operation in the Philippines. We highlighted ICAMS2013 gathering by the motivating presence of Dr. Stuart Parkin, a British Physicist, as one of our conference's plenary speakers. Equal measures of gratitude were also due to all other plenary speakers, Dr. Elizabeth Taylor of Institute of Physics (IOP) in London, Dr. Surya Raghu of Advanced Fluidics in Maryland, USA and Prof. Hitoshi Miyata of Niigata University, Japan, Prof. Djulia Onggo of Institut Teknologi Bandung, Indonesia, and Dr. Hironori Katagiri of Nagaoka National College of Technology, Japan. The warm hospitality of the host

  8. NASA's Additive Manufacturing Development Materials Science to Technology Infusion - Connecting the Digital Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2017-01-01

    At NASA, the first steps of the Journey to Mars are well underway with the development of NASA's next generation launch system and investments in research and technologies that should increase the affordability, capability, and safety of exploration activities. Additive Manufacturing presents a disruptive opportunity for NASA to design and manufacture hardware with new materials at dramatically reduced cost and schedule. Opportunities to incorporate additive manufacturing align very well with NASA missions and with most NASA programs related to space, science, and aeronautics. The Agency also relies on many partnerships with other government agencies, industry and academia.

  9. Magnet Science and Technology for Basic Research at the High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    渡辺和雄

    2007-01-01

    Since the first practical cryocooled superconducting magnet using a GM-cryocooler and high temperature superconducting current leads has been demonstrated successfully at the High Field Laboratory for Superconducting Materials (HFLSM), various kinds of cryocooled superconducting magnets in fields up to 15 T have been used to provide access for new research areas in fields of magneto-science. Recently, the HFLSM has succeeded in demonstrating a cryocooed 18 T high temperature superconducting magnet and a high field cryocooled 27.5 T hybrid magnet. Cryocooled magnet technology and basic research using high field magnets at the HFLSM are introduced.

  10. Random-phase approximation and its applications in computational chemistry and materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xinguo; Rinke, Patrick; Joas, Christian; Scheffler, Matthias

    2012-11-01

    The random-phase approximation (RPA) as an approach for computing the electronic correlation energy is reviewed. After a brief account of its basic concept and historical development, the paper is devoted to the theoretical formulations of RPA, and its applications to realistic systems. With several illustrating applications, we discuss the implications of RPA for computational chemistry and materials science. The computational cost of RPA is also addressed which is critical for its widespread use in future applications. In addition, current correction schemes going beyond RPA and directions of further development will be discussed.

  11. Preparation and properties of thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1982-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 24: Preparation and Properties of Thin Films covers the progress made in the preparation of thin films and the corresponding study of their properties. The book discusses the preparation and property correlations in thin film; the variation of microstructure of thin films; and the molecular beam epitaxy of superlattices in thin film. The text also describes the epitaxial growth of silicon structures (thermal-, laser-, and electron-beam-induced); the characterization of grain boundaries in bicrystalline thin films; and the mechanical properti

  12. Applications of Continuous-Flow Photochemistry in Organic Synthesis, Material Science, and Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambié, Dario; Bottecchia, Cecilia; Straathof, Natan J W; Hessel, Volker; Noël, Timothy

    2016-09-14

    Continuous-flow photochemistry in microreactors receives a lot of attention from researchers in academia and industry as this technology provides reduced reaction times, higher selectivities, straightforward scalability, and the possibility to safely use hazardous intermediates and gaseous reactants. In this review, an up-to-date overview is given of photochemical transformations in continuous-flow reactors, including applications in organic synthesis, material science, and water treatment. In addition, the advantages of continuous-flow photochemistry are pointed out and a thorough comparison with batch processing is presented.

  13. Materials science in microelectronics II the effects of structure on properties in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Machlin, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The subject matter of thin-films - which play a key role in microelectronics - divides naturally into two headings: the processing / structure relationship, and the structure / properties relationship. Part II of 'Materials Science in Microelectronics' focuses on the latter of these relationships, examining the effect of structure on the following: Electrical properties Magnetic properties Optical properties Mechanical properties Mass transport properties Interface and junction properties Defects and properties Captures the importance of thin films to microelectronic development Examines the cause / effect relationship of structure on thin film properties.

  14. Gino Marinuzzi Jr: Electronics and Early Multimedia Mentality in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Corbella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I reassess the complexity of the convergence between electronic music and media practices in Rome in the 1950s and 1960s, through the reconstruction of the experience of composer Gino Marinuzzi Jr (1920-96. His engagement with technology as a structuring device of compositional processes is fundamental and inescapable, and brings to the fore crucial issues of ‘applied’ music’s troublesome reputation in the Italian cultural discourse. In reviewing Marinuzzi’s biography over the period 1949-75, my goal is to exemplify the key phases of this transitional period in Italian music history, in which technology, through the spreading of media and their increasing importance in cultural representations, came to constitute a new value of musical activity and at the same time renewed old questions concerning music’s aesthetic autonomy.

  15. Bridging the gap to mesoscale radiation materials science with transient grating spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Cody A.; Cao, Penghui; Ferry, Sara E.; Vega-Flick, Alejandro; Maznev, Alexei A.; Nelson, Keith A.; Every, Arthur G.; Short, Michael P.

    2016-12-01

    Direct mesoscale measurements of radiation-induced changes in the mechanical properties of bulk materials remain difficult to perform. Most widely used characterization techniques are either macro- or microscale in nature, focusing on overall properties or overly small areas for analysis. Linking the atomic structure of irradiated materials directly with their radiation-affected properties remains one of the largest unmet challenges in radiation materials science. By measuring the change in surface acoustic wave speed as a function of relative orientation on metallic single crystals, we demonstrate that transient grating (TG) spectroscopy experiments have the sensitivity necessary to detect radiation-induced material property changes. We also show that classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations can be used to accurately simulate orientation-based changes in surface acoustic wave speed in TG experiments, by comparing with experimental measurements and theoretical predictions. The agreement between theory, simulation, and experiment gives confidence in classical MD as a predictive tool to simulate defect-based changes in elastic properties, which cannot yet be fully treated by theory. This ability is of critical importance for the informed use of TG spectroscopy to measure material property changes induced by radiation damage, which may vary by amounts formerly too small for reliable in situ detection. Finally, our MD simulation framework is used to study the effect of an imposed vacancy population on the acoustic response of several materials. The results of these studies indicate that TG experiments are well suited to the ex situ and in situ study of radiation-induced material property changes.

  16. The heat science of the nano-porous materials; La thermique des materiaux nanoporeux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volz, S. [CNRS, Lab. d' Energetique Moleculaire et Macroscopique, Combustion, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France); Quintard, M. [CNRS, Institut de Mecanique des Fluides, 31 - Toulouse (France); Rochais, D. [CEA Centre d' Etudes du Ripault, Lab. Microstructures et Comportements, 37 - Tours (France); Enguehard, F. [CEA Centre d' Etudes du Ripault, Lab. Ingenierie des Materiaux Optiques, 37 - Tours (France); Domingues, G. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d' Aerotechnique (ENSMA), Lab. d' Etudes Thermiques, 86 - Poitiers (France); Quenard, D. [CSTB, Div. Caracterisation Physique des Materiaux, 38 - Grenoble (France); Rigacci, A. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 - Paris (France); Bourdin, V. [CNRS, Lab. d' Informatique pour la Mecanique et les Sciences pour l' Ingenieur, 91 - Orsay (France); Chantrenne, P. [Centre de Thermique de Lyon, INSA, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2005-07-01

    In this work are gathered the transparencies of the lecture presented at the conference 'the heat science of the nano-porous materials'. The titles of the different lectures are: 1)modelling of the transfers in nano-porous media 2)modelling of the transfers inside nano-porous super-insulators part I: conduction part II: radiation 3)heat transfers between two silicon oxide nano-crystallite 4)thermo-physical properties of two pyro-micro-nano-porous silicon oxides: humidity and temperature effect 5)adsorption kinetics by a thermal frequency method: an indirect measurement method of the effective conductivity of the granulated adsorbents 6)the aerogels materials: nano-structured thermal super-insulators 7)anticipation of the nano-structured silicon thermal conductivity. (O.M.)

  17. The Fête de la Science celebrates materials From 14 to 20 October 2002 in the Pays de Gex

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    From 14 to 20 October, the 11th Fête de la Science will be casting the spotlight on materials of all types: strange materials, useful materials, as well as astonishing and mysterious materials. Whether you are young or old, a scientist or not, you can take part in a whole raft of activities on a journey of discovery of materials. This year the Association Euroscience-Léman is once again organising various events which will take place in the Pays de Gex, with the involvement of CERN and La Passerelle Science-Cité of Geneva University. A varied programme of activities - lectures, an exhibition, theatre, experiments and visits - has been organised throughout the week in various communes. Consult the programme. More details of CERN's involvement in the Fête de la Science will be published in next week's Bulletin.

  18. [Darwinism, materialism and the revolution of 1848 in Germany. On the interaction of politics and science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, T

    1995-01-01

    In recent years, the question of national styles in science has received increasing attention. The different forms of Darwinism that emerged in the nineteenth century provide an impressive example of the role of non-scientific factors in the development of scientific ideas. Although the reception of Darwinian theory has been acknowledged to differ according to distinct national traditions even in Darwin's time, there have been few systematic efforts to understand the underlying causal factors. Usually these explanations have conceived of the relationship of science to its social and political context as a distortion of science by ideology. In contrast to this picture, I attempt to demonstrate here how a scientific research program was situated in a concrete historical context. The German tradition of Darwinism in the nineteenth century will be described as a coalition of political liberalism, materialism, and morphology. Whereas the liberals used Darwinism to give their anti-religious and progressive program a naturalistic foundation, the morphologists appreciated that Darwinian theory allowed them to dispense with the idealistic origins of their research program, and the materialist were provided with a naturalistic explanation of the origin of organic form.

  19. Research Opportunities Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration from the Transformation of the Former Microgravity Materials Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Szofran, Frank; Bassler, Julie A.; Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Cook, Mary Beth

    2005-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Program established a strong research capability through partnerships between NASA and the scientific research community. With the announcement of the vision for space exploration, additional emphasis in strategic materials science areas was necessary. The President's Commission recognized that achieving its exploration objectives would require significant technical innovation, research, and development in focal areas defined as "enabling technologies." Among the 17 enabling technologies identified for initial focus were: advanced structures, advanced power and propulsion; closed-loop life support and habitability; extravehicular activity systems; autonomous systems and robotics; scientific data collection and analysis, biomedical risk mitigation; and planetary in situ resource utilization. Mission success may depend upon use of local resources to fabricate a replacement part to repair a critical system. Future propulsion systems will require materials with a wide range of mechanical, thermophysical, and thermochemical properties, many of them well beyond capabilities of today's materials systems. Materials challenges have also been identified by experts working to develop advanced life support systems. In responding to the vision for space exploration, the Microgravity Materials Science Program aggressively transformed its research portfolio and focused materials science areas of emphasis to include space radiation shielding; in situ fabrication and repair for life support systems; in situ resource utilization for life support consumables; and advanced materials for exploration, including materials science for space propulsion systems and for life support systems. The purpose of this paper is to inform the scientific community of these new research directions and opportunities to utilize their materials science expertise and capabilities to support the vision for space exploration.

  20. Research Opportunities Supporting the Vision for Space Exploration from the Transformation of the Former Microgravity Materials Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Szofran, Frank; Bassler, Julie A.; Schlagheck, Ronald A.; Cook, Mary Beth

    2005-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Program established a strong research capability through partnerships between NASA and the scientific research community. With the announcement of the vision for space exploration, additional emphasis in strategic materials science areas was necessary. The President's Commission recognized that achieving its exploration objectives would require significant technical innovation, research, and development in focal areas defined as "enabling technologies." Among the 17 enabling technologies identified for initial focus were: advanced structures, advanced power and propulsion; closed-loop life support and habitability; extravehicular activity systems; autonomous systems and robotics; scientific data collection and analysis, biomedical risk mitigation; and planetary in situ resource utilization. Mission success may depend upon use of local resources to fabricate a replacement part to repair a critical system. Future propulsion systems will require materials with a wide range of mechanical, thermophysical, and thermochemical properties, many of them well beyond capabilities of today's materials systems. Materials challenges have also been identified by experts working to develop advanced life support systems. In responding to the vision for space exploration, the Microgravity Materials Science Program aggressively transformed its research portfolio and focused materials science areas of emphasis to include space radiation shielding; in situ fabrication and repair for life support systems; in situ resource utilization for life support consumables; and advanced materials for exploration, including materials science for space propulsion systems and for life support systems. The purpose of this paper is to inform the scientific community of these new research directions and opportunities to utilize their materials science expertise and capabilities to support the vision for space exploration.

  1. PREFACE: International Seminar on Science and Technology of Glass Materials (ISSTGM-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraiah, N.

    2009-07-01

    The progress of the human race is linked with the development of new materials and also the values they acquired in the course of time. Though the art of glass forming has been known from Egyptian civilization, the understanding and use of these glasses for technological applications only became possible once the structural aspects were revealed by the inspiring theories proposed by William H Zachariasen. Glass and glass ceramics have become the essential materials for modern technology. The applications of these materials are wide and cover areas such as optical communication, laser host, innovative architecture, bio-medical, automobile and space technology. As we master the technology, we must also learn to use it judiciously and for the overall development of all in this global village. The International Seminar on Science and Technology of Glass Materials (ISSTGM-2009) is organized to bring together scientists, academia and industry in order to discuss various aspects of the technology and to inspire young scholars to take up fruitful research. Various topics such as glass formation and glass-ceramics, glass structure, applications of glass and glass ceramics in nuclear waste management, radiation dosimetry, electronics and information technology, biotechnological applications, bulk metallic glasses, glasses containing nano-particles, hybrid glasses, novel glasses and applications in photonics, Non-linear optics and energy generation were discussed. In this volume, 59 research articles covering 18 invited talks, 10 oral presentations and 31 poster presentations are included. We hope these will serve as a valuable resource to all the scientists and scholars working with glass materials. Acharya Nagarjuna University, established in 1976, is named after the great Buddhist preceptor and philosopher, Acharya Nagarjuna, who founded a university on the banks of river Krishna some centuries ago. The University is situated between Vijayawada and Guntur, the famous

  2. W.E. Henry Symposium compendium: The importance of magnetism in physics and material science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carwell, H.

    1997-09-19

    This compendium contains papers presented at the W. E. Henry Symposium, The Importance of Magnetism in Physics and Material Science. The one-day symposium was conducted to recognize the achievements of Dr. Warren Elliot Henry as educator, scientist, and inventor in a career spanning almost 70 years. Dr. Henry, who is 88 years old, attended the symposium. Nobel Laureate, Dr. Glenn Seaborg, a friend and colleague for over 40 years, attended the event and shared his personal reminiscences. Dr. Seaborg is Associate Director-At-Large at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Compendium begins with three papers which demonstrate the ongoing importance of magnetism in physics and material science. Other contributions cover the highlights of Dr. Henry`s career as a researcher, educator, and inventor. Colleagues and former students share insights on the impact of Dr. Henry`s research in the field of magnetism, low temperature physics, and solid state physics; his influence on students as an educator; and his character, intellect and ingenuity, and passion for learning and teaching. They share a glimpse of the environment and times that molded him as a man, and the circumstances under which he made his great achievements despite the many challenges he faced.

  3. Quasi-appropriation of dialectical materialism: a critical reading of Marxism in Vygotskian approaches to cultural studies in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, André; Camillo, Juliano; Mattos, Cristiano

    2014-09-01

    In this review essay we examine five categories of dialectical materialism proposed by Paulo Lima Junior, Fernanda Ostermann, and Flavia Rezende in their study of the extent to which the articles published in Cultural Studies of Science Education, that use a Vygotskian approach, are committed to Marxism/dialectical materialism. By closely examining these categories ("thesis, antithesis and synthesis," "unity of analysis," "History," "revolution," "materialism") we expect to enrich the general discussion about the possible contributions of Marxism to science education. We perceive part of science education practice as orientating toward positivism, which reduces human beings—teachers, learners and researchers—to isolated individuals who construct knowledge by themselves. The very same approach aggravates the inner contradiction of the capitalist society demanding commitments from researchers to continually build innovative science education from human praxis. Nevertheless, it is necessary to situate ourselves beyond a formal commitment with dialectical materialism and hence reach the heart of this method. Besides understanding the researchers' commitments, we question the extent to which the respective research helps to radically refresh the current view on science, science education practice, and research in science education.

  4. Molecular Environmental Science Using Synchrotron Radiation: Chemistry and Physics of Waste Form Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindle, Dennis W.

    2011-04-21

    Production of defense-related nuclear materials has generated large volumes of complex chemical wastes containing a mixture of radionuclides. The disposition of these wastes requires conversion of the liquid and solid-phase components into durable, solid forms suitable for long-term immobilization. Specially formulated glass compositions and ceramics such as pyrochlores and apatites are the main candidates for these wastes. An important consideration linked to the durability of waste-form materials is the local structure around the waste components. Equally important is the local structure of constituents of the glass and ceramic host matrix. Knowledge of the structure in the waste-form host matrices is essential, prior to and subsequent to waste incorporation, to evaluate and develop improved waste-form compositions based on scientific considerations. This project used the soft-x-ray synchrotron-radiation-based technique of near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) as a unique method for investigating oxidation states and structures of low-Z elemental constituents forming the backbones of glass and ceramic host matrices for waste-form materials. In addition, light metal ions in ceramic hosts, such as titanium, are also ideal for investigation by NEXAFS in the soft-x-ray region. Thus, one of the main objectives was to understand outstanding issues in waste-form science via NEXAFS investigations and to translate this understanding into better waste-form materials, followed by eventual capability to investigate “real” waste-form materials by the same methodology. We conducted several detailed structural investigations of both pyrochlore ceramic and borosilicate-glass materials during the project and developed improved capabilities at Beamline 6.3.1 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to perform the studies.

  5. FOREWORD: Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Volker

    2011-10-01

    Jürgen Hafner started in the early 1970s with pseudopotential calculations on the structures and properties of sp-bonded metals, improving on work done elsewhere [1]. This expanded in four directions: transition metals, molten metals, magnetism and alloys, and combinations of these. As well as electronic structure calculations, he helped to advance the statistical mechanical classical theory of liquids for the molten metals [2]. In magnetism he was one of the pioneers of calculations with non-collinear spins [3, 4]. As well as simple (solid and molten) alloys, he also treated materials with strong chemical interaction such as sulphides and liquids such as arsenic and tellurium [5, 6]. All this fed into two directions which dominated much of his work for many years, namely the theory of glassy metals [7] and that of quasicrystals [8]. One notable result in the latter was to show that it was possible to construct hypothetical materials for which the quasicrystalline state is indeed the lowest energy structure. This displaced the established wisdom of the time that quasicrystals were necessarily metastable forms. In more recent years he has turned to calculations in surface science [9, 10], including catalysis of chemical reactions on surfaces [11, 12]. What really brought Jürgen first to my attention was that he had managed to do a better job than we had of calculations with the new approach of pseudopotentials, particularly regarding the screening part of the calculation. This is very important in alloys where there is a large difference in the electron density in the two types of atom due to their different volumes or valences such as in the phase diagram and structure of LiK or KPb [5, 13]. We have been in contact over many years including one close collaboration and I always learned something new in talking with Jürgen. In the late 1970s in Cambridge we performed phonon calculations on models of amorphous silicon [14], to see if these could distinguish between

  6. Claim on memory : a political biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., 1914-1988

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Erik Eduard Willem van den

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the political life of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Jr., the third surviving son of Franklin D. Roosevelt and Eleanor Roosevelt. The key question of this study emphasizes how FDR, Jr. interpreted the Roosevelt name and legacy during his life and political career. This book deal

  7. Connect the Book. Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    In honor of Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, this month's featured book is "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." The book was written by Doreen Rappaport and illustrated by Bryan Collier (Jump at the Sun, 2001. 40p. ISBN 0786807148). This pictorial biography of the world-renowned civil rights leader has one of the most striking…

  8. 78 FR 57105 - Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company; Filing of Color.... Wrigley Jr. Company, proposing that the color additive regulations be amended to expand the use of... lower the specification limit ] for lead in synthetic iron oxide for human food use. DATES: The...

  9. An exploration of how pre-service early childhood teachers use educative curriculum materials to support their science teaching practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englehart, Deirdre

    Research indicates that a proportion of elementary teachers are not comfortable teaching science to young children. These teachers are unaware of the best methods of approaching science and don't have the science background knowledge to support teaching through inquiry methods. This case study explores the role educative curriculum materials play in supporting pre-service early childhood education teachers' knowledge with science content and teaching practices. Specifically, I examine how educative materials impact pre-service teacher's content knowledge in science and their pedagogical content knowledge related to inquiry methods. Three pre-service early childhood teachers participated in this research. The teachers were initially interviewed about teaching science based upon three instruments: Views of Science Inquiry, Views of the Nature of Science and the Science Teachers Efficacy Beliefs Inventory. Each subject was observed teaching science in their internship site: the first lessons taught were guided or approved by their teachers and the next lessons were conducted using the support of educative curriculum materials. Finally, the initial instruments were once again administered along with an interview to obtain changes in teacher's knowledge, beliefs and understandings of science and science teaching. Results from this research indicate that educative curriculum was supportive of teachers in a variety of ways. Most importantly, this curriculum helped teachers to target more aspects of scientific inquiry during their science lessons than lessons without the use of educative curriculum. The important considerations regarding the effectiveness of the educative curriculum for these pre-service teachers were their underlying beliefs about how science should be taught, their uses of the curriculum materials and reflective practices regarding their own teaching. Results specifically related to early childhood educators include the level of inquiry implemented with

  10. Quasi-Appropriation of Dialectical Materialism: A Critical Reading of Marxism in Vygotskian Approaches to Cultural Studies in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, André; Camillo, Juliano; Mattos, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    In this review essay we examine five categories of dialectical materialism proposed by Paulo Lima Junior, Fernanda Ostermann, and Flavia Rezende in their study of the extent to which the articles published in "Cultural Studies of Science Education," that use a Vygotskian approach, are committed to Marxism/dialectical materialism. By…

  11. Three-Dimensional Transmission Electron Microscopy: A Novel Imaging and Characterization Technique with Nanometer Scale Resolution for Materials Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.J.; Ziese, Ulrike; Verkleij, A.J.; Janssen, A.H.; Jong, K.P. de

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional transmission electron microscopy (3D-TEM), effectuated by multiple imaging of a sample combined with image analysis, offers a new approach in materials science to obtain 3D information of complex solid materials. Here we report first-of-its-kind results that have been obtained with

  12. Quasi-Appropriation of Dialectical Materialism: A Critical Reading of Marxism in Vygotskian Approaches to Cultural Studies in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, André; Camillo, Juliano; Mattos, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    In this review essay we examine five categories of dialectical materialism proposed by Paulo Lima Junior, Fernanda Ostermann, and Flavia Rezende in their study of the extent to which the articles published in "Cultural Studies of Science Education," that use a Vygotskian approach, are committed to Marxism/dialectical materialism. By…

  13. The Life Cycle Application of Intelligent Software Modeling for the First Materials Science Research Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amanda; Parris, Frank; Nerren, Philip

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been funding development of intelligent software models to benefit payload ground operations for nearly a decade. Experience gained from simulator development and real-time monitoring and control is being applied to engineering design, testing, and operation of the First Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1). MSRR-1 is the first rack in a suite of three racks comprising the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) which will operate on the International Space Station (ISS). The MSRF will accommodate advanced microgravity investigations in areas such as the fields of solidification of metals and alloys, thermo-physical properties of polymers, crystal growth studies of semiconductor materials, and research in ceramics and glasses. The MSRR-1 is a joint venture between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) to study the behavior of different materials during high temperature processing in a low gravity environment. The planned MSRR-1 mission duration is five (5) years on-orbit and the total design life is ten (IO) years. The MSRR-1 launch is scheduled on the third Utilization Flight (UF-3) to ISS, currently in February of 2003). The objective of MSRR-1 is to provide an early capability on the ISS to conduct material science, materials technology, and space product research investigations in microgravity. It will provide a modular, multi-user facility for microgravity research in materials crystal growth and solidification. An intelligent software model of MSRR-1 is under development and will serve multiple purposes to support the engineering analysis, testing, training, and operational phases of the MSRR-1 life cycle development. The G2 real-time expert system software environment developed by Gensym Corporation was selected as the intelligent system shell for this development work based on past experience gained and the effectiveness of the programming environment. Our approach of multi- uses of the simulation model and

  14. Obituary: Timothy P. McCullough, Jr., 1910-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Charles

    2007-12-01

    Timothy Pendleton McCullough Jr., 93, a retired research physicist who was a pioneer in the measurement of microwave radiation from planetary surfaces, died of cardiac arrest on 19 November 2004, at Inova Fairfax Hospital. He lived in Springfield, VA. McCullough, who was principally a radio astronomer, published 22 scientific research papers while working in the Atmosphere and Astrophysics Division of NRL, from 1946 until his retirement in 1975. He spent the early part of his career in planetary observation and was among the first in his field to use radio astronomy to measure the surface temperature of Venus. He also studied Mars and Jupiter. Later, his interest turned to supernovas, galaxies and solar flares. He was an emeritus member of the American Astronomical Society and a member of the Sigma Xi Scientific Research Society. McCullough was born on 9 December 1910 in Vardaman, Mississippi. His father, Timothy P. McCullough, was a farmer and bookkeeper. His mother, Annie W. McCullough, was a homemaker. Timothy McCullough, Jr.'s parents, as well as two sisters and a brother, are deceased. McCullough graduated from the University of Mississippi in Oxford in 1936 and received a master's degree in physics from North Carolina State University in Raleigh. He taught physics and aviation navigation before entering the Navy during World War II. He instructed Russian sailors on anti-submarine warfare. McCullough left the Navy at the end of the war, but continued to serve in the Naval Reserve. He was recalled to active duty during the Korean War and was stationed at Potomac River Naval Command, where he wrote technical documents on electronic warfare systems. McCullough retired from the Naval Reserve in 1969 with the rank of commander. He was a charter member of First Baptist Church in Springfield and a former deacon and Sunday school teacher at First Baptist Church in Alexandria. Survivors include his wife of 63 years, Virginia Ball McCullough of Springfield; three

  15. Development of micro-tomography system for materials science at SPring-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, Kentaro; Hoshinio, Masato; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Mashita, Ryo

    2016-10-01

    A new micro-tomography system for materials science has been developed at BL20B2 in SPring-8. The system enables us to do stretching, press and twist of materials with a translation stage and two precise rotation stages arranged opposite to each other. Each deformation can be operated with constant moving rate. The maximum load is about 2 kN because of the hardness of the precision stages. The X-ray image detector consists of visible light conversion system and sCMOS camera. The effective pixel size is variable by changing a tandem lens between 2.7 μm/pixel to 13.2 μm /pixel discretely. As a demonstration of the system, a viscoelastic object was imaged. The experimental conditions are follows, X-ray energy: 25 keV, exposure time: 5 msec, number of projections: 900, single scan time: 7.5 sec, pixel size: 13.2 μm /pixel and field of view: 27.0 mm x 3.9 mm. The stretching rate was 1 μm /sec to 5 μm /sec. A metastable state such as tensile loading of viscoelastic materials is possible with this system.

  16. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Chemical Instabilities : Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Baras, F

    1984-01-01

    On March 14-18, 1983 a workshop on "Chemical Instabilities: Applications in Chemistry, Engineering, Geology, and Materials Science" was held in Austin, Texas, U.S.A. It was organized jointly by the University of Texas at Austin and the Universite Libre de Bruxelles and sponsored qy NATO, NSF, the University of Texas at Austin, the International Solvay Institutes and the Ex­ xon Corporation. The present Volume includes most of the material of the in­ vited lectures delivered in the workshop as well as material from some posters, whose content was directly related to the themes of the invited lectures. In ,recent years, problems related to the stability and the nonlinear dynamics of nonequilibrium systems invaded a great num­ ber of fields ranging from abstract mathematics to biology. One of the most striking aspects of this development is that subjects reputed to be "classical" and "well-established" like chemistry, turned out to give rise to a rich variety of phenomena leading to multiple steady states and...

  17. Theory, Modeling, Software and Hardware Development for Analytical and Computational Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald W.; Clemons, Curtis B.

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this Cooperative Agreement between the Computational Materials Laboratory (CML) of the Processing Science and Technology Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics at The University of Akron was in the areas of system development of the CML workstation environment, modeling of microgravity and earth-based material processing systems, and joint activities in laboratory projects. These efforts complement each other as the majority of the modeling work involves numerical computations to support laboratory investigations. Coordination and interaction between the modelers, system analysts, and laboratory personnel are essential toward providing the most effective simulations and communication of the simulation results. Toward these means, The University of Akron personnel involved in the agreement worked at the Applied Mathematics Research Laboratory (AMRL) in the Department of Theoretical and Applied Mathematics while maintaining a close relationship with the personnel of the Computational Materials Laboratory at GRC. Network communication between both sites has been established. A summary of the projects we undertook during the time period 9/1/03 - 6/30/04 is included.

  18. Computational materials science aided design of glass ceramics and crystal properties (abstract only).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannstadt, Wolfgang

    2008-02-13

    Today's high tech materials have in many cases highly specialized properties and designed functionalities. Materials parameters like high temperature stability, high stiffness and certain optical properties have to be optimized and in many cases an adaptation to given processes is necessary. Many materials are compounds or layered structures. Thus, surface and interface properties need to be considered as well. At the same time to some extent just a few atomic layers sometimes determine the properties of the material, as is well known in semiconductor and other thin film technologies. Therefore, a detailed understanding of the materials properties at the atomic scale becomes more and more important. In addition many high tech materials have to be of high purity or selective dopant concentrations have to be adjusted to fulfill the desired functionality. Modern materials developments successfully use computational materials science to achieve that goal. Improved software tools and continuously growing computational power allow us to predict macroscopic properties of materials on the basis of microscopic/atomic ab initio simulation approaches. At Schott, special materials, in particular glasses and glass ceramics, are produced for a variety of applications. For a glass ceramic all the above mentioned difficulties for materials development arise. The properties of a glass ceramic are determined by the interplay of crystalline phases embedded in an amorphous glass matrix. For materials development the understanding of crystal structures and their properties, surfaces and interface phenomena, and amorphous systems are necessary, likewise. Each by itself is already a challenging problem. Many crystal phases that are grown within the glass matrix do not exist as single crystals or are difficult to grow in reasonable amounts for experimental investigations. The only way to obtain the properties of these crystalline phases is through 'ab initio' simulations in the computer

  19. The review of the modeling methods and numerical analysis software for nanotechnology in material science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SMIRNOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high demand for building materials with universal set of roperties which extend their application area the research efforts are focusing on nanotechnology in material science. The rational combination of theoretical studies, mathematical modeling and simulation can favour reduced resource and time consumption when nanomodified materials are being developed. The development of composite material is based on the principles of system analysis which provides for the necessity of criteria determination and further classification of modeling methods. In this work the criteria of spatial scale, dominant type of interaction and heterogeneity are used for such classification. The presented classification became a framework for analysis of methods and software which can be applied to the development of building materials. For each of selected spatial levels - from atomistic one to macrostructural level of constructional coarsegrained composite – existing theories, modeling algorithms and tools have been considered. At the level of macrostructure which is formed under influence of gravity and exterior forces one can apply probabilistic and geometrical methods to study obtained structure. The existing models are suitable for packing density analysis and solution of percolation problems at the macroscopic level, but there are still no software tools which could be applied in nanotechnology to carry out systematic investigations. At the microstructure level it’s possible to use particle method along with probabilistic and statistical methods to explore structure formation but available software tools are partially suitable for numerical analysis of microstructure models. Therefore, modeling of the microstructure is rather complicated; the model has to include potential of pairwise interaction. After the model has been constructed and parameters of pairwise potential have been determined, many software packages for solution of ordinary

  20. The renaissance man of burn surgery: Basil A. Pruitt Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capek, Karel D; Foncerrada, Guillermo; Clayton, R Patrick; Sljivich, Michaela; Voigt, Charles D; Hundeshagen, Gabriel; Cambiaso-Daniel, Janos; Porter, Craig; Guillory, Ashley; Herndon, David N

    2017-07-08

    Dr. Basil A. Pruitt Jr., a consummate clinical and translational surgeon-scientist, has been spent over half a century at the forefront of an advancing standard of burn care. Commanding the US Army Institute for Surgical Research in San Antonio, he trained generations of leading burn clinicians and allied scientists. At his direction, there were forged discoveries in resuscitation from shock, treatment of inhalation injury, control of burn-related infections, prevention of iatrogenic complications, and understanding the sympathetic, endocrine, and immune responses to burn injury. Most consequentially, this team was among the first recognize and define alterations in the basal metabolic rate and thermoregulation consequent to burn injury. These investigations prompted groundbreaking insights into the coordinated nervous, autonomic, endocrine, immune, and metabolic outflows that a severely-burned patient uses to remain alive and restore homeostasis. Marking his scientific consequence, many of his reports continue bear fruit when viewed through a contemporary lens. This paper summarizes some of the major findings of his career thus far, and is intended to complement a Festschrift recently held in his honor. Not applicable.

  1. John Call Dalton, Jr., MD: America's first neurophysiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, E J; Manteghi, T; Sobel, S H; Lohr, L A

    2000-09-26

    Before the discoveries of John Call Dalton, Jr., MD (1824-1889), innervation of laryngeal muscles, long-term effects of cerebellar lesions, and consequences of raised intracranial pressure were poorly understood. Dalton discovered that the posterior cricoarytenoid muscles adducted the vocal cords during inspiration. He confirmed Flourens' observations that acute ablation of the cerebellum of pigeons caused loss of coordination. Dalton observed that properly cared for pigeons gradually recovered "coordinating power." Dalton observed that prolonged raised intracranial pressure caused tachycardia and then fatal bradycardia in dogs. Before Dalton published his photographic atlas of the human brain, neuroanatomy atlases were sketched by Europeans and imported into the United States. Dalton's atlas of the human brain contained precise photographs of vertical and horizontal sections that equal modern works. Before Dalton introduced live demonstrations of animals, physiology was taught by recitation of texts only. Dalton was the first American-born professor to teach physiology employing demonstrations of live animals operated on under ether anesthesia. He wrote an essay advocating experimentation on animals as the proper method of acquiring knowledge of function and that humane animal experimentation would ultimately improve the health of man and animals. His eloquent advocacy for humane experimental physiology quelled attacks by contemporaneous antivivisectionists. Dalton was America's first experimental neurophysiologist.

  2. East Weddell Sea echinoids from the JR275 expedition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Saucède

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the echinoids in this dataset is based on the Agassiz Trawl (AGT and epibenthic sledge (EBS samples collected during the British Antarctic Survey cruise JR275 on the RRS James Clark Ross in the austral summer 2012. A total of 56 (1 at the South Orkneys and 55 in the Eastern Weddell Sea Agassiz Trawl and 18 (2 at the South Orkneys and 16 in the Eastern Weddell Sea epibenthic sledge deployments were performed at depths ranging from ~280 to ~2060 m. This presents a unique collection for the Antarctic benthic biodiversity assessment of an important group of benthic invertebrates. In total 487 specimens belonging to six families, 15 genera, and 22 morphospecies were collected. The species richness per station varied between one and six. Total species richness represents 27% of the 82 echinoid species ever recorded in the Southern Ocean (David et al. 2005b, Pierrat et al. 2012, Saucède et al. 2014. The Cidaridae (sub-family Ctenocidarinae and Schizasteridae are the two most speciose families in the dataset. They comprise seven and nine species respectively. This is illustrative of the overall pattern of echinoid diversity in the Southern Ocean where 65% of Antarctic species belong to the families Schizasteridae and Cidaridae (Pierrat et al. 2012.

  3. 2015 AMCA Memorial Lecture Honoree: Dr. Richard Floyd Darsie, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jonathan F

    2015-12-01

    Richard Floyd Darsie, Jr. (1915-2014) is the 2015 American Mosquito Control Association Memorial Lecture Honoree. He was one of the greatest mosquito taxonomists of the 20th century and died peacefully on April 10, 2014, in Grove City, PA, at the age of 99 after a professional career that spanned eight decades. Dick's broad areas of interest and training made him a versatile scientist, teacher, and researcher. His intense interest in adult and immature mosquito morphology and taxonomy, as well as mosquito distribution and bionomics, started early in his career at two early academic postings: Franklin and Marshall College (1949-54) and the University of Delaware (1954-62). Dick would take his mosquito interests with him to postings and research projects around the world: Nepal, the Philippines, Atlanta, El Salvador, Guatemala, Fort Collins, South Carolina, Argentina, and Florida. His travels and studies would make him an international expert on mosquito taxonomy. Dick's legacy lives on in the hundreds of students from across the globe who learned mosquito identification skills from this world-renowned mosquito taxonomist. All will proudly profess that, "I learned mosquito identification from Dr. Darsie." And that is all that is needed to prove one's credentials in the field, learning the art from the best there is.

  4. Is an Apple Magnetic: Magnetic Response of Everyday Materials Supporting Views About the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumann, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Magnetism and its various applications are essential for our daily life and for many technological developments. The term magnetism is almost always used as a synonym for ferromagnetism. However, the magnetic properties of the elements of the periodic table indicate that the vast majority of elements are not ferromagnetic, but rather, diamagnetic or paramagnetic. Typically, only ferromagnetism is discussed in classrooms, which can create a distorted picture. This article supplies the further development of an experiment demonstrating the dia- and paramagnetic properties with an electronic balance and a neodymium magnet. It focuses on an investigation of ordinary materials that occur in pupils' everyday environment. The experiment is applicable both for a quantitative measurement of the magnetic (volume) susceptibility χV and can serve as a phenomenological approach to dia- and paramagnetism. Moreover, it encourages a discussion about typical beliefs regarding the nature of science, comparing the behavior of common objects in weak and in strong magnetic fields.

  5. Application of X-ray topography to USSR and Russian space materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shul'pina, I L; Prokhorov, I A; Serebryakov, Yu A; Bezbakh, I Zh

    2016-05-01

    The authors' experience of the application of X-ray diffraction imaging in carrying out space technological experiments on semiconductor crystal growth for the former USSR and for Russia is reported, from the Apollo-Soyuz programme (1975) up to the present day. X-ray topography was applied to examine defects in crystals in order to obtain information on the crystallization conditions and also on their changes under the influence of factors of orbital flight in space vehicles. The data obtained have promoted a deeper understanding of the conditions and mechanisms of crystallization under both microgravity and terrestrial conditions, and have enabled the elaboration of terrestrial methods of highly perfect crystal growth. The use of X-ray topography in space materials science has enriched its methods in the field of digital image processing of growth striations and expanded its possibilities in investigating the inhomogeneity of crystals.

  6. Ubiquitous trisulfur radical anion: fundamentals and applications in materials science, electrochemistry, analytical chemistry and geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivers, Tristram; Elder, Philip J W

    2013-07-21

    The trisulfur radical anion [S3]˙(-) is well-known from inorganic chemistry textbooks as the blue chromophore in ultramarine blues in which this highly reactive species is trapped in a zeolitic framework. Recent findings have revealed that [S3]˙(-) has a multi-faceted role in a variety of media, including alkali metal-sulfur batteries, aqueous solutions at high temperatures and pressures, and ionic liquids; it has also been used to detect trace amounts of water in organic solvents. This tutorial review illustrates how various physical techniques are used to identify a reactive species in solution and shows how elucidation of electronic structures can be used to explain spectroscopic and structural properties. Examples of the function of [S3]˙(-) in materials science, electrochemistry, analytical chemistry and geochemistry are used to illustrate the widespread influence of this fundamentally important triatomic sulfur species.

  7. Effects of the Integrated Online Advance Organizer Teaching Materials on Students' Science Achievement and Attitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korur, Fikret; Toker, Sacip; Eryılmaz, Ali

    2016-08-01

    This two-group quasi-experimental study investigated the effects of the Online Advance Organizer Concept Teaching Material (ONACOM) integrated with inquiry teaching and expository teaching methods. Grade 7 students' posttest performances on the light unit achievement and light unit attitude tests controlled for gender, previous semester science grade, and pretest scores were analyzed. No significant treatment effects were found between the inquiry and expository approaches. However, both groups demonstrated significant pretest-posttest gains in achievement and attitude. Independent from the method used, ONACOM was judged effective in both groups as students demonstrated increased achievement and attitude scores. ONACOM has a social and semantic network-aided infrastructure that can be adapted to both methods to increase students' achievement and improve their attitude.

  8. Data Mining and Machine Learning Tools for Combinatorial Material Science of All-Oxide Photovoltaic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosipof, Abraham; Nahum, Oren E; Anderson, Assaf Y; Barad, Hannah-Noa; Zaban, Arie; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2015-06-01

    Growth in energy demands, coupled with the need for clean energy, are likely to make solar cells an important part of future energy resources. In particular, cells entirely made of metal oxides (MOs) have the potential to provide clean and affordable energy if their power conversion efficiencies are improved. Such improvements require the development of new MOs which could benefit from combining combinatorial material sciences for producing solar cells libraries with data mining tools to direct synthesis efforts. In this work we developed a data mining workflow and applied it to the analysis of two recently reported solar cell libraries based on Titanium and Copper oxides. Our results demonstrate that QSAR models with good prediction statistics for multiple solar cells properties could be developed and that these models highlight important factors affecting these properties in accord with experimental findings. The resulting models are therefore suitable for designing better solar cells.

  9. Computation material science of structural-phase transformation in casting aluminium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golod, V. M.; Dobosh, L. Yu

    2017-04-01

    Successive stages of computer simulation the formation of the casting microstructure under non-equilibrium conditions of crystallization of multicomponent aluminum alloys are presented. On the basis of computer thermodynamics and heat transfer during solidification of macroscale shaped castings are specified the boundary conditions of local heat exchange at mesoscale modeling of non-equilibrium formation the solid phase and of the component redistribution between phases during coalescence of secondary dendrite branches. Computer analysis of structural - phase transitions based on the principle of additive physico-chemical effect of the alloy components in the process of diffusional - capillary morphological evolution of the dendrite structure and the o of local dendrite heterogeneity which stochastic nature and extent are revealed under metallographic study and modeling by the Monte Carlo method. The integrated computational materials science tools at researches of alloys are focused and implemented on analysis the multiple-factor system of casting processes and prediction of casting microstructure.

  10. A European Project on Materials Science: The Case of Thermal Conductivity Teaching—Learning Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molohides, A.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Kallery, M.; Psillos, D.

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the European Project on Material Science we have developed a Teaching Learning Sequence (TLS), which is composed by units for teaching thermal conductivity in depth to students. The scientific content has been adapted to students' conceptions taking into account research results. Units follow the Predict-Observe-Explain strategy and students conduct guided investigations using an enriched learning environment, which consists of extensive use of ICT based tools. Didactically transformed microscopic models depict thermal interactions in iconic, graphic and symbolic forms. Students working in groups, solve problems, explore models and are engaged in classroom discussion on the problem under study, constructing links between evidence and explanations. In this paper the structure of such innovative units is presented and results showing students' development in scientific understanding are reported.

  11. Research progress at the Slow Positron Facility in the Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, T.; Wada, K.; Mochizuki, I.; Kimura, M.; Toge, N.; Shidara, T.; Fukaya, Y.; Maekawa, M.; Kawasuso, A.; Iida, S.; Michishio, K.; Nagashima, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Recent results at the Slow Positron Facility (SPF), Institute of Materials Structure Science (IMSS), KEK are reported. Studies using the total-reflection high-energy positron diffraction (TRHEPD) station revealed the structures of rutile-TiO2(110) (1×2), graphene on Cu (111) and Co (0001), and germanene on Al (111). First observations of the shape resonance in the Ps- photodetachment process were made using the positronium negative ion (Ps-) station. Experiments using the positronium time-of-flight (Ps-TOF) station showed significant enhancement of the Ps formation efficiency and the energy loss in the Ps formation-emission process. A pulse-stretching section has been implemented, which stretches the positron pulse width from 1.2 μs up to almost 20 ms.

  12. Solid-State Physics An Introduction to Principles of Materials Science

    CERN Document Server

    Ibach, Harald

    2009-01-01

    This new edition of the popular introduction to solid-state physics provides a comprehensive overview on basic theoretical and experimental concepts of material science. Additional sections emphasize current topics in solid-state physics. Notably, sections on important devices, aspects of non-periodic structures of matter, phase transitions, defects, superconductors and nanostructures have been added, the chapters presenting semi- and superconductivity had been completly updated. Students will benefit significantly from solving the exercises given at the end of each chapter. This book is intended for university students in physics, engineering and electrical engineering. This edition has been carefully revised, updated, and enlarged. Among the key recent developments incorporated throughout GMR (giant magneto resistance), thin-film magnetic properties, magnetic hysteresis and domain walls, quantum transport, metamaterials, and preparation techniques for nanostructures. From a review of the original edition �...

  13. Developing the Science and Technology for the Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Juergen; Biewer, Theodore; Bigelow, Timothy; Caughman, John; Goulding, Richard; Lumsdaine, Arnold; MPEX Team Team

    2016-10-01

    The Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) is a device planned to address scientific and technological gaps for the development of viable plasma facing components for fusion reactor conditions (FNSF, DEMO). MPEX is designed to deliver those plasma conditions with a novel Radio Frequency plasma source able to produce high density plasmas and heat electron and ions separately with Electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) heating and Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) with a total installed power of 800 kW. The science and technology for this source system is currently being tested on Proto-MPEX. This is a linear device utilizing 12 water-cooled copper coils able to achieve peak magnetic fields of 1.6T. The currently total installed heating power (for helicon, EBW and ICRH) is 330kW. An overview of the status of this development program is given with an outlook to the next steps.

  14. How does materiality shape Childbirth? An explorative journey into evidence, childbirth practices & Science and Technology Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jette Aaroe

    2010-01-01

    is Science and Technology Studies (STS). (Post) Actor Network Theory and postphenomenology is used as theoretical resources to help formulate questions to EBM, midwifery and birthing practices. A central theoretical resource is the Dutch Philosopher Annemarie Mol’s concept of mul-tiplicity. Mol argues...... that medical practices should be studied relationally, both humans as well as the non humans should be part of the analysis. As a conse-quence entities multiply; bodies and technologies be-come more than one but less than many. The aim of the dissertation is to produce a "productive feeling of astonishment......" for those positioned in evidence based medicine and midwifery about the use of technology in childbirth. The empirical material is developed during a field study at a maternity ward. Noisy stories about the use of epidurals and fetal monitors are used as resources. Noisy stories are stories that do...

  15. Nature of ceramic materials: needs and opportunities for ceramic science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingery, W D

    1976-01-01

    Ceramic materials are inherently strong but brittle; many are stable and corrosion-resistant in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres to high temperatures, and they have a variety of useful optical, thermal, electrical, and magnetic properties. Because of their strength, brittleness, and high-temperature stability, they are inherently difficult to fabricate in a way that allows full use of their intrinsic properties. The needs and opportunities for new and improved ceramic science and technology are mostly related to the critical importance of ceramics in determining the feasibility or effectiveness of large complex systems. One example of a past success is the development of square-loop ferrites for computer memory systems. Many other systems now under development--magnetohydrodynamic power generation, solar energy systems, high-temperature gas turbines, nuclear waste management, optical communications systems, and many others--will become practical only if the fabrication of essential ceramic components with reliably controlled properties is achieved. Development of the science of ceramic characteristics and properties, development of technology for reliably producing desired characteristics and properties, and the training of ceramic scientists are currently progressing at a rate wholly inadequate for meeting the evident requirements.

  16. The Materials Science and its impact in the Archaeology; La Ciencia de Materiales y su impacto en la Arqueologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza A, D. (ed.) [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Brito B, E.L. (ed.) [INAH-Estado de Mexico, 50090 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Arenas A, J.A. (ed.) [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    As product of the multidisciplinary interaction in the study of Archaeology by means of the Materials science, the use of techniques as Electronic microscopy, Tunneling microscopy, Particle accelerators, Diffractometry, Spectrometers, etc, it has become common. At the same time, the edition of research works in this respect goes in increase. It proves of this, it is the great quantity of published works or presented in international forums, just as the symposium 'Archaeological Issues in Materials Science' that is carried out each year inside the International Materials Congress organized by the Mexican Academy of Materials Science. In this book they have been compiled part of the works presented inside this symposium, carried out in the edition 2003 with the purpose of that they are captured so that they allow their access to specialists and for the public in general, making emphasis in the advantages that it represents the use of the analytical techniques in the study of different archaeological and historical materials. Most of the works is the result of the collaboration of investigators of different institutions, mainly of Mexico, and of some of other countries like Italy, Hungary and Japan. Finally it is important to point out that one of the purposes of the present works it consists on showing that it is possible the use of the Material Science and their modern analytical techniques in the understanding of the behavior of the old cultures and contiguous themes, for that which is fundamental the conformation of multidisciplinary and inter institutional groups. (Author)

  17. DOE A9024 Final Report Functional and Nanoscale Materials Systems: Frontier Programs of Science at the Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2009-03-24

    The scientific programs of the FSMRL supported under the DOE A9024 Grant consisted of four interdisciplinary research clusters, as described. The clusters were led by Professors Tai Chiang (Physics), Jeffrey Moore (Chemistry), Paul Goldbart (Physics), and Steven Granick (Materials Science and Engineering). The completed work followed a dominant theme--Nanoscale Materials Systems--and emphasized studies of complex phenomena involving surfaces, interfaces, complex materials, dynamics, energetics, and structures and their transformations. A summary of our key accomplishments is provided for each cluster.

  18. PREFACE: National Seminar on Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, R.; Vijayakumar, K. P.; Unnikrishnan, N. V.

    2013-05-01

    India is going through an era of many changes in its higher education system. Emphasis is being given to research and development initiatives at Universities and colleges. The teaching community is faced with the challenge of coping with both regular academic activities and research initiatives. The teaching faculties need to keep in step with the momentous research output being generated globally. To mold young talent that will be sought after, teachers need to undertake challenging initiatives. Research in emerging areas like nanotechnology, meta materials, functional materials and structures is being pursued vigorously in Universities and colleges in the state of Kerala. Awareness of the impact of integrating teaching and research in basic science has inspired the teaching faculty. The number of seminars and conferences is not commensurate with the amount of research being conducted in this state. The state lags behind in the number of institutes with state of the art facilities and human resource with cutting edge knowledge. The national seminar on Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2011) is organized by the Department of Physics, Christian College, Chengannur. It is a continuation of the initiatives of the Department to bridge the haitus between teaching and research. Current Trends in Materials Science (CTMS-2007) was successfully conducted with over 80 research paper presentations and participation of delegates from the states of Karnataka, Andhrapradesh, Tamilnadu and Kerala. CTMS-2011 is a sequel envisaged to serve as an effective platform for teachers to interact with eminent scientists and share their knowledge and experience. Papers were invited from the subject area comprising glasses and ceramics, crystal growth, nanotechnology, semiconductors thin films and polymers. We are delighted that after a peer review process of the papers we have selected ten of the best papers presented at the seminar for publication in IOP Conference Series

  19. XAS at the materials science X-ray beamline BL8 at the DELTA storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frahm, R; Wagner, R; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, D [Fachbereich C - Physik, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 20, 42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Herdt, A, E-mail: frahm@uni-wuppertal.d [Fachbereich Physik/DELTA, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Maria-Goeppert-Mayer-Strasse 2, 44221 Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    The hard X-ray beamline BL 8 at the 1.5 GeV electron storage ring DELTA is described, and experimental data of different fields of research are presented. Making use of the intense X-ray beam emitted by a superconducting wiggler, the beamline is dedicated to X-ray absorption experiments. Three different monochromator crystal pairs are permanently available for experiments in the spectral range from about 1 keV to ca. 25 keV photon energy. Results of reference materials show that high quality EXAFS data can be obtained using Si(111) and Si(311) monochromators. First measurements in the energy range between 1.2 and 5 keV have been accomplished using YB{sub 66}(400) monochromator crystals. The experimental hutch accommodates a unique 6-axis diffractometer which is well suited for all kinds of diffraction and absorption experiments, including the grazing incidence geometry. The diffractometer can carry heavy loads related to non-ambient sample environments such as e.g. ultrahigh vacuum sample stages or cryostats. Here we present typical results obtained at BL8 in different areas of materials science including investigations of dilute alloys by fluorescence mode EXAFS and the study of the structural changes associated with temperature induced spin transitions of metallo-supramolecular polyelectrolyte-amphiphile-complexes.

  20. 78 FR 25942 - J.R. Simplot Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Potato...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service J.R. Simplot Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination... petition from the J.R. Simplot Company (Simplot) seeking a determination of nonregulated status of potatoes... Petition Number 13-022-01p) from the J.R. Simplot Company (Simplot) of Boise, ID, seeking a...