Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.
1985-01-01
In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)
Equivalent Josephson junctions
Boyadzhiev, T.L.; ); Semerdzhieva, E.G.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Dushanbe
2008-01-01
The magnetic field dependences of critical current are numerically constructed for a long Josephson junction with a shunt- or resistor-type microscopic inhomogeneities and compared to the critical curve of a junction with exponentially varying width. The numerical results show that it is possible to replace the distributed inhomogeneity of a long Josephson junction by an inhomogeneity localized at one of its ends, which has certain technological advantages. It is also shown that the critical curves of junctions with exponentially varying width and inhomogeneities localized at the ends are unaffected by the mixed fluxon-antifluxon distributions of the magnetic flux [ru
Dobrowolski, Tomasz
2012-01-01
The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.
Tunable Nitride Josephson Junctions.
Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lewis, Rupert M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolfley, Steven L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolak, Matthaeus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-12-01
We have developed an ambient temperature, SiO_{2}/Si wafer - scale process for Josephson junctions based on Nb electrodes and Ta x N barriers with tunable electronic properties. The films are fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The electronic properties of the Ta_{x}N barriers are controlled by adjusting the nitrogen flow during sputtering. This technology offers a scalable alternative to the more traditional junctions based on AlO_{x} barriers for low - power, high - performance computing.
Josephson junctions array resonators
Gargiulo, Oscar; Muppalla, Phani; Mirzaei, Iman; Kirchmair, Gerhard [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Innsbruck (Austria)
2016-07-01
We present an experimental analysis of the self- and cross-Kerr effect of extended plasma resonances in Josephson junction chains. The chain consists of 1600 individual junctions and we can measure quality factors in excess of 10000. The Kerr effect manifests itself as a frequency shift that depends linearly on the number of photons in a resonant mode. By changing the input power we are able to measure this frequency shift on a single mode (self-kerr). By changing the input power on another mode while measuring the same one, we are able to evaluate the cross-kerr effect. We can measure the cross-Kerr effect by probing the resonance frequency of one mode while exciting another mode of the array with a microwave drive.
Gravitation at the Josephson Junction
Victor Atanasov
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A geometric potential from the kinetic term of a constrained to a curved hyperplane of space-time quantum superconducting condensate is derived. An energy conservation relation involving the geometric field at every material point in the superconductor is demonstrated. At a Josephson junction the energy conservation relation implies the possibility of transforming electric energy into geometric field energy, that is, curvature of space-time. Experimental procedures to verify that the Josephson junction can act as a voltage-to-curvature converter are discussed.
Dynamics of Josephson junction arrays
Hadley, P.
1989-01-01
The dynamics of Josephson junction arrays is a topic that lies at the intersection of the fields of nonlinear dynamics and Josephson junction technology. The series arrays considered here consist of several rapidly oscillating Josephson junctions where each junction is coupled equally to every other junction. The purpose of this study is to understand phaselocking and other cooperative dynamics of this system. Previously, little was known about high dimensional nonlinear systems of this sort. Numerical simulations are used to study the dynamics of these arrays. Three distinct types of periodic solutions to the array equations were observed as well as period doubled and chaotic solutions. One of the periodic solutions is the symmetric, in-phase solution where all of the junctions oscillate identically. The other two periodic solutions are symmetry-broken solutions where all of the junction do not oscillate identically. The symmetry-broken solutions are highly degenerate. As many as (N - 1) stable solutions can coexist for an array of N junctions. Understanding the stability of these several solutions and the transitions among them is vital to the design of useful devices
Method of manufacturing Josephson junction integrated circuits
Jillie, D.W. Jr.; Smith, L.N.
1985-01-01
Josephson junction integrated circuits of the current injection type and magnetically controlled type utilize a superconductive layer that forms both Josephson junction electrode for the Josephson junction devices on the integrated circuit as well as a ground plane for the integrated circuit. Large area Josephson junctions are utilized for effecting contact to lower superconductive layers and islands are formed in superconductive layers to provide isolation between the groudplane function and the Josephson junction electrode function as well as to effect crossovers. A superconductor-barrier-superconductor trilayer patterned by local anodization is also utilized with additional layers formed thereover. Methods of manufacturing the embodiments of the invention are disclosed
Squeezed States in Josephson Junctions.
Hu, X.; Nori, F.
1996-03-01
We have studied quantum fluctuation properties of Josephson junctions in the limit of large Josephson coupling energy and small charging energy, when the eigenstates of the system can be treated as being nearly localized. We have considered(X. Hu and F. Nori, preprints.) a Josephson junction in a variety of situations, e.g., coupled to one or several of the following elements: a capacitor, an inductor (in a superconducting ring), and an applied current source. By solving an effective Shrödinger equation, we have obtained squeezed vacuum (coherent) states as the ground states of a ``free-oscillating'' (linearly-driven) Josephson junction, and calculated the uncertainties of its canonical momentum, charge, and coordinate, phase. We have also shown that the excited states of the various systems we consider are similar to the number states of a simple harmonic oscillator but with different fluctuation properties. Furthermore, we have obtained the time-evolution operators for these systems. These operators can make it easier to calculate the time-dependence of the expectation values and fluctuations of various quantities starting from an arbitrary initial state.
Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer
Wild, Georg Hermann
2012-01-01
We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlO x /Pd 0.82 Ni 0.18 /Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to π-coupling is observed for a thickness d F =6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd 0.82 Ni 0.18 interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd 0.82 Ni 0.18 has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.
Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer
Wild, Georg Hermann
2012-03-04
We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlO{sub x}/Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18}/Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to {pi}-coupling is observed for a thickness d{sub F}=6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.
Josephson junctions and circle maps
Bak, P; Bohr, T; Jensen, M H; Christiansen, P V
1984-01-01
The return map of a differential equation for the current driven Josephson junction, or the damped driven pendulum, is shown numerically to be a circle map. Phase locking, noise and hysteresis, can thus be understood in a simple and coherent way. The transition to chaos is related to the development of a cubic inflection point. Recent theoretical results on universal behavior at the transition to chaos can readily be checked experimentally by studying I-V characteristics. 17 references, 1 figure.
Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator
Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.
1993-01-01
A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...... at different points in the current-voltage characteristic. Both numerical calculations based on the Tien-Gordon theory and 70-GHz microwave experiments have confirmed the wide dynamic range (more than 15-dB attenuation for one stage) and the low insertion loss in the ''open'' state. The performance of a fully...
Shot noise in YBCO bicrystal Josephson junctions
Constantinian, K.Y.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.; Borisenko, I.V.
2003-01-01
We measured spectral noise density in YBCO symmetric bicrystal Josephson junctions on sapphire substrates at bias voltages up to 100 mV and T 4.2 K. Normal state resistance of the Josephson junctions, R-N = 20-90 Omega and ICRN up to 2.2 mV have been observed in the experimental samples. Noise...... may explain the experimentally measured linewidth broadening of Josephson oscillations at mm and submm wave frequencies in high-Tc superconducting junctions. Experimental results are discussed in terms of bound states existing at surfaces of d-wave superconducting electrodes....
Parametric frequency conversion in long Josephson junctions
Irie, F.; Ashihara, S.; Yoshida, K.
1976-01-01
Current steps at voltages corresponding to the parametric coupling between an applied r.f. field and junction resonant modes have been observed in long Josephson tunnel junctions in the flux-flow state. The observed periodic variations of the step height due to the applied magnetic field are explained quantitatively by a perturbational analysis using Josephson phase equations. The present study demonstrates that the moving vortex array can serve as a coherent pump wave for signal waves propagating in the barrier region, which indicates, as a result, the possibility of traveling-wave parametric devices with long Josephson tunnel junctions. (author)
Loss models for long Josephson junctions
Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1984-01-01
A general model for loss mechanisms in long Josephson junctions is presented. An expression for the zero-field step is found for a junction of overlap type by means of a perturbation method. Comparison between analytic solution and perturbation result shows good agreement.......A general model for loss mechanisms in long Josephson junctions is presented. An expression for the zero-field step is found for a junction of overlap type by means of a perturbation method. Comparison between analytic solution and perturbation result shows good agreement....
Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions
Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong
2015-01-01
Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386
Cavity syncronisation of underdamped Josephson junction arrays
Barbara, P.; Filatrella, G.; Lobb, C.
2003-01-01
the junctions in the array and an electromagnetic cavity. Here we show that a model of a one-dimensional array of Josephson junctions coupled to a resonator can produce many features of the coherent be havior above threshold, including coherent radiation of power and the shape of the array current...
Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions
Hsu, Ya-Fen; Su, Jung-Jung
2015-01-01
The Josephson effect is especially appealing to physicists because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. In excitonic bilayers the effect is even subtler due to the counterflow of supercurrent as well as the tunneling between layers (interlayer tunneling). Here we study, in a quantum Hall bilayer, the excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ? 0 applied. The system is mapped into a pseudospin ferromagnet then described numeric...
Hysteresis development in superconducting Josephson junctions
Refai, T.F.; Shehata, L.N.
1988-09-01
The resistively and capacitive shunted junction model is used to investigate hysteresis development in superconducting Josephson junctions. Two empirical formulas that relate the hysteresis width and the quasi-particle diffusion length in terms of the junctions electrical parameters, temperature and frequency are obtained. The obtained formulas provide a simple tool to investigate the full potentials of the hysteresis phenomena. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs
Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions
Su, Jung-Jung; Hsu, Ya-Fen
The Josephson effect is especially appealing because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. Here we study this effect in an excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ϕ0 applied. Such a junction is proposed to take place in the quantum Hall bilayer (QHB) that makes it subtler than in superconductor because of the counterflow of excitonic supercurrent and the interlayer tunneling in QHB. We treat the system theoretically by first mapping it into a pseudospin ferromagnet then describing it by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In the presence of interlayer tunneling, the excitonic Josephson junction can possess a family of fractional sine-Gordon solitons that resemble the static fractional Josephson vortices in the extended superconducting Josephson junctions. Interestingly, each fractional soliton carries a topological charge Q which is not necessarily a half/full integer but can vary continuously. The resultant current-phase relation (CPR) shows that solitons with Q =ϕ0 / 2 π are the lowest energy states for small ϕ0. When ϕ0 > π , solitons with Q =ϕ0 / 2 π - 1 take place - the polarity of CPR is then switched.
Ballistic Josephson junctions based on CVD graphene
Li, Tianyi; Gallop, John; Hao, Ling; Romans, Edward
2018-04-01
Josephson junctions with graphene as the weak link between superconductors have been intensely studied in recent years, with respect to both fundamental physics and potential applications. However, most of the previous work was based on mechanically exfoliated graphene, which is not compatible with wafer-scale production. To overcome this limitation, we have used graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) as the weak link of Josephson junctions. We demonstrate that very short, wide CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions with Nb electrodes can work without any undesirable hysteresis in their electrical characteristics from 1.5 K down to a base temperature of 320 mK, and their gate-tuneable critical current shows an ideal Fraunhofer-like interference pattern in a perpendicular magnetic field. Furthermore, for our shortest junctions (50 nm in length), we find that the normal state resistance oscillates with the gate voltage, consistent with the junctions being in the ballistic regime, a feature not previously observed in CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions.
Microscopic tunneling theory of long Josephson junctions
Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Hattel, Søren A.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1992-01-01
We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate that the detai......We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate...
Ferromagnetic Josephson Junctions for Cryogenic Memory
Niedzielski, Bethany M.; Gingrich, Eric C.; Khasawneh, Mazin A.; Loloee, Reza; Pratt, William P., Jr.; Birge, Norman O.
2015-03-01
Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials are of interest for both scientific and technological purposes. In principle, either the amplitude of the critical current or superconducting phase shift across the junction can be controlled by the relative magnetization directions of the ferromagnetic layers in the junction. Our approach concentrates on phase control utilizing two junctions in a SQUID geometry. We will report on efforts to control the phase of junctions carrying either spin-singlet or spin-triplet supercurrent for cryogenic memory applications. Supported by Northorp Grumman Corporation and by IARPA under SPAWAR Contract N66001-12-C-2017.
Josephson tunnel junctions in niobium films
Wiik, Tapio.
1976-12-01
A method of fabricating stable Josephson tunnel junctions with reproducible characteristics is described. The junctions have a sandwich structure consisting of a vacuum evaporated niobium film, a niobium oxide layer produced by the glow discharge method and a lead film deposited by vacuum evaporation. Difficulties in producing thin-film Josephson junctions are discussed. Experimental results suggest that the lower critical field of the niobium film is the most essential parameter when evaluating the quality of these junctions. The dependence of the lower critical field on the film thickness and on the Ginzburg-Landau parameter of the film is studied analytically. Comparison with the properties of the evaporated films and with the previous calculations for bulk specimens shows that the presented model is applicable for most of the prepared samples. (author)
Harmonic synchronization in resistively coupled Josephson junctions
Blackburn, J.A.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Smith, H.J.T.
1994-01-01
The oscillations of two resistively coupled Josephson junctions biased only by a single dc current source are shown to lock harmonically in a 1:2 mode over a significant range of bias current, even when the junctions are identical. The dependence of this locking on both junction and coupling parameters is examined, and it is found that, for this particular two-junction configuration, 1:1 locking can never occur, and also that a minimum coupling coefficient is needed to support harmonic locking. Some issues related to subharmonic locking are also discussed
Fluxon density waves in long Josephson junctions
Olsen, O. H.; Ustinov, A. V.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1993-01-01
Numerical simulations of the multiple fluxon dynamics stimulated by an external oscillating force applied at a boundary of a long Josephson junction are presented. The calculated IV characteristics agree well with a recent experimental observation of rf-induced satellite flux-flow steps. The volt...... density waves....
Dissipative current in SIFS Josephson junctions
Vasenko, A.; Kawabata, S.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, M. Yu; Hekking, F.W.J.
2010-01-01
We investigate superconductor/insulator/ferromagnet/superconductor (SIFS) tunnel Josephson junctions in the dirty limit, using the quasiclassical theory. We consider the case of a strong tunnel barrier such that the left S layer and the right FS bilayer are decoupled. We calculate quantitatively the
Neutron induced permanent damage in Josephson junctions
Mueller, G.P.; Rosen, M.
1982-01-01
14 MeV neutron induced permanent changes in the critical current density of Josephson junctions due to displacement damage in the junction barrier are estimated using a worst case model and the binary collision simulation code MARLOWE. No likelihood of single event hard upsets is found in this model. It is estimated that a fluence of 10 18 -10 19 neutrons/cm 2 are required to change the critical current density by 5%
Phase-dependent noise in Josephson junctions
Sheldon, Forrest; Peotta, Sebastiano; Di Ventra, Massimiliano
2018-03-01
In addition to the usual superconducting current, Josephson junctions (JJs) support a phase-dependent conductance related to the retardation effect of tunneling quasi-particles. This introduces a dissipative current with a memory-resistive (memristive) character that should also affect the current noise. By means of the microscopic theory of tunnel junctions we compute the complete current autocorrelation function of a Josephson tunnel junction and show that this memristive component gives rise to both a previously noted phase-dependent thermal noise, and an undescribed non-stationary, phase-dependent dynamic noise. As experiments are approaching ranges in which these effects may be observed, we examine the form and magnitude of these processes. Their phase dependence can be realized experimentally as a hysteresis effect and may be used to probe defects present in JJ based qubits and in other superconducting electronics applications.
Electrical analog of a Josephson junction
Goldman, A.M.
1979-01-01
It is noted that a mathematical description of the phase-coupling of two oscillators synchronized by a phase-lock-loop under the influence of thermal white noise is analogous to that of the phase coupling of two superconductors in a Josephson junction also under the influence of noise. This analogy may be useful in studying threshold instabilities of the Josephson junction in regimes not restricted to the case of large damping. This is of interest because the behavior of the mean voltage near the threshold current can be characterized by critical exponents which resemble those exhibited by an order parameter of a continuous phase transition. As it is possible to couple a collection of oscillators together in a chain, the oscillator analogy may also be useful in exploring the dynamics and statistical mechanics of coupled junctions
Boyadjiev, T.L.; Semerdjieva, E.G.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.
2007-01-01
We study the vortex structure in three different models of the long Josephson junction: the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the Josephson junctions with the resistor and the shunt inhomogeneities in the barrier layer. For these three models the critical curves 'critical current-magnetic field' are numerically constructed. We develop the idea of the equivalence of the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the rectangular junction with the distributed inhomogeneity and demonstrate that at some parameters of the shunt and the resistor inhomogeneities in the ends of the junction the corresponding critical curves are very close to the exponentially shaped one
delta-biased Josephson tunnel junctions
Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelet, V.
2010-01-01
Abstract: The behavior of a long Josephson tunnel junction drastically depends on the distribution of the dc bias current. We investigate the case in which the bias current is fed in the central point of a one-dimensional junction. Such junction configuration has been recently used to detect...... the persistent currents circulating in a superconducting loop. Analytical and numerical results indicate that the presence of fractional vortices leads to remarkable differences from the conventional case of uniformly distributed dc bias current. The theoretical findings are supported by detailed measurements...
Josephson junctions of multiple superconducting wires
Deb, Oindrila; Sengupta, K.; Sen, Diptiman
2018-05-01
We study the spectrum of Andreev bound states and Josephson currents across a junction of N superconducting wires which may have s - or p -wave pairing symmetries and develop a scattering matrix based formalism which allows us to address transport across such junctions. For N ≥3 , it is well known that Berry curvature terms contribute to the Josephson currents; we chart out situations where such terms can have relatively large effects. For a system of three s -wave or three p -wave superconductors, we provide analytic expressions for the Andreev bound-state energies and study the Josephson currents in response to a constant voltage applied across one of the wires; we find that the integrated transconductance at zero temperature is quantized to integer multiples of 4 e2/h , where e is the electron charge and h =2 π ℏ is Planck's constant. For a sinusoidal current with frequency ω applied across one of the wires in the junction, we find that Shapiro plateaus appear in the time-averaged voltage across that wire for any rational fractional multiple (in contrast to only integer multiples in junctions of two wires) of 2 e /(ℏ ω ) . We also use our formalism to study junctions of two p -wave and one s -wave wires. We find that the corresponding Andreev bound-state energies depend on the spin of the Bogoliubov quasiparticles; this produces a net magnetic moment in such junctions. The time variation of these magnetic moments may be controlled by an external voltage applied across the junction. We discuss experiments which may test our theory.
Fractional flux quanta in Josephson junctions
Goldobin, E.; Buckenmaier, K.; Gaber, T.; Kemmler, M.; Pfeiffer, J.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R. [Physikalisches Inst. - Experimentalphysik II, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, M.; Kohlstedt, H. [Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology (CNI), Research Centre Juelich (Germany); Siegel, M. [Inst. fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)
2007-07-01
Fractional Josephson vortices may appear in the so-called 0-{kappa} Josephson junctions ({kappa} is an arbitrary number) and carry magnetic flux {phi}, which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 x 10{sup -15} Wb. Their properties are very different from the usual integer fluxons: they are pinned, and often represent the ground state of the system with spontaneous circulating supercurrent. They behave as well controlled macroscopic spins and can be used to construct bits, qubits, tunable photonic crystals and to study the (quantum) physics of spin systems. In this talk we discuss recent advances in 0-{pi} junction technology and present recent experimental results: evidence of the spontaneous flux in the ground state, spectroscopy of the fractional vortex eigenfrequencies and observation of dynamics effects related to the flipping of the fractional vortices. (orig.)
Relaxation oscillation logic in Josephson junction circuits
Fulton, T.A.
1981-01-01
A dc powered, self-resetting Josephson junction logic circuit relying on relaxation oscillations is described. A pair of Josephson junction gates are connected in series, a first shunt is connected in parallel with one of the gates, and a second shunt is connected in parallel with the series combination of gates. The resistance of the shunts and the dc bias current bias the gates so that they are capable of undergoing relaxation oscillations. The first shunt forms an output line whereas the second shunt forms a control loop. The bias current is applied to the gates so that, in the quiescent state, the gate in parallel with the second shunt is at V O, and the other gate is undergoing relaxation oscillations. By controlling the state of the first gate with the current in the output loop of another identical circuit, the invert function is performed
Fabrication of Josephson Junction without shadow evaporation
Wu, Xian; Ku, Hsiangsheng; Long, Junling; Pappas, David
We developed a new method of fabricating Josephson Junction (Al/AlOX/Al) without shadow evaporation. Statistics from room temperature junction resistance and measurement of qubits are presented. Unlike the traditional ``Dolan Bridge'' technique, this method requires two individual lithographies and straight evaporations of Al. Argon RF plasma is used to remove native AlOX after the first evaporation, followed by oxidation and second Al evaporation. Junction resistance measured at room temperature shows linear dependence on Pox (oxidation pressure), √{tox} (oxidation time), and inverse proportional to junction area. We have seen 100% yield of qubits made with this method. This method is promising because it eliminates angle dependence during Junction fabrication, facilitates large scale qubits fabrication.
Quantum synchronization effects in intrinsic Josephson junctions
Machida, M.; Kano, T.; Yamada, S.; Okumura, M.; Imamura, T.; Koyama, T.
2008-01-01
We investigate quantum dynamics of the superconducting phase in intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered high-T c superconductors motivated by a recent experimental observation for the switching rate enhancement in the low temperature quantum regime. We pay attention to only the capacitive coupling between neighboring junctions and perform large-scale simulations for the Schroedinger equation derived from the Hamiltonian considering the capacitive coupling alone. The simulation focuses on an issue whether the switching of a junction induces those of the other junctions or not. The results reveal that the superconducting phase dynamics show synchronous behavior with increasing the quantum character, e.g., decreasing the junction plane area and effectively the temperature. This is qualitatively consistent with the experimental result
Long Josephson Junction Stack Coupled to a Cavity
Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Groenbech-Jensen, N.
2007-01-01
A stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions are modeled as a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations. One boundary of the stack is coupled electrically to a resonant cavity. With one fluxon in each Josephson junction, the inter-junction fluxon forces are repulsive. We look at a possible...... transition, induced by the cavity, to a bunched state....
Defect formation in long Josephson junctions
Gordeeva, Anna; Pankratov, Andrey
2010-01-01
We study numerically a mechanism of vortex formation in a long Josephson junction within the framework of the one-dimensional sine-Gordon model. This mechanism is switched on below the critical temperature. It is shown that the number of fluxons versus velocity of cooling roughly scales according...... to the power law with the exponent of either 0.25 or 0.5 depending on the temperature variation in the critical current density....
Nonlinearity in superconductivity and Josephson junctions
Lazarides, N.
1995-01-01
Within the framework of the Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffers (BCS) theory, the influence of anisotropy on superconducting states are investigated. Crystal anisotropy exists in un-conventional low temperature superconductors as e.g. U 1-x Th x Be 13 and in high temperature superconductors. Starting from a phenomenological pairing interaction of the electrons or holes, the BCS approach is used to derive a set of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations for the momentum dependent gap parameter. The emphasis is put on bifurcation phenomena between s-, d-wave and mixed s- and d-wave symmetry and the influence on measurable quantities as the electron specific heat, spin susceptibility and Josephson tunnelling. Pitch-fork and perturbed pitch-fork bifurcations have been found separating s- and d-wave superconducting states from mixed s- and d-wave states. The additional superconducting states give rise to jumps in the electron specific heat below the transition temperature. These jumps are rounded in the case of perturbed pitch-fork bifurcations. An experiment to measure the sign of the interlayer interaction using dc SQUIDS is suggested. The Ambegaokar-Baratoff formalism has been used for calculating the quasiparticle current and the two phase coherent tunnelling currents in a Josephson junction made of anisotropic superconductors. It is shown that anisotropy can lead to a reduction in the product of the normal resistance and the critical current. For low voltages across the junction the usual resistively shunted Josephson model can be used. Finally, bunching in long circular Josephson junctions and suppression of chaos in point junctions have been investigated. (au) 113 refs
Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer
Himmel, Nico
2015-07-23
Josephson junctions are used as active devices in superconducting electronics and quantum information technology. Outstanding properties are their distinct non-linear electrical characteristics and a usually sinusoidal relation between the current and the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In general the insertion of ferromagnetic material in the barrier of a Josephson junction is associated with a suppression of superconducting correlations. But also new phenomena can arise which may allow new circuit layouts and enhance the performance of applications. This thesis presents a systematic investigation for two concepts to fabricate Josephson junctions with a rather uncommon negative critical current. Such devices exhibit an intrinsic phase slip of π between the electrodes, so they are also known as π junctions. Both studies go well beyond existing experiments and in one system a π junction is shown for the first time. All the thin film junctions are based on superconducting Nb electrodes. In a first approach, barriers made from Si and Fe were investigated with respect to the realisation of π junctions by spin-flip processes. The distribution of Fe in the Si matrix was varied from pure layers to disperse compounds. The systematic fabrication of alloy barriers was facilitated by the development of a novel timing-based combinatorial sputtering technique for planetary deposition systems. An orthogonal gradient approach allowed to create binary layer libraries with independent variations of thickness and composition. Second, Nb vertical stroke AlO{sub x} vertical stroke Nb vertical stroke Ni{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} vertical stroke Nb (SIsFS) double barrier junctions were experimentally studied for the occurrence of proximity effect induced order parameter oscillations. Detailed dependencies of the critical current density on the thickness of s-layer and F-layer were acquired and show a remarkable agreement to existing theoretical predictions. Especially
Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer
Himmel, Nico
2015-01-01
Josephson junctions are used as active devices in superconducting electronics and quantum information technology. Outstanding properties are their distinct non-linear electrical characteristics and a usually sinusoidal relation between the current and the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In general the insertion of ferromagnetic material in the barrier of a Josephson junction is associated with a suppression of superconducting correlations. But also new phenomena can arise which may allow new circuit layouts and enhance the performance of applications. This thesis presents a systematic investigation for two concepts to fabricate Josephson junctions with a rather uncommon negative critical current. Such devices exhibit an intrinsic phase slip of π between the electrodes, so they are also known as π junctions. Both studies go well beyond existing experiments and in one system a π junction is shown for the first time. All the thin film junctions are based on superconducting Nb electrodes. In a first approach, barriers made from Si and Fe were investigated with respect to the realisation of π junctions by spin-flip processes. The distribution of Fe in the Si matrix was varied from pure layers to disperse compounds. The systematic fabrication of alloy barriers was facilitated by the development of a novel timing-based combinatorial sputtering technique for planetary deposition systems. An orthogonal gradient approach allowed to create binary layer libraries with independent variations of thickness and composition. Second, Nb vertical stroke AlO x vertical stroke Nb vertical stroke Ni 60 Cu 40 vertical stroke Nb (SIsFS) double barrier junctions were experimentally studied for the occurrence of proximity effect induced order parameter oscillations. Detailed dependencies of the critical current density on the thickness of s-layer and F-layer were acquired and show a remarkable agreement to existing theoretical predictions. Especially a variation of
Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks
Lobb, C.J.
1992-01-01
Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)
Y-junction of superconducting Josephson chains
Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale
2009-01-01
We show that, for pertinent values of the fabrication and control parameters, an attractive finite coupling fixed point emerges in the phase diagram of a Y-junction of superconducting Josephson chains. The new fixed point arises only when the dimensionless flux f piercing the central loop of the network equals π and, thus, does not break time-reversal invariance; for f≠π, only the strongly coupled fixed point survives as a stable attractive fixed point. Phase slips (instantons) have a crucial role in establishing this transition: we show indeed that, at f=π, a new set of instantons-the W-instantons-comes into play to destabilize the strongly coupled fixed point. Finally, we provide a detailed account of the Josephson current-phase relationship along the arms of the network, near each one of the allowed fixed points. Our results evidence remarkable similarities between the phase diagram accessible to a Y-junction of superconducting Josephson chains and the one found in the analysis of quantum Brownian motion on frustrated planar lattices
Edge currents in frustrated Josephson junction ladders
Marques, A. M.; Santos, F. D. R.; Dias, R. G.
2016-09-01
We present a numerical study of quasi-1D frustrated Josephson junction ladders with diagonal couplings and open boundary conditions, in the large capacitance limit. We derive a correspondence between the energy of this Josephson junction ladder and the expectation value of the Hamiltonian of an analogous tight-binding model, and show how the overall superconducting state of the chain is equivalent to the minimum energy state of the tight-binding model in the subspace of one-particle states with uniform density. To satisfy the constraint of uniform density, the superconducting state of the ladder is written as a linear combination of the allowed k-states of the tight-binding model with open boundaries. Above a critical value of the parameter t (ratio between the intra-rung and inter-rung Josephson couplings) the ladder spontaneously develops currents at the edges, which spread to the bulk as t is increased until complete coverage is reached. Above a certain value of t, which varies with ladder size (t = 1 for an infinite-sized ladder), the edge currents are destroyed. The value t = 1 corresponds, in the tight-binding model, to the opening of a gap between two bands. We argue that the disappearance of the edge currents with this gap opening is not coincidental, and that this points to a topological origin for these edge current states.
Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer
Weides, M.P.
2006-01-01
Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al 2 O 3 tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or π coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, π) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-π Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-π junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum Φ 0 . Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T → 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)
Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer
Weides, M.P.
2006-07-01
Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or {pi} coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, {pi}) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-{pi} Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-{pi} junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}. Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T {yields} 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)
Shapiro and parametric resonances in coupled Josephson junctions
Gaafar, Ma A; Shukrinov, Yu M; Foda, A
2012-01-01
The effect of microwave irradiation on the phase dynamics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors is investigated. We compare the current-voltage characteristics for a stack of coupled Josephson junctions under external irradiation calculated in the framework of CCJJ and CCJJ+DC models.
A semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction microwave laser
Cassidy, Maja; Uilhoorn, Willemijn; Kroll, James; de Jong, Damaz; van Woerkom, David; Nygard, Jesper; Krogstrup, Peter; Kouwenhoven, Leo
We present measurements of microwave lasing from a single Al/InAs/Al nanowire Josephson junction strongly coupled to a high quality factor superconducting cavity. Application of a DC bias voltage to the Josephson junction results in photon emission into the cavity when the bias voltage is equal to a multiple of the cavity frequency. At large voltage biases, the strong non-linearity of the circuit allows for efficient down conversion of high frequency microwave photons down to multiple photons at the fundamental frequency of the cavity. In this regime, the emission linewidth narrows significantly below the bare cavity linewidth to 50%. The junction-cavity coupling and laser emission can be tuned rapidly via an external gate, making it suitable to be integrated into a scalable qubit architecture as a versatile source of coherent microwave radiation. This work has been supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO/OCW), Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), European Research Council (ERC), and Microsoft Corporation Station Q.
Some chaotic features of intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions
Kolahchi, M.R.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Hamdipour, M.; Botha, A.E.; Suzuki, M.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions model a high-T c superconductor. ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions can act as a chaotic nonlinear system. ► Chaos could be due to resonance overlap. ► Avoiding parameters that lead to chaos is important for the design of resonators. -- Abstract: We look for chaos in an intrinsically coupled system of Josephson junctions. This study has direct applications for the high-T c resonators which require coherence amongst the junctions
Modeling Bloch oscillations in nanoscale Josephson junctions
Vora, Heli; Kautz, R. L.; Nam, S. W.; Aumentado, J.
2018-01-01
Bloch oscillations in nanoscale Josephson junctions with a Coulomb charging energy comparable to the Josephson coupling energy are explored within the context of a model previously considered by Geigenmüller and Schön that includes Zener tunneling and treats quasiparticle tunneling as an explicit shot-noise process. The dynamics of the junction quasicharge are investigated numerically using both Monte Carlo and ensemble approaches to calculate voltage-current characteristics in the presence of microwaves. We examine in detail the origin of harmonic and subharmonic Bloch steps at dc biases I = (n/m)2ef induced by microwaves of frequency f and consider the optimum parameters for the observation of harmonic (m = 1) steps. We also demonstrate that the GS model allows a detailed semiquantitative fit to experimental voltage-current characteristics previously obtained at the Chalmers University of Technology, confirming and strengthening the interpretation of the observed microwave-induced steps in terms of Bloch oscillations. PMID:29577106
Electromagnetic waves in single- and multi-Josephson junctions
Matsumoto, Hideki; Koyama, Tomio; Machida, Masahiko
2008-01-01
The terahertz wave emission from the intrinsic Josephson junctions is one of recent topics in high T c superconductors. We investigate, by numerical simulation, properties of the electromagnetic waves excited by a constant bias current in the single- and multi-Josephson junctions. Nonlinear equations of phase-differences are solved numerically by treating the effects of the outside electromagnetic fields as dynamical boundary conditions. It is shown that the emitted power of the electromagnetic wave can become large near certain retrapping points of the I-V characteristics. An instability of the inside phase oscillation is related to large amplitude of the oscillatory waves. In the single- (or homogeneous mutli-) Josephson junctions, electromagnetic oscillations can occur either in a form of standing waves (shorter junctions) or by formation of vortex-antivortex pairs (longer junctions). How these two effects affects the behavior of electromagnetic waves in the intrinsic Josephson junctions is discussed
Critical current fluctuation in a microwave-driven Josephson junction
Dong Ning; Sun Guozhu; Wang Yiwen; Cao Junyu; Yu Yang; Chen Jian; Kang Lin; Xu Weiwei; Han Siyuan; Wu Peiheng
2007-01-01
Josephson junction devices are good candidates for quantum computation. A large energy splitting was observed in the spectroscopy of a superconducting Josephson junction. The presence of the critical current fluctuation near the energy splitting indicated coupling between the junction and a two-level system. Furthermore, we find that this fluctuation is microwave dependent. It only appears at certain microwave frequency. This relation suggested that the decoherence of qubits is influenced by the necessary computing operations
Terahertz Responses of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in High TC Superconductors
Wang, H. B.; Wu, P. H.; Yamashita, T.
2001-01-01
High frequency responses of intrinsic Josephson junctions up to 2.5THz, including the observation of Shapiro steps under various conditions, are reported and discussed in this Letter. The sample was an array of intrinsic Josephson junctions singled out from inside a high T C superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x single crystal, with a bow-tie antenna integrated to it. The number of junctions in the array was controllable, the junctions were homogeneous, the distribution of applied irradiation among the junctions was even, and the junctions could synchronously respond to high frequency irradiation
Soliton excitations in Josephson tunnel junctions
Lomdahl, P. S.; Sørensen, O. H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1982-01-01
A detailed numerical study of a sine-Gordon model of the Josephson tunnel junction is compared with experimental measurements on junctions with different L / λJ ratios. The soliton picture is found to apply well on both relatively long (L / λJ=6) and intermediate (L / λJ=2) junctions. We find good...... agreement for the current-voltage characteristics, power output, and for the shape and height of the zero-field steps (ZFS). Two distinct modes of soliton oscillations are observed: (i) a bunched or congealed mode giving rise to the fundamental frequency f1 on all ZFS's and (ii) a "symmetric" mode which...... on the Nth ZFS yields the frequency Nf1 Coexistence of two adjacent frequencies is found on the third ZFS of the longer junction (L / λJ=6) in a narrow range of bias current as also found in the experiments. Small asymmetries in the experimental environment, a weak magnetic field, e.g., is introduced via...
Visualizing supercurrents in 0-{pi} ferromagnetic Josephson tunnel junctions
Goldobin, Edward; Guerlich, Christian; Gaber, Tobias; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, Martin; Kohlstedt, Hermann [Institute of Solid State Physics, Reserch Center Juelich (Germany)
2009-07-01
So-called 0 and {pi} Josephson junctions can be treated as having positive and negative critical currents. This implies that the same phase shift applied to a Josephson junction causes counterflow of supercurrents in 0 and in {pi} junctions connected in parallel provided they are short in comparison with Josephson penetration depth {lambda}{sub J}. We have fabricated several 0, {pi}, 0-{pi}, 0-{pi}-0 and 20 x (0-{pi}-) planar superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor Josephson junctions and studied the spatial supercurrent density distribution j{sub s}(x,y) across the junction area using low temperature scanning electron microscopy. At zero magnetic field we clearly see counterflow of the supercurrents in 0 and {pi} regions. The picture also changes consistently in the applied magnetic field.
Development of a Josephson vortex two-state system based on a confocal annular Josephson junction
Monaco, Roberto; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, Valery P.
2018-01-01
We report theoretical and experimental work on the development of a Josephson vortex two-state system based on a confocal annular Josephson tunnel junction (CAJTJ). The key ingredient of this geometrical configuration is a periodically variable width that generates a spatial vortex potential...
Numerical simulations of flux flow in stacked Josephson junctions
Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
2005-01-01
We numerically investigate Josephson vortex flux flow states in stacked Josephson junctions, motivated by recent experiments trying to observe the vortices in a square vortex lattice when a magnetic field is applied to layered high-Tc superconductors of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox type. By extensive...
Planar Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field
Monacoa, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper
2007-01-01
demagnetization effects imposed by the tunnel barrier and electrodes geometry are important. Measurements of the junction critical current versus magnetic field in planar Nb-based high-quality junctions with different geometry, size, and critical current density show that it is advantageous to use a transverse......Traditionally, since the discovery of the Josephson effect in 1962, the magnetic diffraction pattern of planar Josephson tunnel junctions has been recorded with the field applied in the plane of the junction. Here we discuss the static junction properties in a transverse magnetic field where...
RF assisted switching in magnetic Josephson junctions
Caruso, R.; Massarotti, D.; Bolginov, V. V.; Ben Hamida, A.; Karelina, L. N.; Miano, A.; Vernik, I. V.; Tafuri, F.; Ryazanov, V. V.; Mukhanov, O. A.; Pepe, G. P.
2018-04-01
We test the effect of an external RF field on the switching processes of magnetic Josephson junctions (MJJs) suitable for the realization of fast, scalable cryogenic memories compatible with Single Flux Quantum logic. We show that the combined application of microwaves and magnetic field pulses can improve the performances of the device, increasing the separation between the critical current levels corresponding to logical "0" and "1." The enhancement of the current level separation can be as high as 80% using an optimal set of parameters. We demonstrate that external RF fields can be used as an additional tool to manipulate the memory states, and we expect that this approach may lead to the development of new methods of selecting MJJs and manipulating their states in memory arrays for various applications.
High Tc Josephson Junctions, SQUIDs and magnetometers
Clarke, J.
1991-01-01
There has recently been considerable progress in the state-of-the-art of high-T c magnetometers based on dc SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices). This progress is due partly to the development of more manufacturable Josephson junctions, making SQUIDs easier to fabricate, and partly to the development of multiturn flux transformers that convert the high sensitivity of SQUIDs to magnetic flux to a correspondingly high sensitivity to magnetic field. Needless to say, today's high-T c SQUIDs are still considerably less sensitive than their low-T c counterparts, particularly at low frequencies (f) where their level of 1/f noise remains high. Nonetheless, the performance of the high-T c devices has now reached the point where they are adequate for a number of the less demanding applications; furthermore, as we shall see, at least modest improvements in performance are expected in the near future. In this article, the author outlines these various developments. This is far from a comprehensive review of the field, however, and, apart from Sec. 2, he describes largely his own work. He begins in Sec. 2 with an overview of the various types of Josephson junctions that have been investigated, and in Sec. 3, he describes some of the SQUIDs that have been tested, and assess their performance. Section 4 discuss the development of the multilayer structures essential for an interconnect technology, and, in particular, for crossovers and vias. Section 5 shows how this technology enables one to fabricate multiturn flux transformers which, in turn, can be coupled to SQUIDs to make magnetometers. The performance and possible future improvements in these magnetometers are assessed, and some applications mentioned
Modeling Bloch oscillations in ultra-small Josephson junctions
Vora, Heli; Kautz, Richard; Nam, Sae Woo; Aumentado, Jose
In a seminal paper, Likharev et al. developed a theory for ultra-small Josephson junctions with Josephson coupling energy (Ej) less than the charging energy (Ec) and showed that such junctions demonstrate Bloch oscillations which could be used to make a fundamental current standard that is a dual of the Josephson volt standard. Here, based on the model of Geigenmüller and Schön, we numerically calculate the current-voltage relationship of such an ultra-small junction which includes various error processes present in a nanoscale Josephson junction such as random quasiparticle tunneling events and Zener tunneling between bands. This model allows us to explore the parameter space to see the effect of each process on the width and height of the Bloch step and serves as a guide to determine whether it is possible to build a quantum current standard of a metrological precision using Bloch oscillations.
Phenomenological approach to bistable behavior of Josephson junctions
Nishi, K.; Nara, S.; Hamanaka, K.
1985-01-01
The interaction of unbiased Josephson junction with external electromagnetic field in the presence of externally applied uniform magnetic field is theoretically examined by means of phenomenological treatment. It is proposed that an irradiated junction with suitably chosen parameters shows a bistable behavior of voltage across the junction as a function of the radiation intensity
Resonator coupled Josephson junctions; parametric excitations and mutual locking
Jensen, H. Dalsgaard; Larsen, A.; Mygind, Jesper
1991-01-01
Self-pumped parametric excitations and mutual locking in systems of Josephson tunnel junctions coupled to multimode resonators are reported. For the very large values of the coupling parameter, obtained with small Nb-Al2O3-Nb junctions integrated in superconducting microstrip resonators, the DC I......-V characteristic shows an equidistant series of current steps generated by subharmonic pumping of the fundamental resonator mode. This is confirmed by measurement of frequency and linewidth of the emitted Josephson radiation...
The critical current of point symmetric Josephson tunnel junctions
Monaco, Roberto
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We disclose some geometrical properties of the critical current field dependence that apply to a large class of Josephson junctions characterized by a point symmetric shape. • The developed theory is valid for any orientation of the applied magnetic field, therefore it allows the determine the consequences of field misalignment in the experimental setups. • We also address that the threshold curves of Josephson tunnel junctions with complex shapes can be expressed as a linear combination of the threshold curves of junctions with simpler point symmetric shapes. - Abstract: The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations. The shape of the junction determines the specific form of the magnetic-field dependence of its Josephson current. Here we address the magnetic diffraction patterns of specially shaped planar Josephson tunnel junctions in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations. We focus on a wide ensemble of junctions whose shape is invariant under point reflection. We analyze the implications of this type of isometry and derive the threshold curves of junctions whose shape is the union or the relative complement of two point symmetric plane figures.
Spectrum of resonant plasma oscillations in long Josephson junctions
Holst, T.
1996-01-01
An analysis is presented for the amplitude of the plasma oscillations in the zero-voltage state of a long and narrow Josephson tunnel junction. The calculation is valid for arbitrary normalized junction length and arbitrary bias current. The spectrum of the plasma resonance is found numerically as solutions to an analytical equation. The low-frequency part of the spectrum contains a single resonance, which is known to exist also in the limit of a short and narrow junction. Above a certain cutoff frequency, a series of high-frequency standing wave plasma resonances is excited, a special feature of long Josephson junctions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Microwave phase locking of Josephson-junction fluxon oscillators
Salerno, M.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Filatrella, G.
1990-01-01
Application of the classic McLaughlin-Scott soliton perturbation theory to a Josephson-junction fluxon subjected to a microwave field that interacts with the fluxon only at the junction boundaries reduces the problem of phase locking of the fluxon oscillation to the study of a two-dimensional fun......Application of the classic McLaughlin-Scott soliton perturbation theory to a Josephson-junction fluxon subjected to a microwave field that interacts with the fluxon only at the junction boundaries reduces the problem of phase locking of the fluxon oscillation to the study of a two...
Fluxons in long and annular intrinsic Josephson junction stacks
Clauss, T; Moessle, M; Müller, A; Weber, A; Kölle, D; Kleiner, R
2002-01-01
A promising approach towards a THz oscillator based on intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-temperature superconductors is based on the collective motion of Josephson fluxons, which are predicted to form various configurations ranging from a triangular to a quadratic lattice. Not only for this reason, but certainly also for the sake of basic physics, several experimental and theoretical investigations have been done on the subject of collective fluxon dynamics in stacked intrinsic Josephson junctions. In this paper we will present some experimental results on the fluxon dynamics of long intrinsic Josephson junction stacks made of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8. The stacks were formed either in an open or in an annular geometry, and clear resonant fluxon modes were observed. Experiments discussed include measurements of current-voltage characteristics in external magnetic fields and in external microwave fields.
Magnetic properties of slablike Josephson-junction arrays
Chen, D.; Sanchez, A.; Hernando, A.
1994-01-01
Magnetic properties of infinitely long and wide slablike Josephson-junction arrays (JJA's) consisting of 2N+1 rows of grains are calculated for the dc Josephson effect with gauge-invariant phase differences. When N is large, the intergranular magnetization curve, M J (H), of the JJA's in low fields approaches that of uniform Josephson junctions with lengths equal to the thicknesses of the JJA's, but in a larger field interval, its amplitude is dually modulated with periods determined by the junction and void areas. M J (H) curves for small N are more complicated. The concept of Josephson vortices and the application of the results to high-T c superconductors are discussed
Response of high Tc superconducting Josephson junction to nuclear radiation
Ding Honglin; Zhang Wanchang; Zhang Xiufeng
1992-10-01
The development of nuclear radiation detectors and research on high T c superconducting nuclear radiation detectors are introduced. The emphases are the principle of using thin-film and thick-film Josephson junctions (bridge junction) based on high T c YBCO superconductors to detect nuclear radiation, the fabrication of thin film and thick-film Josephson junction, and response of junction to low energy gamma-rays of 59.5 keV emitted from 241 Am and beta-rays of 546 keV. The results show that a detector for measuring nuclear radiation spectrum made of high T c superconducting thin-film or thick-film, especially, thick-film Josephson junction, certainly can be developed
Observation of supercurrent in graphene-based Josephson junction
Wang, Libin; Li, Sen; Kang, Ning [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Chuan; Ren, Wencai [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)
2015-07-01
Josephson junctions with a normal metal region sandwiched between two superconductors (S) are known as superconductor- normal-superconductor (SNS) structures. It has attracted significant attention especially when changing the normal metal with graphene, which allow for high tunability with the gate voltage and to study the proximity effect of the massless Dirac fermions. Here we report our work on graphene-based Josephson junction with a new two dimensional superconductor crystal, which grown directly on graphene, as superconducting electrodes. At low temperature, we observer proximity effect induced supercurrent flowing through the junction. The temperature and the magnetic field dependences of the critical current characteristics of the junction are also studied. The critical current exhibits a Fraunhofer-type diffraction pattern against magnetic field. Our experiments provided a new route of fabrication of graphene-based Josephson junction.
Proposed differential-frequency-readout system by hysteretic Josephson junctions
Wang, L.Z.; Duncan, R.V.
1992-01-01
The Josephson relation V=nhν/2e has been verified experimentally to 3 parts in 10 19 [A. K. Jain, J. E. Lukens, and J.-S. Tsai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1165 (1987)]. Motivated by this result, we propose a differential-frequency-readout system by two sets of hysteretic Josephson junctions rf biased at millimeter wavelengths. Because of the Josephson relation, the proposed differential-frequency-readout system is not limited by photon fluctuation, which limits most photon-detection schemes. In the context of the Stewart-McCumber model [W. C. Stewart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 277 (1968); D. E. McCumber, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3113 (1968)] of Josephson junctions, we show theoretically that the differential frequency of the two milliwave biases can be read out by the proposed system to unprecedented accuracy. The stability of the readout scheme is also discussed. The measurement uncertainty of the readout system resulting from the intrinsic thermal noise in the hysteretic junctions is shown to be insignificant. The study of two single junctions can be extended to two sets of Josephson junctions connected in series (series array) in this measurement scheme provided that junctions are separated by at least 10 μm [D. W. Jillie, J. E. Lukens, and Y. H. Kao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 915 (1977)]. The sensitivity for the differential frequency detection may be increased by biasing both series arrays to a higher constant-voltage step
Towards quantum signatures in a swept-bias Josephson junction
Losert, Harald; Vogel, Karl; Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)
2016-07-01
Josephson junctions are one of the best examples for the observation of macroscopic quantum tunneling. The phase difference in a current-biased Josephson junction behaves like the position of a particle in a tilted washboard potential. The escape of this phase-particle corresponds to the voltage switching of the associated junction. Quantum mechanically, the escape from the washboard potential can be explained as tunneling from the ground state, or an excited state. However, it has been shown, that in the case of periodic driving the experimental data for quantum mechanical key features, e.g. Rabi oscillations or energy level quantization, can be reproduced by a completely classical description. Motivated by this discussion, we investigate a swept-bias Josephson junction in the case of a large critical current. In particular, we contrast the switching current distributions resulting from a quantum mechanical and classical description of the time evolution.
Josephson junctions in high-T/sub c/ superconductors
Falco, C.M.; Lee, T.W.
1981-01-14
The invention includes a high T/sub c/ Josephson sperconducting junction as well as the method and apparatus which provides the junction by application of a closely controlled and monitored electrical discharge to a microbridge region connecting two portions of a superconducting film.
Vortex dynamics in Josephson ladders with II-junctions
Kornev, Victor K.; Klenov, N. V.; Oboznov, V.A.
2004-01-01
Both experimental and numerical studies of a self-frustrated triangular array of pi-junctions are reported. The array of SFS Josephson junctions shows a transition to the pi-state and self-frustration with a decrease in temperature. This manifests itself in a half-period shift of the bias critica...
Effect of surface losses on soliton propagation in Josephson junctions
Davidson, A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Pagano, S.
1986-01-01
We have explored numerically the effects on soliton propagation of a third order damping term in the modified sine-Gordon equation. In Josephson tunnel junctions such a term corresponds physically to quasiparticle losses within the metal electrodes of the junction. We find that this loss term pla...
Perturbation treatment of mixing in Josephson junctions
Levinsen, M.T.; Ulrich, B.T.
1975-01-01
A current biased, resistively shunted Josephson Junction irradiated at two frequencies is considered. The perturbation technique introduced by Aslamasov and Larkin is used in the calculations, and both signals are treated as perturbations. The second order calculation yields the size of the mixing steps at V/sub +-/ = h(ω 1 +- ω 2 )/2e. As in the case of a single frequency, subharmonic mixing steps are absent. The amplitude of the voltage oscillation at the difference and sum frequencies is shown to be non-zero at all voltages. The microwave resistance is calculated for one frequency ω 2 to third order in the perturbation. There are negative resistance regions near V/sub +-/ (as well as near V 2 = hω 2 /2e). Near V/sub -/, the negative resistance region appears for bias voltage V just above V/sub -/, while near V the region appears for V just below V/sub +/. This means that when an incident frequency mixes with a cavity mode, the mixing step at V/sub -/ will be inverted compared to the cavity step itself
Shunted-Josephson-junction model. I. The autonomous case
Belykh, V. N.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.
1977-01-01
The shunted-Josephson-junction model: the parallel combination of a capacitance, a phase-dependent conductance, and an ideal junction element biased by a constant current, is discussed for arbitrary values of the junction parameters. The main objective is to provide a qualitative understanding...... current-voltage curves are presented. The case with a time-dependent monochromatic bias current is treated in a similar fashion in the companion paper....
Microwave oscillator using arrays of long Josephson junctions
Pagano, S.; Monaco, R.; Costabile, G.
1989-01-01
The authors report on measurements performed on integrated superconducting devices based on arrays of long Josephson tunnel junctions operating in the resonant fluxon oscillation regime (i.e. biased on the Zero Field Steps). The electromagnetic coupling among the junction causes a mutual phase-locking of the fluxon oscillations with a corresponding increase of the emitted power and a decrease of the signal linewidth. This phase-locked state can be controlled by means of an external dc bias current and magnetic field. The effect of the generated microwave signal has been observed on a small Josephson tunnel junction coupled to the array via a microstrip transmission line. The feasibility of the reported devices as local oscillators in an integrated microwave Josephson receiver is discussed
Versatile multi-layer Josephson junction process for vortex molecules
Meckbach, Johannes Maximilian; Buehler, Simon; Merker, Michael; Il' in, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, KIT (Germany); Buckenmaier, Kai; Gaber, Tobias; Kienzle, Uta; Neumaier, Benjamin; Goldobin, Edward; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter [Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany)
2012-07-01
In long Josephson junctions magnetic flux may penetrate the barrier resulting in a so-called Josephson-Vortex carrying one flux quantum Φ{sub 0}. In recent years a new type of Josephson-Vortex became available, which carries any arbitrary fraction Φ = -Φ{sub 0}κ/2π of magnetic flux. These fractional vortices (p-vortices) spontaneously appear at discontinuities of the Josephson phase along the junction, which in turn are created using a pair of current injectors. We present a new Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb process for the fabrication of Josephson junctions of very high quality. Placing two injector pairs along the strongly underdamped long junctions allows the investigation of fractional vortex molecules. The topological charge of each vortex and their interaction can be altered even during experiment by changing the individual injector currents. Vortex molecule states have been measured using asymmetric DC-SQUIDs coupled to the vortices by overlying pick-up loops. To uphold the p-vortices we use persistent currents, which can be altered using heat switches. Fractional vortex molecules are promising candidates for a new type of qubits.
Field modulation of the critical current in magnetic Josephson junctions
Blamire, M G; Smiet, C B; Banerjee, N; Robinson, J W A
2013-01-01
The dependence of the critical current of a simple Josephson junction on the applied magnetic field is well known and, for a rectangular junction, gives rise to the classic ‘Fraunhofer’ modulation with periodic zeros at the fields that introduce a flux quantum into the junction region. Much recent work has been performed on Josephson junctions that contain magnetic layers. The magnetization of such layers introduces additional flux into the junction and, for large junction areas or strong magnetic materials, can significantly distort the modulation of the critical current and strongly suppress the maximum critical current. The growing interest in junctions that induce odd-frequency triplet pairing in a ferromagnet, and the need to make quantitative comparisons with theory, mean that a full understanding of the role of magnetic barriers in controlling the critical current is necessary. This paper analyses the effect of magnetism and various magnetic configurations on Josephson critical currents; the overall treatment applies to junctions of general shape, but the specific cases of square and rectangular junctions are considered. (paper)
Josephson junction analog and quasiparticle-pair current
Bak, Christen Kjeldahl; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1973-01-01
A close analogy exists between a Josephson junction and a phase-locked loop. A new type of electrical analog based on this principle is presented. It is shown that the inclusion in this analog of a low-pass filter gives rise to a current of the same form as the Josephson quasiparticle-pair current....... A simple picture of the quasiparticle-pair current, which gives the right dependences, is obtained by assuming a junction cutoff frequency to be at the energy gap. ©1973 American Institute of Physics...
Superconducting Coset Topological Fluids in Josephson Junction Arrays
Diamantini, M C; Trugenberger, C A; Sodano, Pasquale; Trugenberger, Carlo A.
2006-01-01
We show that the superconducting ground state of planar Josephson junction arrays is a P- and T-invariant coset topological quantum fluid whose topological order is characterized by the degeneracy 2 on the torus. This new mechanism for planar superconductivity is the P- and T-invariant analogue of Laughlin's quantum Hall fluids. The T=0 insulator-superconductor quantum transition is a quantum critical point characterized by gauge fields and deconfined degrees of freedom. Experiments on toroidal Josephson junction arrays could provide the first direct evidence for topological order and superconducting quantum fluids.
Long Josephson tunnel junctions with doubly connected electrodes
Monaco, R.; Mygind, J.; Koshelets, V. P.
2012-01-01
of such experiments, the number of magnetic flux quanta spontaneously trapped in a superconducting loop was measured by means of a long Josephson tunnel junction built on top of the loop itself. We have analyzed this system and found a number of interesting features not occurring in the conventional case with simply...... connected electrodes. In particular, the fluxoid quantization results in a frustration of the Josephson phase, which, in turn, reduces the junction critical current. Further, the possible stable states of the system are obtained by a self-consistent application of the principle of minimum energy...
Spatially resolved detection of mutually locked Josephson junctions in arrays
Keck, M.; Doderer, T.; Huebener, R.P.; Traeuble, T.; Dolata, R.; Weimann, T.; Niemeyer, J.
1997-01-01
Mutual locking due to the internal coupling in two-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions was investigated. The appearance of Shapiro steps in the current versus voltage curve of a coupled on-chip detector junction is used to indicate coherent oscillations in the array. A highly coherent state is observed for some range of the array bias current. By scanning the array with a low-power electron beam, mutually locked junctions remain locked while the unlocked junctions generate a beam-induced additional voltage drop at the array. This imaging technique allows the detection of the nonlocked or weakly locked Josephson junctions in a (partially) locked array state. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
High-quality planar high-Tc Josephson junctions
Bergeal, N.; Grison, X.; Lesueur, J.; Faini, G.; Aprili, M.; Contour, J.P.
2005-01-01
Reproducible high-T c Josephson junctions have been made in a rather simple two-step process using ion irradiation. A microbridge (1 to 5 μm wide) is firstly designed by ion irradiating a c-axis-oriented YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ film through a gold mask such as the nonprotected part becomes insulating. A lower T c part is then defined within the bridge by irradiating with a much lower fluence through a narrow slit (20 nm) opened in a standard electronic photoresist. These planar junctions, whose settings can be finely tuned, exhibit reproducible and nearly ideal Josephson characteristics. This process can be used to produce complex Josephson circuits
Quantum dynamics of a strongly driven Josephson Junction
Gosner, Jennifer; Kubala, Bjoern; Ankerhold, Joachim [Institute for Complex Quantum Systems, University of Ulm (Germany)
2015-07-01
A Josephson Junction embedded in a dissipative circuit can be driven to exhibit non-linear oscillations. Classically the non-linear oscillator shows under sufficient strong driving and weak damping dynamical bifurcations and a bistable region similar to the conventional Duffing-oscillator. These features depend sensitively on initial conditions and parameters. The sensitivity of this circuit, called Josephson Bifurcation Amplifier, can be used to amplify an incoming signal, to form a sensing device or even for measuring a quantum system. The quantum dynamics can be described by a dissipative Lindblad master equation. Signatures of the classical bifurcation phenomena appear in the Wigner representation, used to characterize and visualize the resulting behaviour. In order to compare this quantum dynamics to that of the conventional Duffing-oscillator, the complete cosine-nonlinearity of the Josephson Junction is kept for the quantum description while going into a rotating frame.
Majorana splitting from critical currents in Josephson junctions
Cayao, Jorge; San-Jose, Pablo; Black-Schaffer, Annica M.; Aguado, Ramón; Prada, Elsa
2017-11-01
A semiconducting nanowire with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling and coupled to a superconductor can be tuned by an external Zeeman field into a topological phase with Majorana zero modes. Here we theoretically investigate how this exotic topological superconductor phase manifests in Josephson junctions based on such proximitized nanowires. In particular, we focus on critical currents in the short junction limit (LN≪ξ , where LN is the junction length and ξ is the superconducting coherence length) and show that they contain important information about nontrivial topology and Majoranas. This includes signatures of the gap inversion at the topological transition and a unique oscillatory pattern that originates from Majorana interference. Interestingly, this pattern can be modified by tuning the transmission across the junction, thus providing complementary evidence of Majoranas and their energy splittings beyond standard tunnel spectroscopy experiments, while offering further tunability by virtue of the Josephson effect.
Several alternative approaches to the manufacturing of HTS Josephson junctions
Villegier , J.; Boucher , H.; Ghis , A.; Levis , M.; Méchin , Laurence; Moriceau , H.; Pourtier , F.; Vabre , M.; Nicoletti , S.; Correra , L.
1994-01-01
In this work we describe comparatively the fabrication and the characterization of various types of HTS Josephson junctions manufactured using different processes : grain boundary junctions have been studied both by the way of junctions on bicrystal substrates and of bi-epitaxial junctions. Ramp-edge types have been elaborated and characterized using mainly N-YBaCuO thin film as a barrier while the trilayer approach has been investigated through a-axis structures. YBaCuO or GdBaCuO supercondu...
Chaos controlling problems for circuit systems with Josephson junction
Gou, X-F; Wang, X; Xie, J-L
2008-01-01
The complex dynamical characters of the Josephson junction circuit system are studied and the tunnel effect is considered. The dynamical equation of the system is established. The route from periodic motion to chaos is illustrated using bifurcation diagram. An adscititious coupling controller is constructed to control the chaos
Flux flow in high-Tc Josephson junctions
Filatrella, G.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1993-01-01
The possibility of achieving fluxon nucleation in nonhysteretic high-T(c) Josephson junctions due to the presence of inhomogeneities is investigated numerically. For a large range of parameters the I- V characteristics in presence of such discontinuities show a strong similarity with those obtain...
Aspects of stochastic resonance in Josephson junction, bimodal
We present the results of extensive numerical studies on stochastic resonance and its characteristic features in three model systems, namely, a model for Josephson tunnel junctions, the bistable cubic map and a coupled map lattice formed by coupling the cubic maps. Some interesting features regarding the mechanism ...
Micromagnetic modeling of critical current oscillations in magnetic Josephson junctions
golovchanskiy, I.A.; Bol'ginov, V.V.; Stolyarov, V.S.; Abramov, N.N.; Ben Hamida, A.; Emelyanova, O.V.; Stolyarov, B.S.; Kupriyanov, M..Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Ryazanov, V.V.
2016-01-01
In this work we propose and explore an effective numerical approach for investigation of critical current dependence on applied magnetic field for magnetic Josephson junctions with in-plane magnetization orientation. This approach is based on micromagnetic simulation of the magnetization reversal
The two Josephson junction flux qubit with large tunneling amplitude
Shnurkov, V.I.; Soroka, A.A.; Mel'nik, S.I.
2008-01-01
In this paper we discuss solid-state nanoelectronic realizations of Josephson flux qubits with large tunneling amplitude between the two macroscopic states. The latter can be controlled via the height and form of the potential barrier, which is determined by quantum-state engineering of the flux qubit circuit. The simplest circuit of the flux qubit is a superconducting loop interrupted by a Josephson nanoscale tunnel junction. The tunneling amplitude between two macroscopically different states can be increased substantially by engineering of the qubit circuit if the tunnel junction is replaced by a ScS contact. However, only Josephson tunnel junctions are particularly suitable for large-scale integration circuits and quantum detectors with present-day technology. To overcome this difficulty we consider here a flux qubit with high energy-level separation between the 'ground' and 'excited' states, consisting of a superconducting loop with two low-capacitance Josephson tunnel junctions in series. We demonstrate that for real parameters of resonant superposition between the two macroscopic states the tunneling amplitude can reach values greater than 1 K. Analytical results for the tunneling amplitude obtained within the semiclassical approximation by the instanton technique show good correlation with a numerical solution
Negative differential resistance in Josephson junctions coupled to a cavity
Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Filatrella, G.; Pierro, V.
2014-01-01
or external – is often used. A cavity may also induce a negative differential resistance region at the lower side of the resonance frequency. We investigate the dynamics of Josephson junctions with a negative differential resistance in the quasi particle tunnel current, i.e. in the McCumber curve. We find...
Breathers in Josephson junction ladders: Resonances and electromagnetic wave spectroscopy
Miroshnichenko, A. E.; Flach, S.; Fistul, M.
2001-01-01
We present a theoretical study of the resonant interaction between dynamical localized states (discrete breathers) and linear electromagnetic excitations (EE's) in Josephson junction ladders. By making use of direct numerical simulations we find that such an interaction manifests itself by resonant...
Switching between dynamic states in intermediate-length Josephson junctions
Pagano, S.; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Parmentier, R. D.
1986-01-01
The appearance of zero-field steps (ZFS’s) in the current-voltage characteristics of intermediate-length overlap-geometry Josephson tunnel junctions described by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation (PSGE) is associated with the growth of parametrically excited instabilities of the McCumber backgroun...
Aspects of stochastic resonance in Josephson junction, bimodal ...
Abstract. We present the results of extensive numerical studies on stochastic resonance and its characteristic features in three model systems, namely, a model for Josephson tunnel junctions, the bistable cubic map and a coupled map lattice formed by coupling the cubic maps. Some interesting features regarding the ...
Josephson tunnel junctions in a magnetic field gradient
Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, V.P.
2011-01-01
We measured the magnetic field dependence of the critical current of high-quality Nb-based planar Josephson tunnel junctions in the presence of a controllable nonuniform field distribution. We found skewed and slowly changing magnetic diffraction patterns quite dissimilar from the Fraunhofer...
Using ion irradiation to make high-Tc Josephson junctions
Bergeal, N.; Lesueur, J.; Sirena, M.; Faini, G.; Aprili, M.; Contour, J. P.; Leridon, B.
2007-01-01
In this article we describe the effect of ion irradiation on high-T c superconductor thin film and its interest for the fabrication of Josephson junctions. In particular, we show that these alternative techniques allow to go beyond most of the limitations encountered in standard junction fabrication methods, both in the case of fundamental and technological purposes. Two different geometries are presented: a planar one using a single high-T c film and a mesa one defined in a trilayer structure
Vortex dynamics in Josephson junctions arrays
Shalom, Diego Edgar
2005-01-01
In this work we study the dynamics of vortices in two-dimensional overdamped Josephson Junctions Arrays (JJA) driven by dc current in a wide range of conditions varying magnetic field and temperature using experiments, numerical simulations and analytic studies.We develop the Fixed Phase method, a variation of numeric relaxation techniques in which we fix and control the phase of some islands, adjacent to the vortex center, while allowing all other phases in the system to relax.In this way we are able to pull and push the vortex uphill, as we are forcing the center of rotation of the vortex currents to be in a defined location, allowing us to calculate the potential energy of a vortex located in any arbitrary position.We use this method to study the potential energy of a vortex in a variety of situations in homogeneous and non-homogeneous JJA, such as arrays with defects, channel arrays and ratchets.We study the finite size effects in JJA by means of analytic and numerical tools.We implement the rings model, in which we replace the two-dimensional square array by a series of square, concentric, uncoupled rings. This is equivalent to disregarding the radial junctions that couple consecutive rings.In spite of its extreme simplicity, this model holds the main ingredients of the magnetic dependence of the energy.We combine this model with other terms that take into account the dependence in the position of the vortex to obtain a general expression for the potential energy of a vortex in a finite JJA with applied magnetic field.We also present an expression for the first critical field, corresponding to the value of the magnetic field in which the entrance of the first vortex becomes energetically favorable.We build and study JJA modulated to form periodic and asymmetrical potentials for the vortices, named ratchet potentials.The experimental results clearly show the existence of a rectification in the motion of vortices in these potentials.Under certain conditions we
Superconductor-Insulator transition in a single Josephson junction
Sonin, E.B.; PenttilA, J.S.; Parts, O.; Hakonen, P.J.; Paalanen, M.A.
1999-01-01
For ultra small Josephson junctions, when quantum effects become important, dissipative phase transition (DPT) has been predicted. The physical origin of this transition is the suppression of macroscopic quantum tunneling of the phase by tile interaction with dissipative quantum-mechanical environment. Macroscopic quantum tunneling destroys superconductivity of a junction, whereas suppression of tunneling restores superconductivity. Hence, this transition is often called a superconductor-insulator transition (SIT). SIT was predicted for various systems, but its detection in a single Josephson junction is of principal importance since it is the simplest system where this transition is expected, without any risk of being masked by other physical processes, as is possible in more complicated systems like regular or' random Josephson junction arrays. In this Letter we present results of our measurements on R = dV/dI vs. I curves, for a variety of single small isolated Josephson junctions, shunted and un shunted, with different values of capacitance C and normal state tunneling resistance RT. We have detected a crossover. between two types of RI-curves with an essentially different behavior at small currents. On the basis of this crossover, we are able to map out the whole phase diagram for a Josephson junction. The position of the observed phase boundary did not agree with that expected from the original theory. However, the theory revised to take into account a finite accuracy of our voltage measurements (viz., the minimum voltage which we are able to detect), explains well the observed phase diagram. Our important conclusion is that the concept of dissipative phase transition (DPT) and superconductor-insulator transition (SIT) are not completely identical as assumed before. Both are accompanied by the sign change of the thermo resistance, which is traditionally considered as a signature of SIT. Thus any DPT is SIT, but not vice versa. We argue that the real signature
Transient chaos in weakly coupled Josephson junctions
Koch, B P; Bruhn, B
1988-01-01
This paper considers periodic excitations and coupling of nonlinear Josephson oscillators. The Melnikov method is used to prove the existence of horseshoes in the dynamics. The coupling of two systems yields a reduction of the chaos threshold in comparison with the corresponding threshold of a single system. For some selected parameter values the theoretical predictions are checked by numerical methods.
Fluxon dynamics in long annular Josephson tunnel junctions
Martucciello, N.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelets, V.P.
1998-01-01
Single-fluxon dynamics has been experimentally investigated in high-quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb annular Josephson tunnel junctions having a radius much larger than the Josephson penetration depth. Strong evidence of self-field effects is observed. An external magnetic field in the barrier plane acts...... on the fluxon as a periodic potential and lowers its average speed. Further, the results of perturbative calculations do not fit the experimental current-voltage profile and, provided the temperature is low enough, this profile systematically shows pronounced deviations from the smooth predicted form...
Thin film hybrid Josephson junctions with Co doped Ba-122
Schmidt, Stefan; Doering, Sebastian; Schmidl, Frank; Tympel, Volker; Grosse, Veit; Seidel, Paul [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Helmholtzweg 5, 07743 Jena (Germany); Haindl, Silvia; Iida, Kazumasa; Kurth, Fritz; Holzapfel, Bernhard [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Metallische Werkstoffe, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Moench, Ingolf [IFW Dresden, Institut fuer Integrative Nanowissenschaften, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)
2011-07-01
Josephson junctions are a strong tool to investigate fundamental superconducting properties, such as gap behaviour, dependencies from external fields and the order parameter symmetry. Finding secure values enables the possibility of theoretical descriptions to understand the physical processes within the new iron-based superconductors. Based on Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (Ba-122) layers produced via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on (La,Sr)(Al,Ta)O{sub 3} substrates, we manufactured superconductor-normal conductor-superconductor (S-N-S) junctions structures by using photolithography, ion beam etching as well as insulating SiO{sub 2} layers. We present working Ba-122/Au/PbIn thin film Josephson junctions with different contact areas and barrier thicknesses, their temperature dependence and response to microwave irradiation. The calculated I{sub c}R{sub N} product is in the range of a couple of microvolts.
Internal resonances in periodically modulated long Josephson junctions
Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Mygind, Jesper; Ustinov, Alexey V.
1995-01-01
Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of long Josephson junctions with a periodic lattice of localized inhomogeneities are studied. The interaction between the moving fluxons and the inhomogeneities causes resonant steps in the IV-curve. Some of these steps are due to a synchronization to resonant...... Fiske modes in the sub-junctions formed between the inhomogeneities. The voltage positions of the resonant steps oscillate as function of the applied magnetic field with a period corresponding to the inclusion of one magnetic flux quantum, Φ0=h/2e, per sub-junction. A qualitative explanation that takes...
Double-well potential in annular Josephson junction
Shaju, P.D.; Kuriakose, V.C.
2004-01-01
A double-well potential suitable for quantum-coherent vortex tunnelling can be created in an annular Josephson junction by inserting a microshort in the junction and by applying an in-plane dc magnetic field. Analysis shows that the intensity of the magnetic field determines the depth of the potential well and the strength of the microshort controls the potential barrier height while a dc bias across the junction tilts the potential well. At milli-Kelvin temperatures, the system is expected to behave as a quantum two-level system and may be useful in designing vortex qubits
Steady-state properties of Josephson junctions with direct conductivity
Zubkov, A.A.; Kupriyanov, M.Y.; Semenov, V.K.
1981-01-01
A new criterion for determining the kinetic inductance of Josephson junctions is introduced. The effects of temperature T, the critical temperatures of the superconducting electrodes T/sub c/1 and T/sub c/2, and the weak-link length on the kinetic inductance of ''dirty'' junctions with direct conductivity are analyzed within the framework of the Usadel equations. Numerical calculations show that both a large characteristic voltage and a nearly harmonic dependence of the current on the phase difference of the superconducting-electrode wave functions cannot be obtained by varying the junction parameters
Fractional Josephson vortices in two-gap superconductor long Josephson junctions
Kim, Ju
2014-03-01
We investigated the phase dynamics of long Josephson junctions (LJJ) with two-gap superconductors in the broken time reversal symmetry state. In this LJJ, spatial phase textures (i-solitons) can be excited due to the presence of two condensates and the interband Joesphson effect between them. The presence of a spatial phase texture in each superconductor layer leads to a spatial variation of the critical current density between the superconductor layers. We find that this spatial dependence of the crtitical current density can self-generate magnetic flux in the insulator layer, resulting in Josephson vortices with fractional flux quanta. Similar to the situation in a YBa2 Cu3O7 - x superconductor film grain boundary, the fractionalization of a Josephson vortex arises as a response to either periodic or random excitation of i-solitions. This suggests that magnetic flux measurements may be used to probe i-soliton excitations in multi-gap superconductor LJJs.
Possible resonance effect of axionic dark matter in Josephson junctions.
Beck, Christian
2013-12-06
We provide theoretical arguments that dark-matter axions from the galactic halo that pass through Earth may generate a small observable signal in resonant S/N/S Josephson junctions. The corresponding interaction process is based on the uniqueness of the gauge-invariant axion Josephson phase angle modulo 2π and is predicted to produce a small Shapiro steplike feature without externally applied microwave radiation when the Josephson frequency resonates with the axion mass. A resonance signal of so far unknown origin observed by C. Hoffmann et al. [Phys. Rev. B 70, 180503(R) (2004)] is consistent with our theory and can be interpreted in terms of an axion mass m(a)c2=0.11 meV and a local galactic axionic dark-matter density of 0.05 GeV/cm3. We discuss future experimental checks to confirm the dark-matter nature of the observed signal.
Cleland, A.N.
1991-01-01
Experiments investigated the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very-small-capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson-phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters. The experiments on small-capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the large-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wave function has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias
Cleland, A.N.
1991-04-01
Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q ∼ 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement
Realization of φ Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer
Sickinger, Hanna Sabine
2014-01-01
In this thesis, φ Josephson junctions based on 0-π junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer are studied. Josephson junctions (JJs) with a ferromagnetic interlayer can have a phase drop of 0 or π in the ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnet (0 JJs or π JJs). Also, 0-π JJs can be realized, where one segment of the junction (if taken separately) is in the 0 state, while the other segment is in the π state. One can use these π Josephson junctions as a device in superconducting circuits, where it provides a constant phase shift, i.e., it acts as a π phase battery. A generalization of a π JJ is a φ JJ, which has the phase ±φ in the ground state. The value of φ can be chosen by design and tuned in the interval 0<φ<π. The φ JJs used in this experiment were fabricated as 0-π JJs with asymmetric current densities in the 0 and π facets. This system can be described by an effective current-phase relation which is tunable by an externally applied magnetic field. The first experimental evidence of such a φ JJ is presented in this thesis. In particular it is demonstrated that (a) a φ JJ has two ground states +φ and -φ, (b) the unknown state can be detected (read out) by measuring the critical current I c (I c+ or I c- ), and (c) a particular state can be prepared by applying a magnetic field or a special bias sweep sequence. These properties of a φ JJ can be utilized, for example, as a memory cell (classical bit). Furthermore, a φ Josephson junction can be used as a deterministic ratchet. This is due to the tunable asymmetry of the potential that can be changed by the external magnetic field. Rectification curves are observed for the overdamped and the underdamped case. Moreover, experimental data of the retrapping process of the phase of a φ Josephson junction depending on the temperature is presented.
Shunted-Josephson-junction model. II. The nonautonomous case
Belykh, V. N.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.
1977-01-01
The shunted-Josephson-junction model with a monochromatic ac current drive is discussed employing the qualitative methods of the theory of nonlinear oscillations. As in the preceding paper dealing with the autonomous junction, the model includes a phase-dependent conductance and a shunt capacitance....... The mathematical discussion makes use of the phase-space representation of the solutions to the differential equation. The behavior of the trajectories in phase space is described for different characteristic regions in parameter space and the associated features of the junction IV curve to be expected are pointed...... out. The main objective is to provide a qualitative understanding of the junction behavior, to clarify which kinds of properties may be derived from the shunted-junction model, and to specify the relative arrangement of the important domains in the parameter-space decomposition....
Magnetic field behavior of current steps in long Josephson junctions
Costabile, G.; Cucolo, A.M.; Pace, S.; Parmentier, R.D.; Savo, B.; Vaglio, R.
1980-01-01
The zero-field steps, or dc current singularities, in the current-voltage characteristics of long Josephson tunnel junctions, first reported by Chen et al., continue to attract research interest both because their study can provide fundamental information on the dynamics of fluxons in such junctions and because they are accompanied by the emission of microwave radiation from the junction, which may be exploitable in practical oscillator applications. The purpose of this paper is to report some experimental observations of the magnetic field behavior of the steps in junctions fabricated in our Laboratory and to offer a qualitative explanation for this behavior. Measurements have been made both for very long (L >> lambdasub(J)) and for slightly long (L approx. >= lambdasub(J)) junctions with a view toward comparing our results with those of other workers. (orig./WRI)
Two coupled Josephson junctions: dc voltage controlled by biharmonic current
Machura, L; Spiechowicz, J; Kostur, M; Łuczka, J
2012-01-01
We study transport properties of two Josephson junctions coupled by an external shunt resistance. One of the junctions (say, the first) is driven by an unbiased ac current consisting of two harmonics. The device can rectify the ac current yielding a dc voltage across the first junction. For some values of coupling strength, controlled by an external shunt resistance, a dc voltage across the second junction can be generated. By variation of system parameters such as the relative phase or frequency of two harmonics, one can conveniently manipulate both voltages with high efficiency, e.g. changing the dc voltages across the first and second junctions from positive to negative values and vice versa. (paper)
What happens in Josephson junctions at high critical current densities
Massarotti, D.; Stornaiuolo, D.; Lucignano, P.; Caruso, R.; Galletti, L.; Montemurro, D.; Jouault, B.; Campagnano, G.; Arani, H. F.; Longobardi, L.; Parlato, L.; Pepe, G. P.; Rotoli, G.; Tagliacozzo, A.; Lombardi, F.; Tafuri, F.
2017-07-01
The impressive advances in material science and nanotechnology are more and more promoting the use of exotic barriers and/or superconductors, thus paving the way to new families of Josephson junctions. Semiconducting, ferromagnetic, topological insulator and graphene barriers are leading to unconventional and anomalous aspects of the Josephson coupling, which might be useful to respond to some issues on key problems of solid state physics. However, the complexity of the layout and of the competing physical processes occurring in the junctions is posing novel questions on the interpretation of their phenomenology. We classify some significant behaviors of hybrid and unconventional junctions in terms of their first imprinting, i.e., current-voltage curves, and propose a phenomenological approach to describe some features of junctions characterized by relatively high critical current densities Jc. Accurate arguments on the distribution of switching currents will provide quantitative criteria to understand physical processes occurring in high-Jc junctions. These notions are universal and apply to all kinds of junctions.
Dynamics of fractional vortices in long Josephson junctions
Gaber, Tobias
2007-01-01
In this thesis static and dynamic properties of fractional vortices in long Josephson junctions are investigated. Fractional vortices are circulating supercurrents similar to the well-known Josephson fluxons. Yet, they show the distinguishing property of carrying only a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum. Fractional vortices are interesting non-linear objects. They spontaneously appear and are pinned at the phase discontinuity points of so called 0-κ junctions but can be bend or flipped by external forces like bias currents or magnetic fields. 0-κ junctions and fractional vortices are generalizations of the well-known 0-π junctions and semifluxons, where not only phase jumps of pi but arbitrary values denoted by kappa are considered. By using so-called artificial 0-κ junctions that are based on standard Nb-AlO x -Nb technology the classical dynamics of fractional vortices has been investigated experimentally for the very first time. Here, half-integer zero field steps could be observed. These voltage steps on the junction's current-voltage characteristics correspond to the periodic flipping/hopping of fractional vortices. In addition, the oscillatory eigenmodes of fractional vortices were investigated. In contrast to fluxons fractional vortices have an oscillatory eigenmode with a frequency within the plasma gap. Using resonance spectroscopy the dependence of the eigenmode frequency on the flux carried by the vortex and an applied bias current was determined. (orig.)
Repulsive fluxons in a stack of Josephson junctions perturbed by a cavity
Madsen, Søren; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2008-01-01
The BSCCO type intrinsic Josephson junction has been modeled as a stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions, which were described by a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations. In a system of 10 long Josephson junctions coupled to a linear cavity, we numerically investigate how...... of the inductive coupling strength, we investigate the cavity current, fluxon phase difference, and current–voltage characteristic. The stack-cavity system with in-phase fluxon motion may be utilized as a THz oscillator....
Onset of chaos in Josephson junctions with intermediate damping
Yao, X.; Wu, J.Z.; Ting, C.S.
1990-01-01
By use of the analytical solution of the Stewart-McCumber equation including quadratic damping and dc bias, the Melnikov method has been extended to the parameter regions of intermediate damping and dc bias for the Josephson junctions with quadratic damping and with linear damping and cosφ term. The comparison between the thresholds predicted by the Melnikov method and that derived from numerical simulation has been studied. In addition, the validity conditions for the Melnikov threshold are also discussed
Memory states in small arrays of Josephson junctions
Braiman, Yehuda [ORNLOak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Computing and Computational Science Directorate; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Biomedical Engineering; Neschke, Brendan [ORNLOak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Computing and Computational Science Directorate; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Biomedical Engineering; Nair, Niketh S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Computing and Computational Science Directorate; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Biomedical Engineering; Imam, Neena [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computing and Computational Science Directorat; Glowinski, R. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Mathematics
2017-11-30
Here, we study memory states of a circuit consisting of a small inductively coupled Josephson junction array and introduce basic (write, read, and reset) memory operations logics of the circuit. The presented memory operation paradigm is fundamentally different from conventional single quantum flux operation logics. We calculate stability diagrams of the zero-voltage states and outline memory states of the circuit. We also calculate access times and access energies for basic memory operations.
Multiple frequency generation by bunched solitons in Josephson tunnel junctions
Lomdahl, P. S.; Sørensen, O. H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1981-01-01
A detailed numerical study of a long Josephson tunnel junction modeled by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation demonstrates the existence of a variety of bunched soliton configurations. Thus, on the third zero-field step of the V-I characteristic, two simultaneous adjacent frequencies are generated...... in a narrow bias current range. The analysis of the soliton modes provides an explanation of recent experimental observations....
Branching in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions
Shukrinov, Yu M; Mahfouzi, F
2007-01-01
We study branching in the current-voltage characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions of high-temperature superconductors in the framework of the capacitively coupled Josephson junction model with diffusion current. A system of dynamical equations for the gauge-invariant phase differences between superconducting layers for a stack of ten intrinsic junctions has been numerically solved. We have obtained a total branch structure in the current-voltage characteristics. We demonstrate the existence of a 'breakpoint region' on the current-voltage characteristics and explain it as a result of resonance between Josephson and plasma oscillations. The effect of the boundary conditions is investigated. The existence of two outermost branches and correspondingly two breakpoint regions for the periodic boundary conditions is shown. One branch, which is observed only at periodic boundary conditions, corresponds to the propagating of the plasma mode. The second one corresponds to the situation when the charge oscillations on the superconducting layers are absent, excluding the breakpoint. A time dependence of the charge oscillations at breakpoints is presented
Search for a correlation between Josephson junctions and gravity
Robertson, Glen A.
2000-01-01
Woodward's transient mass shift (TMS) formula has commonality with Modanese's anomalous coupling theory (ACT) and Woodward's capacitor experiment has commonality with Podkletnov's layered superconductor disk experiment. The TMS formula derives a mass fluctuation from a time-varying energy density. The ACT suggests that the essential ingredient for the gravity phenomenon is the presence of strong variations or fluctuations of the Cooper pair density (a time-varying energy density). Woodward's experiment used a small array of capacitors whose energy density was varied by an applied 11 kHz signal. Podkletnov's superconductor disk contained many Josephson junctions (small capacitive like interfaces), which were radiated with a 3-4 MHz signal. This paper formulates a TMS for superconductor Josephson junctions. The equation was compared to the 2% mass change claimed by Podkletnov in his gravity shielding experiments. The TMS is calculated to be 2% for a 2-kg superconductor with an induced total power to the multiple Josephson junctions of about 3.3-watts. A percent mass change equation is then formulated based on the Cavendish balance equation where the superconductor TMS is used for the delta change in mass. An experiment using a Cavendish balance is then discussed
The persistent current and energy spectrum on a driven mesoscopic LC-circuit with Josephson junction
Pahlavanias, Hassan
2018-03-01
The quantum theory for a mesoscopic electric circuit including a Josephson junction with charge discreteness is studied. By considering coupling energy of the mesoscopic capacitor in Josephson junction device, a Hamiltonian describing the dynamics of a quantum mesoscopic electric LC-circuit with charge discreteness is introduced. We first calculate the persistent current on a quantum driven ring including Josephson junction. Then we obtain the persistent current and energy spectrum of a quantum mesoscopic electrical circuit which includes capacitor, inductor, time-dependent external source and Josephson junction.
Fluoride barriers in Nb/Pb Josephson junctions
Asano, H.; Tanabe, K.; Michikami, O.; Igarashi, M.; Beasley, M. R.
1985-03-01
Josephson tunnel junctions are fabricated using a new class of artificial barriers, metal fluorides (Al fluoride and Zr fluoride). These fluoride barriers are deposited on the surface of a Nb base electrode, which are previously cleaned using a CF4 cleaning process, and covered by a Pb counterelectrode. The junctions with both Al fluoride and Zr fluoride barriers exhibit good tunneling characteristics and have low specific capacitance. In the case of Zr fluoride, it is observed that reasonable resistances are obtained even at thickness greater than 100 A. This phenomenon might be explained by tunneling via localized states in Zr fluoride.
Phase transition in a modified square Josephson-junction array
Han, J
1999-01-01
We study the phase transition in a modified square proximity-coupled Josephson-junction array with small superconducting islands at the center of each plaquette. We find that the modified square array undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii-like phase transition, but at a lower temperature than the simple square array with the same single-junction critical current. The IV characteristics, as well as the phase transition, resemble qualitatively those of a disordered simple square array. The effects of the presence of the center islands in the modified square array are discussed.
Relaxation towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions
Salerno, M.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1995-01-01
We study the relaxation phenomenon towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions. In particular the dependence of the relaxation frequency for the equal time of flight solution on the junction parameters is derived. The analysis is based on a phase-locked map and is compared with direct...... numerical experiments performed both on the map and on the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. As an interesting result we find that very close to a bifurcation the relaxation frequency is exactly equal to the half of the step frequency, i.e., the frequency characterizing the period-one solution....
Q factor and resonance amplitude of Josephson tunnel junctions
Broom, R.F.; Wolf, P.
1977-01-01
The surface impedance of the superconducting films comprising the electrodes of Josephson tunnel junctions has been derived from the BCS theory in the extreme London limit. Expressions have been obtained for (i) the dependence of the penetration depth lambda on frequency and temperature, and (ii) the quality factor Q of the junction cavity, attributable to surface absorption in the electrodes. The effect of thin electrodes (t 9 or approx. = lambda) is also included in the calculations. Comparison of the calculated frequency dependence of lambda with resonance measurements on Pb-alloy and all-Nb tunnel junctions yields quite good agreement, indicating that the assumptions made in the theory are reasonable. Measurements of the (current) amplitude of the resonance peaks of the junctions have been compared with the values obtained from inclusion of the calculated Q in the theory by Kulik. In common with observations on microwave cavities by other workers, we find that a small residual conductivity must be added to the real part of the BCS value. With its inclusion, good agreement is found between calculation and experiment, within the range determined by the simplifying assumptions of Kulik's theory. From the results, we believe the calculation of Q to be reasonably accurate for the materials investigated. It is shown that the resonance amplitude of Josephson junctions can be calculated directly from the material constants and a knowledge of the residual conductivity
High-efficiency thermal switch based on topological Josephson junctions
Sothmann, Björn; Giazotto, Francesco; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.
2017-02-01
We propose theoretically a thermal switch operating by the magnetic-flux controlled diffraction of phase-coherent heat currents in a thermally biased Josephson junction based on a two-dimensional topological insulator. For short junctions, the system shows a sharp switching behavior while for long junctions the switching is smooth. Physically, the switching arises from the Doppler shift of the superconducting condensate due to screening currents induced by a magnetic flux. We suggest a possible experimental realization that exhibits a relative temperature change of 40% between the on and off state for realistic parameters. This is a factor of two larger than in recently realized thermal modulators based on conventional superconducting tunnel junctions.
Niobium nitride Josephson tunnel junctions with magnesium oxide barriers
Shoji, A.; Aoyagi, M.; Kosaka, S.; Shinoki, F.; Hayakawa, H.
1985-01-01
Niobium nitride-niobium nitride Josephson tunnel junctions have been fabricated using amorphous magnesium oxide (a-MgO) films as barriers. These junctions have excellent tunneling characteristics. For example, a large gap voltage (V/sub g/ = 5.1 mV), a large product of the maximum critical current and the normal tunneling resistance (I/sub c/R/sub n/ = 3.25 mV), and a small subgap leakage current (V/sub m/ = 45 mV, measured at 3 mV) have been obtained for a NbN/a-MgO/NbN junction. The critical current of this junction remains finite up to 14.5 K
Shenoy, S.R.; Karlsruhe Univ.
1983-07-01
A two-dimensional NXN array of coupled Josephson junctions, each of size tau 0 and Josephson length lambdasub(JO)>>tau 0 , is shown to exhibit macroscopic weak superconductivity. The Josephson phase coherence here extends across the array, vanishing discontinuously at the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition temperature. The transverse size Ntau 0 must be smaller than a few times the effective Josephson screening length lambdasub(J)sup(eff) proportional to lambdasub(JO), for a sharp transition to be seen. (author)
Fluctuation of heat current in Josephson junctions
P. Virtanen
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We discuss the statistics of heat current between two superconductors at different temperatures connected by a generic weak link. As the electronic heat in superconductors is carried by Bogoliubov quasiparticles, the heat transport fluctuations follow the Levitov–Lesovik relation. We identify the energy-dependent quasiparticle transmission probabilities and discuss the resulting probability density and fluctuation relations of the heat current. We consider multichannel junctions, and find that heat transport in diffusive junctions is unique in that its statistics is independent of the phase difference between the superconductors.
Manipulating Josephson junctions in thin-films by nearby vortices
Kogan, V.G.; Mints, R.G.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Vortex located in a bank of a planar Josephson junction changes its character. • Vortex located at some discreet positions in thin strip bank suppresses to zero the zero-field current. • The number of these positions is equal to the number of vortices trapped. • Critical current-field patterns are strongly affected by the vortex position. - Abstract: It is shown that a vortex trapped in one of the banks of a planar edge-type Josephson junction in a narrow thin-film superconducting strip can change drastically the dependence of the junction critical current on the applied field, I c (H). When the vortex is placed at certain discrete positions in the strip middle, the pattern I c (H) has zero at H=0 instead of the traditional maximum of ‘0-type’ junctions. The number of these positions is equal to the number of vortices trapped at the same location. When the junction–vortex separation exceeds ∼W, the strip width, I c (H) is no longer sensitive to the vortex presence. The same is true for any separation if the vortex approaches the strip edges
Thermally activated phase slippage in high-Tc grain-boundary Josephson junctions
Gross, R.; Chaudhari, P.; Dimos, D.; Gupta, A.; Koren, G.
1990-01-01
The effect of thermally activated phase slippage (TAPS) in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 grain-boundary Josephson junctions has been studied. TAPS has been found to be responsible for the dc noise voltage superimposed on the dc Josephson current near the transition temperature. Because of the reduced Josephson coupling energy of the grain-boundary junctions, which is caused by a reduced superconducting order parameter at the grain-boundary interface, TAPS is present over a considerable temperature range. The implications of TAPS on the applicability of high-T c Josephson junctions are outlined
Thermally activated phase slippage in high- T sub c grain-boundary Josephson junctions
Gross, R.; Chaudhari, P.; Dimos, D.; Gupta, A.; Koren, G. (IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (USA))
1990-01-08
The effect of thermally activated phase slippage (TAPS) in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} grain-boundary Josephson junctions has been studied. TAPS has been found to be responsible for the dc noise voltage superimposed on the dc Josephson current near the transition temperature. Because of the reduced Josephson coupling energy of the grain-boundary junctions, which is caused by a reduced superconducting order parameter at the grain-boundary interface, TAPS is present over a considerable temperature range. The implications of TAPS on the applicability of high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} Josephson junctions are outlined.
Phase transition in one Josephson junction with a side-coupled magnetic impurity
Zhi, Li-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Jiang, Cui; Yi, Guang-Yu; Gong, Wei-Jiang
2018-04-01
This work focuses on one Josephson junction with a side-coupled magnetic impurity. And then, the Josephson phase transition is theoretically investigated, with the help of the exact diagonalization approach. It is found that even in the absence of intradot Coulomb interaction, the magnetic impurity can efficiently induce the phenomenon of Josephson phase transition, which is tightly related to the spin correlation manners (i.e., ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic) between the impurity and the junction. Moreover, the impurity plays different roles when it couples to the dot and superconductor, respectively. This work can be helpful in describing the influence of one magnetic impurity on the supercurrent through the Josephson junction.
NbCN Josephson junctions with AlN barriers
Thomasson, S.L.; Murduck, J.M.; Chan, H.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on niobium carbonitride (NbCN) Josephson circuits which operate over a wider temperature range than either niobium or niobium nitride circuits. Higher operating temperature places NbCN technology more comfortably within the range of closed cycle refrigerators, a key factor in aerospace applications. We have fabricated tunnel junctions from NbCN films with transition temperatures up to 18 Kelvin. High quality NbCN tunnel junction fabrication generally requires low stress films with roughness less than the barrier thickness (∼20 Angstrom). We have developed scanning tunneling microscopy as a tool for measuring and optimizing film smoothness. Junctions formed in situ with AIN tunneling barriers show reproducible I-V characteristics
High quality factor HTS Josephson junctions on low loss substrates
Stornaiuolo, D; Longobardi, L; Massarotti, D; Barone, A; Tafuri, F [CNR-SPIN Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Papari, G; Carillo, F [NEST, CNR-NANO and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Cennamo, N [Dipartimento Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy)
2011-04-15
We have extended the off-axis biepitaxial technique to produce YBCO grain boundary junctions on low loss substrates. Excellent transport properties have been reproducibly found, with remarkable values of the quality factor I{sub c}R{sub n} (with I{sub c} the critical current and R{sub n} the normal state resistance) above 10 mV, far higher than the values commonly reported in the literature for high temperature superconductor (HTS) based Josephson junctions. The outcomes are consistent with a picture of a more uniform grain boundary region along the current path. This work supports a possible implementation of grain boundary junctions for various applications including terahertz sensors and HTS quantum circuits in the presence of microwaves.
High-Tc SNS Junctions: A New Generation of Proximity-Coupled Josephson Devices
Kleinsasser, A. W.
1997-01-01
This paper reviews this evolution of proximity - coupled Josephson jucntion from the early investigations on low temperature superconductor-normal -superconductor junctions through the introduction of hybrid superconductor-semiconductor devices and the resulting interest in mesoscopic Josephson junctions, to the recent development of high temperature devices.
Bifurcation and chaos in a dc-driven long annular Josephson junction
Grnbech-Jensen, N.; Lomdahl, Peter S.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1991-01-01
Simulations of long annular Josephson junctions in a static magnetic field show that in large regions of bias current the system can exhibit a period-doubling bifurcation route to chaos. This is in contrast to previously studied Josephson-junction systems where chaotic behavior has primarily been...
Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.
1976-01-01
The first direct observation of the parametrically generated half-harmonic voltage in a Josephson tunnel junction is reported. A microwave signal at f=17.25 GHz is applied to the junction dc current biased at zero voltage such that the Josephson plasma resonance fp=f/2. Under these conditions...
Effect of colored noise on an overdamped Josephson junction
Genchev, Z. D.
2001-03-01
In this paper my attention is restricted to stochastic differential equation in phase function φ(t), describing an overdamped Josephson junction. I accept the RSJ (resistively shunted junction) modeling, when the contact characterized by resistance R and critical current I c is under the action of a given direct current I and stochastic current source Ĩ(t) (=0) : {ℏ}/{2 eR }{dφ }/{dt }+I csinφ=I+ Ĩ(t). In our case the thermal noise is a Gaussian process and obeys the Johnson-Nyquistr correlation law C(t)== {ℏ}/{2πR}∫ -∞∞dω ω coth{ℏω}/{2k BT }cosωt. The effective Fokker-Planck equation is derived and the current-voltage characteristics (CVCs) of the Josephson junction are calculated for weakly colored noise. In the limit limℏ→0C(t)= {2k BT }/{R}δ(t) the well-known results for white noise are recovered.
Phase dynamics of low critical current density YBCO Josephson junctions
Massarotti, D., E-mail: dmassarotti@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Stornaiuolo, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Rotoli, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); Carillo, F. [Nest, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Galletti, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Longobardi, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); American Physical Society, 1 Research Road, Ridge, NY 11961 (United States); Beltram, F. [Nest, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Tafuri, F. [CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy)
2014-08-15
Highlights: • We study the phase dynamics of YBaCuO Josephson junctions using various tools. • We derive information on the dissipation in a wide range of transport parameters. • Dissipation in such devices can be described by a frequency dependent damping model. • The use of different substrates allows us to tune the shell circuit. - Abstract: High critical temperature superconductors (HTS) based devices can have impact in the study of the phase dynamics of Josephson junctions (JJs) thanks to the wide range of junction parameters they offer and to their unconventional properties. Measurements of current–voltage characteristics and of switching current distributions constitute a direct way to classify different regimes of the phase dynamics and of the transport, also in nontrivial case of the moderately damped regime (MDR). MDR is going to be more and more common in JJs with advances in nanopatterning superconductors and synthesizing novel hybrid systems. Distinctive signatures of macroscopic quantum tunneling and of thermal activation in presence of different tunable levels of dissipation have been detected in YBCO grain boundary JJs. Experimental data are supported by Monte Carlo simulations of the phase dynamics, in a wide range of temperatures and dissipation levels. This allows us to quantify dissipation in the MDR and partially reconstruct a phase diagram as guideline for a wide range of moderately damped systems.
0-π phase-controllable thermal Josephson junction
Fornieri, Antonio; Timossi, Giuliano; Virtanen, Pauli; Solinas, Paolo; Giazotto, Francesco
2017-05-01
Two superconductors coupled by a weak link support an equilibrium Josephson electrical current that depends on the phase difference ϕ between the superconducting condensates. Yet, when a temperature gradient is imposed across the junction, the Josephson effect manifests itself through a coherent component of the heat current that flows opposite to the thermal gradient for |ϕ| heat currents can be inverted by adding a π shift to ϕ. In the static electrical case, this effect has been obtained in a few systems, for example via a ferromagnetic coupling or a non-equilibrium distribution in the weak link. These structures opened new possibilities for superconducting quantum logic and ultralow-power superconducting computers. Here, we report the first experimental realization of a thermal Josephson junction whose phase bias can be controlled from 0 to π. This is obtained thanks to a superconducting quantum interferometer that allows full control of the direction of the coherent energy transfer through the junction. This possibility, in conjunction with the completely superconducting nature of our system, provides temperature modulations with an unprecedented amplitude of ∼100 mK and transfer coefficients exceeding 1 K per flux quantum at 25 mK. Then, this quantum structure represents a fundamental step towards the realization of caloritronic logic components such as thermal transistors, switches and memory devices. These elements, combined with heat interferometers and diodes, would complete the thermal conversion of the most important phase-coherent electronic devices and benefit cryogenic microcircuits requiring energy management, such as quantum computing architectures and radiation sensors.
Transition behaviours in two coupled Josephson junction equations
Wang Jiazeng; Zhang Xuejuan; You Gongqiang; Zhou Fengyan
2007-01-01
The dynamics of two coupled Josephson junction equations are investigated via mathematical reasoning and numerical simulations. We show that for a fixed coupling K, the whole parameter space can be comparted into three regions: a quenching region, a synchronized running periodic region and a region where these two states coexist. It is further shown that with the increase of the coupling K, the system may transit from a synchronizing state to a quenching state. The characteristic of the critical line K*(b) which separates these two states is mathematically analysed
Dynamical behavior of RF-biased Josephson junctions (I)
Zi-Dan, Wang; Xi-Xian, Yao
1985-09-01
A lot of numerical investigation of equations of RF-biased Josephson junctions is carried out, in which the interference term is included in current-phase relation. Chaotic behavior, sequence of period-doubling bifurcations, inverse sequence of chaotic band and intermittent chaos are found separately in various parameter regions. The convergent factor delta n of 2/sup /P sequence and the ratio Phi(k)/Phi(k+1) are calculated, where Phi(k) is the average height of the peaks corresponding to 2/sup k/P in the power spectrum. We also study the symmetry possessed by period solutions and its relation to the nature of approach to chaos.
Graphene-Based Josephson-Junction Single-Photon Detector
Walsh, Evan D.; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Lee, Gil-Ho; Heuck, Mikkel; Crossno, Jesse; Ohki, Thomas A.; Kim, Philip; Englund, Dirk; Fong, Kin Chung
2017-08-01
We propose to use graphene-based Josephson junctions (GJJs) to detect single photons in a wide electromagnetic spectrum from visible to radio frequencies. Our approach takes advantage of the exceptionally low electronic heat capacity of monolayer graphene and its constricted thermal conductance to its phonon degrees of freedom. Such a system could provide high-sensitivity photon detection required for research areas including quantum information processing and radio astronomy. As an example, we present our device concepts for GJJ single-photon detectors in both the microwave and infrared regimes. The dark count rate and intrinsic quantum efficiency are computed based on parameters from a measured GJJ, demonstrating feasibility within existing technologies.
Electron-beam damaged high-temperature superconductor Josephson junctions
Pauza, A.J.; Booij, W.E.; Herrmann, K.; Moore, D.F.; Blamire, M.G.; Rudman, D.A.; Vale, L.R.
1997-01-01
Results are presented on the fabrication and characterization of high critical temperature Josephson junctions in thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ produced by the process of focused electron-beam irradiation using 350 keV electrons. The junctions so produced have uniform spatial current densities, can be described in terms of the resistive shunted junction model, and their current densities can be tailored for a given operating temperature. The physical properties of the damaged barrier can be described as a superconducting material of either reduced or zero critical temperature (T c ), which has a length of ∼15nm. The T c reduction is caused primarily by oxygen Frenkel defects in the Cu - O planes. The large beam currents used in the fabrication of the junctions mean that the extent of the barrier is limited by the incident electron-beam diameter, rather than by scattering within the film. The properties of the barrier can be calculated using a superconductor/normal/superconductor (SNS) junction model with no boundary resistance. From the SNS model, we can predict the scaling of the critical current resistance (I c R n ) product and gain insight into the factors controlling the junction properties, T c , and reproducibility. From the measured I c R n scaling data, we can predict the I c R n product of a junction at a given operating temperature with a given current density. I c R n products of ∼2mV can be achieved at 4.2 K. The reproducibility of several junctions in a number of samples can be characterized by the ratio of the maximum-to-minimum critical currents on the same substrate of less than 1.4. Stability over several months has been demonstrated at room and refrigerator temperatures (297 and 281 K) for junctions that have been initially over damaged and then annealed at temperatures ∼380K. (Abstract Truncated)
Josephson effect in SIFS junctions at arbitrary scattering
Pugach, N. G.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu.; Goldobin, E.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.
2011-01-01
Full text: The interplay between dirty and clean limits in Superconductor-Ferromagnet-Superconductor (SFS) Josephson junctions is a subject of intensive theoretical studies. SIFS junctions, containing an additional insulator (I) barrier are interesting as potential logic elements in superconducting circuits, since their critical current I c can be tuned over a wide range, still keeping a high I c R N product, where R N is the normal resistance of the junction. They are also a convenient model system for a comparative study of the 0-π transitions for arbitrary relations between characteristic lengths of the F-layer: the layer thickness d, the mean free path l, the magnetic length ξ H =v F /2H, and the nonmagnetic coherence length ξ 0 =v F /2πT, where v F is the Fermi velocity, H is the exchange magnetic energy, and T is the temperature. The spatial variations of the order parameter are described by the complex coherent length in the ferromagnet ξ F -1 = ξ 1 -1 + iξ 2 -1 . It is well known, that in the dirty limit (l 1,2 ) described by the Usadel equations both ξ 1 2 = ξ 2 2 = v F l/3H. In this work the spatial distribution of the anomalous Green's functions and the Josephson current in the SIFS junction are calculated. The linearized Eilenberger equations are solved together with the Zaitsev boundary conditions. This allows comparing the dirty and the clean limits, investigating a moderate disorder, and establishing the applicability limits of the Usadel equations for such structures. We demonstrate that for an arbitrary relation between l, ξ H , and d the spatial distribution of the anomalous Green's function can be approximated by a single exponent with reasonable accuracy, and we find its effective decay length and oscillation period for several values of ξ H , l and d. The role of different types of the FS interface is analyzed. The applicability range of the Usadel equation is established. The results of calculations have been applied to the
Towards local oscillators based on arrays of niobium Josephson junctions
Galin, M A; Klushin, A M; Kurin, V V; Seliverstov, S V; Finkel, M I; Goltsman, G N; Müller, F; Scheller, T; Semenov, A D
2015-01-01
Various applications in the field of terahertz technology are in urgent need of compact, wide-tunable solid-state continuous wave radiation sources with a moderate power. However, satisfactory solutions for the THz frequency range are scarce yet. Here we report on coherent radiation from a large planar array of Josephson junctions (JJs) in the frequency range between 0.1 and 0.3 THz. The external resonator providing the synchronization of JJ array is identified as a straight fragment of a single-strip-line containing the junctions themselves. We demonstrate a prototype of the quasioptical heterodyne receiver with the JJ array as a local oscillator and a hot-electron bolometer mixer. (paper)
Doubled Shapiro steps in a topological Josephson junction
Li, Yu-Hang; Song, Juntao; Liu, Jie; Jiang, Hua; Sun, Qing-Feng; Xie, X. C.
2018-01-01
We study the transport properties of a superconductor-quantum spin Hall insulator-superconductor hybrid system in the presence of microwave radiation. Instead of adiabatic analysis or use of the resistively shunted junction model, we start from the microscopic Hamiltonian and calculate the d.c. current directly with the help of the nonequilibrium Green's function method. The numerical results show that (i) the I-V curves of background current due to multiple Andreev reflections exhibit a different structure from those in the conventional junctions, and (ii) all Shapiro steps are visible and appear one by one at high frequencies, while at low frequencies, the steps evolve exactly as the Bessel functions and the odd steps are completely suppressed, implying a fractional Josephson effect.
Synchronisation of Josephson vortices in multi-junction systems
Filatrella, G.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Wiesenfeld, K.
2006-01-01
, is modified by the coupling among the junctions, so the motion of the flux quanta in the various layers is affected by the flux dynamics in all other layers. Two basic states are possible: a synchronous motion, where all junctions are reflected at the edge at the same instant, and an out-of-phase motion......, that is mainly to retrieve the above described synchronous motion. We discuss the physics behind synchronization of nonlinear elements and we review applications to Josephson arrays. We discuss in the framework of a general model for synchronization, the Kuramoto model, a mechanism that can possibly enhance...... synchronization, such as coupling to a resonant cavity. We present a version of the Kuramoto model that might include the effects of the strong interaction between the oscillators and the cavity. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
Ultralow power artificial synapses using nanotextured magnetic Josephson junctions
Schneider, Michael L.; Donnelly, Christine A.; Russek, Stephen E.; Baek, Burm; Pufall, Matthew R.; Hopkins, Peter F.; Dresselhaus, Paul D.; Benz, Samuel P.; Rippard, William H.
2018-01-01
Neuromorphic computing promises to markedly improve the efficiency of certain computational tasks, such as perception and decision-making. Although software and specialized hardware implementations of neural networks have made tremendous accomplishments, both implementations are still many orders of magnitude less energy efficient than the human brain. We demonstrate a new form of artificial synapse based on dynamically reconfigurable superconducting Josephson junctions with magnetic nanoclusters in the barrier. The spiking energy per pulse varies with the magnetic configuration, but in our demonstration devices, the spiking energy is always less than 1 aJ. This compares very favorably with the roughly 10 fJ per synaptic event in the human brain. Each artificial synapse is composed of a Si barrier containing Mn nanoclusters with superconducting Nb electrodes. The critical current of each synapse junction, which is analogous to the synaptic weight, can be tuned using input voltage spikes that change the spin alignment of Mn nanoclusters. We demonstrate synaptic weight training with electrical pulses as small as 3 aJ. Further, the Josephson plasma frequencies of the devices, which determine the dynamical time scales, all exceed 100 GHz. These new artificial synapses provide a significant step toward a neuromorphic platform that is faster, more energy-efficient, and thus can attain far greater complexity than has been demonstrated with other technologies. PMID:29387787
Long Josephson tunnel junctions with doubly connected electrodes
Monaco, R.; Mygind, J.; Koshelets, V. P.
2012-03-01
In order to mimic the phase changes in the primordial Big Bang, several cosmological solid-state experiments have been conceived, during the last decade, to investigate the spontaneous symmetry breaking in superconductors and superfluids cooled through their transition temperature. In one of such experiments, the number of magnetic flux quanta spontaneously trapped in a superconducting loop was measured by means of a long Josephson tunnel junction built on top of the loop itself. We have analyzed this system and found a number of interesting features not occurring in the conventional case with simply connected electrodes. In particular, the fluxoid quantization results in a frustration of the Josephson phase, which, in turn, reduces the junction critical current. Further, the possible stable states of the system are obtained by a self-consistent application of the principle of minimum energy. The theoretical findings are supported by measurements on a number of samples having different geometrical configuration. The experiments demonstrate that a very large signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved in the flux quanta detection.
Spin-triplet supercurrent in Co-based Josephson junctions
Khasawneh, Mazin A; Khaire, Trupti S; Klose, Carolin; Pratt, William P Jr; Birge, Norman O
2011-01-01
In the past year several groups have reported experimental evidence for spin-triplet supercurrents in Josephson junctions containing strong ferromagnetic materials. In this paper we present several new experimental results that follow up on our previous work. We study Josephson junctions of the form S/X/N/SAF/N/X/S, where S is a superconductor (Nb), N is a normal metal, SAF is a synthetic antiferromagnet of the form Co/Ru/Co and X is an ferromagnetic layer necessary to induce spin-triplet correlations in the structure. Our work is distinguished by the fact that the generation of spin-triplet correlations is tuned by the type and thickness of the X layers. The most important new result reported here is the discovery that a conventional, strong ferromagnetic material, Ni, performs well as the X layer, if it is sufficiently thin. This discovery rules out our earlier hypothesis that out-of-plane magnetocrystalline anisotropy is an important attribute of the X layers. These results suggest that the spin-triplet correlations are most likely induced by noncollinear magnetization between the X layers and adjacent Co layers.
Majorana zero modes in Dirac semimetal Josephson junctions
Li, Chuan; de Boer, Jorrit; de Ronde, Bob; Huang, Yingkai; Golden, Mark; Brinkman, Alexander
We have realized proximity-induced superconductivity in a Dirac semimetal and revealed the topological nature of the superconductivity by the observation of Majorana zero modes. As a Dirac semimetal, Bi0.97Sb0.03 is used, where a three-dimensional Dirac cone exists in the bulk due to an accidental touching between conduction and valence bands. Electronic transport measurements on Hall-bars fabricated out of Bi0.97Sb0.03 flakes consistently show negative magnetoresistance for magnetic fields parallel to the current, which is associated with the chiral anomaly. In perpendicular magnetic fields, we see Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations that indicate very low carrier densities. The low Fermi energy and protection against backscattering in our Dirac semimetal Josephson junctions provide favorable conditions for a large contribution of Majorana zero modes to the supercurrent. In radiofrequency irradiation experiments, we indeed observe these Majorana zero modes in Nb-Bi0.97Sb0.03-Nb Josephson junctions as a 4 π periodic contribution to the current-phase relation.
High-performance DC SQUIDs with submicrometer niobium Josephson junctions
de Waal, V.J.; Klapwijk, T.M.; van den Hamer, P.
1983-11-01
We report on the fabrication and performance of low-noise, all-niobium, thin-film planar dc SQUIDs with submicrometer Josephson junctions. The junctions are evaporated obliquely through a metal shadow evaporation mask, which is made using optical lithography with 0.5 ..mu..m tolerance. The Josephson junction barrier is formed by evaporating a thin silicon film and with a subsequent oxidation in a glow discharge. The junction parameters can be reproduced within a factor of two. Typical critical currents of the SQUIDs are about 3 ..mu..A and the resistances are about 100 ..cap omega... With SQUIDs having an inductance of 1 nH the voltage modulation is a least 60 ..mu..V. An intrinsic energy resolution of 4 x 10/sup -32/ J/Hz has been reached. The SQUIDs are coupled to wire-wound input coils or with thin-film input coils. The thin-film input coil consists of a niobium spiral of 20 turns on a separate substrate. In both cases the coil is glued onto a 2-nH SQUID with a coupling efficiency of at least 0.5. Referred to the thin-film input coil, the best coupled energy resolution achieved is 1.2 x 10/sup -30/ J/Hz measured in a flux-locked loop at frequencies above 10 Hz. As far as we know, this is the best figure achieved with an all-refractory-metal thin-film SQUID. The fabrication technique used is suited for making circuits with SQUID and pickup coil on the same substrate. We describe a compact, planar, first-order gradiometer integrated with a SQUID on a single substrate. The gradient noise of this device is 3 x 10/sup -12/ Tm/sup -1/. The gradiometer has a size of 12 mm x 17 mm, is simple to fabricate, an is suitable for biomedical applications.
High-performance dc SQUIDs with submicrometer niobium Josephson junctions
de Waal, V. J.; Klapwijk, T. M.; van den Hamer, P.
1983-11-01
We report on the fabrication and performance of low-noise, all-niobium, thin-film planar dc SQUIDs with submicrometer Josephson junctions. The junctions are evaporated obliquely through a metal shadow evaporation mask, which is made using optical lithography with 0.5 µm tolerance. The Josephson junction barrier is formed by evaporating a thin silicon film and with a subsequent oxidation in a glow discharge. The junction parameters can be reproduced within a factor of two. Typical critical currents of the SQUIDs are about 3 µA and the resistances are about 100 Ω. With SQUIDs having an inductance of 1 nH the voltage modulation is at least 60 µV. An intrinsic energy resolution of 4×10-32 J/Hz has been reached. The SQUIDs are coupled to wire-wound input coils or with thin-film input coils. The thin-film input coil consists of a niobium spiral of 20 turns on a separate substrate. In both cases the coil is glued onto a 2-nH SQUID with a coupling efficiency of at least 0.5. Referred to the thin-film input coil, the best coupled energy resolution achieved is 1.2×10-30 J/Hz measured in a flux-locked loop at frequencies above 10 Hz. As far as we know, this is the best figure achieved with an all-refractory-metal thin-film SQUID. The fabrication technique used is suited for making circuits with SQUID and pickup coil on the same substrate. We describe a compact, planar, first-order gradiometer integrated with a SQUID on a single substrate. The gradient noise of this device is 3×10-12 T m-1. The gradiometer has a size of 12 mm×17 mm, is simple to fabricate, and is suitable for biomedical applications.
Effect of quasi-particle injection on retrapping current of Josephson junction
Utsunomiya, K.; Yagi, Ryuta
2006-01-01
We report that the energy dissipation of Josephson junction can be controlled by quasi-particle injection. We fabricated two Josephson junctions on the narrow aluminum wire and controlled the energy dissipation of one junction by quasi-particle injection from the other. We observed the retrapping current increased as the quasi-particles were injected. We also studied the heating effect of our measurement.
Chaos and related nonlinear noise phenomena in Josephson tunnel junctions
Miracky, R.F.
1984-07-01
The nonlinear dynamics of Josephson tunnel junctions shunted by a resistance with substantial self-inductance have been thoroughly investigated. The current-voltage characteristics of these devices exhibit stable regions of negative differential resistance. Very large increases in the low-frequency voltage noise with equivalent noise temperatures of 10 6 K or more, observed in the vicinity of these regions, arise from switching, or hopping, between subharmonic modes. Moderate increases in the noise, with temperatures of about 10 3 K, arise from chaotic behavior. Analog and digital simulations indicate that under somewhat rarer circumstances the same junction system can sustain a purely deterministic hopping between two unstable subharmonic modes, accompanied by excess low-frequency noise. Unlike the noise-induced case, this chaotic process occurs over a much narrower range in bias current and is destroyed by the addition of thermal noise. The differential equation describing the junction system can be reduced to a one-dimensional mapping in the vicinity of one of the unstable modes. A general analytical calculation of switching processes for a class of mappings yields the frequency dependence of the noise spectrum in terms of the parameters of the mapping. Finally, the concepts of noise-induced hopping near bifurcation thresholds are applied to the problem of the three-photon Josephson parametric amplifier. Analog simulations indicate that the noise rise observed in experimental devices arises from occasional hopping between a mode at the pump frequency ω/sub p/ and a mode at the half harmonic ω/sub p//2. The hopping is induced by thermal noise associated with the shunt resistance. 71 references
Chaos and related nonlinear noise phenomena in Josephson tunnel junctions
Miracky, R.F.
1984-07-01
The nonlinear dynamics of Josephson tunnel junctions shunted by a resistance with substantial self-inductance have been thoroughly investigated. The current-voltage characteristics of these devices exhibit stable regions of negative differential resistance. Very large increases in the low-frequency voltage noise with equivalent noise temperatures of 10/sup 6/ K or more, observed in the vicinity of these regions, arise from switching, or hopping, between subharmonic modes. Moderate increases in the noise, with temperatures of about 10/sup 3/ K, arise from chaotic behavior. Analog and digital simulations indicate that under somewhat rarer circumstances the same junction system can sustain a purely deterministic hopping between two unstable subharmonic modes, accompanied by excess low-frequency noise. Unlike the noise-induced case, this chaotic process occurs over a much narrower range in bias current and is destroyed by the addition of thermal noise. The differential equation describing the junction system can be reduced to a one-dimensional mapping in the vicinity of one of the unstable modes. A general analytical calculation of switching processes for a class of mappings yields the frequency dependence of the noise spectrum in terms of the parameters of the mapping. Finally, the concepts of noise-induced hopping near bifurcation thresholds are applied to the problem of the three-photon Josephson parametric amplifier. Analog simulations indicate that the noise rise observed in experimental devices arises from occasional hopping between a mode at the pump frequency ..omega../sub p/ and a mode at the half harmonic ..omega../sub p//2. The hopping is induced by thermal noise associated with the shunt resistance. 71 references.
Merkle, K.L.; Huang, Y.
1998-01-01
The electric transport of high-temperature superconductors, such as YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO), can be strongly restricted by the presence of high-angle grain boundaries (GB). This weak-link behavior is governed by the macroscopic GB geometry and the microscopic grain boundary structure and composition at the atomic level. Whereas grain boundaries present a considerable impediment to high current applications of high T c materials, there is considerable commercial interest in exploiting the weak-link-nature of grain boundaries for the design of microelectronic devices, such as superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). The Josephson junctions which form the basis of this technology can also be formed by introducing artificial barriers into the superconductor. The authors have examined both types of Josephson junctions by EM techniques in an effort to understand the connection between microstructure/chemistry and electrical transport properties. This knowledge is a valuable resource for the design and production of improved devices
Ballistic Graphene Josephson Junctions from the Short to the Long Junction Regimes.
Borzenets, I V; Amet, F; Ke, C T; Draelos, A W; Wei, M T; Seredinski, A; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Bomze, Y; Yamamoto, M; Tarucha, S; Finkelstein, G
2016-12-02
We investigate the critical current I_{C} of ballistic Josephson junctions made of encapsulated graphene-boron-nitride heterostructures. We observe a crossover from the short to the long junction regimes as the length of the device increases. In long ballistic junctions, I_{C} is found to scale as ∝exp(-k_{B}T/δE). The extracted energies δE are independent of the carrier density and proportional to the level spacing of the ballistic cavity. As T→0 the critical current of a long (or short) junction saturates at a level determined by the product of δE (or Δ) and the number of the junction's transversal modes.
Thermalization of a quenched Bose-Josephson junction
Posazhennikova, Anna [Royal Holloway, University of London (United Kingdom); Trujillo-Martinez, Mauricio; Kroha, Johann [Universitaet Bonn (Germany)
2015-07-01
The experimental realization and control of quantum systems isolated from the environment, in ultracold atomic gases relaunched the interest in the fundamental non-equilibrium problem of how a finite system approaches thermal equilibrium. Despite intensive research there is still no conclusive answer to this question. We investigate theoretically how a quenched Bose-Josephson junction, where the Josephson coupling is switched on instantaneously, approaches its stationary state. We use the field theoretical approach for bosons out of equilibrium in a trap with discrete levels, developed by us previously. In this approach the operators for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) particles are treated on mean-field level, while excitations of the Bose gas in higher trap levels are treated fully quantum-mechanically. This leads to coupled equations of motion for the BEC amplitudes (Gross-Pitaevskii equation) and the quasiparticle propagators. The inelastic quasiparticle collisions responsible for the system relaxation during the time-dependent evolution are described within self-consistent second-order approximation.
High-performance passive microwave survey on Josephson junctions
Denisov, A.G.; Radzikhovsky, V.N.; Kudeliya, A.M.
1994-01-01
The quasi-optical generations of image of objects with their internal structure in millimeter (MM) and submillimeter (SMM) bands is one of the prime problems of modern radioelectronics. The main advantage of passive MM imaging systems in comparison with visible and infrared (IR) systems is small attenuation of signals in fog, cloud, smoke, dust and other obscurants. However at a panoramic scanning of space the observation time lengthens and thereby the information processing rate becomes restricted. So that single-channel system cannot image in real time. Therefore we must use many radiometers in parallel to reduce the observation time. Such system must contain receiving sensors as pixels in multibeam antenna. The use of Josephson Junctions (JJ) for this purpose together with the cryoelectronic devices like GaAs FET or SQUIDS for signal amplifications after JJ is of particular interest in this case
A supersymmetric phase transition in Josephson-tunnel-junction arrays
Foda, O.
1988-01-01
The fully frustrated XY model in two dimensions exhibits a vortex-unbinding as well as an Ising transition. If the Ising transition overlaps with the critical line that ends on the vortex transition: T I ≤T V , then the model is equivalent, at the overlap temperature, to a free massless field theory of 1 boson and 1 Majorana fermion, which is a superconformal field theory, of central charge c=3/2. The model is experimentally realized in terms of an array of Josephson-tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field. The experiment reveals a phase transition consistent with T I =T V . Thus, at the critical temperature, the array provides a physical realization of a supersymmetric quantum field theory. (orig.)
Supersymmetric phase transition in Josephson-tunnel-junction arrays
Foda, O.
1988-08-31
The fully frustrated XY model in two dimensions exhibits a vortex-unbinding as well as an Ising transition. If the Ising transition overlaps with the critical line that ends on the vortex transition: T/sub I/less than or equal toT/sub V/, then the model is equivalent, at the overlap temperature, to a free massless field theory of 1 boson and 1 Majorana fermion, which is a superconformal field theory, of central charge c=3/2. The model is experimentally realized in terms of an array of Josephson-tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field. The experiment reveals a phase transition consistent with T/sub I/=T/sub V/. Thus, at the critical temperature, the array provides a physical realization of a supersymmetric quantum field theory.
High-performance passive microwave survey on Josephson junctions
Denisov, A.G.; Radzikhovsky, V.N.; Kudeliya, A.M. [State Research Center of Superconductive Radioelectronics, Kiev (Ukraine)
1994-12-31
The quasi-optical generations of image of objects with their internal structure in millimeter (MM) and submillimeter (SMM) bands is one of the prime problems of modern radioelectronics. The main advantage of passive MM imaging systems in comparison with visible and infrared (IR) systems is small attenuation of signals in fog, cloud, smoke, dust and other obscurants. However at a panoramic scanning of space the observation time lengthens and thereby the information processing rate becomes restricted. So that single-channel system cannot image in real time. Therefore we must use many radiometers in parallel to reduce the observation time. Such system must contain receiving sensors as pixels in multibeam antenna. The use of Josephson Junctions (JJ) for this purpose together with the cryoelectronic devices like GaAs FET or SQUIDS for signal amplifications after JJ is of particular interest in this case.
Langevin dynamics simulations of large frustrated Josephson junction arrays
Groenbech-Jensen, N.; Bishop, A.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.
1991-01-01
Long-time Langevin dynamics simulations of large (N x N,N = 128) 2-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions in a uniformly frustrating external magnetic field are reported. The results demonstrate: (1) Relaxation from an initially random flux configuration as a universal fit to a glassy stretched-exponential type of relaxation for the intermediate temperatures T(0.3 T c approx-lt T approx-lt 0.7 T c ), and an activated dynamic behavior for T ∼ T c ; (2) a glassy (multi-time, multi-length scale) voltage response to an applied current. Intrinsic dynamical symmetry breaking induced by boundaries as nucleation sites for flux lattice defects gives rise to transverse and noisy voltage response
Langevin dynamics simulations of large frustrated Josephson junction arrays
Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Bishop, A.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.
1991-01-01
Long-time Langevin dynamics simulations of large (N x N, N = 128) 2-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions in a uniformly frustrating external magnetic field are reported. The results demonstrate: Relaxation from an initially random flux configuration as a ''universal'' fit to a ''glassy'' stretched-exponential type of relaxation for the intermediate temperatures T (0.3 T c approx-lt T approx-lt 0.7 T c ), and an ''activated dynamic'' behavior for T ∼ T c A glassy (multi-time, multi-length scale) voltage response to an applied current. Intrinsic dynamical symmetry breaking induced by boundaries as nucleation sites for flux lattice defects gives rise to transverse and noisy voltage response
Dynamical behavior of RF-biased Josephson junctions (II)
Xi-Dan, Wang; Xi-Xian, Yao
1985-09-01
Numerical investigations of a differential equation describing a rf-biased Josephson junction, in which the interference term current is included, are carried out in some parameter region. The existence of the intermittant transition to chaos is obtained and the critical exponent of the scaling law is determined in agreement with theoretical predictions. Furthermore, the Lyapunov exponent is calculated for several parameters, then the fractal dimension of strange attractor d/sub L/ is obtained, its dependence on the Lyapunov exponent is defined by Kaplan and Yorke. In addition, the Kolmogorov capacity of strange attractor d/sub c/ is also calculated by box-counting algorithm. Such calculated values of d/sub L/ and d/sub c/ are close to each other as expected.
Invariant submanifold for series arrays of Josephson junctions.
Marvel, Seth A; Strogatz, Steven H
2009-03-01
We study the nonlinear dynamics of series arrays of Josephson junctions in the large-N limit, where N is the number of junctions in the array. The junctions are assumed to be identical, overdamped, driven by a constant bias current, and globally coupled through a common load. Previous simulations of such arrays revealed that their dynamics are remarkably simple, hinting at the presence of some hidden symmetry or other structure. These observations were later explained by the discovery of N-3 constants of motion, the choice of which confines the resulting flow in phase space to a low-dimensional invariant manifold. Here we show that the dimensionality can be reduced further by restricting attention to a special family of states recently identified by Ott and Antonsen. In geometric terms, the Ott-Antonsen ansatz corresponds to an invariant submanifold of dimension one less than that found earlier. We derive and analyze the flow on this submanifold for two special cases: an array with purely resistive loading and another with resistive-inductive-capacitive loading. Our results recover (and in some instances improve) earlier findings based on linearization arguments.
Seidel, P.; Heinz, E.; Pfuch, A.; Machalett, F.; Krech, W.; Basler, M.
1996-06-01
Different many-junction arrays of Josephson junctions were studied theoretically to analyse the mechanisms of synchronization, the influence of internal and external parameters and the maximal allowed spread of parameters for the single junctions. Concepts to realize arrays using standard high-T c superconductor technology were created, e.g. the new arrangement of multijunction superconducting loops (MSL). First experimental results show the relevance of this concept. Intrinsic one-dimensional arrays in thin film technology were prepared as mesas out of Bi or Tl 2212 films. to characterize HTSC Josephson junctions methods based on the analysis of microwave-induced steps were developed. (orig.) [de
Chaos synchronization in a Josephson junction system via active sliding mode control
Zhao Yang; Wang Wei
2009-01-01
In this letter, two types of active siding control methods are proposed and applied to achieve chaotic synchronization in a Josephson junction system. Numerical simulations are used to verify the proposed control techniques.
Davidson, A.; Pedersen, N.F.; Dueholm, B.
1985-01-01
We show some experimental results which suggest that total damping, including surface loss, plays a fundamental role in limiting the stability of high-velocity Sine-Gordon solitons in real Josephson tunnel junctions
Experiments on the interaction between long Josephson junctions and a coplanar strip resonator
Davidson, A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1992-01-01
Experiments are reported on a new geometry designed to couple long Josephson junction fluxon oscillators to a resonant cavity. The junctions were made with a niobium-aluminum oxide-niobium trilayer process with a critical-current density of around 1000 A/cm2. Various numbers of such junctions wer...
Mutual Phase Locking of Fluxons in Stacked Long Josephson Junctions: Simulations and Experiment
Carapella, Giovanni; Costabile, Giovanni; Filatrella, Giovanni
1997-01-01
We report on the experimental observation of reciprocal phase-locking in stacked $Nb-AlO_x-Nb$ Josephson junctions having overlap geometry. When the junctions are independently biased in zero external magnetic field, they each exhibit several Zero Field Steps. Biasing both the junctions on the Ze...
Negative Differential Resistance due to Nonlinearities in Single and Stacked Josephson Junctions
Filatrella, Giovanni; Pierro, Vincenzo; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
2014-01-01
Josephson junction systems with a negative differential resistance (NDR) play an essential role for applications. As a well-known example, long Josephson junctions of the BSCCO type have been considered as a source of terahertz radiation in recent experiments. Numerical results for the dynamics...... shapes of NDR region are considered, and we found that it is essential to distinguish between current bias and voltage bias....
The role of magnetic fields for curvature effects in Josephson junction
Jarmoliński, A.; Dobrowolski, T., E-mail: dobrow@up.krakow.pl
2017-06-01
The large area Josephson junction is considered. On the basis of Maxwell equations the influence of the magnetic field on fluxion dynamics is considered. The presented studies show that assumptions presumed in the literature do not restrict experimental settings adopted in the considerations of the fluxion movement in the Josephson junction. It is shown that the particular orientation of the magnetic fields is not needed in order to study physical effects of curvature and therefore they do not restrict the experimental arrangements.
Observation of nonresonant vortex motion in a long Josephson tunnel junction
Rajeevakumar, T.V.; Przybysz, J.X.; Chen, J.T.; Langenberg, D.N.
1980-01-01
We have observed resistive branches in the I-V characteristics of long Josephson junctions which can be simply understood in terms of the motion of individual Josephson fluxoids with reflection as antifluxoids at the junction edges. The characteristics of these resistive branches differ qualitatively from those of the current singularities previously reported by Chen et al. and by Fulton and Dynes. Our results indicate that the current singularities are not simply related to the motion of individual fluxoids
Davidson, A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Dueholm, B.
1985-01-01
We show some experimental results which suggest that total damping, including surface loss, plays a fundamental role in limiting the stability of high-velocity sine-Gordon solitons in real Josephson tunnel junctions.......We show some experimental results which suggest that total damping, including surface loss, plays a fundamental role in limiting the stability of high-velocity sine-Gordon solitons in real Josephson tunnel junctions....
NbN-AlN-NbN Josephson junctions on different substrates
Merker, Michael; Bohn, Christian; Voellinger, Marvin; Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2016-07-01
Josephson junction technology is important for the realization of high quality cryogenic devices such as SQUIDs, RSFQ or SIS-mixers. The material system based on NbN/AlN/NbN tri-layer has gained a lot of interest, because it offers higher gap voltages and critical current densities compared to the well-established Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb technology. However, the realization of high quality Josephson junctions is more challenging. We developed a technology of Josephson junctions on a variety of substrates such as Silicon, Sapphire and Magnesium oxide and compared the quality parameters of these junctions at 4.2 K. The gap voltages achieved a range from 4 mV (for the junctions on Si) to 5.8 mV (in case of MgO substrates) which is considerably higher than those obtained from Nb based Josephson junctions. Another key parameter is the ratio of the subgap resistance to the normal state resistance. This so-called subgap ratio corresponds to the losses in a Josephson junction which have to be minimized. So far, subgap ratios of 26 have been achieved. Further careful optimization of the deposition conditions is required to maximize this ratio, The details of the optimization of technology and of characterization of NbN/AlN/NbN junctions will be presented and discussed.
Gunther, C; Monfort, Y; Lam Chok Sing, M; Bloyet, D; Brousse, T; Provost, J; Raveau, B [Institut des Sciences de la Matiere du Rayonnement, 14 - Caen (FR)
1992-02-01
Constrictions engraved in YBaCuO thick films fabricated by screen printing on YSZ substrate (J{sub c} > 3 000 A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K) have been studied. Microwave irradiation of the devices at LN{sub 2} showed distinct Shapiro steps demonstrating the presence intrinsic Josephson junctions. The latter have an I{sub c}(T) dependence fitting (1 - T/T{sub c}){sup 2} characteristic of SNS junctions. Furthermore, dc SQUID effects have also been observed with a peak-to-peak response {approx equal} 0.2 {mu}V and with a magnetic field periodicity extending through several hundred of {phi}{sub o}. An energy resolution close to 3 x 10{sup -29} J/Hz is estimated for our constriction operating in the white noise frequency range (f > 50 Hz) at 77 K. This sensitivity is adequate to use this flux sensor in many applications: geomagnetism, magnetocardiology,... 19 refs; 7 figs.
Coherent current states in mesoscopic four-terminal Josephson junction
Zareyan, M.; Omelyanchouk, A.N.
1999-01-01
A theory is offered for the ballistic 4-terminal Josephson junction. The studied system consist of a mesoscopic two-dimensional normal rectangular layer which is attached on each side to the bulk superconducting banks (terminals). A relation is obtained between the currents through the different terminals, that is valid for arbitrary temperatures and junction sizes. The nonlocal coupling of the supercurrent leads to a new effect, specific for the mesoscopic weak link between two superconducting rings; an applied magnetic flux through one of the rings produces a magnetic flux in the other ring even in the absence of an external flux through the other one. The phase dependent distributions of the local density of Andreev states, of the supercurrents and of the induced order parameter are obtained. The 'interference pattern' for the anomalous average inside the two-dimensional region cam be regulated by the applied magnetic fluxes or the transport currents. For some values of the phase differences between the terminals, the current vortex state and two-dimensional phase slip center appear
AC Josephson effect in YBa2Cu3O7-δ bicrystal grain boundary junctions
Fischer, G.M.; Andreev, A.V.; Divin, Y.Ya.; Freltoft, T.; Mygind, J.; Pedersen, N.F.; Shen Yueqiang; Vase, P.
1994-01-01
The ac Josephson effect in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ bicrystal grain boundary junctions was studied in the temperature range from 4K to 90K. Junctions with widths from 0.2 to 50 μm were made on SrTiO 3 bicrystal substrates by laser ablation and e-beam lithography. The linewidth of the Josephson oscillations is derived from the shape of the dc voltage response to low-intensity, f = 70 GHz radiation at voltages V ≅ (h/2e) f, assuming the RSJ model. The effect of the size on the Josephson behavior of this type of high-T c junctions was studied. Close to T c the linewidth of the Josephson oscillations was shown to be determined by thermal fluctuations. (orig.)
R.f.-induced steps in mutually coupled, two-dimensional distributed Josephson tunnel junctions
Klein, U.; Dammschneider, P.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on the amplitudes of the current steps in the I-V characteristics of mutually coupled two-dimensional distributed Josephson tunnel junctions driven by microwaves. For this purpose we use a numerical computation algorithm based on a planar resonator model for the individual Josephson tunnel junctions to calculate the d.c. current density distribution. In addition to the fundamental microwave frequency, harmonic contents of the tunneling current are also considered. The lateral dimensions of the individual junctions are small compared to the microwave wavelength and the Josephson penetration depth, giving an almost constant current density distribution. Therefore, the coupled junctions can give much greater step amplitudes than a single junction with an equal tunneling area, because of their nonuniform current density distribution
Spatiotemporal chaos in rf-driven Josephson junction series arrays
Dominguez, D.; Cerdeira, H.A.
1995-01-01
We study underdamped Josephson junction series arrays that are globally coupled through a resistive shunting load and driven by an rf bias current. They can be an experimental realization of many phenomena currently studied in globally coupled logistic maps. We study their spatiotemporal dynamics and we find coherent, ordered, partially ordered, turbulent, and quasiperiodic phases. The ordered phase corresponds to giant Shapiro steps in the IV characteristics. In the turbulent phase there is a saturation of the broad-band noise for a large number of junctions. This corresponds to a breakdown of the law of large numbers as seen in globally coupled maps. Coexisting with this phenomenon, we find an emergence of pseudosteps in the IV characteristics. This effect can be experimentally distinguished from the true Shapiro steps, which do not have broad-band noise emission. We study the stability of the breakdown of the law of large numbers against thermal fluctuations. We find that it is stable below a critical temperature T c1 . A measurement of the broad-band noise as a function of temperature T will show three different regimes: below T c1 the broad-band noise decreases when increasing T, and there is turbulence and the breakdown of the law of large numbers. Between T c1 and a second critical temperature T c2 the broad-band noise is constant and the dynamics is dominated by the chaos of the individual junctions. Finally above T c2 all the broad-band noise is due to thermal fluctuations, since it increases linearly with T
Zhu, Mengjian; Ben Shalom, Moshe; Mishchsenko, Artem; Fal'ko, Vladimir; Novoselov, Kostya; Geim, Andre
2018-02-08
Ballistic Josephson junctions are predicted to support a number of exotic physics processess, providing an ideal system to inject the supercurrent in the quantum Hall regime. Herein, we demonstrate electrical transport measurements on ballistic superconductor-graphene-superconductor junctions by contacting graphene to niobium with a junction length up to 1.5 μm. Hexagonal boron nitride encapsulation and one-dimensional edge contacts guarantee high-quality graphene Josephson junctions with a mean free path of several micrometers and record-low contact resistance. Transports in normal states including the observation of Fabry-Pérot oscillations and Sharvin resistance conclusively witness the ballistic propagation in the junctions. The critical current density J C is over one order of magnitude larger than that of the previously reported junctions. Away from the charge neutrality point, the I C R N product (I C is the critical current and R N the normal state resistance of junction) is nearly a constant, independent of carrier density n, which agrees well with the theory for ballistic Josephson junctions. Multiple Andreev reflections up to the third order are observed for the first time by measuring the differential resistance in the micrometer-long ballistic graphene Josephson junctions.
Dynamics of a nanoscale Josephson junction probed by scanning tunneling microscopy
Ast, Christian R.; Jaeck, Berthold; Eltschka, Matthias; Etzkorn, Markus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Institut de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-07-01
The Josephson effect is an intriguing phenomenon as it presents an interplay of different energy scales, such as the Josephson energy ε{sub J} (critical current), charging energy ε{sub C}, and temperature T. Using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operating at a base temperature of 15 mK, we create a nanoscale superconductor-vacuum-superconductor tunnel junction in an extremely underdamped regime (Q>>10). We observe extremely small retrapping currents also owing to strongly reduced ohmic losses in the well-developed superconducting gaps. While formally operating in the zero temperature limit, i.e. the temperature T is smaller than the Josephson plasma frequency ω{sub J} (k{sub B}T<<ℎω{sub J}=√(8ε{sub J}ε{sub C})), experimentally other phenomena, such as stray photons, may perturb the Josephson junction, leading to an effectively higher temperature. The dynamics of the Josephson junction can be addressed experimentally by looking at characteristic parameters, such as the switching current and the retrapping current. We discuss the dynamics of the Josephson junction in the context of reaching the zero temperature limit.
Krasnov, V.M.; Oboznov, V.A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1997-01-01
Fluxon dynamics in nonuniform Josephson junctions was studied both experimentally and theoretically. Two types of nonuniform junctions were considered: the first type had a nonuniform spatial distribution of critical and bias currents and the second had a temperature gradient applied along...... the junction. An analytical expression for the I-V curve in the presence of a temperature gradient or spatial nonuniformity was derived. It was shown that there is no static thermomagnetic Nernst effect due to Josephson fluxon motion despite the existence of a force pushing fluxons in the direction of smaller...
Fine structures on zero-field steps in low-loss Josephson tunnel junctions
Monaco, Roberto; Barbara, Paola; Mygind, Jesper
1993-01-01
The first zero-field step in the current-voltage characteristic of intermediate-length, high-quality, low-loss Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb Josephson tunnel junctions has been carefully investigated as a function of temperature. When decreasing the temperature, a number of structures develop in the form...... of regular and slightly hysteretic steps whose voltage position depends on the junction temperature and length. This phenomenon is interesting for the study of nonlinear dynamics and for application of long Josephson tunnel junctions as microwave and millimeter-wavelength oscillators....
Is there a relationship between curvature and inductance in the Josephson junction?
Dobrowolski, T.; Jarmoliński, A.
2018-03-01
A Josephson junction is a device made of two superconducting electrodes separated by a very thin layer of isolator or normal metal. This relatively simple device has found a variety of technical applications in the form of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) and Single Electron Transistors (SETs). One can expect that in the near future the Josephson junction will find applications in digital electronics technology RSFQ (Rapid Single Flux Quantum) and in the more distant future in construction of quantum computers. Here we concentrate on the relation of the curvature of the Josephson junction with its inductance. We apply a simple Capacitively Shunted Junction (CSJ) model in order to find condition which guarantees consistency of this model with prediction based on the Maxwell and London equations with Landau-Ginzburg current of Cooper pairs. This condition can find direct experimental verification.
Asai, Hidehiro, E-mail: hd-asai@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ota, Yukihiro [CCSE, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan); Kawabata, Shiro [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Nori, Franco [CEMS, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)
2014-09-15
Highlights: • We study MQT in Josephson junctions composed of multi-gap superconductors. • We derive a formula of the MQT escape rate for multiple phase differences. • We investigate the effect of inter-band phase fluctuation on MQT. • The MQT escape rate is significantly enhanced by the inter-band phase fluctuation. - Abstract: We theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a hetero Josephson junction formed by a conventional single-gap superconductor and a multi-gap superconductor. In such Josephson junctions, phase differences for each tunneling channel are defined, and the fluctuation of the relative phase differences appear which is referred to as Josephson–Leggett’s mode. We take into account the effect of the fluctuation in the tunneling process and calculate the MQT escape rate for various junction parameters. We show that the fluctuation of relative phase differences drastically enhances the escape rate.
Asai, Hidehiro; Ota, Yukihiro; Kawabata, Shiro; Nori, Franco
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We study MQT in Josephson junctions composed of multi-gap superconductors. • We derive a formula of the MQT escape rate for multiple phase differences. • We investigate the effect of inter-band phase fluctuation on MQT. • The MQT escape rate is significantly enhanced by the inter-band phase fluctuation. - Abstract: We theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a hetero Josephson junction formed by a conventional single-gap superconductor and a multi-gap superconductor. In such Josephson junctions, phase differences for each tunneling channel are defined, and the fluctuation of the relative phase differences appear which is referred to as Josephson–Leggett’s mode. We take into account the effect of the fluctuation in the tunneling process and calculate the MQT escape rate for various junction parameters. We show that the fluctuation of relative phase differences drastically enhances the escape rate
Imaging of the dynamic magnetic structure in a parallel array of shunted Josephson junctions
Doderer, T.; Kaplunenko, V. K.; Mygind, Jesper
1994-01-01
A one-dimensional (1D) parallel array of shunted Josephson junctions is one of the basic elements in the family of rapid single-flux quantum logic circuits. It was found recently that current steps always show up in the current-voltage curve of the generator junction when an additional bias current...
Experimental Evidence for Phase-Locked States in Stacked Long Josephson Junctions
Carapella, Giovanni; Costabile, Giovanni; Mancher, Martin
1997-01-01
We fabricated and tested samples consisteing of two long stacked Josephson junctions with direct access to the intermediate electrode, whose thickness is smaller than the London penetration depth $\\lambda _L$. The electrodes are patterned so that the junctions can be idependently biased in the ov...
Measured Temperature Dependence of the cos-phi Conductance in Josephson Tunnel Junctions
Sørensen, O. H.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1977-01-01
The temperature dependence of the cosϕ conductance in Sn-O-Sn Josephson tunnel junctions has been measured just below the critical temperature, Tc. From the resonant microwave response at the junction plasma frequency as the temperature is decreased from Tc it is deduced that the amplitude of the...
Effect of cross-type bias in a two-dimensional array of short Josephson junctions
Filatrella, G.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Wiesenfeld, K.
1998-01-01
We investigate numerically the effect of cross-type bias on two-dimensional arrays of short Josephson junctions. We have demonstrated that, for the simplest circuit, this type of bias is able to phase lock the junctions yielding a substantial improvement over ordinary biasing schemes. (C) 1998...
External magnetic field and self-field effects in stacked long Josephson junctions
Carapella, G.; Costabile, G.; Mygind, Jesper
1996-01-01
We have fabricated and tested samples consisting of two long stacked Josephson junctions with direct access to the intermediate electrode, whose thickness is smaller than London penetration depth lambda(L). The electrodes are patterned so that the junctions can be independently biased in the over...
Static properties of small Josephson tunnel junctions in an oblique magnetic field
Monaco, Roberto; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper
2009-01-01
We have carried out a detailed experimental investigation of the static properties of planar Josephson tunnel junctions in presence of a uniform external magnetic field applied in an arbitrary orientation with respect to the barrier plane. We considered annular junctions, as well as rectangular...
Suppression and enhancement of decoherence in an atomic Josephson junction
Japha, Yonathan; Zhou, Shuyu; Keil, Mark; Folman, Ron; Henkel, Carsten; Vardi, Amichay
2016-05-01
We investigate the role of interatomic interactions when a Bose gas, in a double-well potential with a finite tunneling probability (a ‘Bose-Josephson junction’), is exposed to external noise. We examine the rate of decoherence of a system initially in its ground state with equal probability amplitudes in both sites. The noise may induce two kinds of effects: firstly, random shifts in the relative phase or number difference between the two wells and secondly, loss of atoms from the trap. The effects of induced phase fluctuations are mitigated by atom-atom interactions and tunneling, such that the dephasing rate may be suppressed by half its single-atom value. Random fluctuations may also be induced in the population difference between the wells, in which case atom-atom interactions considerably enhance the decoherence rate. A similar scenario is predicted for the case of atom loss, even if the loss rates from the two sites are equal. We find that if the initial state is number-squeezed due to interactions, then the loss process induces population fluctuations that reduce the coherence across the junction. We examine the parameters relevant for these effects in a typical atom chip device, using a simple model of the trapping potential, experimental data, and the theory of magnetic field fluctuations near metallic conductors. These results provide a framework for mapping the dynamical range of barriers engineered for specific applications and set the stage for more complex atom circuits (‘atomtronics’).
Experiments on phase retrapping in φ Josephson junctions
Goldobin, Edward; Menditto, Rosina; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, Martin [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)
2015-07-01
We experimentally study retrapping of the phase in φ Josephson junctions (JJs) based on superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) 0-π heterostructures. Such φ JJs have a doubly degenerate ground state (two potential energy wells) with the phases ±φ (0 < φ < π). We study in which of these two wells the phase is trapped upon return of the JJ to the zero voltage state. We find that for T>T* ∼ 2.4 K (large damping) the phase is always trapped in the +φ state. However, for lower T (small damping) the trapping result is a statistical mixture of the +φ and the -φ states due to the presence of noise in the system. The probability for retrapping to the -φ state increases and oscillates as T is decreasing below T*, reaching a saturation value of ∝ 30% for T
Multifractal metal in a disordered Josephson junctions array
Pino, M.; Kravtsov, V. E.; Altshuler, B. L.; Ioffe, L. B.
2017-12-01
We report the results of the numerical study of the nondissipative quantum Josephson junction chain with the focus on the statistics of many-body wave functions and local energy spectra. The disorder in this chain is due to the random offset charges. This chain is one of the simplest physical systems to study many-body localization. We show that the system may exhibit three distinct regimes: insulating, characterized by the full localization of many-body wave functions, a fully delocalized (metallic) one characterized by the wave functions that take all the available phase volume, and the intermediate regime in which the volume taken by the wave function scales as a nontrivial power of the full Hilbert-space volume. In the intermediate nonergodic regime the Thouless conductance (generalized to the many-body problem) does not change as a function of the chain length indicating a failure of the conventional single-parameter scaling theory of localization transition. The local spectra in this regime display the fractal structure in the energy space which is related with the fractal structure of wave functions in the Hilbert space. A simple theory of fractality of local spectra is proposed, and a scaling relationship between fractal dimensions in the Hilbert and energy spaces is suggested and numerically tested.
Structured chaos in a devil's staircase of the Josephson junction.
Shukrinov, Yu M; Botha, A E; Medvedeva, S Yu; Kolahchi, M R; Irie, A
2014-09-01
The phase dynamics of Josephson junctions (JJs) under external electromagnetic radiation is studied through numerical simulations. Current-voltage characteristics, Lyapunov exponents, and Poincaré sections are analyzed in detail. It is found that the subharmonic Shapiro steps at certain parameters are separated by structured chaotic windows. By performing a linear regression on the linear part of the data, a fractal dimension of D = 0.868 is obtained, with an uncertainty of ±0.012. The chaotic regions exhibit scaling similarity, and it is shown that the devil's staircase of the system can form a backbone that unifies and explains the highly correlated and structured chaotic behavior. These features suggest a system possessing multiple complete devil's staircases. The onset of chaos for subharmonic steps occurs through the Feigenbaum period doubling scenario. Universality in the sequence of periodic windows is also demonstrated. Finally, the influence of the radiation and JJ parameters on the structured chaos is investigated, and it is concluded that the structured chaos is a stable formation over a wide range of parameter values.
Magnetic properties of strip-like Josephson-junction arrays
Chen, D.-X; Moreno, J.J.; Hernando, A.; Sanchez, A.
2000-01-01
Zero-field-cooled (ZFC) and field-cooled (FC) magnetic properties of strip-like Josephson-junction (JJ) arrays with very strong demagnetizing effects are calculated from basic laws. Similar to slab-like JJ arrays without considering demagnetizing effects, a vortex state evolves to a critical state (CS) with increasing maximum JJ currents in the ZFC case, and a vortex state always remains with a negative low-field susceptibility in the FC case. However, the strong demagnetizing effects cause qualitative changes in the CS, where the overall feature of the field and current profiles turns out to be similar to that in type-II superconducting strips, but not like the ordinary Bean CS in slab-like JJ arrays, the CS current profile is never flat and the critical current is no longer a step function of the maximum JJ current as in slab-like JJ arrays. The calculated results of different types of JJ arrays indicate that although the intergranular CS in granular superconductors may have a common origin, the discovered paramagnetic Meissner effect in them is still difficult to explain. (author)
Multiwall carbon nanotube Josephson junctions with niobium contacts
Pallecchi, Emiliano
2009-01-01
The main goal of this thesis is the investigation of dissipationless supercurrent in multiwall carbon nanotubes embedded in a controlled environment. The experimental observation of a dissipationless supercurrent in gated carbon nanotubes remains challenging because of its extreme sensitivity to the environment and to noise fluctuations. We address these issues by choosing niobium as a superconductor and by designing an optimized on chip electromagnetic environment. The environment is meant to reduce the suppression of the supercurrent and allows to disentangle the effects of thermal fluctuations from the intrinsic behavior of the junction. This is crucial for the extraction of the value critical current from the measured data. When the transparency of the contacts is high enough we observed a fully developed supercurrent and we found that it depends on the gate voltage in a resonant manner. In average the critical current increases when the gate is tuned more negative, reflecting the increase of the transparency of the contacts, while the resonant behavior is due to quantum interference effects. We measured the temperature dependence of the switching current and we analyzed the data with an extended RCSJ model that allow to extract the critical current from the experimental data. The measured critical currents are very high with respect to previous reports on gated devices. At positive gate voltage the contacts transparency is lowered and Coulomb blockade is observed. This allows to use Coulomb blockade measurements to further characterize the nanotube and to study the physics of a quantum dot coupled to superconducting leads. The last part of this thesis is dedicated to the measurements of a carbon nanotube Josephson junction in the Coulomb blockade regime. (orig.)
Flux-flow drag in coupled Josephson junctions
Parmentier, R.D.; Barbara, P.; Costabile, G.; DAnna, A.; Malomed, B.A.; Soriano, C.
1997-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the interaction between two fluxon chains in parallel magnetically coupled long Josephson junctions, one of which is biased (open-quotes generatorclose quotes) while another is unbiased (open-quotes detectorclose quotes). The main effect is that the driven fluxon chain in the generator may drag the chain in the detector. We note that five different regimes of the interaction are possible: both chains may be pinned by the external magnetic field; both may move in a locked state, inducing the same dc voltage in both junctions; in an unlocked state they may move at different velocities; the chain in the detector may remain pinned while the one in the generator is moving; and, finally, in a limited range of parameters the mean detector voltage may be negative, which implies that the detector chain is moving in the direction opposite to that of the chain in the generator. We consider a simplified model based on the assumptions that the fluxon chains are dense and rigid, and that their motion is nonrelativistic. In this model, each chain is represented by a single degree of freedom (its coordinate). Numerical and analytical consideration of the simplified model demonstrates that it is able to reproduce correctly all the dynamical regimes except for the negative-voltage one. To explain the existence of the latter regime, we introduce another model, suggested by the simulations, which is based on the presence of two fluxons and one antifluxon in the generator, and a single fluxon in the detector. The negative voltage is produced by motion of the antifluxon in a bound state with the detector close-quote s fluxon. The existence region of this state is limited by its collisions with free fluxons in the generator. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Multiwall carbon nanotube Josephson junctions with niobium contacts
Pallecchi, Emiliano
2009-02-17
The main goal of this thesis is the investigation of dissipationless supercurrent in multiwall carbon nanotubes embedded in a controlled environment. The experimental observation of a dissipationless supercurrent in gated carbon nanotubes remains challenging because of its extreme sensitivity to the environment and to noise fluctuations. We address these issues by choosing niobium as a superconductor and by designing an optimized on chip electromagnetic environment. The environment is meant to reduce the suppression of the supercurrent and allows to disentangle the effects of thermal fluctuations from the intrinsic behavior of the junction. This is crucial for the extraction of the value critical current from the measured data. When the transparency of the contacts is high enough we observed a fully developed supercurrent and we found that it depends on the gate voltage in a resonant manner. In average the critical current increases when the gate is tuned more negative, reflecting the increase of the transparency of the contacts, while the resonant behavior is due to quantum interference effects. We measured the temperature dependence of the switching current and we analyzed the data with an extended RCSJ model that allow to extract the critical current from the experimental data. The measured critical currents are very high with respect to previous reports on gated devices. At positive gate voltage the contacts transparency is lowered and Coulomb blockade is observed. This allows to use Coulomb blockade measurements to further characterize the nanotube and to study the physics of a quantum dot coupled to superconducting leads. The last part of this thesis is dedicated to the measurements of a carbon nanotube Josephson junction in the Coulomb blockade regime. (orig.)
Pinning of Josephson vortex chain in periodically heterogeneous junctions: theory and experiment
Malomed, B.A.; Ustinov, A.V.
1989-01-01
Critical values of the density of extrinsic current of rigid Josephson vortex chain depinning in a long Josephson junction are calculated in terms of the perturbation theory. The dynamics of the chain is considered. In particular, a minimum value of the current density is estimated which permits the chain free motion through the transition on dissipation. The dependence of critical current, Jc, on external magnetic field H is measured for long Josephson junctions Nb-NbO x -Pb with artificial spatially periodic heterogeneities of dielectric barrier. For multiple values of H, the curve Jc(H) is found to display some peaks which, by the theory, are responsible for by an increase in the force of Josephson vortex chain and the heterogeneity lattice are commensurate
Visualization of the current density in Josephson junctions with 0- and π-facets
Guerlich, Christian
2010-01-01
With Low-Temperature-Electron-Microscopy (LTSEM) it is possible to analyse the transport properties of solids at low temperatures. In particular it is possible to image the supercurrent density j s in Josephson junctions. This was demonstrated by comparing TTREM-images with calculated values for j s . In this thesis ramp-type Nd 2-x Ce x CuO 4-y /Nb-Josephson-junctions (NCCO/Nb) and Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer Nb/Al-Al 2 O 3 /NiCu/Nb, so-called SIFS (superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor) Josephson junctions were studied.It was demonstrated that LTSEM provides direct imaging of the sign change of the order parameter in superconductors with d x 2 -y 2 -symmetry. This was a controversial issue over the last decade. A step like variation in the thickness of the F-layer allows the fabrication of linear and annular Josephson junctions with different numbers of 0 and π facets. With the LTSEM 0-, π-, 0-π-, 0-π-0-, 0/2-π-0/2-, 20 x (0-π)- as well as square-shaped-, circular- and annular-Josephson-junctions were studied. It was demonstrated, that these junctions are of good quality and have critical current densities up to 42 A/cm 2 at T=4.2 K, which is a record value for SIFS junctions with a NiCu F-layer so far. By comparing the measurements with simulations a first indication of a semifluxon at the 0-π-boundary was found. (orig.)
Instanton glass generated by noise in a Josephson-junction array.
Chudnovsky, E M
2009-09-25
We compute the correlation function of a superconducting order parameter in a continuous model of a two-dimensional Josephson-junction array in the presence of a weak Gaussian noise. When the Josephson coupling is large compared to the charging energy, the correlations in the Euclidian space decay exponentially at low temperatures regardless of the strength of the noise. We interpret such a state as a collective Cooper-pair insulator and argue that it resembles properties of disordered superconducting films.
Quantum resonances in a single plaquette of Josephson junctions: excitations of Rabi oscillations
Fistul, M. V.
2001-01-01
We present a theoretical study of a quantum regime of the resistive (whirling) state of dc driven anisotropic single plaquette containing three small Josephson junctions. The current-voltage characteristics of such a system display resonant steps that are due to the resonant interaction between the time dependent Josephson current and the excited electromagnetic oscillations (EOs). The voltage positions of the resonances are determined by the quantum interband transitions of EOs. We show that...
Effective boundary field theory for a Josephson junction chain with a weak link
Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale
2005-01-01
We show that a finite Josephson junction (JJ) chain, ending with two bulk superconductors, and with a weak link at its center, may be regarded as a condensed matter realization of a two-boundary sine-Gordon model. Computing the partition function yields a remarkable analytic expression for the DC Josephson current as a function of the phase difference across the chain. We show that, in a suitable range of the chain parameters, there is a crossover of the DC Josephson current from a sinusoidal to a sawtooth behavior, which signals a transition from a regime where the boundary term is an irrelevant operator to a regime where it becomes relevant
Linewidth of Josephson oscillations in YBa2Cu3O7-x grain-boundary junctions
Divin, Yu. Ya.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1993-01-01
The AC Josephson effect in YBa2Cu3O7-x grain-boundary junctions (GBJs) was studied in the temperature range from 4 K to 90 K. The temperature dependence of the linewidth of millimeter-wave Josephson oscillations was measured, and it is shown that the derived effective noise temperature of GBJ mig...... Josephson oscillations observed at 77 K was equal to 380 MHz, which demonstrates the applicability of GBJ, particularly in the field of radiation spectroscopy, even at liquid nitrogen temperatures...
Static properties of small Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field
Monaco, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper
2008-01-01
The magnetic field distribution in the barrier of small planar Josephson tunnel junctions is numerically simulated in the case when an external magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the barrier plane. The simulations allow for heuristic analytical solutions for the Josephson static phase...... profile from which the dependence of the maximum Josephson current on the applied field amplitude is derived. The most common geometrical configurations are considered and, when possible, the theoretical findings are compared with the experimental data. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...
Hamasaki, K.; Yoshida, K.; Irie, F.; Enpuku, K.
1982-01-01
The microwave response of the dc quasiparticle tunneling current in Josephson tunnel junctions, where the Josephson current is suppressed by an external magnetic field, has been studied quantitatively in order to clarify its characteristics as a probe for the measurement of the junction capacitance. Extensive experiments for both small and long junctions are carried out for distinguishing between microwave behaviors of lumped and distributed constant junctions. It is shown that the observed voltage dependence of the dc quasiparticle tunneling current modified by an applied rf field is in good agreement with a theoretical result which takes into account the influence of the microwave circuit connected to the junction. The comparison between theory and experiment gives the magnitude of the internal rf field in the junction. Together with the applied rf field, this internal rf field leads to the junction rf impedance which is dominated by the junction capacitance in our experimental condition. In the case of lumped junctions, this experimental rf impedance is in reasonable agreement with the theoretical one with the junction capacitance estimated from the Fiske step of the distributed junction fabricated on the same substrate; the obtained ratio of the experimental impedance to the theoretical one is approximately 0.6--1.7. In the case of distributed junctions, however, experimental values of their characteristic impedances are approximately 0.2--0.3 of theoretical values calculated by assuming the one-dimensional junction model and taking account of the standing-wave effect in the junction
Josephson junction in the quantum mesoscopic electric circuits with charge discreteness
Pahlavani, H.
2018-04-01
A quantum mesoscopic electrical LC-circuit with charge discreteness including a Josephson junction is considered and a nonlinear Hamiltonian that describing the dynamic of such circuit is introduced. The quantum dynamical behavior (persistent current probability) is studied in the charge and phase regimes by numerical solution approaches. The time evolution of charge and current, number-difference and the bosonic phase and also the energy spectrum of a quantum mesoscopic electric LC-circuit with charge discreteness that coupled with a Josephson junction device are investigated. We show the role of the coupling energy and the electrostatic Coulomb energy of the Josephson junction in description of the quantum behavior and the spectral properties of a quantum mesoscopic electrical LC-circuits with charge discreteness.
Ginzburg–Landau theory of mesoscopic multi-band Josephson junctions
Romeo, F.; De Luca, R., E-mail: rdeluca@unisa.it
2017-05-15
Highlights: • We generalize, in the realm of the Ginzburg–Landau theory, the de Gennes matching-matrix method for the interface order parameters to describe the superconducting properties of multi-band mesoscopic Josephson junctions. • The results are in agreement with a microscopic treatment of nanobridge junctions. • Thermal stability of the nanobridge junction is discussed in connection with recent experiments on iron-based grain-boundary junctions. - Abstract: A Ginzburg–Landau theory for multi-band mesoscopic Josephson junctions has been developed. The theory, obtained by generalizing the de Gennes matching-matrix method for the interface order parameters, allows the study of the phase dynamics of various types of mesoscopic Josephson junctions. As a relevant application, we studied mesoscopic double-band junctions also in the presence of a superconducting nanobridge interstitial layer. The results are in agreement with a microscopic treatment of the same system. Furthermore, thermal stability of the nanobridge junction is discussed in connection with recent experiments on iron-based grain-boundary junctions.
Modulated microwave absorption spectra from Josephson junctions on a scratched niobium wire
Rubins, R.S.; Hutton, S.L.; Ravindran, K.; Subbaraman, K.; Drumheller, J.E.
1997-01-01
Modulated microwave absorption (MMA) spectra from Josephson junction formations on a scratched Nb wire have been studied at 9.3 GHz and 4 K. The peak-to-peak separation, δH of the Josephson lines was found to vary linearly with P 1/2 , where P is the applied microwave power, in contrast to a recent interpretation of junction formation in pressed lead pieces by Rubins, Drumheller, and Trybula. The interpretation of the MMA data on Nb are given in terms of the theory of Vichery, Beuneu, and Lejay for superconducting loops containing weak links. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Search for the in-phase Flux Flow mode in stacked Josephson junctions
Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, Søren Peder
2006-01-01
Josephson vortex flux flow states in stacked Josephson junctions are investigated numerically. The aim of the work is to understand the mechanisms behind the formation of triangular (anti-phase) and square (in-phase) vortex lattices, and is motivated by recent experiments on layered BSCCO type high......-T-c superconductors in a magnetic field. In order to keep the problem as simple as possible we consider in detail only the case with two junctions in the stack. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
Symmetry of trapped-field profiles in square columnar Josephson-junction arrays
Moreno, J.J.; Chen, D.; Hernando, A.
1995-01-01
The remanence of NxN square-columnar Josephson-junction arrays with normalized maximum junction current i max is calculated from the dc and ac Josephson equations, the Ampere theorem, and the gauge invariance. A transition line on the i max- N plane is obtained, on the high-i max side of which the remanence is nonzero. It is found that in the nonzero remanence state the symmetry degree of field profile can be lower than expected by intuition. The meaning and importance of this finding are discussed
Sirena, M.; Matzen, S.; Bergeal, N.; Lesueur, J.; Faini, G.; Bernard, R.; Briatico, J.; Crete, D. G.
2007-01-01
The authors have studied the annealing effect in the transport properties of high T c Josephson junctions (JJs) made by ion irradiation. Low temperature annealing (80 deg. C) increases the JJ coupling temperature (T J ) and the I c R n product, where I c is the critical current and R n the normal resistance. They have found that the spread in JJ characteristics can be reduced by sufficient long annealing times, increasing the reproducibility of ion irradiated Josephson junctions. The characteristic annealing time and the evolution of the spread in the JJ characteristics can be explained by a vacancy-interstitial annihilation process rather than by an oxygen diffusion one
Experimental study of macroscopic quantum tunnelling in Bi2212 intrinsic Josephson junctions
Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Kashiwaya, Hiromi; Shibata, Hajime; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Kawabata, Shiro; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Yukio
2007-01-01
The quantum dynamics of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) is studied based on escape rate measurements. The saturations observed in the escape temperature and in the width of the switching current below 0.5 K (= T * ) indicate the transition of the switching mechanism from thermal activation to macroscopic quantum tunnelling. It is shown that the switching properties are consistently explained in terms of the underdamped Josephson junction with a quality factor of 70 ± 20 in spite of possible damping due to the nodal quasiparticles of d-wave superconductivity. The present result gives the upper limit of the damping of IJJs
Nanometer-scale patterning of high-Tc superconductors for Josephson junction-based digital circuits
Wendt, J.R.; Plut, T.A.; Corless, R.F.; Martens, J.S.; Berkowitz, S.; Char, K.; Johansson, M.; Hou, S.Y.; Phillips, J.M.
1994-01-01
A straightforward method for nanometer-scale patterning of high-T c superconductor thin films is discussed. The technique combines direct-write electron beam lithography with well-controlled aqueous etches and is applied to the fabrication of Josephson junction nanobridges in high-quality, epitaxial thin-film YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . We present the results of our studies of the dimensions, yield, uniformity, and mechanism of the junctions along with the performance of a representative digital circuit based on these junctions. Direct current junction parameter statistics measured at 77 K show critical currents of 27.5 μA±13% for a sample set of 220 junctions. The Josephson behavior of the nanobridge is believed to arise from the aggregation of oxygen vacancies in the nanometer-scale bridge
Josephson junction spectrum analyzer for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths
Larkin, S.Y.; Anischenko, S.E.; Khabayev, P.V.
1994-01-01
A prototype of the Josephson-effect spectrum analyzer developed for the millimeter-wave band is described. The measurement results for spectra obtained in the frequency band from 50 to 250 GHz are presented
Josephson junction spectrum analyzer for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths
Larkin, S.Y.; Anischenko, S.E.; Khabayev, P.V. [State Research Center, Kiev (Ukraine)
1994-12-31
A prototype of the Josephson-effect spectrum analyzer developed for the millimeter-wave band is described. The measurement results for spectra obtained in the frequency band from 50 to 250 GHz are presented.
Abal'osheva, I.; Lewandowski, S.J.
2004-01-01
It is shown that the inclusion of junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship in the systems composed of multiple Josephson junctions - results in the appearance of additional system phase states. Numerical simulations and stability considerations confirm that those phase states can be realized in practice. Moreover, spontaneous formation of the grain boundary junctions in high-T c superconductors with non-trivial current-phase relations due to the d-wave symmetry of the order parameter is probable. Switching between the phase states of multiple grain boundary junction systems can lead to additional 1/f noise in high-T c superconductors. (author)
Simulations of fine structures on the zero field steps of Josephson tunnel junctions
Scheuermann, M.; Chi, C. C.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1986-01-01
Fine structures on the zero field steps of long Josephson tunnel junctions are simulated for junctions with the bias current injected into the junction at the edges. These structures are due to the coupling between self-generated plasma oscillations and the traveling fluxon. The plasma oscillations...... are generated by the interaction of the bias current with the fluxon at the junction edges. On the first zero field step, the voltages of successive fine structures are given by Vn=[h-bar]/2e(2omegap/n), where n is an even integer. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....
Kink propagation and trapping in a two-dimensional curved Josephson junction
Gorria, Carlos; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Sørensen, Mads Peter
2004-01-01
for Josephson junctions of overlap type. A collective variable approach based on the kink position and the kink width depending on the transversal coordinate is developed. The latter allows to take into account both longitudinal and centrifugal forces which act on the nonlinear excitation moving in a region...
Filatrella, G; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1999-01-01
We have numerically investigated the behavior of stacks of long Josephson junctions considering a nonuniform bias profile. In the presence of a microwave field the nonuniform bias, which favors the formation of fluxons, can give rise to a change of the sequence of radio-frequency induced steps...
Period doubling and chaos in large area Josephson junctions induced by rf signals
Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1985-01-01
The influence of an applied rf signal on the emitted radiation from a large area Josephson junction is examined. A model of the system is presented in the framework of the one-dimensional sine-Gordon equation. The model linearizes for small and large values of the amplitude of the applied signal...
Influence of the cos-phi conductance on fluxons propagating in long Josephson junctions
Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1982-01-01
The influence of a cosφ conductance on the motion of fluxons in long and narrow Josephson junctions is investigated by numerical computations and by a perturbation analysis. It turns out that the presence of the cosφ term will have opposite effects on the motion of a fluxon and on plasma waves or...
Yokoyama, T.; Eto, M.; Nazarov, Y.V.
2012-01-01
We theoretically study the current-phase relation in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. In the nanowire, the impurity scattering with strong SO interaction is taken into account using the random matrix theory. In the absence of magnetic field, the
Quantitative description of hysteresis loops induced by rf radiation in long Josephson junctions
Olsen, Ole H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1991-01-01
The effect of an applied rf signal on the radiation emitted from a long Josephson junction is examined by means of a model based on the sine-Gordon equation. This system exhibits a variety of interesting phenomena, e.g., chaos and hysteresis. The hysteresis loop is examined in detail. These simple...
Microwave oscillator based on an intrinsic BSCCO-type Josephson junction
Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, Søren Peder
2005-01-01
. The resulting model is a set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. By direct numerical simulations we have demonstrated that the qualitative behavior of the combined intrinsic Josephson junction and cavity system can be understood on the basis of general concepts of nonlinear oscillators...
Kjaergaard, M.; Suominen, H. J.; Nowak, M.P.; Akhmerov, A.R.; Shabani, J.; Palmstrøm, C. J.; Nichele, F.; Marcus, C.M.
2017-01-01
Measurement of multiple Andreev Reflection (MAR) in a Josephson junction made from an InAs quantum well heterostructure with epitaxial aluminum is used to quantify a highly transparent effective semiconductor-superconductor interface with near-unity transmission. The observed temperature
Storage and detection of a single flux quantum in Josephson junction devices
Gueret, P.
1975-01-01
It is shown both by computer simulations and experimentally that a single Josephson junction has memory and can therefore be used for information storage. Means of reading-out the information content of such a memory element are demonstrated. Finally, memory operation, writing and reading, is described as a direct application of these concepts
Krive, I.V.; Rozhavsky, A.S.
1990-07-01
We predict novel voltage oscillations of the effective capacitance of small Josephson junctions. This macroscopic effect involves coherent charge fluctuations with charge 2e, leading to a period of oscillations, V c = 2e/C, where C is the junction capacitance. The amplitude of the effect decreases with temperature as exp(-π 2 T/ε c ), where ε c = (2e) 2 /C. (author). 6 refs
Studies of chaos and thermal noise in a driven Josephson junction using an electronic analog
Pegrum, C.M.; Gurney, W.S.C.; Nisbet, R.M.
1989-01-01
Using an electronic analog of a resistively shunted driven Josephson junction, the authors have demonstrated a number of effects, including the appearance of a devil's staircase in the current-voltage characteristic, the onset of chaos, and the effect of noise on these phenomena. The authors stress that the analog is simple, but models the junction behavior with a high degree of accuracy and detail
Low temperature properties of spin filter NbN/GdN/NbN Josephson junctions
Massarotti, D., E-mail: dmassarotti@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Caruso, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Pal, A. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Rotoli, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); Longobardi, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); American Physical Society, 1 Research Road, Ridge, New York 11961 (United States); Pepe, G.P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Blamire, M.G. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Tafuri, F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • We study the phase dynamics of ferromagnetic NbN/GdN/NbN Josephson junctions. • The ferromagnetic insulator GdN barrier generates spin-filtering properties. • Spin filter junctions fall in the underdamped regime. • MQT occurs with the same phenomenology as in conventional Josephson junctions. • Dissipation is studied in a wide range of critical current density values. - Abstract: A ferromagnetic Josephson junction (JJ) represents a special class of hybrid system where different ordered phases meet and generate novel physics. In this work we report on the transport measurements of underdamped ferromagnetic NbN/GdN/NbN JJs at low temperatures. In these junctions the ferromagnetic insulator gadolinium nitride barrier generates spin-filtering properties and a dominant second harmonic component in the current-phase relation. These features make spin filter junctions quite interesting also in terms of fundamental studies on phase dynamics and dissipation. We discuss the fingerprints of spin filter JJs, through complementary transport measurements, and their implications on the phase dynamics, through standard measurements of switching current distributions. NbN/GdN/NbN JJs, where spin filter properties can be controllably tuned along with the critical current density (J{sub c}), turn to be a very relevant term of reference to understand phase dynamics and dissipation in an enlarged class of JJs, not necessarily falling in the standard tunnel limit characterized by low J{sub c} values.
Two-dimensional macroscopic quantum tunneling in multi-gap superconductor Josephson junctions
Asai, Hidehiro; Kawabata, Shiro; Ota, Yukihiro; Machida, Masahiko
2014-01-01
Low-temperature characters of superconducting devices yield definite probes for different superconducting phenomena. We study the macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a Josephson junction, composed of a single-gap superconductor and a two-gap superconductor. Since this junction has two kinds to the superconducting phase differences, calculating the MQT escape rate requires the analysis of quantum tunneling in a multi-dimensional configuration space. Our approach is the semi-classical approximation along a 1D curve in a 2D potential- energy landscape, connecting two adjacent potential (local) minimums through a saddle point. We find that this system has two plausible tunneling paths; an in-phase path and an out-of-phase path. The former is characterized by the Josephson-plasma frequency, whereas the latter is by the frequency of the characteristic collective mode in a two-band superconductor, Josephson- Leggett mode. Depending on external bias current and inter-band Josephson-coupling energy, one of them mainly contributes to the MQT. Our numerical calculations show that the difference between the in-phase path and the out-of-phase path is manifest, with respect to the bias- current-dependence of the MQT escape rate. This result suggests that our MQT setting be an indicator of the Josephson-Leggett mode
Drangeid, K.E.
1983-01-01
The author presents an introduction to Josephson junctions. After an introduction to the physical principles of superconductivity and the Josephson effect some applications are described with special regards to the implementation in digital circuits. (HSI)
Parity Anomaly and Spin Transmutation in Quantum Spin Hall Josephson Junctions.
Peng, Yang; Vinkler-Aviv, Yuval; Brouwer, Piet W; Glazman, Leonid I; von Oppen, Felix
2016-12-23
We study the Josephson effect in a quantum spin Hall system coupled to a localized magnetic impurity. As a consequence of the fermion parity anomaly, the spin of the combined system of impurity and spin-Hall edge alternates between half-integer and integer values when the superconducting phase difference across the junction advances by 2π. This leads to characteristic differences in the splittings of the spin multiplets by exchange coupling and single-ion anisotropy at phase differences, for which time-reversal symmetry is preserved. We discuss the resulting 8π-periodic (or Z_{4}) fractional Josephson effect in the context of recent experiments.
Measure synchronization in a spin-orbit-coupled bosonic Josephson junction
Wang, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Jie; Fu, Li-Bin
2015-11-01
We present measure synchronization (MS) in a bosonic Josephson junction with spin-orbit coupling. The two atomic hyperfine states are coupled by a Raman dressing scheme, and they are regarded as two orientations of a pseudo-spin-1 /2 system. A feature specific to a spin-orbit-coupled (SOC) bosonic Josephson junction is that the transition from non-MS to MS dynamics can be modulated by Raman laser intensity, even in the absence of interspin atomic interaction. A phase diagram of non-MS and MS dynamics as functions of Raman laser intensity and Josephson tunneling amplitude is presented. Taking into account interspin atomic interactions, the system exhibits MS breaking dynamics resulting from the competition between intraspin and interspin atomic interactions. When interspin atomic interactions dominate in the competition, the system always exhibits MS dynamics. For interspin interaction weaker than intraspin interaction, a window for non-MS dynamics is present. Since SOC Bose-Einstein condensates provide a powerful platform for studies on physical problems in various fields, the study of MS dynamics is valuable in researching the collective coherent dynamical behavior in a spin-orbit-coupled bosonic Josephson junction.
Phase Sensitive Measurements of Ferromagnetic Josephson Junctions for Cryogenic Memory Applications
Niedzielski, Bethany Maria
A Josephson junction is made up of two superconducting layers separated by a barrier. The original Josephson junctions, studied in the early 1960's, contained an insulating barrier. Soon thereafter, junctions with normal-metal barriers were also studied. Ferromagnetic materials were not even theoretically considered as a barrier layer until around 1980, due to the competing order between ferromagnetic and superconducting systems. However, many exciting physical phenomena arise in hybrid superconductor/ferromagnetic devices, including devices where the ground state phase difference between the two superconductors is shifted by pi. Since their experimental debut in 2001, so-called pi junctions have been demonstrated by many groups, including my own, in systems with a single ferromagnetic layer. In this type of system, the phase of the junction can be set to either 0 or pi depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer. Of interest, however, is the ability to control the phase of a single junction between the 0 and pi states. This was theoretically shown to be possible in a system containing two ferromagnetic layers (spin-valve junctions). If the materials and their thicknesses are properly chosen to manipulate the electron pair correlation function, then the phase state of a spin-valve Josephson junction should be capable of switching between the 0 and ? phase states when the magnetization directions of the two ferromagnetic layers are oriented in the antiparallel and parallel configurations, respectively. Such a phase-controllable junction would have immediate applications in cryogenic memory, which is a necessary component to an ultra-low power superconducting computer. A fully superconducting computer is estimated to be orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than current semiconductor-based supercomputers. The goal of this work was to experimentally verify this prediction for a phase-controllable ferromagnetic Josephson junction. To address this
rf power dependence of subharmonic voltage spectra of two-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays
Hebboul, S.E.; Garland, J.C.
1993-01-01
We have measured the rf-bias-current dependence of the ν/2 subharmonic spectral response of planar 300x300 Nb-Au-Nb proximity-coupled Josephson-junction arrays. The ν/2 subharmonic voltage spectrum was examined at two rf-bias frequencies, ν/ν c ∼1.4, 2.0 (ν c ∼120 MHz), and in applied magnetic fields corresponding to f=0,1/2 flux quantum per plaquette. The measurements were compared to analytical predictions for an rf-biased asymmetric superconducting quantum interference device with non-negligble loop inductance and large rf-bias-current amplitudes, based on the resistively shunted Josephson-junction model. Reasonable agreement was found between experiment and theory, suggesting that a possible origin for the observed subharmonic behavior in arrays involves an interplay between array plaquette inductances and junction critical-current variations
Nie, Qing-Miao; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Chen, Qing-Hu; Zhou, Wei
2012-01-01
On the basis of resistively-shunted junction dynamics, we study vortex dynamics in two-dimensional Josephson junction arrays with asymmetrically single and bimodulated periodic pinning potential for the full range of vortex density f. The ratchet effect occurring at a certain range of temperature, current, and f, is observed in our simulation. We explain the microscopic behavior behind this effect by analyzing the vortex distribution and interaction. The reversal of the ratchet effect can be observed at several f values for a small driven current. This effect is stronger when the asymmetric potential is simultaneously introduced in two directions. -- Highlights: ► The ratchet effect in Josephson junction arrays strongly depends on vortex density. ► The reversed ratchet effect can be observed at several f for a small current. ► The interaction between vortices can explain the reversed ratchet effect. ► The ratchet effect is enhanced by injecting the bimodulated asymmetric potential.
Turbulence, chaos and thermal noise in globally coupled Josephson junction arrays
Dominguez, D.
1995-03-01
We discuss the effects of thermal noise in underdamped Josephson junction series arrays that are globally coupled through a resistive load and driven by an rf current. We study the breakdown of the law of large numbers in the turbulent phase of the Josephson arrays. This corresponds to a saturation of the broad band noise S 0 for a large number N of junctions. We find that this phenomenon is stable against thermal fluctuations below a critical temperature T cl . The behaviour of S 0 vs. T, for large N, shows three different regimes. For 0 cl , S 0 decreases when increasing T, and there is turbulence and the breakdown of the law of large numbers. For T cl c2 , S 0 is constant and the dynamics is dominated by the chaos of the individual junctions. Finally for T > T c2 , S 0 in mainly due to thermal fluctuations, since it increases linearly with T. (author). 23 refs, 6 figs
Fabrication of a Tantalum-Based Josephson Junction for an X-Ray Detector
Morohashi, Shin'ichi; Gotoh, Kohtaroh; Yokoyama, Naoki
2000-06-01
We have fabricated a tantalum-based Josephson junction for an X-ray detector. The tantalum layer was selected for the junction electrode because of its long quasiparticle lifetime, large X-ray absorption efficiency and stability against thermal cycling. We have developed a buffer layer to fabricate the tantalum layer with a body-centered cubic structure. Based on careful consideration of their superconductivity, we have selected a niobium thin layer as the buffer layer for fabricating the tantalum base electrode, and a tungsten thin layer for the tantalum counter electrode. Fabricated Nb/AlOx-Al/Ta/Nb and Nb/Ta/W/AlOx-Al/Ta/Nb Josephson junctions exhibited current-voltage characteristics with a low subgap leakage current.
A search for the coherently radiating fluxon state in stacks of long intrinsic Josephson junctions
Lee, H J; Bae, M H; Wang, H; Yamashita, T
2002-01-01
We studied the motion of fluxons in a stack of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 sub + subdelta single crystals in a long junction limit. Driven by the tunnelling bias, current Josephson fluxons excite plasma oscillations and move in resonance with the plasma propagation modes. We examined two types of samples in this study; mesa structure (UD1) and a stack of junctions sandwiched between normal-metallic electrodes (DSC1). In a high magnetic field, the hysteresis in the I-V characteristics of both-types of samples vanished. The resulting single I-V curve exhibited a cusp structure at characteristic bias voltages which were believed to be boundaries of different moving fluxon configurations. We studied the sample-geometry dependence of the cusp characteristics by comparing the results from the two types of samples.
Energy scales in YBaCuO grain boundary biepitaxial Josephson junctions
Tafuri, F., E-mail: tafuri@na.infn.it [Dip. Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); CNR-SPIN, UOS Napoli, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Stornaiuolo, D. [DPMC, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); CNR-SPIN, UOS Napoli, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Lucignano, P. [CNR-ISC, sede di Tor Vergata, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Galletti, L. [Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Longobardi, L. [Dip. Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); Massarotti, D. [Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, UOS Napoli, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Montemurro, D. [NEST and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Papari, G. [INPAC - Institute for Nanoscale Physics and Chemistry, Nanoscale Superconductivity and Magnetism Pulsed Fields Group, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200 D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Barone, A.; Tagliacozzo, A. [Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, UOS Napoli, Monte S. Angelo via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)
2012-09-15
Self-assembled nanoscale channels may naturally arise in the growth process of grain boundaries (GBs) in high critical temperature superconductor (HTS) systems, and deeply influence the transport properties of the GB Josephson junctions (JJs). By isolating nano-channels in YBCO biepitaxial JJs and studying their properties, we sort out specific fingerprints of the mesoscopic nature of the contacts. The size of the channels combined to the characteristic properties of HTS favors a special regime of the proximity effect, where normal state coherence prevails on the superconducting coherence in the barrier region. Resistance oscillations from the current-voltage characteristic encode mesoscopic information on the junction and more specifically on the minigap induced in the barrier. Thouless energy emerges as a characteristic energy of these types of Josephson junctions. Possible implications on the understanding of coherent transport of quasiparticles in HTS and of the dissipation mechanisms are discussed, along with elements to take into account when designing HTS nanostructures.
Charge-transport in Josephson-junctions with ferromagnetic Ni3Al-interlayer
Born, F.
2006-01-01
The present dissertation reports on experimental studies about superconducting coupling through a thin Ni 76 Al 24 film. A new patterning process has been developed, which allows in combination with the wedge shaped deposition technique the in situ deposition of 20 single Nb/Al/Al 2 O 3 /Ni 3 Al/Nb multilayers, each with its own well defined Ni 3 Al thickness. Every single multilayer consists of 10 different sized Josephson junctions, showing a high reproducibility and scaling with its junction area. Up to six damped oscillations of the critical current density against F-layer thickness were observed, revealing three single 0-π-transitions in the ground state of Josephson junctions. Contrary to former experimental studies, the exponential decay length is one magnitude larger than the oscillation period defining decay length. The theoretical predictions based on linearised Eilenberger equations results in excellent agreement of theory and experimental results. (orig.)
Improved impedance transformation between microwave oscillator and Josephson junction series array
Gutmann, P.; Vollmer, E.; Niemeyer, J.
1993-01-01
Superconducting microwave monolithic integrated circuits (S-MMIC), based on Josephson tunnel junctions, are a well-established tool to reproduce the volt at the highest level of accuracy. An external oscillator of a fixed frequency f supplies microwave energy through a waveguide to the S-MMIC. The wave changes its mode at a waveguide-antipodal finline-stripline taper before entering a series array stripline of up to 30 000 Josephson tunnel junctions and is dissipated as heat in a lossy stripline. Both striplines have a characteristic impedance Z of 2 to 5 Ω. An equivalent circuit is shown in figure 1. The oscillator is matched to the waveguide with a source resistance R G Z(waveguide) ∼ 550 Ω. The most critical part is the taper, which should work as a lossless impedance matching network at the frequency of the oscillator. Microwave energy is fed into the tunnel junctions by the surface current I HF of the travelling wave in the series array stripline producing an rf voltage amplitude U JHF across the capacitance C of each junction. The Josephson tunnel junctions work as self-oscillating parametric mixers producing steps of constant voltage V in the current-voltage characteristic whenever (nf - 2eV/h) = 0, with n denoting an integer and e and h denoting the elementary charge and Planck's constant, respectively. The equivalent circuit of a Josephson tunnel element used in a voltage standard for 1 V working at a frequency of f = 70 GHz is given by a lumped parallel resonant circuit with a nonlinear inductance on the order of L = φ 0 /2πI 0 ∼ 1 pH, flux quantum φ 0 = h/2e and a linear capacitance of C ∼ 40 pF. These tunnel junctions have a maximum zero voltage current of approximately I 0 ∼ 350 μA. (orig.)
Stability of fluxon motion in long Josephson junctions at high bias
Pagano, S.; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1988-01-01
In long Josephson junctions the motion of fluxons is revealed by the existence of current steps, zero-field steps, in the current-voltage characteristics. In this paper we investigate the stability of the fluxon motion when high values of the current bias are involved. The investigation is carried...... dissipations and of the junction length on the switching-current value is investigated. A simple boundary model is able to describe, for junctions of overlap geometry, the qualitative dependence of the switching current on the system parameters....
Synchronization of a Josephson junction array in terms of global variables
Vlasov, Vladimir; Pikovsky, Arkady
2013-08-01
We consider an array of Josephson junctions with a common LCR load. Application of the Watanabe-Strogatz approach [Physica DPDNPDT0167-278910.1016/0167-2789(94)90196-1 74, 197 (1994)] allows us to formulate the dynamics of the array via the global variables only. For identical junctions this is a finite set of equations, analysis of which reveals the regions of bistability of the synchronous and asynchronous states. For disordered arrays with distributed parameters of the junctions, the problem is formulated as an integro-differential equation for the global variables; here stability of the asynchronous states and the properties of the transition synchrony-asynchrony are established numerically.
Geometric dependence of Nb-Bi2Te3-Nb topological Josephson junction transport parameters
Molenaar, C G; Leusink, D P; Brinkman, A; Wang, X L
2014-01-01
Superconductor-topological insulator–superconductor Josephson junctions have been fabricated in order to study the width dependence of the critical current, normal state resistance and flux periodicity of the critical current modulation in an external field. Previous literature reports suggest anomalous scaling in topological junctions due to the presence of Majorana bound states. However, for most realized devices, one would expect that trivial 2π-periodic Andreev levels dominate transport. We also observe anomalous scaling behaviour of junction parameters, but the scaling can be well explained by mere geometric effects, such as the parallel bulk conductivity shunt and flux focusing. (paper)
Elliptic annular Josephson tunnel junctions in an external magnetic field: the statics
Monaco, Roberto; Granata, Carmine; Vettoliere, Antonio
2015-01-01
We have investigated the static properties of one-dimensional planar Josephson tunnel junctions (JTJs) in the most general case of elliptic annuli. We have analyzed the dependence of the critical current in the presence of an external magnetic field applied either in the junction plane...... symmetric electrodes a transverse magnetic field is equivalent to an in-plane field applied in the direction of the current flow. Varying the ellipse eccentricity we reproduce all known results for linear and ring-shaped JTJs. Experimental data on high-quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb elliptic annular junctions...
Trif, Mircea; Dmytruk, Olesia; Bouchiat, Hélène; Aguado, Ramón; Simon, Pascal
2018-02-01
We theoretically study a Josephson junction based on a semiconducting nanowire subject to a time-dependent flux bias. We establish a general density-matrix approach for the dynamical response of the Majorana junction and calculate the resulting flux-dependent susceptibility using both microscopic and effective low-energy descriptions for the nanowire. We find that the diagonal component of the susceptibility, associated with the dynamics of the Majorana state populations, dominates over the standard Kubo contribution for a wide range of experimentally relevant parameters. The diagonal term, explored, in this Rapid Communication, in the context of Majorana physics, allows probing accurately the presence of Majorana bound states in the junction.
Chemically etched edges of YBa2Cu3O7 films for interconnects, crossovers and Josephson junctions
Poppe, U.; Faley, M.I.; Urban, K.; Soltner, H.
1993-01-01
To produce damage-free edges is one of the main problems during the preparation of Josephson edge-type junctions and interconnects in multilayer structures including high temperature superconductors. The inherently short and anisotropic coherence length in high temperature superconductors makes it also difficult to fabricate Josephson junctions from these materials. One promising technique which helps to overcome such problems using a nonaqueous chemical etching with a Br-ethanol solution was first presented in a recent publication. Here we report results obtained with the use of this method: test of insulation properties of PrBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , PrBa 2 Cu 2.85 Ga 0.15 O 7 , and SrTiO 3 used for crossovers and Josephson junctions. Some features of interconnects and Josephson junctions, prepared on the basis of the chemical technique are also discussed. (orig.)
Fan Hongyi; Wang Jisuo
2006-01-01
By making the analogy between the operator Hamiltonians of a mesoscopic ring carrying the persistent current and a Josephson junction we have introduced a phase operator and entangled state representation to establish a theoretical formalism for the ring system.
A novel ternary logic circuit using Josephson junction
Morisue, M.; Oochi, K.; Nishizawa, M.
1989-01-01
This paper describes a novel Josephson complementary ternary logic circuit named as JCTL. This fundamental circuit is constructed by combination of two SQUIDs, one of which is switched in the positive direction and the other in the negative direction. The JCTL can perform the fundamental operations of AND, OR, NOT and Double NOT in ternary form. The principle of the operation and design criteria are described in detail. The results of the simulation show that the reliable operations of these circuits can be achieved with a high performance
Effect of transparency on the Josephson junction between D-wave superconductors
Rashedi, G
2008-01-01
In this paper, a dc Josephson junction between two singlet superconductors (d-wave and s-wave) with arbitrary reflection coefficient has been investigated theoretically following the famous paper [Y. Tanaka and S. Kashiwaya 1996 Phys. Rev. B 53, R11957]. For the case of High T c superconductors, the c-axes are parallel to an interface with finite transparency and their ab-planes have a mis-orientation. The effect of transparency and mis-orientation on the currents is studied both analytically and numerically. It is observed that, the current phase relations are totally different from the case of ideal transparent Josephson junctions between d-wave superconductors and two s-wave superconductors. This apparatus can be used to demonstrate d-wave order parameter in High T c superconductors
Resonance modes in one-dimensional parallel arrays of Josephson junctions
Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Delin, K.A.; Bock, R.D.; Berman, D.; Phillips, J.R.; Orlando, T.P.
1994-01-01
We investigate both experimentally and numerically the dynamics of discrete one-dimensional parallel arrays of underdamped Josephson junctions. In a magnetic field, measurements show steps in the current-voltage characteristics which are the discrete analogs of Fiske steps in a long Josephson junction. From the position of the steps, one can construct a plot of the dispersion relation ω(k). We observe a sine--dependence in the dispersion relation due to the discrete nature of our arrays. We also observe an additional, smaller gap at a k-value determined by the periodicity of the vortex lattice. Our measurements are supported by numerical simulations of the full dynamics. The Fiske steps provide an experimental method to measure the self-inductance of 1D parallel arrays. (orig.)
Spectroscopy of the fractional vortex eigenfrequency in a long Josephson 0-{kappa} junction
Buckenmaier, K.; Gaber, T.; Schittenhelm, I.; Kleiner, R.; Koelle, D.; Goldobin, E. [Physikalisches Inst., Experimentalphysik II, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Siegel, M. [Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme
2007-07-01
In long Josephson junctions with a {kappa}-phase discontinuity, created by two current injectors, a fractional Josephson vortex (FJV) is spontaneously formed at the interface between the 0- and {kappa}-part. A FJV carries an arbitrary fraction {phi}/{phi}{sub 0}={kappa}/2{pi} of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 x 10{sup -15} Wb. In contrast to fluxons, FJVs are pinned at the discontinuity point, but in underdamped systems they are able to oscillate around their equilibrium point with characteristic eigenfrequencies. To experimentally determine the eigenfrequency we stimulated a FJV by irradiating our sample with microwaves. At resonance the junction switches to the resistive state. A measurement of the switching probability thus allows to determine the FJV eigenfrequency as a function of bias current and {kappa}. We compare our results with the prediction of the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. (orig.)
Phase-flip bifurcation in a coupled Josephson junction neuron system
Segall, Kenneth, E-mail: ksegall@colgate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Guo, Siyang; Crotty, Patrick [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Schult, Dan [Department of Mathematics, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Miller, Max [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States)
2014-12-15
Aiming to understand group behaviors and dynamics of neural networks, we have previously proposed the Josephson junction neuron (JJ neuron) as a fast analog model that mimics a biological neuron using superconducting Josephson junctions. In this study, we further analyze the dynamics of the JJ neuron numerically by coupling one JJ neuron to another. In this coupled system we observe a phase-flip bifurcation, where the neurons synchronize out-of-phase at weak coupling and in-phase at strong coupling. We verify this by simulation of the circuit equations and construct a bifurcation diagram for varying coupling strength using the phase response curve and spike phase difference map. The phase-flip bifurcation could be observed experimentally using standard digital superconducting circuitry.
Properties on niobium-based Josephson tunneling elements in junction microstructures
Albrecht, G.; Richter, J.; Weber, P.
1982-01-01
We describe the fabrication and electrical characteristics of niobium oxide-barrier tunnel junctions with counterelectrodes of lead/lead alloy. Primary attention is directed to the experimental conditions necessary to obtain high-quality tunnel barriers as well as studies on characterizing the atomic structure of the barrier region. In order to study the tunnel barrier homogeneity in the tunneling region the magnetic field dependence of the critical Josephson current is investigated. The I--V characteristics and dependence of the critical Josephson current on temperature are analyzed quantitatively by using a proximity effect model. Finally, we discuss experimental results on the improvement of junction quality by including traces of carbon in the rf argon plasma during the sputter cleaning of niobium base electrodes
Phase dynamics of single long Josephson junction in MgB2 superconductor
Chimouriya, Shanker Pd.; Ghimire, Bal Ram; Kim, Ju H.
2018-05-01
A system of perturbed sine Gordon equations is derived to a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) long Joseph-son junction as an extension of the Ambegaokar-Baratoff relation, following the long route of path integral formalism. A computer simulation is performed by discretizing the equations using finite difference approximation and applied to the MgB2 superconductor with SiO2 as the junction material. The solution of unperturbed sG equation is taken as the initial profile for the simulation and observed how the perturbation terms play the role to modify it. It is found initial profile deformed as time goes on. The variation of total Josephson current has also been observed. It is found that, the perturbation terms play the role for phase frustration. The phase frustration achieves quicker for high tunneling current.
Self-heating in Josephson junction chains. New insight from old circuits
Cole, Jared [Chemical and Quantum Physics, School of Applied Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Marthaler, Michael [Institute fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Duty, Timothy [Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems (EQuS), School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia)
2016-07-01
The conduction properties of arrays of Josephson junctions are been studied for decades, yet the experimental results never really match the predictions of the idealised theoretical models. Many reasons have been given for this, including imperfections in the measurement, in the fabrication process or in the theoretical models used. Recently, using a combination of systematic numerical and experimental studies, the gap between theory and experiment is closing. As an example of this, we discuss the role of self-heating in the transport properties of one-dimensional Josephson junction chains. We show tantalising experimental measurements and how these can be compared to various theoretical models for the self-heating processes within the chains.
Phase-flip bifurcation in a coupled Josephson junction neuron system
Segall, Kenneth; Guo, Siyang; Crotty, Patrick; Schult, Dan; Miller, Max
2014-01-01
Aiming to understand group behaviors and dynamics of neural networks, we have previously proposed the Josephson junction neuron (JJ neuron) as a fast analog model that mimics a biological neuron using superconducting Josephson junctions. In this study, we further analyze the dynamics of the JJ neuron numerically by coupling one JJ neuron to another. In this coupled system we observe a phase-flip bifurcation, where the neurons synchronize out-of-phase at weak coupling and in-phase at strong coupling. We verify this by simulation of the circuit equations and construct a bifurcation diagram for varying coupling strength using the phase response curve and spike phase difference map. The phase-flip bifurcation could be observed experimentally using standard digital superconducting circuitry
Effect of single Abrikosov vortices on the properties of Josephson tunnel junctions
Golubov, A.A.; Kupriyanov, M.Yu.
1987-01-01
The effect of single Abrikosov vortices, trapped in the electrodes of a Josephson tunnel junction perpendicularly to the junction surface, on the tunnel current through the junction is studied within the framework of the microscopic theory. The current-voltage characteristic and the critical junction current I c are calculated for temperatures 0 c . It is shown that if the vortices at the junction are misaligned, singularities on the current-voltage characteristic appear at eV Δ (T), and in some cases the magnitude of suppression of I c may be of the order of magnitude of I c itself. The temperature dependence of the critical current is calculated for the case of one of the electrodes being a two-dimensional superconducting film in which the creation of opposite sign vortex pairs is significant
Macroscopic quantum effects in the zero voltage state of the current biased Josephson junction
Clarke, J.; Devoret, M.H.; Martinis, J.; Esteve, D.
1985-05-01
When a weak microwave current is applied to a current-biased Josephson tunnel junction in the thermal limit the escape rate from the zero voltage state is enhanced when the microwave frequency is near the plasma frequency of the junction. The resonance curve is markedly asymmetric because of the anharmonic properties of the potential well: this behavior is well explained by a computer simulation using a resistively shunted junction model. This phenomenon of resonant activation enables one to make in situ measurements of the capacitance and resistance shunting the junction, including contributions from the complex impedance presented by the current leads. For the relatively large area junctions studied in these experiments, the external capacitive loading was relatively unimportant, but the damping was entirely dominated by the external resistance
Temperature behavior of SNS-like Nb/Al-AlO x/Nb Josephson junctions
Lacquaniti, V.; Andreone, D.; Maggi, S.; Rocci, R.; Sosso, A.; Steni, R.
2006-01-01
Overdamped Nb/Al-AlO x /Nb Josephson junctions are an intermediate state between the SIS and SNS Josephson junctions. Stable and reproducible non-hysteretic current-voltage characteristics have been obtained with a proper choice of the fabrication parameters, featuring critical current densities J c up to 25 kA/cm 2 and characteristic voltages up to 450 μV. While these values make the junctions interesting for RSFQ electronic circuits, their response to an RF signal at 70 GHz has demonstrated their suitability for both programmable and ac voltage standard. In these work we analyse the temperature behavior of these junctions up to T/T c = 1, T c being the niobium critical temperature, which gives relevant information on the junction structure and, especially, on the oxide insulator/metallic film barrier, which is the key for the reproducible transition from an hysteretic to a non-hysteretic behavior. The results are also compared with other data of hysteretic and overdamped junctions
Gaber, Tobias
2007-07-01
In this thesis static and dynamic properties of fractional vortices in long Josephson junctions are investigated. Fractional vortices are circulating supercurrents similar to the well-known Josephson fluxons. Yet, they show the distinguishing property of carrying only a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum. Fractional vortices are interesting non-linear objects. They spontaneously appear and are pinned at the phase discontinuity points of so called 0-{kappa} junctions but can be bend or flipped by external forces like bias currents or magnetic fields. 0-{kappa} junctions and fractional vortices are generalizations of the well-known 0-{pi} junctions and semifluxons, where not only phase jumps of pi but arbitrary values denoted by kappa are considered. By using so-called artificial 0-{kappa} junctions that are based on standard Nb-AlO{sub x}-Nb technology the classical dynamics of fractional vortices has been investigated experimentally for the very first time. Here, half-integer zero field steps could be observed. These voltage steps on the junction's current-voltage characteristics correspond to the periodic flipping/hopping of fractional vortices. In addition, the oscillatory eigenmodes of fractional vortices were investigated. In contrast to fluxons fractional vortices have an oscillatory eigenmode with a frequency within the plasma gap. Using resonance spectroscopy the dependence of the eigenmode frequency on the flux carried by the vortex and an applied bias current was determined. (orig.)
An ion-beam-assisted process for high-Tc Josephson junctions
Huang, M.Q.; Chen, L.; Zhao, Z.X.; Yang, T.; Nie, J.C.; Wu, P.J.; Xiong, X.M.
1997-01-01
We have developed a non-ion-etching ion-beam-assisted-deposition (IBAD) process for fabricating high critical-temperature (T c ) grain boundary Josephson junctions through a photoresist liftoff mask. The YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO) junctions fabricated through this process exhibited the resistively-shunted-junction (RSJ)-like I - V characteristics. The well-defined Shapiro steps have been seen on the I - V curves under microwave radiation. The magnetic modulation of critical current of a 4 μm width YBCO junction tallied with the prior simulated Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of a Josephson junction with a spatially homogeneous critical current density. The maximum peak-to-peak modulation voltage across the dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) fabricated by using these junctions reached up to 32 μV at 77 K. The magnetic modulation of the SQUID exhibited periodic behavior with the observed modulation period of 5.0x10 -4 G. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Experiments on intrinsic and thermally induced chaos in an rf-driven Josephson junction
Davidson, A.; Dueholm, B.; Beasley, M. R.
1986-01-01
We report detailed measurements of low-frequency noise due to microwaves applied to a real Josephson tunnel junction. An intrinsically chaotic region is apparently identified, but the effects of thermal noise are shown to be significant. In particular we show experimental data that we interpret a...... as evidence for thermally activated hopping and thermally affected chaos. The data are only in qualitative accord with recent ideas regarding the effect of thermal noise on intermittent chaos....
Prediction of chaos in a Josephson junction by the Melnikov-function technique
Bartuccelli, M.; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1986-01-01
The Melnikov function for prediction of Smale horseshoe chaos is applied to the rf-driven Josephson junction. Linear and quadratic damping resistors are considered. In the latter case the analytic solution including damping and dc bias is used to obtain an improved threshold curve for the onset...... of chaos. The prediction is compared to new computational solutions. The Melnikov technique provides a good, but slightly low, estimate of the chaos threshold....
EASTHAM, PAUL
2003-01-01
PUBLISHED We connect three phenomena in which a coherent electromagnetic field could be generated: polariton condensation, phase-locking in arrays of underdamped Josephson junctions, and lasing. All these phenomena have been described using Dicke-type models of spins coupled to a single photon mode. These descriptions may be distinguished by whether the spins are quantum or classical, and whether they are strongly or weakly damped.
Numerical study of self-field effects on dynamics of Josephson-junction arrays
Phillips, J.R.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; White, J.; Orlando, T.P.
1994-01-01
We consider the influence of self-induced magnetic fields on dynamic properties of arrays of resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junctions. Self-field effects are modeled by including mutual inductance interactions between every cell in the array. We find that it is important to include all mutual inductance interactions in order to understand the dynamic properties of the array, in particular subharmonic structure arising under AC current bias. (orig.)
Chaos synchronization in RCL-shunted Josephson junction via active control
Ucar, Ahmet; Lonngren, Karl E.; Bai, E.-W.
2007-01-01
This paper investigates the synchronization of coupled RCL-shunted Josephson junction that is of interest in high-frequency applications. A nonlinear controller is developed in order to achieve the desired behavior. The synchronization is obtained using the slave-master technique and the controller ensures that the states of the controlled chaotic slave system exponentially synchronize with the state of the master system. Numerical simulations are illustrate and verify the proposed method
Millimetre and sub-mm wavelength radiation sources based on discrete Josephson junction arrays
Darula, M.; Beuven, S.; Doderer, T.
1999-01-01
This paper reviews the present status and future perspectives of discrete Josephson junction arrays for applications as sub-mm wavelength radiation sources. It is intended to cover the whole field, i.e. theory, fabrication and experimental results. The theoretical part reviews the fundamental aspects of Josephson junctions for oscillator applications and introduces the different possible array types. The recent results of analytical as well as numerical investigations are discussed. After the description of the fabrication of both low-T c as well as high-T c superconductor Josephson junctions and arrays, methods to investigate the array dynamics experimentally are mentioned. Finally, the recent experimental results are reviewed. This topic is divided into two parts, the first dealing with low-T c arrays, the second with high-T c arrays. The different possibilities to design arrays and to include them in practical applications are discussed and compared, with special emphasis on those experiments where radiation was generated successfully. The article is completed with a discussion of the most important experimental results. (author)
Levinsen, M.T.
1982-01-01
The Stewart-McCumber model of a Josephson junction has been shown to exhibit period-doubling bifurcation cascades, as described by the Feigenbaum bifurcation theory. Chaotic states, sometimes associated with the bifurcations, are also prevalent. The present paper deals with the questions of subharmonic generation and chaotic states in the aforementioned model, and in addition with the problem of the ubiquitous noise rise found in Josephson junction parametric amplifiers. The bifurcation is first discussed by drawing on analytical results on the Duffing equation which is an approximation to the complete ac-driven Stewart-McCumber model. The complete model is then solved on an analog computer. Thereafter it is shown that besides the even subharmonics predicted by the bifurcation theory, the natural subharmonic to expect at small dc currents is the odd. This may then have associated its own bifurcation tree. The role of spontaneous symmetry breaking will be discussed. This reconciles the earlier treatment of the 3-photon amplifier with the Feigenbaum scheme. Finally, analog calculations on a model of an externally pumped Josephson junction parametric amplifier will be discussed. The conclusion seems to be that chaotic noise cannot account for the noise rise
Order and turbulence in rf-driven Josephson junction series arrays
Dominguez, D.; Cerdeira, H.A.
1994-01-01
We study underdamped Josephson junction series arrays that are globally coupled through a resistive shunting load and driven by an rf bias current. We find coherent, ordered, partially ordered and turbulent regimes in the IV characteristics. The ordered regime corresponds to giant Shapiro steps. In the turbulent regime there is a saturation of the broad band noise for a large number of junctions. This corresponds to a breaking of the law of large numbers already seen in globally coupled maps. Coexisting with this, we find an emergence of novel pseudo-steps in the IV characteristics. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs
Collective and boson mapping description of a system of N Josephson junctions in a resonant cavity
Ballesteros, A.; Civitarese, O.; Herranz, F.J.; Reboiro, M.
2003-01-01
A system of N two-level Josephson junctions, interacting between themselves and with a single-mode cavity field, is described in terms of the superposition of fermionic and bosonic excitations. The results of the exact diagonalization are compared with the results of the Tamm-Dancoff approximation and with the results of a boson mapping. It is found that the boson mapping provides a suitable description of the spectrum, sum rules, and response function of the system. The dependence of the results upon the number of junctions, the excitation of the cavity modes, and the coupling strengths is investigated
Vortex trapping in Pb-alloy Josephson junctions induced by strong sputtering of the base electrode
Wada, M.; Nakano, J.; Yanagawa, F.
1985-01-01
It is observed that strong rf sputtering of the Pb-alloy base electrodes causes the junctions to trap magnetic vortices and thus induces Josephson current (I/sub J/) suppression. Trapping begins to occur when the rf sputtering that removes the native thermal oxide on the base electrode is carried out prior to rf plasma oxidation. Observed large I/sub J/ suppression is presumably induced by the concentration of vortices into the sputtered area upon cooling the sample below the transition temperature. This suggests a new method of the circumvention of the vortex trapping by strongly rf sputtering the areas of the electrode other than the junction areas
Self-induced steps in a small Josephson junction strongly coupled to a multimode resonator
Larsen, A.; Jensen, H. Dalsgaard; Mygind, Jesper
1991-01-01
An equally spaced series of very large and nearly constant-voltage self-induced singularities has been observed in the dc I-V characteristics of a small Josephson tunnel junction strongly coupled to a resonant section of a superconducting transmission line. The system allows extremely high values...... of the coupling parameter. The current steps are due to subharmonic parametric excitation of the fundamental mode of the resonator loaded by the junction admittance. Using an applied magnetic field to vary the coupling parameter, we traced out half-integer steps as well as the mode steps known from more weakly...
Spatio-temporal effects in a perturbed Sine-Gordan system: A long Josephson junction
Nana, L.; Crepin Kofane, T.
2003-12-01
A collective coordinate approach is applied to study chaotic responses induced by an applied driven signal on the long Josephson junction influenced by a constant dc-driven field. We derive a nonlinear equation for a collective variable of the breather and the Melnikov method is then used to demonstrate the existence of irregular behavior in breather-fluxon-antifluxon pair transitions. Additionally, numerical simulations show that the theoretical predictions are well reproduced. Results obtained using these perturbative analysis are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the dynamics of the junction. (author)
Structural studies of YBCO ramp Josephson junctions for rapid single flux quantum circuits
Gustafsson, M.; Olsson, E.; Huang, M.Q.; Komissinski, P.V.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Ivanov, Z.G.
1999-11-01
Ramp-type Josephson junctions with barrier layers of Ga doped PrBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} have been investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructures have been correlated to the ramp geometry. The junctions exhibited low excess current. This is believed to be due to the uniform thickness of barrier layer deposited on the ion-milled edges. The uniformity of the barrier is presumed to be a result of the smooth ramp, which promoted uniform nucleation and epitaxial growth.
One-third (period three) harmonic generation in microwave-driven Josephson tunnel junctions
Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Clarke, J.; Mygind, Jesper
1986-01-01
One-third harmonic signals have been generated in the zero voltage state of a Josephson tunnel junction driven with a microwave current in the frequency range 8–20 GHz. The signal was as much as 50 dB above the noise level of the detector with a linewidth of less than 100 Hz. The junction...... parameters and microwave current were measured in situ in separate experiments. The subharmonic generation occurred for ranges of microwave current and frequency that were in reasonable agreement with the results of digital computer simulations. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American...
Niobium nitride Josephson Junction studies and devices. Final report, 1 Jul-31 Dec 90
Sinclair, W.R.
1991-02-26
We suggest here a novel class of molecules for use in making monolayer thick insulating barriers for Josephson junctions employing all NbN conductors. For the experiments discussed here the smallest member of that class has been chosen. From sessile drop experiments we determine that this compound indeed reacts with NbN as postulated. Measurements of the electrical properties are less definitive. In no couple is shorting noted but the superconductivity of the bottom layer is eliminated near the junction presumably due to diffusion of the reactant molecule into the film.
Controlling chaos in RCL-shunted Josephson junction by delayed linear feedback
Feng Yuling; Shen Ke
2008-01-01
The resistively-capacitively-inductively-shunted (RCL-shunted) Josephson junction (RCLSJJ) shows chaotic behaviour under some parameter conditions. Here a scheme for controlling chaos in the RCLSJJ is presented based on the linear feedback theory. Numerical simulations show that this scheme can be effectively used to control chaotic states in this junction into stable periodic states. Moreover, the different stable period states with different period numbers can be obtained by appropriately adjusting the feedback intensity and delay time without any pre-knowledge of this system required
Development of High Temperature Superconducting Josephson Junction Device Technology
Myers, Kirsten
1998-01-01
The DuPont program was successful in generating useful knowledge about thallium cuprate materials, photoresist reflow processing, and radiant heater technology though it did not lead to a new junction technology...
Current-voltage characteristic of a Josephson junction with randomly distributed Abrikosov vortices
Fistul, M.V.; Giuliani, G.F.
1997-01-01
We have developed a theory of the current-voltage characteristic of a Josephson junction in the presence of randomly distributed, pinned misaligned Abrikosov vortices oriented perpendicularly to the junction plane. Under these conditions the Josephson phase difference var-phi acquires an interesting stochastic dependence on the position in the plane of the junction. In this situation it is possible to define an average critical current which is determined by the spatial correlations of this function. Due to the inhomogeneity, we find that for finite voltage bias the electromagnetic waves propagating in the junction display a broad spectrum of wavelengths. This is at variance with the situation encountered in homogeneous junctions. The amplitude of these modes is found to decrease as the bias is increased. We predict that the presence of these excitations is directly related to a remarkable feature in the current-voltage characteristic. The dependence of the position and the magnitude of this feature on the vortex concentration has been determined. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Critical Josephson current in a model Pb/YBa2Cu3O7-δ junction
Atkinson, W.A.; Carbotte, J.P.
1995-01-01
We consider a simple model for a c-axis Pb/YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ Josephson junction. The observation of a nonzero current in such a junction by Sun et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2267 (1994)] has been taken as evidence against d-wave superconductivity in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ . We suggest, however, that the pairing interaction in the CuO 2 planes may well be d wave but that the CuO chains destroy the tetragonal symmetry of the system. We examine two ways in which this happens. In a simple model of an incoherent junction, the chains distort the superconducting condensate away from d x 2 -y 2 symmetry. In a specular junction the chains destroy the tetragonal symmetry of the tunneling matrix element. In either case, the loss of tetragonal symmetry results in a finite Josephson current. Our calculated values of the critical current for specular junctions are in good agreement with the results of Sun and co-workers
A model of magnetic impurities within the Josephson junction of a phase qubit
Erickson, R P; Pappas, D P [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)
2010-02-15
We consider a superconducting phase qubit consisting of a monocrystalline sapphire Josephson junction with its symmetry axis perpendicular to the junction interfaces. Via the London gauge, we present a theoretical model of Fe{sup 3+} magnetic impurities within the junction that describes the effect of a low concentration of such impurities on the operation of the qubit. Specifically, we derive an interaction Hamiltonian expressed in terms of angular momentum states of magnetic impurities and low-lying oscillator states of a current-biased phase qubit. We discuss the coupling between the qubit and impurities within the model near resonance. When the junction is biased at an optimal point for acting as a phase qubit, with a phase difference of {pi}/2 and impurity concentration no greater than 0.05%, we find only a slight decrease in the Q factor of less than 0.01%.
Rectification of harmonically oscillating magnetic fields in quarter circular Josephson junctions
Shaju, P.D.; Kuriakose, V.C.
2003-01-01
A novel method for rectifying harmonically varying magnetic fields is demonstrated using fluxons in quarter circular Josephson junctions (JJs). A JJ with a quarter circular geometry terminated with a load resistor at one end is found to be capable of rectifying alternating fields when biased with a constant dc current. An external magnetic field applied parallel to the dielectric barrier of the junction interacts with the edges of the junction and make asymmetric boundary conditions. These asymmetric boundary conditions facilitate fluxon penetration under a dc bias from one end of the junction in alternate half cycles of the applied field. Thus effective rectification of the field can be achieved using quarter circular JJs. This unique phenomenon is specific to this geometry and can be exploited for making superconducting magnetic field rectifiers. This proposed device is expected to have important applications in millimeter and sub-millimeter radio wave astronomy
Self-positioned thin Pb-alloy base electrode Josephson junction
Kuroda, K.; Sato, K.
1986-01-01
A self-positioned thin (SPOT) Pb-alloy base electrode Josephson junction is developed. In this junction, a 50-nm thick Pb-alloy base electrode is restricted within the junction region on an Nb underlayer using a self-alignment technique. The grain size reduction and the base electrode area restriction greatly improve thermal cycling stability, where the thermal cycling tests of 4000 proposed junctions (5 x 5 μm 2 ) showed no failures after 4000 cycles. In addition, the elimination of insulator layer stress on the Pb-alloy base electrode rectifies the problem of size effect on current density. The Nb underlayers also serve to isolate the Pb-alloy base electrodes from the resistors
Phase Locking and Chaos in a Josephson Junction Array Shunted by a Common Resistance
Tie-Ge, Zhou; Jing, Mao; Ting-Shu, Liu; Yue, Lai; Shao-Lin, Yan
2009-01-01
The dynamics of a Josephson junction array shunted by a common resistance are investigated by using numerical methods. Coexistence of phase locking and chaos is observed in the system when the resistively and capacitively shunted junction model is adopted. The corresponding parameter ranges for phase locking and chaos are presented. When there are three resistively shunted junctions in the array, chaos is found for the first time and the parameter range for chaos is also presented. According to the theory of Chernikov and Schmidt, when there are four or more junctions in the array, the system exhibits chaotic behavior. Our results indicate that the theory of Chernikov and Schmidt is not exactly appropriate. (condensed matter: electronicstructure, electrical, magnetic, and opticalproperties)
Aging and its circumvention in rf-plasma oxidized Pb-alloy Josephson junctions
Wada, M.; Nakano, J.
1987-01-01
The aging phenomenon of Pb-alloy Josephson junctions is investigated and an effective method of circumventing it is presented. Junctions consist of Pb-alloy electrodes and a tunneling barrier formed by rf-plasma oxidation of the Pb-alloy. First, aging and annealing-driven change in normal tunneling resistance are compared to verify the usage of annealing as an experimental method for simulation and acceleration of aging. Next, process variables affecting the annealing change in junction characteristics are examined and their influence is described. The importance of the oxide-base electrode interface is confirmed and that of the counterelectrode-oxide interface is experimentally shown. Furthermore, possible changes in the oxide itself are discussed. Finally, on the basis of these studies, rf-plasma oxidation in a CO 2 atmosphere is employed and proven to be an effective method for circumventing the annealing change in the junction characteristics
Maassen van den Brink, A.; Odintsov, A.A.; Bobbert, P.A.; Schön, G.
1991-01-01
Small capacitance tunnel junctions show single electron effects and, in the superconducting state, the coherent tunneling of Cooper pairs. We study these effects in a system of two Josephson junctions, driven by a voltage source with a finite impedance. Novel features show up in theI–V
Niobium nitride Josephson junctions with silicon and germanium barriers
Cukauskas, E.J.; Carter, W.L.
1988-01-01
Niobium nitride based junctions with silicon, germanium, and composite silicon/germanium barriers were fabricated and characterized for several barrier compositions. The current-voltage characteristics were analyzed at several temperatures using the Simmons model and numerical integration of the WKB approximation for the average barrier height and effective thickness. The zero voltage conductance was measured from 1.5 K to 300 K and compared to the Mott hopping conductivity model and the Stratton tunneling temperature dependence. Conductivity followed Mott conductivity at temperatures above 60 K for junctions with less than 100 angstrom thick barriers
Interaction between fractional Josephson vortices in multi-gap superconductor tunnel junctions
Kim, Ju H.
In a long Josephson junction (LJJ) with two-band superconductors, fractionalization of Josephson vortices (fluxons) can occur in the broken time reversal symmetry state when spatial phase textures (i-solitons) are excited. Excitation of i-solitons in each superconductor layer of the junction, arising due to the presence of two condensates and the interband Josephson effect, leads to spatial variation of the critical current density between the superconductor layers. Similar to the situation in a YBa2 Cu3O7 - x superconductor film grain boundary, this spatial dependence of the crtitical current density can self-generate magnetic flux in the insulator layer, resulting in fractional fluxons with large and small fraction of flux quantum. Similar to fluxons in one-band superconductor LJJ, these fractional fluxons are found to interact with each other. The interaction between large and small fractional fluxons determines the size of a fluxon which includes two (one large and one small) fractional fluxons. We discuss the nature of interaction between fractional fluxons and suggest that i-soliton excitations in multi-gap superconductor LJJs may be probed by using magnetic flux measurements.
Fernando Gimeno Bellver
Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the chaotic behavior of resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junctions via the so-called Network Simulation Method. Such a numerical approach establishes a formal equivalence among physical transport processes and electrical networks, and hence, it can be applied to efficiently deal with a wide range of differential systems.The generality underlying that electrical equivalence allows to apply the circuit theory to several scientific and technological problems. In this work, the Fast Fourier Transform has been applied for chaos detection purposes and the calculations have been carried out in PSpice, an electrical circuit software.Overall, it holds that such a numerical approach leads to quickly computationally solve Josephson differential models. An empirical application regarding the study of the Josephson model completes the paper. Keywords: Electrical analogy, Network Simulation Method, Josephson junction, Chaos indicator, Fast Fourier Transform
Spin transport in diffusive ferromagnetic Josephson junctions with noncollinear magnetization
Shomali, Zahra; Zareyan, Malek [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45195 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Belzig, Wolfgang [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany)
2011-07-01
We numerically study the Josephson coupling of two s-wave superconductors which are connected through a diffusive contact made of two ferromagnetic domains with the magnetization vectors misoriented by an angle {theta}. The assumed superconducting leads are conventional s-wave type with the phase difference of {phi}. Using the quantum circuit theory, we find that in addition to the charge supercurrent, which shows a 0-{pi} transition relative to the angle {theta}, the spin supercurrent with a spin polarization normal to the magnetization vectors will flow through the contact. Our results present a 0-{pi} quantum phase transition as a function of the wave vector, Q{xi}. Finally, we investigate the spin supercurrent in an extended magnetic texture with multiple domain walls. We find the behavior of spin supercurrent is highly sensitive to the barrier. When asymmetric barriers don't change the value of the spin supercurrent, the symmetric ones decrease the value of it notably. We also investigate some other interesting effects for these systems. In addition, we present when Q{xi} is the even multiple of {pi}, the spin-current which is penetrated into the nonhomogeneous ferromagnets is nearly zero, how ever the odd ones show the large amount of penetrated spin supercurrent.
Fabrication and characterization of intrinsic Josephson junctions in RE-123 whiskers
Okutsu, T.; Ueda, S.; Ishii, S.; Nagasawa, M.; Takano, Y.
2008-01-01
The series of REBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ RE-123; RE = Y, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, and Lu) single-crystal whiskers have been successfully grown using the Te- or Sb-doping method. Intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) were fabricated from the whiskers using a focused ion beam (FIB). As-grown IJJs with T c > 70 K showed a Josephson current but no multi-branches in the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. Under-doped specimens were obtained by a post-annealing process. As-grown IJJs with lower T c and all the specimens of the post-annealed IJJs showed clear multi-branched structure. The post-annealing reduced the critical temperature (T c ) and the critical current density (J c ) of the IJJs, and increased the anisotropic parameter γ
Quantum resonances in a single plaquette of Josephson junctions: excitations of Rabi oscillations
Fistul, M. V.
2002-03-01
We present a theoretical study of a quantum regime of the resistive (whirling) state of dc driven anisotropic single plaquette containing small Josephson junctions. The current-voltage characteristics of such systems display resonant steps that are due to the resonant interaction between the time dependent Josephson current and the excited electromagnetic oscillations (EOs). The voltage positions of the resonances are determined by the quantum interband transitions of EOs. We show that in the quantum regime as the system is driven on the resonance, coherent Rabi oscillations between the quantum levels of EOs occur. At variance with the classical regime the magnitude and the width of resonances are determined by the frequency of Rabi oscillations that in turn, depends in a peculiar manner on an externally applied magnetic field and the parameters of the system.
Xie, Hong-Yi; Vavilov, Maxim G.; Levchenko, Alex
2018-02-01
We consider mesoscopic four-terminal Josephson junctions and study emergent topological properties of the Andreev subgap bands. We use symmetry-constrained analysis for Wigner-Dyson classes of scattering matrices to derive band dispersions. When the scattering matrix of the normal region connecting superconducting leads is energy independent, the determinant formula for Andreev spectrum can be reduced to a palindromic equation that admits a complete analytical solution. Band topology manifests with an appearance of the Weyl nodes which serve as monopoles of finite Berry curvature. The corresponding fluxes are quantified by Chern numbers that translate into a quantized nonlocal conductance that we compute explicitly for the time-reversal-symmetric scattering matrix. The topological regime can also be identified by supercurrents as Josephson current-phase relationships exhibit pronounced nonanalytic behavior and discontinuities near Weyl points that can be controllably accessed in experiments.
Josephson junction at the onset of chaos: A complete devil's staircase
Alstrom, P.; Levinsen, M.T.
1985-01-01
By analog computer calculations of the resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction model, I-V characteristics are measured for several choices of the parameters in the Josephson equation. The points, where hysteresis sets in, are related to cubic inflection points in the return map. For different values of the amplitude and the frequency of the imposed ac field the critical line is determined in the (I,G) space, where I is the dc current and G is the damping factor. Furthermore, the subharmonic steps along the critical line form a complete devil's staircase with a fractal dimension Dapprox.0.87 and a decay exponent for the (1/Q)-steps deltaapprox.3. Besides the hysteresis which gives occasion for a chaotic behavior everywhere below a certain critical voltage, hysteresis also turns up locally. It is suggested that the critical points where local hysteresis occurs can be found by use of a local approximation
Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Nazarov, Yuli V. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands (Netherlands)
2013-12-04
We theoretically study the current-phase relation in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. In the nanowire, the impurity scattering with strong SO interaction is taken into account using the random matrix theory. In the absence of magnetic field, the Josephson current I and phase difference φ between the superconductors satisfy the relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In the presence of magnetic field along the nanowire, the interplay between the SO interaction and Zeeman effect breaks the current-phase relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In this case, we show that the critical current depends on the current direction, which qualitatively agrees with recent experimental findings.
Traveling wave parametric amplifier with Josephson junctions using minimal resonator phase matching
White, T. C.; Mutus, J. Y.; Hoi, I.-C.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, John M.; Megrant, A.; Chaudhuri, S.
2015-01-01
Josephson parametric amplifiers have become a critical tool in superconducting device physics due to their high gain and quantum-limited noise. Traveling wave parametric amplifiers (TWPAs) promise similar noise performance, while allowing for significant increases in both bandwidth and dynamic range. We present a TWPA device based on an LC-ladder transmission line of Josephson junctions and parallel plate capacitors using low-loss amorphous silicon dielectric. Crucially, we have inserted λ/4 resonators at regular intervals along the transmission line in order to maintain the phase matching condition between pump, signal, and idler and increase gain. We achieve an average gain of 12 dB across a 4 GHz span, along with an average saturation power of −92 dBm with noise approaching the quantum limit
Gaussian tunneling model of c-axis twist Josephson junctions
Bille, A.; Klemm, R.A.; Scharnberg, K.
2001-01-01
We calculate the critical current density J c J ((var p hi) 0 ) for Josephson tunneling between identical high-temperature superconductors twisted an angle (var p hi) 0 about the c axis. Regardless of the shape of the two-dimensional Fermi surface and for very general tunneling matrix elements, an order parameter (OP) with general d-wave symmetry leads to J c J (π/4)=0. This general result is inconsistent with the data of Li et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4160 (1999)] on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (Bi2212), which showed J c J to be independent of (var p hi) 0 . If the momentum parallel to the barrier is conserved in the tunneling process, J c J should vary substantially with the twist angle (var p hi) 0 when the tight-binding Fermi surface appropriate for Bi2212 is taken into account, even if the OP is completely isotropic. We quantify the degree of momentum nonconservation necessary to render J c J ((var p hi) 0 ) constant within experimental error for a variety of pair states by interpolating between the coherent and incoherent limits using five specific models to describe the momentum dependence of the tunneling matrix element squared. From the data of Li et al., we conclude that the c-axis tunneling in Bi2212 must be very nearly incoherent, and that the OP must have a nonvanishing Fermi-surface average for T c . We further show that the apparent conventional sum-rule violation observed by Basov et al. [Science 283, 49 (1999)] can be consistent with such strongly incoherent c-axis tunneling.
Magnetometry with Low-Resistance Proximity Josephson Junction
Jabdaraghi, R. N.; Peltonen, J. T.; Golubev, D. S.; Pekola, J. P.
2018-06-01
We characterize a niobium-based superconducting quantum interference proximity transistor (Nb-SQUIPT) and its key constituent formed by a Nb-Cu-Nb SNS weak link. The Nb-SQUIPT and SNS devices are fabricated simultaneously in two separate lithography and deposition steps, relying on Ar ion cleaning of the Nb contact surfaces. The quality of the Nb-Cu interface is characterized by measuring the temperature-dependent equilibrium critical supercurrent of the SNS junction. In the Nb-SQUIPT device, we observe a maximum flux-to-current transfer function value of about 55 nA/Φ_0 in the sub-gap regime of bias voltages. This results in suppression of power dissipation down to a few fW. Low-bias operation of the device with a relatively low probe junction resistance decreases the dissipation by up to two orders of magnitude compared to a conventional device based on an Al-Cu-Al SNS junction and an Al tunnel probe (Al-SQUIPT).
Investigation of Supercurrent in the Quantum Hall Regime in Graphene Josephson Junctions
Draelos, Anne W.; Wei, Ming Tso; Seredinski, Andrew; Ke, Chung Ting; Mehta, Yash; Chamberlain, Russell; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Michihisa; Tarucha, Seigo; Borzenets, Ivan V.; Amet, François; Finkelstein, Gleb
2018-06-01
In this study, we examine multiple encapsulated graphene Josephson junctions to determine which mechanisms may be responsible for the supercurrent observed in the quantum Hall (QH) regime. Rectangular junctions with various widths and lengths were studied to identify which parameters affect the occurrence of QH supercurrent. We also studied additional samples where the graphene region is extended beyond the contacts on one side, making that edge of the mesa significantly longer than the opposite edge. This is done in order to distinguish two potential mechanisms: (a) supercurrents independently flowing along both non-contacted edges of graphene mesa, and (b) opposite sides of the mesa being coupled by hybrid electron-hole modes flowing along the superconductor/graphene boundary. The supercurrent appears suppressed in extended junctions, suggesting the latter mechanism.
Holm, Jesper; Mygind, Jesper
1995-01-01
on measurements on different oscillator samples, performed with a novel Cryogenic Scanning Laser Microscope (CSLM) having a spatial resolution of less than ±2.5 μm over a 500 μm×50 μm wide scanning area in the temperature range 2 K-300 K. Even though the dynamical states are extremely sensitive to external noise...... tunnel current is one of the most important internal junction parameters which together with the boundary conditions determine the dynamics, it is of vital importance to experimentally determine the current density throughout the entire junction with high spatial resolution. Here we report...... this microscope enables us to make stable in-situ measurements on operating Josephson junctions. Recent results are presented and discussed....
Tunneling conductance in superconductor-hybrid double quantum dots Josephson junction
Chamoli, Tanuj; Ajay
2018-05-01
The present work deals with the theoretical model study to analyse the tunneling conductance across a superconductor hybrid double quantum dots tunnel junction (S-DQD-S). Recently, there are many experimental works where the Josephson current across such nanoscopic junction is found to be dependent on nature of the superconducting electrodes, coupling of the hybrid double quantum dot's electronic states with the electronic states of the superconductors and nature of electronic structure of the coupled dots. For this, we have attempted a theoretical model containing contributions of BCS superconducting leads, magnetic coupled quantum dot states and coupling of superconducting leads with QDs. In order to include magnetic coupled QDs the contributions of competitive Kondo and Ruderman-Kittel- Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction terms are also introduced through many body effects in the model Hamiltonian at low temperatures (where Kondo temperature TK tunnel junctions. Tunneling conductance is proportional to DOS, hence we can analyse it's behaviour with the help of DOS.
Al-Khawaja, S.
2011-01-01
In this paper, synchronising two coupled ratchet Josephson junctions subjected to a quasiperiodic field is achieved. In the limit of weak perturbation of irrational frequencies equal to the square root of the transcendental number π and for small damping parameters, phase locking occurs as the coupling between both junctions is increased. It turns out that the transition from non-synchronous to synchronous chaotic state does not involve attractors appearing and disappearing. The undertaken symmetry analysis of the system demonstrates the suppression of the massive phase fluctuations as the coupling rises, allowing chaos synchronisation between both junctions to take place. The calculations also reveal the persistence of the synchronous state for high coupling strengths, taking into consideration the symmetry particularity of the external drive and potential. (author)
Sameer Al-Khawaja
2010-01-01
In this paper, synchronising two coupled ratchet Josephson junctions subjected to a quasiperiodic field is achieved. In the limit of weak perturbation of irrational frequencies equal to the square root of the transcendental number π and for small damping parameters, phase locking occurs as the coupling between both junctions is increased. It turns out that the transition from non-synchronous to synchronous chaotic state does not involve attractors appearing and disappearing. The undertaken symmetry analysis of the system demonstrates the suppression of the massive phase fluctuations as the coupling rises, allowing chaos synchronisation between both junctions to take place. The calculations also reveal the persistence of the synchronous state for high coupling strengths, taking into consideration the symmetry particularity of the external drive and potential. (author)
dc properties of series-parallel arrays of Josephson junctions in an external magnetic field
Lewandowski, S.J.
1991-01-01
A detailed dc theory of superconducting multijunction interferometers has previously been developed by several authors for the case of parallel junction arrays. The theory is now extended to cover the case of a loop containing several junctions connected in series. The problem is closely associated with high-T c superconductors and their clusters of intrinsic Josephson junctions. These materials exhibit spontaneous interferometric effects, and there is no reason to assume that the intrinsic junctions form only parallel arrays. A simple formalism of phase states is developed in order to express the superconducting phase differences across the junctions forming a series array as functions of the phase difference across the weakest junction of the system, and to relate the differences in critical currents of the junctions to gaps in the allowed ranges of their phase functions. This formalism is used to investigate the energy states of the array, which in the case of different junctions are split and separated by energy barriers of height depending on the phase gaps. Modifications of the washboard model of a single junction are shown. Next a superconducting inductive loop containing a series array of two junctions is considered, and this model is used to demonstrate the transitions between phase states and the associated instabilities. Finally, the critical current of a parallel connection of two series arrays is analyzed and shown to be a multivalued function of the externally applied magnetic flux. The instabilities caused by the presence of intrinsic serial junctions in granular high-T c materials are pointed out as a potential source of additional noise
Josephson edge junctions on YBa2Cu3O7 thin films prepared with Br-ethanol etching
Faley, M.I.; Poppe, U.; Daehne, U.; Goncharov, Yu.G.; Klein, N.; Urban, K.; Soltner, H.
1993-01-01
To produce damage-free edges is one of the main problems in the preparation of the Josephson edge-type junctions and interconnects in multilayer structures including high temperature superconductors. The commonly used ion beam etching has the disadvantages of the risk of contamination by redeposited material and structural damage to the surface of the edge. Vasquez et al and Gurvitch et al introduced a nonaqueous Br-ethanol etching for the preparation of clean surfaces of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 single crystals and thin films. We have developed a procedure of deep-UV-photolithography combined with nonaqueous Br-ethanol etching for the preparation of the Josephson edge-type junctions. Here we present the improvement of this method and report further results on the study of the electron transport properties of Josephson junctions with the edges of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 thin films produced by this technique. (orig.)
Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Mahfouzi, F.
2006-01-01
We study the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-T c superconductors by numerical calculations and in framework of capacitively coupled Josephson junctions model we obtain the total number of branches. The influence of the coupling parameter α on the current-voltage characteristics at fixed parameter β (β 2 1/β c , where β c is McCumber parameter) and the influence of α on β-dependence of the current-voltage characteristics are investigated. We obtain the α-dependence of the branch's slopes and branch's endpoints. The presented results show new features of the coupling effect on the scheme of hysteresis jumps in current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-T c superconductors
Spatial dependence of plasma oscillations in Josephson tunnel junctions
Holst, Thorsten; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev
1991-01-01
of an applied magnetic field. Numerical simulations of the governing partial-differential sine-Gordon equation were performed and compared to the experimental results and a perturbation analysis. The theoretical results support the experiments and allow us to interpret the observed crossover as due...... field threading the tunneling barrier. We compare measurements where the plasma frequency was tuned either by applying a magnetic field or by raising the temperature. A crossover from short- to long-junction behavior of the functional dependence of the plasma oscillations was observed in the case...
Delagrange, R.; Weil, R.; Kasumov, A.; Ferrier, M.; Bouchiat, H.; Deblock, R.
2018-05-01
In a quantum dot hybrid superconducting junction, the behavior of the supercurrent is dominated by Coulomb blockade physics, which determines the magnetic state of the dot. In particular, in a single level quantum dot singly occupied, the sign of the supercurrent can be reversed, giving rise to a π-junction. This 0 - π transition, corresponding to a singlet-doublet transition, is then driven by the gate voltage or by the superconducting phase in the case of strong competition between the superconducting proximity effect and Kondo correlations. In a two-level quantum dot, such as a clean carbon nanotube, 0- π transitions exist as well but, because more cotunneling processes are allowed, are not necessarily associated to a magnetic state transition of the dot. In this proceeding, after a review of 0- π transitions in Josephson junctions, we present measurements of current-phase relation in a clean carbon nanotube quantum dot, in the single and two-level regimes. In the single level regime, close to orbital degeneracy and in a regime of strong competition between local electronic correlations and superconducting proximity effect, we find that the phase diagram of the phase-dependent transition is a universal characteristic of a discontinuous level-crossing quantum transition at zero temperature. In the case where the two levels are involved, the nanotube Josephson current exhibits a continuous 0 - π transition, independent of the superconducting phase, revealing a different physical mechanism of the transition.
McAdory, R.T. Jr.
1988-01-01
A theory is presented for the nonequilibrium voltage states of an irradiated Josephson junction shunted by an external resistor but with no external current or voltage biasing. This device, referred to as a free-running Josephson junction, is modeled in a small--radiation-amplitude, deterministic regime extending the previous work of Shenoy and Agarwal. The time-averaged induced voltage is treated as a dynamical variable, the external radiation is modeled as a current source, and the induced junction-radiation vector potential, with and without a mode structure, is treated to first order in the driving currents. A dynamical equation for the time-averaged induced voltage yields a (nonequilibrium) steady-state relation between the time-averaged induced voltage and the incident radiation amplitude valid for a wide range of voltages, including zero. Regions of bistability occur in the voltage--versus--incident-amplitude curves, some of which are dependent on the external resistor. The zero-voltage state breaks down, as the external radiation amplitude is increased, at a critical value of the incident-radiation amplitude inversely proportional to the external resistance
Huang, Hong [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Liang, Qi-Feng [Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Yao, Dao-Xin, E-mail: yaodaox@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Zhi, E-mail: physicswangzhi@gmail.com [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)
2017-06-28
Majorana bound states in topological Josephson junctions induce a 4π period current-phase relation. Direct detection of the 4π periodicity is complicated by the quasiparticle poisoning. We reveal that Majorana bound states are also signaled by the anomalous enhancement on the critical current of the junction. We show the landscape of the critical current for a nanowire Josephson junction under a varying Zeeman field, and reveal a sharp step feature at the topological quantum phase transition point, which comes from the anomalous enhancement of the critical current at the topological regime. In multi-band wires, the anomalous enhancement disappears for an even number of bands, where the Majorana bound states fuse into Andreev bound states. This anomalous critical current enhancement directly signals the existence of the Majorana bound states, and also provides a valid signature for the topological quantum phase transition. - Highlights: • We introduce the critical current step as a signal for the topological quantum phase transition. • We study the quantum phase transition in the topological nanowire under a rotating Zeeman field. • We show that the critical current anomaly gradually disappears for systems with more sub-bands.
Nonlinear viscous vortex motion in two-dimensional Josephson-junction arrays
Hagenaars, T.J.; Tiesinga, P.H.E.; van Himbergen, J.E.; Jose, J.V.
1994-01-01
When a vortex in a two-dimensional Josephson-junction array is driven by a constant external current it may move as a particle in a viscous medium. Here we study the nature of this viscous motion. We model the junctions in a square array as resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junctions and carry out numerical calculations of the current-voltage characteristics. We find that the current-voltage characteristics in the damped regime are well described by a model with a nonlinear viscous force of the form F D =η(y)y=[A/(1+By]y, where y is the vortex velocity, η(y) is the velocity-dependent viscosity, and A and B are constants for a fixed value of the Stewart-McCumber parameter. This result is found to apply also for triangular lattices in the overdamped regime. Further qualitative understanding of the nature of the nonlinear friction on the vortex motion is obtained from a graphic analysis of the microscopic vortex dynamics in the array. The consequences of having this type of nonlinear friction law are discussed and compared to previous theoretical and experimental studies
Magnetic field oscillations of the critical current in long ballistic graphene Josephson junctions
Rakyta, Péter; Kormányos, Andor; Cserti, József
2016-06-01
We study the Josephson current in long ballistic superconductor-monolayer graphene-superconductor junctions. As a first step, we have developed an efficient computational approach to calculate the Josephson current in tight-binding systems. This approach can be particularly useful in the long-junction limit, which has hitherto attracted less theoretical interest but has recently become experimentally relevant. We use this computational approach to study the dependence of the critical current on the junction geometry, doping level, and an applied perpendicular magnetic field B . In zero magnetic field we find a good qualitative agreement with the recent experiment of M. Ben Shalom et al. [Nat. Phys. 12, 318 (2016), 10.1038/nphys3592] for the length dependence of the critical current. For highly doped samples our numerical calculations show a broad agreement with the results of the quasiclassical formalism. In this case the critical current exhibits Fraunhofer-like oscillations as a function of B . However, for lower doping levels, where the cyclotron orbit becomes comparable to the characteristic geometrical length scales of the system, deviations from the results of the quasiclassical formalism appear. We argue that due to the exceptional tunability and long mean free path of graphene systems a new regime can be explored where geometrical and dynamical effects are equally important to understand the magnetic field dependence of the critical current.
Mesoscopic fluctuations in the critical current in InAs-coupled Josephson junctions
Takayanagi, Hideaki; Hansen, J.B.; Nitta, Junsaku
1994-01-01
Mesoscopic fluctuations were confirmed for the critical current in a p-type InAs-coupled Josephson junction. The critical current was measured as a function of the gate voltage corresponding to the change in the Fermi energy. The critical current showed a mesoscopic fluctuation and its behavior was the same as that of the conductance measured at the same time in both the weak and strong localization regimes. The magnitude and the typical period of the fluctuation are discussed and compared to theoretical predictions. ((orig.))
Transition from quasiperiodicity to chaos in a Josephson-junction analog
He, D.; Yeh, W.J.; Kao, Y.H.
1984-01-01
Experimental observations of the transition from quasiperiodicity to chaos are carried out with an electronic Josephson-junction simulator driven by two independent ac sources. A Poincare section shows an invariant ellipse when the frequency ratio of the two input currents is very close to the reciprocal of the golden mean. The system enters a chaotic state at high input-current amplitudes characterized by a breakdown of the smooth ellipse at the onset of transition. Two convergence ratios are experimentally determined, showing good agreement with calculated values obtained by circle map studies
Svetogorov, Aleksandr E.; Taguchi, Masahiko; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Basko, Denis M.; Hekking, Frank W. J.
2018-03-01
We study coherent quantum phase slips which lift the ground state degeneracy in a Josephson junction ring, pierced by a magnetic flux of the magnitude equal to half of a flux quantum. The quantum phase-slip amplitude is sensitive to the normal mode structure of superconducting phase oscillations in the ring (Mooij-Schön modes). These, in turn, are affected by spatial inhomogeneities in the ring. We analyze the case of weak periodic modulations of the system parameters and calculate the corresponding modification of the quantum phase-slip amplitude.
Phase dynamics of a Josephson junction ladder driven by modulated currents
Kawaguchi, T.
2011-01-01
Phase dynamics of disordered Josephson junction ladders (JJLs) driven by external currents which are spatially and temporally modulated is studied using a numerical simulation based on a random field XY model. This model is considered theoretically as an effective model of JJLs with structural disorder in a magnetic field. The spatiotemporal modulation of external currents causes peculiar dynamical effects of phases in the system under certain conditions, such as the directed motion of phases and the mode-locking in the absence of dc currents. We clarify the details of effects of the spatiotemporal modulation on the phase dynamics.
Linear and nonlinear excitations in two stacks of parallel arrays of long Josephson junctions
Carapella, G.; Constabile, Giovanni; Latempa, R.
2000-01-01
We investigate a structure consisting of two parallel arrays of long Josephson junctions sharing a common electrode that allows inductive coupling between the arrays. A model for this structure is derived starting from the description of its continuous limit. The excitation of linear cavity modes...... known from continuous and discrete systems as well as the excitation of a new state exhibiting synchronization in two dimensions are inferred from the mathematical model of the system. The stable nonlinear solution of the coupled sine-Gordon equations describing the system is found to consist...
Low-noise parametric amplification at 35 GHz in a single Josephson tunnel junction
Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.
1979-01-01
Parametric amplification at 35 GHz has been obtained using a single Josephson tunnel junction as the active element. The amplifier was operated in the singly quasidegenerate mode with a pump frequency at 70 GHz. The noise temperature was measured and found correlated with the gain. At the highest...... gain achieved, 11.6 dB, the noise temperature was 400 K. The noise temperature was reduced considerably by decreasing the gain. At 8 and 4 dB we found 165±25 K and 50±30 K, respectively. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....
Polaron effects on the dc- and ac-tunneling characteristics of molecular Josephson junctions
Wu, B. H.; Cao, J. C.; Timm, C.
2012-07-01
We study the interplay of polaronic effect and superconductivity in transport through molecular Josephson junctions. The tunneling rates of electrons are dominated by vibronic replicas of the superconducting gap, which show up as prominent features in the differential conductance for the dc and ac current. For relatively large molecule-lead coupling, a features that appears when the Josephson frequency matches the vibron frequency can be identified with an over-the-gap structure observed by Marchenkov [Nat. Nanotech. 1748-338710.1038/nnano.2007.2182, 481 (2007)]. However, we are more concerned with the weak-coupling limit, where resonant tunneling through the molecular level dominates. We find that certain features involving both Andreev reflection and vibron emission show an unusual shift of the bias voltage V at their maximum with the gate voltage Vg as V˜(2/3)Vg. Moreover, due to the polaronic effect, the ac Josephson current shows a phase shift of π when the bias eV is increased by one vibronic energy quantum ℏωv. This distinctive even-odd effect is explained in terms of the different sign of the coupling to vibrons of electrons and of Andreev-reflected holes.
Neri, Elettra; Scazza, Francesco; Roati, Giacomo
2018-04-01
Quantum systems out of equilibrium offer the possibility of understanding intriguing and challenging problems in modern physics. Studying transport properties is not only valuable to unveil fundamental properties of quantum matter but it is also an excellent tool for developing new quantum devices which inherently employ quantum-mechanical effects. In this contribution, we present our experimental studies on quantum transport using ultracold Fermi gases of 6Li atoms. We realize the analogous of a Josephson junction by bisecting fermionic superfluids by a thin optical barrier. We observe coherent dynamics in both the population and in the relative phase between the two reservoirs. For critical parameters, the superfluid dynamics exhibits both coherent and resistive flow due to phase-slippage events manifesting as vortices propagating into the bulk. We uncover also a regime of strong dissipation where the junction operation is irreversibly affected by vortex proliferation. Our studies open new directions for investigating dissipation and superfluid transport in strongly correlated fermionic systems.
Parameter optimization for transitions between memory states in small arrays of Josephson junctions
Rezac, Jacob D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computing and Computational Sciences Directorate; Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Imam, Neena [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computing and Computational Sciences Directorate; Braiman, Yehuda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computer Science and Mathematics Division; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computing and Computational Sciences Directorate;
2017-01-11
Coupled arrays of Josephson junctions possess multiple stable zero voltage states. Such states can store information and consequently can be utilized for cryogenic memory applications. Basic memory operations can be implemented by sending a pulse to one of the junctions and studying transitions between the states. In order to be suitable for memory operations, such transitions between the states have to be fast and energy efficient. Here in this article we employed simulated annealing, a stochastic optimization algorithm, to study parameter optimization of array parameters which minimizes times and energies of transitions between specifically chosen states that can be utilized for memory operations (Read, Write, and Reset). Simulation results show that such transitions occur with access times on the order of 10–100 ps and access energies on the order of 10^{-19}–5×10^{-18} J. Numerical simulations are validated with approximate analytical results.
Break down of the law of large numbers in Josephson junction series arrays
Dominguez, D.; Cerdeira, H.A.
1995-01-01
We study underdamped Josephson junction series arrays that are globally coupled through a resistive shunting load and driven by an rf bias current. We find that they can be an experimental realization of many phenomena currently studied in globally coupled logistic maps. We find coherent, ordered, partially ordered and turbulent phases in the IV characteristics of the array. The ordered phase corresponds to giant Shapiro steps. In the turbulent phase there is a saturation of the broad band noise for a large number of junctions. This corresponds to a break down of the law of large numbers as seen in globally coupled maps. Coexisting with this, we find an emergence of novel pseudo-steps in the IV characteristics. This effect can be experimentally distinguished from the true Shapiro steps, which do not have broad band noise emission. (author). 21 refs, 5 figs
Breakdown of the law of large numbers in Josephson junction series arrays
Dominguez, D.; Cerdeira, H.A.
1994-01-01
We study underdamped Josephson junction series arrays that are globally coupled through a resistive shunting load and driven by an rf bias current. We find that they can be an experimental realization of many phenomena currently studied in globally coupled logistic maps. We find coherent, ordered, partially ordered and turbulent phases in the IV characteristics of the array. The ordered phase corresponds to giant Shapiro steps. In the turbulent phase there is a saturation of the broad band noise for a large number of junctions. This corresponds to a break down of the law of large numbers as seen in the globally coupled maps. Coexisting with this, we find an emergence of novel pseudo-steps in the IV characteristics. This effect can be experimentally distinguished from the Shapiro steps, which do not have broad band noise emission. (author). 21 refs, 5 figs
Spatio-temporal chaos and thermal noise in Josephson junction series arrays
Dominguez, D.; Cerdeira, H.A.
1995-01-01
We study underdamped Josephson junction series arrays that are globally coupled through a resistive shunting load and driven by an rf bias current. We find that they can be an experimental realization of many phenomena currently studied in globally coupled logistic map. Depending on the bias current the array can show Shapiro steps but also spatio-temporal chaos or ''turbulence'' in the IV characteristics. In the turbulent phase there is a saturation of the broad band noise for a large number of junctions. This corresponds to a break down of the law of large numbers as seen in globally coupled maps. We study this phenomenon as a function of thermal noise. We find that when increasing the temperature the broad band noise decreases. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig
Effects of the phase periodicity on the quantum dynamics of a resistively shunted Josephson junction
Zwerger, W.; Dorsey, A.T.; Fisher, M.P.A.
1986-01-01
A phenomenological model is introduced for the dissipative quantum dynamics of the phase phi across a current-biased Josephson junction. The model is invariant under phi→phi+2π. This enables us to restrict phi to the interval 0 to 2π, equating phi+2π with phi, and study the role played by the resulting nontrivial topology. Using Feynman's influence functional theory it is shown that the dissipation suppresses interference between paths with different winding numbers. For Ohmic dissipation this interference is completely destroyed, and phi can effectively be treated as an extended coordinate. This justifies the use of the usual washboard potential description of a current-biased junction even in the quantum case, provided an Ohmic dissipation mechanism is present
Planar intrinsic Josephson junctions with in-plane aligned YBCO films
Zhang, L; Kobayashi, T; Goto, T; Mukaida, M
2002-01-01
Planar type devices were fabricated by patterning in-plane aligned YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - subdelta (YBCO) films. The current-voltage characteristics along the c-axis at various temperatures and oxygen contents were measured. The current voltage curves showing supercurrent and hysteresis were obtained for the samples annealed at an oxygen pressure of 1.3 x 10 sup 4 Pa, while the supercurrent and hysteresis became smaller and even disappeared as the oxygen pressure decreased. The relationships between the critical currents and temperatures are similar to those of d-wave superconducting tunnel junctions. These results indicate the formation of stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions, which are useful for developing high-frequency electron devices.
Planar intrinsic Josephson junctions with in-plane aligned YBCO films
Zhang, L; Moriya, M; Kobayashi, T; Goto, T; Mukaida, M
2002-01-01
Planar type devices were fabricated by patterning in-plane aligned YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) films. The current-voltage characteristics along the c-axis at various temperatures and oxygen contents were measured. The current voltage curves showing supercurrent and hysteresis were obtained for the samples annealed at an oxygen pressure of 1.3 x 10 4 Pa, while the supercurrent and hysteresis became smaller and even disappeared as the oxygen pressure decreased. The relationships between the critical currents and temperatures are similar to those of d-wave superconducting tunnel junctions. These results indicate the formation of stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions, which are useful for developing high-frequency electron devices
Localizing quantum phase slips in one-dimensional Josephson junction chains
Ergül, Adem; Azizoğlu, Yağız; Schaeffer, David; Haviland, David B; Lidmar, Jack; Johansson, Jan
2013-01-01
We studied quantum phase-slip (QPS) phenomena in long one-dimensional Josephson junction series arrays with tunable Josephson coupling. These chains were fabricated with as many as 2888 junctions, where one sample had a separately tunable link in the middle of the chain. Measurements were made of the zero-bias resistance, R 0 , as well as current–voltage characteristics (IVC). The finite R 0 is explained by QPS and shows an exponential dependence on √(E J /E C ) with a distinct change in the exponent at R 0 = R Q = h/4e 2 . When R 0 > R Q , the IVC clearly shows a remnant of the Coulomb blockade, which evolves to a zero-current state with a sharp critical voltage as E J is tuned to a smaller value. The zero-current state below the critical voltage is due to coherent QPSs and we show that these are enhanced when the central link is weaker than all other links. Above the critical voltage, a negative, differential resistance is observed, which nearly restores the zero-current state. (paper)
Josephson junction between two high Tc superconductors with arbitrary transparency of interface
GhR Rashedi
2010-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a dc Josephson junction between two singlet superconductors (d-wave and s-wave with arbitrary reflection coefficient has been investigated theoretically. For the case of high Tc superconductors, the c-axes are parallel to an interface with finite transparency and their ab-planes have a mis-orientation. The physics of potential barrier will be demonstrated by a transparency coefficient via which the tunneling will occur. We have solved the nonlocal Eilenberger equations and obtained the corresponding and suitable Green functions analytically. Then, using the obtained Green functions, the current-phase diagrams have been calculated. The effect of the potential barrier and mis-orientation on the currents is studied analytically and numerically. It is observed that, the current phase relations are totally different from the case of ideal transparent Josephson junctions between d-wave superconductors and two s-wave superconductors. This apparatus can be used to demonstrate d-wave order parameter in high Tc superconductors.
Competing boundary interactions in a Josephson junction network with an impurity
Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale
2010-01-01
We analyze a perturbation of the boundary Sine-Gordon model where two boundary terms of different periodicities and scaling dimensions are coupled to a Kondo-like spin degree of freedom. We show that, by pertinently engineering the coupling with the spin degree of freedom, a competition between the two boundary interactions may be induced, and that this gives rise to nonperturbative phenomena, such as the emergence of novel quantum phases: indeed, we demonstrate that the strongly coupled fixed point may become unstable as a result of the 'deconfinement' of a new set of phase-slip operators - the short instantons - associated with the less relevant boundary operator. We point out that a Josephson junction network with a pertinent impurity located at its center provides a physical realization of this boundary double Sine-Gordon model. For this Josephson junction network, we prove that the competition between the two boundary interactions stabilizes a robust finite coupling fixed point and, at a pertinent scale, allows for the onset of 4e superconductivity.
Cristofano, Gerardo; Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Complesso Universitario M. Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno and CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)], E-mail: naddeo@sa.infn.it; Niccoli, Giuliano [Theoretical Physics Group, DESY, NotkeStrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)
2008-11-17
Recently a one-dimensional closed ladder of Josephson junctions has been studied [G. Cristofano, V. Marotta, A. Naddeo, G. Niccoli, Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 2464] within a twisted conformal field theory (CFT) approach [G. Cristofano, G. Maiella, V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 (2000) 1679; G. Cristofano, G. Maiella, V. Marotta, G. Niccoli, Nucl. Phys. B 641 (2002) 547] and shown to develop the phenomenon of flux fractionalization [G. Cristofano, V. Marotta, A. Naddeo, G. Niccoli, Eur. Phys. J. B 49 (2006) 83]. That led us to predict the emergence of a topological order in such a system [G. Cristofano, V. Marotta, A. Naddeo, J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2005) P03006]. In this Letter we analyze the ground states and the topological properties of fully frustrated Josephson junction arrays (JJA) arranged in a Corbino disk geometry for a variety of boundary conditions. In particular minimal configurations of fully frustrated JJA are considered and shown to exhibit the properties needed in order to build up a solid state qubit, protected from decoherence. The stability and transformation properties of the ground states of the JJA under adiabatic magnetic flux changes are analyzed in detail in order to provide a tool for the manipulation of the proposed qubit.
Frequency Combs in a Lumped-Element Josephson-Junction Circuit
Khan, Saeed; Türeci, Hakan E.
2018-04-01
We investigate the dynamics of a microwave-driven Josephson junction capacitively coupled to a lumped-element L C oscillator. In the regime of driving where the Josephson junction can be approximated as a Kerr oscillator, this minimal nonlinear system has been previously shown to exhibit a bistability in phase and amplitude. In the present study, we characterize the full phase diagram and show that besides a parameter regime exhibiting bistability, there is also a regime of self-oscillations characterized by a frequency comb in its spectrum. We discuss the mechanism of comb generation which appears to be different from those studied in microcavity frequency combs and mode-locked lasers. We then address the fate of the comblike spectrum in the regime of strong quantum fluctuations, reached when nonlinearity becomes the dominant scale with respect to dissipation. We find that the nonlinearity responsible for the emergence of the frequency combs also leads to its dephasing, leading to broadening and ultimate disappearance of sharp spectral peaks. Our study explores the fundamental question of the impact of quantum fluctuations for quantum systems which do not possess a stable fixed point in the classical limit.
Lazarides, N
2004-01-01
An analytical expression for the magnetic-field-dependent critical current I c (H) of Josephson junctions with periodically alternating critical current density J c (x) is derived within the uniform field approximation. Comparison with numerically calculated I c (H) patterns for junctions with identical, thick, periodically arranged defects with the corresponding analytical expression reveals fair agreement for a wide range of parameters, due to increased characteristic length. Based on qualitative arguments, we give the dependence of the new characteristic length on the geometrical parameters of the junction, which is in agreement with self-consistent calculations with the static sine-Gordon equation. The analytical expression captures the observed qualitative features of the I c (H) patterns, while it is practically exact for short junctions or high fields. It also produces the shift of the major peak from the zero-field position of the standard Fraunhofer pattern to another position related to the periodicity of the critical current density in φ-junctions
The critical current density of an SNS Josephson-junction in high magnetic fields
Carty, George J; Hampshire, Damian P
2013-01-01
Although the functional form of the critical current density (J c ) of superconducting–normal–superconducting (SNS) Josephson-junctions (J-Js) has long been known in the very low field limit (e.g. the sinc function), includes the local properties of the junction and has been confirmed experimentally in many systems, there have been no such general solutions available for high fields. Here, we derive general analytic equations for J c in zero field and in high fields across SNS J-Js for arbitrary resistivity of the superconductor and the normal layer which are consistent with the literature results available in limiting cases. We confirm the validity of the approach using both computational solutions to time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau (TDGL) theory applied to SNS junctions and experimental J c data for an SNS PbBi–Cd–PbBi junction. We suggest that since SNS junctions can be considered the basic building blocks for the description of the grain boundaries of polycrystalline materials because they both provide flux-flow channels, this work may provide a mathematical framework for high J c technological polycrystalline superconductors in high magnetic fields. (paper)
Kawabata, S.; Kashiwaya, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, A. A.; Asano, Y.
2011-01-01
Full text: A superconducting ring with a π-junction made from superconductor (S) / ferromagnetic- metal (FM) / superconductor (S) exhibits a spontaneous current without an external magnetic field and the corresponding magnetic flux is half a flux quantum in the ground state. Such a π-ring provides so-called 'quiet qubit' that can be efficiently decoupled from the fluctuation of the external field. However, the usage of FM gives rise to strong Ohmic dissipation. Therefore, the realization of π-junctions without FM is highly desired for qubit applications. We theoretically consider the possibility of the π-junction formation in the mesoscopic Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic insulators (FI) by taking into account the band structure of such materials explicitly. In the case of the fully polarized FIs, e.g., La 2 BaCuO 5 (LBCO) and K 2 CuF 4 , we found the formation of a π-junction and a novel atomic-scale 0-π transition induced by increasing the FI thickness LF. In this talk, I will discuss a thermal stability and material-parameter dependences of the atomic-scale 0-π transition as well as possibility of the odd-frequency pairing in such systems. (author)
Quantum dynamics of small Josephson junctions: an application to superconductivity in granular films
Fisher, M.P.A.
1986-01-01
This thesis is devoted to a study of the quantum dynamics of small Josephson junctions. Of interest are those features of the junction's behavior which depend explicitly on the quantum mechanical nature of the phase difference phi between the superconductors. In Chapters I and II several calculations are described which focus on the junction's DC resistance. A fully quantum mechanical Hamiltonian is employed that incorporates the dissipative effects due to the unpaired electrons by coupling to a bath of harmonic oscillators. It is shown that the model exhibits a novel zero temperature phase transition as a function of the strength of the dissipation. In the low dissipation regime the phase is free to tunnel quantum mechanically and the junction's resistance is finite; in response to an external current, tunnelling induces successive 2π phase slips leading to a finite voltage state. In contrast, in the high dissipation regime, tunnelling is suppressed and the junction behaves as a superconductor carrying current with no resistive losses. In Chapters III and IV, these results are applied in an attempt to explain the recent observation that in ultra thin Sn films there is apparently a universal normal state sheet resistance above which superconductivity cannot be established
Darula, M.; Seidel, P.; Misanik, B.; Busse, F.; Heinz, E.; Benacka, S.
1994-01-01
The phase-locking stability is investigated theoretically in two structures: linear arrays of Josephson junctions shunted by resistive load and arrays closed into superconducting loop. In both cases the quasi-identical junctions are supposed to be in arrays. The stability as a function of spread in Josephson junction parameters as well as a function of other circuit parameters is investigated. Using Floquet theory it is shown that spread in critical currents of Josephson junction limit the stability of phase-locking state. From the simulations it follows that the phase-locking in arrays closed into superconducting loop is more stable against the spread in junction parameters than in the case of linear array of Josephson junctions. (orig.)
Kim, Minsoo; Park, Geon-Hyoung; Yi, Jongyoon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Jinho; Lee, Hu-Jong
2H-NbSe2 is a layered two-dimensional superconducting material, which can be constructed into a van der Waals heterostructure with versatile functionality. Here we fabricated a vertically stacked NbSe2 - graphene - NbSe2 heterostructure by the dry transfer technique, where defect-free contact via van der Waals force provides the high interfacial transparency. Insertion of an atomically thin graphene layer between two NbSe2 flakes ensures the formation of highly coherent proximity Josephson coupling. Observed temperature dependence of the junction critical current (Ic) and large value of IcRn product (as large as 2.3ΔNbSe 2) reveal the short and ballistic Josephson coupling characteristics. Large junction critical current density of 104 A/cm2, multiple Andreev reflection in the subgap structure of the differential conductance, and magnetic field modulation of Ic also suggest the strong Josephson coupling via the graphene layer.
Direct fabrication of a W-C SNS Josephson junction using focused-ion-beam chemical vapour deposition
Dai, Jun; Kometani, Reo; Ishihara, Sunao; Warisawa, Shin’ichi; Onomitsu, Koji; Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi
2014-01-01
A tungsten-carbide (W-C) superconductor/normal metal/superconductor (SNS) Josephson junction has been fabricated using focused-ion-beam chemical vapour deposition (FIB-CVD). Under certain process conditions, the component ratio has been tuned from W: C: Ga = 26%: 66%: 8% in the superconducting wires to W: C: Ga = 14%: 79%: 7% in the metallic junction. The critical current density at 2.5 K in the SNS Josephson junction is 1/3 of that in W-C superconducting nanowire. Also, a Fraunhofer-like oscillation of critical current in the junction with four periods is observed. FIB-CVD opens avenues for novel functional superconducting nanodevices. (paper)
Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch
2007-01-01
We study Josephson effect in d-wave superconductor/diffusive ferromagnet/d-wave superconductor junctions, changing the exchange field and the angles between the normal to the interfaces and the crystal axes of d-wave superconductors. We find a 0–π transition at a certain value of the exchange field.
Aarøe, Morten; Monaco, Roberto; Dmitriev, P
2007-01-01
We report on new investigations of spontaneous symmetry breaking in non-adiabatic phase transitions. This Zurek-Kibble (ZK) process is mimicked in solid state systems by trapping of magnetic flux quanta, fluxons, in a long annular Josephson tunnel junction quenched through the normal-superconducting...
Josephson spectroscopy of terahertz losses in [100]-tilt YBa2Cu3O7-x bicrystal junctions
Divin, Y; Lyatti, M
2008-01-01
Terahertz losses in the [100]-tilt YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x grain-boundary junctions were studied using admittance Josephson spectroscopy. The I-Vcurves of the [100]-tilt YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x junctions, when annealed in atomic oxygen, were described by the resistively shunted junction model (RSJ) with an accuracy of better than 0.5% at the temperature range, where the characteristic voltage I c R n n -1 . At low temperatures, where I c R n >> kT/2e, the absorption of Josephson radiation by optical phonon modes in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x was found to be reflected in the I-V curve of the [100]-tilt junctions. The most prominent structure is situated at the voltages V ∼ 9.5 mV, which gives the corresponding Josephson frequency of 4.6 THz in good agreement with the frequency of the strongest IR active optical phonon mode in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . Assignment of additional lines in the derived losses is discussed according to available data on lattice dynamic calculations and experimental data for a dynamic conduction Reσ 1 (f) of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . Josephson spectroscopy might be useful for study of low-energy excitations in high-T c materials
Hamdipour, Mohammad
2017-12-01
By applying a voltage to a Josephson junction, the charge in superconducting layers (S-layers) will oscillate. Wavelength of the charge oscillations in S-layers is related to external current in junction, by increasing the external current, the wavelength will decrease which cause in some currents the wavelength be incommensurate with width of junction, so the CVC shows Fiske like steps. External current throwing along junction has some components, resistive, capacitive and superconducting current, beside these currents there is a current in lateral direction of junction, (x direction). On the other hand, the emitted electromagnetic wave power in THz region is related to AC component of electric field in junction, which itself is related to charge density in S-layers, which is related to currents in the system. So we expect that features of variation of current components reflect the features of emitted THz power form junction. Here we study in detail the superconductive current in a long Josephson junction (JJ), the current voltage characteristics (CVC) of junction and emitted THz power from the system. Then we compare the results. Comparing the results we see that there is a good qualitative coincidence in features of emitted THz power and supercurrent in junction.
Preparation of small-area Josephson junction using the scratched edge of a Pb/In layer
Okuyama, K.; Gundlach, K.H.; Hartfuss, H.J.
1980-01-01
Superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson junctions with areas less than 1 μm 2 were formed at the scratched edge of the Pb/In electrode. The scratch was made with a razor blade. Notwithstanding the simple technique used for scratching, the yield to get good junction is relatively high. The I-V characteristic with and without 70-GHz radiation is shown
Energy level quantization in a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} Josephson junction
Lombardi, Floriana [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)], E-mail: floriana.lombardi@mc2.chalmers.se; Bauch, Thilo; Cedergren, Karin; Johansson, Jesper; Lindstroem, Tobias [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Tafuri, Francesco [INFM-Dipartimento Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Rotoli, Giacomo [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita of L' Aquila, Localita Monteluco, L' Aquila (Italy); Delsing, Per; Claeson, Tord [Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)
2007-09-01
We have observed energy level quantization in an all high critical temperature superconductor d-wave Josephson junction. From the measurements we have also extracted the quality factor Q of the junction which is of the order of 40. These results indicate that the role of dissipation mechanisms in high temperature superconductors has to be revised, and may also have consequences for the class of solid state 'quiet' quantum bit with longer coherence time.
Dominguez, D.; Jose, J.V.; Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA
1994-01-01
This is a review of recent work on the dynamic response of Josephson junction arrays driven by dc and ac currents. The arrays are modeled by the resistively shunted Josephson junction model, appropriate for proximity effect junctions, including self-induced magnetic fields as well as disorder. The relevance of the self-induced fields is measured as a function of a parameter κ = λ L /a, with λ L the London penetration depth of the arrays, and a the lattice spacing. The transition from Type II (κ > 1) to Type I (κ < 1) behavior is studied in detail. The authors compare the results for models with self, self + nearest-neighbor, and full inductance matrices. In the κ = ∞ limit, they find that when the initial state has at least one vortex-antivortex pair, after a characteristic transient time these vortices unbind and radiate other vortices. These radiated vortices settle into a parity-broken, time-periodic, axisymmetric coherent vortex state (ACVS), characterized by alternate rows of positive and negative vortices lying along a tilted axis. The ACVS produces subharmonic steps in the current voltage (IV) characteristics, typical of giant Shapiro steps. For finite κ they find that the IV's show subharmonic giant Shapiro steps, even at zero external magnetic field. They find that these subharmonic steps are produced by a whole family of coherent vortex oscillating patterns, with their structure changing as a function of κ. In general, they find that these patterns are due to a breakdown of translational invariance produced, for example, by disorder of antisymmetric edge-fields. The zero field case results are in good qualitative agreement with experiments in Nb-Au-Nb arrays
Kawabata, C.; Shenoy, S.R.; Bishop, A.R.
1994-11-01
We model high T c superconductors (HTS) by quantum capacitive Josephson junction arrays (JJA), with Angstrom-scale parameters, to obtain an estimate of Tc trends. The basic idea is as follows. Number (or change) and phase are conjugate variables, with the uncertainty products obeying ΔN · Δ Θ > 1. Thus, in HTS, global phase coherence is opposed by charging-energy induced quantum phase fluctuations, especially across Josephson-coupled CuO 2 planes. These have separation d 1 and effective interplanar dielectric constant ε, e.g. from Y atoms in YBaCuO. Decreasing the interplane charging energy E 0 perpendicular to ∼ d 1 /ε, raises Tc. In Section 1, we motivate a modelling of HTS phase excitations by a quantum capacitive 3D JJA model, with XY planar phases. Section 2 gives a physical picture of the HTS transition, relating the complex layered HTS structure to a simpler ''intermediate level'' quantum 3D JJA/XY model. Section 3 sets up a path integral (3+1)D model that reduces to a previously studied anisotropic 3D XY/JJA model, with constants renormalized in some way, by the capacitance. Postponing a detailed analysis to elsewhere, we make a heuristic estimate for the reduction of the previous Tc, by the charging energy. (author). 30 refs, 8 figs
Josephson oscillations and noise temperatures in YBa2Cu3O7-x grain-boundary junctions
Yu, Ya. Divin; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1992-01-01
The ac Josephson effect was studied in YBa2Cu3O7−x grain-boundary junctions (GBJ) in the temperature range from 4 to 90 K. The temperature dependence of the linewidth of millimeter-wave Josephson oscillations was measured and it is shown that the derived effective noise temperatures may be as low...... as the physical temperature in the temperature range investigated. In the millimeter-wave range, linewidths as low as 380 MHz were found at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....
Kim, JunHo; Kim, Sang Hyeob; Sung, Gun Yong
2002-01-01
We designed and fabricated a rapid-single-flux-quantum T flip-flop (TFF) with high-T c interface-engineered Josephson junctions. Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-d and Sr 2 AlTaO 6 were deposited for the superconducting layer and the insulating layer, respectively. The Josephson junction was formed through an interface treatment process using Ar ion milling and vacuum annealing. We simulated a TFF circuit and designed a physical layout using WRspice and Xic. The fabricated TFF has a minimum junction width of 3 μ m. Through the measurement of the voltage divider operation, the maximum operation frequency was estimated to be 53 GHz at 22 K and 106 GHz at 12 K. (author)
Charge solitons and their dynamical mass in one-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions
Homfeld, Jens; Protopopov, Ivan; Rachel, Stephan; Shnirman, Alexander
2011-01-01
We investigate charge transport in one-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions. In the interesting regime of ''small charge solitons'' (polarons), ΛE J >E C >E J , where Λ is the (electrostatic) screening length, the charge dynamics are strongly influenced by the polaronic effects (i.e., by dressing of a Cooper pair by charge dipoles). In particular, the soliton's mass in this regime scales approximately as E J -2 . We employ two theoretical techniques: the many-body tight-binding approach and the mean-field approach, and the results of the two approaches agree in the regime of ''small charge solitons.'' Renormalization of the soliton's mass could be observed; for example, as enhancement of the persistent current in a ring-shaped array.
Characterization of double-loop four-Josephson-junction flux qubit
Shimazu, Y.; Saito, Y.; Wada, Z.
2009-01-01
An advantage of a double-loop four-Josephson-junction (4-JJ) flux qubit is the tunability of the energy gap at a symmetry point, i.e., the point at which the double-well potential of the qubit is symmetric. The energy gap is controlled via the magnetic flux in a DC superconducting quantum interference device (DC-SQUID) loop incorporated in a 4-JJ qubit. We investigate the locus of the symmetry point in the plane of two control fluxes of the qubit, taking into account the asymmetry in the DC-SQUID, which is inevitable in practical cases. The observed positions of the qubit steps are in reasonable agreement with the calculated locus of the symmetry point. We estimate the asymmetry parameter of the DC-SQUID from this analysis.
Effect of the subgap conductance on the metastable states in a Josephson tunnel junction
Cristiano, R.; Pagano, S.; Silvestrini, P.; Gray, K.E.; Liengme, O.
1987-09-01
An investigation of the decay rate of metastable states in Josephson tunnel junctions in presence of thermal noise is presented. We have observed that, in the extremely underdamped regime, there is an exponential temperature dependence of the best fit value for the shunt conductance. Such a dependence shows a close relation with the temperature dependence of the subgap conductance, suggesting that the effective conductance for the escape from the metastable states obeys to a quasi-particle thermal activation mechanism. The introduction of this effective conductance into the lifetime expression for the zero-voltage states leads to significant changes in the width of the switching current distributions. A comparisons of the experimental data with the proposed model is reported. 7 refs., 2 figs
Synchronization of chaos in RCL-shunted Josephson junction using a simple adaptive controller
Guo, R; Vincent, U E; Idowu, B A
2009-01-01
In this paper, a simple adaptive control is proposed for the synchronization of chaotic dynamics of resistive-capacitive-inductive-shunted Josephson junctions (RCLSJ). The synchronization problem is investigated based on a drive-response system configuration consisting of two identical RCLSJ with and without identical system parameters. In addition, the synchronization when the system parameters are unknown is considered based on adaptive parameter control estimation. Sufficient conditions for global asymptotic synchronization are given and numerical simulations are employed to demonstrate the efficiency of the adaptive control scheme. In the presence of noise, we also show that the synchronization is robust and discuss the implication of our adaptive control technique in rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) devices.
Annealing of ion irradiated high TC Josephson junctions studied by numerical simulations
Sirena, M.; Matzen, S.; Bergeal, N.; Lesueur, J.; Faini, G.; Bernard, R.; Briatico, J.; Crete, D. G.
2009-01-01
Recently, annealing of ion irradiated high T c Josephson iunctions (JJs) has been studied experimentally in the perspective of improving their reproducibility. Here we present numerical simulations based on random walk and Monte Carlo calculations of the evolution of JJ characteristics such as the transition temperature T c ' and its spread ΔT c ' , and compare them with experimental results on junctions irradiated with 100 and 150 keV oxygen ions, and annealed at low temperatures (below 80 deg. C). We have successfully used a vacancy-interstitial annihilation mechanism to describe the evolution of the T c ' and the homogeneity of a JJ array, analyzing the evolution of the defects density mean value and its distribution width. The annealing first increases the spread in T c ' for short annealing times due to the stochastic nature of the process, but then tends to reduce it for longer times, which is interesting for technological applications
Annealing effect on the reproducibility of Josephson Junctions made by ion irradiation
Sirena, M; Matzen, S; Bergeal, N; Lesueur, J [Laboratoire Photons Et Matiere, CNRS, ESPCI, 10 Rue Vauquelin 75231 Paris (France) (France); Faini, G [Laboratoire de Photonique et Nanostructures, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France) (France); Bernard, R; Briatico, J; Crete, D [UMR-CNRS/THALES, Route D128, 91767 Palaiseau (France) (France)], E-mail: martin.sirena@espci.fr
2008-02-01
We have studied the annealing effects on the transport properties of High Tc Josephson Junctions (JJ) made by ion irradiation. Several JJ were measured for different annealing times and the experimental data were compared to numerical simulations. We have successfully used a vacancy-interstitial annihilation mechanism to describe the evolution of the JJ coupling temperature (T{sub J}) and the homogeneity of a JJ array, related to the evolution of the defects density mean value and its distribution width. For sufficient long annealing times (t > 600 min), {delta}T{sub J} was significatively reduced. This result appears to be very encouraging for future applications where the spread in JJ characteristics has to be as low as possible.
Annealing effect on the reproducibility of Josephson Junctions made by ion irradiation
Sirena, M; Matzen, S; Bergeal, N; Lesueur, J; Faini, G; Bernard, R; Briatico, J; Crete, D
2008-01-01
We have studied the annealing effects on the transport properties of High Tc Josephson Junctions (JJ) made by ion irradiation. Several JJ were measured for different annealing times and the experimental data were compared to numerical simulations. We have successfully used a vacancy-interstitial annihilation mechanism to describe the evolution of the JJ coupling temperature (T J ) and the homogeneity of a JJ array, related to the evolution of the defects density mean value and its distribution width. For sufficient long annealing times (t > 600 min), ΔT J was significatively reduced. This result appears to be very encouraging for future applications where the spread in JJ characteristics has to be as low as possible
Kuznik, V.; Odehnal, M.
1986-01-01
The RSJ model of the Josephson junction in the presence of a microwave field is studied using an analog computer, with special attention to the behavior of this system near or at the critical line, where the set of substeps forms a complete devil's staircase on the I-V characteristic. A value of fractal dimension D = 0.868 +/- 0.002 is determined from 240 substeps between the winding numbers W = 0 and W = 1. Four values of decay constants are determined. The results agree very well with the prediction obtained from the one-dimensional circle map. A self-similarity graph is shown confirming that the staircase is very near the critical line. Results confirm the universal and global character of D and decay constants on the critical line, as was suggested by Jensen et al
Chaotic Dynamics of a Josephson Junction with a Ratchet Potential and Current-Modulating Damping
Li, Fei; Li, Wenwu; Xu, Lan
2018-04-01
The chaotic dynamics of a Josephson junction with a ratchet potential and current-modulating damping are studied. Under the first-order approximation, we construct the general solution of the first-order equation whose boundedness condition contains the famous Melnikov chaotic criterion. Based on the general solution, the incomputability and unpredictability of the system's chaotic behavior are discussed. For the case beyond perturbation conditions, the evolution of stroboscopic Poincaré sections shows that the system undergoes a quasi-periodic transition to chaos with an increasing intensity of the rf-current. Through a suitable feedback controlling strategy, the chaos can be effectively suppressed and the intensity of the controller can vary in a large range. It is also found that the current between the two separated superconductors increases monotonously in some specific parameter spaces.
Spectral density of Cooper pairs in two level quantum dot–superconductors Josephson junction
Dhyani, A., E-mail: archana.d2003@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, Uttarakhand (India); Rawat, P.S. [Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, Uttarakhand (India); Tewari, B.S., E-mail: bstewari@ddn.upes.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun 248007, Uttarakhand (India)
2016-09-15
Highlights: • The present work deals with the study of the electronic spectral density of electron pairs and its effect in charge transport in superconductor-quantum dot-superconductor junctions. • The charge transfer across such junctions can be controlled by changing the positions of the dot level. • The Josephson supercurrent can also be tuned by controlling the position of quantum dot energy levels. - Abstract: In the present paper, we report the role of quantum dot energy levels on the electronic spectral density for a two level quantum dot coupled to s-wave superconducting leads. The theoretical arguments in this work are based on the Anderson model so that it necessarily includes dot energies, single particle tunneling and superconducting order parameter for BCS superconductors. The expression for single particle spectral function is obtained by using the Green's function equation of motion technique. On the basis of numerical computation of spectral function of superconducting leads, it has been found that the charge transfer across such junctions can be controlled by the positions and availability of the dot levels.
Coherent Charge Transport in Ballistic InSb Nanowire Josephson Junctions
Li, S.; Kang, N.; Fan, D. X.; Wang, L. B.; Huang, Y. Q.; Caroff, P.; Xu, H. Q.
2016-01-01
Hybrid InSb nanowire-superconductor devices are promising for investigating Majorana modes and topological quantum computation in solid-state devices. An experimental realisation of ballistic, phase-coherent superconductor-nanowire hybrid devices is a necessary step towards engineering topological superconducting electronics. Here, we report on a low-temperature transport study of Josephson junction devices fabricated from InSb nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and provide a clear evidence for phase-coherent, ballistic charge transport through the nanowires in the junctions. We demonstrate that our devices show gate-tunable proximity-induced supercurrent and clear signatures of multiple Andreev reflections in the differential conductance, indicating phase-coherent transport within the junctions. We also observe periodic modulations of the critical current that can be associated with the Fabry-Pérot interference in the nanowires in the ballistic transport regime. Our work shows that the InSb nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy are of excellent material quality and hybrid superconducting devices made from these nanowires are highly desirable for investigation of the novel physics in topological states of matter and for applications in topological quantum electronics. PMID:27102689
Detection of MM.-radiation with high current density submicron niobium-niobium Josephson junctions
Daalmans, G.M.; Graauw, T. de; Lidholm, S.; Vliet, F. v.
1980-01-01
The rf-induced step heights in submicron niobium-niobium Josephson junctions are in good agreement with Russer theory at 230 and 240 GHz. At 115 and 460 GHz the agreement is less but still reasonably good. The junction noise without rf-bias is within a factor of two equal to the theoretical limit. With rf-bias applied it can be equal to the theoretical limit within a factor of two. The maximum conversion efficiency measured at 230 GHz was 0.18 and the lowest single side band mixer noise temperature at the same frequency was 380 K. Saturation effects are limiting the performance of the mixer. Improvements in eta and Tsub(M) of a factor of two can be expected by eliminating these saturation effects. The mixer which has been studied most extensively starting at 12-3-80 is still alive at 5-6-80 after many cooling cycles, storage at room temperature and soldering in and out of the dewar. The reliability of this type of junction cannot be questionable anymore. (orig.)
Development of NbN Josephson junctions with TaxN semi-metal barrier; application to RSFQ circuits
Setzu, R.
2007-11-01
This thesis research, brought to the development and optimization of SNS (Superconductor / Normal Metal / Superconductor) Josephson junctions with NbN electrodes and a high resistivity Ta x N barrier. We were able to point out Josephson oscillations for frequencies above 1 THz and operation temperatures up to 10 K, which constituted the original goal of the project. This property makes these junctions unique and well adapted for realizing ultra-fast RSFQ (Rapid Single Flux Quantum) logic circuits suitable for spatial telecommunications. We showed a good reproducibility of Ta x N film properties as a function of the sputtering parameters. The NbN/Ta x N/NbN tri-layers exhibit high critical temperature (16 K). The junctions showed a clear dependence of the R n I c product as a function of the partial nitrogen pressure inside the reactive plasma; the R n I c is the product between the junction critical current and its normal resistance, and indicates the upper limit Josephson frequency. We have also obtained some really high R n I c products, up to 3.74 mV at 4.2 K for critical current densities of about 15 kA/cm 2 . Junctions show the expected Josephson behaviors, respectively Fraunhofer diffraction and Shapiro steps. up to 14 K. This allows expecting good circuit operations in a relaxed cryogenics environment (with respect to the niobium circuits limited at 4.2 K). The junctions appear to be self-shunted. The SNOP junctions J c -temperature dependence has been fitted by using the long SNS junction model in the dirty limit, which gives a normal metal coherence length of about 3.8 nm at 4.2 K. We have finally studied a multilayer fabrication process, including a common ground plane and bias resistors, suitable for RSFQ logic basic circuits. To conclude we have been able to show the performance superiority of NbN/Ta x N/NbN junctions over the actual niobium junctions, as well as their interest for realizing compact RSFQ logic circuits. In fact these junctions do not
Proximity effects and Josephson currents in ferromagnet. Spin-triplet superconductors junctions
Terrade, Damien
2015-01-01
Spin-triplet superconductivity, first attached to the description of 3 He, is now generally considered to also occur in heavy-fermions compounds and in perovskite ruthenium oxide Sr 2 RuO 4 . The latter material is especially interesting since many experiments show strong evidences for a unitary chiral spin-triplet state. Moreover, the recent fabrication of thin heterostructures made of ferromagnetic SrRuO 3 on the top of Sr 2 RuO 4 strongly encourages new theoretical studies on the interplay between spin-triplet superconductor and ferromagnet in similar fashion to spin-singlet superconductors. Using an extended tight-binding Hamiltonian to model the superconductor, we discuss in this thesis the specific proximity effects of such interface by solving self-consistently the Bogoliubov-De Gennes equations on two- and three-dimensional lattices in the ballistic limit. We obtain the spatial profile of the superconducting order parameters at the interface as well as the spin-polarisation and the current across the Josephson junctions. In contrast to heterostructures made of spin-singlet superconductor, we show that the physical properties at the interface are not only controlled by the strength of the magnetization inside the ferromagnet but also by its orientation due to the existence of a finite pair spin projection of the spin-triplet Cooper pairs. We analyse in the first part the spin-polarisation and the Gibbs free energy at the three-dimensional ferromagnet-chiral spin-triplet superconductor interface. Then, the second part of the thesis is dedicated to the study of the Josephson junctions made of a chiral spin-triplet superconductor and a ferromagnetic barrier. More precisely, we analyse the existence of 0-π state transitions in two- and three-dimensional junctions with respect to the strength and the orientation of the magnetization. Finally, we study the proximity effects at the interface of helical spin-triplet superconductors. They differ from the chiral
Anodization-based process for the fabrication of all niobium nitride Josephson junction structures
Massimiliano Lucci
2017-03-01
Full Text Available We studied the growth and oxidation of niobium nitride (NbN films that we used to fabricate superconductive tunnel junctions. The thin films were deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering using a mixture of argon and nitrogen. The process parameters were optimized by monitoring the plasma with an optical spectroscopy technique. This technique allowed us to obtain NbN as well as good quality AlN films and both were used to obtain NbN/AlN/NbN trilayers. Lift-off lithography and selective anodization of the NbN films were used, respectively, to define the main trilayer geometry and/or to separate electrically, different areas of the trilayers. The anodized films were characterized by using Auger spectroscopy to analyze compounds formed on the surface and by means of a nano-indenter in order to investigate its mechanical and adhesion properties. The transport properties of NbN/AlN/NbN Josephson junctions obtained as a result of the above described fabrication process were measured in liquid helium at 4.2 K.
Chaos and thermal noise in the rf-biased Josephson junction
Kautz, R.L.
1985-01-01
The effect of thermal noise on chaotic behavior in the rf-biased Josephson junction is studied through digital simulations. In instances for which chaotic behavior occurs in the noise-free system, it is found that the dynamics of the system are almost unchanged by the addition of thermal noise unless the level of thermal noise exceeds that of the chaotic state. In instances for which the only stable states of the noise-free system are periodic solutions, small amounts of thermal noise can induce the junction to hop between two different dynamical states, producing a low-frequency noise level much higher than that of the thermal noise. Such noise-induced hopping can occur either between two periodic solutions or between a periodic solution and a metastable chaotic solution. When a metastable chaotic state is involved, temperatures somewhat higher than those which produce hopping can destablize the periodic solution to the point where the system spends virtually all of its time in the metastable chaotic state, creating noise-induced chaos. The similarities between chaotic behavior at zero temperature and noise-induced chaos are sufficiently strong that it may be difficult to distinguish the two cases experimentally
Duwel, A.E.; Watanabe, S.; Trias, E.; Orlando, T.P.; van der Zant, H.S.; Strogatz, S.H.
1997-01-01
New resonance steps are found in the experimental current-voltage characteristics of long, discrete, one-dimensional Josephson junction arrays with open boundaries and in an external magnetic field. The junctions are underdamped, connected in parallel, and dc biased. Numerical simulations based on the discrete sine-Gordon model are carried out, and show that the solutions on the steps are periodic trains of fluxons, phase locked by a finite amplitude radiation. Power spectra of the voltages consist of a small number of harmonic peaks, which may be exploited for possible oscillator applications. The steps form a family that can be numbered by the harmonic content of the radiation, the first member corresponding to the Eck step. Discreteness of the arrays is shown to be essential for appearance of the higher order steps. We use a multimode extension of the harmonic balance analysis, and estimate the resonance frequencies, the ac voltage amplitudes, and the theoretical limit on the output power on the first two steps. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Effect of parallel transport currents on the d-wave Josephson junction
Rashedi, Gholamreza
2009-01-01
In this paper, the non-local mixing of coherent current states in d-wave superconducting banks is investigated. The superconducting banks are connected via a ballistic point contact. The banks have mis-orientation and phase difference. Furthermore, they are subjected to a tangential transport current along the ab plane of d-wave crystals and parallel to the interface between the superconductors. The effects of mis-orientation and external transport current on the current-phase relations and current distributions are the subjects of this paper. It is observed that, at values of phase difference close to 0, π and 2π, the current distribution may have a vortex-like form in the vicinity of the point contact. The current distribution of the above-mentioned junction between d-wave superconductors is totally different from the junction between s-wave superconductors. The interesting result which this study shows is that spontaneous and Josephson currents are observed for the case of φ = 0.
The road to magnesium diboride thin films, Josephson junctions and SQUIDs
Brinkman, Alexander; Mijatovic, Dragana; Hilgenkamp, Hans; Rijnders, Guus; Oomen, Ingrid; Veldhuis, Dick; Roesthuis, Frank; Rogalla, Horst; Blank, Dave H A
2003-01-01
The remarkably high critical temperature at which magnesium diboride (MgB 2 ) undergoes transition to the superconducting state, T c ∼ 40 K, has aroused great interest and has encouraged many groups to explore the properties and application potential of this novel superconductor. For many electronic applications and further basic studies, the availability of superconducting thin films is of great importance. Several groups have succeeded in fabricating superconducting MgB 2 films. An overview of the deposition techniques for MgB 2 thin film growth will be given, with a special focus on the in situ two-step process. Although, meanwhile, many problems to obtain suitable films have been solved, such as oxygen impurities and magnesium volatility, the question of how single-phase epitaxial films can be grown still remains. The possibility of growing single-crystalline epitaxial films will be discussed from the deposition conditions' point of view as well as substrate choice. Necessary conditions are discussed and possible routes are reviewed. The applicability of MgB 2 in superconducting electronic devices depends on the possibility of making well-controlled, i.e., reproducible and stable, Josephson junctions. The first attempts to make MgB 2 -MgO-MgB 2 ramp-type junctions and SQUIDs from MgB 2 nanobridges are discussed
Itskovich, I.F.; Shekhter, R.I.
1983-01-01
The effect of exciton pairing of charge carriers in a semimetal on the stationary Josephson current in superconductor-semimetal-superconductor junctions is considered. It is shown that the phase transition of the semimetal interlayer into an exciton dielectric state for T/sub γ/< T/sub c/ (T/sub γ/, T/sub c/ are the superconducting and exciton transition temperatures, respectively) is accompanied by a kink on the critical current j/sub c/ versus temperature curve at the point T = T/sub γ/. A sharp nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the reduced current j/sub c//j/sub c/0 (j/sub c/0 is the critical current at T/sub γ/ = 0) is also possible in the range T< T/sub γ/. At low temperatures T<< v/sub 1,2//d<< T/sub γ/ (v/sub 1,2/ are the Fermi velocities of the carriers in the semimetal, d is the thickness of the interlayer) the critical current of the superconductor-semimetal-superconductor junction is exponentially smaller than the current in the absence of exciton pairing
Nascimento, F.M.; Sergeenkov, S.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.
2012-01-01
By using a specially designed algorithm (based on utilizing the so-called Hierarchical Data Format), we report on successful reconstruction of 3D profiles of local flux distribution within artificially prepared arrays of unshunted Nb-AlO x -Nb Josephson junctions from 2D surface images obtained via the scanning SQUID microscope. The analysis of the obtained results suggest that for large sweep areas, the local flux distribution significantly deviates from the conventional picture and exhibits a more complicated avalanche-type behavior with a prominent dendritic structure. -- Highlights: ► The penetration of external magnetic field into an array of Nb-AlO x -Nb Josephson junctions is studied. ► Using Scanning SQUID Microscope, 2D images of local flux distribution within array are obtained. ► Using specially designed pattern recognition algorithm, 3D flux profiles are reconstructed from 2D images.
Au/Ti resistors used for Nb/Pb-alloy Josephson junctions. I. Electrical stability
Murakami, M.; Alessandrini, E.I.; Kim, K.K.
1984-01-01
Bilayered Au/Ti films are very attractive for use as resistor materials of experimental Nb/Pb-alloy Josephson junction devices. In order to predict the electrical stability of the Au/Ti resistors during storage at room temperature, changes in microstructure and electrical resistivity of Ti and Au/Ti films during isothermal annealing at temperatures ranging from 298--473 K were studied using transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and electrical measurements. Growth of Ti grains during annealing was observed in these films. The activation energy for the grain growth was determined to be 1.51 eV. Decreases in the sheet resistance measured at 4.2 K were observed at the early stages of isothermal annealing. By analyzing the annealing temperature dependence of rates of resistance changes, the activation energy of 1.49 eV was obtained. This energy value is very close to that obtained for the grain growth and, therefore, one of the main causes in the resistance decrease is believed to be due to the growth of Ti grains. Based on the present results, a model to predict the electrical resistance change for the Au/Ti films during storage at room temperature was established. The model predicted that change in the resistance can be significantly reduced by preannealing the resistors at an elevated temperature. The prediction was supported by the experiment and an excellent quantitative agreement between measured resistance values and those predicted by the model was obtained. Based on this model, the change was predicted to be -1.5% after about 3 years at room temperature, if the resistors were preannealed at 353 K for 10 h. This resistor stability is satisfactory for designing logic and memory circuits of Josephson devices, and it can be increased simply by preannealing for longer times at 353 K
Buckenmaier, Kai
2010-01-01
This thesis is divided into two parts, the measurement of the activation energy of a fractional vortex and the spectroscopy of a vortex-molecule. Fractional vortices can be studied in long 0-κ Josephson junctions, where a jump of the Josephson phase is created artificially with a pair of tiny current injectors. To compensate for this phase discontinuity, a ρ vortex is formed. Here, ρ describes the vortex's so called topological charge. The ρ vortices are pinned at the discontinuity and they carry the fraction (ρ/2).Φ 0 of magnetic flux, with the magnetic flux quantum Φ 0 2.07.10 -15 . Two stable vortex configurations are possible, a direct Vortex and a complementary one. ρ depends on the injector current. When the bias current of the junction exceeds a characteristic threshold, which dependents on ρ, the Lorentz force is bigger than the pinning force of the vortex and a fluxon is pulled away. In this case a complementary (ρ-2π) vortex is left behind. This switching of the ρ vortex and the resulting emission of a fluxon can be described as a Kramers like escape of a particle out of a tilted washboard potential. The washboard potential is tilted to the point where the barrier is small enough, so that the particle can escape via thermal or quantum fluctuations. In the case of thermal fluctuations the barrier height is called activation energy. The activation energy can be determined by measuring the junction's switching current statistics. In this thesis, the activation energy, necessary for the vortex escape, was measured as a function of ρ and a homogenous external magnetic field perpendicular to the junction. The main focus was the investigation of 0-π junctions. The temperature dependence of the activation energy was investigated, too. It turns out, that the transition-state-theory is convenient to describe the switching probability of the standard Nb-AlO x -Nb junctions at 4.2 K. For the measurements at 0.5 K a model of low to intermediate damping
Kaplunenko, V. K.; Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Mygind, Jesper
1994-01-01
on experimental and numerical investigations of a resonant step observed at a voltage corresponding to 600 GHz in the dc current-voltage characteristic of a parallel array of 20 identical small NbAl2O3Nb Josephson junctions interconnected by short sections of superconducting microstrip line. The junctions...... are mutually phase locked due to collective interaction with the line sections excited close to the half wavelength resonance. The phase locking range can be adjusted by means of an external dc magnetic field and the step size varies periodically with the magnetic field. The largest step corresponds...
Pankratov, A.L.; Sobolev, A.S.; Koshelets, V.P.
2007-01-01
We have numerically investigated the dynamics of a long linear Josephson tunnel junction with overlap geometry. Biased by a direct current (dc) and an applied dc magnetic field, the junction has important applications as tunable high frequency oscillator [flux-flow oscillator (FFO......) placed at both ends of the FFO. In our model, the damping parameter depends both on the spatial coordinate and on the amplitude of the ac voltage. In order to find the dc current-voltage curves, the damping parameter has to be calculated self-consistently by successive approximations and time integration...
Transport in arrays of submicron Josephson junctions over a ground plane
Ho, Teressa Rae [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1997-12-01
One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) arrays of Al islands linked by submicron Al/Al_{x}O_{y}/Al tunnel junctions were fabricated on an insulating layer grown on a ground plane. The arrays were cooled to temperatures as low as 20 mK where the Josephson coupling energy E_{J} of each junction and the charging energy E_{C} of each island were much greater than the thermal energy k_{B}T. The capacitance C_{g} between each island and the ground plane was much greater than the junction capacitance C. Two classes of arrays were studied. In the first class, the normal state tunneling resistance of the junctions was much larger than the resistance quantum for single electrons, R_{N}>> R_{Qe}≡ h/e^{2} ~ 25.8 kΩ, and the islands were driven normal by an applied magnetic field such that E_{J} = 0 and the array was in the Coulomb blockade regime. The arrays were made on degenerately-doped Si, thermally oxidized to a thickness of approximately 100 nm. The current-voltage (I - V) characteristics of a 1D and a 2D array were measured and found to display a threshold voltage V_{T} below which little current flows. In the second class of arrays, the normal state tunneling resistance of the junctions was close to the resistance quantum for Cooper pairs, R_{N}≈R_{Q}≡h/4e^{2}≈6.45kΩ, such that E_{J}/E_{C}≈1. The arrays were made on GaAs/Al_{0.3}Ga_{0.7}As heterostructures with a two-dimensional electron gas approximately 100 nm below the surface. One array displayed superconducting behavior at low temperature. Two arrays displayed insulating behavior at low temperature, and the size of the Coulomb gap increased with increasing R_{g}.
Hamdipour, Mohammad
2018-04-01
We study an array of coupled Josephson junction of superconductor/insulator/superconductor type (SIS junction) as a model for high temperature superconductors with layered structure. In the current-voltage characteristics of this system there is a breakpoint region in which a net electric charge appear on superconducting layers, S-layers, of junctions which motivate us to study the charge dynamics in this region. In this paper first of all we show a current voltage characteristics (CVC) of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions (IJJs) with N=3 Junctions, then we show the breakpoint region in that CVC, then we try to investigate the chaos in this region. We will see that at the end of the breakpoint region, behavior of the system is chaotic and Lyapunov exponent become positive. We also study the route by which the system become chaotic and will see this route is bifurcation. Next goal of this paper is to show the self similarity in the bifurcation diagram of the system and detailed analysis of bifurcation diagram.
Tolpygo, Sergey K; Amparo, Denis
2010-01-01
Currently, superconductor digital integrated circuits fabricated at HYPRES, Inc. can operate at clock frequencies approaching 40 GHz. The circuits present multilayered structures containing tens of thousands of Nb/Al/AlO x /Nb Josephson junctions (JJs) of various sizes interconnected by four Nb wiring layers, resistors, and other circuit elements. In order to be fully operational, the integrated circuits should be fabricated such that the critical currents of the JJs are within the tight design margins and the proper relationships between the critical currents of JJs of different sizes are preserved. We present experimental data and discuss mechanisms of process-induced variations of the critical current and energy gap of Nb/Al/AlO x /Nb JJs in integrated circuits. We demonstrate that the Josephson critical current may depend on the type and area of circuit elements connected to the junction, on the circuit pattern, and on the step in the fabrication process at which the connection is made. In particular, we discuss the influence of (a) the junction base electrode connection to the ground plane, (b) the junction counter electrode connection to the ground plane, and (c) the counter electrode connection to the Ti/Au or Ti/Pd/Au contact pads by Nb wiring. We show that the process-induced changes of the properties of Nb/Al/AlO x /Nb junctions are caused by migration of impurity atoms (hydrogen) between the different layers comprising the integrated circuits.
Kromann, R.; Vase, P.; Shen, Y.Q.; Freltoft, T.
1993-01-01
The fabrication of Josephson junctions and SQUIDs using ceramic high T c superconductors continues to be a subject of great interest and activity. In the case of the YBCO family of superconductors, most of the research effort has been concentrated on the grain boundary junctions. This type of junction can be fabricated in a controlled way by a variety of approaches, such as the bi-crystal technique, the bi-epitaxial technique or the step-edge technique. From a fabrication point of view, the bi-crystal technique is by far the simplest of the three. The availability of (100) SrTiO 3 bi-crystals on a commercial basis has lead to the possibility of making Josephson junctions by a simple process involving only one deposition and one patterning step. Reproducibility of the junction parameters between junctions on the same chip is a key point for electronic applications of Josephson junctions requiring a large amount of Josephson junctions working at the same time, as for example in the voltage standard. Another key point is the uniformity of the barrier, i.e. the extent to which the junction behaves as an ideal SIS junction. In this work junction uniformity has been studied by Frauenhofer diffraction patterns. The Josephson junctions have also been used in the fabrication of dc SQUIDs. In this work we have tried to optimize the magnitude of the voltage modulation from the SQUID by varying the design parameters. The SQUIDs have been characterized in terms of I c , R n , voltage modulation and noise properties. (orig.)
Magnetization-induced dynamics of a Josephson junction coupled to a nanomagnet
Ghosh, Roopayan; Maiti, Moitri; Shukrinov, Yury M.; Sengupta, K.
2017-11-01
We study the superconducting current of a Josephson junction (JJ) coupled to an external nanomagnet driven by a time-dependent magnetic field both without and in the presence of an external ac drive. We provide an analytic, albeit perturbative, solution for the Landau-Lifshitz (LL) equations governing the coupled JJ-nanomagnet system in the presence of a magnetic field with arbitrary time dependence oriented along the easy axis of the nanomagnet's magnetization and in the limit of weak dimensionless coupling ɛ0 between the JJ and the nanomagnet. We show the existence of Shapiro-type steps in the I -V characteristics of the JJ subjected to a voltage bias for a constant or periodically varying magnetic field and explore the effect of rotation of the magnetic field and the presence of an external ac drive on these steps. We support our analytic results with exact numerical solution of the LL equations. We also extend our results to dissipative nanomagnets by providing a perturbative solution to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equations for weak dissipation. We study the fate of magnetization-induced Shapiro steps in the presence of dissipation both from our analytical results and via numerical solution of the coupled LLG equations. We discuss experiments which can test our theory.
Crossing Over from Attractive to Repulsive Interactions in a Tunneling Bosonic Josephson Junction.
Spagnolli, G; Semeghini, G; Masi, L; Ferioli, G; Trenkwalder, A; Coop, S; Landini, M; Pezzè, L; Modugno, G; Inguscio, M; Smerzi, A; Fattori, M
2017-06-09
We explore the interplay between tunneling and interatomic interactions in the dynamics of a bosonic Josephson junction. We tune the scattering length of an atomic ^{39}K Bose-Einstein condensate confined in a double-well trap to investigate regimes inaccessible to other superconducting or superfluid systems. In the limit of small-amplitude oscillations, we study the transition from Rabi to plasma oscillations by crossing over from attractive to repulsive interatomic interactions. We observe a critical slowing down in the oscillation frequency by increasing the strength of an attractive interaction up to the point of a quantum phase transition. With sufficiently large initial oscillation amplitude and repulsive interactions, the system enters the macroscopic quantum self-trapping regime, where we observe coherent undamped oscillations with a self-sustained average imbalance of the relative well population. The exquisite agreement between theory and experiments enables the observation of a broad range of many body coherent dynamical regimes driven by tunable tunneling energy, interactions and external forces, with applications spanning from atomtronics to quantum metrology.
Global stability of phase lock near a chaotic crisis in the rf-biased Josephson junction
Kautz, R.L.
1987-01-01
The global stability of phase lock in the rf-biased Josephson junction is studied through digital simulations. Global stability is determined by calculating the lifetime of the phase-locked state in the presence of thermal noise. This lifetime, the mean time required for thermal noise to induce a 2π phase slip, increases exponentially with inverse temperature in the limit of low temperatures, and the low-temperature asymptote can be parametrized in terms of an activation energy E-script and an attempt time tau 0 . The activation energy is a useful measure of global stability for both periodic and chaotic phase-locked states. The behavior of E-script and tau 0 is studied over a range of critical-current densities which take the system from a region of harmonic motion through a period-doubling cascade and into a region of phase-locked chaotic behavior which is ended by a chaotic crisis. At the crisis point, the activation energy goes to zero and the attempt time goes to infinity. The results are used to determine the optimum critical-current density for series-array voltage standards
Cristofano, Gerardo; Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Complesso Universitario M. Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno and CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)], E-mail: naddeo@sa.infn.it; Niccoli, Giuliano [LPTM, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 2 avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France)
2008-03-31
We show how to realize a 'protected' qubit by using a fully frustrated Josephson junction ladder (JJL) with Mobius boundary conditions. Such a system has been recently studied within a twisted conformal field theory (CFT) approach [G. Cristofano, G. Maiella, V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 (2000) 1679; G. Cristofano, G. Maiella, V. Marotta, G. Niccoli, Nucl. Phys. B 641 (2002) 547] and shown to develop the phenomenon of flux fractionalization [G. Cristofano, V. Marotta, A. Naddeo, G. Niccoli, Eur. Phys. J. B 49 (2006) 83]. The relevance of a 'closed' geometry has been fully exploited in relating the topological properties of the ground state of the system to the presence of half flux quanta and the emergence of a topological order has been predicted [G. Cristofano, V. Marotta, A. Naddeo, J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2005) P03006]. In this Letter the stability and transformation properties of the ground states under adiabatic magnetic flux change are analyzed and the deep consequences on the realization of a solid state qubit, protected from decoherence, are presented.
Thalmann, Marcel; Rudolf, Marcel; Pietsch, Torsten [Zukunftskolleg and Department of Physics, University of Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, 78464 Konstanz (Germany)
2016-07-01
Hybrid superconducting nanostructures recently attracted tremendous interest, due to their great potential in dissipation-less spin-electronics with unprecedented switching rates. The practical realisation of such devices, however, requires a complete understanding of the transfer and dynamics of spin- and charge currents between superconducting (S) and ferromagnetic (F) circuit elements, as well as the coupling between spin- and charge degrees of freedom in these systems. We investigate novel transport phenomena in superconductor-ferromagnet hybrid nanostructures under non-equilibrium conditions. Microwave spectroscopy is used to elucidate fundamental questions related to the complex interplay of competing order parameters and the question of relaxation mechanisms of non-equilibrium distributions with respect to spin, charge and energy. Recent experiments on two complimentary device structures are discussed: (I) in diffusive S/F/S Josephson junctions with non-sinusoidal current-phase relationship and (II) local and non-local transport measurements and microwave spectroscopy in F/S/F lateral spin-valves.
Wideband Isolation by Frequency Conversion in a Josephson-Junction Transmission Line
Ranzani, Leonardo; Kotler, Shlomi; Sirois, Adam J.; DeFeo, Michael P.; Castellanos-Beltran, Manuel; Cicak, Katarina; Vale, Leila R.; Aumentado, José
2017-11-01
Nonreciprocal transmission and isolation at microwave frequencies are important in many practical applications. In particular, compact isolators are useful in protecting sensitive quantum circuits operating at cryogenic temperatures from amplifier backaction and other environmental noise such as black-body radiation from higher temperature stages. However, the size of commercial cryogenic isolators limits the ability to measure multiple quantum circuits because of space constraints in typical dilution refrigerator systems. Furthermore, isolators usually require the use of ferrite components that cannot be integrated at the chip level and, since they also need large biasing magnetic fields, are incompatible with superconducting quantum circuits. In this work we show one way to accomplish isolation in a superconducting chip-scale device, a traveling-wave unidirectional frequency converter based on a parametrically pumped superconducting Josephson-junction transmission line, demonstrating better than 4.8 dB of inferred signal isolation from 6.6 to 11.4 GHz, with a maximum of 12 dB at 9.5 GHz. By using frequency diplexing techniques a conventional isolator could be implemented over this bandwidth.
Lu, Wen-Ting; Zhao, Hong-Kang; Wang, Jian
2018-03-01
Photon heat current tunneling through a series coupled two mesoscopic Josephson junction (MJJ) system biased by dc voltages has been investigated by employing the nonequilibrium Green’s function approach. The time-oscillating photon heat current is contributed by the superposition of different current branches associated with the frequencies of MJJs ω j (j = 1, 2). Nonlinear behaviors are exhibited to be induced by the self-inductance, Coulomb interaction, and interference effect relating to the coherent transport of Cooper pairs in the MJJs. Time-oscillating pumping photon heat current is generated in the absence of temperature difference, while it becomes zero after time-average. The combination of ω j and Coulomb interactions in the MJJs determines the concrete heat current configuration. As the external and intrinsic frequencies ω j and ω 0 of MJJs match some specific combinations, resonant photon heat current exhibits sinusoidal behaviors with large amplitudes. Symmetric and asymmetric evolutions versus time t with respect to ω 1 t and ω 2 t are controlled by the applied dc voltages of V 1 and V 2. The dc photon heat current formula is a special case of the general time-dependent heat current formula when the bias voltages are settled to zero. The Aharonov-Bohm effect has been investigated, and versatile oscillation structures of photon heat current can be achieved by tuning the magnetic fluxes threading through separating MJJs.
Structured chaos in a devil's staircase of the Josephson junction
Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Botha, A. E.; Medvedeva, S. Yu.; Kolahchi, M. R.; Irie, A.
2014-01-01
The phase dynamics of Josephson junctions (JJs) under external electromagnetic radiation is studied through numerical simulations. Current-voltage characteristics, Lyapunov exponents, and Poincaré sections are analyzed in detail. It is found that the subharmonic Shapiro steps at certain parameters are separated by structured chaotic windows. By performing a linear regression on the linear part of the data, a fractal dimension of D = 0.868 is obtained, with an uncertainty of ±0.012. The chaotic regions exhibit scaling similarity, and it is shown that the devil's staircase of the system can form a backbone that unifies and explains the highly correlated and structured chaotic behavior. These features suggest a system possessing multiple complete devil's staircases. The onset of chaos for subharmonic steps occurs through the Feigenbaum period doubling scenario. Universality in the sequence of periodic windows is also demonstrated. Finally, the influence of the radiation and JJ parameters on the structured chaos is investigated, and it is concluded that the structured chaos is a stable formation over a wide range of parameter values
Guerlich, Christian
2010-05-11
With Low-Temperature-Electron-Microscopy (LTSEM) it is possible to analyse the transport properties of solids at low temperatures. In particular it is possible to image the supercurrent density j{sub s} in Josephson junctions. This was demonstrated by comparing TTREM-images with calculated values for j{sub s}. In this thesis ramp-type Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4-y}/Nb-Josephson-junctions (NCCO/Nb) and Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer Nb/Al-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/NiCu/Nb, so-called SIFS (superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor) Josephson junctions were studied.It was demonstrated that LTSEM provides direct imaging of the sign change of the order parameter in superconductors with d{sub x{sup 2}-y{sup 2}}-symmetry. This was a controversial issue over the last decade. A step like variation in the thickness of the F-layer allows the fabrication of linear and annular Josephson junctions with different numbers of 0 and {pi} facets. With the LTSEM 0-, {pi}-, 0-{pi}-, 0-{pi}-0-, 0/2-{pi}-0/2-, 20 x (0-{pi})- as well as square-shaped-, circular- and annular-Josephson-junctions were studied. It was demonstrated, that these junctions are of good quality and have critical current densities up to 42 A/cm{sup 2} at T=4.2 K, which is a record value for SIFS junctions with a NiCu F-layer so far. By comparing the measurements with simulations a first indication of a semifluxon at the 0-{pi}-boundary was found. (orig.)
Freitas, Gustavo Quereza; Moreto, Jeferson Aparecido [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia Goiano (IFGO), Rio Verde, GO (Brazil); Zadorosny, Rafael; Silveira, Joao Borsil; Carvalho, Claudio Luiz [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Cena, Cicero Rafael, E-mail: gustavoquereza@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), Birigui, SP (Brazil)
2016-03-15
A homemade Josephson junction was successfully obtained using a superconductor thin film of the BSCCO system. The film was deposited on a lanthanum aluminate, produced from a commercial powder with a nominal composition Bi{sub 1.8}Pb{sub 0.4}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub x}, was thermally treated by a domestic microwave oven. The XRD analysis of the film indicated the coexistence of Bi-2212 and Bi-2223 phases and SEM images revealed that a typical superconductor plate-like morphology was formed. From the electrical characterization, performed using DC four probes technique, it was observed an onset superconducting transition temperature measured around 81K. At the current-voltage characteristics curve, a step of electric current at zero-voltage could be observed, an indicative that the tunneling Josephson occurred. (author)
Wang, Hui; Blencowe, M. P.; Armour, A. D.; Rimberg, A. J.
2017-09-01
We give a semiclassical analysis of the average photon number as well as photon number variance (Fano factor F ) for a Josephson junction (JJ) embedded microwave cavity system, where the JJ is subject to a fluctuating (i.e., noisy) bias voltage with finite dc average. Through the ac Josephson effect, the dc voltage bias drives the effectively nonlinear microwave cavity mode into an amplitude squeezed state (F Armour et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 247001 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.247001], but bias noise acts to degrade this squeezing. We find that the sensitivity of the Fano factor to bias voltage noise depends qualitatively on which stable fixed point regime the system is in for the corresponding classical nonlinear steady-state dynamics. Furthermore, we show that the impact of voltage bias noise is most significant when the cavity is excited to states with large average photon number.
Self-field effects in window-type Josephson tunnel junctions
Monaco, Roberto; Koshelets, Valery P; Mukhortova, Anna
2013-01-01
The properties of Josephson devices are strongly affected by geometrical effects such as those associated with the magnetic field induced by the bias current. The generally adopted analysis of Owen and Scalapino (1967 Phys. Rev. 164, 538) for the critical current, Ic, of an in-line Josephson tunnel...
Millar, Alasdair J.
2002-01-01
This thesis is concerned with the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) gradiometers based on the high temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO). A step-edge Josephson junction fabrication process was developed to produce sufficiently steep (>60 deg) step-edges such that junctions exhibited RSJ-like current-voltage characteristics. The mean I C R N product of a sample of twenty step-edge junctions was 130μV. Step-edge dc SQUIDs with inductances between 67pH and 114pH were fabricated. Generally the SQUIDs had an intrinsic white flux noise in the 10-30μΦ 0 /√Hz range, with the best device, a 70pH SQUID, exhibiting a white flux noise of 5μΦ 0 /√Hz. Different first-order SQUID gradiometer designs were fabricated from single layers of YBCO. Two single-layer gradiometer (SLG) designs were fabricated on 10x10mm 2 substrates. The best balance and lowest gradient sensitivity measured for these devices were 1/300 and 308fT/cm√Hz (at 1 kHz) respectively. The larger baseline and larger flux capture area of the pick-up loops in a large area SLG design, fabricated on 30x10mm 2 substrates, resulted in significant improvements in the balance and gradient field sensitivity with 1/1000 and 50fT/cm√Hz (at 1kHz) measured respectively. To reduce the uniform field effective area of SLOs and therefore reduce the direct pick-up of environmental field noise when operated unshielded, a novel gradiometric SQUID (G-SQUID) device was developed. Fabricated from a single layer of YBCO, the G-SQUIDs with inductances of 67pH, had small uniform field effective areas of approximately 2μm 2 - more than two orders of magnitude smaller than the uniform field effective areas of conventional narrow linewidth SQUIDs of similar inductance. Two designs of G-SQUID were fabricated on 10x10mm 2 substrates. Due to their small effective areas, when cooled unshielded these devices showed no increase in their white flux noise. The best balance achieved for a G
Gershenson, M.
1989-01-01
A current amplifier design based on the principle of fluxon propagation in a multi-junction Exponential Flux Shuttle has been investigated. In this design, the critical current of the junction is increased exponentially and the SQUID inductance is a JJ (Josephson Junction) equivalent inductance. Current gain can be achieved by generating fluxons at the low end and dissipating them at the high end where the load is located. Advantages over other types of linear devices are discussed. Two parallel Exponential Flux Shuttles can be used to duplicate flux from a high inductance input coil t a low inductance output. Device performance of the two circuits are evaluated by computer simulation, noise performance is discussed
Tahvildar-Zadeh, A. N.; Freericks, J. K.; Nikolić, B. K.
2006-05-01
The Thouless energy was introduced in the 1970s as a semiclassical energy for electrons diffusing through a finite-sized conductor. It turns out to be an important quantum-mechanical energy scale for many systems ranging from disordered metals to quantum chaos to quantum chromodynamics. In particular, it has been quite successful in describing the properties of Josephson junctions when the barrier is a diffusive normal-state metal. The Thouless energy concept can be generalized to insulating barriers by extracting an energy scale from the two-probe Kubo conductance of a strongly correlated electron system (metallic or insulating) via a generalized definition of the quantum-mechanical level spacing to many-body systems. This energy scale is known to determine the crossover from tunneling to Ohmic (thermally activated) transport in normal tunnel junctions. Here we use it to illustrate how the quasiclassical picture of transport in Josephson junctions is modified as the strongly correlated barrier passes through the Mott transition. Surprisingly, we find the quasiclassical form holds well beyond its putative realm of validity.
Kashiwagi, T.; Minami, H.; Kadowaki, K.; Nakade, K.; Saiwai, Y.; Kitamura, T.; Watanabe, C.; Ishida, K.; Sekimoto, S.; Asanuma, K.; Yasui, T.; Shibano, Y.; Tsujimoto, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Marković, B.; Mirković, J.; Klemm, R. A.
2014-01-01
A computed tomography (CT) imaging system using monochromatic sub-terahertz coherent electromagnetic waves generated from a device constructed from the intrinsic Josephson junctions in a single crystalline mesa structure of the high-T c superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ was developed and tested on three samples: Standing metallic rods supported by styrofoam, a dried plant (heart pea) containing seeds, and a plastic doll inside an egg shell. The images obtained strongly suggest that this CT imaging system may be useful for a variety of practical applications
Phase locked 270-440 GHz local oscillator based on flux flow in long Josephson tunnel junctions
Koshelets, V.P.; Shitov, S.V.; Filippenko, L.V.
2000-01-01
The combination of narrow linewidth and wide band tunability makes the Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) a perfect on-chip local oscillator for integrated sub-mm wave receivers for, e.g., spectral radio astronomy. The feasibility of phase locking the FFO to an external reference oscillator......-running tunnel junction. The results of residual FFO phase noise measurements are also presented. Finally, we propose a single-chip fully superconductive receiver with two superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixers and an integrated phase-locked loop. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....
Numerical simulation of the self-pumped long Josephson junction using a modified sine-Gordon model
Sobolev, A.; Pankratov, A.; Mygind, Jesper
2006-01-01
We have numerically investigated the dynamics of a long Josephson junction (flux-flow oscillator) biased by a DC current in the presence of magnetic field. The study is performed in the frame of the modified sine-Gordon model, which includes the surface losses, RC-load at both FFO ends and the self-pumping...... effect. In our model the dumping parameter depends both on the spatial coordinate and the amplitude of the AC voltage. In order to find the DC FFO voltage the damping parameter has to be calculated by successive approximations and time integration of the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. The modified model...
Sirena, M.; Fabreges, X.; Bergeal, N.; Lesueur, J.; Faini, G.; Bernard, R.; Briatico, J.
2007-01-01
A simple model has been proposed to explain the spread in the characteristics of high T c Josephson junctions made by ion irradiation, assuming that the source of dispersion is the slit's size variation. Accordingly, increasing ion energy should lead to a significant reduction of inhomogeneities. Test samples have been fabricated using two different beam energies. As predicted, the spread in critical current decreases upon increasing energy. Moreover, since the actual width of the barrier is reduced in this case, the I c R n product increases significantly. These results seem promising for future technological applications
Shimazu, Y.; Yokoyama, T
2004-10-01
In order to realize strong coupling in a system of multiple flux qubits with a DC-SQUID, the use of kinetic inductance is advantageous because it can be much larger than geometrical inductance for narrow superconducting wires. We measured the inductance associated with narrow Al wires, and estimated the contributions of kinetic and geometrical inductances. The London penetration depth which determines the kinetic inductance is evaluated. We fabricated samples of two Josephson-junction loops and a DC-SQUID which are all coupled with kinetic inductances. The observed magnetic flux due to the loops is in good agreement with the result of numerical simulation based on the estimated inductances.
Hansen, J.B.; Divin, Y.Y.; Mygind, J.
1986-01-01
We report on the observation of full splitting of the first zero-field steps in the I-V curves of Josephson transmission lines of intermediate length Lroughly-equal(3--5)lambda/sub J/, where lambda/sub J/ is the Josephson penetration length. We study in detail how this splitting of the step into two branches depends on the temperature of the junction and on a weak applied magnetic field. We relate the splitting to excitations in the junctions whose behavior is described by the perturbed Sine-Gordon equation
Karpov, O.V.; Koutovoi, V.D.; Sherstobitov, S.V. [Institute for Physical-Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements, VNIIFTRI, Gostandart of Russia, Mendeleevo, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Niemeyer, J. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, PTB, Braunschweig (Germany)
2001-07-01
A high-precision comparison of dc voltages generated by a 10 GHz SINIS (superconductor/insulator/normal/insulator/superconductor) Josephson non-hysteretic junction array and a 70 GHz SIS (superconductor/insulator/superconductor) Josephson junction array is described. The paper also describes a method of minimizing the Type A measurement uncertainty. The measurements were carried out at the 10 mV level. The agreement between both output voltages was determined to 0.2 nV with a Type A uncertainty of 0.5 nV. (authors)
Hikino, S.; Yunoki, S.
2015-07-01
We theoretically study the magnetization inside a normal metal induced in an s -wave superconductor/ferromagnetic metal/normal metal/ferromagnetic metal/s -wave superconductor (S /F 1 /N /F 2 /S ) Josephson junction. Using the quasiclassical Green's function method, we show that the magnetization becomes finite inside the N . The origin of this magnetization is due to odd-frequency spin-triplet Cooper pairs formed by electrons of equal and opposite spins, which are induced by the proximity effect in the S /F 1 /N /F 2 /S junction. We find that the magnetization M (d ,θ ) in the N can be decomposed into two parts, M (d ,θ ) =MI(d ) +MII(d ,θ ) , where θ is the superconducting phase difference between the two S s and d is the thickness of N . The θ -independent magnetization MI(d ) exists generally in S /F junctions, while MII(d ,θ ) carries all θ dependence and represents the fingerprint of the phase coherence between the two S s in Josephson junctions. The θ dependence thus allows us to control the magnetization in the N by tuning θ for a fixed d . We show that the θ -independent magnetization MI(d ) weakly decreases with increasing d , while the θ -dependent magnetization MII(d ,θ ) rapidly decays with d . Moreover, we find that the time-averaged magnetization exhibits a discontinuous peak at each resonance dc voltage Vn=n ℏ ωS/2 e (n : integer) when dc voltage V as well as ac voltage vac(t ) with frequency ωS are both applied to the S /F 1 /N /F 2 /S junction. This is because MII(d ,θ ) oscillates generally in time t (ac magnetization) with d θ /d t =2 e [V +vac(t ) ]/ℏ and thus =0 , but can be converted into the time-independent dc magnetization for the dc voltage at Vn. We also discuss that the magnetization induced in the N can be measurably large in realistic systems. Therefore, the measurement of the induced magnetization serves as an alternative way to detect the phase coherence between the two S s in Josephson junctions. Our results
Filatrella, G
2002-01-01
The technology to build reproducible and accurately defined structures consisting of many lumped junctions has become available only recently, therefore extended investigations are relatively new. However, beside the interest of such discrete structures per se, it has been suggested soon after the discovery of high-T sub c superconductivity that granular superconductors might be modelled as superconducting islands surrounded by non-superconducting material and weakly coupled to each other. This program has been vigorously carried on, and models of planar Josephson junction arrays (JJAs) have been successfully used to mimic the magnetic behaviour of granular superconductors. The JJA model has been compared to continuous models of non-granular superconductors. We will show how to derive the height of pinning barriers in the JJA model and compare the results with the continuous model. In particular, the existence of current dependent activation energy has been proved to be a key characteristic to understand flux...
Azbel, M.Y.; Bak, P.
1984-01-01
The differential equation epsilonphi-dieresis+phi-dot-(1/2)α sin(2phi) = I+summation/sub n/ = -infinity/sup infinity/A/sub n/delta(t-t/sub n/) describing the periodically driven damped pendulum is analyzed in the strong damping limit epsilon<<1, using first-order perturbation theory. The equation may represent the motion of a sliding charge-density wave (CDW) in ac plus dc electric fields, and the resistively shunted Josephson junction driven by dc and microwave currents. When the torque I exceeds a critical value the pendulum rotates with a frequency ω. For infinite damping, or zero mass (epsilon = 0), the equation can be transformed to the Schroedinger equation of the Kronig-Penney model. When A/sub n/ is random the pendulum exhibits chaotic motion. In the regular case A/sub n/ = A the frequency ω is a smooth function of the parameters, so there are no phase-locked subharmonic plateaus in the ω(I) curve, or the I-V characteristics for the CDW or Josephson-junction systems. For small nonzero epsilon the return map expressing the phase phi(t/sub n/+1) as a function of the phase phi(t/sub n/) is a one-dimensional circle map. Applying known analytical results for the circle map one finds narrow subharmonic plateaus at all rational frequencies, in agreement with experiments on CDW systems
Bradley, R.M.
1985-01-01
Part I studies the effect of quantum fluctuations of the phase on the low temperature behavior of two models of Josephson junction chains with Coulomb interactions taken into account. The first model, which represents a chain of junctions close to a ground plane, is the Hamiltonian version of the two-dimensional XY model in one space and one time dimension. In the second model, the charging energy for a single junction in the chain is just the parallel-plate capacitor energy. It is shown that quantum fluctuations produce exponential decay of the order parameter correlation junction for any finite value of the junction capacitance. Part II deals with two types of directed aggregation on the Bethe lattice - directed diffusion-limited aggregation DDLA and ballistic aggregation (BA). In the DDLA problem on finite lattices, an exact nonlinear recursion relation is constructed for the probability distribution of the density. The mean density tends to zero as the lattice size is taken into infinity. Using a mapping between the model with perfect adhesion on contact and another model with a particular value of the adhesion probability, it is shown that the adhesion probability is irrelevant over an interval of values
Solve, S.; Chayramy, R.; Maruyama, M.; Urano, C.; Kaneko, N.-H.; Rüfenacht, A.
2018-04-01
BIPM’s new transportable programmable Josephson voltage standard (PJVS) has been used for an on-site comparison at the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) (NMIJ/AIST, hereafter called just NMIJ unless otherwise noted). This is the first time that an array of niobium-based Josephson junctions with amorphous niobium silicon Nb x Si1-x barriers, developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology4 (NIST), has been directly compared to an array of niobium nitride (NbN)-based junctions (developed by the NMIJ in collaboration with the Nanoelectronics Research Institute (NeRI), AIST). Nominally identical voltages produced by both systems agreed within 5 parts in 1012 (0.05 nV at 10 V) with a combined relative uncertainty of 7.9 × 10-11 (0.79 nV). The low side of the NMIJ apparatus is, by design, referred to the ground potential. An analysis of the systematic errors due to the leakage current to ground was conducted for this ground configuration. The influence of a multi-stage low-pass filter installed at the output measurement leads of the NMIJ primary standard was also investigated. The number of capacitances in parallel in the filter and their insulation resistance have a direct impact on the amplitude of the systematic voltage error introduced by the leakage current, even if the current does not necessarily return to ground. The filtering of the output of the PJVS voltage leads has the positive consequence of protecting the array from external sources of noise. Current noise, when coupled to the array, reduces the width or current range of the quantized voltage steps. The voltage error induced by the leakage current in the filter is an order of magnitude larger than the voltage error in the absence of all filtering, even though the current range of steps is significantly decreased without filtering.
Sawa, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch
2007-01-01
We study the Josephson effect in chiral p-wave superconductor/diffusive normal metal (DN)/chiral p-wave superconductor (CP/DN/CP) junctions using quasiclassical Green's function formalism with proper boundary conditions. The px+ipy-wave symmetry of superconducting order parameter is chosen which is
Theory of Josephson effect in Sr2RuO4/diffusive normal metal/Sr2RuO4 junctions
Sawa, Y.; Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch
2007-01-01
We derive a generalized Nazarov’s boundary condition for diffusive normal metal (DN)/chiral p-wave superconductor (CP) interface including the macroscopic phase of the superconductor. The Josephson effect is studied in CP/DN/CP junctions solving the Usadel equations under the above boundary
Chi, C.C.; Vanneste, C.
1990-01-01
A comprehensive picture of the dc current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of rf-driven Josephson junctions in the low-frequency regime is presented. The boundary of the low-frequency regime is roughly defined by the junction characteristic frequency for overdamped junctions, and by the inverse of the junction damping time for underdamped junctions. An adiabatic model valid for the low-frequency regime is used to describe the overall shapes of the I-V curves, which is in good agreement with both the numerical simulations and the experimental results. For underdamped junctions, the Shapiro steps are the prominent features on the I-V curves if the rf frequency is sufficiently below the boundary. As the rf frequency is increased towards the boundary, large negatively-going tails on top of the Shapiro steps are observed both experimentally and numerically. Numerical simulations using the resistively- and capacitively-shunted-junction model (RCSJ model) reveal that the negatively-going tail is a signature of the low-frequency boundary of the junction chaotic regime. With use of the adiabatic model and the existence of plasma oscillations for underdamped junctions, the onset of chaos and its effect on the Shapiro steps can be fully explained. The high-frequency limit of the adiabatic model and the chaotic behavior of the Josephson junctions beyond the low-frequency regime are also briefly discussed
Strenski, P.N.
1985-01-01
The first part of this thesis deals with the analysis of a small array of Josephson junctions, superconducting devices of markedly nonlinear behavior. The components of the array are modeled as resistively-shunted junctions and are driven by direct current. A chapter is provided that reviews the validity and features of such a model for the case of a single junction. This chapter also includes background information on the subjects of bifurcation, chaos, and fractals. In the following chapters, the array of three junctions is studied, first with one driving current and later with an additional bias current. The analysis includes both numerical results from computer simulations and analytic computations using a perturbative approach. The two approaches are shown to be in good agreement. The behavior of the array is dominated by hysteresis effects. The second part of the thesis describes an exact bound-to-site transformation for diffusion-limited aggregation. A review is provided that summarizes the field of aggregation and demonstrates the need for such exact results. The equivalence maps a class of partial adhesion problems on arbitrary lattices to absolute adhesion problems on transformed lattices. Examples are given for diffusion in the presence and absence of an external field
2016-09-01
both from SSC Pacific) and Marc Tukeman, Chuck Vinson and Mr. Mark Flemon with the procurement process . We acknowledge Deep Gupta, Saad Sarwana, and...superconductor-ionic quantum memory and computation devices. iv CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY...Josephson effect makes these measurements useful for characterization and calibration of superconducting quantum memory and computational devices
Dias, R G; Coutinho, B C; Martins, L P
2014-01-01
We present a study of Josephson junctions arrays with two-band superconducting elements in the highcapacitance limit. We consider two particular geometries for these arrays: a single rhombus and a rhombi chain with two-band superconducting elements at the spinal positions. We show that the rhombus shaped JJ circuit and the rhombi chain can be mapped onto a triangular JJ circuit and a JJ two-leg ladder, respectively, with zero effective magnetic flux, but with Josephson couplings that are magnetic flux dependent. If the two-band superconductors are in a sign-reversed pairing state, one observes transitions to or from chiral phase configurations in the mapped superconducting arrays when magnetic flux or temperature are varied. The phase diagram for these chiral configurations is discussed. When half-flux quantum threads each rhombus plaquette, new phase configurations of the rhombi chain appear that are characterized by the doubling of the periodicity of the energy density along the chain, with every other two-...
Granato, Enzo
2018-05-01
We study the effects of disorder on the zero-temperature quantum phase transition of a honeycomb array of Josephson junctions in a magnetic field with an average of fo flux quantum per plaquette. Bond disorder due to spatial variations in the Josephson couplings and magnetic flux disorder due to variations in the plaquette areas are considered. The model can describe the superconductor-insulator transition in ultra-thin films with a triangular pattern of nanoholes. Path integral Monte Carlo simulations of the equivalent (2 + 1)-dimensional classical model are used to study the critical behavior and estimate the universal resistivity at the transition. The results show that bond disorder leads to a rounding of the first-order phase transition for fo = 1 / 3 to a continuous transition. For integer fo, the decrease of the critical coupling parameter with flux disorder is significantly different from that of the same model defined on a square lattice. The results are compared with recent experimental observations on nanohole thin films with geometrical disorder and external magnetic field.
Mel'nikov, V.I.; Suetoe, A.
1986-01-01
The minima of the potential energy for the dynamical variable phi of a Josephson junction are separated by barriers of height hI/sub c//e, where I/sub c/ is the critical current. At low temperatures, T hΩ/2π (Ω is the Josephson plasma frequency). We consider this problem for high-quality junctions (RCΩ>>1, R and C are the resistance and the capacitance of the junction), accounting for the effect of a Johnson-Nyquist noise and quantum tunneling at the barrier top. With a simplifying assumption, we derive a pair of integral equations containing an energy variable for the steady-state distribution of phi and phi-dot, and solve it by a modification of the Wiener-Hopf method. The result is a formula for the current dependence of the fluctuational voltage, valid for currents I 2 <<1
Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Williams, Floyd
2014-01-01
The sine-Gordon model is a ubiquitous model of Mathematical Physics with a wide range of applications extending from coupled torsion pendula and Josephson junction arrays to gravitational and high-energy physics models. The purpose of this book is to present a summary of recent developments in this field, incorporating both introductory background material, but also with a strong view towards modern applications, recent experiments, developments regarding the existence, stability, dynamics and asymptotics of nonlinear waves that arise in the model. This book is of particular interest to a wide range of researchers in this field, but serves as an introductory text for young researchers and students interested in the topic. The book consists of well-selected thematic chapters on diverse mathematical and physical aspects of the equation carefully chosen and assigned.
Numerical simulation of the self-pumped long Josephson junction using a modified sine-Gordon model
Sobolev, A.S.; Pankratov, A.L.; Mygind, J.
2006-01-01
We have numerically investigated the dynamics of a long Josephson junction (flux-flow oscillator) biased by a DC current in the presence of magnetic field. The study is performed in the frame of the modified sine-Gordon model, which includes the surface losses, RC-load at both FFO ends and the self-pumping effect. In our model the dumping parameter depends both on the spatial coordinate and the amplitude of the AC voltage. In order to find the DC FFO voltage the damping parameter has to be calculated by successive approximations and time integration of the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. The modified model, which accounts for the presence of the superconducting gap, gives better qualitative agreement with experimental results compare to the conventional sine-Gordon model
Noise and conversion performance of a high-Tc superconducting Josephson junction mixer at 0.6 THz
Gao, Xiang; Du, Jia; Zhang, Ting; Guo, Yingjie Jay
2017-11-01
This letter presents both theoretical and experimental investigations on the noise and conversion performance of a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) step-edge Josephson-junction mixer at the frequency of 0.6 THz and operating temperatures of 20-40 K. Based on the Y-factor and U-factor methods, a double-sideband noise temperature of around 1000 K and a conversion gain of -3.5 dB were experimentally obtained at 20 K. At the temperature of 40 K, the measured mixer noise and conversion efficiency are around 2100 K and -10 dB, respectively. The experimental data are in good agreement with the numerical analysis results using the three-port model. A detailed performance comparison with other reported HTS terahertz mixers has confirmed the superior performance of our presented mixer device.
Koshelev, Alexei
2013-03-01
Stacks of intrinsic Josephson-junctions are realized in mesas fabricated out of layered superconducting single crystals, such as Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (BSCCO). Synchronization of phase oscillations in different junctions can be facilitated by the coupling to the internal cavity mode leading to powerful and coherent electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz frequency range. An important characteristic of this radiation is the shape of the emission line. A finite line width appears due to different noise sources leading to phase diffusion. We investigated the intrinsic line shape caused by the thermal noise for a mesa fabricated on the top of a BSCCO single crystal. In the ideal case of fully synchronized stack the finite line width is coming from two main contributions, the quasiparticle-current noise inside the mesa and the fluctuating radiation in the base crystal. We compute both contributions and conclude that for realistic mesa's parameters the second mechanism typically dominates. The role of the cavity quality factor in the emission line spectrum is clarified. Analytical results were verified by numerical simulations. In real mesa structures part of the stack may not be synchronized and chaotic dynamics of unsynchronized junctions may determine the real line width. Work supported by UChicago Argonne, LLC, under contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Poepel, R.; Hagedorn, D.; Weimann, T.; Buchholz, F.-I.; Niemeyer, J.
2000-01-01
At PTB, a fabrication process has been developed in SNS Nb/PdAu/Nb technology for the verification of small Josephson junctions (JJs) in the deep sub-micron range to enable the implementation of JJs as active elements in highly integrated superconducting circuits. Two steps of this technological development are described with regard to appropriately designed circuit layouts of JJ series arrays (JJAs), the first one in a conventional window type junction (WTJ) configuration and the second one in a ramp type junction (RTJ) configuration. Test circuits of JJAs containing up to 10 000 JJs have been fabricated and experimentally tested. In WTJ configuration, the circuits proved to be sensitive to external perturbing effects affecting the stability of circuit operation. In contrast to that, in RTJ configuration, the circuits realized showed correct function and a high grade of reliability of operation. To produce RTJ circuits, the technology parameters have been set to realize JJs with contact areas of A=0.25μmx1.3μm. At a thickness of the PdAu normal metal layer of d = 40 nm, the values achieved for the critical current density and for the product of critical current and normal state resistance are about j c = 200 k Acm -2 and about I c R N = 21 μV. (author)
NbN Josephson and Tunnel Junctions for Space THz Observation and Signal Processing
Setzu, Romano; Hadacek, Nicolas; Larrey, Vincent; Beaudin, Gerard; Villegier, Jean-Claude
2005-01-01
... (superconductor-normal metal-superconductor) self-shunted junctions are preferred. We present the advantages of the nitride junction technology currently developed at CEA-Grenoble, based on high-performance MTS...
Doped Josephson tunneling junction for use in a sensitive IR detector
Fletcher, J.C.; Saffren, M.M.
1975-01-01
A superconductive tunneling device having a modified tunnel barrier capable of supporting Josephson tunneling current is provided. The tunnel barrier located between a pair of electrodes includes a molecular species which is capable of coupling incident radiation of a spectrum characteristic of the molecular species into the tunnel barrier. The coupled radiation modulates the known Josephson characteristics of the superconducting device. As a result of the present invention, a superconductive tunneling device can be tuned or made sensitive to a particular radiation associated with the dopant molecular species. The present invention is particularly useful in providing an improved infrared detector. The tunnel barrier region can be, for example, an oxide of an electrode or frozen gas. The molecular species can be intermixed with the barrier region such as the frozen gas or deposited as one or more layers of molecules on the barrier region. The deposited molecules of the molecular species are unbonded and capable of responding to a radiation characteristic of the molecules. Semi-conductor material can be utilized as the molecular species to provide an increased selective bandwidth response. Finally, appropriate detector equipment can be utilized to measure the modulation of any of the Josephson characteristics such as critical current, voltage steps, Lambe-Jaklevic peaks and plasma frequency. (auth)
Holographic s-wave and p-wave Josephson junction with backreaction
Wang, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Shuai [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University,Lanzhou 730000, People’s Republic of (China)
2016-11-22
In this paper, we study the holographic models of s-wave and p-wave Josephoson junction away from probe limit in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime, respectively. With the backreaction of the matter, we obtained the anisotropic black hole solution with the condensation of matter fields. We observe that the critical temperature of Josephoson junction decreases with increasing backreaction. In addition to this, the tunneling current and condenstion of Josephoson junction become smaller as backreaction grows larger, but the relationship between current and phase difference still holds for sine function. Moreover, condenstion of Josephoson junction deceases with increasing width of junction exponentially.
Coherent terahertz emission from Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ intrinsic Josephson junction stacks
Gross, Boris Andre
2013-01-01
In recent years, terahertz technology has become a rapidly growing sector, driven by the demands of a vast range of (potential) applications. The terahertz spectral range roughly spans from 300 GHz to 30 THz. In the low terahertz range, there is a lack of good and compact devices, that emit electromagnetic waves. Particularly, coherent, narrow-band and continuous-wave sources are lacking, and researchers are following many different approaches to fill this gap. The thesis at hand contributes to the exploration of one of those sources: Operating intrinsic Josephson junctions as emitters in the terahertz spectral range. Josephson junctions (JJs) work as direct current (dc) voltage to frequency converters, if operated in the resistive state. 1 mV voltage drop generates a frequency of about 484 GHz. Intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) in the high temperature superconductor Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ (BSCCO) are adequate candidates for emitting devices; the layered structure of the material intrinsically provides stacks consisting of 1.5 nm thick, nearly perfectly equal JJs. The fabrication of a series of hundreds of JJs in a stack of micrometer thickness is easily feasible, which is essential for high power frequency generation. Further, the energy gap of BSCCO is in principle large enough to allow for frequencies up to more than 10 THz. The key challenge is the synchronization of all IJJs in order to produce coherent radiation. In 2007, a research team from Argonne National Laboratories succeeded in detecting coherent terahertz radiation from more than 500 synchronized IJJs in a mesa structure. The frequencies ranged from 350 to 850 GHz with output powers up to 0.5 μW. They proposed the formation of electromagnetic standing waves in the cavity of the mesa as synchronization mechanism. Coming from the fully resistive state (nonzero voltage across all junctions), the radiation occurred in the bias regime, where groups of junctions switch back to the zero voltage state
Zhang, Song; Wang, Xu; Ma, Junli; Cui, Ruirui; Deng, Chaoyong, E-mail: cydeng@gzu.edu.cn
2015-11-15
Sandwich-type MgB{sub 2}/Boron/MgB{sub 2} Josephson junctions were fabricated using magnetron sputtering system. The rapid-anneal process was adopted to replace traditional way of annealing, trying to solve the problem of interdiffusion and oxidation with multilayer films. The boron film was used as barrier layer to avoid the introduction of impurities and improve reproducibility of the junctions. The bottom MgB{sub 2} thin films deposited on c-plane sapphire substrate exhibits a critical temperature T{sub C} of 37.5 K and critical current density J{sub C} at 5 K of 8.7 × 10{sup 6} A cm{sup −2}. From the XRD pattern, the bottom MgB{sub 2} thin film shows c-axis orientation, whereas the top MgB{sub 2} became polycrystalline as Boron barrier layer grown thicker. Therefore, all junction samples show lower T{sub C} than single MgB{sub 2} thin film. The junctions exhibit excellent quasiparticle characteristics with ideal dependence on temperature and Boron barrier thickness. Subharmonic gap structure was appeared in conductance characteristics, which was attributed to the multiple Andreev reflections (MAR). The result demonstrates great promise of this new fabrication technology for MgB{sub 2} Josephson junction fabrication. - Highlights: • Sandwich-type MgB{sub 2}/Boron/MgB{sub 2} Josephson junctions were fabricated. • The junctions were annealed after deposition with the rapid-anneal process. • The highest critical current is 25.3 mA at 5 K and remains non-zero near 25 K. • Subharmonic gap features can be observed in the dI/dV – V curves.
Momentum-Space Josephson Effects
Hou, Junpeng; Luo, Xi-Wang; Sun, Kuei; Bersano, Thomas; Gokhroo, Vandna; Mossman, Sean; Engels, Peter; Zhang, Chuanwei
2018-03-01
The Josephson effect is a prominent phenomenon of quantum supercurrents that has been widely studied in superconductors and superfluids. Typical Josephson junctions consist of two real-space superconductors (superfluids) coupled through a weak tunneling barrier. Here we propose a momentum-space Josephson junction in a spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensate, where states with two different momenta are coupled through Raman-assisted tunneling. We show that Josephson currents can be induced not only by applying the equivalent of "voltages," but also by tuning tunneling phases. Such tunneling-phase-driven Josephson junctions in momentum space are characterized through both full mean field analysis and a concise two-level model, demonstrating the important role of interactions between atoms. Our scheme provides a platform for experimentally realizing momentum-space Josephson junctions and exploring their applications in quantum-mechanical circuits.
Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.; Mygind, Jesper
1978-01-01
The microwave response at 9 GHz of Sn-O-Sn tunnel-junction current biased at zero dc voltage has been measured just below the critical temperature Tc of the Sn films. The temperature dependence of the cosφ conductance is determined from the resonant response at the junction plasma frequency fp...
Strong mechanically induced effects in DC current-biased suspended Josephson junctions
McDermott, Thomas; Deng, Hai-Yao; Isacsson, Andreas; Mariani, Eros
2018-01-01
Superconductivity is a result of quantum coherence at macroscopic scales. Two superconductors separated by a metallic or insulating weak link exhibit the AC Josephson effect: the conversion of a DC voltage bias into an AC supercurrent. This current may be used to activate mechanical oscillations in a suspended weak link. As the DC-voltage bias condition is remarkably difficult to achieve in experiments, here we analyze theoretically how the Josephson effect can be exploited to activate and detect mechanical oscillations in the experimentally relevant condition with purely DC current bias. We unveil how changing the strength of the electromechanical coupling results in two qualitatively different regimes showing dramatic effects of the oscillations on the DC-voltage characteristic of the device. These include the appearance of Shapiro-type plateaus for weak coupling and a sudden mechanically induced retrapping for strong coupling. Our predictions, measurable in state-of-the-art experimental setups, allow the determination of the frequency and quality factor of the resonator using DC only techniques.
Study of SNS and SIS NbN Josephson junctions coupled to a microwave band-pass filter
Baggetta, E; Setzu, R; Villegier, J C [Laboratoire de Cryophysique, DRFMC, CEA, Grenoble (France)
2006-06-01
We have fabricated both NbN/Ta{sub x}N/NbN SN*S-type, NbN/MgO/NbN SIS-type Josephson junctions and microwave band-pass filters on different substrates (Si, Sapphire, MgO). NbN films have been deposited on both sides of (100) oriented, 250 {mu}m thick, MgO substrates with a high crystalline texture quality. The aim was to investigate the performances and the maximum achievable operating frequency in an NbN based RSFQ modulator front-end of an ADC in the 4 K-10 K temperature range. We observed that Ta{sub x}N thin films can be tuned from an insulating phase to a superconducting phase (Tc {approx}4K) by varying the nitrogen content during sputter deposition while the barrier height of MgO can also be controlled by deposition conditions and by tri-layer postdeposition annealing. Junction properties (Jc{approx}10-25 kA/cm{sup 2}), Mac Cumber parameter and RnIc product measured up to 1 mV are shown to be controlled by the reactive sputtering conditions. We have designed three pole band-pass filters and resonators in a micro-strip configuration and studied the junction coupling with the filters. We will show that a sigma-delta NbN technology is a suitable solution for analogue-to-digital conversion in the future generations of telecommunication satellites to achieve high sampling frequency and large bandwidth at high carrier frequency signal.
Study of SNS and SIS NbN Josephson junctions coupled to a microwave band-pass filter
Baggetta, E; Setzu, R; Villegier, J C
2006-01-01
We have fabricated both NbN/Ta x N/NbN SN*S-type, NbN/MgO/NbN SIS-type Josephson junctions and microwave band-pass filters on different substrates (Si, Sapphire, MgO). NbN films have been deposited on both sides of (100) oriented, 250 μm thick, MgO substrates with a high crystalline texture quality. The aim was to investigate the performances and the maximum achievable operating frequency in an NbN based RSFQ modulator front-end of an ADC in the 4 K-10 K temperature range. We observed that Ta x N thin films can be tuned from an insulating phase to a superconducting phase (Tc ∼4K) by varying the nitrogen content during sputter deposition while the barrier height of MgO can also be controlled by deposition conditions and by tri-layer postdeposition annealing. Junction properties (Jc∼10-25 kA/cm 2 ), Mac Cumber parameter and RnIc product measured up to 1 mV are shown to be controlled by the reactive sputtering conditions. We have designed three pole band-pass filters and resonators in a micro-strip configuration and studied the junction coupling with the filters. We will show that a sigma-delta NbN technology is a suitable solution for analogue-to-digital conversion in the future generations of telecommunication satellites to achieve high sampling frequency and large bandwidth at high carrier frequency signal
Kemmler, M.; Weides, M.; Goldobin, E.; Weiler, M.; Opel, M.; Goennenwein, S.T.B.; Vasenko, A.S.; Golubov, A.A.; Kohlstedt, H.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.
2010-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of the dependence of the critical current I-c on an in-plane magnetic field B of 0, pi, and 0-pi superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor Josephson junctions. I-c(B) of the 0 and the pi junction closely follows a Fraunhofer pattern, indicating a homogeneous critical current density j(c)(x). The maximum of I-c(B) is slightly shifted along the field axis, pointing to a small remanent in-plane magnetization of the F-layer along the field axis. I-c(B) of ...
Tsang, W.; Van Duzer, T.
1976-01-01
The form of the current-phase relations for the Josephson junctions is shown to have a significant influence on the relation I/sub c/(theta/sub a/) between critical current and applied flux for two junctions connected in parallel in a superconducting circuit. The observed one-flux-quantum periodicity and inversion symmetry of the I/sub c/(theta/sub a/) relation are shown to result from the fact that the current-phase, i-phi, relations of the junctions satisfy i (phi+2mπ) =i (phi) and i (-phi) =-i (phi), respectively. It is also shown that if the current-phase relations for the two junctions are different, an asymmetry appears in the I/sub c/(theta/sub a/)
Sputter fabricated Nb-oxide-Nb josephson junctions incorporating post-oxidation noble metal layers
Bain, R.J.P.; Donaldson, G.B.
1985-01-01
We present an extension, involving other metals, of the work of Hawkins and Clarke, who found that a thin layer of copper prevented the formation of the superconductive shorts which are an inevitable consequence of sputtering niobium counter-electrodes directly on top of niobium oxide. We find gold to be the most satisfactory, and that 0.3 nm is sufficient to guarantee short-free junctions of excellent electrical and mechanical stability, though high excess conductance means they are best suited to shunted-junction applications, as in SQUIDs. We present results for critical current dependence on oxide thickness and on gold thickness. Our data shows that thermal oxide growth is described by the Cabrera-Mott mechanism. We show that the protective effect of the gold layer can be understood in terms of the electro-chemistry of the Nb-oxide-Au structure, and that the reduced quasi-particle resistance of the junctions relative to goldfree junctions with evaporated counterelectrodes can be explained in terms of barrier shape modification, and not by proximity effect mechanisms. The performance of a DC SQUID based on these junctions is described
Marconi, Veronica I.; Kolton, Alejandro B.; Dominguez, Daniel; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels
2003-05-01
We study, analytically and numerically, phase locking of driven vortex lattices in fully-frustrated Josephson junction arrays at zero temperature. We consider the case when an ac current is applied perpendicular to a dc current. We observe phase locking, steps in the current-voltage characteristics, with a dependence on external ac-drive amplitude and frequency qualitatively different from the Shapiro steps, observed when the ac and dc currents are applied in parallel. Further, the critical current increases with increasing transverse ac-drive amplitude, while it decreases for longitudinal ac-drive. The critical current and the phase-locked current step width, increase quadratically with (small) amplitudes of the ac-drive. For larger amplitudes of the transverse ac-signal, we find windows where the critical current is hysteretic, and windows where phase locking is suppressed due to dynamical instabilities. We characterize the dynamical states around the phase-locking interference condition in the IV curve with voltage noise, Lyapunov exponents and Poincare sections. We find that zero temperature phase-locking behavior in large fully frustrated arrays is well described by an effective four plaquette model. (author)
Ruby, R.C.
1991-01-01
This paper reports that as the sophistication and speed of digital communication systems increase, there is a corresponding demand for more sophisticated and faster measurement instruments. One such instrument new on the market is the HP 5371A Frequency and Time Interval Analyzer (FTIA). Such an instrument is analogous to a conventional oscilloscope. Whereas the oscilloscope measures waveform amplitudes as a function of time, the FTIA measures phase, frequency, or timing events as functions of time. These applications are useful in such diverse areas as spread-spectrum radar, chirp filter designs, disk-head evaluation, and timing jitter analysis. The on-chip clock designed for this application uses a single Josephson Junction as the clock and a resonator circuit to fix the frequency. A zero-crossing detector is used to start and stop the clock. A SFQ counter is used to count the pulses generated by the clock and a reset circuit is used to reset the clock. Extensive simulations and modeling have been done based on measured values obtained from our Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Al/Nb process
Improvement in the properties of Ag-doped YBa2Cu3O7-x grain boundary Josephson junctions
Bolanos, G.; Baca, E.; Osorio, J.; Prieto, P.
2000-01-01
Ag-doped YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thin films using 5 to 20 wt% Ag-doped YBCO targets have been grown by a DC sputtering technique on SrTiO 3 bicrystals. Critical currents of 4 to 5 x 10 6 A/cm 2 at 77 K were measured in YBCO films doped with 5 wt% Ag which has been found to be higher than the value of 1 x 10 6 A/cm 2 measured in undoped samples. The normal resistivity decreases by a doping of 5 wt% Ag and increases for higher Ag concentrations. The critical temperature, T c , of the Ag-YBCO films remained unchanged at 92 K as in the undoped YBCO samples. An I c R n product of 170 μV at 77 K was found in grain boundary Josephson junctions (GBJJs) with 5 wt% Ag, compared with the value of 100 μV measured in undoped samples at the same temperature. Current-voltage characteristics were measured in GBJJs, showing Shapiro steps under microwave radiation and Fraunhofer patterns with an external magnetic field. The improvement in the normal and superconducting properties of Ag-doped YBCO films has been interpreted using the De Genes model to establish that YBCO containing metallic Ag addition shows a superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (S-N-S) behavior, thereby the Ag-doping enhances the weak link behavior and is, therefore, appropriate for electronic applications. (orig.)
Effect of Abrikosov vortices on Josephson junction currents in high temperature superconductors
Mitchell, E.; Mueller, K.-H.
2000-01-01
Full text: The current-carrying capacity of high temperature superconductors (HTS) is limited by the weak links which form between individual grains. We investigate the role of Abrikosov vortices (AV) and inhomogeneities at the intergrain boundary by examining the high magnetic field characteristics of HTS thin film grain boundary junctions. We model the effects of junction inhomogeneity, AV's and vortex pinning by solving the inhomogeneous London equation. The calculations show that both inhomogeneities and the presence of AV's improve the current-carrying capacity across grain boundaries at high magnetic fields. Our experimental measurements of the irreversibility of the junction critical current density J c (H a ) find good agreement with the model
Maluf, W.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.
2002-01-01
We have shown that the Paramagnetic Meissner Effect (PME) is directly associated with pinning, and not necessarily related to the presence of π-junctions. Through the study of the magnetic properties of two-dimensional Josephson junction arrays (2D-JJA) in the present work we show that, among the systems exhibiting PME, only those with sufficiently low dissipation and high capacitance will show dynamics reentrance. The concept of a critical state and its use in the interpretation of AC magnetization data in terms of a critical current density were introduced to derive the magnetic properties of hard type-II superconductors. In the critical state model proposed by Bean, flux lines penetrate into the sample and, due to the presence of disorder they give rise to a steady flux gradient. Here we show that in 2D-JJA this typical picture is valid only in short-range distances. For long-range distances, the picture of uniform flux fronts, as described by a critical state model, breaks down and the penetration of the magnetic field takes place through the growth of magnetic dendrites. De Gennes originally compared the slope of a pile of vortices to a sand-pile, with the slope being proportional to the local magnitude of the critical current. Dynamical properties of the sand-pile problem have attracted new attention since it consists of a marginally stable system displaying self-organized criticality. In this case, when a superconductor is in the Bean critical state, the addition of vortices occurs by increasing the external magnetic field. This procedure is analogous to the introduction of new grains to a sand-pile and is expected to produce an avalanche of grains of sand (or, equivalently, vortices) of all sizes to maintain a constant gradient in the grain (or, magnetic flux) density. We show in this work strong evidences pointing out that, for some specific conditions, magnetic field penetrates 2D-JJA in flux avalanches. (author)
Tafuri, F. [Dip. Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81031 Aversa (Italy); CNR-INFM Coherentia, Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy)], E-mail: tafuri@na.infn.it; Tagliacozzo, A.; Born, D.; Stornaiuolo, D. [CNR-INFM Coherentia, Dip. Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II, 80125 Naples (Italy); Gambale, E.; Dalena, D. [Dip. Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Lombardi, F. [Department of Microelectronics and Nanoscience, MINA, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Goeteborg (Sweden)
2007-09-01
Magneto-fluctuations of the normal resistance R{sub N} have been reproducibly observed in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (HTS) biepitaxial grain boundary junctions at low temperatures. We attribute them to mesoscopic transport in narrow channels across the grain boundary line. The Thouless energy appears to be the relevant energy scale. Possible implications on the understanding of coherent transport of quasiparticles in HTS and of the dissipation mechanisms are discussed.
Low-frequency noise in high-(Tc) superconductor Josephson junctions, SQUIDs, and magnetometers
Miklich, A. H.
1994-05-01
Design and performance of high-T(sub c) dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID's), junctions that comprise them, and magnetometers made from them are described, with attention to sources of 1/f noise. Biepitaxial junctions are found to have large levels of critical current fluctuations which make them unsuitable for low-noise SQUID's; this suggests a poorly connected interface at the grain boundary junction. SQUID's from bicrystal junctions have levels of critical current noise controllable using bias current reversal techniques which leave the noise white down to frequencies of a few Hz. A SQUID with an energy resolution of 1.5 x 10(exp -30) J Hz(exp -1) at 1 Hz is reported. Magnetometers in which a (9 mm)(exp 2) pickup loop is directly coupled to a SQUID body have achieved field resolutions of 93 fT Hz(exp -1/2) down to frequencies below 1 Hz, improving to 39 fT Hz(exp -1/2) at 1 Hz with the addition of a 50mm-diameter single-turn flux transformer. Poor coupling to pickup loop makes it difficult to satisfy competing goals of high field resolution and small detector size necessary for multichannel biomagnetic imaging. Improved coupling is demonstrated by the use of multiturn-input-coil flux transformers, and a resolution of 35 fT Hz(exp -1/2) in the white noise region is reported with a (10 mm)(exp 2) pickup loop. However, additional 1/f noise from processed multilayer structures in the transformer limits the resolution at 1 Hz to 114 fT Hz(exp -1/2). High-T(sub c) SQUID's exhibit additional 1/f noise when cooled in a nonzero static magnetic field because of additional flux vortices trapped in the film, with the noise power at 1 Hz typically increasing by a factor of 10-20 in a field of 0.05mT (0.5 G). Finally, a SQUID-based voltmeter with a resolution of 9.2 pV Hz(exp -1/2) at 10 Hz (24 pV Hz(exp -1/2) at 1 Hz) is described.
Low-Frequency Noise in High-T Superconductor Josephson Junctions, Squids, and Magnetometers.
Miklich, Andrew Hostetler
The design and performance of high-T_ {rm c} dc superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), the junctions that comprise them, and magnetometers made from them are described, with special attention paid to sources of 1/f noise. Biepitaxial junctions are found to have large levels of critical current fluctuations which make them unsuitable for low-noise SQUIDs. This noise suggests a poorly connected interface at the grain boundary junction. SQUIDs from bicrystal junctions, in contrast, have levels of critical current noise that are controllable using bias current reversal techniques which leave the noise white down to frequencies of a few Hz. A SQUID with an energy resolution of 1.5times 10^{-30} J Hz^ {-1} at 1 Hz is reported. Magnetometers in which a (9 mm)^2 pickup loop is directly coupled to a SQUID body have achieved field resolutions of 93 fT Hz^{-1/2} down to frequencies below 1 Hz, improving to 39 fT Hz^{-1/2} at 1 Hz with the addition of a 50 mm-diameter single-turn flux transformer. Although the performance of these devices is sufficient for single -channel biomagnetometry or geophysical studies, their relatively poor coupling to the pickup loop makes it difficult to satisfy the competing goals of high field resolution and small detector size necessary for multichannel biomagnetic imaging. Improved coupling is demonstrated by the use of multiturn-input-coil flux transformers, and a resolution of 35 fT Hz^{-1/2} in the white noise region is reported with a (10 mm) ^2 pickup loop. However, additional 1/f noise from the processed multilayer structures in the transformer limits the resolution at 1 Hz to 114 fT Hz^ {-1/2}. High-T_{ rm c} SQUIDs are shown to exhibit additional 1/f noise when they are cooled in a nonzero static magnetic field because of the additional flux vortices trapped in the film, with the noise power at 1 Hz typically increasing by a factor of 10-20 in a field of 0.05 mT (0.5 G). Finally, a SQUID-based voltmeter with a resolution
Pedersen, N.F.; Soerensen, O.H.; Mygind, J.
1978-01-01
The microwave response at 9 GHz of Sn-O-Sn tunnel-junction current biased at zero dc voltage has been measured just below the critical temperature T/sub c/ of the Sn films. The temperature dependence of the cosphi conductance is determined from the resonant response at the junction plasma frequency f/sub p/ as the temperature is decreased from T/sub c/. We used three different schemes for observation of the plasma oscillations: (a) second-harmonic generation (excitation at approx. 4.5 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 4.5 GHz); (b) mixing (excitations at approx. 9 and approx. 18 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 9 GHz); (c) parametric half-harmonic oscillation (excitation at approx. 18 GHz, f/sub p/ approx. 9 GHz). Measurements were possible in two temperature intervals; 0.994 or = T/T/sub c/ > or = 0.930, with the result that as the temperature was decreased the cosphi amplitude first increased from about zero to positive values and then at lower temperatures decreased approaching -1 at the lowest temperatures of the experiment
Kashiwagi, T., E-mail: kashiwagi@ims.tsukuba.ac.jp; Minami, H.; Kadowaki, K. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Division of Materials Science, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Nakade, K.; Saiwai, Y.; Kitamura, T.; Watanabe, C.; Ishida, K.; Sekimoto, S.; Asanuma, K.; Yasui, T.; Shibano, Y. [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba (Japan); Tsujimoto, M. [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Yamamoto, T. [Wide Bandgap Materials Group, Optical and Electronic Materials Unit, Environment and Energy Materials Division, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Marković, B. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Montenegro, George Washington Str., 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Mirković, J. [Faculty of Science, University of Montenegro, and CETI, Put Radomira Ivanovica, 81000 Podgorica (Montenegro); Klemm, R. A. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd., Orlando, Florida 32816-2385 (United States)
2014-02-24
A computed tomography (CT) imaging system using monochromatic sub-terahertz coherent electromagnetic waves generated from a device constructed from the intrinsic Josephson junctions in a single crystalline mesa structure of the high-T{sub c} superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ} was developed and tested on three samples: Standing metallic rods supported by styrofoam, a dried plant (heart pea) containing seeds, and a plastic doll inside an egg shell. The images obtained strongly suggest that this CT imaging system may be useful for a variety of practical applications.
Meckbach, Johannes M.; Kaiser, Christoph; Il' in, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, KIT (Germany); Buckenmaier, Kai; Gaber, Tobias; Kienzle, Uta; Sickinger, Hanna; Goldobin, Edward; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter [Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany)
2010-07-01
Underdamped long Josephson junctions (LJJs) are ideal systems for the investigation of fluxon dynamics. In LJJs the Josephson phase may vary on the length scale of {lambda}{sub J}, the Josephson penetration depth, and thus is very sensitive to defects in the structure. Inhomogeneities in the barrier can lead to a locally suppressed critical current density and parasitic resonances in the microwave spectra of the JJ. We have developed and optimized the process for Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb based LJJs exhibiting an exceptionally high quality. We show spectroscopic measurements which confirm the uniformity of the AlO{sub x} barriers. In very long linear JJs, the bias current peaks at the edges while the central part of LJJs is left almost unbiased. This results in unusual I{sub c}(H) dependences with reduced I{sub c}(0) and hampers the control of (semi)fluxons situated near the center of LJJs. To optimize the bias feed circuitry, we have investigated a variety of bias line geometries (multiple lines, resistors, etc.) measuring the scaling of the maximum critical current over the JJ length. We discuss advantages and drawbacks of these designs.
Gate-tunable Andreev bound states in InSb nanowire Josephson junction
Kang, Ning; Li, Sen; Fan, Dingxun; Xu, Hongqi [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Caroff, Philippe [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, P. O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)
2016-07-01
Hybrid InSb nanowire-superconductor devices are promising candidates for investigating Majorana modes in solid-state devices and future technologies of topological quantum manipulation. Here, we report low-temperature transport measurements on an individual InSb nanowire quantum dot coupled to superconducting contacts that exhibit an interplay between the Kondo effects and superconductivity. We observed two types of subgap resonance states within the superconducting gap, which can be attributed to gate-tunable Andreev bound states in Coulomb valleys with different Kondo temperatures. The presence of the gate-tunable 0 and pi junction allow us to investigate the fundamental 0- pi transition. Detailed magnetic field and temperature evolution of level spectroscopy demonstrate different behavior of two types of the Andreev bound states. Our results exhibit that the InSb nanowires can provide a promising platform for exploring phase coherence transport and the effect of spin-orbit coupling in semiconductor nanowire-superconductor hybrid device.
Resistive transition of two-dimensional arrays of proximity-effect Josephson junctions
Abraham, D.W.
1983-01-01
Results of measurements on large arrays of PbBi/Cu proximity-effect junctions are presented. Extrapolation of the critical current measured at low temperature to the region at and above T/sub c/ allows us to describe the initial drop in resistance by a simple model of the proximity effect, and also to define an effective temperature T' = E/sub J/(T/sub c/)T/E/sub J/(T) for describing the vortex-unbinding transition. This extrapolation has also allowed comparison of the magnitude of the universal jump in the renormalized coupling strength E/sub J/(T) with prediction, after allowance for renormalization effects. A simple decomposition of the vortex population above T/sub c/ into a sum of thermally-generated and currents-split components allows us to compare data taken at finite voltage sensitivity with theory. This idea is used to understand the broadened universal scaling of this data in a form consistent with the theory of Halperin and Nelson, suitably modified for array samples. Except for temperatures very near the transition temperature, these results can differ significantly from the continuum results of Halperin and Nelson and may be more appropriate for description of junction arrays and some granular films. New experimental data are also presented which show a periodic variation of the resistance of these arrays with the magnetic flux per cell in units of the flux quantum, including a secondary minimum at the half-quantum points. A simple model is presented which accounts for the existence, shape, and magnitude of this periodic variation in terms of vortex core energies. Observations of the current dependence of this periodic variation are presented, and a qualitative model of this effect is discussed
Golub, A.; Horovitz, B.
1994-01-01
The application of superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 wires or tapes to electronic devices requires the optimization of the transport properties in Ohmic contacts between the superconductor and the normal metal in the circuit. This paper presents results of tunneling theory in superconductor--normal-metal--superconductor (SNS) junctions, in both pure and dirty limits. We derive expressions for the critical-current density as a function of the normal-metal resistivity in the dirty limit or of the ratio of Fermi velocities and effective masses in the clean limit. In the latter case the critical current increases when the ratio γ of the Fermi velocity in the superconductor to that of the weak link becomes much less than 1 and it also has a local maximum if γ is close to 1. This local maximum is more pronounced if the ratio of effective masses is large. For temperatures well below the critical temperature of the superconductors the model with abrupt pair potential on the SN interfaces is considered and its applicability near the critical temperature is examined
Rudau, Fabian; Gross, Boris; Wieland, Raphael; Judd, Thomas; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena in LISA" +, Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Kinev, Nickolay; Koshelets, Valery [Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Tsujimoto, Manabu [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Ji, Min; Huang, Ya; Zhou, Xianjing; An, Deyue; Wang, Huabing [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Wu, Peiheng [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Hatano, Takeshi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan)
2015-07-01
Stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions, made of the high temperature superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, are promising candidates to be used as generators of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz regime, in principle allowing frequencies up to ∝10 THz. Ranging from 0.4 to 1 THz, coherent emission was detected from large, rectangular stacks, producing several tens of microwatt in power. Despite of several years of research, the mechanism of synchronizing all the junctions in the stack is still not fully understood. We investigated the heat distribution and electromagnetic standing waves in such stacks, as well as the generation of terahertz radiation, using a combination of electric transport measurements, direct radiation detection and low temperature scanning laser microscopy. Recent experimental results from our collaboration will be presented and compared to numerical simulations.
Nogawa, Tomoaki
2012-05-22
We investigate the ground state of the irrationally frustrated Josephson junction array with a controlling anisotropy parameter λ that is the ratio of the longitudinal Josephson coupling to the transverse one. We find that the ground state has one-dimensional periodicity whose reciprocal lattice vector depends on λ and is incommensurate with the substrate lattice. Approaching the isotropic point λ=1, the so-called hull function of the ground state exhibits analyticity breaking similar to the Aubry transition in the Frenkel-Kontorova model. We find a scaling law for the harmonic spectrum of the hull functions, which suggests the existence of a characteristic length scale diverging at the isotropic point. This critical behavior is directly connected to the jamming transition previously observed in the current-voltage characteristics by a numerical simulation. On top of the ground state there is a gapless continuous band of metastable states, which exhibit the same critical behavior as the ground state. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Microstructure of edge-type Josephson junctions with PrBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-x] barrier layer
Lebedev, O I; Vasiliev, A L; Kiselev, N A [Inst. of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia); Mazo, L A; Gaponov, S V; Paveliev, D G; Strikovsky, M D [Inst. of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novgorod (Russia)
1992-08-01
HREM investigations of edge Josephson junctions (EJJ) with PrBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-x] barrier layer (PB) were performed. All layers (superconducting YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-x]) (Y1) and (Y2), insulating PrBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-x] (PI) and barrier (PB) were obtained by laser ablation. The edges were formed by ion sputtering using a fotoresist mask. EJJ shows Josephson conductivity at Tc=77 K, giving j[sub c]=10[sup 4] A/cm[sup 2] at U[sub c]=50 [mu]V. Cross-sectional images show that Y1, PI and PB layers are single crystalline with the c-axis normal to the substrate surface. The Y2 layer in the regions of a multilayered structure is polycrystalline. The PB/Y1 interface is characterised by APB line boundaries; it is inclined to the substrate by 20-35deg. (orig.).
Topology-induced critical current enhancement in Josephson networks
Silvestrini, P.; Russo, R.; Corato, V.; Ruggiero, B.; Granata, C.; Rombetto, S.; Russo, M.; Cirillo, M.; Trombettoni, A.; Sodano, P.
2007-01-01
We investigate the properties of Josephson junction networks with inhomogeneous architecture. The networks are shaped as 'square comb' planar lattices on which Josephson junctions link superconducting islands arranged in the plane to generate the pertinent topology. Compared to the behavior of reference linear arrays, the temperature dependencies of the Josephson currents of the branches of the network exhibit relevant differences. The observed phenomena evidence new and surprising behavior of superconducting Josephson arrays
Topology-induced critical current enhancement in Josephson networks
Silvestrini, P. [Dipartimento d' Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Aversa (Italy); Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, Pozzuoli (Italy)], E-mail: p.silvestrini@cib.na.cnr.it; Russo, R. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V. [Dipartimento d' Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, Aversa (Italy); Ruggiero, B.; Granata, C.; Rombetto, S.; Russo, M. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, Pozzuoli (Italy); Cirillo, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFM, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , 00173 Roma (Italy); Trombettoni, A. [International School for Advanced Studies and Sezione INFN, Via Beirut 2/4, 34104 Trieste (Italy); Sodano, P. [International School for Advanced Studies and Sezione INFN, Via Beirut 2/4, 34104 Trieste (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, 06123 Perugia, and Sezione INFN, Perugia (Italy); Progetto Lagrange, Fondazione C.R.T. e Fondazione I.S.I., Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10124 Torino (Italy)
2007-10-29
We investigate the properties of Josephson junction networks with inhomogeneous architecture. The networks are shaped as 'square comb' planar lattices on which Josephson junctions link superconducting islands arranged in the plane to generate the pertinent topology. Compared to the behavior of reference linear arrays, the temperature dependencies of the Josephson currents of the branches of the network exhibit relevant differences. The observed phenomena evidence new and surprising behavior of superconducting Josephson arrays.
Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Aarøe, Morten
2006-01-01
New scaling behavior has been both predicted and observed in the spontaneous production of fluxons in quenched Nb-Al/Al-ox/Nb annular Josephson tunnel junctions (JTJs) as a function of the quench time, tau(Q). The probability f(1) to trap a single defect during the normal-metal-superconductor pha...... that predicted sigma=0.25, commensurate with the then much poorer data. Our experiment remains the only condensed matter experiment to date to have measured a scaling exponent with any reliability....... transition clearly follows an allometric dependence on tau(Q) with a scaling exponent sigma=0.5, as predicted from the Zurek-Kibble mechanism for realistic JTJs formed by strongly coupled superconductors. This definitive experiment replaces one reported by us earlier, in which an idealized model was used...
Rivera, V.A.G.; Sergeenkov, S.; Marega, E.; Araujo-Moreira, F.M.
2009-01-01
Results on the temperature and magnetic field dependence of current-voltage characteristics (CVC) are presented for SNS-type 2D ordered array of Nb-Cu 0.95 Al 0.05 -Nb junctions. The critical current I C (T,H) and the power exponent a(T,H)=1+Φ 0 I C (T,H)/2k B T of the nonlinear CVC law V=R[I-I C (T,H)] a(T,H) are found to have a maximum at non-zero value of applied magnetic field H p =225 Oe, which is attributed to manifestation of π-type Josephson contacts in our sample.
On the universality of the ''smile''-gap in the density of states of a chaotic Josephson junction
Reutlinger, Johannes; Belzig, Wolfgang [University of Konstanz, Department of Physics (Germany); Nazarov, Yuli [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience Delft, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Glazman, Leonid [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)
2015-07-01
The superconducting proximity effect strongly modifies the local density of states in chaotic Josephson junctions. Recently we found that besides the well-known minigap a secondary gap appears just below the superconducting gap edge Δ in the limit of a large Thouless energy E{sub Th} >or similar Δ. To check the universality of this novel gap phenomenon we study the effect of nonideal contacts and show that the ''smile''-gap crucially depends on the transmission eigenvalue distribution. In a next step we use the random matrix method to investigate the ''smile''-gap. This allows us to approach the statistics of Andreev levels, going beyond the quasiclassical Greens function method. It turns out that the hard gap edge softens similar to what is already known from the minigap.
Hatsukade, Y., E-mail: hatukade@ens.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Hayashi, K.; Shinyama, Y.; Kobayashi, Y. [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Adachi, S.; Tanabe, K. [International Superconductivity Technology Center/Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 10-13, Shinonome 1-chome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan); Tanaka, S. [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Hibarigaoka, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan)
2011-11-15
We investigated behavior of HTS-dc-SQUID gradiometers with ramp-edge Josephson junctions (JJs) in ac and dc magnetic fields. In the both fields, the gradiometers show higher durability against entry of flux vortices than SQUIDs with bicrystal JJs. A robot-based SQUID NDE system utilizing the gradiometer was developed in an unshielded environment. Detectability of the system to detect non-through cracks in double-layer structures was demonstrated. A new excitation coil was applied to detect cracks that oriented vertical and parallel to the baseline of the gradiometer. In this paper, we investigated detailed behavior of novel HTS-dc-SQUID gradiometers with ramp-edge Josephson junctions (JJs) in both an ac magnetic field and a dc magnetic field. In the both fields, the novel gradiometers shows the superior performance to the conventional YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) HTS-dc-SQUID gradiometer and a bare HTS-dc-SQUID ring with bicrystal JJs concerning durability against entry and hopping of flux vortices, probably due to their differential pickup coils without a grain boundary and multilayer structure of the ramp-edge JJs. A robot-based compact HTS-SQUID NDE system utilizing the novel gradiometer was reviewed, and detectability of the system to detect non-through cracks in a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP)/Al double-layer structure was demonstrated. A new excitation coil in which the supplied currents flowed in the orthogonal directions was applied to detect cracks that oriented vertical and parallel to the baseline of the gradiometer.
Setzu, R
2007-11-15
This thesis research, brought to the development and optimization of SNS (Superconductor / Normal Metal / Superconductor) Josephson junctions with NbN electrodes and a high resistivity Ta{sub x}N barrier. We were able to point out Josephson oscillations for frequencies above 1 THz and operation temperatures up to 10 K, which constituted the original goal of the project. This property makes these junctions unique and well adapted for realizing ultra-fast RSFQ (Rapid Single Flux Quantum) logic circuits suitable for spatial telecommunications. We showed a good reproducibility of Ta{sub x}N film properties as a function of the sputtering parameters. The NbN/Ta{sub x}N/NbN tri-layers exhibit high critical temperature (16 K). The junctions showed a clear dependence of the R{sub n}I{sub c} product as a function of the partial nitrogen pressure inside the reactive plasma; the R{sub n}I{sub c} is the product between the junction critical current and its normal resistance, and indicates the upper limit Josephson frequency. We have also obtained some really high R{sub n}I{sub c} products, up to 3.74 mV at 4.2 K for critical current densities of about 15 kA/cm{sup 2}. Junctions show the expected Josephson behaviors, respectively Fraunhofer diffraction and Shapiro steps. up to 14 K. This allows expecting good circuit operations in a relaxed cryogenics environment (with respect to the niobium circuits limited at 4.2 K). The junctions appear to be self-shunted. The SNOP junctions J{sub c}-temperature dependence has been fitted by using the long SNS junction model in the dirty limit, which gives a normal metal coherence length of about 3.8 nm at 4.2 K. We have finally studied a multilayer fabrication process, including a common ground plane and bias resistors, suitable for RSFQ logic basic circuits. To conclude we have been able to show the performance superiority of NbN/Ta{sub x}N/NbN junctions over the actual niobium junctions, as well as their interest for realizing compact
Quasioptical Josephson oscillator
Wengler, M.J.; Pance, A.; Liu, B.
1991-01-01
This paper discusses the authors' work with large 2-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions for submillimeter power generation. The basic design of the Quasioptical Josephson Oscillator (QJO) is presented. The reasons for each design decision are discussed. Superconducting devices have not yet been fabricated, but scale models and computer simulations have been done. A method for characterizing array rf coupling structures is described, and initial results with this method are presented. Microwave scale models of the radiation structure are built and a series of measurements are made with a network analyzer
Rudau, Fabian; Wieland, Raphael; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Quantum Science (CQ) in LISA+, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Zhou, Xianjing; Ji, Min; Hao, Luyao; Huang, Ya; Wang, Huabing [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics, Nanjing University (China); National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Kinev, Nickolay; Koshelets, Valery [Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Li, Jun; Wu, Peiheng [Research Institute of Superconductor Electronics, Nanjing University (China); Hatano, Takeshi [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan)
2016-07-01
Stacks of intrinsic Josephson junctions, made of the high-T{sub c} superconductor Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}, can be used as emitters of electromagnetic waves at terahertz frequencies. Coherent emission from 0.3 to 2.4 THz was detected from large, rectangular or disc-shaped mesa structures. Having a linewidth of only a few MHz, emission powers of several tens of microwatt can be produced for single stacks and up to 0.61 mW for an array of mesas. Since the mechanisms of synchronizing all the junctions in the stack is still not fully understood, we investigated the temperature distribution and electromagnetic standing waves in such stacks, as well as the generation of terahertz radiation, using a combination of electric transport measurements, direct radiation detection and low temperature scanning laser microscopy. Recent experimental results from our collaboration will be presented and compared to numerical simulations.
Przybysz, J.X.
1989-01-01
This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible
Logic design of Josephson network. II
Nakajima, K.; Onodera, Y.
1978-01-01
By numerical calculations of the differential-difference sine-Gordon equation, we have discussed the discrete Josephson-junction transmission lines which are constructed of a series of small-area Josephson junctions connected by superconducting strips. It is shown that the discrete Josephson lines containing D lines, N lines, T turning points, and S turning points are elementarily characterized by the discreteness parameter (2πLI/sub c//Phi 0 )/sup 1/2/. On the discrete Josephson logic circuits there exists a region of forbidden propagation in the (2πLI/sub c//Phi 0 )/sup 1/2/-γ (bias-current parameter) plane for single flux quanta. A single flux quantum can be stuffed in a small area of the discrete Josephson logic circuits. The discrete circuits can be conveniently and easily linked to each other, in a practical fabrication of a Josephson network
Millimeter-wave response and linewidth of Josephson oscillations in YBa2Cu3O7 step-edge junctions
Divin, Yu. Ya.; Andreev, A. V.; Fischer, Gerd Michael
1993-01-01
by thermal fluctuations at liquid nitrogen temperatures. At lower temperatures the observed linewidth increases indicating that low-frequency fluctuations become dominant in the junction as the temperature is reduced. Due to an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of the current the step-edge junction might...
Buckenmaier, Kai
2010-06-09
This thesis is divided into two parts, the measurement of the activation energy of a fractional vortex and the spectroscopy of a vortex-molecule. Fractional vortices can be studied in long 0-{kappa} Josephson junctions, where a jump of the Josephson phase is created artificially with a pair of tiny current injectors. To compensate for this phase discontinuity, a {rho} vortex is formed. Here, {rho} describes the vortex's so called topological charge. The {rho} vortices are pinned at the discontinuity and they carry the fraction ({rho}/2).{phi}{sub 0} of magnetic flux, with the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0} 2.07.10{sup -15}. Two stable vortex configurations are possible, a direct Vortex and a complementary one. {rho} depends on the injector current. When the bias current of the junction exceeds a characteristic threshold, which dependents on {rho}, the Lorentz force is bigger than the pinning force of the vortex and a fluxon is pulled away. In this case a complementary ({rho}-2{pi}) vortex is left behind. This switching of the {rho} vortex and the resulting emission of a fluxon can be described as a Kramers like escape of a particle out of a tilted washboard potential. The washboard potential is tilted to the point where the barrier is small enough, so that the particle can escape via thermal or quantum fluctuations. In the case of thermal fluctuations the barrier height is called activation energy. The activation energy can be determined by measuring the junction's switching current statistics. In this thesis, the activation energy, necessary for the vortex escape, was measured as a function of {rho} and a homogenous external magnetic field perpendicular to the junction. The main focus was the investigation of 0-{pi} junctions. The temperature dependence of the activation energy was investigated, too. It turns out, that the transition-state-theory is convenient to describe the switching probability of the standard Nb-AlO{sub x}-Nb junctions at 4.2 K
Microwave integrated circuit for Josephson voltage standards
Holdeman, L. B.; Toots, J.; Chang, C. C. (Inventor)
1980-01-01
A microwave integrated circuit comprised of one or more Josephson junctions and short sections of microstrip or stripline transmission line is fabricated from thin layers of superconducting metal on a dielectric substrate. The short sections of transmission are combined to form the elements of the circuit and particularly, two microwave resonators. The Josephson junctions are located between the resonators and the impedance of the Josephson junctions forms part of the circuitry that couples the two resonators. The microwave integrated circuit has an application in Josephson voltage standards. In this application, the device is asymmetrically driven at a selected frequency (approximately equal to the resonance frequency of the resonators), and a d.c. bias is applied to the junction. By observing the current voltage characteristic of the junction, a precise voltage, proportional to the frequency of the microwave drive signal, is obtained.
Oehmichen, V.
2007-01-01
Goal of this thesis was to extend the knowledge of fluxon dynamics in intrinsic Josephson junctions out of BSCCO and to manipulate this dynamics in a purposeful way. New approaches to create ThZ-radiation were investigated. Step stacks out of BSCCO have been prepared with dimensions of 1-3 μm (width) and 3-10 μm (length). The necessary fabrication process was established based on Wang's double-sided technique. Transport measurements without and with magnetic field were realised on the so produced samples. The magnetic field of some Tesla was oriented parallel to the CuO 2 -double layers. Collective plasma resonances were observed. Those were more stable than the resonances in mesa-structures. The resonances in the low current range can be assigned to an out-of-phase configuration, whereas in the high current range there are some possible configurations. Flux-flow-oscillations measured at these step stacks support the arrangement of the fluxons in an out-of-phase configuration. The in-phase configuration couldn't be observed clearly, so two approaches were followed to manipulate aimingly the fluxon dynamics to create THz-radiation: * control current * geometric manipulation: width-modulated stack For electronic manipulation an additional current line (control current line) was prepared along the stack's bottom. During transport measurements in zero field a current of 0-30 μA was sent through this control current line. The so created inhomogeneity should have provoked fluxons without the help of a magnetic field. A visible effect couldn't be measured. Geometric manipulation of fluxon dynamics to reach in-phase configuration relys on modulation of the stack's width: it has periodic necks (comb structure). First measurements on comb structures prepared in double-side technique show promising hints, that manipulation on purpose of fluxon dynamics is possible using width-modulation. Simulations were performed for different depths of modulation, small and large stacks
Properties of all YBa2Cu3O7 Josephson edge junctions prepared by in situ laser ablation deposition
Koren, G.; Aharoni, E.; Polturak, E.; Cohen, D.
1991-01-01
Thin-film YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 edge junctions of 0.4x10 μm 2 cross section were prepared in situ by a multistep laser ablation deposition process. The fabrication time was about 3 h and the yield of good devices was 50%. Typical junctions reached zero resistance at 72 K and had a critical current density J c of 300 A/cm 2 at 70 K. Their J c as a function of temperature increased slowly with decreasing temperature down to 65 K and much faster below it. In the region of low J c we observed suppression of the critical current by a magnetic field. Under microwave radiation clear Shapiro steps were observed whose magnitude versus the microwave field agreed qualitatively with the resistively shunted junction model of a current biased junction
Mazzarella, G.; Toigo, F.; Salasnich, L.; Parola, A.
2011-01-01
We consider a bosonic Josephson junction made of N ultracold and dilute atoms confined by a quasi-one-dimensional double-well potential within the two-site Bose-Hubbard model framework. The behavior of the system is investigated at zero temperature by varying the interatomic interaction from the strongly attractive regime to the repulsive one. We show that the ground state exhibits a crossover from a macroscopic Schroedinger-cat state to a separable Fock state through an atomic coherent regime. By diagonalizing the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian we characterize the emergence of the macroscopic cat states by calculating the Fisher information F, the coherence by means of the visibility α of the interference fringes in the momentum distribution, and the quantum correlations by using the entanglement entropy S. Both Fisher information and visibility are shown to be related to the ground-state energy by employing the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. This result, together with a perturbative calculation of the ground-state energy, allows simple analytical formulas for F and α to be obtained over a range of interactions, in excellent agreement with the exact diagonalization of the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. In the attractive regime the entanglement entropy attains values very close to its upper limit for a specific interaction strength lying in the region where coherence is lost and self-trapping sets in.
Devoret, M.H.; Esteve, D.; Martinis, J.M.; Cleland, A.; Clarke, J.
1987-01-01
A current-biased Josephson tunnel junction in its zero-voltage state can be modeled as a Brownian particle in a potential well from which it can escape by thermal activation at a rate Γ(0). The enhancement γ = Γ(I/sub m/)/Γ(0) of the escape rate has been measured in the presence of a microwave current of amplitude I/sub m/, which represents a weak, sinusoidal force driving the particle. When the microwave frequency is varied, lnγ peaks approximately at the natural frequency at which the particle oscillates at the bottom of the anharmonic potential well. At higher frequencies, lnγ exhibits a sharp roll-off that steepens as the quality factor Q of the junction is increased, while at lower frequencies lnγ has a long tail with a shape which is almost independent of Q. These features are qualitatively consistent with the theories of Ivlev and Mel'nikov and Larkin and Ovchinnikov, which we discuss. These theories however, are not able to predict analytically the behavior of lnγ near the peak. To overcome this difficulty a detailed series of computer simulations has been performed. These simulations, together with certain scaling properties of the theories, have been used to construct an empirical formula for lnγ that is in qualitative agreement with the experimentally determined frequency dependence of lnγ. The experimentally observed dependences of lnγ on temperature and microwave amplitude are in good quantitative agreement with predictions
Coplanar strips for Josephson voltage standard circuits
Schubert, M.; May, T.; Wende, G.; Fritzsch, L.; Meyer, H.-G.
2001-01-01
We present a microwave circuit for Josephson voltage standards. Here, the Josephson junctions are integrated in a microwave transmission line designed as coplanar strips (CPS). The new layout offers the possibility of achieving a higher scale of integration and to considerably simplify the fabrication technology. The characteristic impedance of the CPS is about 50 Ω, and this should be of interest for programmable Josephson voltage standard circuits with SNS or SINIS junctions. To demonstrate the function of the microwave circuit design, conventional 10 V Josephson voltage standard circuits with 17000 Nb/AlO x /Nb junctions were prepared and tested. Stable Shapiro steps at the 10 V level were generated. Furthermore, arrays of 1400 SINIS junctions in this microwave layout exhibited first-order Shapiro steps. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics
Kakeya, I.; Fukui, K.; Kawamata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Kadowaki, K.
2008-01-01
The c-axis resistance in Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+δ intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) with areas of the ab-plane less than 2 μm 2 were measured as functions of applied magnetic field and angle to the crystalline axes. When the magnetic field is tilted off from the lock-in state of Josephson vortices, several sharp dips are found. The separation between the dips approaches to the value corresponding to φ 0 with further tilting the external magnetic field. This behavior is attributed to the penetration of a quantized pancake vortex into the tiny IJJ. This argument is further supported by the result that the c-axis resistance under magnetic fields parallel to the c-axis shows identical stepwise behavior
Microstructure and composition of a SNS Josephson junction using CaRuO3 as the metallic barrier
Rozeveld, S.; Merkle, K.L.; Char, K.
1994-10-01
Superconductor - normal - superconductor (SNS) edge junctions consisting of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x /CaRuO 3 /YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x were fabricated on (001) LaA1O 3 substrates. These devices display an excess interface resistance which is not well understood but is related to the SN interface and interlayer structure. High-resolution and conventional transmission electron microscopy were employed to investigate the SN interface to determine the structure and possible interface defects. Energy-loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analysis were performed on the CaRuO 3 film and near interface regions to quantify the extent of interdiffusion between the CiRuO 3 and YBCO films. Changes in either the interface structure or the normal layer chemistry are expected to greatly influence the junction properties
Félix, L Avilés; Sirena, M; Guzmán, L A Agüero; Sutter, J González; Vargas, S Pons; Steren, L B; Bernard, R; Trastoy, J; Villegas, J E; Briático, J; Bergeal, N; Lesueur, J; Faini, G
2012-12-14
The transport properties of ultra-thin SrTiO(3) (STO) layers grown over YBa(2)Cu(3)O(7) electrodes were studied by conductive atomic force microscopy at the nano-scale. A very good control of the barrier thickness was achieved during the deposition process. A phenomenological approach was used to obtain critical parameters regarding the structural and electrical properties of the system. The STO layers present an energy barrier of 0.9 eV and an attenuation length of 0.23 nm, indicating very good insulating properties for the development of high-quality Josephson junctions.
Avilés Félix, L; Sirena, M; Agüero Guzmán, L A; González Sutter, J; Pons Vargas, S; Steren, L B; Bernard, R; Trastoy, J; Villegas, J E; Briático, J; Bergeal, N; Lesueur, J; Faini, G
2012-01-01
The transport properties of ultra-thin SrTiO 3 (STO) layers grown over YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 electrodes were studied by conductive atomic force microscopy at the nano-scale. A very good control of the barrier thickness was achieved during the deposition process. A phenomenological approach was used to obtain critical parameters regarding the structural and electrical properties of the system. The STO layers present an energy barrier of 0.9 eV and an attenuation length of 0.23 nm, indicating very good insulating properties for the development of high-quality Josephson junctions. (paper)
Anomalous Josephson effect controlled by an Abrikosov vortex
Mironov, S.; Goldobin, E.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.; Tamarat, Ph.; Lounis, B.; Buzdin, A.
2017-12-01
The possibility of a fast and precise Abrikosov vortex manipulation by a focused laser beam opens the way to create laser-driven Josephson junctions. We theoretically demonstrate that a vortex pinned in the vicinity of the Josephson junction generates an arbitrary ground state phase which can be equal not only to 0 or π but to any desired φ0 value in between. Such φ0 junctions have many peculiar properties and may be effectively controlled by the optically driven Abrikosov vortex. Also we theoretically show that the Josephson junction with the embedded vortex can serve as an ultrafast memory cell operating at sub THz frequencies.
Modern aspects of Josephson dynamics and superconductivity electronics
Askerzade, Iman; Cantürk, Mehmet
2017-01-01
In this book new experimental investigations of properties of Josephson junctions and systems are explored with the help of recent developments in superconductivity. The theory of the Josephson effect is presented taking into account the influence of multiband and anisotropy effects in new superconducting compounds. Anharmonicity effects in current-phase relation on Josephson junctions dynamics are discussed. Recent studies in analogue and digital superconductivity electronics are presented. Topics of special interest include resistive single flux quantum logic in digital electronics. Application of Josephson junctions in quantum computing as superconducting quantum bits are analyzed. Particular attention is given to understanding chaotic behaviour of Josephson junctions and systems. The book is written for graduate students and researchers in the field of applied superconductivity.
Dassonneville, B.; Murani, A.; Ferrier, M.; Guéron, S.; Bouchiat, H.
2018-05-01
One of the best known causes of dissipation in ac-driven quantum systems stems from photon absorption causing transitions between levels. Dissipation can also be caused by the retarded response to the time-dependent excitation, and in general gives insight into the system's relaxation times and mechanisms. Here we address the dissipation in a mesoscopic normal wire with superconducting contacts, that sustains a dissipationless supercurrent at zero frequency and that may therefore naively be expected to remain dissipationless at a frequency lower than the superconducting gap. We probe the high-frequency linear response of such a normal metal/superconductor (NS) ring to a time-dependent flux by coupling it to a highly sensitive multimode microwave resonator. Far from being the simple, dissipationless derivative of the supercurrent-versus-phase relation, the ring's ac susceptibility also displays a dissipative component whose phase dependence is a signature of the dynamical processes occurring within the Andreev spectrum. We show how dissipation is driven by the competition between two mechanisms. The first is the relaxation of the Andreev level distribution function, while the second corresponds to microwave-induced transitions within the spectrum. Depending on the relative strength of those contributions, dissipation can be maximal at π , a phase at which the proximity-induced minigap closes, or can be maximal near π /2 , a phase at which the dc supercurrent is maximal. We also find that the dissipative response paradoxically increases at low temperature and can even exceed the normal-state conductance. The results are successfully confronted with theoretical predictions of the Kubo linear response and time-dependent Usadel equations, derived from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian describing the SNS junction. These experiments thus demonstrate the power of the ac susceptibility measurement of individual hybrid mesoscopic systems in probing in a controlled way
Dynamics of pi-junction interferometer circuits
Kornkev, V.K.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Borisenko, I.V.
2002-01-01
The pi-junction superconducting circuit dynamics was studied by means of numerical simulation technique. Parallel arrays consisting of Josephson junctions of both 0- and pi-type were studied as a model of high-T-c grain-boundary Josephson junction. The array dynamics and the critical current depe...
Effect of environment fluctuations on a Josephson current
Galaktionov, A.V.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Josephson current is influenced differently by environment fluctuations. • Two types of environment are studied: ohmic and resonant-mode one. • A crossover to a Josephson π-junction is possible for both of them. - Abstract: An influence of an electromagnetic environment on a Josephson current through a tunnel junction is studied with the aid of Ambegaokar-Eckern-Schön effective action. Two types of environment are investigated: one, characterized by a resonant mode, and an ohmic one. The crossover to a Josephson π-junction is possible for both of them. In addition the resonant-mode environment results in an increase of a Josephson current when the ratio of the doubled superconducting gap to the frequency of the mode is close to an integer number.
Josephson effect in high-Tc superconductors and in structures using them
Kupriyanov, M.Yu.; Likharev, K.K.
1990-01-01
A review of the investigations of the Josephson effect in HTS materials and HTS Josephson structures is represented. The influence of the synthesis conditions and a surface etching on the surface properties of the HTS/Ag(Au) are briefly discussed. On the basis of these results the experimental data obtained in various types of the Josephson junctions (point contacts, tunnel junctions, weak links, break and bulk junctions and crystal type break junctions) are considered. These data are compared with theoretical results obtained from different BCS models of the Josephson junctions. It is concluded that now it is impossible to make either the conclusion on the applicability of the BCS theory for HTS superconductors or the unambiguous identification of the principal physical structure of the junctions. The directions of the future experimental investigations of the Josephson effect in HTS tunnel junctions and weak links are discussed
Dynamical properties of weakly coupled Josephson systems
Lee, K.H.; Xia, T.K.; Stroud, D.
1990-01-01
This paper reviews recent work on the dynamical behavior of coupled resistively-shunted Josephson junctions, with emphasis on our own calculations. The authors present a model which allows for the inclusion of finite temperature, disorder, d.c. and a.c. applied currents, and applied magnetic fields. The authors discuss applications to calculations of critical currents and IV characteristics; harmonic generation and microwave absorption by finite clusters of Josephson junctions; critical energies for vortex depinning; and quantized voltage plateaus in arrays subjected to combined d.c. and a.c. currents. Possible connections to the behavior of granular high-temperature superconductors are briefly discussed
Flux Cloning in Josephson Transmission Lines
Gulevich, D.R.; Kusmartsev, F.V.
2006-01-01
We describe a novel effect related to the controlled birth of a single Josephson vortex. In this phenomenon, the vortex is created in a Josephson transmission line at a T-shaped junction. The 'baby' vortex arises at the moment when a 'mother' vortex propagating in the adjacent transmission line passes the T-shaped junction. In order to give birth to a new vortex, the mother vortex must have enough kinetic energy. Its motion can also be supported by an externally applied driving current. We determine the critical velocity and the critical driving current for the creation of the baby vortices and briefly discuss the potential applications of the found effect
Josephson comparator switching time
Herr, Quentin P; Miller, Donald L; Przybysz, John X [Northrop Grumman, Baltimore, MD (United States)
2006-05-15
Comparator performance can be characterized in terms of both sensitivity and decision time. Delta-sigma analogue-to-digital converters are tolerant of sensitivity errors but require short decision time due to feedback. We have analysed the Josephson comparator using the numerical solution of the Fokker-Planck equation, which describes the time evolution of the ensemble probability distribution. At balance, the result is essentially independent of temperature in the range 5-20 K. There is a very small probability, 1 x 10{sup -14}, that the decision time will be longer than seven single-flux-quantum pulse widths, defined as Phi{sub 0}/(I{sub c}R{sub n}). For junctions with a critical current density of 4.5 kA, this decision time is only 20 ps. Decision time error probability decreases rapidly with lengthening time interval, at a rate of two orders of magnitude per pulse width. We conclude that Josephson comparator performance is quite favourable for analogue-to-digital converter applications.
Spectroscopy of fractional Josephson vortex molecules
Goldobin, Edward; Gaber, Tobias; Buckenmaier, Kai; Kienzle, Uta; Sickinger, Hanna; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II, Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)
2010-07-01
Using tiny current injectors we create {kappa} discontinuities of the Josephson phase in a long Josephson junction. The junction reacts at the discontinuities by creating fractional Josephson vortices of size {lambda}{sub J} pinned at them. Such vortices carry the flux {phi}, which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 x 10{sup -15} Wb. Being pinned, a fractional vortex has an eigenfrequency (localized mode), which depends on {kappa} and applied bias current, and which lays within the plasma gap. If one considers a molecule consisting of several coupled fractional vortices, the eigenfrequency will split into several modes. We report on spectroscopy of a fractional vortex molecule performed in the thermal regime.
In-situ YBa2Cu3O7/SrTiO3/YBa2Cu3O7 a-b plane Josephson edge junctions
Aharoni, E.; Koren, G.; Polturak, E.; Cohen, D.; Iskevitch, E.
1992-01-01
YBCO/SrTiO 3 /YBCO thin film edge junctions were prepared in-situ and characterized. The epitaxial growth of SrTiO 3 on YBCO led to a sharp and well defined junction edge with a very high yield. Typical junctions showed critical currents up to 83 K, with I c ∝ (1 - T/Tc) 2 temperature dependence. Sharp Shapiro steps were observed under microwave radiation at temperatures up to 82 K. A typical diffraction pattern was found in the voltage response of the junctions to transverse magnetic field. (orig.)
A nanoscale gigahertz source realized with Josephson scanning tunneling microscopy
Jäck, Berthold, E-mail: b.jaeck@fkf.mpg.de; Eltschka, Matthias; Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Hardock, Andreas [Institut für Theoretische Elektrotechnik, Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg, 21079 Hamburg (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Institut de Physique de la Matière Condensée, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-01-05
Using the AC Josephson effect in the superconductor-vacuum-superconductor tunnel junction of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), we demonstrate the generation of GHz radiation. With the macroscopic STM tip acting as a λ/4-monopole antenna, we first show that the atomic scale Josephson junction in the STM is sensitive to its frequency-dependent environmental impedance in the GHz regime. Further, enhancing Cooper pair tunneling via excitations of the tip eigenmodes, we are able to generate high-frequency radiation. We find that for vanadium junctions, the enhanced photon emission can be tuned from about 25 GHz to 200 GHz and that large photon flux in excess of 10{sup 20 }cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} is reached in the tunnel junction. These findings demonstrate that the atomic scale Josephson junction in an STM can be employed as a full spectroscopic tool for GHz frequencies on the atomic scale.
Oehmichen, V
2007-09-29
Goal of this thesis was to extend the knowledge of fluxon dynamics in intrinsic Josephson junctions out of BSCCO and to manipulate this dynamics in a purposeful way. New approaches to create ThZ-radiation were investigated. Step stacks out of BSCCO have been prepared with dimensions of 1-3 {mu}m (width) and 3-10 {mu}m (length). The necessary fabrication process was established based on Wang's double-sided technique. Transport measurements without and with magnetic field were realised on the so produced samples. The magnetic field of some Tesla was oriented parallel to the CuO{sub 2}-double layers. Collective plasma resonances were observed. Those were more stable than the resonances in mesa-structures. The resonances in the low current range can be assigned to an out-of-phase configuration, whereas in the high current range there are some possible configurations. Flux-flow-oscillations measured at these step stacks support the arrangement of the fluxons in an out-of-phase configuration. The in-phase configuration couldn't be observed clearly, so two approaches were followed to manipulate aimingly the fluxon dynamics to create THz-radiation: * control current * geometric manipulation: width-modulated stack For electronic manipulation an additional current line (control current line) was prepared along the stack's bottom. During transport measurements in zero field a current of 0-30 {mu}A was sent through this control current line. The so created inhomogeneity should have provoked fluxons without the help of a magnetic field. A visible effect couldn't be measured. Geometric manipulation of fluxon dynamics to reach in-phase configuration relys on modulation of the stack's width: it has periodic necks (comb structure). First measurements on comb structures prepared in double-side technique show promising hints, that manipulation on purpose of fluxon dynamics is possible using width-modulation. Simulations were performed for different depths of modulation, small and
Oehmichen, V.
2007-09-29
Goal of this thesis was to extend the knowledge of fluxon dynamics in intrinsic Josephson junctions out of BSCCO and to manipulate this dynamics in a purposeful way. New approaches to create ThZ-radiation were investigated. Step stacks out of BSCCO have been prepared with dimensions of 1-3 {mu}m (width) and 3-10 {mu}m (length). The necessary fabrication process was established based on Wang's double-sided technique. Transport measurements without and with magnetic field were realised on the so produced samples. The magnetic field of some Tesla was oriented parallel to the CuO{sub 2}-double layers. Collective plasma resonances were observed. Those were more stable than the resonances in mesa-structures. The resonances in the low current range can be assigned to an out-of-phase configuration, whereas in the high current range there are some possible configurations. Flux-flow-oscillations measured at these step stacks support the arrangement of the fluxons in an out-of-phase configuration. The in-phase configuration couldn't be observed clearly, so two approaches were followed to manipulate aimingly the fluxon dynamics to create THz-radiation: * control current * geometric manipulation: width-modulated stack For electronic manipulation an additional current line (control current line) was prepared along the stack's bottom. During transport measurements in zero field a current of 0-30 {mu}A was sent through this control current line. The so created inhomogeneity should have provoked fluxons without the help of a magnetic field. A visible effect couldn't be measured. Geometric manipulation of fluxon dynamics to reach in-phase configuration relys on modulation of the stack's width: it has periodic necks (comb structure). First measurements on comb structures prepared in double-side technique show promising hints, that manipulation on purpose of fluxon dynamics is possible using width-modulation. Simulations were performed for different depths of