Tsubakita, Takashi; Kawazoe, Nobuo; Kasano, Eri
Health literacy predicts health outcomes. Despite concerns surrounding the health of Japanese young adults, to date there has been no objective assessment of health literacy in this population. This study aimed to develop a Functional Health Literacy Scale for Young Adults (funHLS-YA) based on item response theory. Each item in the scale requires participants to choose the most relevant term from 3 choices in relation to a target item, thus assessing objective rather than perceived health literacy. The 20-item scale was administered to 1816 university students and 1751 responded. Cronbach's α coefficient was .73. Difficulty and discrimination parameters of each item were estimated, resulting in the exclusion of 1 item. Some items showed different difficulty parameters for male and female participants, reflecting that some aspects of health literacy may differ by gender. The current 19-item version of funHLS-YA can reliably assess the objective health literacy of Japanese young adults.
Full Text Available This analysis of Chinese and Japanese American young adults, based on the Pew Research Center 2012 Asian American Survey, examines the religious nones of these ethnic groups. Rather than focusing on their beliefs and belonging to religious denominations, it highlights their spiritual practices and ethical relations using an Asian-centric liyi (ritual and righteousness discourse. Despite being religious nones, these groups have high rates of ancestor veneration and participation in ethnic religious festivals, as well as strong familial and reciprocal obligations. These findings indicate that, similar to other American Millennials, these groups may be better understood by how they do religion than in what they believe.
Morita, N.; Takamura, N.; Murakami, T.; Jo, O.; Aoyagi, K.; Yamashita, S.; Okumura, Y.
Whole-body counters (WBCs) are special instruments for measuring internal irradiation doses and are usually housed within or around nuclear facilities in the event of unexpected radiation emergencies. As a substantial proportion of total body potassium (TBK) is found in fat-free mass (FFM), FFM volume can be predicted from WBC-measured 40 K. We screened TBK in Japanese healthy young adults using a WBC and found strong linear correlations between TBK and lean body mass (LBM) and body mass index (r = 0.97, P<0.01 and r = 0.47, P<0.01, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis, following adjustments for sex, indicates that only LBM has a significant correlation with TBK (P<0.01). These results strongly support the feasibility of using WBCs for estimating FFM. (authors)
Full Text Available Keiko Akahoshi,1 Hiroshi Matsuda,2 Masuko Funahashi,1 Tomoyuki Hanaoka,3 Yasuyuki Suzuki11Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Children’s Rehabilitation Hospital, Tokyo; 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saitama Medical University, International Medical Center, Saitama; 3Department of Pediatrics, Bihoro Rehabilitation Hospital, Hokkaido, JapanBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate acute neuropsychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. We report 13 Japanese adolescents or young adults with Down syndrome who developed acute neuropsychiatric disorders including withdrawal, depression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, and occasional delusions or hallucinations.Methods: The following information was collected from each patient: age at onset of acute neuropsychiatric disorder, complications, signs and symptoms, personality traits before the onset of the acute neuropsychiatric disorder, prescribed medications with their respective doses and the response to treatment, and senile changes observed on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography.Results: The mean age at onset of these disorders was 21.2 years. Brain imaging showed almost senile changes; patients responded well to low-dose psychotropic therapy. Patients had an onset at a young age and presented with treatable conditions, although the average age of the onset of Alzheimer’s disease is generally over 40 years of age in patients with Down syndrome.Conclusion: These findings suggest that the pathology of acute neuropsychiatric disorder in patients with Down syndrome may be related to presenile changes; however, these disorders present features and a clinical course that is different from those presented in typical Alzheimer’s disease with Down syndrome.Keywords: Down syndrome, acute neuropsychiatric disorders, Alzheimer’s disease
Sonoda, C; Ebisawa, M; Nakashima, H; Sakurai, Y
A dose-response relationship between toothbrushing frequency and the incidence of dental caries has not been confirmed. Furthermore, no longitudinal study about this relationship has considered dental caries experience at baseline, which is an important factor influencing the frequency of future caries. To elucidate the association between the incidence of dental caries and toothbrushing frequency after adjusting for dental caries experience at baseline in a Japanese population. The 92 recruits of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force in Kure, Japan, in 2011 were followed up for 3 years. They underwent oral examination at the annual checkups and answered questions about toothbrushing frequency. The multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the incidence of dental caries and to identify independent effects of toothbrushing frequency and dental caries experience at baseline. Furthermore, the relative importance of the incidence of dental caries was investigated among other independent variables using the partial adjusted R² score. Logistic regression analysis showed that toothbrushing frequency alone did not influence the increment in decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). However, DMFT at baseline alone was associated with the increment in DMFT (crude odds ratio, OR, 1.20, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.08,1.33). In the fully adjusted model, only DMFT at baseline was associated with the increment in DMFT (adjusted OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.09,1.38). After three years, the incidence of dental caries in young adult Japanese males was influenced by DMFT at baseline, rather than toothbrushing frequency. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.
Kojima, Reiji; Ukawa, Shigekazu; Ando, Masahiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Wakai, Kenji; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Tamakoshi, Akiko
To investigate the association between falls and self-reported depressive symptoms or visual impairment among young-old adults. A total of 1904 participants (986 men and 918 women) aged 64 years from the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project from 1996 to 2005, an age-specific cohort study in Nisshin, Japan, took part in the present study. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Geriatric Depression Scale. Visual impairment was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The outcome variable was self-reported injurious falls at the age of 70 years. Multivariate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of depressive symptoms and visual impairment for the incidence of falls were calculated using logistic regression models and adjusted for possible confounding factors. Overall, 77 (7.8%) men and 126 (13.7%) women reported falls within the past 1 year at age 70 years. Among women, depressive symptoms and visual impairment were significantly associated with falls after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.09-2.62; OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.45-3.71, respectively), but not among men. Women with both conditions had a significantly increased risk of falls after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 3.50, 95% CI 1.65-7.13) compared with those with neither condition; the association was not significant among men. Depressive symptoms and visual impairment at age 64 years were significantly associated with an increased risk of falls at age 70 years in Japanese women but not in men. The combination of the two symptoms had an even greater association with fall risk. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sato, Iori; Hoshi, Yasutaka
The aim of this study was to describe Japanese adolescents' and young adults' experiences after losing siblings to childhood cancer. A conceptual framework of the transition and analysis based on narrative method were adopted from qualitative data from 6 Japanese adolescents and young adults who had lost their siblings to childhood cancer. It was revealed that the participants' psychological experience after the sibling's death was directed by their perceptions of their mothers' responses to bereavement. We also found that the psychological distance between participants and their mothers could be an important factor in enabling transition into mourning and in orienting the lost sibling in their mind. The stories obtained from these 6 participants were categorized into the following 3 types of narratives: "Mother in another world and the sibling who became a god," "Return of the loving mother and the sibling as savior," and "The poor mother and the sibling who needs my help to carry on her legacy." This typology will serve as a framework for grief care and future research. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.
Umemura, Tomotaka; Watanabe, Manami; Tazuke, Kohei; Asada-Hirano, Shintaro; Kudo, Shimpei
The universality of secure base construct, which suggests that one's use of an attachment figure as a secure base from which to explore the environment is an evolutionary outcome, is one of the core ideas of attachment theory. However, this universality idea has been critiqued because exploration is not as valued in Japanese culture as it is in Western cultures. Waters and Waters (2006) hypothesized that one's experiences of secure base behaviors are stored as a script in memory, and developed a narrative assessment called the Attachment Script Assessment (ASA) to evaluate one's secure base script. This study examined the validity of the ASA and the utility of secure base concept in Japanese culture. A sample of Japanese young adults (N = 89; M = 23.46; SD = 3.20; 57% = females) completed both the ASA and self-report questionnaires. The results revealed that the ASA score was associated with two dimensions of self-report questionnaires assessing parent-youth attachment relationships (trust and communication). The ASA score was not related to Japanese cultural values (amae acceptance, interdependent self-construal, and low independent self-construal). However, a low ASA score was related to a psychological dysfunction in the Japanese cultural context; hikikomori symptoms, which are defined as a desire to remain in his or her own room and his or her understanding of this behavior in other people. We concluded that since hikikomori can be interpreted as an extreme inhibition of exploration, the association between low secure base script and hikikomori symptoms suggests the utility of secure base construct in Japan. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Kinjo, Hikari; Shimizu, Hiroyuki
The characteristics of self-referent beliefs about memory change with age. The relationship between beliefs and memory performance of three age groups of Japanese adults was investigated. The beliefs measured by the Personal Beliefs about Memory Instrument (Lineweaver & Hertzog, 1998) differed among the age groups and between sexes. In most scales, the ratings by middle-aged adults were as low as those by older adults, which were lower than those by young adults. Women perceived their memory abilities as lower than men's, with no interaction between age and sex, suggesting the difference remains across the lifespan. For middle-aged adults, the better they performed in cued-recall, free recall, and recognition, the lower they evaluated their memory self-efficacy, while few relationships were found for other groups. Our results suggest that cognitive beliefs change with age and that investigating the beliefs of the middle-aged adults is indispensable to elucidate the transition of beliefs.
Akhter, Rahena; Morita, Manabu; Ekuni, Disuke; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Furuta, Michiko; Yamanaka, Reiko; Matsuka, Yoshizo; Wilson, David
To investigate the associations of aural symptoms, headache and depression with the presence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms in a young adult population in Japan. A personal interview survey was conducted on first-year university students (n = 1,930) regarding symptoms of TMD, aural problems, headache, shoulder pain and depression. Logistic regression was applied to assess the associations of these problems with the presence of TMD symptoms after controlling for age and gender. Among the 1,930 students, 543 students exhibited TMD symptoms and were classified into 7 groups: clicking only (Group I, n = 319), pain in the TMJ only (Group II, n = 21), difficulty in mouth opening only (Group III, n = 18), clicking and pain (Group IV, n = 29), clicking and difficulty in mouth opening (Group V, n = 48), difficulty in mouth opening and pain (Group VI, n = 11), and combination of three symptoms (Group VII, n = 97). The control group (n = 1,387) were subjects without any TMD symptoms. After adjusting for age and gender, a strong association was observed between TMD symptoms (Group II and IV) and tinnitus (OR = 12.1 and 13.2, respectively). TMD symptoms (Group I, II and III) were also associated with vertigo and headache. Otalgia and depression were significantly associated with the presence of clicking only. TMD symptoms were significantly correlated to aural symptoms and headache. A functional evaluation of the stomatognathic system should be considered in subjects with unexplained aural symptoms and headache.
Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the associations of aural symptoms, headache and depression with the presence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD symptoms in a young adult population in Japan. Methods A personal interview survey was conducted on first-year university students (n = 1,930 regarding symptoms of TMD, aural problems, headache, shoulder pain and depression. Logistic regression was applied to assess the associations of these problems with the presence of TMD symptoms after controlling for age and gender. Results Among the 1,930 students, 543 students exhibited TMD symptoms and were classified into 7 groups: clicking only (Group I, n = 319, pain in the TMJ only (Group II, n = 21, difficulty in mouth opening only (Group III, n = 18, clicking and pain (Group IV, n = 29, clicking and difficulty in mouth opening (Group V, n = 48, difficulty in mouth opening and pain (Group VI, n = 11, and combination of three symptoms (Group VII, n = 97. The control group (n = 1,387 were subjects without any TMD symptoms. After adjusting for age and gender, a strong association was observed between TMD symptoms (Group II and IV and tinnitus (OR = 12.1 and 13.2, respectively. TMD symptoms (Group I, II and III were also associated with vertigo and headache. Otalgia and depression were significantly associated with the presence of clicking only. Conclusions TMD symptoms were significantly correlated to aural symptoms and headache. A functional evaluation of the stomatognathic system should be considered in subjects with unexplained aural symptoms and headache.
Health-related quality of life in young adults in education, employment, or training: development of the Japanese version of Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Generic Core Scales Young Adult Version.
Kaneko, Mei; Sato, Iori; Soejima, Takafumi; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko
The purpose of the study is to develop a Japanese version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Generic Core Scales Young Adult Version (PedsQL-YA-J) and determine the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the scales. Translation equivalence and content validity were verified using back-translation and cognitive debriefing tests. A total of 428 young adults recruited from one university, two vocational schools, or five companies completed questionnaires. We determined questionnaire feasibility, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability; checked concurrent validity against the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); determined convergent and discriminant validity with the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36); described known-groups validity with regard to subjective symptoms, illness or injury requiring regular medical visits, and depression; and verified factorial validity. All scales were internally consistent (Cronbach's coefficient alpha = 0.77-0.86); test-retest reliability was acceptable (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.57-0.69); and all scales were concurrently valid with depression (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.43-0.57). The scales convergent and discriminant validity with the SF-36 and CES-D were acceptable. Evaluation of known-groups validity confirmed that the Physical Functioning scale was sensitive for subjective symptoms, the Emotional Functioning scale for depression, and the Work/School Functioning scale for illness or injury requiring regular medical visits. Exploratory factor analysis found a six-factor structure consistent with the assumed structure (cumulative proportion = 57.0%). The PedsQL-YA-J is suitable for assessing health-related quality of life in young adults in education, employment, or training, and for clinical trials and epidemiological research.
Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Nishimuta, Mamoru
We have previously reported the levels of water-soluble vitamins in the blood and urine of Japanese young adults. In the present paper, to assess the variations in these water-soluble vitamin markers during the above experiment, we comprehensively determined the intra- and inter-individual variations of blood and urinary water-soluble vitamins to exactly the same amount of water-soluble vitamin intakes in the same experiment. The blood samples before breakfast and the 24-h urine samples were periodically collected from Japanese college male (n=10) and female (n=10) students consuming a semi-purified diet with water-soluble vitamins based on Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes for 7 d, and the intra- and inter-individual variations of blood and urinary water-soluble vitamins or their metabolites in blood and urine samples after adaptation were calculated. Although urinary excretion of vitamin B(12) and vitamin C showed high intra-individual variations in both males and females, other urinary vitamins and all blood vitamins showed less than 20% of within-subject coefficients of variance in either male or female. Those showing more than 20% of between-subject coefficients of variances in both male and female were blood vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12) and folate levels, and urinary vitamin B(1), vitamin B(2), vitamin B(12), nicotinamide metabolites, pantothenic acid, biotin and vitamin C. These results showed that oral administration of constant of water-soluble vitamins generally decreased intra-individual variation, while individual differences in urinary vitamin excretion were observed.
Asano, Masanobu; Hong, Guang; Matsuyama, Yusuke; Wang, Weiqi; Izumi, Satoshi; Izumi, Masayuki; Toda, Takashi; Kudo, Tada-Aki
Oral fat sensitivity (OFS, the ability to detect fat) may be related to overeating-induced obesity. However, it is largely unknown whether OFS affects taste preference and eating habits. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate (1) the association between body mass index (BMI) and OFS and (2) the relationship of OFS with four types of taste preference (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) and eating habits using serial concentrations of oleic acid (OA) homogenized in non-fat milk and a self-reported questionnaire. Participants were 25 healthy Japanese individuals (mean age: 27.0 ± 5.6 years), among whom the OA detection threshold was significantly associated with BMI. Participants were divided into two subgroups based on oral sensitivity to 2.8 mM OA: hypersensitive (able to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 16) and hyposensitive (unable to detect 2.8 mM OA, n = 9). The degree of sweet taste preference of the hypersensitive group was significantly higher than that of the hyposensitive group. Furthermore, there was significantly higher degree of preference for high-fat sweet foods than low-fat sweet foods in the hypersensitive group. There was also a significant inverse correlation between the OA detection threshold and the degree of both spare eating and postprandial satiety. Thus, OFS is associated not only with BMI, but also with the preference for high-fat sweet foods and eating habits. The present study provides novel insights that measuring OFS may be useful for assessing the risk of obesity associated with overeating in countries, including Japan, where BMI is increasing in the population.
Conclusions: The prevalence of wheat allergy in Japanese adults was found to be 0.21% by using a combination of questionnaire-based examination, skin prick test and serum omega-5 gliadin-specific IgE test.
Epstein, Connie C.
Considers the similarities between science fiction writing and young adult literature, and points out that several well-known authors, such as Robert Heinlein and Jane Yolen, write in both genres. (NKA)
Maki, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Yayoi; Demiray, Burcu; Janssen, Steve M J
The present study examined whether the three major functions of autobiographical memory observed in Western societies (i.e., directing-behaviour, social-bonding and self-continuity) also exist in an East Asian society. Two self-report measures were used to assess the autobiographical memory functions of Japanese men and women. Japanese young adults (N = 451, ages 17-28 years) first completed the original Thinking About Life Experiences (TALE) Questionnaire. They subsequently received three TALE items that represented memory functions and attempted to recall a specific instance of memory recall for each item. Confirmatory factor analyses on the TALE showed that the three functions were replicated in the current sample. However, Japanese participants reported lower levels of all three functions than American participants in a previous study. We also explored whether there was an effect of gender in this Japanese sample. Women reported higher levels of the self-continuity and social-bonding functions than men. Finally, participants recalled more specific instances of memory recall for the TALE items that had received higher ratings on the TALE, suggesting that the findings on the first measure were supported by the second measure. Results are discussed in relation to the functional approach to autobiographical memory in a cross-cultural context.
Association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" (Staple food, main dish, and side dish) and intake of nutrients and food groups among Japanese young adults aged 18-24 years: a cross-sectional study.
Kakutani, Yuya; Kamiya, Saori; Omi, Naomi
"Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai" are staple food, main dish, and side dish, respectively. The recommended meal in Japan is a combination of "Shushoku," "Shusai," and "Hukusai"; however, it remains unclear whether there is an association between the frequency of these meals and intake of nutrients and food groups. This cross-sectional study examined the association between the frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" and intake of nutrients and food groups among 664 Japanese young adults aged 18-24 y. The dietary habits of the subjects during the preceding month were assessed using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. The frequency of meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" was self-reported according to four categories: "less than 1 d or 1 d/wk," "2 or 3 d/wk," "4 or 5 d/wk," and "every day." In both women and men, there was an association between the higher frequency of these meals and higher intake of the following food groups: pulses, green and yellow vegetables, other vegetables, mushrooms, seaweeds, fish and shellfish, and eggs. Moreover, there was an association with higher intake of protein, polyunsaturated fat, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fat, total dietary fiber, soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, folate, pantothenic acid, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, and copper, and lower intake of carbohydrate in both women and men. Our findings support the hypothesis that the meals combining "Shushoku, Shusai, and Hukusai" may be associated with intake of many food groups and nutrients among Japanese young adults.
Cristy, Mark; Egbert, Stephen D.
The mathematical phantom for adult Japanese atomic-bomb survivors is a modification of the 57-kg ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) phantom for Western 15-year-old males and adult females. For younger Japanese survivors mathematical phantoms were similarly modified from the 18 and 9 kg ORNL phantoms for Western 5- and 1-year-olds, respectively. To make the phantom correspond more closely with dimensions and organ sizes recommended for Japanese adults by Maruyama and coworkers (cf E184), changes were made in the size of the lungs, the pancreas, the thyroid, and the testes and in the length of the legs. Also, the head-and-neck region was modified to improve the dose estimates for the thyroid from external radiation, after the ideas of Nagarajan et al. The arms were separated from the trunk to represent more accurately the shielding by the phantom in external exposures. Furthermore, provisions were made to provide a phantom in a kneeling posture. The elemental composition of the tissues was changed to that given by Kerr. The resulting phantom is slightly smaller in mass (55 kg). Details of these changes are given
Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc
Purpose Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Methods Using an adapted web version of Respondent-Driven Sampling (webRDS) we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18 to 24; N=3447). We examined participant sexting behavior using 4 categories of sexting: 1) Non-Sexters, 2) Receivers, 3) Senders, and 4) Two-way Sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Results Over half (57%) of respondents were Non-Sexters, 28.2% of the sample were Two-way Sexters, 12.6% were Receivers, and 2% were Senders. Males were more likely to be Receivers than females. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be Two-way Sexters than non-sexually active respondents. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in number of sexual partners, or number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Conclusions Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. PMID:23299018
Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Bauermeister, Jose Arturo; Grodzinski, Alison; Zimmerman, Marc
Sexting has stirred debate over its legality and safety, but few researchers have documented the relationship between sexting and health. We describe the sexting behavior of young adults in the United States, and examine its association with sexual behavior and psychological well-being. Using an adapted Web version of respondent-driven sampling, we recruited a sample of U.S. young adults (aged 18-24 years, N = 3,447). We examined participant sexting behavior using four categories of sexting: (1) nonsexters, (2) receivers, (3) senders, and (4) two-way sexters. We then assessed the relationships between sexting categories and sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, and psychological well-being. More than half (57%) of the respondents were nonsexters, 28.2% were two-way sexters, 12.6% were receivers, and 2% were senders. Male respondents were more likely to be receivers than their female counterparts. Sexually active respondents were more likely to be two-way sexters than non-sexually active ones. Among participants who were sexually active in the past 30 days, we found no differences across sexting groups in the number of sexual partners or the number of unprotected sex partners in the past 30 days. We also found no relationship between sexting and psychological well-being. Our results suggest that sexting is not related to sexual risk behavior or psychological well-being. We discuss the findings of this study and propose directions for further research on sexting. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sakoi, Tomonori; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi
The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relations......The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows...
Young adults are especially distressed by skin conditions that are uncomfortable, ... treatment are as for teenage acne. ... sive cases are treated with low to medium ... This is usually mild and self-limiting, ... loss of confidence, and depression,.
Enriched uranium, 93.16% for 235 U, served as a tracer of uranium deposition in an avian species, the Japanese quail. A second label, 153 Gd, provided for monitoring of procedures and for estimation of the 235 U content of live eggs. Depositions of 235 U were greater than for 153 Gd in all tissues except the yolk sac and the liver. Skeletal levels for 235 U were age- and sex-dependent. Feathers contained only 0.11% of the 235 U tracer in contrast to 50% of the endogenous uranium. The results show that 235 U provides for tracing uranium metabolism in small animals, since in quail the tracer increased the uranium burden of the body by only 1-8%. (author)
Full Text Available The increasing number of young people participating in adult education programmes has, in the recent years, raised the question of transfer from regular education system to labour market where a large proportion of young people remain socially marginalized and isolated. Young people in adult education are a special target group; in order to plan educational programmes properly, we need to be familiar with their specific characteristics. The article, on the level of a statistical data outline and its paradoxes, introduces the category of young people in adult education as an impact of system factors, and defines related problems in the register, which - for more thorough understanding - dictates sociologically and anthropologically directed analytical approach. The first effect of this, not solely pedagogical view, is presented in the second part of the article, where Mrgole proposes an analysis of educational needs definition and its dangerous consequences in original planning of educational programmes. The concluding part takes a wider perspective and treats the factors of early school-leaving of young people, taking into consideration direct experience in experimental educational programmes for the young. The article ends with an outline of basic elements which the planners of andragogical educational programmes intended for young people should consider in their planning to achieve effective curricula.
Ando, Yuichi; Shimokata, Tomoya; Yasuda, Yoshinari; Hasegawa, Yoshinori
Carboplatin is a platinum-based anticancer drug that has been long used to treat many types of solid cancer. Because the clearance of carboplatin strongly correlates with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), its dosage is calculated with the Calvert formula on the basis of the patient's GFR to achieve the target area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve (AUC) for each patient. However, many lines of evidence from previous clinical studies should be interpreted with caution because different methods were used to estimate drug clearance and derive the dosage of carboplatin. There is a particularly high risk of carboplatin overdosing when the dosage is determined on the basis of standardized serum creatinine values. When deciding the dose of carboplatin for adult Japanese patients, preferred methods to assess renal function instead of directly measuring GFR include (1) 24-h urinary collection-based creatinine clearance adjusted by adding 0.2 mg/dl to the serum creatinine concentration measured by standardized methods, and (2) equation-based GFR (eGFR) with a back calculation to units of ml/min per subject. Given the limitations of serum creatinine-based GFR estimations, the GFR or creatinine clearance should be directly measured in each patient whenever possible. To ensure patient safety and facilitate a medical-team approach, the single most appropriate method available at each institute or medical team should be consistently used to calculate the dose of carboplatin with the Calvert formula.
Nance, Jennifer G; Quinn Griffin, Mary T; McNulty, Sister Rita; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J
Prayer is the most common complementary and alternative intervention used by most Americans. Yet, little is known about the prayer practices of young adults. In this exploratory study, 4 types of prayer practices of 62 young adults (21-30 years old) are described. The 4 different categories of prayer were: contemplative-meditative, ritualistic, petitionary, and colloquial. Participants most often used colloquial prayer practice, that is, asking God to provide guidance or talking to God in their own words. Recommendations for future research are included.
Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Satoh, Daiki; Endo, Akira
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) adopted the adult reference voxel phantoms based on the physiological and anatomical reference data of Caucasian on October, 2007. The organs and tissues of these phantoms were segmented on the basis of ICRP Publication 103. In future, the dose coefficients for internal dose and dose conversion coefficients for external dose calculated using the adult reference voxel phantoms will be widely used for the radiation protection fields. On the other hand, the body sizes and organ masses of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasian. In addition, there are some cases that the anatomical characteristics such as body sizes, organ masses and postures of subjects influence the organ doses in dose assessment for medical treatments and radiation accident. Therefore, it was needed to use human phantoms with average anatomical characteristics of Japanese. The authors constructed the averaged adult Japanese male and female voxel phantoms by modifying the previously developed high-resolution adult male (JM) and female (JF) voxel phantoms. It has been modified in the following three aspects: (1) The heights and weights were agreed with the Japanese averages; (2) The masses of organs and tissues were adjusted to the Japanese averages within 10%; (3) The organs and tissues, which were newly added for evaluation of the effective dose in ICRP Publication 103, were modeled. In this study, the organ masses, distances between organs, specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) and dose conversion coefficients of these phantoms were compared with those evaluated using the ICRP adult reference voxel phantoms. This report provides valuable information on the anatomical and dosimetric characteristics of the averaged adult Japanese male and female voxel phantoms developed as reference phantoms of adult Japanese. (author)
Groenke, Susan; Maples, Joellen; Henderson, Jill
While young adult literature increases adolescents' motivation to read, and adolescents choose to read young adult novels over more canonical works when given opportunities to choose, the authors present yet another reason for teaching young adult literature in the middle school classroom: it provides a medium through which adolescents and their…
...-HA-0029] TRICARE Young Adult AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DoD. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This... 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended... TRICARE Program coverage made available for purchase worldwide. TYA is similar to young adult coverage...
Top of the News, 1984
This 22-item filmography of 16mm films recommended for use in programs planned for young adults was compiled by the Selected Films for Young Adults Committee, Young Adult Services Division, American Library Association. Producers, directors, distributors, length, price, and brief annotations are provided. Addresses for 12 distributors are…
Brander, Birgitte Gade
Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?......Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?...
Foster, Harold M.
Discusses films based on young adult novels and why they are often considered failures. Describes various films about young adults and their problems that have proven to be artistic successes. Gives close attention to film versions of S. E. Hinton's novels and of Robert Cormier's "The Chocolate War." (HB)
Warren C. Sanderson
Full Text Available Many young working age adults in developed countries are failing to thrive in economic, demographic and social terms. Their failure to thrive is a relatively new phenomenon that has not been widely recognized, but it affects young adults in virtually all the more developed countries for which we have relevant data. Young adults nowadays are more often in poverty. They are leaving their parental homes at ever later ages and in some countries the frequency of psychological problems increased. The seriousness of failure to thrive syndrome is reflected in the relationship between relative economic conditions and increased suicide rates. The syndrome is important because young adults are at the prime ages for finding employment, establishing long-run career paths and building an economic basis for founding a family. Developing strategies to arrest the spread of failure to thrive syndrome among young adults, in order to keep them vibrant contributors to our societies, should be a priority for policy makers.
Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki
The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan.
Henkel, Ayoe Qvist
Abstract (in English): The digital turn brings about not only changes in young adult literature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but also changes in the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal and interactive...... will be the focal point here. The pivotal point of this paper will be exploring how transgressing analytical categories, e.g. rhythm, sequentiality, time, space and dialogue with the reader, can shed light on the formation of meaning in a specific digital young adult literary work, i.e. Tavs (Camilla Hübbe, Rasmus......, the paper will investigate the ‘denaturalization’ of the reading process and it will attempt to investigate and offer analytical categories which can be used also by young readers so that they can become competent cross media readers of young adult literature in a digitalized and medialized landscape...
Uecker, Jeremy E.
Marriage is widely thought to confer mental health benefits, but little is known about how this relationship may vary across the life course. Early marriage—which is non-normative—could have no, or even negative, mental health consequences for young adults. Using survey data from Waves 1 and 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 11,743), I find that married young adults exhibit similar levels of psychological distress as young adults who are in any kind of romantic relationship. Married and engaged young adults report lower rates of drunkenness than others. Married young adults—especially those who first married at age 22–26—report higher life satisfaction than those in other types of relationships or no relationship at all, as well as those who married at younger ages. Explanations for these findings are examined, and their implications are discussed. PMID:22328171
Nagahori, Kenta; Iwahashi, Kazuhiko; Narita, Shin; Numajiri, Maki; Yoshihara, Eiji; Nishizawa, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Ishigooka, Jun
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder show high comorbidity with smoking dependence. Several previous studies reported that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), which is widely expressed in the brain including the dopamine projection areas such as the amygdala, nucleus accumbens and hippocampus, may play a role in neuropsychiatric disorders and dopamine- and serotonin-mediated behavior. In this study, we have analyzed the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GSK3β gene (rs3755557, rs334558, rs6438552) with the smoking habits and age at smoking initiation in a sample of 384 young adult Japanese, which included 172 smokers and 212 non-smokers. As a result, rs334558 was significantly associated with smoking habits in genotype frequency and allelic frequency (P smoking habits.
Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A
Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.
Full Text Available Dževdet Smajlović Department of Neurology, University Clinical Centre Tuzla, School of Medicine, University of Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina Abstract: Strokes in young adults are reported as being uncommon, comprising 10%–15% of all stroke patients. However, compared with stroke in older adults, stroke in the young has a disproportionately large economic impact by leaving victims disabled before their most productive years. Recent publications report an increased incidence of stroke in young adults. This is important given the fact that younger stroke patients have a clearly increased risk of death compared with the general population. The prevalence of standard modifiable vascular risk factors in young stroke patients is different from that in older patients. Modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as dyslipidemia, smoking, and hypertension, are highly prevalent in the young stroke population, with no significant difference in geographic, climatic, nutritional, lifestyle, or genetic diversity. The list of potential stroke etiologies among young adults is extensive. Strokes of undetermined and of other determined etiology are the most common types among young patients according to TOAST (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment criteria. Prevention is the primary treatment strategy aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality related to stroke. Therefore, primary prevention is very important with regard to stroke in young adults, and aggressive treatment of risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, smoking, and dyslipidemia, is essential. The best form of secondary stroke prevention is directed toward stroke etiology as well as treatment of additional risk factors. However, there is a lack of specific recommendations and guidelines for stroke management in young adults. In conclusion, strokes in young adults are a major public health problem and further research, with standardized methodology, is needed in order to give us more
Schillings, AM; Mulder, T; Duysens, J
Falls are a major problem in older adults. Many falls occur because of stumbling. The aim of the present study is to investigate stumbling reactions of older adults and to compare them with young adults. While subjects walked on a treadmill, a rigid obstacle unexpectedly obstructed the forward sway
Evans, Gary W; Otto, Siegmar; Kaiser, Florian G
Prospective, longitudinal analyses revealed that over a 12-year period from ages 6 to 18, individuals who grew up with mothers with more proenvironmental attitudes engaged in more proenvironmental behavior as young adults. A similar marginal association was uncovered between mothers' proenvironmental behaviors and the proenvironmental behavior of their young adult offspring. Maternal educational attainment, but not political ideology, was also associated with more proenvironmental behavior as children matured. Moreover, childhood time spent outdoors was positively associated with increased environmentally responsible behavior in young adulthood. Interestingly, one's own childhood proenvironmental behavior and attitude, at least as assessed at age 6, bear little on one's eventual proenvironmental behavior as a young adult. Finally, among this set of childhood factors, maternal education and childhood time spent outdoors were independent predictors of positive changes in environmental behavior from early childhood to young adulthood.
Full Text Available In 2013, national serosurveillance detected a high seroprevalence of antibodies to pertussis toxin (PT from Bordetella pertussis among Japanese adults. Thus, we aimed to determine the cause(s of this high seroprevalence, and analyzed the titers of antibodies to PT and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA among adults (35-44 years old, young children (4-7 years old, and older children (10-14 years old. Our quantitative analyses revealed that adults had higher seroprevalences of anti-PT IgG and PT-neutralizing antibodies, and similar titers of anti-FHA IgG, compared to the young and older children. Positive correlations were observed between the titers of PT-neutralizing antibodies and anti-PT IgG in all age groups (rs values of 0.326-0.522, although the correlation tended to decrease with age. The ratio of PT-neutralizing antibodies to anti-PT IgG was significantly different when we compared the serum and purified IgG fractions among adults (p = 0.016, although this result was not observed among young and older children. Thus, it appears that some adults had non-IgG immunoglobulins to PT. Our analyses also revealed that adults had high-avidity anti-PT IgG (avidity index: 63.5%, similar results were observed among the children; however, the adults had lower-avidity anti-FHA IgG (37.9%, p < 0.05. It is possible that low-avidity anti-FHA IgG is related to infection with other respiratory pathogens (e.g., Bordetella parapertussis, Haemophilus influenzae, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which produces antibodies to FHA-like proteins. Our observations suggest that these adults had been infected with B. pertussis and other pathogen(s during their adulthood.
Cancer researchers, advocates, and a cancer survivor introduce the topic of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers, covering distinct aspects of cancer in these patients and research questions to answer.
General significance: This review focuses on the main causes of genetically-based ischemic stroke in young adults, often classified as indeterminate, investigating also the recent findings of the GWAS, in order to improve diagnostic and therapeutic management.
Kasada, Ryuta; Goto, Takuya; Miyazawa, Junichi; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Hiwatari, Ryoji; Oyama, Naoyuki; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu
Japanese young researchers who have interest in realizing fusion reactor have analyzed Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) in Young Scientists Special Interest Group on Fusion Reactor Realization. In this report, brief introduction to TRL assessment and a view of TRL assessment against fusion reactor projects conducting in Japan. (J.P.N.)
Nyamathi, Adeline; Slagle, Alexandra; Thomas, Alexandra; Hudson, Angela; Kahilifard, Farinaz; Avila, Glenna; Orser, Julie; Cuchilla, Manuel
Art has been shown to be an empowering and engaging entity with numerous benefits to vulnerable populations, including the homeless persons and young adults. However, little is known how homeless young adults perceive the use of art as messages that can communicate the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to solicit perspectives of homeless, drug-using young adults as to how art can be used to design messages for their peers about the danger of initiating or continuing drug and alcohol use. Qualitative methodology via focus group discussions was utilized to engage 24 homeless young adults enrolled from a drop-in site in Santa Monica, California. The findings revealed support for a myriad of delivery styles, including in-person communication, flyers, music, documentary film, and creative writing. The young adults also provided insight into the importance of the thematic framework of messages. Such themes ranged from empowering and hopeful messages to those designed to scare young homeless adults into not experimenting with drugs. The findings indicate that in addition to messages communicating the need to prevent or reduce drug and alcohol use, homeless young adults respond to messages that remind them of goals and dreams they once had for their future, and to content that is personal, real, and truthful. Our research indicates that messages that reinforce protective factors such as hope for the future and self-esteem may be as important to homeless young adults as information about the risks and consequences of drug use.
Hossain, Farhana; Terwelp, Emily
In the past four decades, profound changes in the U.S. economy--including falling wages, widening inequality, and the polarization of jobs at the top and bottom of the education and wage distributions--have had dramatic implications for the labor-market fortunes of young adults. Only about half of young people ages 16 to 24 held jobs in 2014, and…
Schwanitz, Katrin; Mulder, Clara H.
Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1) across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2) by
... a Doctor and Hospital View this video on YouTube. Experts in the field of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancers and cancer survivors answer the ... trials. Fertility Preservation Options View this video on YouTube. ... on fertility is a special concern for young cancer patients. It is important to talk with ...
Sasaki, Emiko [Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Dentistry
In an investigation of the manganese (Mn) content of teeth in Japanese adults, neutron activation analysis was carried out of caries-free teeth, carious teeth and unerupted teeth gathered from three different districts of Japan. Regular logarithmic distribution of Mn in the dentin suggested that Mn had not been taken into account as an essential element of the teeth. Results of the study revealed no difference in Mn content among these districts, and between the caries-free teeth and the carious teeth, both in enamel and dentin. The Mn content of the enamel was about two times higher than that of the dentin.
Kurazumi, Yoshihito; Ishii, Jin; Kondo, Emi; Fukagawa, Kenta; Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Sakoi, Tomonori; Tsuchikawa, Tadahiro; Matsubara, Naoki; Horikoshi, Tetsumi
The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature, humidity, air velocity, short wave solar radiation, long wave radiation, ground surface temperature, sky factor, and the green solid angle were measured. The temperatures of skin exposed to the atmosphere and in contact with the ground were measured. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured by means of rating the whole-body thermal sensation (cold-hot) and the whole body thermal comfort (comfortable-uncomfortable) on a linear scale. Linear rating scales are given for the hot (100) and cold (0), and comfortable (100) and uncomfortable (0) directions only. Arbitrary values of 0 and 100 were assigned to each endpoint, the reported values read in, and the entire length converted into a numerical value with an arbitrary scale of 100 to give a linear rating scale. The ETFe considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 35.9 °C, with 32.3 °C and 42.9 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the ETFe considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The mean skin temperature considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 33.3 °C, with 31.0 °C and 34.3 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the mean skin temperature considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The
Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Kaseva, Nina; Matinolli, Hanna-Maria; Miettola, Satu; Eriksson, Johan G; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Kajantie, Eero
Young adults born preterm have higher levels of cardiometabolic risk factors than their term-born peers. Muscular and cardiorespiratory fitness have important cardiometabolic and other health benefits. We assessed muscular, cardiorespiratory, and self-rated fitness in preterm-born young adults. We studied unimpaired participants of the ESTER (Ennenaikainen syntymä ja aikuisiän terveys [Preterm Birth and Early-Life Programming of Adult Health and Disease]) birth cohort study at age 23.3 (SD: 1.2) years: 139 born early preterm (EPT; Young adults born EPT (-0.8; 95% confidence interval: -1.5 to -0.1; adjusted for gender, age, and source cohort) and LPT (-0.8; -1.4 to -0.3) performed fewer modified push-ups than controls. Handgrip strength was 23.8 (0.9-46.8) N lower in EPT participants. Cardiorespiratory fitness, measured by submaximal step test, was similar. On a self-rated fitness scale (1-5), the EPT adults reported 0.2 (0.0-0.4) lower scores than controls. After adjustment for early-life confounders, the results remained. They attenuated after further adjustment for mediating factors. Young adults born EPT and LPT had lower muscular fitness than controls, which may predispose them to cardiometabolic and other chronic diseases. Adults born EPT also perceived themselves as less fit than controls. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Osaki, Yoneatsu; Matsushita, Sachio; Shirasaka, Tomonobu; Hiro, Hisanori; Higuchi, Susumu
To investigate the characteristics of alcohol use among Japanese adults and prevalence of alcohol dependence in Japan, we conducted a nationwide survey on alcohol drinking behavior and alcohol dependence among Japanese adults using a representative sampling method. We sampled 3500 adults from throughout the entire country using a stratified random sampling method with two-step stratification, and carried out a home visit interview survey. A total of 2547 people (72.8%) responded to the survey. The survey period was June, 2003. The questionnaire contained questions about the frequency and quantity of alcohol use, 'hazardous use of alcohol' and 'alcohol dependence' according to the ICD-10 definition, several screening scales on problem use of alcohol (CAGE, KAST, AUDIT), life-time prevalence of 24 alcohol related diseases, smoking status, dysgryphia, and nightcap drinking. The number of respondents was, 1184 males, and 1363 females. Lifetime alcohol drinking, and weekly drinking, and daily drinking rates were 95.1%, 64.4%, and 36.2% for males, 79.0%, 27.5%, and 7.5% for females, respectively. Average daily alcohol consumption was 3.7 units for males, and 2.0 units for females (1 unit = 10 g pure alcohol). The proportion of drinkers who drank alcohol 4 units or more daily was 28.9% for males, and 7.6% for females, and that for 6 units or more was 12.7% for males, and 3.4% for females. The proportion of flasher was 41.2% for males, and 35.0% for females. Among screening questions, problem drinking was most frequently identified using AUDIT (score 12 points or more, 150 persons), followed by KAST (2 points or more, 100 persons) and CAGE (2 points or more, 98 persons). The number of subjects who met the ICD-10 criteria for alcohol dependence was 24, while the number who engaged in hazardous alcohol use was 64. This study revealed that problem drinking and alcohol dependence are a serious problem in Japanese general population. The problem of females drinking may be
After graduating from college and entering the work force, young adult athletes often struggle with the task of fueling themselves optimally for top performance and weight control. The stresses and time constraints of work, family, and social responsibilities often result in eating fast foods on the run. These young adults can benefit from nutrition education programs in the worksite, at health clubs, in the community, and via the media. Dietitians who specialize in sport nutrition have particular appeal to these athletes, who are struggling to each well, exercise well, and stay lean yet put little time or effort into their food program. This article includes two case studies of young adults and the dietary recommendations that taught them how to make wise food choices, fuel themselves well for high energy, and control their weight.
Ischemic stroke is not rare in young adults since one in ten stroke patients are less than 50 years old. This incidence increased over the past last years, mainly due to the rise in the prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in this sub-group of age but also of illegal drug use. Even though both survival and functional outcome of young stroke patients are better than those observed in older patients, socio-economic and quality of life consequences make this disease a main objective in terms of primary and secondary prevention. Identifying the cause of ischemic stroke in young adults is of major importance to prevent stroke recurrence. However, given the wide variety of potential underlying causes, the etiologic work-up of stroke in young adults requires a different approach from that in the elderly. In this context, a sequential diagnostic work-up is needed in order to optimize the yield of diagnostic tests, to reduce their cost and risks for the patient. Arterial dissection is the most frequent cause of stroke in young adults but other less frequent causes are numerous. Despite a comprehensive work-up, about one third of cases remains unexplained leading to the diagnosis of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Boylan, Jennifer Morozink; Tsenkova, Vera K; Miyamoto, Yuri; Ryff, Carol D
To examine associations between glucoregulation and 3 categories of psychological resources: hedonic well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect), eudaimonic well-being (i.e., personal growth, purpose in life, ikigai), and interdependent well-being (i.e., gratitude, peaceful disengagement, adjustment) among Japanese adults. The question is important given increases in rates of type 2 diabetes in Japan in recent years, combined with the fact that most prior studies linking psychological resources to better physical health have utilized Western samples. Data came from the Midlife in Japan Study involving randomly selected participants from the Tokyo metropolitan area, a subsample of whom completed biological data collection (N = 382; 56.0% female; M(SD)age = 55.5(14.0) years). Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was the outcome. Models adjusted for age, gender, educational attainment, smoking, alcohol, chronic conditions, body mass index (BMI), use of antidiabetic medication, and negative affect. Purpose in life (β = -.104, p = .021) was associated with lower HbA1c, and peaceful disengagement (β = .129, p = .003) was associated with higher HbA1c in fully adjusted models. Comparable to the effects of BMI, a 1 standard deviation change in well-being was associated with a .1% change in HbA1c. Associations among psychological resources and glucoregulation were mixed. Healthy glucoregulation was evident among Japanese adults with higher levels of purpose in life and lower levels of peaceful disengagement, thereby extending prior research from the United States. The results emphasize the need for considering sociocultural contexts in which psychological resources are experienced in order to understand linkages to physical health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES. The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models.With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was -0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, -0.33 to -0.01 g/L. The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when "body mass index", "consumption of meat or fish", "self-rated health", "presence of medical conditions", "hyperlipidemia", or "respiratory disease "was included in the model.Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways.
Full Text Available This article examines the ways in which Young Adult dystopian film Divergent (2014 successfully repurposes dystopia for a young demographic, making dystopia an aesthetically appealing space for heroic adventure. The film recombines Young Adult literary tropes with film conventions including those of science fiction. Divergent and other Young Adult dystopian films modify the potential for social critique associated with canonic dystopian fiction. The article’s critical framework includes theories of dystopia and of Young Adult dystopian literature, the Freudian uncanny, studies of the post-apocalyptic film city and new media theory. In Divergent, the dystopian division of society into factions is made enjoyable through production design, particularly in ‘Dauntless’, the faction joined by heroine Tris. This extends to transmedia marketing. The book’s violence is reduced to increase audience engagement, while lack of contextual detail precludes a critical dystopia. In Divergent, the spaces and ideologies of the post-apocalyptic film city are reframed as youth culture. Chicago is gamified, connoting an adventure playground. The space of the Dauntless ‘Pit’ offers symbolic rebirth, community and romance, yet its appeal is uncanny, as with communal spaces in The Host (2013 and The Maze Runner (2014. Divergent’s mirror simulation foregrounds spectacle but other simulations construct immediacy, appearing dream-like not immersive. Like the visions in Young Adult dystopian adaptations How I Live Now (2013 and Ender’s Game (2013, simulations convey individual awareness and supernatural communication. The film combines pleasurable classification and a divergence motif with its heroine’s development, revising dystopian cinematic space. Divergent represents a new form of dystopian cinema.
Al-Hazmi, Manal; Wooldrage, Kate; Anthonisen, Nicholas R.
OBJECTIVE: Airflow obstruction is relatively uncommon in young adults, and may indicate potential for the development of progressive disease. The objective of the present study was to enumerate and characterize airflow obstruction in a random sample of Canadians aged 20 to 44 years. SETTING: The ...
Prince-Embury, Sandra; Saklofske, Donald H.; Nordstokke, David W.
The Resiliency Scale for Young Adults (RSYA) is presented as an upward extension of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA). The RSYA is based on the "three-factor model of personal resiliency" including "mastery," "relatedness," and "emotional reactivity." Several stages of scale…
Larsen, Maiken K; Nissen, Peter H; Kristensen, Ingrid B
pathogenic mutations. Lipid profiles and genetic testing for FH could be considered when autopsy reveals significant atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries in young adults. First-degree family members are advised to seek medical advice and testing to determine their own risks of atherosclerosis to prevent...
Gold, Rinat; Segal, Osnat
In the present study, we compared the processing of both conventional and novel metaphors by deaf versus hearing young adults. Eighteen deaf participants with severe-to-profound hearing loss and 18 controls matched for age, sex, and years of education were presented with word pairs of 4 types (literal, conventional metaphors, novel metaphors, and…
Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.
The effects of bilateral kidney irradiation were compared in young and adult rats. During a 1 year period after a single dose of 0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, or 15 Gy on both kidneys, renal function (glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow), urine composition, and systolic blood pressure were measured periodically. The first changes after irradiation were observed in the glomerular filtration rate and urine osmolality. One month after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine osmolality had declined below control values in the young rats. After this initial decline, renal function increased at control rate or even more during the third and fourth month after irradiation but decreased progressively thereafter. In the adult rats, GFR and urine osmolality started to decrease 3 months after 10, 12.5, and 15 Gy. A rise in systolic blood pressure and proteinuria started 2-3 months after 12.5 and 15 Gy in both age groups. Early changes in the glomerular filtration rate with a drop in urine osmolality in young rats, occurring during a period of rapid renal development indicated an irradiation-induced inhibition of glomerular and tubular development. Although renal function deteriorated at a later time in adult rats, dose-response relationships obtained in young and adult rats did not show significant differences
Kathleen L. Wolf; Elizabeth Housley
Decades of research studies demonstrate links between healthy environment, healthy lifestyles, and healthy people. This study evaluated the correlations between young adult conservation workersâ perceived stress, personal effectiveness, and nature experience using quantitative and qualitative social science methods. The study cohort numbered nearly 300 individuals...
Method: HIV screening was performed on all (n = 673) young adults referred to the retrovirology unit of the Haematology Department of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 2003 to December 2003 comprising of 205 males and 432 females were screened for HIV using a double ELISA ...
Bach, Jacqueline; Choate, Laura Hensley; Parker, Bruce
As the body of high quality young adult literature (YAL) continues to grow, what role might these texts play in professional development for educators? This article describes ways in which schools can develop book study programs that use this literature to promote meaningful dialogue and understanding of contemporary adolescent issues. Based on…
Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.
To learn about the lives of young adults with ASD, families with children born 1974-1984, diagnosed as preschoolers and followed into adolescence were contacted by mail. Of 76 eligible, 48 (63%) participated in a telephone interview. Global outcome scores were assigned based on work, friendships and independence. At mean age 24, half had good to…
Full Text Available Stroke is in second place on a mortality list in the world. Also, stroke is a leading cause of disability. Approximately 20% of all strokes occur in Children and young adults. The etiology of stroke in Children and young adults is different from that in older patients, and has an influence on diagnostic evaluation and treatment, so knowledge about older patients cannot always be applied to these patients. The list of stroke etiologies among young adults and children is extensive. Ischemic stroke are more frequent than hemorrhagic strokes in both groups. Stroke in young adults had been thought to be associated with risk factors, including arterial (such as dissection, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, inflammatory arteritis ,moyamoya ,migraine - induced stroke, genetic or inherted arteriopathy, premature atherosclerosis cardiac (such as patent foramen ovale, cardiomyopathy , congenital heart disease and hematologic (such as deficiencies of protein S,protein C,or antithrombin;factor V lieden mutation . Common risk factors for stroke in children include: Sickle-cell disease, diseases of the arteries, abnormal blood clotting, head or neck trauma. There are no specific recommendations or guidelines for primary or secondary stroke prevention in young adults. Primary prevention focused on identifying and managing known vascular risk factors, such as hypertension, disorders of lipid metabolism, and diabetes, and non-drug strategies and lifestyle changes, including smoking, reducing body weight, increasing regular aerobic physical activity, and adopting a healthy diet with more fruit and vegetables and less salt. For secondary stroke prevention, identification of the etiologic mechanism of the initial stroke and the presence of any additional risk factors is most important. It consists of optimal treatment of vascular risk factors administering antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, and if indicated, invasive surgical or
Adibi, Peyman; Behzad, Ebrahim; Shafieeyan, Mohammad; Toghiani, Ali
Functional Gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common disorders in gastroenterology which are common in young adults. The aim of this study is evaluating the prevalence of upper FGID in iranian young adults. This was a cross-sectional study which was on 995 persons who were going to marry. A ROME III based questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of upper GI Syndromes among the sample population. Our results determined 74 subjects had functional dyspepsia (36 subjects diagnosed as postprandial distress syndrome patient and Epigastric pain syndrome was seen in 38 subjects). Functional heartburn was diagnosed in 52 participants. Globus was seen in 35 subjects and 41 had unspecified excessive belching. Many epidemiologic studies were done all around the world but there are different reports about prevalence and incidence of FGIDs. Our results were agreed with reported prevalence of FGIDs in Iran in adults. And our findings were agreed with some other Asian studies.
... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults KidsHealth / For Parents / Cerebral Palsy Checklist: Teens & Young Adults What's in this article? ...
Taguchi, Masanori; Noma, Yutaka
The present study examined the relationship between directionality of drawing movements and the orientation of drawn products in right-handed adults and young children for 27 Japanese kindergartners and 29 Japanese university students who were asked to draw with each hand fishes in side view and circles from several starting points. Significant values of chi2 for distributions of frequencies of orientation of the fish drawings and the direction of circular drawing movement indicated that adult right-handers drawing the fish facing to the left tended to draw a circle clock-wise when they drew with the dominant hand, while there was no such significant relationship in young children's drawings. This result may suggest that the reading and writing habits may be implicated in the direction of drawing movements with the dominant hand, and this directional bias of drawing movement in the dominant hand can appear in the orientation of finished drawings.
Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Uenishi, Kazuhiro
Exposure to food service establishments is considered to encourage consumption and contribute to poorer diet quality, and hence adverse health profiles. However, empirical verification of these links remains rare, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that neighborhood restaurant availability and frequency of eating out are associated with unfavorable patterns of dietary intake and thus possibly higher body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young Japanese women. The subjects were 989 female Japanese dietetic students 18 to 22 y of age. Dietary intake and frequency of eating out (i.e., consumption of commercially prepared meals) during the preceding month were assessed using a comprehensive, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Neighborhood restaurant availability was defined as the number of restaurants within a 0.5-mile (0.8-km) radius of residence (i.e., full-service restaurants, limited-service restaurants, and cafeterias). Increasing frequency of eating out was associated with higher intake of meat, confectionery and bread, and dietary fat, lower intake of fruit and vegetables, rice, and dietary fiber, and higher dietary energy density. However, neighborhood restaurant availability was not associated with either the frequency of eating out or any of the dietary variables examined. Further, frequency of eating out and neighborhood restaurant availability were not associated with BMI or waist circumference. In conclusion, although frequency of eating out was positively associated with unfavorable dietary intake patterns in a group of young Japanese women, neighborhood restaurant availability was not associated with frequency of eating out or dietary intake.
Walton, AnnMarie L; Albrecht, Tara A; Lux, Lauren; Judge Santacroce, Sheila
Social media use is ubiquitous among young adults. Young adults with cancer must make important decisions about where, what, and how to share information on social media. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to start conversations about the risks and benefits of social media use. This column aims to review a variety of social media platforms that may be used by young adults with cancer and provide guidance to nurses on initiating open dialogue with young adults about social media usage. .
Full Text Available Hypertension is developed easily in Asian adults with normal body mass index (BMI (~23 kg/m2, compared with other ethnicities with similar BMI. This study tested the hypothesis that slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men by historical cohort study.The study participants were 636 male alumni of the physical education school. They had available data on their physical examination at college age and follow-up investigation between 2007 and 2011. The participants were categorized into six categories: BMI at college age of <20.0 kg/m2, 20.0-21.0kg/m2, 21.0-22.0kg/m2, 22.0-23.0kg/m2, 23.0-24.0kg/m2, and ≥24.0kg/m2, and the incidence of hypertension was compared.This study covered 27-year follow-up period (interquartile range: IQR: 23-31 which included 17,059 person-years of observation. Subjects were 22 (22-22 years old at graduated college, and 49 (45-53 years old at first follow-up investigation. During the period, 120 men developed hypertension. The prevalence rates of hypertension for lowest to highest BMI categories were 9.4%, 14.6%, 16.1%, 17.5%, 30.3%, and 29.3%, respectively (p<0.001 for trend, and their hazard ratios were 1.00 (reference, 1.80 (95%CI: 0.65-4.94, 2.17 (0.83-5.64, 2.29 (0.89-5.92, 3.60 (1.37-9.47 and 4.72 (1.78-12.48, respectively (p<0.001 for trend. This trend was similar after adjustment for age, year of graduation, smoking, current exercise status and current dietary intake.Slightly increased BMI at young age is a risk factor for future hypertension in Japanese men.
Rybakova, Katie; Roccanti, Rikki
In this article we discuss the respective roles of young adult literature and literary texts in the secondary level English Language Arts classroom and explore the connections that can be made between popular young adult books and the traditional canon. We provide examples showing how young adult literature bestsellers such as "The Book…
Stroke Among Young Adults at the LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. AF Mustapha, EO Sanya, TO Bello. Abstract. Background: Stroke in young adults is relatively rare and there are very few hospital reports about it in Nigeria. The aetiologic mechanisms of stoke among young adults are quite distinct from ...
Jorgensen, Bryce L.; Savla, Jyoti
This article tests a conceptual model of perceived parental influence on the financial literacy of young adults. Structural equation modeling was used to test whether (a) parents were perceived to influence young adults' financial knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and (b) the degree to which young adults' financial attitudes mediated financial…
As high school enrollment continues to rise, the need for effective librarianship serving young adults is greater than ever before. "Young Adults Deserve the Best: Competencies for Librarians Serving Youth," developed by Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), is a document outlining areas of focus for providing quality library service…
School Library Journal, 2010
The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2010 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the list of titles that were released in January 2010 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Boston,…
School Library Journal, 2009
The Young Adult Library Services Association (YALSA), a division of the American Library Association (ALA), announced its 2009 annual lists of Fabulous Films for Young Adults and Amazing Audiobooks for Young Adults ages 12 to 18. This article presents the titles that were released in January 2009 during the ALA Midwinter Meeting in Denver,…
Oyama, Yumiko; Fukahori, Hiroki; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Narama, Miho; Kono, Ayumi; Atogami, Fumi; Kashiwagi, Masayo; Okaya, Keiko; Takamizawa, Emiko; Yoshizawa, Toyoko
To investigate the factors affecting the research productivity of young nursing faculty in Japan. An online survey targeting young nursing scholars (aged ≤ 39 years) who were members of the Japan Academy of Nursing Science was conducted from October to November 2012. Of 1634 potential respondents, 648 completed the survey (39.7%), and 400 full-time faculty of a baccalaureate degree program were selected for the analysis. The numbers of English-language and Japanese publications in the past 3 years were regressed onto personal characteristics, such as academic degree and type of university. The mean numbers of publications in English and Japanese in the past 3 years were 0.41 and 1.63, respectively. Holding a doctoral degree was significantly related to a higher number of publications in English and Japanese (e(β) = 5.78 and e(β) = 1.89, respectively). Working at a national university (e(β) = 2.15), having a research assistant (e(β) = 2.05), and the ability to read research articles in English (e(β) = 2.27) were significantly related to more English-language publications. Having the confidence to conduct quantitative research (e(β) = 1.67) was related to a larger number of Japanese publications. The lack of mentoring (e(β) = 0.97) and university workload (e(β) = 0.96) were associated with a lesser number of Japanese publications. The research productivity of young nursing faculty appeared to be quite low. Strategies to enhance research productivity in young nursing faculty, such as encouraging the achievement of a doctoral degree or enrichment of research resources, should be undertaken. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.
Beaty, Lee A.
In this paper, development during the adolescent period is considered from a counseling perspective. Although many of the issues of young adults continue to confront older adults, this paper discusses the issues that are special to this age group. It suggests that the emotional and social domain is best represented by the theory of Erikson, which…
Kawakita, R; Hosokawa, Y; Fujimaru, R; Tamagawa, N; Urakami, T; Takasawa, K; Moriya, K; Mizuno, H; Maruo, Y; Takuwa, M; Nagasaka, H; Nishi, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Aizu, K; Yorifuji, T
To investigate the molecular and clinical characteristics of the largest series of Japanese patients with glucokinase maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY), and to find any features specific to Asian people. We enrolled 78 Japanese patients with GCK-MODY from 41 families (55 probands diagnosed at the age of 0-14 years and their 23 adult family members). Mutations were identified by direct sequencing or multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification of all exons of the GCK gene. Detailed clinical and laboratory data were collected on the probands using questionnaires, which were sent to the treating physicians. Data on current clinical status and HbA1c levels were also collected from adult patients. A total of 35 different mutations were identified, of which seven were novel. Fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels of the probands were ≤9.3 mmol/l and ≤56 mmol/mol (7.3%), respectively, and there was considerable variation in their BMI percentiles (0.4-96.2). In total, 25% of the probands had elevated homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance values, and 58.3% of these had evidence of concomitant Type 2 diabetes in their family. The HbA1c levels for adults were slightly higher, up to 61 mmol/mol (7.8%). The incidence of microvascular complications was low. Out of these 78 people with GCK-MODY and 40 additional family members with hyperglycaemia whose genetic status was unknown, only one had diabetic nephropathy. The molecular and clinical features of GCK-MODY in Japanese people are similar to those of other ethnic populations; however, making a diagnosis of GCK-MODY was more challenging in patients with signs of insulin resistance. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.
Full Text Available Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asymmetries, correction after body modifying procedures, and facial sculpturing are important issues for young adults. The implication of aesthetic medicine as part of preventive medicine is a major ethical challenge that differentiates aesthetic medicine from fashion.Keywords: acne scars, ice pick scars, boxcar scars, fillers
Traulsen, Lisbet Krogh; Halling, Anders; Bælum, Jesper
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate determinants for the prognosis of asthma in a population-based cohort of young adults. Design: The study was a nine-year clinical follow up of 239 asthmatic subjects from an enriched population-based sample of 1,191 young adults, aged 20-44 years, who...... participated in an interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination at baseline in 2003-2006. From the interview, an asthma score was generated as the simple sum of affirmative answers to five main asthma-like symptoms in order to analyse symptoms of asthma as a continuum. The clinical...... examination comprised spirometry, bronchial challenge or bronchodilation, and skin prick test. Results: Among the 239 individuals with asthma at baseline 164 (69%) had persistent asthma at follow up, while 68 (28%) achieved remission of asthma and seven (3%) were diagnosed with COPD solely. Determinants...
of consumer competence in actual consumption decisions, however more competent approaches were reported when respondents were faced with hypothetical purchase situations. The young consumers' own understanding of what consumer competence requires showed some degree of correspondence with traditional notions...... of 'desirable consumer socialization', but also added a fundamental consumer competence to the list: to carefully consider one's need to make a purchase. Research limitations/implications The study included only a certain segment of young consumers. Future studies of consumer competence may include consumers......, particularly with respect to how new, complex buying decisions are managed. Findings Guidance from family and friends was found to be of major significance as regards complex consumer decisions made in the transition period from home to first household. The young adults did not display very high levels...
Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.
Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have ver...
In the chapter forming of religiousness in young adults in the view of current concepts, both normative (stadial concepts of religiousness) and non-normative, will be presented. The majority of research on religiousness of youth is carried out in the normative understanding of development, which refers to general trends of human psychological development, especially cognitive development (cognitive developmental concepts of religiousness), personality development (humanistic concepts of the d...
Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto
Uwe Wollina1, Alberto Goldman21Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany; 2Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande du Sul, BrazilAbstract: Age is a significant factor in modifying specific needs when it comes to medical aesthetic procedures. In this review we will focus on young adults in their third decade of life and review minimally invasive aesthetic procedures other than cosmetics and cosmeceuticals. Correction of asy...
Stephens, Janna; Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K
Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions.
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the support they need to achieve suitable employment is needed. Interventions to improve the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities were lacking. The...
Humoud Alqashan; Hayfaa Alkandari
This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced...
Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige
Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.
Niu, Kaijun; Momma, Haruki; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Guan, Lei; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Ouchi, Eriko; Nagatomi, Ryoichi
Few epidemiological studies have assessed the relationship between the traditional Japanese dietary pattern and longitudinal changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors among Japanese people. We designed a 3-year longitudinal study of 980 subjects living in Japan to evaluate how the Japanese dietary pattern is related to longitudinal changes in well-recognized risk factors for cardiovascular disease among apparently healthy Japanese adults. Dietary consumption was assessed via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to derive three major dietary patterns-"Japanese," "sweets-fruits-cooked wheaten food," and "Izakaya (Japanese Pub)" from 39 food groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, the mean (95% confidence interval) for the change per year in diastolic blood pressure for men, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure for women related to the "Japanese" dietary pattern factor score tertiles were 0.89 (0.10, 1.68), 2.25 (0.19, 4.31), and 0.75 (-1.00, 2.50) for the lowest tertile, 0.77 (-0.02, 1.56), 1.01 (-1.13, 3.15), and 0.44 (-1.38, 2.26) for the middle tertile and - 0.04 (-0.81, 0.72), -0.48 (-2.52, 1.56), and -0.77 (-2.51, 0.96) for the highest tertile (trend P value = 0.03, pattern factor score tertiles and the longitudinal change in serum triglyceride concentration only in men (trend P value = 0.02). Greater adherence to a traditional Japanese diet was independently related to a decreased change every year in diastolic blood pressure in men and women and in systolic blood pressure in women over a 3-year follow-up period. The findings suggest that the "Japanese" dietary pattern appeared to be related to a fall in blood pressure, which might have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular disease. A randomized trial is required to clarify the underlying mechanism.
Fox, M.R.S.; Tao, S.H.; Fry, B.E. Jr.; Phillippy, B.Q.; Lee, Y.H.; Johnston, M.R.
Graded levels of phytic acid (PA) were fed to day-old Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) for 7 d to establish responses for evaluating effects of inositol tri-, tetra-, and pentaphosphates. Sodium phytate was added to supply 1.4, 2.8, 5.5, 8.4, 11.0, and 13.8 g PA/kg adequate casein-gelatin diet containing 20 mg Zn/kg. Eleven g phytic acid approximates that in diets containing defatted soy flour as the protein source. PA:Zn molar ratios were 7, 14, 27, 41, 54, and 68. The effects and graded response ranges (g PA/kg diet) were as follows: decreased body weight, 2.8-13.8; defective feathering, 1.4-5.5; decreased tibia Zn, 1.4-5.5; decreased tibia ash, 1.4-13.8; and decreased pancreas Zn, 1.4-5.5. The lowest level of PA produced marked decreases in tibia and pancreas Zn; thus the PA ranges can be extended to even lower levels. The effects of PA were reproducible between experiments and the mean values were reproducible except for tibia ash and liver Mn, which varied somewhat. There were no effects of PA on liver Zn and Mg, or on pancreas Fe and Mg; the effects on liver Fe and Cu, and tibia Fe and Mg were small and inconsistent. The responses to PA and the dose ranges provide a realistic basis for assessing the biological effects of other inositol phosphates that can be formed during food processing
Dr. J.A.C. Verhoef
This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work participation in these young adults and the
Full Text Available Comparative research suggests that there are great cross-national and cross-temporal differences in living arrangements of young adults aged 18-34 in Europe. In this paper, we examine young adults’ living arrangements (1 across several European countries and different national contexts, and (2 by taking into account cross-time variability. In doing so, we pay careful attention to a comprehensive conceptualisation of living arrangements (including extended and non-family living arrangements. The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of family structure and household arrangements in Europe by examining and mapping the cross-national and cross-temporal variety of young adults’ living arrangements. For our analysis we use data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series International (IPUMSi for the census rounds 1980, 1990, and 2000 for eight European countries (Austria, France, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Portugal, Romania, and Switzerland. We employ log-linear models to ascertain the influence of individual and contextual factors on living arrangements. The analyses lend further support to a North/West – South/East divide in living arrangements and general gender differentials in extended family living. Other interesting results are the heterogeneity in the living arrangements of single mothers across geographic areas, and the upward trend of extended household living for young men and women between 1980 and 2000.
Evaluation of the repeated-dose liver and gastrointestinal tract micronucleus assays with 22 chemicals using young adult rats: summary of the collaborative study by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT)/The Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS) - Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS).
Hamada, Shuichi; Ohyama, Wakako; Takashima, Rie; Shimada, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Kazumi; Kawakami, Satoru; Uno, Fuyumi; Sui, Hajime; Shimada, Yasushi; Imamura, Tadashi; Matsumura, Shoji; Sanada, Hisakazu; Inoue, Kenji; Muto, Shigeharu; Ogawa, Izumi; Hayashi, Aya; Takayanagi, Tomomi; Ogiwara, Yosuke; Maeda, Akihisa; Okada, Emiko; Terashima, Yukari; Takasawa, Hironao; Narumi, Kazunori; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Sano, Masaki; Ohashi, Nobuyuki; Morita, Takeshi; Kojima, Hajime; Honma, Masamitsu; Hayashi, Makoto
The repeated-dose liver micronucleus (RDLMN) assay using young adult rats has the potential to detect hepatocarcinogens. We conducted a collaborative study to assess the performance of this assay and to evaluate the possibility of integrating it into general toxicological studies. Twenty-four testing laboratories belonging to the Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group, a subgroup of the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society, participated in this trial. Twenty-two model chemicals, including some hepatocarcinogens, were tested in 14- and/or 28-day RDLMN assays. As a result, 14 out of the 16 hepatocarcinogens were positive, including 9 genotoxic hepatocarcinogens, which were reported negative in the bone marrow/peripheral blood micronucleus (MN) assay by a single treatment. These outcomes show the high sensitivity of the RDLMN assay to hepatocarcinogens. Regarding the specificity, 4 out of the 6 non-liver targeted genotoxic carcinogens gave negative responses. This shows the high organ specificity of the RDLMN assay. In addition to the RDLMN assay, we simultaneously conducted gastrointestinal tract MN assays using 6 of the above carcinogens as an optional trial of the collaborative study. The MN assay using the glandular stomach, which is the first contact site of the test chemical when administered by oral gavage, was able to detect chromosomal aberrations with 3 test chemicals including a stomach-targeted carcinogen. The treatment regime was the 14- and/or 28-day repeated-dose, and the regime is sufficiently promising to incorporate these methods into repeated-dose toxicological studies. The outcomes of our collaborative study indicated that the new techniques to detect chromosomal aberrations in vivo in several tissues worked successfully. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In response to the growing suicide rate among adolescents and young adults, researchers have noted the importance of peer responses to suicidal disclosures in this population. The most adaptive response is to inform a responsible adult about the suicidal peer, but existing data indicate that most adolescents and young adults choose to talk to the…
Greenwood, Peter W.; And Others
This document analyzes the sentencing of young adult defendants in comparison with older adult and younger juvenile offenders, and disputes prior research which held that young adults received more lenient sentencing, perhaps because of the restrictions on disclosing juvenile delinquency histories. The document presents data from samples of young…
Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos
Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195
J.A.C. Verhoef (Joan)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis addresses the work participation of young adults with physical disabilities caused by a chronic condition. With increasing numbers of young people with a chronic physical condition living into adulthood, knowledge about the development of work
Ito, Kiwako; Jincho, Nobuyuki; Minai, Utako; Yamane, Naoto; Mazuka, Reiko
Two eye-tracking experiments tested how pitch prominence on a prenominal adjective affects contrast resolution in Japanese adult and 6-year old listeners. Participants located two animals in succession on displays with multiple colored animals. In Experiment 1, adults' fixations to the contrastive target (pink cat [right arrow] GREEN cat) were…
Sosnowy, Collette; Silverman, Chloe; Shattuck, Paul
Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and whether these indicators match their goals and aspirations. We interviewed parents (n = 21) and young adults with autism spectrum disorder (n = 20) about their experiences with the transition to adulthood to understand what they consider to be desirable outcomes and how they seek to achieve them. Understanding these perspectives will help identify areas of need as well as disconnections between service objectives and the goals of young adults and their families. Participants described outcomes as more complex and nuanced than current conceptions and measures account for. They defined and evaluated outcomes in relation to their or their child's individual abilities, needs, and desires. These findings provide important insight into challenges to and facilitators of desired outcomes, which has implications for programming, service delivery, and policy.
Nichols, Mary Anne
By addressing the concept of merchandising, this handbook shows librarians how to turn their young adult collection into one that will attract teenagers. Delivering an introduction to marketing and merchandising concepts, the author shares years of experience as a teen services librarian, combined with the latest studies and research findings on…
Sato, Kaoru; Manabe, Kentaro; Endo, Akira
Average adult Japanese male (JM-103) and female (JF-103) voxel (volume pixel) phantoms newly constructed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) have average characteristics of body sizes and organ masses in adult Japanese. In JM-103 and JF-103, several organs and tissues were newly modeled for dose assessments based on tissue weighting factors of the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP). In this study, SAFs for thyroid, stomach, lungs and lymphatic nodes of JM-103 and JF-103 phantoms were calculated, and were compared with those of other adult Japanese phantoms based on individual medical images. In most cases, differences in SAFs between JM-103, JF-103 and other phantoms were about several tens percent, and was mainly attributed to mass differences of organs, tissues and contents. Therefore, it was concluded that SAFs of JM-103 and JF-103 represent those of average adult Japanese and that the two phantoms are applied to dose assessment for average adult Japanese on the basis of the 2007 Recommendations. (author)
Toni Yvette Sims-Muhammad
This study explores the perception and attitude of young adults toward conspicuous consumption portrayed in mass media and their conception of poverty. Many young adults may not realize the cadre of consumerist ideologies portrayed throughout the culture and mass media such as buy more, buy newer and improved, buy wants over needs, buy comparatively, buy exclusively and buy to prove. In light of such mass media portrayal, young adult consumption habits may reflect unrealistic ideas about what...
Kansagra, Ankit; Litzow, Mark
Young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are a distinctive category of patients, with substantial difference in disease biology and response to therapy; hence, they pose unique challenges and issues beyond those faced by children and older adults. Despite inferior survival compared to children, there is growing evidence to suggest that young adults have improved outcomes when treated with pediatric-based approaches. With better supportive care and toxicity management and multidisciplinary team and approach, we have made great improvement in outcomes of young adults with ALL. However, despite significant progress, patients with persistence of minimal residual disease have a poor prognosis. This review discusses current controversies in the management of young adults with ALL, outcomes following pediatric and adult protocols, and the role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We also explore recent advances in disease monitoring and highlight our approach to incorporation of novel therapies in the management of young adults with ALL.
Full Text Available Risk factors for hip fracture in Japanese older populations are understudied compared with Western countries arguably due to the relatively lower prevalence rates in Japan. Nationally representative data from the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging were analyzed using logistic regression to examine possible risk factors of hip fractures, separately for older women (n = 2,859 and older men (n = 2,108. Results showed that older Japanese women with difficulty bending their knees (OR = 1.9, with diabetes (OR = 1.7 times, and/or with more activity of daily living limitations (OR = 1.1 had higher risks of hip fracture. Older Japanese men with difficulty bending their knees (OR = 2.6, who use more external prescription drugs (OR = 1.9, and with cancer (OR = 2.0 times had higher risks of hip fracture. Further considerations of gender- and culture-specific factors along with the identified risk factors may provide insights into future intervention programs for hip fracture in Japanese older populations.
Zimlichman, Eyal; Kochba, Ilan; Mimouni, Francis B; Shochat, Tzippora; Grotto, Itamar; Kreiss, Yitshak; Mandel, Dror
The aim of this work was to study the association between obesity and smoking habits in young adults. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that obesity does not prevent young adults from smoking and conversely smoking does not protect against obesity. Trained nurses interviewed participants concerning demographic data and health behaviors such as smoking. At the time of the interview, weight and height were measured. Data were analyzed retrospectively. A representative sample of Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel upon discharge from compulsory service, usually at the age of 20-21 years. Overall, 29 745 participants were included during the 13-year study (16,363 males and 13,382 females). Smoking rates were higher among obese participants than among overweight and non-obese participants (34.9%, 37.1%, 43.6% for non-obese, overweight and obese, respectively; P < 0.001). Mean number of cigarettes smoked per day were also higher among smokers that were obese and overweight compared to the non-obese (15.2 +/- 9.2, 15.6 +/- 10.7, 18.0 +/- 9.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Overweight and obesity were associated with the father's lower academic educational level. In logistic regression analysis, obesity, year of study and parental academic education were correlated independently with smoking (P < 0.001). The positive association between obesity and smoking suggests that obesity is not a deterrent to smoking and also that smoking does not help to prevent obesity.
Park, In Sook; Kim, Bo Young; Jeon, Doo Sung; Kim, Hong Soo; Rhee, Hak Song; Oh, Sung Soo
Of patients examined during the 24 years from January 1963 to December 1986, we have reviewed 6116 cases of gastric cancer. We found 126 cases of gastric carcinoma in patients below 30 years of age among 6116 cases of gastric malignancy, which were confirmed by histopathological study at PMC in Chonju. In an attempt to identify further the natural history of carcinoma of the stomach in young adults, we reviewed 126 cases of stomach carcinoma in patients below 30 years of age at PMC. The results were as follows: 1.Among the gastric malignancies the incidence of gastric carcinoma in young adults was 2.1%. 2.The age ranged from 13 years to 29 years, and the peak incidence occurred in the 3rd decade. 3.Male to female ratio was 1:1.03. 4.Common symptoms included epigastric pain, indigestion, weight loss, and vomiting. The mean time interval between onset of symptoms and the 1st visit to a physician was 12 months. 5.Usually diagnostic aids were UGI series, endoscopic examination and biopsy. 6.In the endoscopic finding Borrmamn type III was predominant. 7.The majority of tumors occurred in the antrum and Pyloric portion. 8.Histologic diagnosis were adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma, and mucinous cardinoma, in orders
Thompson, Ashley E; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Byers, E Sandra; Shaughnessy, Krystelle
Sexual interest and capacity can extend far into later life and result in many positive health outcomes. Yet there is little support for sexual expression in later life, particularly among young adults. This study assessed and compared young adults' explicit and implicit attitudes towards older adult sexuality. A sample of 120 participants (18-24 years; 58% female) completed a self-report (explicit) measure and a series of Implicit Association Tests capturing attitudes towards sexuality among older adults. Despite reporting positive explicit attitudes, young people revealed an implicit bias against the sexual lives of older adults. In particular, young adults demonstrated implicit biases favouring general, as compared to sexual, activities and young adults as compared to older adults. Moreover, the bias favouring general activities was amplified with regard to older adults as compared to younger adults. Our findings challenge the validity of research relying on self-reports of attitudes about older adult sexuality.
Mays, Darren; Atkins, Michael B; Ahn, Jaeil; Tercyak, Kenneth P
Background: There is mounting evidence that young people can develop a dependence on indoor tanning, but research on factors associated with indoor tanning dependence remains limited. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated factors associated with indoor tanning dependence in a community sample of 389 non-Hispanic white young adult women ages 18 to 30 who had indoor tanned ≥1 time in the past year. Participants completed measures of indoor tanning dependence, including the modified CAGE and modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders-IV psychiatric screening assessments, indoor tanning behavior and beliefs, and behavioral and psychiatric comorbidity. Results: Overall, 22.6% of the sample screened positive for indoor tanning dependence. In multivariable analyses, indoor tanning dependence was associated with younger age of indoor tanning initiation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.79; P = 0.017], indoor tanning ≥20 times in the past year (aOR = 3.03; P = 0.015), stronger beliefs about the benefits of tanning (aOR = 2.15; P = 0.004), greater perceived susceptibility to indoor tanning risks (aOR = 2.72; P tanning dependence among young, non-Hispanic white women is associated with behaviors that increase the risk of skin cancer, beliefs favoring the perceived benefits of tanning, and comorbid risks such as stronger beliefs about physical appearance and depressed mood. Impact: Comprehensive skin cancer prevention efforts should address indoor tanning dependence among young women and its leading risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1636-43. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
Aarnio, Karoliina; Joensuu, Heikki; Haapaniemi, Elena; Melkas, Susanna; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Putaala, Jukka
Cancer is a risk factor for ischemic stroke. Little is known about cancer among young adults with ischemic stroke. We studied the frequency of cancer and its association with long-term risk of death among young patients with first-ever ischemic stroke. 1002 patients aged 15 to 49 years, registered in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry, and with a median follow-up of 10.0 years (interquartile range 6.5-13.8) after stroke were included. Historical and follow-up data were derived from the Finnish Care Register and Statistics Finland. Survival between groups was compared with the Kaplan-Meier life-table method, and Cox proportional hazard models were used to identify factors associated with mortality. One or more cancer diagnosis was made in 77 (7.7%) patients, of whom 39 (3.9%) had cancer diagnosed prestroke. During the poststroke follow-up, 41 (53.2%) of the cancer patients died. Median time from prestroke cancer to stroke was 4.9 (1.0-9.5) years and from stroke to poststroke cancer was 6.7 (2.7-10.9) years. Poststroke cancer was associated with age>40 years, heavy drinking, and cigarette smoking. The cumulative mortality was significantly higher among the cancer patients (68.6%, 95% confidence interval 52.0%-85.3%) compared with patients without cancer (19.7%, 95% confidence interval 16.3%-23.2%). Active cancer at index stroke, melanoma, and lung/respiratory tract cancer had the strongest independent association with death during the follow-up when adjusted for known poststroke mortality prognosticators. Cancer, and especially active cancer and no other apparent cause for stroke, is associated with unfavorable survival among young stroke patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
young adult offsprings of Nigeria hypertensive adults. Background: On the premise that micro-albuminuria is a predictor of early stage hypertensive disease and the fact that heredity plays an important role in the aetiology of essential hypertension, ...
Ruiz, Sarah K; Harris, Susan J; Martinez, Pedro; Gold, Philip M; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
The quality of our early attachment relationships with primary caregivers is carried forward to new developmental domains, including interpersonal contexts in adulthood. One of the factors that can disrupt early attachment is maternal depression, which may be associated with less responsive care and may impede the development of a secure attachment. Moreover, this disruption in secure attachment may act as a mechanism by which offspring of depressed mothers are more likely to experience their own psychopathology. In this study we predicted that attachment anxiety and avoidance would mediate the relationship between maternal depression diagnosis and functional impairment predicting young adult offspring's functional impairment. This study utilized longitudinal data from 98 families with clinically diagnosed depressed and well mothers, and two of their young adult children, an older and younger sibling (N = 123, Female = 75, Mage = 22.09, SD = 2.57). Mother's and young adult children's functioning was based on clinical ratings on the Global Assessment Scale. Attachment was based on the young adult's self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationships. Results indicate that maternal diagnosis and functional impairment predicted offspring's functional impairment. This relationship was partially mediated through offspring's attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance. The mediator and outcome variable were measured concurrently, thus causal implications are limited. Our study provides critical evidence that early experiences with depressed mothers may have influence into young adulthood in typical and atypical domains of development. This work extends our understanding of the impact of early experiences in long-term development, and may have treatment implications for intervening on both maternal and romantic relationships to improve attachment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki
In the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the procedure for calculating effective doses was modified as follows. Equivalent doses are evaluated using the male and female voxel phantoms on the basis of reference anatomical data of Caucasians, and effective doses are calculated using sex-averaged equivalent doses in applying tissue weighting factors. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs), which are essential data for calculating internal doses, depend on the body weights, organ masses, and positional relations of organs of the phantoms. Then, the dose coefficients, which are committed effective doses per unit intake of radionuclides, developed by ICRP on the basis of the 2007 Recommendations reflect the physical characteristics of Caucasians and are averaged over the sexes. Meanwhile, the physiques of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasians, and organ masses are also different from each other. Therefore, dose coefficients reflecting Japanese physical characteristics are different from those of ICRP. Knowledge of the influence of race differences on dose coefficients is important to apply the sex averaged dose coefficients of ICRP to the Japanese system of radiation protection. SAF data based on phantoms which have Japanese physical characteristics is essential for assessment of the dose coefficients reflecting Japanese physical characteristics. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency constructed average adult Japanese phantoms, JM-103 (male) and JF-103 (female), and is developing a dose estimation method for internal exposure using these phantoms. This report provides photon and electron SAFs of JF-103. The data of this report and the previously published data of JM-103 are applicable to evaluate sex-specific and sex-averaged dose coefficients reflecting the physical characteristics of the average adult Japanese for intakes of radionuclides emitting photons and electrons. Appendix as CD-ROM. (J.P.N.)
María Martina Casullo
Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria.
Petersson, Gunnel Hänsel; Twetman, Svante
BACKGROUND: To validate baseline caries risk classifications according to the Cariogram model with the actual caries development over a 3-year period in a group of young adults living in Sweden. METHODS: The study group consisted of 1,295 19-year-old patients that completed a comprehensive clinical...... baseline examination, including radiographs and salivary tests. An individual caries risk profile was computed and the patient was placed in one of five risk categories. After 3 years, 982 patients (75.8%) were re-examined and caries increment for each patient was calculated. The outcome was expressed...... as sensitivity, specificity and predictive values and compared with a risk assessment scheme used in Public Dental Service. RESULTS: The drop-outs displayed more risk factors and a significantly higher caries burden at baseline compared with those that remained in the project (p
Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin
This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…
It is commonly assumed in the print media that bilingual young adults in Bangladesh are subjugated by the colonial legacy of English and they are "polluting" Bangla, the national language of Bangladesh, by their indiscriminate insertion of English in it. However, this ethnographic study on a group of young adults in a university in…
Webley, Paul; Nyhus, Ellen K.
We analyze the role economic socialization plays in the economic behavior and asset accumulation of young adults by parents using data from European young adults and teenagers. We study the role of four distinct strands of economic socialization (providing pocket money, jobs at home, work for others, and parental encouragement) using a Dutch…
Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn
Dental care among young adults with intellectual disability (ID) is poorly documented and largely unmet. By using population-based data from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Follow-Up Study, we assessed factors associated with at least one or two dental visits per year among young adults with and without ID. Significantly fewer…
Govindarajoo, Mallika V.; Mukundan, Jayakaran
This article presents the results of a study on the experience of the Malaysian secondary school student with Young Adult Literature in the English language classroom. The study aimed to determine the extent to which the Malaysian secondary school student identified with the young adult protagonists and issues in the novels which have been…
Cothran, Donetta; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges
The authors present two beginning studies. One investigated the teaching-style preferences of young adults, and the other looked at physical activity trends within this age group. One key to understanding young adults and physical activity is to recognize the importance of participant cognition on physical activity patterns. From this…
Ischemic stroke is rare in young adults, but it is genuinely a serious situation giving the fact that it touch a very active part of our society. We report a series of 128 cases. The purpose is to analyze the risk factors, etiologies and outcomes of ischemic stroke in young adults in Marrakesh. Retrospective study performed at the ...
Hu, Jessie; Kent, Paul; Lennon, Joshua M; Logan, Latania K
Acute necrotising ulcerative gingivitis is an acute onset disease characterised by ulceration, necrosis, pain and bleeding in gingival surfaces. It is predominantly seen in severely malnourished children and young adults with advanced HIV infection. We present a unique presentation in a young adult with high-grade osteogenic sarcoma. PMID:26376700
Teasley, Alan B.; Wilder, Ann
Discusses how films portraying the lives of young adults can serve as the basis for a "viewer response" study of film and filmmaking. Lists and summarizes 50 films found to be suitable for teaching to young adults. Provides criteria by which the films were selected. (HB)
Conclusion: We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight. Keywords: Obesity; overweight; prevalence; Uganda; young adults. African Health Sciences ...
Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.
This study concerns life satisfaction and its determinants in Dutch young adults with spina bifida (SB). Data on life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire [LiSat-9]) were related to hydrocephalus, lesion level, disabilities, and demographic variables. In total, 179 young adults with SB
Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; van den Berg, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J.
Objective: To describe the development and psychometric properties of survey measures relevant to eating, physical activity, and weight-related behaviors among young adults. Methods: Focus groups and reliability testing guided the development of the Project EAT-III survey. The final survey was completed by 2287 young adults. Results: The…
Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.
Clinical reports suggest that many survivors of childhood cancer experience fatigue as a long-term effect of their treatment. To investigate this issue further, we assessed the level of fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We compared the results with a group of young adults with no
Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Kitano, Takao; Kuchiki, Tsutomu; Okazaki, Hideki; Shibata, Shigeo
The National Nutrition Survey of Japan indicated a trend toward a decreasing body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) among young Japanese women. Current studies suggest that not-high BMI often does not correlate with not-high body fat percentage. Recently, the classification of BMI in adult Asians was proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The addition of an "at risk of overweight" category, BMI as 23.0-24.9, was intended to prevent chronic diseases. We investigated the association between body fat percentage (BF%) and BMI to evaluate the screening performance of BMI focused on individual preventive medicine. The subjects consisted of 605 female college students. The subjects' ages (y), heights (cm), body weights (kg), BMIs, and BF percents with underwater weighing expressed as the means +/- SD were 19.6 +/- 0.5, 158.7 +/- 5.6, 53.8 +/- 7.2, 21.3 +/- 2.4, and 24.9 +/- 4.9, respectively. We defined high BF% as +/- 85th percentile of BF% (29.8%). High-BF% individuals are often not classified into BMI > or = 23.0 because their BMI readings are very broad (18.4-31.7). In comparison to the screening performances (specificity and sensitivity), BMI > or = 23.0 (85.3% and 52.1%, respectively), rather than BMI > or = 25.0 (96.7% and 29.8%, respectively), is recommended for the mass evaluation of fatness. For this reason, the BMI "at risk of overweight" category is characterized as the threshold of increasing the appearance ratio of high-BF% individuals. In conclusion, the BMI > or = 25.0 kg/m2 category is determined as high BF%, regardless of body composition measurement for mass evaluation as a result of quite high specificity. Even so, body composition measurement is necessitated by the individual evaluation of fatness focused on preventive medicine because BMI performed a poor representation of body composition, especially BMI < 25.0 kg/m2 individuals.
Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Palomo, R; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J
Lexical fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to assess language and executive function. As part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project), we provide age- and education-adjusted normative data for 3 semantic fluency tasks (animals, fruits and vegetables, and kitchen tools), three formal lexical fluency tasks (words beginning with P, M and R), three excluded-letter fluency tasks (words excluding A, E and S) and a verb fluency task. The sample consisted of 179 participants who are cognitively normal and range in age from 18 to 49 years. Tables are provided to convert raw scores to scaled scores. Age- and education-adjusted scores are provided by applying linear regression techniques. The results show that education impacted most of the verbal fluency test scores, with no effects related to age and only minimal effects related to sex. The norms obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Kito, Aiko; Ueno, Takeji
This study focused on the subjective experiences and mental health of young, unemployed adults in Japan. We explored how individuals describe their experiences of becoming unemployed and how these experiences influence their mental health within the current Japanese sociocultural context, using a social constructionist approach. We collected data from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants were 25 young unemployed Japanese job seekers (15 females), who were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy including snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants' previous work and job search experience, their lifestyle and health, the social support they considered necessary, their future job-seeking plans, and their demographic characteristics. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key themes from the interview data: stress relief, re-energization for future work, new job skills acquisition, and lifestyle change. The findings indicate that unemployment is sometimes experienced as more beneficial than employment. This might be because of the poor working environment in Japan, the financial support participants received, and the experience of short-term unemployment. The findings suggest that intervention is necessary to help young adults in Japan find high-quality jobs and that we must promote fair employment and decent working conditions for them.
Functional literacy is interpreted as the ability of the individual to apply skills in reading, writing, calculation and basic problem-solving in those activities in which literacy is required for effective functioning in his/her own group and community. The paper describes the rationale, development and administration of the test used for measuring levels (high, moderate, low) of achievement in functional literacy in three domains (document, prose and quantitative). An assumption of the study was that a high level of functional literacy was required for the individual to function effectively in his/her own group and community. The context of the study is Guyana the most underdeveloped and impoverished country in the English-speaking Caribbean. The subjects are out of school youth in Guyana aged 14-25. Amongst the main findings are: only approximately 11% of the young people show a high level of functional literacy; females tend to have a higher level of functional literacy than males: and most of those at the low level never went beyond primary and low status secondary schools and usually end up unemployed or in semi- or unskilled jobs. Attention is drawn to the difficulty of attracting funding for literacy programmes from international aid agencies, given the inflated adult literacy rate which is reported for Guyana in international statistics. While they credit Guyana with an adult literacy rate of 97.5%, the study suggests that a more realistic figure is in the 70s. The importance of adult and continuing education is underscored in view of the need to help those who are out of school to meet the ever-changing demands of society for improved skills in literacy and numeracy.
Saghazadeh, Mahshid; Kitano, Naruki; Okura, Tomohiro
Knowledge of gender differences in foot shape assists shoe manufactures with designing appropriate shoes for men and women. Although gender differences in foot shapes are relatively known among young men and women, less is known about how the older men and women's feet differ in shape. A recent development in foot shape assessment is the use of 3D foot scanners. To our knowledge this technology has yet to be used to examine gender differences in foot shape of Japanese older adults. This cross-sectional study included 151 older men (74.5 ± 5.6 years) and 140 older women (73.9 ± 5.1 years) recruited in Kasama City, Japan. Foot variables were measured in sitting and standing positions using Dream GP Incorporated's 3D foot scanner, Footstep PRO (Osaka, Japan). Scores were analyzed as both raw and normalized to truncated foot length using independent samples t-test and analysis of covariance, respectively. In men, the measurement values for navicular height, first and fifth toe and instep heights, ball and heel width, ball girth, arch height index (just standing), arch rigidity index and instep girth were significantly greater than the women's, whereas the first toe angle, in both sitting and standing positions was significantly smaller. However, after normalizing, the differences in ball width, heel width, height of first and fifth toes in both sitting and standing and ball girth in sitting position were nonsignificant. According to Cohen's d, among all the foot variables, the following had large effect sizes in both sitting and standing positions: truncated foot length, instep, navicular height, foot length, ball girth, ball width, heel width and instep girth. This study provides evidence of anthropometric foot variations between older men and women. These differences need to be considered when manufacturing shoes for older adults.
Sosnowy, Collette; Silverman, Chloe; Shattuck, Paul
Existing research shows that young adults with autism spectrum disorder have poorer outcomes than their peers with other developmental disabilities in the key areas of independent living, postsecondary education, and employment. However, we understand little about how young adults with autism and their families understand and value outcomes and…
Roux, Anne M.; Shattuck, Paul T.; Cooper, Benjamin P.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Wagner, Mary; Narendorf, Sarah C.
Objective We examined postsecondary employment experiences of young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and compared these outcomes with those of young adults with different disabilities. Method Data were from Wave 5 of the National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2), a nationally representative survey of young adults who had received special education services during high school. We examined the prevalence of ever having had—and currently having—a paid job at 21–25 years of age. We analyzed rates of full employment, wages earned, number of jobs held since high school, and job types. Results About half (53.4%) of young adults with an ASD had ever worked for pay outside the home since leaving high school, the lowest rate among disability groups. Young adults with an ASD earned an average of $8.10 per hour, significantly lower than average wages for young adults in the comparison groups, and held jobs that clustered within fewer occupational types. Odds of ever having had a paid job were higher for those who were older, from higher-income households, and with better conversational abilities or functional skills. Conclusions Findings of worse employment outcomes for young adults with an ASD suggest this population is experiencing particular difficulty in successfully transitioning into employment. Research is needed to determine strategies for improving outcomes as these young adults transition into adulthood. PMID:23972695
Yumura, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Okada, Hiroshi; Ota, Kuniaki; Kitazawa, Masahumi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Kakinuma, Tosiyuki; Takae, Seido; Suzuki, Nao; Iwamoto, Teruaki
This study aimed to ascertain the current status of Japanese sperm banking for young cancer patients. During 2015, we mailed the directors of 695 institutes where sperm cryopreservation might be performed with questionnaires requesting information on the number of patients, age, precryopreservation chemotherapy, semen analyses results and diagnoses, cryopreservation success rate, and causes of unsuccessful cryopreservation. Of these 695 institutes, 92 had cryopreserved sperm before chemotherapy within the study period. In all, 820 cancer patients (237 testicular, 383 hematological, 46 bone and soft tissue, 20 brain, and 134 other malignancy) consulted the responding institutes for sperm cryopreservation. Except for testicular tumor, the number of patients whose sperm was preserved before cancer treatment was low compared to that of young cancer patients. Approximately 20% of patients with malignancies other than testicular tumor underwent chemotherapy before cryopreservation. The success rate of cryopreservation in hematological malignancy was 82.5%, significantly lower than that of both the testicular cancer (93.6%) and other malignancy groups (95.6%) (P < 0.05). The primary reasons for preservation failure were azoospermia and poor semen quality. Patients with hematological malignancies had a higher rate of unsuccessful cryopreservation compared to those in other groups, possibly due to the large number of patients requesting sperm cryopreservation after chemotherapy induction. In Japan, information regarding sperm banking prior to cancer treatment appears to be lacking. Information regarding sperm preservation before chemotherapy should be provided to all Japanese oncologists.
Adam E. Green
Conclusions: In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.
This paper presents the results of a multisite case study of adult basic education in Japan. A key finding of the study is that as part of community building within classrooms, students, teachers, and administrators prioritize human relations and expressions of empathy rather than academic skill development. In contrast to Japanese educational…
This qualitative study examines critical pedagogy in Japanese adult basic education. The research focuses on what teachers and others think the current conditions are for education that deals with social justice. As part of this, the research looks at how critical pedagogy is conceptualized in this context. Participants in the study (literacy…
Manabe, Kentaro; Sato, Kaoru; Takahashi, Fumiaki
The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is revising dose coefficients, which are effective and equivalent doses per unit intake of radionuclides, based on the 2007 Recommendations. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) of voxel phantoms having standard physiques and organ masses (physical characteristics) of Caucasian are used for calculation of the new dose coefficients. SAFs depend on physical characteristics of a phantom used for assessment of the SAFs. Therefore, the SAFs and the dose coefficients developed by ICRP reflect physical characteristics of Caucasian. On the other hand, physiques of adult Japanese are generally smaller than those of adult Caucasian, and organ masses are also different from each other. Consequently, it is expected that SAFs and dose coefficients with physical characteristics of adult Japanese are different from those of ICRP. It is important to understand the influence of the differences in physical characteristics between both races on SAFs and dose coefficients when using the SAFs and dose coefficients of ICRP for radiation protection for Japanese. In order to evaluate internal doses considering the physical characteristics of adult Japanese, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency plans to develop a comprehensive data set of SAFs for photons, electrons, alpha particles and neutrons using average adult Japanese male and female phantoms (male: JM-103, female: JF-103). This report presents a data set of photon and electron SAFs for JM-103. JM-103 was incorporated into the general purpose radiation transport code, MCNPX 2.6.0, and the SAFs were calculated by the MCNPX 2.6.0 for 25 energies from 10 keV to 10 MeV and for combinations of 67 source regions and 41 target organs. Influences of differences in physical characteristics between adult Japanese and Caucasian on SAFs was also examined by comparison between the calculated SAFs in this study and the SAFs of the reference adult male phantom of ICRP. The photon and electron
Weil, B J; Martens, P B; Harte, J S
Review a case of Salmonella infection in a young adult related to handling of an infected iguana. Case report. Most cases of Salmonella infection related to handling of reptiles have occurred in children. We report a case of Salmonella diarrhea in a 19-year-old male who kept a pet iguana. The iguana was asymptomatic, but Salmonella grew from stool specimens. Those who keep iguanas as pets, which are particularly attractive to adolescents and young adults, should be aware that iguanas frequently carry Salmonella. Those caring for adolescents and young adults should always inquire into the pet-keeping habits of their patients when illnesses develop.
Richardson, George B; Chen, Ching-Chen; Dai, Chia-Liang; Swoboda, Christopher M
This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.
George B. Richardson
Full Text Available This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict fast LHS or overall liability for substance use among young adults. Young adult neuroticism was independent of substance use controlling for fast LHS. The surprising finding of independence between parent and child LHS casts some uncertainty upon the identity of the parent and child LHS variables. Fast LHS may be the primary driver of young adult use of common psychoactive substances. However, it is possible that the young adult fast LHS variable is better defined as young adult mating competition. We discuss our findings in depth, chart out some intriguing new directions for life history research that may clarify the dimensionality of LHS and its mediation of the intergenerational transmission of substance use, and discuss implications for substance abuse prevention and treatment.
Stone, Dawn S; Ganz, Patricia A; Pavlish, Carol; Robbins, Wendie A
Sixty-three percent of cancer survivors continue to work, or return to work after treatment. Among this population, work ability and challenges encountered in the workplace by young adult cancer survivors have not been well established. The purposes of the study are to describe what is currently known about work-related issues for young adult cancer survivors diagnosed between ages 15 and 39, to identify gaps in the research literature, and to suggest interventions or improvements in work processes and occupational settings. A narrative review of articles using PubMed, CINAHL, and PsychInfo was conducted without date limitations. Search phrases included young adult cancer survivors, long-term cancer survivors, young adults affected by cancer, further combined with key terms employment, work, and occupationally active. Inclusion criteria for publications were young adult cancer survivors initially diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39, data about work or employment was presented, and articles written in English. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. Work-related issues included the potential for reduced work productivity from cancer-changed physical and cognitive functional ability that affected income, and resulted in distress. Coping style, support systems, and changing perspectives about work and life in general were also influential on career decisions among young adult cancer survivors. More research is needed to study interventions to better manage health changes in young adult cancer survivors within the context of the workplace. Since financial hardship has been shown to be especially high among young cancer survivors, employment is essential to ensure payment of cancer-associated costs and continued medical care. While young adult cancer survivors may initially grapple with cancer-related physical and psychosocial changes that impact work productivity or influence choice of occupation, employment appears to enhance overall quality of life.
Nakao, Tatsuma; Kato, Kazuo
This study attempted to adapt into Japanese the Adult Attachment Style Scale (ECR: Experiences in Close Relationships inventory) that was constructed by Brennan, Clark, and Shaver (1998), based on 14 existing scales. Of 387 respondents, 231 who reported having been or are currently involved in romantic relationships were employed for final analysis. We examined validities of the Japanese version of ECR in the two ways: (1) Examining the correlations between "Anxiety" and Self-esteem scale by Rosenberg (1965) which were theoretically related to Self-view, and the correlations between "Avoidance" and Other-view scale by Kato (1999b) which were theoretically related to Other-view; (2) whether or not ECR represents the features of four attachment styles as classified by Relationship Questionnaire (RQ; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991). The results supported our expectations. This Japanese version of ECR was demonstrated to have adequate psychometric properties in validity and reliability.
Harrell, M.B.; Weaver, S.R.; Loukas, A.; Creamer, M.; Marti, C.N.; Jackson, C.D.; Heath, J.W.; Nayak, P.; Perry, C.L.; Pechacek, T.F.; Eriksen, M.P.
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12?17?years old), young adults (18?29?years old), and older adults (30?+ years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n?=?3907) and young adult college students (n?=?5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n?=?6051) nationwide were administered in 2014?2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation...
Hoeve, M.; McReynolds, L.S.; Wasserman, G.A.
This study examined the influence of adolescent psychiatric disorder on young adult recidivism and compared findings with earlier studies of juvenile recidivism. Logistic regression analysis examined subsequent adulthood recidivism (through age 23 years) by disorder profile, adjusting for prior
Tønnesen, Rune; Hovind, Peter Hambak; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn
BACKGROUND: Very few studies have investigated the determinants of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in young adults (18-25 years old) using a set of variables that include lifestyle, sociodemographic, and anthropometric data. Our aim was to investigate the association between...... these variables and vitamin D status in a sample of untreated young adults. METHODS: A total of 738 young adults were enrolled in a (June cross-sectional study 2012 to May 2014) and were recruited from educational institutions in the Copenhagen area. For multivariate logistic regression subjects was categorized.......68). For vitamin D insufficiency, the highest RR was again for men 1.31 (1.06, 1.61); obese subjects 1.57 (1.17, 2.11); and subjects who exercised 0-½ hours a week 1.51 (1.11, 2.06). CONCLUSION: In this study of young adults, vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent. Modifiable factors such as smoking...
Evidence suggests that some adolescent and young adult cancers may have unique genetic and biological features. Researchers are trying to better understand the biology of these cancers in order to identify potential therapeutic targets.
Apr 4, 2013 ... In a business context, marketing is used to recruit new customers. Similarly, the .... church can be used as a basis for young adults to experience the church .... the spatial relationships (distances) between the items, whereas ...
Østerballe, Morten; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Hansen, Tine Kjær
by questionnaire, skin prick test (SPT) and histamin release (HR) followed by oral challenge to the most common allergenic foods. FHS was divided into primary and secondary FHS. Primary FHS was defined as being independent of pollen sensitization, whereas secondary FHS was defined as reactions to pollen related......Osterballe M, Mortz CG, Hansen TK, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. The Prevalence of food hypersensitivity in young adults. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SA rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity (FHS) and severe allergic...... reactions to foods have been reported in the last decade. However, little is known on the prevalence in young adults. This study estimated the prevalence of FHS to the most common allergenic foods in an unselected population of young adults. We investigated a cohort of 1272 young adults 22 years of age...
have any influence on the smoking behaviour of adolescents and young adults. The participants ... music to risky areas such as drugs, sex, and smoking, and ..... Nakamuk, Takano, 2005), work stress ..... Anger management for families. Parent.
Sato, Kaoru; Endo, Akira; Saito, Kimiaki
This report presents a complete set of conversion coefficients of organ doses and effective doses calculated for external photon exposure using five Japanese adult voxel phantoms developed at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). At the JAEA, high-resolution Japanese voxel phantoms have been developed to clarify the variation of organ doses due to the anatomical characteristics of Japanese, and three male phantoms (JM, JM2 and Otoko) and two female phantoms (JF and Onago) have been constructed up to now. The conversion coefficients of organ doses and effective doses for the five voxel phantoms have been calculated for six kinds of idealized irradiation geometries from monoenergetic photons ranging from 0.01 to 10 MeV using EGS4, a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of coupled electron-photon transport. The dose conversion coefficients are given as absorbed dose and effective dose per unit air-kerma free-in-air, and are presented in tables and figures. The calculated dose conversion coefficients are compared with those of voxel phantoms based on the Caucasian and the recommended values in ICRP74 in order to discuss (1) variation of organ dose due to the body size and individual anatomy, such as position and shape of organs, and (2) effect of posture on organ doses. The present report provides valuable data to study the influence of the body characteristics of Japanese upon the organ doses and to discuss developing reference Japanese and Asian phantoms. (author)
Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…
Tervo, Raymond; O'Leary, Donal
The disabled young adult strives to be independent when preparing to leave home and family. This article provides a checklist that can help the disabled young adult and his/her family to make this transition. In some cases, a transitional rehabilitation program may also be of help. The family physician who is familiar with the issues that pertain to adolescent development can play a central part in addressing patient and family problems that present at this time.
Larsson, IngBeth; Svedin, Carl-Göran
Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous questionnaires were answered by 269 final year, senior high-school students, mean age 18.6 years; 82.9% of the students reported solitary sexual experiences and 82.5% had mutual experiences together with another child. Most of the children had their experiences together with a same-age friend. Girls had more same-sex experiences than boys did. Thirteen percent reported coercive experiences where they had been tricked, bribed, threatened, or physically forced into participation. Some children, 8.2%, had coerced another child into participation in sexual activities. The majority thought of their childhood experiences as normal. There were also 6.3% of the respondents who had had inappropriate sexual experiences with someone at least 5 years older, the majority being girls. Gender differences were evident in several respects: girls were more often coerced, they felt more guilt, and they had far less experience of masturbation, whereas boys were somewhat more active in explorative activities on their own as well as with peers. Some kind of coercive sexual experiences appears to be part of growing up for quite a few children, although in general the years before puberty seem to be years of frequent mutual sexual exploration and experimentation.
Full Text Available Background: Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25–94 years. Methods: Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Results: Among men aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%–70.6%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%–21.9%. High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%–56.8% in men aged 25–34 years. Among men aged 75–94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25–34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%–52.3%, and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%–7.4%. Compared with older age groups, such as 65–94 years, younger age groups, such as 25–54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Conclusions: Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults.
Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kondo, Naoki
Few studies have investigated differences in age- and gender-specific educational gradients in tobacco smoking among the whole range of adult age groups. We examined educational inequality in smoking among Japanese adults aged 25-94 years. Using a large nationally representative sample (167,925 men and 186,588 women) in 2010, prevalence of current smoking and heavy smoking among daily smokers and their inequalities attributable to educational attainment were analyzed according to sex and age groups. Among men aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 68.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 66.0%-70.6%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 19.4% (95% CI, 17.2%-21.9%). High school graduates had the second highest current smoking prevalence (e.g., 55.9%; 95% CI, 54.9%-56.8% in men aged 25-34 years). Among men aged 75-94 years, the difference in current smoking across educational categories was small. A similar but steeper educational gradient in current smoking was observed among women. Among women aged 25-34 years, junior high school graduates had the highest current smoking prevalence at 49.3% (95% CI, 46.3%-52.3%), and graduate school graduates had the lowest at 4.8% (95% CI, 2.9%-7.4%). Compared with older age groups, such as 65-94 years, younger age groups, such as 25-54 years, had higher estimates of inequality indicators for educational inequality in both current and heavy smoking in both sexes. Educational inequalities in current and heavy smoking were apparent and large in the young population compared with older generations. The current study provides basic data on educational inequalities in smoking among Japanese adults. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pereira Santiago, Paulo Roberto; Palucci Vieira, Luiz Henrique; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Moura, Felipe Arruda; Exel Santana, Juliana; de Andrade, Vitor Luiz; de Souza Bedo, Bruno Luiz; Cunha, Sergio Augusto
Background Kicking performance is the most studied technical action in soccer and lower limbs kinematics is closely related to success in kicking, mainly because they are essential in imparting high velocity to the ball. Previous studies demonstrated that soccer leagues in different countries exhibit different physical demands and technical requirements during the matches. However, evidencewhether nationality has any influence in the kinematics of soccer-related skills has not yet been reported. The nationality of the players is an aspect that might be also relevant to the performance in kicking. Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the lower limbs kinematic patterns during kicking, between Brazilian and Japanese young top soccer players. Patients and Methods Seven Brazilian (GA) and seven Japanese (GB) U-17 players performed 15 side-foot kicks each, with a distance of 20 m away from the goal, aiming a target of 1 × 1 m in upper corner, constrained by a defensive wall (1.8 × 2 m). Four digital video cameras (120 Hz) recorded the performance for further 3D reconstruction of thigh, shank and foot segments of both kicking and support limbs. The selected kicking cycle was characterized by the toe-off of the kicking limb to the end of the kicking foot when it came in contact with the ball. Stereographical projection of each segment was applied to obtain the representative curves of kicking as function of time for each participant in each trial. Cluster analysis was performed to identify the mean GA and GB curves for each segment. Silhouette coefficient (SC) was calculated, in order to determine the degree of separation between the two groups’ curves. Results Comparison between the median confidence intervals of the SC showed no differences between groups as regards lower limb patterns of movements. Task accuracy was determined by the relative frequency that the ball reached the target for all attempts and no differences were found (GA: 10.48 ± 14.33%; GB
Social object play (SOP), i.e., social play using portable object(s), among young Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata; 0-4 years old) in the Arashiyama E troop was studied using a modified sequence sampling method from July to October 2000. SOP was a relatively common activity for most of the young macaques and often continued for long periods. Participants used many kinds of object, including edible natural objects and artificial objects, such as plastic bottles, but they never used provisioned food or wild fruit in SOP bouts. An analysis of long bouts (>/=0.5 min) revealed the following interactive SOP features: (1) at any given time, participants used only one object, and only one participant held the object; (2) during SOP play-chasing, the object holder was likely to be chased by others; (3) during long bouts, the object changed hands frequently; and (4) agonistic competition for an object among young macaques was rare. Combinations of sexes, ages, relative ranks, or matrilines of the object holder and non-holder did not affect the tendency that the holder was chased by non-holder(s) during play-chasing. Even when there was a change in object holders, the repetitiveness of this interactive pattern, i.e., that the holder would be chased during SOP bouts, distinguished the SOP structure from that of other types of social play without object(s). General proximate social play mechanisms, such as self-handicapping or role taking, were associated with SOP. Other mechanisms that affected SOP included the following: (1) young macaques treated an object as a target in play competition, and (2) 'being the holder of a target object' was associated with the 'role of the chasee.'
Boumans, Nicolle P G; Dorant, Elisabeth
Most young carer studies on parentification, resilience and coping concentrated on child carers up to age 18 years, whereas the group of young adult caregivers (18-24 years) has been neglected. In our study, we focused on these young adult caregivers, who are in a life phase in which young people usually are distancing themselves from their families and are striving for autonomy and freedom. To explore young adult carers' perceptions of parentification, resilience and coping compared to young adult noncarers. Cross-sectional. In 2014/2015, data were collected on 297 healthcare students from a school for vocational education and a university in the Netherlands. A fully structured questionnaire was used. Young adult carers were compared with young adult noncarers on parentification, resilience and coping. Fifty-six students identified themselves as a carer: 40 vocational education students and 16 university students. Carers scored significantly higher than noncarers on three out of six parentification dimensions. No differences were found for resilience and problem-focused coping behaviour, whereas results for emotion-focused coping demonstrated a higher score for the carers compared to the noncarers. Although it is important to take care of the needs of all young carers, special attention should be given to those who are at the start of their adult lives, undergoing extensive changes and taking major decisions on study and career issues. Home-care professionals and school counsellors should be able to recognise this group and their needs and activate support from specialised services and significant others. © 2018 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic College of Caring Science.
Kamibeppu, Kiyoko; Sato, Iori; Honda, Misato; Ozono, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Iwai, Tsuyako; Okamura, Jun; Asami, Keiko; Maeda, Naoko; Inada, Hiroko; Kakee, Naoko; Horibe, Keizo; Ishida, Yasushi
Few studies have addressed the mental health status of young adult childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and their siblings (SIBs). This paper focuses on depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and posttraumatic growth (PTG) among Japanese CCSs and their SIBs. Adolescent and young adult CCSs (n=185), in remission for more than 1 year, their SIBs (n=72), and general controls (CONTs) (n=1,000) completed anonymous self-report questionnaires for depression, anxiety, PTSS, and PTG. The physicians in charge also completed an anonymous disease/treatment data sheet. CCSs were approximately 8 years old at diagnosis and approximately 23 years old at the time of the survey. Their diagnoses included leukemia (57%), lymphoma (12%), and solid tumors (30%). Thirty-eight percent underwent surgery and 25% received stem cell transplantation. No significant differences were found between CCSs and CONTs in terms of depression and anxiety. CCSs had significantly more PTSS and had remarkably greater PTG compared to CONTs. Although no significant differences were found between SIBs and CONTs regarding depression, anxiety, or PTSS, female SIBs exhibited greater PTG compared to female CONTs. To empower CCSs, they should be evaluated periodically regarding PTSS and PTG and should be provided appropriate care and feedback. The fact that the mental health status of young adult SIBs was similar to CONTs at 15 years after their siblings' diagnoses may help reassure parents who worry about mental health among the siblings of an affected child during and after his/her treatment.
Friis, Karina; Lasgaard, Mathias Kamp; Larsen, Finn Breinholt
-demographic factors and health behaviour with energy drink consumption among young adults (16-24 years) in Denmark. Methods The study is based on a public health survey from 2010 (n = 3923). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyse the association between weekly consumption of energy drink...... and the potential explanatory factors of interest. Results In total, 15.8 % of the young adults drink energy drinks on a weekly basis. Men have higher odds of weekly energy drink consumption than women. The study also shows that young age, being employed and having a low educational level are associated with weekly...
Naslund, John A; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Scherer, Emily A; Pratt, Sarah I; Bartels, Stephen J
Young adulthood represents a critical time to address elevated obesity rates and the risk of early mortality, particularly among people with serious mental illness. Few studies have assessed the benefits of lifestyle interventions targeting weight loss among these young adults. This study examined the impact of the 12-month In SHAPE lifestyle intervention on weight loss and fitness among overweight and obese young adults with serious mental illness (ages 21-30) compared with participants over age 30. Data were combined from three trials of the 12-month In SHAPE program delivered through community mental health centers. In SHAPE includes weekly fitness trainer meetings, a gym membership, and nutrition education. Primary outcomes were weight loss and change in fitness at 12 months. Participants (N=194) had a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (53%) or a mood disorder (47%). The overall sample achieved significant weight loss and improved fitness; differences between young adults (N=29) and participants over age 30 (N=165) were not significant. An important finding was that 42% of young adults achieved clinically significant reductions in cardiovascular risk, defined as ≥5% weight loss or improved fitness (>50-m increase on the 6-Minute Walk Test), compared with 54% of adults over age 30 (a nonsignificant difference between age groups). Among persons enrolled in a lifestyle intervention, overweight and obese young adults experienced benefits comparable with those of adults over age 30. Young adults with serious mental illness face high risk of gaining weight, but a meaningful proportion of these individuals can achieve clinically significant cardiovascular risk reduction, thus highlighting the need to promote lifestyle intervention participation in this group.
... 0720-AB48] Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS); TRICARE Young Adult... Year 2011 (NDAA for FY11). It establishes the TRICARE Young Adult (TYA) program to provide an extended.... The TRICARE Young [[Page 23480
Presents the viewpoints of a tenth grader on novels for young adults that portray troubled teens dealing with alcoholism, drugs, depression, suicide, sexual abuse, and violence. Suggests that contrary to adult opinions that these novels are not always age-appropriate, they in fact broaden teens' outlooks and prepare them for the real world. (LRW)
Gandini, Delphine; Lemaire, Patrick; Michel, Bernard Francois
Forty young adults, 40 healthy older adults, and 39 probable AD patients were asked to estimate small (e.g., 25) and large (e.g., 60) collections of dots in a choice condition and in two no-choice conditions. Participants could choose between benchmark and anchoring strategies on each collection of dots in the choice condition and were required to…
Pijnappels, M.; Kingma, I.; Van Dieën, J. H.
Reduced ability to circumvent an obstacle, which is noticed only shortly before collision, could be a cause of falls and injury, especially in older adults. In this study, we investigated differences in strategies and their characteristics between young and older adults when circumventing a suddenly
Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de
Data on determinants of prognosis after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in young adults are scarce. Our aim was to identify clinical determinants of prognosis after ICH in adults aged 18-50. We investigated 98 consecutive patients with an ICH, aged 18-50 years, admitted to our hospital between 1980
Bonti, Eleni; Bampalou, Christina E.; Kouimtzi, Eleni M.; Kyritsis, Zacharias
The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why Greek young adults with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD) seek learning assessments. The study sample consisted of 106 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for SLD. Data were collected through self-report records (clinical interview) of adults…
Poobalan, Amudha; Aucott, Lorna
This article discusses the overweight/obesity situation among young adults in developing countries. For this target population, obesity prevalence ranges from 2.3 to 12 %, and overweight is 28.8 %, mostly affecting females. Weight is now increasing during this life stage of transition at a higher rate, 1 kg/year, than in developed countries. Maternal factors and early childhood socioeconomic status are associated with BMI in young adults along with changing environmental and behavioural factors in some low and middle income countries, brought about by demographic and socioeconomic transitions. Young adults with 'normal weight' obesity need identification using other convenient low cost measures (skin folds or waist circumference) along with BMI. Obesity prevention or management interventions were not identified, but clearly needed to help stem the obesity pandemic. Young people generally give little priority to their future health, so such interventions need to be conducted at some optimal age, be innovative, country specific and culturally acceptable.
Eklund, Hanna; Findon, James; Cadman, Tim; Hayward, Hannah; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip; Glaser, Karen; Xenitidis, Kiriakos
This study used the Camberwell Assessment of Need for adults with Developmental and Intellectual Disabilities (CANDID) to examine the social, physical health and mental health needs of 168 young people (aged 14-24 years) with neurodevelopmental disorders and compared young person and parent ratings of need. Agreement was poor in 21 out of 25…
Atkinson, Meredith A; Lestz, Rachel M; Fivush, Barbara A; Silverstein, Douglas M
Published data on the comparative achievement of The Kidney Disease Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) recommended clinical performance targets between children and young adults on dialysis are scarce. To characterize the achievement of KDOQI targets among children (young adults (18-24 years) with prevalent end stage renal disease (ESRD), we performed a cross-sectional analysis of data collected by the Mid-Atlantic Renal Coalition, in conjunction with the 2007 and 2008 ESRD Clinical Performance Measures Projects. Data on all enrolled pediatric dialysis patients, categorized into three age groups (0-8, 9-12, 13-17 years), and on a random sample of 5% of patients ≥ 18 years in ESRD Network 5 were examined for two study periods: hemodialysis (HD) data were collected from October to December 2006 and from October to December 2007 and peritoneal dialysis (PD) data were collected from October 2006 to March 2007 and from October 2007 to March 2008. In total, 114 unique patients were enrolled the study, of whom 41.2% (47/114) were on HD and 58.8% (67/114) on PD. Compared to the pediatric patients, young adults were less likely to achieve the KDOQI recommended serum phosphorus levels and serum calcium × phosphorus product values, with less than one-quarter demonstrating values at or below each goal. Multivariate analysis revealed that both young adults and 13- to 17-year-olds were less likely to achieve target values for phosphorus [young adults: odds ratio (OR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.01-0.19, p young adults: OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.002-0.09, p young adult ESRD patients.
Kessing, Lars Vedel; Hansen, Hanne Vibe; Christensen, Ellen Margrethe
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether young adults with bipolar disorder are able to benefit from early intervention combining optimised pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation. The aim of the present report was to compare the effects of early intervention among patients with bipolar...... disorder aged 18-25 years to that of patients aged 26 years or older. METHODS: Patients were randomised to early treatment in a specialised outpatient mood disorder clinic versus standard care. The primary outcome was risk of psychiatric re-hospitalisation. RESULTS: A total of 158 patients with mania/bipolar...... different, the observed differences of the point estimates was surprisingly larger for young adults suggesting that young adults with bipolar disorder may benefit even more than older adults from early intervention combining pharmacological treatment and group psychoeducation....
It finally seems that wine suffers from its nearly sacred image. The young seem not to allow themselves to consume this product, whose image is associated with coded practices that obviously, are different from those of other spirits.
Fujino, Haruo; Sumiyoshi, Chika; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Yasuda, Yuka; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Ohi, Kazutaka; Fujimoto, Michiko; Umeda-Yano, Satomi; Higuchi, Arisa; Hibi, Yumiko; Matsuura, Yukako; Hashimoto, Ryota; Takeda, Masatoshi; Imura, Osamu
Patients with schizophrenia have been reported to perform worse than non-schizophrenic populations on neuropsychological tests, which may be affected by cultural factors. The aim of this study was to examine the performance of a sizable number of patients with schizophrenia on the Japanese version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) compared with healthy controls. Performance on the WAIS-III was evaluated in 157 Japanese patients with schizophrenia and in 264 healthy control subjects. All IQ scores and four indices from the WAIS-III were impaired for patients with schizophrenia compared with healthy controls. Processing Speed was markedly disturbed, approximately 2 SD below that of the healthy control group. Among the 13 subtests, Comprehension (z = -1.70, d = 1.55), Digit Symbol Coding (z = -1.84, d = 1.88), and Symbol Search (z = -1.85, d = 1.77) were profoundly impaired relative to the healthy controls. These results indicate that the pattern and degree of impairment, as evaluated by the WAIS-III, in Japanese patients are similar to those previously reported in English-speaking patients and that the deficits of some neuropsychological domains relevant to functional outcomes are universally characteristic of schizophrenia. © 2014 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2014 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.
Lee, H. R.; Lee, Y. H.; Kim, K. W.
Carcinoma of the stomach is usually considered a disease of middle aged or elderly patients and is rarely suspected in young adults. However carcinoma of the stomach in the young adults is an aggressive malignant disease with nonspecific symptoms and worse prognosis than older age group because of late diagnosis and increased incidence of undifferentiated form. In an attempt to identify further the natural history of carcinoma of the stomach in the young adults, we reviewed 68 cases of stomach cancers in patients 30 years of age and less at Severance hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The over-all male to female ratio in the young adult was 1:1.34 and in order age group was 2.44:1. 2. Common symptoms included epigastric pain, weight loss and vomiting. The mean time interval between onset of symptoms and the first visit to a physician was 3 months. 3. Usually diagnostic aids were UGI series and endoscopic examination. 38 patients underwent an exploratory laparatomy, and lesions were amenable to curative or palliative resection. 4. In the young age Bormann type III and IV were predominant, while in the older age group Bormann type II and III were common. 5. The majority of tumors occurred in the cardia, fundus and upper body. 6. Histologic diagnosis were poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, signet ring cell carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma in orders. 7. A relatively high incidence of pregnancy and Krukenberg tumor in the young age were noted
Limperg, Perrine F.; Haverman, Lotte; van Oers, Hedy A.; van Rossum, Marion A. J.; Maurice-Stam, Heleen; Grootenhuis, Martha A.
The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch norm data and to assess internal consistency and construct validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Young Adult Generic Core Scales (PedsQL_YA) in Dutch young adults aged 18-30 years. A sample of 649 young adults from the general Dutch
Kaltenbrunner Bernitz, Brita; Grees, Nadja; Jakobsson Randers, Marie; Gerner, Ulla; Bergendorff, Sisko
This article, based on a study by the Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate, describes the development of young adults receiving disability benefits due to reduced working capability, and the disability benefit systems in seven European countries; Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the UK. This comparative study mainly uses Sweden as a benchmark. Apart from a documentary and legal data collection and analysis, 26 semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of the responsible ministries and authorities in the studied countries. In addition, national and European data was collected. There is an increasing trend of young adults, aged 19-29, on disability benefits in all studied countries. The most common diagnosis group among young adults on disability benefits is mental and behavioural disorders, ranging from 58% in the UK to 80% in Denmark. The comparison of the different disability benefit systems shows that there are relatively large national differences in terms of rules and regulations, the handling of disability benefit cases, and offered rehabilitation activities and other measures to support young adults on disability benefits to strengthen their working capability, and hence enable them to approach the labour market in the future. However, it is clear that these countries face similar challenges, and therefore there could be a lot to learn from European exchange of experiences and expertise in this area. This article identifies a number of measures of special interest to study and discusses further with regard to the further development of the Swedish system for disability benefits for young adults.
Full Text Available This study investigates whether parental marital status affects young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce. There exists a vast amount of literature on the impact of divorce on young adults in Western cultures; however, no previous empirical studies have been conducted on the attitudes of young adults from intact and divorced families in the Gulf region or in Arab countries in the Middle East. The sample of the study consisted of 661 young adults from Kuwait University (from divorced and intact families. The findings reveal that adults whose parents divorced show fewer positive attitudes toward marriage than do those individuals from intact marriages. The study also suggests that adults whose parents were divorced carry more positive attitudes toward divorce compared with individuals from intact marriages. Furthermore, gender was found to be an important factor in shaping attitudes toward marriage and divorce. A longitudinal study is recommended to look at the changes in young adults’ attitudes toward marriage and divorce over time, which will help to identify the influence of other factors of attitudes toward marriage and divorce.
Masuda, Katsuhiko; Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Naka, Shuhei; Nomura, Ryota; Ooshima, Takashi
Infective endocarditis (IE) is known to be a life-threatening disease and invasive dental procedures are considered to be important factors. Oral amoxicillin (AMPC) is widely used for prophylaxis in patients with heart disorders who are at risk for IE. However, there is only limited information regarding the inhibition of oral bacteria by AMPC. Dental plaque specimens were obtained from 120 healthy Japanese adult subjects, then diluted and streaked onto selective medium for oral streptococci. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMPC was evaluated using a macro-dilution method by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (2006). Seven strains with an MIC of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more were isolated from 5 subjects. The bacterial species were confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from each strain, which demonstrated that most were Streptococcus sanguinis, followed by Streptococcus oralis. Dental plaque specimens collected from these 5 subjects again after an interval of 2-3 months possessed no strains with an MIC of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more. These findings suggest that strains with a high MIC of AMPC are present in the oral cavities of Japanese adults, though they may be transient rather than inhabitants. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Aronia has various functions toward human health, including the beneficial effect on hypertension, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Recently, we identified cyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside as DPP IV inhibitor from Aronia juice. We also found its beneficial effect on hyperglycemia in KKAy mice fed aronia juice. In this study, to examine the effect of aronia juice on postprandial blood glucose levels in Japanese, we performed an oral meal tolerance test (OMTT. We found that postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced in aronia juice-administered adult healthy Japanese. We also found that there was no difference of reduction levels of postprandial blood glucose between male and female. We also found that activities of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE were reduced by aronia juice. These results suggest that aronia juice suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose levels through inhibition of these enzyme activities and may be useful for prevention of metabolic diseases in adult healthy Japanese.
Full Text Available Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as facial trustworthiness. In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Engell, Todorov & Haxby, 2010; Todorov, 2008. Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Chaby & Narme, 2009; Ruffman, Henry, Livingstone et al., 2008; Firestone, Turk-Browne & Ryan, 2007; Calder, Keane, Manly et al., 2003. Based on Todorov’s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004 reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment, from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.
Bergström, E; Stenlund, H; Svedjehäll, B
To assess body perception in adolescents and young adults without anorexia nervosa. Using a visual size estimation technique, perceived body size was estimated in four groups of Swedish adolescents and young adults without anorexia nervosa (86 males and 95 females). Perceived body size was estimated at nine different body sites comparing these estimations to real body size. The results show that 95% of males and 96% of females overestimated their body size (mean overestimation: males +22%, females +33%). The overestimations were greatest in females. The greatest overestimations were made of the waist (males +31%, females +46%), buttocks (males +22%, females +42%), and thighs (males +27%, females +41%). The results indicate that overestimation of body size may be a general phenomenon in adolescents and young adults in a country such as Sweden, implying a similar, but less pronounced distortion of body image as in individuals with anorexia nervosa.
Ling, Pamela M; Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B; Jordan, Jeffrey W; Glantz, Stanton A
We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for "hipster" young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons.
Metzinger, Courtney; Berg, Christine
Young adults with chronic health conditions can experience barriers to work performance, ability, and their present and future worker roles. Work readiness resources can expand individuals' work skills, abilities, and interests. Five work readiness tools are presented (1) building an occupational profile, (2) generating environmental strategies, (3) on-the-job strategy use, and exploration of online tools (4) O*NET® and (5) O*NET® Interest Profiler, along with two theories (Knowles's Andragogy and Lawton's Ecological Model) to guide tool use. Use of these tools can assist young adults to better manage their health and expand their vocational identities for success at work. These approaches and tools support health professionals, community partners, and vocational organizations in their efforts to help young adults with chronic conditions.
Obradovic, Jelena; Masten, Ann S.
Civic engagement was studied in relation to overall development in adolescence, emerging adulthood, and young adulthood to examine how earlier activity involvement and success in prior and concurrent age-salient domains of competence may contribute to 2 forms of civic engagement in adulthood (citizenship and volunteering). Data on 163 youth were…
Sakai, Hiroka; Murakami, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Satomi; Suga, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi
Only a few studies have focused on the association between overall diet, rather than intakes of individual nutrients or foods, and depressive symptoms in Japanese. This cross-sectional study examined associations between a diet quality score and depressive symptoms in 3963 young (age 18 years) and 3833 middle-aged (mean age 47·9 (sd 4·2) years) Japanese women. Dietary information was collected using a diet history questionnaire. A previously developed diet quality score was computed mainly based on the Japanese Food Guide Spinning Top. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22·0 % for young women and 16·8 % for middle-aged women, assessed as a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) score ≥23 and ≥19, respectively. As expected, the diet quality score was associated positively with intakes of 'grain dishes', 'vegetable dishes', 'fish and meat dishes', 'milk' and 'fruits' and inversely with intakes of energy from 'snacks, confection and beverages' and Na from seasonings. After adjustment for potential confounders, OR for depressive symptoms in the highest v. lowest quintiles of the diet quality score was 0·65 (95 % CI 0·50, 0·84) in young women (P for trend=0·0005). In middle-aged women, the corresponding value was 0·59 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·78) (P for trenddiet quality and CES-D scores were treated as continuous variables also showed inverse associations. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study showed that a higher diet quality score was associated with a lower prevalence of depressive symptoms in young and middle-aged Japanese women. Prospective studies are needed to confirm a public health relevance of this finding.
Jung, Songee; Okubo, Yoshiro; Osuka, Yosuke; Seino, Satoshi; Park, Joonsung; Nho, Hosung; Tanaka, Kiyoji
We aimed to compare the level of physical function (PF) and habitual exercise between older Japanese and Korean adults. A comparative study was carried out on 1069 community-dwelling older Japanese and Korean adults (mean age 73.9 ± 5.2 years). The participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire regarding habitual exercise and covariates. PF age, a composite measure of PF, was derived from the 12 items, using principal component analysis. PF age and habitual exercise were compared between the Japanese and Korean adults, using analysis of covariance (ancova) and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for all covariates using propensity scores. ancova showed that PF age in older Japanese adults was significantly younger than in their Korean counterparts. Older Japanese adults exercised significantly less frequently than their Korean counterparts. Furthermore, older Japanese adults practiced significantly less walking, mountain climbing and bicycling, but more calisthenics, resistance training, ball games and dances than their Korean counterparts. We found that older Korean adults had lower PF (3.7 years older in PF age) than their Japanese counterparts. Although the overall frequency and amount of habitual exercise in older Korean adults were higher than those in their Japanese counterparts, particular types of exercise might have contributed to the higher PF levels among older Japanese adults. Thus, older Korean adults might need to engage more in habitual exercises that are specifically effective in maintaining PF. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 576-583. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Varona, Jose F.
There is limited information about long-term prognosis of ischemic stroke in young adults. Giving the potentially negative impact in physical, social, and emotional aspects of an ischemic stroke in young people, providing early accurate long-term prognostic information is very important in this clinical setting. Moreover, detection of factors associated with bad outcomes (death, recurrence, moderate-to-severe disability) help physicians in optimizing secondary prevention strategies. The prese...
George B. Richardson; Ching-Chen Chen; Chia-Liang Dai; Patrick H. Hardesty; Christopher M. Swoboda
This study tested whether life history strategy (LHS) and its intergenerational transmission could explain young adult use of common psychoactive substances. We tested a sequential structural equation model using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. During young adulthood, fast LHS explained 61% of the variance in overall liability for substance use. Faster parent LHS predicted poorer health and lesser alcohol use, greater neuroticism and cigarette smoking, but did not predict...
Liao, Yung; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro
Associations between levels of sedentary behavior and depressive symptoms independently and in combination with different levels of physical activity remain unclear. This study aimed to examine independent and combined associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with depressive symptoms among Japanese adults. An Internet-based survey collected data on depression levels (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), self-reported time spent in PA and SB (Japanese short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire), and sociodemographic variables from 2,914 adults in 2009. Binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the odds ratios (ORs) for being depressed (depression scores ≥16) according to independent PA levels (none, insufficient, sufficient), SB levels (low, moderate, high), and nine combinations of PA and SB categories. After adjusting for potential confounders, sufficient PA level was found to be related to lower risk of depressive symptoms independently (OR = 0.61), whereas no significant associations were observed between SB levels and depression. In the combined associations, adults in the sufficient PA/high SB (OR = 0.44), sufficient PA/moderate SB (OR = 0.56), and sufficient PA/low SB (OR = 0.57) categories were significantly less likely to have depressive symptoms in comparison with the no PA/high SB category. Meeting physical activity recommendations is associated with a lower risk of depressive symptoms, regardless of time spent in total sedentary behavior. These results suggest that promoting physical activity may be an effective strategy against depressive symptoms among Japanese adults.
Full Text Available This study compared the sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities, healthcare resource utilization, and work productivity among Japanese adults who reported being diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD to those of a non-ADHD control population.Data for this study were captured from an online survey of adults in Japan conducted by Kantar Health using consumer panels. A total of 84 survey participants reported they had received a diagnosis of ADHD from a physician. Survey responses pertaining to functional status and resource utilization from this ADHD group were compared to those from a non-ADHD control group of 100 participants. Comparisons between the ADHD and non-ADHD groups were made using chi-square tests for categorical variables and t-tests for continuous variables.Participants in the ADHD group were on average slightly younger with a higher proportion of males. ADHD respondents reported significantly more comorbid depression, sleep difficulties, headaches, and anxiety than non-ADHD controls. Over the previous 6 months, the ADHD group made more visits to healthcare providers and the emergency room, and had more hospitalizations than non-ADHD controls. The ADHD group also rated their overall health status lower than the non-ADHD control group. Respondents with ADHD reported a significantly higher degree of health-related work impairment compared to non-ADHD, with greater absenteeism and decreased work productivity. The ADHD group indicated their symptoms negatively impacted relationships, self-esteem, and regular daily activities.Japanese adults with ADHD face a substantial burden of illness, including lower overall health status, increased number of comorbidities, greater healthcare utilization, and significant health-related occupational impairment compared to those without ADHD. Additional research is needed to develop a better understanding of both the consequences and treatment approaches for Japanese
In many birds' species such as Japanese quail, sex determination in young and many adult birds is very difficult. Nowadays, sex identification of animals throughout their lives is possible by molecular genetic techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The aim of this study was to determine the sex of Japanese ...
Nowosielski, Krzysztof; Sipiński, Adam; Kuczerawy, Ilona; Kozłowska-Rup, Danuta; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta
Body piercing and tattooing are accepted by a growing number of teenagers and young adults as a way of self-expressing. Some authors suggest association between body piercings/tattoos and early sexual initiation, higher number of sexual partners, or risky sexual behaviors. The aim of the study was to evaluate sexual behaviors among young adults with body modifications (BMs)--tattoos and piercings. One hundred twenty young healthy adults, ages between 20 and 35, were included in the population study. The study group was divided into three subgroups: controls (N = 60), adults with tattoos (N = 28), and adults with piercings (N = 32). The research instrument was a self-prepared questionnaire containing 59 questions assessing socioepidemiological parameters, sexual behaviors, incidents of sexual harassment in the past, and self-attractiveness evaluation, as well as questions concerning tattoos and piercings. Socioepidemiological variables and sexual behaviors were compared between subgroups. To assess and describe the correlation between having BM--tattoos and piercing--and sexual behaviors in the population of young adults by using the logistic regression model. Adults with BMs have had their first intercourse statistically earlier and were more sexually active compared with controls. There were no statically significant differences in sexual orientation, sexual preferences, engaging in risky sexual behaviors, frequency of masturbation, and history of sexual abuse between the groups. In contrast, the frequency of sexual intercourses was statistically higher and oral sex was more likely to be a dominant sexual activity in adults with BM compared with controls. The multivariate logistic model revealed that adults with BM were four times less likely to participate in religious practices and twice more likely to have early sexual initiation. Having BM is associated with early sexual initiation and more liberal attitudes toward sexual behaviors but not with engaging in
Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W.; Block, Rebecca G.; Keyton, Joann
A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms—closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust—of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented. PMID:27624944
Johnson, Rebecca H; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Smith, Ashley W; Block, Rebecca G; Keyton, Joann
A case of a young adult patient in the days immediately after a cancer diagnosis illustrates the critical importance of three interrelated core coordinating mechanisms-closed-loop communication, shared mental models, and mutual trust-of teamwork in an adolescent and young adult multidisciplinary oncology team. The case illustrates both the opportunities to increase team member coordination and the problems that can occur when coordination breaks down. A model for teamwork is presented, which highlights the relationships among these coordinating mechanisms and demonstrates how balance among them works to optimize team function and patient care. Implications for clinical practice and research suggested by the case are presented.
Berndt, Nadine C; O'Riordan, David L; Winkler, Elisabeth; McDermott, Liane; Spathonis, Kym; Owen, Neville
Young adults participating in outdoor sports represent a high-risk group for excessive sun exposure. The purpose of this study was to identify modifiable social cognitive correlates of sunscreen use among young adult competitors. Participants aged 18 to 30 years who competed in soccer (n = 65), surf-lifesaving (n = 63), hockey (n = 61), and tennis (n = 48) completed a sun habits survey. Almost half (n = 113) of the participants used sunscreen inadequately and 30% (n = 70) reported not using sunscreen. In fully adjusted models, social cognitive attributes significantly (p competitors and as a result may be useful in informing behavior change interventions within the sporting context.
Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa
Previous studies in Western populations have linked caffeine intake with health status. While detailed dietary assessment studies in these populations have shown that the main contributors to caffeine intake are coffee and tea, the wide consumption of Japanese and Chinese teas in Japan suggests that sources of intake in Japan may differ from those in Western populations. Among these teas, moreover, caffeine content varies widely among the different forms consumed (brewed, canned or bottled), suggesting the need for detailed dietary assessment in estimating intake in Japanese populations. Here, because a caffeine composition database or data obtained from detailed dietary assessment have not been available, we developed a database for caffeine content in Japanese foods and beverages, and then used it to estimate intake in a Japanese population. The caffeine food composition database was developed using analytic values from the literature, 16 d weighed diet records were collected, and caffeine intake was estimated from the 16 d weighed diet records. Four areas in Japan, Osaka (Osaka City), Okinawa (Ginowan City), Nagano (Matsumoto City) and Tottori (Kurayoshi City), between November 2002 and September 2003. Two hundred and thirty Japanese adults aged 30-69 years. Mean caffeine intake was 256.2 mg/d for women and 268.3 mg/d for men. The major contributors to intake were Japanese and Chinese teas and coffee (47 % each). Caffeine intake above 400 mg/d, suggested in reviews to possibly have negative health effects, was seen in 11 % of women and 15 % of men. In this Japanese population, caffeine intake was comparable to the estimated values reported in Western populations.
Green, Adam E; Mays, Darren; Falk, Emily B; Vallone, Donna; Gallagher, Natalie; Richardson, Amanda; Tercyak, Kenneth P; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S
The study examined young adult smokers' neural response to graphic warning labels (GWLs) on cigarette packs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Nineteen young adult smokers ( M age 22.9, 52.6% male, 68.4% non-white, M 4.3 cigarettes/day) completed pre-scan, self-report measures of demographics, cigarette smoking behavior, and nicotine dependence, and an fMRI scanning session. During the scanning session participants viewed cigarette pack images (total 64 stimuli, viewed 4 seconds each) that varied based on the warning label (graphic or visually occluded control) and pack branding (branded or plain packaging) in an event-related experimental design. Participants reported motivation to quit (MTQ) in response to each image using a push-button control. Whole-brain blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional images were acquired during the task. GWLs produced significantly greater self-reported MTQ than control warnings ( p branded versus plain cigarette packages. In this sample of young adult smokers, GWLs promoted neural activation in brain regions involved in cognitive and affective decision-making and memory formation and the effects of GWLs did not differ on branded or plain cigarette packaging. These findings complement other recent neuroimaging GWL studies conducted with older adult smokers and with adolescents by demonstrating similar patterns of neural activation in response to GWLs among young adult smokers.
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Full Text Available Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Young adult SRX395531,SRX331...RX043965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Young adult SRX080072,SRX39553...2299,SRX005633 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available His.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Young adult SRX1388777,SRX554723,SR...1388779,SRX1388772,SRX1388771,SRX1388778,SRX012297 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Young adult SRX395531,SRX331...RX043965 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Input control Adult Young adult SRX005630,SRX3732...X331269,SRX331331,SRX467093,SRX982096,SRX1388752,SRX1388749,SRX235166,SRX012299 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
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Full Text Available Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Unclassified Adult Young adult SRX707297,SRX70729...8 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Unc.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Young adult SRX331268,SRX331...RX043964 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Young adult SRX395531,SRX08007...4210,SRX005633 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 All antigens Adult Young adult SRX331330,SRX14642...54208,SRX054210,SRX054211 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/ALL.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available His.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Histone Adult Young adult SRX554723,SRX1388779,SR...RX1388775,SRX554734,SRX1388768,SRX012297,SRX012298,SRX012300 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/His.Adl.05.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
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Full Text Available Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Young adult SRX331330,SRX146...,SRX054211 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.50.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 Input control Adult Young adult SRX005630,SRX0056...6,SRX005633 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/InP.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Young adult SRX080072,SRX331...,SRX054211,SRX054210 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.10.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
Full Text Available Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult ce10 TFs and others Adult Young adult SRX331330,SRX146...,SRX054208,SRX054210 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.Adl.20.AllAg.Young_adult.bed ...
J Gordon Millichap
Full Text Available Adaptive functioning of 149 hyperactive (H group and 72 control children (CC group in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, followed for at least 13 years to young adulthood (mean 20 years, range 19-25, was evaluated by interviews with participants, employer ratings, and high school records, and reported by researchers from Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee; and University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester.
Blomkvist, Andreas W; Eika, Fredrik; de Bruin, Eling D
) was investigated in a test-retest design with seven days between sessions. Ten young and thirty older adults were recruited and handgrip steadiness was tested at 5%, 10% and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). Coefficients of variation were calculated from the mean...... force produced (CVM) and the target force (CVT). Area between the force curve and the target force line (Area) was also calculated. For the older adults we explored reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and agreement using standard error of measurement (SEM), limits of agreement......, CVT and Area was 0.815, 0.806 and 0.464, respectively. Averaged ICC on 5%, 10%, and 25% of MVC was 0.751, 0.667 and 0.668, respectively. Measures of agreement showed similar trends with better results for CVM and CVT than for Area. Young adults had better handgrip steadiness than older adults across...
Miyake, Rieko; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Tanaka, Shigeho
Several cross-sectional studies in Pima Indians and Caucasians have indicated that obese individuals with type 2 diabetes have a higher basal metabolic rate (BMR) than healthy, obese individuals. However, no study has investigated this comparison in Japanese subjects, who are known to be susceptible to type 2 diabetes due to genetic characteristics. Thirty obese Japanese adults with pre-type 2 diabetes (n=7) or type 2 diabetes (n=13) or without diabetes (n=10) participated in this study. BMR was measured using indirect calorimetry. The relationships between residual BMR (calculated as measured BMR minus BMR adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex) and biomarkers including fasting glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), fasting insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-R), triglycerides, and free fatty acids were examined using Pearson's correlation. BMR in diabetic subjects adjusted for fat-free mass, fat mass, age, and sex was 7.1% higher than in non-diabetic subjects. BMR in diabetic subjects was also significantly (pBMR and fasting glucose (r=0.391, p=0.032). These results indicate that in the Japanese population, obese subjects with type 2 diabetes have higher BMR compared with obese non-diabetic subjects. The fasting glucose level may contribute to these differences.
Chamberlain, Samuel R; Derbyshire, Katherine L; Leppink, Eric; Grant, Jon E
Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality, and young people are increasingly affected. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between obesity and dissociable forms of impulsivity in young adults. A group of young adults (511) was recruited from city areas in the United States using media advertisements. These young adults were administered careful and extensive clinical and neurocognitive assessment in order to quantify different aspects of impulsivity (behavioral/phenomenological-, cognitive-, and personality-related measures). Associations between obesity and impulsivity were explored using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant function analysis. 10.8% of the sample was obese, and 21.5% was overweight. Compared to controls, subjects with obesity showed significantly elevated rates of maladaptive gambling behaviors, monetary amounts lost to gambling, nicotine consumption, impulsive action (prolonged stop-signal reaction times in the Stop-Signal Test), and impulsive decision-making (reduced modulation of behavior as a function of risk in the Cambridge Gamble Test). Even accounting for potential confounding variables, obesity was significantly predicted by female gender, older age, more maladaptive gambling behaviors, and worse inhibitory control (stop-signal reaction times). Obesity is associated with several dissociable forms of impulsivity in young people, especially gambling and impulse dyscontrol. Family doctors should screen for gambling problems in obese young adults. Successful treatment of nicotine dependence in young obese people is likely to require intensive weight management support. Neuropsychological deficits relating to impulsivity occur in obese people in early adulthood, and may represent vulnerability markers rather than being due to chronic untoward metabolic effects on brain function.
Harrell, M B; Weaver, S R; Loukas, A; Creamer, M; Marti, C N; Jackson, C D; Heath, J W; Nayak, P; Perry, C L; Pechacek, T F; Eriksen, M P
The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12-17 years old), young adults (18-29 years old), and older adults (30 + years old). Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth ( n = 3907) and young adult college students ( n = 5482) in Texas, and young adults and older adults ( n = 6051) nationwide were administered in 2014-2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and "usual" e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%), Texas young adult college students (95%), and young adults (71.2%) nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco), while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03). Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy) may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of flavored e-cigarettes varies between youth (12–17 years old, young adults (18–29 years old, and older adults (30+ years old. Cross-sectional surveys of school-going youth (n = 3907 and young adult college students (n = 5482 in Texas, and young adults and older adults (n = 6051 nationwide were administered in 2014–2015. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals were used to describe the percentage of e-cigarette use at initiation and in the past 30 days that was flavored, among current e-cigarette users. Chi-square tests were applied to examine differences by combustible tobacco product use and demographic factors. Most e-cigarette users said their first and “usual” e-cigarettes were flavored. At initiation, the majority of Texas school-going youth (98%, Texas young adult college students (95%, and young adults (71.2% nationwide said their first e-cigarettes were flavored to taste like something other than tobacco, compared to 44.1% of older adults nationwide. Fruit and candy flavors predominated for all groups; and, for youth, flavors were an especially salient reason to use e-cigarettes. Among adults, the use of tobacco flavor at initiation was common among dual users (e-cigarettes + combustible tobacco, while other flavors were more common among former cigarette smokers (P = 0.03. Restricting the range of e-cigarette flavors (e.g., eliminating sweet flavors, like fruit and candy may benefit youth and young adult prevention efforts. However, it is unclear what impact this change would have on adult smoking cessation.
Nishita, Yukiko; Tange, Chikako; Tomida, Makiko; Otsuka, Rei; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi
The longitudinal relationship between cognitive abilities and subsequent death was investigated among community-dwelling older Japanese adults. Participants (n = 1060; age range 60-79 years) comprised the first-wave participants of the National Institute for Longevity Sciences-Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants' cognitive abilities were measured at baseline using the Japanese Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised Short Form, which includes the following tests: Information (general knowledge), Similarities (logical abstract thinking), Picture Completion (visual perception and long-term visual memory) and Digit Symbol (information processing speed). By each cognitive test score, participants were classified into three groups: the high-level group (≥ the mean + 1SD), the low-level group (≤ the mean - 1SD) and the middle-level group. Data on death and moving during the subsequent 15 years were collected and analyzed using the multiple Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for physical and psychosocial covariates. During the follow-up period, 308 participants (29.06%) had died and 93 participants (8.77%) had moved. In the Similarities test, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of the low-level group to the high-level group were significant (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.02-2.17, P = 0.038). Furthermore, in the Digit symbol test, the adjusted HR of the low-level group to the high-level group was significant (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.03-2.58, P = 0.038). Significant adjusted HR were not observed for the Information or Picture Completion tests. It is suggested that a lower level of logical abstract thinking and slower information processing speed are associated with shorter survival among older Japanese adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1654-1660. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Sonke, Gabe; Ludwig, Inge; Oosten, Hannah; Baars, Joke; Meijer, Ellen; Kater, Arnon; Jong, Daphne
textabstractChronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection manifests as a combination of persistent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms and high viral load in apparently immunocompetent patients. It is closely related to Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. These 2 abnormal Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases are seldom reported in individuals other than Japanese children and adolescents. We report a series of 2 adult non-Japanese patients with fatal chronic ac...
Full Text Available In a large national sample of American and Japanese older adults, this study investigated how bicultural identity affects perception of health and well-being in 11 individual psychological variables (i.e. positive well-being: self-esteem, optimism, subjective well-being Japanese equivalent, gratitude, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–positive adjectives, and satisfaction with life; negative well-being: depression, pessimism, social anxiety, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–negative adjectives, and perceived stress. This sample consisted of 1248 Americans from the Midlife in the United States survey, 2004–2006, and 380 Japanese from the Midlife in Japan survey in Tokyo, Japan, 2008–2010. Results showed that bicultural individuals (having both highly independent and interdependent self-construals in both countries tend to exhibit higher scores across most perceived health and well-being measures when compared to other groups (i.e. marginal, interdependent, and independent. Cultural-specific aspects of self-construal, health, and well-being are explained to support the findings. Discussion of these findings and their implications is also provided.
Full Text Available This article is a synthesis of conducted researches in field of loneliness psychology, in order to reveal the feeling of loneliness and its manifestation at young adults. At this age, the main hazard represent the excessive self-concern or avoidance of interpersonal relationships. The inability to establish personal relationships of trust leads to loneliness. The causes and factors findings that could trigger loneliness, as well as their effects on young adults reflect a multi-featured phenomenon of this complex and ambiguous condition. The clear depiction deficiency of loneliness approach among young adults shows that this phenomenon may have different distinctions. As a prerequisite for personal development, as well as a multitude of causes, these can be expressed through various contexts of social isolation disclosure (voluntary or forced and life consequences of young individual. All of the above represent an additional need of developing the loneliness concept of young, based on an integrated approach and oriented towards structuring the control of loneliness and empirical data-bases.
Karmen FEHER MALAČIČ
Full Text Available The presentation includes a brief history of Japanese and Chinese teaching and learning at Pionirski dom and the current trends. On the one hand, it explores the reasons why so many youngsters decide to learn Japanese or Chinese, what is their main interest and what is they want to achieve. On the other hand, it tackles the points of view of teachers of the Japanese and Chinese language towards language teaching and the issues raised while teaching. Pionirski dom is probably the only institution in Slovenia with so many young learners and teenagers enrolled in Japanese courses and with a decade of experience in the area. Much attention is, therefore, put on quality programmes and the choice of suitable teachers.
Murphy, Patricia Ann
Examined relationship between self-esteem and reported mourning behavior as it pertains to loneliness in young adults who, as children, had experienced parental death. Subjects (N=184) aged 18 to 25 completed four questionnaires. Revealed that self-esteem was the single best predictor of loneliness; reported mourning behaviors significantly added…
Sultana, Shaila; Dovchin, Sender
Based on virtual conversations drawn from two separate intensive ethnographic studies in Bangladesh and Mongolia, we show that popular cultural texts play a significant role in young adults' heteroglossic language practices. On the one hand, they borrow voices from cultural texts and cross the boundaries of language, i.e., codes, modes, and…
Turner, Heather A.; Kopiec, Kathleen
This article examines the effect of exposure to interparental conflict on the mental health of young adults. Based on a diverse sample of 649 students from three New England colleges, the authors investigate the association between nonviolent interparental conflict during childhood, subsequent distress and disorder, and identified factors that…
Dresler, Emma; Anderson, Margaret
Purpose: Young adult's drinking is about pleasure, a communal practice of socialising together in a friendship group. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the evolving support practices of drinking groups for better targeting of health communications messages. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative descriptive study examined the…
Hughes, Janette; Laffier, Jennifer Lynn
In this article, the authors examine how bullying is portrayed in three recent young adult novels, focusing specifically on whether the information about bullying is accurate, biased, or represents old myths in comparison to current research. The authors conduct a systematic analysis of the following four themes: (1) What is bullying?; (2) Who are…
Varatharajoo, Chandrakala; Asmawi, Adelina Binti; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad
The study explored the awareness of morphemic knowledge among young adult learners in the ESL context. Morphological Relatedness Test and Morphological Structure Test (adapted from Curinga, 2014) were two important tools used to assess the students' morphemic knowledge in this study. The tests measured the students' ability to reflect and…
Onat Kocabiyik, Oya; Kulaksizoglu, Adnan
Moral identity can orient one's behaviors when exhibiting any kind of moral behavior. In this study, the moral identities of young adults are analyzed to a certain extent. For this purpose, the "interpretative phenomenological pattern" and "grounded theory" models are used as qualitative survey models. The study group for…
M. H. Harirchian
Full Text Available Numerous etiologies are responsible for cases of stroke in young adults. This study reviews the causes of two types of stroke (ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhage in young adults aged 15 to 40years, admitted to our center (a tertiary care center from 1997 to 2002. The purpose of this study is to determine the relative frequency of causes of stroke in young adults and compare this with published data in the literature. Using the codes 46.0 to 46.8 of the International Classification of Diseases- 10th Edition (ICD-10, cases were identified from the records of the stroke patients admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital and the data were collected from their files using a comprehensive questionnaire. Forty-two cases of ischemic stroke (62% and 26 cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (38% were identified. The leading cause of ischemic stroke was cardioembolism (38.1%, followed by atherosclerosis in 5 cases (11.9%. Among cardiac causes infarction was attributable to consequences of rheumatic heart disease in 8 cases. In 3 cases a cessation or decrease in dose of warfarin was followed directly by an ischemic stroke. The most leading cause of intracerebral hemorrhage was hypertension (30.8%. Other causes were anticoagulant therapy, intratumoral hemorrhage, aplastic anemia, leukemia, arteriovenous malformations, and chronic active hepatitis. In conclusion, cardioembolism and hypertension were the most leading causes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in young adults admitted in our hospital.
Mathews-Bradshaw, Beth; Johnson, Rebecca; Kaplan, Stuart; Craddock, Kelli; Hayes-Lattin, Brandon
This article outlines the history, background, and accomplishments of the LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance. The LIVESTRONG Young Adult Alliance, a program of the Lance Armstrong Foundation, was developed as a vehicle for a strategic plan designed to implement the Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Progress Review Group (AYAO PRG) recommendations. The AYAO PRG was co-sponsored by Lance Armstrong Foundation and the National Cancer Institute (NCI); both LIVESTRONG and NCI provide strategic oversight and guidance to the Alliance. Highlights and accomplishments: The Alliance accomplishments include the publication of disease-specific retrospective analyses, funding of an AYA cohort study and biorepository proposal, publication of two position statements on guidelines for care of AYAs with cancer and training for AYA oncology health professionals, promotion of an international charter of rights for AYA cancer patients, creation and distribution of a survey to college health professionals, creation and implementation of a Cancer Centers Working Group and Institutional Review Board Toolkit, and continued growth and collaboration through an annual meeting. The growth and success of the Alliance has coincided with the growth of AYA oncology as a field. The collaborative environment of the Alliance draws together a diverse group of individuals united in the effort to increase survival rates and improve the quality of life for adolescents and young adults diagnosed with cancer.
Vrijlandt, EJLE; Gerritsen, J; Boezen, HM; Grevink, RG; Duiverman, EJ
Rationale: Limited information is available about the long-term outcome of lung function and exercise capacity in young adults born prematurely. Objective: To determine long-term effects of prematurity on lung function (volumes, diffusing capacity) and exercise capacity in expreterms compared with
Li, Qing; Pustaka, Arkhadi
Background: Cyberbullying is connected with online gaming in complex ways. Although cyberbullying can occur while people play games, it is also the case that gaming may have the potential to address cyberbullying and bullying problems. Purpose: This study examines young adults' beliefs and experiences related to cyberbullying and gaming. Sample:…
Blomkvist, Andreas W; Eika, Fredrik; de Bruin, Eling D
) was investigated in a test-retest design with seven days between sessions. Ten young and thirty older adults were recruited and handgrip steadiness was tested at 5%, 10% and 25% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB). Coefficients of variation were calculated from the mean...
Eidson, R. Cole; Coley, John D.
We examined young adults' essentialist reasoning about gender categories. Previous developmental results suggest that until age 9 or 10, children show marked essentialist reasoning about gender, but this disappears by early adulthood. In contrast, results from social cognition suggest that essentialist thinking about social categories persists…
This article examines the way in which social networks operate within small groups. The study examines the social networks of teens and young adults. Groups of friends were recruited for the study and thus the unit of analysis is the group as opposed to the individual. The members of each group...
Carter, Erik W.; Swedeen, Beth; Walter, Martha J.; Moss, Colleen K.; Hsin, Ching-Ting
Increasingly, researchers have linked greater self-determination capacities to improved postsecondary outcomes for youth with disabilities. Although leadership is one component of self-determination, little is known about how youth and young adults with disabilities define, develop, and demonstrate leadership. In this qualitative interview study,…
Research on the dynamics of cigarette smoking and cessation though scarce in Nigeria are needed for successful tobacco control. The study evaluated cigarette smoking and quitting among young adults inEnugu, Nigeria. This was a cross sectional questionnaire-based survey undertaken in March 2007. There were 714 ...
Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina
Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…
R.H.J.M. Staring (Richard)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Young adults heading for Syria to join the jihad and the safety risks associated with their return are currently a topic of debate in the Netherlands and in many other European countries. Around 120 Dutch citizens have gone abroad to join the jihad and the Dutch
Wilson, Stephan M.; Peterson, Gary W.
Examined possible predictors of life satisfaction among 322 low-income young adults from rural Appalachia. Both objective and subjective conditions of life were predictors of life satisfaction: financial resources, self-esteem, and proximity to childhood home were positive predictors; frustrations about limited job opportunities and community size…
Burke, Lorraine; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Young, Honor
Sexually active young adults are at an increased risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or experiencing an unplanned pregnancy. Sexual behaviours such as inconsistent condom use, multiple partners and casual sex are known risk factors for negative sexual health outcomes. Sexually active higher education students are classified as…
In this article, the author argues that whiteness remains an overwhelmingly absent dimension in literacy teaching that addresses systems of power from a critical perspective. One way literacy teachers may bring this dimension more explicitly into the classroom is by facilitating critical conversations on whiteness with young adult literature. As…
Hill, Katherine Jane Roney
The project addressed the debate over supplemental literature: young adult or classic selections to better support teaching ninth graders Tennessee's English I curriculum standards. Research supported both classical and contemporary literature for teaching ninth graders, making it difficult to determine which type of literature might produce the…
Bull, Kelly Byrne
Preparing teachers to understand their students' reading processes so that they can guide their students toward connecting with texts in meaningful and personal ways are goals that can be met through the study of young adult literature. Twenty-first century learners live in an increasingly interconnected world and have access to countless texts…
Fiedler, Phyllis E.; And Others
This study focuses on reducing the hostility of hospitalized adolescent and young adult psychiatric patients through assertive training techniques designed to teach appropriate responses to interpersonal conflict. It was predicted that, after treatment, the assertive group would show greater assertiveness, less hostility, and a more positive…
Michelle C. van der Merwe
Full Text Available Worldwide, church membership is decreasing. A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research was to determine whether the application of a well-established body of knowledge of marketing theories and principles could be used by churches to encourage young adults to return to the church. The application of services marketing to the church as a non-profit organisation is discussed by focussing on non-physical and physical atmospheric cues in the church’s servicescape that could enhance church attendance. A quantitative approach was used by testing the opinions of 200 church service attendees of different denominations. The findings indicated that certain elements in the servicescape of a church may be useful in attracting young adults. It was found that music is a strong determinant of whether young adults attend church services, followed by layout and design of the church and then by the signs and symbols used in the church. Females reported significantly higher levels of positive perceptions concerning the layout and design. Although the research showed that some marketing elements, such as a positive servicescape, could improve church attendance, other personal elements such as forming personal relationships with fellow Christians and God need to be further explored.
Cystic Fibrosis Foundation, Atlanta, GA.
Intended for the young adult with cystic fibrosis, the booklet provides information on dealing with problems and on advances in treatment and detection related to the disease. Addressed are the following topics: description of cystic fibrosis; inheritance of cystic fibrosis; early diagnosis; friends, careers, and other matters; treatment;…
Background: Studies in most countries have shown an increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus in children and young adults. Double diabetes is a newly recognized problem in children with different diagnostic and therapeutic measures. Methods: A review of over 30 literature obtained from Google, PUBMED search and ...
Locke, Bill J.; And Others
Thirty-six mildly mentally retarded young adults were exposed to one of three training arrangements for vigilance performance, a monitoring task that some professionals consider uniquely appropriate for such persons because they are assumed to be less susceptible to boredom. (Author)
Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van der Zee, Eddy A.
This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration
Barf, H. A.; Post, M. W. M.; Verhoef, M.; Jennekens-Schinkel, A.; Gooskens, R. H. J. M.; Prevo, A. J. H.
Purpose. To determine participation restrictions of young adults with spina bifida (SB) in relation to health condition and activity limitations. Method. A total of 179 persons aged 16-25 years and born with SB participated in a cross-sectional study. The main outcome on four domains of
Obesity and associated factors in young adults attending tertiary institutions ... and associated factors in a group of university undergraduates in south-east Nigeria. ... being a female (X2 = 47.91), first year student (X2 = 41.82), and having high ...
Gahler, Michael; Hong, Ying; Bernhardt, Eva
This article analyzes the impact of parental divorce on the disruption of marital and nonmarital unions among young adults in Sweden, using longitudinal data from repeated mail questionnaire surveys (1999 and 2003) with 1,321 respondents (aged 26, 30, and 34 in 2003). The study takes into account several possible mechanisms governing the…
van Pelt, Philomine A.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Dolhain, Radboud J.E.M.; Kruize, Aike A.; Huisman, Jaap; Wulffraat, Nico M.
Background/Purpose: Internet-use is increasing since it is an efficient way to find information. Information obtained via Health Related Internet (HRI) sites, or online peer support groups might increase knowledge and self-management in adolescents and young adults with Juvenile IdiopathicArthritis
Abstract Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is rarely associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. The treatment of these patients is a clinical challenge. We report the observations of 2 young adults (1 woman and 1 man), admitted in our acute care unit for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A coagulopathy work-up concludes ...
Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata
Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical…
Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.
Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…
Discusses a public library film literacy program offered to adolescents and young adults which incorporates films that are not curriculum-oriented and center around specific themes such as self-identity, creativity, speculations, and lifestyles. Seven films selected for program on social issues and viewers' evaluations are highlighted.…
Strobach, Tilo; Woszidlo, Alesia
In the present study, we investigated discrepancies between two components of stereotyping by means of the popular notion that women are better at multitasking behaviors: the cognitive structure in individuals (personal belief) and the perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs (perceived belief of groups). With focus on this notion, we examined whether there was empirical evidence for the stereotype's existence and whether and how it was shared among different age groups. Data were collected from 241 young (n = 129) and older (n = 112) German individuals. The reported perceptions of gender effects at multitasking were substantial and thus demonstrated the existence of its stereotype. Importantly, in young and older adults, this stereotype existed in the perception of attributed characteristics by members of a collective (perceived belief of groups). When contrasting this perceived belief of groups and the personal belief, older adults showed a similar level of conformation of the gender stereotype while young adults were able to differentiate between these perspectives. Thus, young adults showed a discrepancy between the stereotype's components cognitive structure in individuals and perceived consensus regarding certain beliefs.
Splete, Howard; Freeman-George, Ann
This article (1) reviews family influences on career development (geographic location, genetic inheritance, family background, socioeconomic status, family composition, parenting style, parental work-related attitudes) and (2) suggests counselor interventions to aid young adults in becoming autonomous in their career development (e.g., review…
Murphy-Hoefer, Rebecca; Hyland, Andrew; Higbee, Cheryl
Objectives: To measure relative effectiveness of tobacco countermarketing advertisements by category and emotive execution style among young adults. Methods: Participants (n = 1011) from 2 US 4-year colleges, one southern and one northern were surveyed before and after viewing advertisements in one of 3 categories: social norms, health…
James, Chrissy; Asscher, Jessica J.; Stams, Geert Jan J M; Van Der Laan, Peter H.
This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether
James, Chrissy; Asscher, J.J.; Stams, G.J.J.M; van der Laan, Peter H.
This study examined the New Perspectives Aftercare Program (NPAP) for serious juvenile and young adult offenders in The Netherlands. Participants (n = 127) were randomly assigned to NPAP (n = 66) or existing aftercare services ("treatment as usual" [TAU], n = 61). The aim was to determine whether
Hall, Scott S.
The purpose of the study is to examine the meaning that the institution of marriage can hold for young, unmarried adults, based on their systems (or collections) of beliefs about marriage. Based on symbolic interactionism, it is argued that marital meaning has implications for how people behave prior to and during marriage that may relate to…
Academy for Educational Development, 2012
This cross-site analysis presents findings about the implementation, impact, and outcomes of the Young Adult Capacity Initiative (YACI), at 13 community-based organizations in New York City. These agencies received technical assistance and small incentive grants from the Fund for the City of New York Youth Development Institute (YDI) to build…
Heikkinen, Sirpa A M; Mäkikyrö, Elina M S; Hugg, Timo T; Jaakkola, Maritta S; Jaakkola, Jouni J K
According to our systematic literature review, no previous study has assessed potential effects of regular exercise on asthma control among young adults. We hypothesized that regular exercise improves asthma control among young adults. We studied 162 subjects with current asthma recruited from a population-based cohort study of 1,623 young adults 20-27 years of age. Asthma control was assessed by the occurrence of asthma-related symptoms, including wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and phlegm production, during the past 12 months. Asthma symptom score was calculated based on reported frequencies of these symptoms (range: 0-12). Exercise was assessed as hours/week. In Poisson regression, adjusting for gender, age, smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and education, the asthma symptom score reduced by 0.09 points per 1 hour of exercise/week (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.17). Applying the "Low exercise" quartile as the reference, "Medium exercise" reduced the asthma symptom score by 0.66 (-0.39 to 1.72), and "High exercise" reduced it significantly by 1.13 (0.03 to 2.22). The effect was strongest among overweight subjects. Our results provide new evidence that regular exercising among young adults improves their asthma control. Thus, advising about exercise should be included as an important part of asthma self-management in clinical practice.
Thyroid Dysfunction among Young Adults in Uganda. ... The mean age of participants was 23 years, there were slightly more males 1.3:1. ... The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in this cohort was low but falls in the range found elsewhere.
Schmitz, Rachel M; Sanchez, Julissa; Lopez, Bianca
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer/questioning (LGBTQ+) young people of colour are exposed to intersecting dynamics of social prejudice and discrimination related to sexuality and gender as well as race/ethnicity. In particular, Latinx-identifying LGBTQ+ young people face unique challenges in their lives, due to cultural stressors that stigmatise expansive gender and sexual identities. While it is crucial to examine the effects of multiple stressors on the well-being of LGBTQ+ young people of colour, this risk-based focus can overshadow the resilient capacities of multiply marginalised groups. Guided by an intersectional minority stress resilience framework, we asked: how do self-identified LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults manage cultural messages of prejudice and discrimination in relation to their health? Findings underscore how LGBTQ+ Latinx young adults established a strong sense of health autonomy to resist cultural stigma related to their intersecting identities. Young people actively educated themselves on health-related concerns, engaged in health-promoting tactics, and practised cultural negativity management to effectively navigate exposure to prejudice and discrimination.
Biller, José; Elkind, Mitchell S.; Fullerton, Heather J.; Jauch, Edward C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Levine, Deborah A.; Levine, Steven R.
Approximately 15% of all ischemic strokes (IS) occur in young adults and adolescents. To date, only limited prior public health and research efforts have specifically addressed stroke in the young. Early diagnosis remains challenging because of the lack of awareness and the relative infrequency of stroke compared with stroke mimics. Moreover, the causes of IS in the young are heterogeneous and can be relatively uncommon, resulting in uncertainties about diagnostic evaluation and cause-specific management. Emerging data have raised public health concerns about the increasing prevalence of traditional vascular risk factors in young individuals, and their potential role in increasing the risk of IS, stroke recurrence, and poststroke mortality. These issues make it important to formulate and enact strategies to increase both awareness and access to resources for young stroke patients, their caregivers and families, and health care professionals. The American Academy of Neurology recently convened an expert panel to develop a consensus document concerning the recognition, evaluation, and management of IS in young adults and adolescents. The report of the consensus panel is presented herein. PMID:23946297
Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess
Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954
Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess
Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.
Sato, Hiroaki; Koizumi, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Yozo; Yamazaki, Masao; Itoyama, Ryuichi; Ichisawa, Megumi; Negishi, Junko; Sakuma, Rui; Furusho, Tadasu; Sagane, Yoshimasa; Takano, Katsumi
This data article describes a sensory evaluation of potatoes used in food processing from the Tokachi, Kamikawa, and Abashiri geographic areas of Hokkaido, Japan, performed by untrained young adults. We gathered sensory data on potatoes from the four cultivars 'Toyoshiro,' 'Kitahime,' 'Snowden,' and 'Poroshiri.' The sensory evaluation was performed on steamed potatoes from each cultivar; these potatoes were harvested from each of the three geographic areas. Table 1 provides the data from the evaluation of the five basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami), as well as the evaluation of the egumi taste, which is a Japanese term indicating a taste that is acrid, astringent, and slightly bitter.
Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Tae-Hun; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jung, Sung-Ae; Cho, Min-Sun; Yoo, Kwon; Chung, Kyu Won
Infectious mononucleosis due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection sometimes causes acute hepatitis, which is usually self-limiting with mildly elevated transaminases, but rarely with jaundice. Primary EBV infection in children is usually asymptomatic, but in a small number of healthy individuals, typically young adults, EBV infection results in a clinical syndrome of infectious mononucleosis with hepatitis, with typical symptoms of fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly. EBV is rather uncommonly confirmed as an etiologic agent of acute hepatitis in adults. Here, we report two cases: the first case with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis and a second case, with acute hepatitis secondary to infectious mononucleosis concomitantly infected with hepatitis A. Both cases involved young adults presenting with fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytosis confirmed by serologic tests, liver biopsy and electron microscopic study.
Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
Holwerda, A.; Brouwer, S.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; van der Klink, J.J.L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
Holwerda, Anja; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.
Purpose Expectations strongly influence future employment outcomes and social networks seem to mediate employment success of young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The aim of this study is to examine the expectations of young adults with intellectual and developmental
M. Moors-Tielen (Mirjam); A.L. van Staa (AnneLoes); S. Jedeloo (Susan); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); W. Weimar (Willem)
textabstractBACKGROUND. Young adult renal transplant recipients may display patterns of behavior that affect graft survival. The present study aimed to identify young adults at risk for nonadherent behavior by investigating their attitudes about posttransplant health lifestyle. METHOD. A
Getting young adults back to church: A marketing approach. ... A decline in the number of young adults that attend church services is also evident. The purpose of the research ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Christine H.K. Ou, RN, BN, MSN
Conclusion: Chinese young adults share similar issues with other young adults in relation to not having a primary care provider and accessing preventive care but their health beliefs and practices make their needs for care unique from other young adults.
Ribera, Josep-Maria; Oriol, Albert
Today, long-term survival is achieved in more than 80% of children 1 to 10 years old with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, cure rates for adults and adolescents and young adults (AYA) with ALL remain relatively low, at only 40% to 50%. Age is a continuous prognostic variable in ALL, with no single age at which prognosis deteriorates markedly. Within childhood ALL populations, older children have shown inferior outcomes, whereas younger adults have shown superior outcomes among adult ALL patients. The type of treatment (pediatric-based versus adult-based) for AYA has recently been a matter of debate. In this article the biology and treatment of ALL in AYA is reviewed.
Wackowski, Olivia A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.
Objectives: Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method: We examined risk…
Ten young adults with an intellectual disability whose parents, too, have an intellectual disability were interviewed and completed questionnaires for this exploratory study aimed at charting their experiences of everyday life. Most of the participants reported high life satisfaction, especially with the domains of friends, leisure time, and…
Bullis, Michael; And Others
Comparison of hearing (n=222) and deaf (n=217) young adults on employment, independent living, and social experience outcomes found that the hearing group was generally more successful than deaf persons from mainstream or residential schools. Gender differences did not uniformly favor men. Suggestions for improving transition programs for the deaf…
Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi
Fatigue is a common complaint among young adults. We investigated whether eating behaviors are associated with fatigue in this population. The participants consisted of 117 healthy students attending Osaka City University. They completed questionnaires assessing fatigue and eating behaviors. To identify the factors associated with the prevalence of fatigue, multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for gender was performed. The Emotional Eating subscale score of the Japanese version of Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 21-item and stress response in food intake (large decrease vs. no change) were positively associated with the prevalence of fatigue assessed by the Japanese version of the Chalder Fatigue Scale. The finding suggests that emotional eating and decrease in amount of food intake under mental stress were associated with fatigue in healthy young adults. Our findings may help to clarify the mechanisms underlying fatigue-eating coupling as well as the etiology of diseases related to abnormal eating behavior.
Furihata, Ryuji; Konno, Chisato; Suzuki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Sakae; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ohida, Takashi; Uchiyama, Makoto
To investigate the relationship between unhealthy lifestyles factors and depressive symptoms among the general adult population in Japan. Participants were randomly selected from the Japanese general adult population. Data from 2334 people aged 20 years or older were analyzed. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in August and September 2009. Participants completed a face-to-face interview about unhealthy lifestyle factors, including lack of exercise, skipping breakfast, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals, insufficient sleep, current smoking, alcohol drinking, and obesity. Presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a score of ≥ 16 on the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Relationships between unhealthy lifestyle factors and depressive symptoms were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusting for sociodemographic variables and other unhealthy lifestyle factors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that insufficient sleep, a poorly balanced diet, snacking between meals and lack of exercise were significantly associated with the prevalence of depressive symptoms, with odds ratios ranging from 1.56 for lack of exercise to 3.98 for insufficient sleep. Since this study was a cross-sectional study, causal relationships could not be determined. These results suggest that promoting a healthy lifestyle focused on sleep, food intake and exercise may be important for individuals with depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Patrone R. Risenga; Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele
Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate perceptions of young adults regarding HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) and the factors contributing to either negative or positive perceptions towards the programme. This article is a report of a concept analysis of young adults' perceptions of HCT that were collected during the study. Background: Perception forms the core of HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) use by young adults, because it is from these perceptions that young adults will decid...
Beaty, Narlin B; Le, Thomas T
To measure thicknesses in clinical landmark areas of the dentate mandibles of young men and women. Using standard radiologic software, we obtained mean (SD) thickness measurements at the inferior or posterior borders of the mandible at the following 7 surgically useful sites: (1) the symphysis, (2) a point halfway between the symphysis and the mental nerve, (3) the mental nerve, (4) a point halfway between the mental nerve and the facial artery notch, (5) the facial artery notch, (6) the angle vertex, and (7) the ramus-condylar neck border. University hospital. A total of 150 dentate men and 75 dentate women aged 18 to 30 years who had undergone computed tomography of the head and neck region during the period of December 20, 2006 to February 20, 2007. Thicknesses of 7 mandibular sites. Mean (SD) thicknesses at the 7 mandibular sites were as follows: symphysis, 14.03 (1.53) mm for men and 13.21 (1.46) mm for women; halfway between the symphysis and the mental nerve, 11.17 (1.37) mm for men and 10.00 (1.08) mm for women; mental nerve, 9.48 (1.28) mm for men and 8.72 (1.00) mm for women; halfway between the mental nerve and the facial artery notch, 10.33 (1.24) mm for men and 9.45 (0.92) mm for women; facial artery notch, 7.27 (0.82) mm for men and 7.10 (0.88) mm for women; angle vertex, 5.42 (0.90) mm for men and 5.39 (0.66) mm for women; and ramus-condylar neck border, 5.90 (0.86) mm for men and 5.85 (0.71) mm for women. Clinical landmark areas in young dentate mandibles have mean thicknesses with limited SDs. The thickness measurements obtained at the sites in this study provide practical reference information for mandibular reconstruction and bicortical screw length estimation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although both insufficient physical activity (PA and high screen time (ST are independent risk factors for obesity, how the combination of sufficient/insufficient PA and high/low ST could increase obesity risk among the adult population of Japan is not known. This study examined joint associations of PA and ST with overweight among Japanese adults. Methods An Internet-based survey collected data on height, weight, self-reported time spent in PA and ST, and sociodemographic variables from 2832 adults. Respondents were categorized into sufficient PA/low ST, sufficient PA/high ST, insufficient PA/low ST, or insufficient PA/high ST categories as per public PA guidelines and the median of ST. Logistic regression analysis examined the odds ratios (OR of being overweight (body mass index, ≥ 25 kg/m2 according to the categories of PA and ST. Results In comparison with the sufficient PA/low ST category, participants in the insufficient PA/high ST category were significantly more likely overweight (OR, 1.48; 95% confidence interval [95%CI, 1.14, 1.93 after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. A significantly higher OR for overweight (including obesity among insufficient PA/high ST category was also observed in men, but no significant association was found in women. Conclusions Both insufficient PA and prolonged ST contribute to overweight and obesity among Japanese adults. Public health initiatives addressing obesity in Japan need to consider both promoting PA and reducing ST, especially in men.
Kawai, Hisashi; Ihara, Kazushige; Kera, Takeshi; Hirano, Hirohiko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Masashi; Kojima, Motonaga; Obuchi, Shuichi
Statin-associated muscle symptoms (SAMS) are the muscle-related side-effects of statins, but the association between statin use and physical function among community-dwelling older adults is unclear. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between statin use and physical function among community-dwelling older Japanese adults by considering the risk factors of statin-associated muscle symptoms. The participants were 1022 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-88 years, who participated in comprehensive health checkups from 2013 to 2015. Statin use in the participants (381 men and 559 women) was verified by using data from their medicine notebooks. The differences between statin use (users and non-users) and physical functions (grip strength, knee extension torque, normal and maximum gait speed, Timed Up & Go test, one-legged stance, quadriceps muscle thickness and echo intensity) were analyzed using the t-test. Multiple regression analyses were also carried out to examine the association between statin use and physical function. A total of 93 men (24.4%) and 154 women (27.5%) were statin users. Grip strength, normal gait speed and one-legged stance declined significantly in statin users compared with the non-users. In multiple regression analysis while controlling for the risk factors of statin-associated muscle symptoms, including age, sex, body mass index and number of medicines, no independent association, between statin use and the reduction of physical functions, was observed. Statin use was not associated with the decline of physical function in community-dwelling older Japanese adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 623-630. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is the leading cause of death among Japanese adolescents, and they may commit suicide differently from adults. However, there are few studies in medical-based data concerning adolescent patients seriously attempting suicide. We aimed to explore the characteristics of serious suicide attempts in Japanese adolescents, comparing them with those in adults. Methods We investigated adolescents who seriously attempted suicide and were treated at the Critical Care Medical Center (CCMC of Nippon Medical School Hospital between 2000 and 2010, and we compared them with adult suicide attempters treated during 2009. We retrospectively studied medical records and collected clinical data and socio-demographic factors, including age, sex, psychiatric symptoms or diagnosis, methods of suicide attempt, motives for suicide attempt, previous deliberate self-harm, previous psychiatric history, parent loss experience, and previous psychiatric history in the family. Results Adolescent attempters were 15 males and 44 females, 13 to 18 years old (mean 16.39. Adult attempters were 37 males and 65 females, 19 to 79 years old (mean 39.45. In comparison to adult attempters, adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD, had more school problems and parent loss experience, but they had less financial problems. Gender differences between adolescents and adults were examined, and male adolescent attempters were found to be more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia and had less financial problems than their adult counterparts, while female adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD, had more school problems and parent loss, but they had less previous psychiatric history than their adult counterparts. Conclusions Our findings indicated that adolescent attempters were more frequently diagnosed with BPD and had more school problems and parent loss experience but had less financial
Zebrack, Brad J
Theories of human development suggest that, although all cancer patients experience a common set of life disruptions, they experience them differently, focus on different issues, and attach different levels of importance to different aspects of the experience depending on the time in life at which they were diagnosed. During the critical developmental transition from childhood to adulthood, older adolescents and young adults in particular have typical concerns with establishing identity, developing a positive body image and sexual identity, separating from parents, increasing involvement with peers and dating, and beginning to make decisions about careers or employment, higher education, and/or family. Accordingly, cancer-related issues such as premature confrontation with mortality, changes in physical appearance, increased dependence on parents, disruptions in social life and school/employment because of treatment, loss of reproductive capacity, and health-related concerns about the future may be particularly distressing for adolescents and young adults. Psychosocial and behavioral interventions for young adult cancer patients and survivors often involve assisting these individuals in retaining or returning to function in significant social roles, such as spouse, parent, student, worker, or friend. Successful interventions will enable these young people to overcome the detrimental impact of a health crisis and strengthen the internal and external coping resources available to them. © 2011 American Cancer Society
Wackowski, Olivia A; Delnevo, Cristine D
Objectives Tobacco product risk perceptions may influence whether individuals use those products instead of or in addition to regular cigarettes. This study aimed to explore risk perceptions of various tobacco products relative to traditional cigarettes with young adults, a group with higher rates of tobacco use. Method We examined risk perception responses among a nationally representative sample of young adults (age 18-34 years; n = 2,871, including tobacco and non-tobacco users) from the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey. Results Most (57.8%) respondents believed that e-cigarettes were less risky than cigarettes. Respondents were more likely to rate combustible products hookah (24.5%) and cigars (13.9%) as being less risky compared to noncombustible snus (10%) and other smokeless tobacco (SLT) products (7.1%) relative to cigarettes. Few (2.5%) rated menthol cigarettes as less risky. For e-cigarettes, hookah, and SLT, less risky beliefs were significantly higher among ever or current versus never product users. Between 22% and 33% of all respondents believed that SLT, snus, menthol cigarettes, and cigars were more risky than cigarettes, but differences in this belief between current and nonusers of these products were small and insignificant. Younger young adults were more likely to rate e-cigarettes and hookah as being "less risky" and rate cigars and SLT as being "more risky" than older young adults. Conclusion The public's views of comparative tobacco risk perceptions vary widely by tobacco product type and age-group. While "less risky" perceptions may be associated with product use, perceptions that products are "more risky" than cigarettes may not necessarily dissuade people from their use. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Zhong, Nanzhe; Yang, Xinghai; Yang, Jian; Meng, Tong; Yang, Cheng; Yan, Wangjun; Xiao, Jianru
Retrospective study. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes between adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients and old adult patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically and present the surgical consideration for adolescents and young adults with cervical chordoma. With predominance in senior patients, chordoma is distinctively rare in AYAs. Because of the rarity of AYA chordoma, individual case report represents most of the literature on this disease entity on mobile spine and lack of long-term follow up, which leads to the paucity of clinical evidence for treatment planning and prognosis prediction. A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the prognosis of AYA patients with cervical chordoma who were treated surgically. We collected the clinical data of these patients and their older counterparts, and further compared the prognosis of the patients in different age groups. To estimate survival curves, Kaplan-Meier method was used, and significance was assessed using a log-rank test. Forty consecutive patients with chordoma of the cervical spine treated in our institution were included in the study. Two groups were identified according to age. Group 1 comprised children and adolescents (age ≤ 25 yrs; n = 9) and Group 2 comprised adults (age > 25 years; n = 31). In comparison, Group 1 was featured by significantly higher rate of recurrence and shorter overall survival, although no difference found in the surgical modality between two groups. There is a dismal prognosis in young patients with chordoma, and thus support the notion that as radical a total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) of the lesions as possible may benefit the overall survival of these young patients. Although the ensuing neurological deficits may be devastating, it will be worth sacrificing if the life expectancy of these young patients is prolonged. 4.
The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study will focus on challenges and…
Soenen, Sarah; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina; Scholte, Evert
Young adults with mild to borderline intellectual disability (MBID) have varying profiles of cognitive, adaptive and behavioural functioning. There is also variability in their educational and therapeutic needs. This study compares recommended and actual provision of support for two groups of young adults with MBID and looks at young adults'…
The National Fund's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from automotive and…
The National Fund for Workforce Solution's Young Adult Initiatives aim to test and implement new strategies for targeting America's young adults and share this information so that employers and workforce development can join forces in investing in the millions of young adults across the nation. This case study focuses on promising findings from…
Menard, Lauren A.
Age and Time disparities in young adult research populations are common because young adults are defined by varying age spans; members of Generation X and Millennial generations may both be considered young adults; study years vary, affecting populations; and qualitative methods with limited age/year samples are frequently utilized. The current…
Feldman, Daniel C.; Whitcomb, Kathleen M.
Purpose: The present paper examines the effects of two decision-framing inductions on young adults' set of career options: first, whether young adults use abilities or interests as the grounds for their vocational choices and, second, whether young adults approach the decision-making task by including all career options to which they feel…
Drill, Rebecca L.
Examined long-term effects of divorce in young adult children by comparing young adults of divorce (N=104) and those of intact families (N=172). When non-custodial parent was perceived as "lost" the young adult was more depressed. After-divorce perception of non-custodial father changed negatively, while perception of mother remained…
Aoki, Tomoko; Fukuoka, Yoshiyuki
The maximum isometric force production capacity of the fingers decreases with age. However, little information is available on age-related changes in dynamic motor capacity of individual fingers. The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic motor function of individual fingers between elderly and young adults using rapid single-finger and double-finger tapping. Fourteen elderly and 14 young adults performed maximum frequency tapping by the index, middle, ring, or little finger (single-finger tapping) and with alternate movements of the index-middle, middle-ring, or ring-little finger-pair (double-finger tapping). The maximum pinch force between the thumb and each finger, tactile sensitivity of each fingertip, and time taken to complete a pegboard test were also measured. Compared with young subjects, the older subjects had significantly slower tapping rates in all fingers and finger-pairs in the tapping tasks. The age-related decline was also observed in the tactile sensitivities of all fingers and in the pegboard test. However, there was no group difference in the pinch force of any finger. The tapping rate of each finger did not correlate with the pinch force or tactile sensitivity for the corresponding finger in the elderly subjects. Maximum rate of finger tapping was lower in the elderly adults compared with the young adults. The decline of finger tapping ability in elderly adults seems to be less affected by their maximum force production capacities of the fingers as well as tactile sensitivities at the tips of the fingers.
Yanez, Betina; Garcia, Sofia F; Victorson, David; Salsman, John M
Being diagnosed with cancer as a young adult can lead to significant psychological distress and impaired quality of life. Compared to children and older adults diagnosed with cancer, fewer studies have addressed psychological distress among young adult cancer survivors. This study sought to identify the prevalence of, and factors associated with, distress among young adult cancer survivors (ages 18-39). Young adult cancer survivors (N = 335, mean age = 31.8, women = 68.4%) were recruited from an online research panel and stratified by cohort (time postactive treatment: 0-12, 13-24, and 25-60 months). Participants completed measures assessing demographic and clinical characteristics, global impact of cancer, cancer-related education and work interruption, and cancer-specific distress using the impact of event scale (IES). The mean score on the IES (M = 31.0, range = 0-75) was above the cut point of 20, suggesting clinically elevated distress. Analysis of covariance revealed significant main effects for cohort, global impact and cancer-related education/work interruption, and an interaction between cohort and cancer-related education/work interruption on distress. Although there was no significant effect of education/work interruption on distress for those in the 0-12 month cohort (p = .88), survivors in the 13-24 and 25-60 month cohorts reporting education/work interruption were significantly more distressed than those not reporting education/work interruption in the respective cohorts (p cancer survivors face unique challenges. These data underscore the importance of attending to cancer-related distress beyond the completion of treatment and may help inform targeted interventions to prevent or reduce significant distress and related sequelae in this population.
Nakatsu, Nobuyuki; Sawa, Ryuichi; Misu, Shogo; Ueda, Yuya; Ono, Rei
To translate the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) into Japanese, and assess its reliability and validity in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. A total of 84 community-dwelling older adults people aged 65 years or older were included in the present study, and those with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of validity was evaluated by measuring the Pearson's correlation coefficient between the SNAQ and Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form scores, Geriatric Depression Scale scores, walking speed test, chair-stand test, hand grip strength test, or the Timed Up and Go test. The mean score of the Japanese version of the SNAQ was 15.5, with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.545 and intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.754. Factor analysis showed a single factor with 50.0% explained variance. The SNAQ was significantly associated with the Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short-Form, Geriatric Depression Scale, walking speed test, chair-stand test and the Timed Up and Go test. Handgrip strength test did not show a significant association with the SNAQ. The Japanese version of the SNAQ had sufficient reliability and validity. Furthermore, SNAQ (Japanese version) is useful for evaluating the appetite of community-dwelling older adults in Japan. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; 15: 1264-1269. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Badham, Stephen P.; Maylor, Elizabeth A.
Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual’s knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli. PMID:25980799
perkembangan dan usia kronologis pemustaka. Kata Kunci: fiksi remaja terjemahan, pengembangan koleksi fiksi, perkembangan remaja, Pitimoss Fun Library Abstract. Library has to provide fiction as one of its collection. There are two kind of fictions; national fiction and translated fiction. Its selection is not only based on amusement function, but also its role to help readers developing themselves. This research aims to describe the roles of translated young adult fiction in achievement of three aspects of young adult development. Those aspects are cognitive, social, and affective. Theoritically, this research gives advantages for library and information science, especially for developing selection theory and bibliotheraphy. Practically, the advantages those are given by this research are tended to caretakers of Pitimoss Fun Library and other researchers. This reasearch is done by using qualitative approach.Meanwhile, descriptive method is chosen with case study interpretative as its model. The answers of research questions are based on explanation of six informants and key informant. Six informants are chosen by purposive sampling technique. Meanwhile, key informant is a bibliotheraphist. Observation, interview, document study, and online searching are techniques those are used for collecting data. Research data are analyzed by narrative analysis technique. The result shows the two-way relation between translated young adult fiction and developmental achievement. Translated young adult fictions those are provided by Pitimoss Library have roles in achievement of three aspects of young adult development. Even so, developmental achievement also determines the effectiveness of translated fiction roles for young adults. It also helps them to react to controversial issues. The roles of translated young adult fiction can be maximized if Pitimoss Fun Library doing some efforts, such us involving developmental needs as one of selection criteria, also giving guidance and books
Knight, Andrea M; Trupin, Laura; Katz, Patricia; Yelin, Edward; Lawson, Erica F
To compare major depression risk among young adults with juvenile-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and to determine demographic and health-related predictors of depression. Young adults with SLE ages 18-45 years (n = 546) in the Lupus Outcomes Study completed annual telephone surveys from 2002-2015, including assessment of depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and self-report measures of sociodemographics and health characteristics. Juvenile-onset SLE was defined as age adult-onset SLE. Older age, lower educational attainment, and physical function, higher disease activity, and a history of smoking were associated with an increased depression risk. Juvenile-onset SLE patients had a higher risk of major depression across all educational groups. Young adults with SLE, particularly those with juvenile-onset disease, are at high risk for major depression, which is associated with increased disease activity, poorer physical functioning, and lower educational attainment. Early depression intervention in young adults with SLE has the potential to improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.
Tomita, Yoshihito; Arima, Kazuhiko; Tsujimoto, Ritsu; Kawashiri, Shin-Ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Mizukami, Satoshi; Okabe, Takuhiro; Tanaka, Natsumi; Honda, Yuzo; Izutsu, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Naoko; Ohmachi, Izumi; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi
To determine the prevalence of fear of falling and associated factors among Japanese community-dwelling older adults.Cross-sectional study between 2011 and 2013.Community in which residents voluntarily attended a health examination.We recruited 844 older adults (male, n = 350; female, n = 494) aged 60 to 92 years from among those who presented at the health examination.We assessed fear of falling, falls in the previous year, pain, comorbidity, and cataracts. Five times chair stand time was applied as an indicator of physical performance.The prevalence of fear of falling was 26.9% and 43.3% among the men and women, respectively. Men and women who feared falling were older (P fear of falling.The prevalence of fear of falling was similar to previous reports. Advanced age, falls in previous year, and pain were associated with fear of falling in men. A longer 5 times chair stand time was also associated with fear of falling among older adult women. Maintenance of physical function and pain management might be important for older adults with fear of falling.
Cui, Yufei; Niu, Kaijun; Huang, Cong; Momma, Haruki; Guan, Lei; Kobayashi, Yoritoshi; Guo, Hui; Chujo, Masahiko; Otomo, Atsushi; Nagatomi, Ryoichi
Isoflavones comprise a class of phytoestrogens that resemble human estrogen in chemical structure, and have weak estrogenic effects. Because estrogen modulates sleep duration and quality, we hypothesized that isoflavones would have a beneficial effect on sleep status in a way similar to estrogen. We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate the relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep status in Japanese subjects. Our study included 1076 Japanese adults aged 20-78 years. Daily isoflavone intake was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, and sleep was evaluated using a self-reported questionnaire. The prevalence of regular sleep duration (7-8 h/day) and sufficient sleep quality were 13.3% and 56.2%, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the odds ratios (95% CIs) for optimal sleep duration (7-8 h) when higher isoflavone intakes (Q2-Q4) were compared with low isoflavone intake (Q1) were Q2: 0.94 (0.53-1.56); Q3: 1.28 (0.73-2.24); and Q4: 1.84 (1.06-3.18) (p for trend = 0.013). In the final adjusted model, sufficient sleep quality across categories of isoflavone intake was Q1: 1.00 (reference); Q2: 1.30 (0.91-1.84); Q3: 1.48 (1.03-2.12); and Q4: 1.78 (1.22-2.60); (p for trend = 0.002). Higher daily isoflavone intake was positively associated with optimal sleep duration and quality in a Japanese population. This finding suggests that daily isoflavone intake may have a potentially beneficial effect on sleep status.
Seki, Shoji; Hirano, Norikazu; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Nakano, Masato; Yasuda, Taketoshi; Suzuki, Kayo; Watanabe, Kenta; Makino, Hiroto; Kanamori, Masahiko; Kimura, Tomoatsu
Complications of adult spinal deformity surgery are problematic in osteoporotic individuals. We compared outcomes between Japanese patients treated perioperatively with teriparatide vs. low-dose bisphosphonates. Fifty-eight osteoporotic adult Japanese female patients were enrolled and assigned to perioperative teriparatide (33 patients) and bisphosphonate (25 patients) groups in non-blinded fashion. Pre- and post-operative X-ray and computed tomography imaging were used to assess outcome, and rates were compared between the groups and according to age. Pain scores and Oswestry Disability Indices (ODI) were calculated before and 2 years after surgery. Adjacent vertebral fractures and implant failure, fusion failure, and poor pain and ODI outcomes were significantly more common in the bisphosphonates group than the teriparatide group. Perioperative administration of teriparatide is more effective than that of low-dose bisphosphonates in preventing complications and maintaining fusion rates in osteoporotic Japanese females with spinal deformities undergoing surgery.
Dani, K K; Oswal, K; Maudgal, S; Saranath, D
The use of tobacco has been on the rise globally including in India, posing a grave public health problem. Recently, tobacco use through hookah smoking has increased among young adults in India, Middle East, Southwest Asia, Africa, Europe and North America. Hookah prevalence of 0.4-15% has been reported in India. The aim of the study was to understand perception of hookah use among young adults in Mumbai. A total of 500 college students, with/without hookah habit, were given a self-administered questionnaire to indicate their perception of hookah use, using yes/no responses. The responses were analyzed in the users/non-users and considered significantly different at P Mumbai, toward hookah use, indicates an increased trend to use hookah. We recommend deterrents for hookah use by display of health warnings on hookah assembly and the tobacco products, implementation of government policies on hookah and tobacco use and punitive measures for offenders.
Ramtekkar, Ujjwal P.; Striley, Catherine W; Cottler, Linda B
These analyses assess contextual profiles of 612 young adult Ecstasy users, 18–30 years of age, from St. Louis (USA), Miami (USA) and Sydney (Australia). Bivariate analyses revealed different contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use. Friends were the most common sources of Ecstasy at all sites and most used with friends. St. Louis and Miami use mostly occurred in residences, whereas in Sydney use was mostly at clubs, bars or restaurants. Ecstasy consumption at public places and in cars, trains or ferries was significantly higher in Miami (89% and 77%) than in St. Louis (67% and 65%) and Sydney (67% and 61%). At all sites, simultaneous use of LSD/mushroom and nitrous oxide with Ecstasy was common; concurrent amphetamines predominated in Sydney and heroin/opiates in St. Louis Contextual factors influencing Ecstasy use among young adults vary by geographic region. Their inclusion may help tailor effective prevention programs to reduce or ameliorate Ecstasy use. PMID:21094585
Bui, Eric; Rodgers, Rachel; Simon, Naomi M; Jehel, Louis; Metcalf, Christina A; Birmes, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent
Body piercing, which is prevalent in young adults, has been suggested to be associated with features usually related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) such as high-risk behaviours and psychopathological symptoms and might be motivated by a wish to deal with prior traumatic experiences. However, to date, no research has investigated the relationship between this practice and PTSD symptoms. The present research aims to investigate the possible relationship between body piercing and PTSD symptoms in French-speaking young adults. According to our results, having two or more body piercings was associated with a twofold increased risk for scoring above the cut-off score for PTSD on the PTSD checklist. Our findings suggest that two or more body piercings might serve as an identifiable marker for PTSD symptoms and may have important implications for clinical screening. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available As the number of global internet users increases, companies’ online advertisement expenditure also grows rapidly. Companies face challenges in targeting the right customers. Understanding which websites are often visited by target users and what they do on the internet will help companies direct their online advertisement to the right target. Using questionnaires, this study examines which sites are most often visited by Indonesian young adult internet users and what they do on the internet. It aims to understand the patterns of behavior of these users. The findings of this study provide some understanding to the marketers. Of consequence, such understanding would help them to select where and what to do with their advertisements when they are targeting the young adult internet users in Indonesia.
Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro
An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status), psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons), social variables (social support), environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking and
Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the contributing factors to be considered when examining how individuals engage in physical activity is important for promoting population-based physical activity. The environment influences long-term effects on population-based health behaviors. Personal variables, such as self-efficacy and social support, can act as mediators of the predictive relationship between the environment and physical activity. The present study examines the direct and indirect effects of environmental, psychological, and social factors on walking, moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and vigorous-intensity activity among Japanese adults. Methods The participants included 1,928 Japanese adults aged 20-79 years. Seven sociodemographic attributes (e.g., gender, age, education level, employment status, psychological variables (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social variables (social support, environmental variables (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, aesthetic sensibilities, and frequency of observing others exercising, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire were assessed via an Internet-based survey. Structural equation modeling was conducted to determine associations between environmental, psychological, and social factors with physical activity. Results Environmental factors could be seen to have indirect effects on physical activity through their influence on psychological and social variables such as self-efficacy, pros and cons, and social support. The strongest indirect effects could be observed by examining the consequences of environmental factors on physical activity through cons to self-efficacy. The total effects of environmental factors on physical activity were 0.02 on walking, 0.02 on moderate-intensity activity excluding walking, and 0.05 on vigorous-intensity activity. Conclusions The present study indicates that environmental factors had indirect effects on
Explained are the internal exposure (IE) in Japanese adults due to the ordinary intake of food and the committed effective dose (CED) derived from it, which can be the basic reference data for estimating CED at emergency like the recent Fukushima Disaster. IE lasts as long as radioactive substances exist in the body and its health risk is assessed throughout the lifetime, 50 years in adult and in children until their age of 70 years, by CED based on consideration of the physical and biological halftimes of radionuclides involved. CED (mSv) is calculated by an equation given in International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) Pub. 72, using radioactivity level (Bq/kg), intake (kg/y) and age-dependent dose coefficient (mSv/Bq). Japan MEXT in its homepage (http://www.kankyo-hoshano.go.jp/) publishes the states of environmental radioactivity levels including those of daily Japanese food. The food survey of yearly changes of radioactivity level (Bq/man/day) indicates that, when compared with the level in 2009, it is two times higher in 1970s due to old in-atmospheric nuclear experiments, and is decreased gradually with a temporary peak around 1986 by Chernobyl accident. Studies on certain natural and artificial radioisotopes in 240 kinds of current food in 1989-2005 reveal that Po-210 level in fishes and shellfishes is particularly higher than others like St-90, Cs-137, Rd-226, Pb-210 and so on. CED in adults is calculated from yearly intake of foods (kg/y), their radioactivity (Bq/y) and the coefficient above, to be 0.80 mSv, and 0.98 mSv when the contribution of K-40 is taken in calculation. The proportion of the contribution in the latter estimated CED accounts for 74% (0.73 mSv) by Po-210 and for 18% (0.18 mSv) by K-40, which is conceivably derived from intake of more seafood by Japanese than other people in the world (average 0.070 and 0.17 mSv, respectively). (T.T.)
Dugas, E N; Sylvestre, M P; O'Loughlin, E K; Brunet, J; Kakinami, L; Constantin, E; O'Loughlin, J
More cigarette smokers report poor sleep quality than non-smokers, but the association between nicotine dependence (ND) and sleep quality has not been well-characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the associations among frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, ND symptoms, and sleep quality in young adults. Data on past-year smoking frequency, number of cigarettes smoked in the past month, five ND indicators (i.e., withdrawal, craving, self-medication symptoms, mFTQ, ICD-10 criteria for tobacco dependence), and sleep quality (measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)) were collected in 2011-12 in self-report questionnaires completed by 405 young adult smokers (mean age 24 (0.6) years; 45% male; 45% daily smokers) participating in a longitudinal investigation of the natural course of ND. Associations between indicators of cigarette smoking, ND symptoms, and sleep quality were examined in multivariable logistic regression analyses controlling for age, sex, mother's education, and alcohol use. Thirty-six percent of participants reported poor sleep quality (PSQI>5). Higher cigarette consumption (OR(95% CI), 1.03(1.001-1.05)) but not frequency of past-year smoking, more frequent withdrawal symptoms (1.05(1.004-1.10)), more frequent cravings (1.05(1.004-1.10)), higher mFTQ scores (1.14(1.02-1.27)), and endorsing more ICD-10 criteria for tobacco dependence (1.19(1.04-1.36)) were also associated with poor sleep quality. Cigarette smoking and ND symptoms are associated with poor sleep quality in young adult smokers. Advice from practitioners to cut back on number of cigarettes smoked per day and treatment of ND symptoms may improve sleep quality in young adult smokers. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Leyk, Dieter; Rüther, Thomas; Witzki, Alexander; Sievert, Alexander; Moedl, Anne; Blettner, Maria; Hackfort, Dieter; Löllgen, Herbert
The health and physical fitness of adolescents and young adults are important not just to the individuals concerned, but also to society as a whole. Many studies from many different countries have dealt with the prevalence of overweight, the risk factors for it, and the morbidity it causes, but no more than a few have addressed the effects of unhealthy lifestyles on physical fitness. In this study, we show that young adults' physical performance depends on the number of risk factors they possess. We also compare the young adults' physical performance with that of adolescents aged 10 to 17. We obtained cross-sectional data on the weight, smoking status, athletic activity, time to run 1 km, and ability to perform a chin-up on a horizontal bar of 8048 subjects aged 10 to 25. The young adults were divided into groups depending on the number of risk factors they possessed from the following list: overweight, smoking, and lack of exercise. 28.4% of the men and 35.4% of the women aged 18 to 25 had none of these risk factors and exhibited the best physical performance. The more risk factors were present, the worse physical performance became. The 24- and 25-year-olds performed at the same level as the 14- and 15-year-olds. Unhealthy lifestyles can impair physical fitness even before any chronic disease arises. Possession of even a single risk factor is associated with significantly worse performance. Unless comprehensive and effective interventions are introduced in school and at work, the further cementation and worsening of unhealthy lifestyles will be hard to stop.
Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D
Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.
Twig, Gilad; Afek, Arnon; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Cukierman-Yaffe, Tali; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Tirosh, Amir
To determine diabetes incidence over time among obese young adults without metabolic risk factors. Incident diabetes during a median follow-up of 6.1 years was assessed among 33,939 young men (mean age 30.9 ± 5.2 years) of the Metabolic, Lifestyle and Nutrition Assessment in Young Adults cohort who were stratified for BMI and the number of metabolic abnormalities (based on the Adult Treatment Panel-III). Metabolically healthy (MH) obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2 in the presence of normoglycemia, normal blood pressure, and normal levels of fasting triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels (n = 631). A total of 734 new cases of diabetes were diagnosed during 210,282 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of diabetes among participants with no metabolic risk factors was 1.15, 2.10, and 4.34 cases per 1,000 person-years among lean, overweight, and obese participants, respectively. In a multivariable model adjusted for age, region of origin, family history of diabetes, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride level, HDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, and white blood cell count, a higher diabetes risk was observed among MH-overweight (hazard ratio [HR] 1.89 [95% CI 1.25-2.86]; P young adults from incident diabetes associated with overweight and obesity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Pezzini, Alessandro; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Costa, Paolo; Dalla Volta, Giorgio; Padovani, Alessandro
In spite of the strong epidemiologic evidence linking migraine and ischemic stroke in young adults, the mechanisms explaining this association remain poorly understood. The observation that stroke occurs more frequently during the interictal phase of migraine prompts to speculation that an indirect relation between the two diseases might exist. In this regard, four major issues might be considered which may be summarized as follows: (1) the migraine-ischemic stroke relation is influenced by s...
Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.
This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5 +/- 2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on ...
Lee, Juyoung; Tsunetsugu, Yuko; Takayama, Norimasa; Park, Bum-Jin; Li, Qing; Song, Chorong; Komatsu, Misako; Ikei, Harumi; Tyrväinen, Liisa; Kagawa, Takahide; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi
Background. Despite increasing attention toward forest therapy as an alternative medicine, very little evidence continues to be available on its therapeutic effects. Therefore, this study was focused on elucidating the health benefits of forest walking on cardiovascular reactivity. Methods. Within-group comparisons were used to examine the cardiovascular responses to walking in forest and urban environments. Forty-eight young adult males participated in the two-day field research. Changes in ...
Serafini, Kelly A.; Stewart, David G.
Perceptions of family alcohol use have been linked to adolescent alcohol use behaviors, yet there have been no studies that have assessed this relationship in young adults. This study examined perceptions of family alcohol use and their association with participants’ self-reported alcohol use. Participants included 171 undergraduate students (mean age = 21.67, 71.9 percent female, 75.4 percent Caucasian). Participants completed measures assessing quantity and frequency of alcohol use, negativ...
Baalwa, J; Byarugaba, B B; Kabagambe, E K; Kabagambe, K E; Otim, A M
Obesity in young adults is rising and predicts diabetes and cardiovascular diseases later in life. Data on prevalence and determinants of obesity in developing countries are needed for primary prevention. To determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in young adults in urban (Kampala city) and rural areas (Kamuli District) of Uganda. Cross-sectional survey of 683 randomly selected young adults aged 18-30 years. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and overweight as BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Distribution of BMI by socio-demographic characteristics was determined. Of the 683 participants, 50.5% were female and 53.2% were from Kampala. The overall prevalence of obesity and overweight was 2.3% and 10.4%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 4.4% in Kampala and 0% in Kamuli while the prevalence of overweight was 10.2% and 10.6% in Kampala and Kamuli, respectively. Compared to males, females were more likely to be obese (2.9% vs. 1.8%) or overweight (17.4% vs. 3.3%). Residing in the city, alcohol consumption, smoking, non-engagement in sports activities, commuting to school by taxi or private vehicle and being from a rich family were the main factors significantly associated (Pobesity. Being female (p = 0.0001) and not engaging in any sports activities (P = 0.002) were two factors significantly associated with being overweight. We observed significant gender differences in the prevalence of obesity among young adults in Uganda. Contrary to expectation, we did not observe significant rural-urban differences in the prevalence of overweight.
McCollum, Mary; LaVesser, Patti; Berg, Christine
Young adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle to assume adult roles. This research assessed the feasibility of using the Adolescent and Young Adult Activity Card Sort (AYA-ACS) with emerging adults with high functioning ASD. Two phases were utilized during this research: (1) comparing the activity participation reported by emerging…
Sugihara, Masako; Oka, Rie; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Moriuchi, Tadashi; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Yagi, Kunimasa; Yamagishi, Masakazu
Early studies have indicated that body fat shifts from peripheral stores to central stores with aging. The objective of this study was to investigate age-related changes in abdominal fat distribution of Japanese men and women of the general population over a wide range of body mass indices (BMI). A total of 2,220 non-diabetic, apparently healthy Japanese adults (1,240 men and 980 women; age range 40-69 years) were included in the study sample. All subjects underwent a CT scan at the level of the umbilicus, and the areas of visceral adipose tissue (AT) and subcutaneous AT were quantified. When the subjects were stratified by BMI into 18.5-23.0 kg/m(2), 23.0-27.5 kg/m(2), and 27.5 kg/m(2) or higher, visceral AT was positively correlated with age in all of the BMI strata in both genders (pabdominal fat distribution, women retained the subcutaneous-dominant type of fat distribution up to 70 years.
Jeffries, Jayne K; Lytle, Leslie; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Golden, Shelley; Aiello, Allison E; Linnan, Laura
To address chronic disease risk holistically from a behavioral perspective, insights are needed to refine understanding of the covariance of key health behaviors. This study aims to identify distinct typologies of young adults based on 4 modifiable risk factors of chronic disease using a latent class analysis approach, and to describe patterns of class membership based on demographic characteristics, living arrangements, and weight. Overall, 441 young adults aged 18-35 attending community colleges in the Minnesota Twin Cities area completed a baseline questionnaire for the Choosing Healthy Options in College Environments and Settings study, a RCT. Behavioral items were used to create indicators for latent classes, and individuals were classified using maximum-probability assignment. Three latent classes were identified: 'active, binge-drinkers with a healthy dietary intake' (13.1%); 'non-active, moderate-smokers and non-drinkers with poor dietary intake' (38.2%); 'moderately active, non-smokers and non-drinkers with moderately healthy dietary intake' (48.7%). Classes exhibited unique demographic and weight-related profiles. This study may contribute to the literature on health behaviors among young adults and provides evidence that there are weight and age differences among subgroups. Understanding how behaviors cluster is important for identifying groups for targeted interventions in community colleges.
Evans, S E; Radford, M
The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified.
Sheng, Li; Byrd, Courtney T; McGregor, Karla K; Zimmerman, Hannah; Bludau, Kadee
The purpose of this study was to characterize the verbal memory limitations of young adults with language learning disability (LLD). Sixteen young adults with LLD and 34 age- and education-matched controls with typical language participated in a Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) list recall experiment. Participants listened to 12-item word lists that converged on a nonpresented critical item (e.g., rain) semantically (umbrella, drench, weather, hail), phonologically (train, main, ran, wren), or dually in a hybrid list (umbrella, train, drench, main) and recalled words in no particular order. Group comparisons were made on veridical recall (i.e., words that were presented) and false recall of nonpresented critical items. Recall performance was analyzed by list type and list position to examine potential differences in the quality of memorial processes. The LLD group produced fewer veridical recalls than the controls. Both groups demonstrated list type and list position effects in veridical recall. False recall of the critical items was comparable in the 2 groups and varied by list type in predictable ways. Young adults with LLD have verbal memory limitations characterized by quantitatively low levels of accurate recall. Qualitative patterns of recall are similar to those of unaffected peers. Therefore, the memory problem is characterized by limited capacity; memorial processes appear to be intact.
Harakeh, Zeena; Vollebergh, Wilma A M
The aim of this experimental observational study is to examine whether, in a group setting (same-sex triads), passive peer influence (imitation) in the context of homogeneous and heterogeneous (contradictory) behavior of peer models affects young adults' smoking behavior. An experiment was conducted among 48 daily-smoking college and university students aged 17-25. Participants had to complete a 30-min music task with two same-sex confederates. We tested the following three conditions: (a) neither of the confederates is smoking, (b) one confederate is smoking and the other is not, and (c) both confederates are smoking. The primary outcome tested was the total number of cigarettes smoked during the task. Students in the condition with two smoking peer models and in the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model smoked significantly more cigarettes than those in the condition with two nonsmoking peer models. However, results for the condition with two smoking peer models did not differ significantly from the condition with one smoking peer model and one nonsmoking peer model. Our findings show that in a group setting, the impact of the homogeneity of smoking peers on young adults' smoking behavior is not greater than the impact of the heterogeneity of smoking and nonsmoking peers. This would suggest that the smoking peer in the group has a greater impact on the daily-smoking young adult, thus reducing or even eliminating the protective effect of the nonsmoking peer model.
Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.
Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502
Manning, Wendy D; Giordano, Peggy C; Longmore, Monica A; Flanigan, Christine M
Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize 'risk management' as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV.
Full Text Available Background: In China, suicide is one of the major causes of death among adolescents and young adults aged 15 to 34 years. Aim: The current study examines how risk factors vary by age groups in rural China, referring to those aged 15 to 24 years and those aged 25 to 34 years. Method: A case-control psychological autopsy (PA study is conducted in sixteen counties from three Chinese provinces, including 392 suicide cases and 416 community living controls in the sample. Results: In China, young adults aged 25 to 34 years have a higher risk for suicide than adolescents aged 15 to 24 years, and it holds true even controlling for relevant social factors. In addition, age-related factors such as education, marital status, whether having children, status in the family, physical health, and personal income all have varying degrees of impact on suicide risks for rural youth. Conclusions: This study shows that there are some age-related risk factors for suicide at certain life stages and emphasizes that young adults in rural China aged 25 to 34 years have an increased risk of suicide as a result of experiencing more psychological strains with age.
Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.; Flanigan, Christine M.
Young adult involvement in sexual behavior typically occurs within a relationship context, but we know little about the ways in which specific features of romantic relationships influence sexual decision-making. Prior work on sexual risk taking focuses attention on health issues rather than relationship dynamics. We draw on data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study (TARS) (n = 475) to examine the association between qualities and dynamics of current/most recent romantic relationships such as communication and emotional processes, conflict, demographic asymmetries, and duration and the management of sexual risk. We conceptualize ‘risk management’ as encompassing multiple domains, including (1) questioning the partner about previous sexual behaviors/risks, (2) using condoms consistently, and (3) maintaining sexual exclusivity within the relationship. We identify distinct patterns of risk management among dating young adults and find that specific qualities and dynamics of these relationships are linked to variations in risk management. Results from this paper suggest the need to consider relational dynamics in efforts to target and influence young adult sexual risk-taking and reduce STIs, including HIV. PMID:23805015
Frederick, Natasha N; Bober, Sharon L; Berwick, Lexie; Tower, Mary; Kenney, Lisa B
Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) remain at risk for developing treatment-associated health conditions as they age; however, many do not obtain recommended follow-up, putting them at unnecessary risk for morbidity. Educational interventions targeted at providing survivors with the knowledge and skills necessary for healthcare independence might improve adherence and outcomes as they transition care to the adult medical system. To identify informational needs, educational preferences, and support that young adult CCSs perceive as beneficial for transition from pediatric to adult medical care. Sixteen young adult CCSs (ages 22-39 years) who have transitioned to adult care participated in focus groups led by a trained moderator and analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Four major themes emerged: (1) education preferences-pediatric oncology provider as the primary source of information and guidance, enhanced by other formats, and early and ongoing engagement in education; (2) family role in transition-desire for independence and acknowledgement of need for ongoing parental support; (3) expectations for adult providers, such as close relationships, open communication, and care coordination; and (4) knowledge deficits regarding disease/treatment history, risk for long-term complications, and navigation of the adult medical system. Transition education as described by young adult CCSs should be a developmentally appropriate process beginning in early adolescents, primarily administered by pediatric oncology providers, and delivered in multiple formats. While healthcare independence is a goal for young adult CCSs, all stakeholders must recognize that families and providers continue to have an important role supporting survivors with transition logistics and medical decision-making. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Miyawaki, Christina E
Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon's assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers ( M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers' high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers' strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers' own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnic-specific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers' culture and level of assimilation.
Felix F. Widjaja
Full Text Available Background: The increase number of the metabolic syndrome (MetS among young adults was mostly caused by obesity. MetS increases the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD which can be estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS. The study was aimed to know the prevalence of MetS and FRS in obese young adults and to associate them with the components of MetS. Methods: A total of 70 male and female students aged 18 to 25 years with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia were selected consecutively. The blood samples used to test fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride were examined in Department of Clinical Pathology, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital after fasting for 14 to 16 hours. International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition was used to diagnose MetS. Univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results: The prevalence of MetS based on IDF definition was 18.6% among obese young adults. The most associated MetS components was hypertriglyceridemia (OR 12.13; 95% CI 2.92-50.46; p = 0.001, followed with high blood pressure (OR 9.33; 95% CI 2.26-38.56; p = 0.001, low-HDL (OR 8.33; 95% CI 2.17-32.05; p = 0.003, and impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.03. Four subjects had FRS ≥ 1% and 66 subjects had risk < 1%. Increased FRS was not associated with MetS (p = 0.154. There was no component of MetS associated with increased FRS. Conclusion: Prevalence of MetS in obese young adults was similar with obese children and adolescents. Although no association of MetS and FRS was found, they are significant predictors for CHD which should not be used separately. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:100-6Keywords: Abdominal obesity, Framingham risk score, metabolic syndrome, young adults
Full Text Available The effects of sarcopenic obesity, the co-existence of sarcopenia and obesity, on mood disorders have not been studies extensively. Our objective was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with sarcopenia and obesity status in older Japanese adults. We analyzed data from 1731 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (875 men, 856 women randomly selected from the resident register of Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. Obesity was defined as the highest sex-specific quintile of the percentage body fat. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item score ≥ 6. Multiple logistic regression was employed to examine the association of depressive symptoms with four groups defined by the presence/absence of sarcopenia and obesity. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 10.1% and the proportions of sarcopenia/obesity, sarcopenia/non-obesity, non-sarcopenia/obesity, non-sarcopenia/non-obesity were 3.7%, 13.6%, 16.9% and 65.8%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, sarcopenia/obesity was positively associated with depressive symptoms compared with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity, whereas either sarcopenia or obesity alone was not associated with depressive symptoms. The association was particularly pronounced in those aged 65 to 74 years in age-stratified analysis. We conclude that our findings suggest a synergistic impact exerted by sarcopenic obesity on the risk of depressive symptoms, particularly in those aged 65 to 74 years.
Diesen, Plata Sofie
If persons with phenylketonuria (PKU) do not start a protein restricted diet in early infancy, they will suffer severe brain damage. Previous qualitative research on adults and adolescents with PKU has identified stigmatization, uncertain risk perceptions, considerable time spent on preparing food, and incongruence between the PKU diet and certain lifestyle demands. The aim of this study was to explore young and early treated Norwegian adults' experiences, by conducting in-depth interviews in 2011 with 11 adults with PKU, aged 20-30. Being the first qualitative study on people with PKU in Norway, the process was inspired by grounded theory. All participants reflected on their own health and existence by expressing positive counterfactual thoughts. They considered themselves lucky to have had parents who had managed the diet, they were grateful for the time and place they were born, and for information and treatment availability, although the results also show some ambiguous attitudes towards the hospital which provided the treatment. The expression of gratitude in association with having PKU suggests a major positive coping strategy. It contributes to a more holistic understanding of the experiences and attitudes of young, Norwegian adults with PKU, as it provides a counterweight to the negative experiences.
Full Text Available The primary objective of this review was to update and discuss the current concepts andthe results of the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL in adolescents and young adults(AYA. After a brief consideration of the epidemiologic and clinicobiologic characteristics of ALLin the AYA population, the main retrospective comparative studies stating the superiority ofpediatric over adult-based protocols were reviewed. The most important prospective studies inyoung adults using pediatric inspired or pediatric unmodified protocols were also reviewedemphasizing their feasibility at least up to the age of 40 yr and their promising results, with eventfreesurvival rates of 60-65% or greater. Results of trials from pediatric groups have shown that theunfavourable prognosis of adolescents is no more adequate. The majority of the older adolescentswith ALL can be cured with risk-adjusted and minimal residual disease-guided intensivechemotherapy, without stem cell transplantation. However, some specific subgroups, which aremore frequent in adolescents than in children (e.g., early pre-T, iAMP21, and BCR-ABL-like,deserve particular attention. In summary, the advances in treatment of ALL in adolescents havebeen translated to young adults, and that explains the significant improvement in survival of thesepatients in recent years.
Ito, Sanae; Ishida, Hiromi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro
Phosphorus homeostasis is determined by dietary intake, intestinal absorption, and renal tubular reabsorption of phosphorus. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) is considered to be a sensitive early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in both patients with chronic kidney diseases and healthy subjects. However, the number of studies evaluating serum FGF-23 concentrations in healthy subjects is limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between serum FGF-23 concentrations and phosphorus related factors in 182 young Japanese women (mean age, 19.5±0.4 years). We found that higher serum concentrations of inorganic phosphorus and lower serum concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D as well as lower fat but higher phosphorus and calcium intake were weakly but significantly associated with high serum concentrations of FGF-23, adjusted for postmenarcheal age and body weight. These results suggested that in young Japanese women, serum FGF-23 might be indicative of phosphorus nutrition status. However, it is worthy of note that maturity factors, including postmenarcheal age and physical attributes, such as body weight, might be related to serum FGF-23 concentrations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Methods Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 ± 13.0 years, who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons, social (social support, health professional advice, environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area, and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs·hour per week, respondents were divided into two categories–recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive–according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. Results When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55–2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82–4.08 and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14–2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01–1.99 for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06–1.97 for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09–2.36 for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33–0.67 and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25–0.97 were negatively associated with meeting the physical
Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro; Harada, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshio; Muraoka, Isao
Although the benefits of the recommended level of physical activity on reducing chronic diseases are well-established, most of the Japanese population is not sufficiently active. Thus, examining correlates is an important prerequisite for designing relevant polices and effective programs. The present study investigated psychological, social, and environmental factors associated with meeting physical activity recommendations among Japanese adults. Data were analyzed for 1,932 men and women (43.6 +/- 13.0 years), who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Self-reported measure of physical activity, psychological (self-efficacy, pros, and cons), social (social support, health professional advice), environmental (home fitness equipment, access to facilities, neighborhood safety, enjoyable scenery, frequently observing others exercising, residential area), and demographic (gender, age, marital status, educational level, household income level, employment status) variables were obtained. Based on the current national guidelines for exercise in Japan (23 METs.hour per week), respondents were divided into two categories-recommended and not recommended (insufficient and inactive)-according to their estimated weekly physical activity level. An adjusted logistic regression model was utilized. When adjusting for all other variables, self-efficacy (men: OR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.55-2.94, women: OR = 2.72; 95% CI: 1.82-4.08) and possessing home fitness equipment (men: OR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.14-2.10, women: OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01-1.99) for both genders, social support (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.06-1.97) for men, and enjoyable scenery (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.09-2.36) for women were positively associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. In women, cons (OR = 0.47; 95% CI: 0.33-0.67) and living in rural areas (OR = 0.50; 95% CI: 0.25-0.97) were negatively associated with meeting the physical activity recommendations. In the psychological, social, and
Dalglish, Sarah L; Melchior, Maria; Younes, Nadia; Surkan, Pamela J
Job insecurity, unemployment, and job strain can predict psychological distress and suicide risk. Young people, who are particularly at risk of suicide, may be especially vulnerable to the deterioration of labor market conditions as a result of the current economic crisis in Europe. We aimed to examine the effects of work and employment characteristics on suicidal ideation in a contemporary sample of young adults. Using data from a sample of French young adults surveyed in 2011 (TEMPO study, N = 1,214, 18-37 years old) and their parents who took part in a longitudinal cohort study, we used multiple logistic regression to examine the relationship between job insecurity, lifetime and recent unemployment and suicidal ideation in the past 12 months. Our analyses were adjusted for factors associated with suicidal risk including age, sex, educational attainment, living with a partner, insufficient social support, alcohol abuse, depression and parental history of depression. Five percent of the sample reported suicidal ideation in the preceding 12 months. Controlling for all covariates, the likelihood of suicidal ideation was associated with job insecurity (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.08-4.63), lifetime unemployment (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.17-4.29), and recent unemployment (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.04-4.25). After stratifying by educational attainment, the association between suicidal ideation and job insecurity was particularly notable for participants with low educational attainment (OR 9.28, 95% CI 1.19-72.33). Young adults who have unstable and unfavorable employment characteristics are disproportionately likely to be suicidal, which should be monitored, particularly in times of economic downturn.
Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.
The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension
Full Text Available Abstract Background Disc degeneration (DD is a common condition that progresses with aging. Although the events leading to DD are not well understood, a significant genetic influence has been found. This study was undertaken to assess the association between relevant candidate gene polymorphisms and moderate DD in a well-defined and characterized cohort of young adults. Focusing on young age can be valuable in determining genetic predisposition to DD. Methods We investigated the associations of existing candidate genes for DD among 538 young adults with a mean age of 19 belonging to the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort. Nineteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 16 genes were genotyped. We evaluated lumbar DD using the modified Pfirrmann classification and a 1.5-T magnetic resonance scanner for imaging. Results Of the 538 individuals studied, 46% had no degeneration, while 54% had DD and 51% of these had moderate DD. The risk of DD was significantly higher in subjects with an allele G of IL6 SNPs rs1800795 (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07-1.96 and rs1800797 (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.02-1.85 in the additive inheritance model. The role of IL6 was further supported by the haplotype analysis, which resulted in an association between the GGG haplotype (SNPs rs1800797, rs1800796 and rs1800795 and DD with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.11-2.04. In addition, we observed an association between DD and two other polymorphisms, SKT rs16924573 (OR 0.27 95% CI 0.07-0.96 and CILP rs2073711 in women (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.07-3.89. Conclusion Our results indicate that IL6, SKT and CILP are involved in the etiology of DD among young adults.
Burke, Patrick W; Douer, Dan
The cure rate of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children is 80%, compared to less than half in adults. A major proportion of this cure rate drop occurs in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). The age range defining this population varies between studies, biological characteristics are different from both younger children and older adults, and AYAs are treated either by pediatric or adult oncologists, who often apply different treatment approaches to the same ALL patient population. The outcome of AYAs aged 15-21 years treated by more contemporary pediatric protocols is similar to that of younger children but is inferior when using adult regimens. This motivated studying AYA patients, including those above the age of 21 years, with pediatric or 'pediatrics-inspired' regimens that intensified nonmyelosuppressive drugs such as vincristine, steroids and asparaginase, with very promising preliminary results. Discovering new mutations in AYA ALL will help stratify patients into risk subgroups and identify targets for novel agents. This, together with fine-tuning pediatric chemotherapy principles will hopefully finally decrease the cure rate gap between children and AYAs - and even older adults. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a perception that kidney transplant recipients transferred from pediatric centers to adult care have an increased risk of graft loss. It is not clear whether young adults transplanted in adult centers also suffer from high graft loss rates. Methods We examined death censored graft survival in 3 cohorts of young patients transplanted at a single center. Pediatric (PED patients transplanted at the pediatric center were compared to a cohort of young adults (YAD; age 18- Results In a multivariate Cox model for death-censored graft survival, PED survival was statistically similar to the YAD (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.44, 1.7, p = 0.66, however the ADL cohort (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.25, 0.82, p = 0.009 demonstrated better survival. Admitted non-adherence rates were not different among cohorts. Patients were transferred within a narrow age window (18.6 ± 1.0 age in years but at a wide range of times from the date of transplantation (5.1 ± 3.5 years and with a wide range of graft function (serum creatinine 182 ± 81 μmol/L. Conclusions The perception that pediatric transfers do poorly reflects advanced graft dysfunction in some at the time of transfer. The evidence also suggests that it is not the transfer of care that is the critical issue but rather recipients, somewhere between the ages of 11-14 and 25, are a unique and vulnerable cohort. Effective strategies to improve outcomes across this age group need to be identified and applied consistently.
McVey, Alana J.; Dolan, Bridget K.; Willar, Kirsten S.; Pleiss, Sheryl; Karst, Jeffrey S.; Casnar, Christina L.; Caiozzo, Christina; Vogt, Elisabeth M.; Gordon, Nakia S.; Van Hecke, Amy Vaughan
Young adults with ASD experience difficulties with social skills, empathy, loneliness, and social anxiety. One intervention, "PEERS® for Young Adults," shows promise in addressing these challenges. The present study replicated and extended the original study by recruiting a larger sample (N = 56), employing a gold standard ASD assessment…
Full Text Available Health disparities in Japan are attracting increasing attention. Temporal trends in health disparities should be continuously monitored using multiple indices of socioeconomic status (SES and health-related outcomes. We explored changes in socioeconomic differences in the health of Japanese adults during 2000–2010. The data was taken from the Japanese General Social Surveys, the cross-sectional surveys for nationally representative samples of Japanese adults. We used 14,193 samples (individuals of 20–64 years of age in our analysis. We estimated age-adjusted prevalence ratios of the lowest SES group in comparison with the highest SES group using Poisson regression models with robust error variance. Relative index of inequality (RII and slope index of inequality (SII were also calculated. We examined the changes in the association between health-related outcomes (self-rated health (SRH, smoking, and physical activity and SES indices (income, education, occupation, and subjective social class identification. The results showed temporally expanding trends for the associations of current smoking with SES, especially among women, in both relative and absolute measures. In contrast, no expanding trends were seen for SRH and physical activity. Although the smoking rates declined through the first decade of the 21st century, the socioeconomic disparities in smoking prevalence among Japanese adults expanded, especially among women. Researchers and policymakers should continuously monitor the trends that may cause future disparities in smoking-related morbidity and mortality. Keywords: Japan, Socioeconomic disparity, Temporal trends, Smoking, Self-rated health
Capitão, L P; Murphy, S E; Browning, M; Cowen, P J; Harmer, C J
Fluoxetine is generally regarded as the first-line pharmacological treatment for young people, as it is believed to show a more favourable benefit:risk ratio than other antidepressants. However, the mechanisms through which fluoxetine influences symptoms in youth have been little investigated. This study examined whether acute administration of fluoxetine in a sample of young healthy adults altered the processing of affective information, including positive, sad and anger cues. A total of 35 male and female volunteers aged between 18 and 21 years old were randomized to receive a single 20 mg dose of fluoxetine or placebo. At 6 h after administration, participants completed a facial expression recognition task, an emotion-potentiated startle task, an attentional dot-probe task and the Rapid Serial Visual Presentation. Subjective ratings of mood, anxiety and side effects were also taken pre- and post-fluoxetine/placebo administration. Relative to placebo-treated participants, participants receiving fluoxetine were less accurate at identifying anger and sadness and did not show the emotion-potentiated startle effect. There were no overall significant effects of fluoxetine on subjective ratings of mood. Fluoxetine can modulate emotional processing after a single dose in young adults. This pattern of effects suggests a potential cognitive mechanism for the greater benefit:risk ratio of fluoxetine in adolescent patients.
Heckman, Carolyn J; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Darlow, Susan; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja
Indoor tanning (IT) increases risk for melanoma and is particularly common among young adult women. IT has also been linked with some psychiatric symptoms, and frequent tanning may indicate tanning dependence (addiction) associated with endorphin release during ultraviolet radiation exposure. The objective of the current study was to investigate associations between IT, tanning dependence, and psychiatric and substance use symptoms in young adult women. Cross-sectional survey and psychiatric interview. Online, except for the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), which was completed over the telephone. Participants were 306 female university students aged 18 to 25 years. MINI, Seasonal Scale Index, tanning dependence scales, reporting ever having used a tanning bed or booth with tanning lamps (single item), reporting smoking a cigarette in the last 30 days (single item). Descriptive statistics, χ(2) analysis, multivariate logistic regression. Forty-six percent of the sample reported a history of IT, and 25% were classified as tanning dependent. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that IT was significantly associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders, generalized anxiety, and not having social anxiety. Tanning dependence was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorders. Tanning is of concern not only for its association with skin cancer but for its association with psychiatric and substance use symptoms. Young women with certain psychological problems may seek relief from their symptoms by IT. These findings suggest that indoor tanners may benefit from health behavior and other psychosocial interventions.
Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F M; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola
Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18-25; 35-45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6-10; 18-25; 35-45; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for young adults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the young adults (18-25; 35-45) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity).
Marcinow, Michelle L.; Randall Simpson, Janis A.; Whiting, Susan J.; Jung, Mary E.; Buchholz, Andrea C.
Many young Canadian adults are not meeting dietary calcium recommendations. This is concerning as adequate calcium is important throughout young adulthood to maximize peak bone mass for osteoporosis prevention. There are limited studies that have explored young adults' perceptions toward calcium and health. Our objectives were to determine young…
Arntz, R.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Leeuw, F.E. de
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the incidence and risk of seizures after stroke in young adults. Especially in the young seizures might dramatically influence prognosis and quality of life. We therefore investigated the long-term incidence and risk of post-stroke epilepsy in young adults with a
Inoue, Hideki; Ito, Isao; Niimi, Akio; Matsumoto, Hisako; Oguma, Tsuyoshi; Tajiri, Tomoko; Iwata, Toshiyuki; Nagasaki, Tadao; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiro; Morishima, Toshitaka; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Tamari, Mayumi; Wenzel, Sally E; Mishima, Michiaki
IL1RL1 (ST2) is involved in Th2 inflammation including eosinophil activation. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the IL1RL1 gene are associated with asthma development and increased peripheral blood eosinophil counts. However, the association between IL1RL1 SNPs and eosinophilic phenotype among adults with asthma remains unexplored. In a primary cohort of 110 adult Japanese patients with stable asthma, we examined the associations between IL1RL1 SNPs and clinical measurements including forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 ), airway reversibility of FEV 1 , exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), serum soluble-ST2 (sST2) levels, peripheral blood eosinophil differentials and serum total IgE level. The findings in the primary cohort were confirmed in a validation cohort of 126 adult Japanese patients with stable asthma. Patients with minor alleles in 3 SNPs (rs17026974, rs1420101, and rs1921622) had high FeNO, blood eosinophil differentials, and reversibility of FEV 1 , but low levels of serum sST2 and FEV 1 . Minor alleles of rs1041973 were associated with low serum sST2 levels alone. In the validation cohort, minor alleles of rs1420101 were associated with high FeNO and blood eosinophil differentials, whereas minor alleles of rs17026974 and rs1921622 were associated with high blood eosinophil differentials and FeNO, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that the minor allele of rs1420101 additively contributed to the FeNO, blood eosinophil differentials, and reversibility of FEV 1 . The minor alleles of IL1RL1 SNPs were associated with high FeNO and peripheral blood eosinophilia among adult Japanese patients with stable asthma. IL1RL1 SNPs may characterize the eosinophilic phenotype with greater eosinophilic inflammation in the Japanese asthma cohort. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Respiratory Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Stroud, Clare; Walker, Leslie R; Davis, Maryann; Irwin, Charles E
Contrary to popular perception, young adults-ages approximately 18-26 years-are surprisingly unhealthy. They are less healthy than adolescents, and they also show a worse health profile than those in their late 20s and 30s. The Affordable Care Act provisions to extend coverage for young adults are well known, and some states had already been pursuing similar efforts before the Affordable Care Act was enacted. These initiatives have resulted in important gains in young adults' heath care coverage. However, too little attention has been paid to the care that young adults receive once they are in the system. Given young adults' health problems, this is a critical omission. The Institute of Medicine and National Research Council recently released a report titled Investing in the Health and Well-Being of Young Adults. The report concludes that young adulthood is a critical developmental period and recommends that young adults ages 18-26 years be treated as a distinct subpopulation in policy, planning, programming, and research. The report also recommends action in three priority areas to improve health care for young adults: improving the transition from pediatric to adult medical and behavioral health care, enhancing preventive care for young adults, and developing evidence-based practices. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sharon L. Manne
Full Text Available Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement, lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.
Heckman, Carolyn J; Darlow, Susan; Cohen-Filipic, Jessye; Kloss, Jacqueline D; Manne, Sharon L; Munshi, Teja; Perlis, Clifford S
Skin cancer is an increasingly common disease, particularly among young adult women. Sunburn early in life is a risk factor for skin cancer. Few studies have reported on psychosocial correlates of sunburn. The current study consisted of an online survey of undergraduate women from a university in the northeastern part of the USA. A logistic regression demonstrated that young women who reported a history of four or more sunburns were significantly more likely to report fair skin, higher perceived susceptibility to skin cancer, greater perceived benefits of tanning (e.g., appearance enhancement), lower perceived control over skin protection, and more frequent sunscreen use. Sunbathing was not associated with a greater number of sunburns. These results suggest that young women who sunburn more often possess other skin cancer risk factors, are aware of their susceptibility to skin cancer, and try to use sunscreen, but feel limited control over their skin protection behavior and are not less likely to sunbathe than others. Therefore, interventions are needed to assist high risk young women in asserting more control over their sun protection behavior and perhaps improve the effectiveness of the sunscreen or other skin protection methods they do employ.
Harada, Kazuhiro; Masumoto, Kouhei; Katagiri, Keiko; Fukuzawa, Ai; Chogahara, Makoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Okada, Shuichi
Strengthening neighborhood social networks is important for promoting health among older adults. However, effective intervention strategies aimed at increasing older adults' social networks have not yet been established. The present study examined whether a university-led community intervention that provided communication opportunities could increase older Japanese adults' neighborhood social networks. The present study used a quasi-experimental design. Before the intervention, using postal mail, we carried out a baseline questionnaire survey that was sent to all people living in the Tsurukabuto community aged ≥60 years (n = 1769), of whom 1068 responded. For the community intervention, 18 event-based programs were provided over the course of 1 year at Kobe University. Academic staff at Kobe University organized all the programs. During the program, social interactions among participants were promoted. A follow-up survey was distributed to those who responded to the baseline survey, and 710 individuals answered the question about their participation in the intervention programs (138 respondents were participants, 572 were non-participants). The neighborhood social network was measured in both the baseline and follow-up surveys. Analysis of covariance showed that the changes in neighborhood social network among participants in the program was significantly higher than the changes among non-participants (P = 0.046) after adjusting for the baseline score of social network. The present study found that participants of the intervention expanded their neighborhood social network, but non-participants did not. This finding shows that community interventions using university resources could increase older adults' neighborhood social networks. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 462-469. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.
This paper examines the Japanese word "kawaii" "cute". Teachers frequently use "kawaii" to show positive feelings toward objects in the classroom. Female children also are primary users of the word, which suggests that they are acquiring "kawaii" as an index of female gender identity. From a linguistic…
Moschos, M M; Chatziralli, I P; Siasou, G; Papazisis, L
Computer use can cause visual problems. The purpose of our study was to evaluate visual problems due to computer use in young adults. Participants in our study were 87 adults, 48 male and 39 female, mean aged 31.3 years old (SD 7.6). All the participants completed a questionnaire regarding visual problems detected after computer use. The mean daily use of computers was 3.2 hours (SD 2.7). 65.5 % of the participants complained for dry eye, mainly after more than 2.5 hours of computer use. 32 persons (36.8 %) had a foreign body sensation in their eyes, while 15 participants (17.2 %) complained for blurred vision which caused difficulties in driving, after 3.25 hours of continuous computer use. 10.3 % of the participants sought medical advice for their problem. There was a statistically significant correlation between the frequency of visual problems and the duration of computer use (p = 0.021). 79.3 % of the participants use artificial tears during or after long use of computers, so as not to feel any ocular discomfort. The main symptom after computer use in young adults was dry eye. All visual problems associated with the duration of computer use. Artificial tears play an important role in the treatment of ocular discomfort after computer use. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine
The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia. PMID
Alonso, Irene; Dellacherie, Delphine; Samson, Séverine
The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009), but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008) or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013) may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24 h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24 h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and dementia.
Full Text Available The emotions evoked by music can enhance recognition of excerpts. It has been suggested that memory is better for high than for low arousing music (Eschrich et al., 2005; Samson et al., 2009, but it remains unclear whether positively (Eschrich et al., 2008 or negatively valenced music (Aubé et al., 2013; Vieillard and Gilet, 2013 may be better recognized. Moreover, we still know very little about the influence of age on emotional memory for music. To address these issues, we tested emotional memory for music in young and older adults using musical excerpts varying in terms of arousal and valence. Participants completed immediate and 24h delayed recognition tests. We predicted highly arousing excerpts to be better recognized by both groups in immediate recognition. We hypothesized that arousal may compensate consolidation deficits in aging, thus showing more prominent benefit of high over low arousing stimuli in older than younger adults on delayed recognition. We also hypothesized worst retention of negative excerpts for the older group, resulting in a recognition benefit for positive over negative excerpts specific to older adults. Our results suggest that although older adults had worse recognition than young adults overall, effects of emotion on memory do not seem to be modified by aging. Results on immediate recognition suggest that recognition of low arousing excerpts can be affected by valence, with better memory for positive relative to negative low arousing music. However, 24h delayed recognition results demonstrate effects of emotion on memory consolidation regardless of age, with a recognition benefit for high arousal and for negatively valenced music. The present study highlights the role of emotion on memory consolidation. Findings are examined in light of to the literature on emotional memory for music and for other stimuli. We finally discuss the implication of the present results for potential music interventions in aging and
Montiel-Company, José M.; Manzanera-Pastor, David; Almerich-Silla, José M.
Objectives: Orthodontic treatment need has often been assessed in child populations, but few studies employing internationally-recognized indices have been conducted in adult or young adult populations. The aim of this study was to determine the orthodontic treatment need of a young adult population in Spain by means of the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI), the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and the need perceived by the patients. Study design: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in a broad, representative sample of 671 adults aged between 35 and 44 years using health centers in the Valencia Region of Spain, following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Orthodontic treatment was required by 31.3% of the sample according to the DAI and 19.2% according to the IOTN (DHC). The orthodontic treatment need perceived by the patients was 21.1%. On relating treatment need to different variables, significant differences in patient perception were encountered by gender, as women perceived a greater need (23.9%) than men (14.4%). Significant differences in previous orthodontic treatment history were found between middle/high (15%) and low (9%) social class and between secondary/tertiary (14%) and primary (3.3%) education. Conclusions: There was no agreement between the treatment need assessed objectively by the indices and that perceived by the patient, or between the indices themselves. The decision to undergo orthodontic treatment can depend on socioeconomic and psychological factors and on values and principles that do not easily lend themselves to objective measurement. Key words:Orthodontics, epidemiology, adult, malocclusion. PMID:22322504
Yitshak Sade, Maayan; Novack, Victor; Ifergane, Gal; Horev, Anat; Kloog, Itai
Studies have demonstrated consistent associations between cardiovascular illness and particulate matter (PM) stroke received less attention. We hypothesized that air pollution, an inflammation progenitor, can be associated with stroke incidence in young patients in whom the usual risk factors for stroke are less prevalent. We aimed to evaluate the association between stroke incidence and exposure to PM stroke between 2005 and 2012. Exposure assessment was based on a hybrid model incorporating daily satellite remote sensing data at 1-km spatial resolution. We performed case-crossover analysis, stratified by personal characteristics and distance from main roads. We identified 4837 stroke cases (89.4% ischemic stroke). Interquartile range of PM ischemic stroke and increases of interquartile range average concentrations of particulate matter ischemic stroke associated with PM among young adults. This finding can be explained by the inflammatory mechanism, linking air pollution and stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Pan, Xuanchao; Takayama, Akinori; Shibata, Yasuaki; Ito, Hiromoto
The purpose of this study was to study the relationship of angles in adult sacroiliac joints (SJ) with laterality, age, gender, degeneration, childbearing in different locations. The study was performed in 92 healthy Japanese adult volunteers (46 males and 46 females, aged 21∼86 years) who had no low back complaints. Axial computed tomographic (CT) images were obtained using an X-VIGOR apparatus (Toshiba Medical Inc. Japan). The angle measurements were taken directly using soft National Institutes of Health (NIH) Image 1.61 (Scion Inc. USA). We examined possible factors. Statistical evaluation was calculated using t-test by soft SPSS (SPSS Inc. Japan). Our findings indicated that SJ angles had no relationships with laterality, gender. But from upper part to lower part, the average of SJ angle was 7.61 deg±8.7 deg, 5.16 deg±7.3 deg, -0.85 deg±7.3 deg respectively in the left and 6.56 deg±9.4 deg, 4.10 deg±7.2 deg, -2.30 deg±7.0 deg in the right. The difference is significant between lower part and upper-middle part (P<0.05). Our results provided new anatomic and morphological data for better understandings of SJ in the clinic work. (author)
Ota, Tomoko; Sanada, Tetsuya; Kashiwara, Yoko; Morimoto, Takao; Sato, Kaneaki
Radioactivity levels in 137 foods commonly consumed daily in Japan were evaluated to determine the committed effective dose in the Japanese adults. The levels of radioactivity for 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239+240 Pu were ND-5.2 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-0.18 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-3.9 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-45 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-120 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-9.9 Bq/kg fresh weight, ND-19 Bq/kg fresh weight and ND-0.010 Bq/kg fresh weight, respectively. The committed effective dose was estimated to be 0.80 mSv from the intake of the foods. The effective dose was greater than the world mean value for adults of 0.12 mSv by natural radioactive elements in the uranium and thorium series from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) 2000 because of the large contribution from 210 Po in seafood. (author)
Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.
Wellman, Robert J; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Dugas, Erika N; Montreuil, Annie; Dutczak, Hartley; O'Loughlin, Jennifer
Although most young adult smokers want to quit smoking, few can do so successfully. Increased understanding of reasons to quit in this age group could help tailor interventions, but few studies document reasons to quit in young adults or examine reasons to quit by smoker characteristics. In 2011-12, 311 current smokers (age 22-28, M=24.1; 48.9% male, 51.1% female; 50.4% daily smokers) from the Nicotine Dependence in Teens Study completed the Adolescent Reasons for Quitting scale. We assessed differences in the importance of 15 reasons to quit by sex, education, smoking frequency, quit attempt in the past year, perceived difficulty in quitting, and motivation to quit. We also examined differences between participants who discounted the importance of long-term health risks and those who acknowledged such risks. Concerns about getting sick or still smoking when older were considered very important by >70% of participants. Median scores were higher among daily smokers, those who had tried to quit or who expressed difficulty quitting, and those with strong motivation to quit. Discounters (14.5% of participants) were primarily nondaily, low-consumption smokers. Their Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence scores did not differ from non-discounters', and 11% (vs. 35.7% of non-discounters) were ICD-10 tobacco dependent. Novel smoking cessation interventions are needed to help young adult smokers quit by capitalizing on their health concerns. Discounters may need educational intervention to better understand the impact of even "light" smoking on their health before or in conjunction with quit interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mimouni, Michael; Zoller, Lilach; Horowitz, Josefa; Wygnanski-Jaffe, Tamara; Morad, Yair; Mezer, Eedy
The precise correction of refractive error is especially important in young adults. It is unclear whether cycloplegic refraction is necessary in this age group. The purpose of this study was to compare the non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) refractive error measured in young adults. This was a prospective study of 1400 eyes (n = 700) of enlisted soldiers aged 18 to 21 years who were consecutively evaluated in an outpatient army ophthalmology clinic. One drop of cyclopentolate 1 % was installed twice 10 min apart, and cycloplegic refraction was performed in both eyes 40 min later using an auto-refractor. The difference between non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic refractive measurements was analyzed. The mean difference in SE between non-cycloplegic and cycloplegic measurements was 0.68 ± 0.83 D (95 % CI, 0.64-0.72). Significantly greater differences were observed in hypermetropes than myopes (1.30 ± 0.90 D versus 0.46 ± 0.68 D, p 5 D) hypermetropes (1.71 ± 1.18 D versus 1.19 ± 0.74 D and 1.16 ± 1.08 D respectively, p pseudomyopia of -0.5 D. Cycloplegic refraction should be performed in young hypermetropic adults complaining of various signs of asthenopia.
Full Text Available Background: Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. Objectives: This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool’sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. Results: 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA. Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Discussion: Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters. The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour as well as the definition and empirical validation
Limpawattana, Panita; Kengkijkosol, Thepkhachi; Assantachai, Prasert; Krairit, Orapitchaya; Pimporm, Jiraporn
Obesity is a worldwide medical condition that leads to physical and psychological impairment. Specific ethnicity, gender and age group are related to different performances of anthropometric indices to predict obesity. The objectives of this study were to estimate the performance of the anthropometric indices for detecting obesity based on percentage of body fat (PBF), to study the correlation among those indices, and to determine the optimal cut-off point of the indices among young Thai adults. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy urban subjects in Khon Kaen, Thailand who were aged 20-39 years. Baseline characteristics and anthropometric measures were collected. PBF was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Demographic data and anthropometric variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the performance of anthropometric measures as predictors of obesity. One-hundred men and 100 women were recruited for this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) were significantly correlated to PBF. BMI demonstrated the best performance according to the area under the ROC curves in both sexes at cut-off points of 22.5 in women or 25 kg/m(2) in men. WC and WSR showed better performance than WHR to detect obesity. In conclusion, anthropometric indices in young Thai adults were correlated well with PBF to predict obesity as shown in prior reports. Different cut-off points of these indices to define obesity in young Thai adults are recommended. The global cut-off points of WSR in women regardless of ethnicity are supported.
Chrysanthakopoulos, Nikolaos A
The aim of the current research was to assess the prevalence of gingival recession and to investigate possible associations among this condition, periodontal and epidemiological variables in a sample of young Greek adults in a general dental practice. A total of 1,430 young adults was examined clinically and interviewed regarding several periodontal and epidemiological variables. Collected data included demographic variables, oral hygiene habits and smoking status. Clinical examination included the recording of dental plaque, supragingival calculus presence, gingival status and buccal gingival recession. Multivariate logistic regression analysis model was performed to access the possible association between gingival recession and several periodontal and epidemiological variables as potential risk factors. The overall prevalence of gingival recession was 63.9%. The statistical analysis indicated that higher educational level [OR= 2.12, 95% CI= 0.53-8.51], cigarette smoking [OR= 1.97, 95% CI= 1.48-7.91], frequent tooth brushing [OR= 0.98, 95% CI= 0.56-1.96], presence of oral piercing [OR= 0.92, 95% CI= 0.38-1.58], presence of gingival inflammation [OR= 4.54, 95% CI= 1.68-7.16], presence of dental plaque [OR= 1.67, 95% CI= 0.68-2.83] and presence of supragingival calculus [OR=1.34, 95% CI= 0.59-1.88], were the most important associated factors of gingival recession. The observations of the current research supported the results from previous authors that several periodontal factors, educational level and smoking were significantly associated with the presence of gingival recession, while presence of oral piercing was a new factor that was found to be associated with gingival recession. Key words:Gingival recession, prevalence, risk factors, young adults.
Korczak, Dieter; Steinhauser, Gerlinde; Dietl, Markus
Despite many activities to prevent risky alcohol consumption among adolescents and young adults there is an increase of alcohol intoxications in the group of ten to twenty year old juveniles. This report gives an overview about the recent literature as well as the German federal prevention system regarding activities concerning behavioral and policy prevention of risky alcohol consumption among children, adolescents and young adults. Furthermore, effective components of prevention activities are identified and the efficiency and efficacy of ongoing prevention programs is evaluated. A systematic literature review is done in 34 databases using Bool'sche combinations of the key words alcohol, prevention, treatment, children, adolescents and young adults. 401 studies were found and 59 studies were selected for the health technology assessment (HTA). Most of the studies are done in USA, nine in Germany. A family strengthening program, personalized computer based intervention at schools, colleges and universities, brief motivational interventions and policy elements like increase of prices and taxes proved effective. Among the 59 studies there are three meta-analyses, 15 reviews, 17 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 18 cohort studies. Despite the overall high quality of the study design, many of them have methodological weaknesses (missing randomization, missing or too short follow-ups, not clearly defined measurement parameters). The transferability of US-results to the German context is problematic. Only a few prevention activities reach a sustainable reduction of frequency and/or amount of alcohol consumption. The HTA-report shows the need to develop specific and target group focused prevention activities for the German situation. Essential for that is the definition of target goals (reduction of consumption, change of behaviour) as well as the definition and empirical validation of risky alcohol consumption. The efficacy of prevention activities should be proven
Okuyama, Masatsugu; Takaishi, Osamu; Nakahara, Kenichi; Iwakura, Narika; Hasegawa, Tomoki; Oyama, Maizumi; Inoue, Ayumi; Ishizu, Hirotaka; Satoh, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and psychological stress are associated with sleep disturbances. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression by GERD subtypes and to identify factors associated with sleep disturbances in general population. A total of 2002 Japanese subjects, who underwent annual health checkups, were enrolled and asked to fill out a questionnaire, including the frequency scale for the symptoms of GERD (FSSG), Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Rome III questionnaire, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). GERD was divided into asymptomatic erosive reflux disease (a-ERD), symptomatic ERD (s-ERD), and non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), according to the presence or absence of esophageal mucosal injury on endoscopy, and the FSSG scores. Sleep disturbances were diagnosed in subjects with AIS score ≥6. Prevalence of sleep disturbances was significantly higher in GERD subjects than in controls (35.9 and 14.7%, respectively), especially, in the NERD group (45.1%). Sleep duration was significantly shorter in the s-ERD group compared with other groups. Subjects in the NERD and s-ERD groups showed higher HADS scores, resulting in higher incidences of anxiety and depression than those in the control and a-ERD groups. Reflux symptoms, anxiety, depression, and coexisting functional dyspepsia, but not the presence of esophageal mucosal injury, were associated with an increased odds ratio for sleep disturbances. There were significant positive associations among reflux symptoms, psychological stress, and sleep disturbance in Japanese adults. Further studies investigating the efficacy of therapy are needed.
Full Text Available To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS. We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment ("Medaka Osteoclast" was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4 and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation-reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114, and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation.
Phillips, Abigail Leigh
Cyberbullying is a problem many young adults ages 12 to 18 have experienced on a daily basis. Adult support is critical in both the prevention and intervention of cyberbullying. Although parents, teachers, and school administrators have been highlighted as sources of support for cyberbullied young adults, librarians have not been studied as a…
Aquilino, William S.
Explored implications of later life parental divorce and widowhood for relationship between parents and young adult children among 3,281 young adults who grew up in intact families. Family disruption that occurred after children were grown had sizable effects on parent-adult child relations, with later life divorce lowering relationship quality…
Aquilino, William S.
Explored implications of childhood family disruption for parent-adult child relations in sample of 4,516 young adults. Among young adults raised in single-parent families, relationships with custodial mothers and custodial fathers remained quite positive into early adulthood. Becoming noncustodial parent resulted in severe deterioration of…
Evaluation of the repeated-dose liver micronucleus assay using N-nitrosomorpholine in young adult rats: report on collaborative study by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT)/Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS)-Mammalian Mutagenicity Study (MMS) Group.
Hayashi, Aya; Kosaka, Mizuki; Kimura, Aoi; Wako, Yumi; Kawasako, Kazufumi; Hamada, Shuichi
The present study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of a repeated-dose liver micronucleus (LMN) assay in young adult rats as a collaborative study by the Mammalian mutagenicity study (MMS) group. All procedures were performed in accordance with the standard protocols of the MMS Group. Six-week-old male Crl:CD(SD) rats (5 animals/group) received oral doses of the hepatocarcinogen N-nitrosomorpholine (NMOR) at 0 (control), 5, 10, and 30mg/kg/day (10mL/kg) for 14 days. Control animals received vehicle (water). Hepatocytes were collected from the liver 24h after the last dose, and the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) was determined by microscopy. The number of micronucleated immature erythrocytes (MNIMEs) in the femoral bone marrow was also determined. The liver was examined using histopathologic methods after formalin fixation. The results showed statistically significant and dose-dependent increases in the number of MNHEPs in the liver at doses of 10mg/kg and greater when compared with the vehicle control. However, no significant increase was noted in the number of MNIMEs in the bone marrow at doses of up to 30mg/kg. Histopathology of the liver revealed hypertrophy and single cell necrosis of hepatocytes at doses of 5mg/kg and above. These results showed that the induction of micronuclei by NMOR was detected by the repeated-dose LMN assay, but not by the repeated-dose bone marrow micronucleus assay. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Postma, Dirkje S; Backer, Vibeke
Objective assessment of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma to facilitate comparison between studies. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability, and bronchodilator reversibility (BR) are widely used as markers of airway lability in such s...... in such studies. Data from a survey of a population sample of adolescents and young adults (n = 609; 288 males), aged 13-23 years, were analyzed to investigate whether AHR, PEF variability, and BR can be used interchangeably as markers of asthma in an epidemiological setting....
Tangpricha, Vin; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Chen, Tai C.; Holick, Michael F.
Long-term vitamin D insufficiency can cause secondary hyperparathyroidism and osteomalacia (1). In addition, there is increasing evidence that vitamin D may protect against common cancers, such as cancer of the colon (2–4), prostate (5), and breast (6). Young adults aged 17 to 35 years drink inadequate amounts of milk (7) and are concerned about exposure to the sun because of the fear of developing skin cancer (8,9), which increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency (10). We sought to exami...
Balasubramaniam, M; Sivapalan, K; Thuvarathipan, R
To establish reference norms of lung function parameters for healthy Sri Lankan Tamil young adults. Cross sectional study of Tamil students at the Faculty of Medicine, Jaffna. Healthy non smoking students of Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic group were enrolled. Age, height, weight, BMI and spirometric measurements (Micro Quark) were recorded in 267 participants (137 females and 130 males). Height was significantly correlated with (pTamils. When mean values were compared, these parameters were significantly higher in Tamil males (pTamil females (pTamils. However, our study sample was confined to medical students of 20-28 years which may explain the differences with Sinhalese.
Kamada, Tomoari; Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken
Nodular gastritis is a popular endoscopic gastritis in H. pylori-positive children and young adults. The endoscopic findings of nodular gastritis were mainly characterized by a unique, small granulated pattern in the antrum of the stomach. The cases of gastric cancer with nodular gastritis showed the same characteristics: all were diagnosed histologically as the diffuse-type and were located in the corpus with H. pylori infection. We recommended that endoscopists should carefully examine not only the antrum but also the corpus in patients with nodular gastritis, and H. pylori should be eradicated as soon as possible to prevent gastric cancer.
Murray, I P.C. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine
The sensitivity of the radionuclide bone scan in identifying osteoblastic reaction in bone and in detecting local alterations in blood flow is valuable in many benign diseases involving bone, particularly those which are more common in children and young adults, and in which early detection may be critical to future health. Bone scanning offers a simple yet reliable means for establishing an early diagnosis, evaluating the extent of the disease, and assessing the therapeutic response in disorders resulting from infection, trauma, or vascular insult. Useful information may also be obtained in disturbances of growth and development, and in congenital lesions.
Nurul Retno Nurwulan
Full Text Available Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1 texting impaired postural stability, (2 the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3 performing texting is perceived to be more difficult.
Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol
The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and
Saliasi, Emi; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Maurits, Natasha M.
While some elderly show deteriorations in cognitive performance, others achieve performance levels comparable to young adults. To examine whether age-related changes in brain activity varied with working memory performance efficiency, we recorded electroencephalography (EEG) from young and older
Leroy, C; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Desailloud, R
Endocrine complications (particularly gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary and metabolic) of childhood cancer treatments are common in young adults. Gonadal damage may be the result of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Fertility preservation must be systematically proposed before initiation of gonadotoxic treatment if only the child is eligible. Hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency is common after brain or total-body irradiation, the somatotropic axis is the most sensitive to irradiation. Pituitary deficiency screening must be repeated since this endocrine consequence can occur many years after treatment. Hormone replacement must be prudent particularly in case of treatment with growth hormone or steroids. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular damage resulting from cancer treatments contribute to the increase of morbidity and mortality in this population and should be screened routinely even if the patient is asymptomatic. The multidisciplinary management of these adults must be organized and the role of the endocrinologist is now well established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Arima, Kazuhiko; Gupta, Shaloo; Gadkari, Abhijit; Hiragun, Takaaki; Kono, Takeshi; Katayama, Ichiro; Demiya, Sven; Eckert, Laurent
Atopic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. The objective of this study was to characterize the burden of atopic dermatitis in Japanese adult patients relative to the general population. Japanese adults (≥18 years) with a self-reported diagnosis of atopic dermatitis and adult controls without atopic dermatitis/eczema/dermatitis were identified from the 2013 Japan National Health and Wellness Survey. Atopic dermatitis patients were propensity-score matched with non-atopic dermatitis controls (1:2 ratio) on demographic variables. Patient-reported outcome data on comorbidities, mood and sleep disorders, health-related quality of life, work productivity and activity impairment, and health-care resource utilization were analyzed in atopic dermatitis patients and matched controls. A total of 638 Japanese adult patients with atopic dermatitis were identified, of whom 290 (45.5%) rated their disease as "moderate/severe" and 348 (54.5%) as "mild". The analysis cohort comprised 634 atopic dermatitis patients and 1268 matched controls. Atopic dermatitis patients reported a significantly higher prevalence of arthritis, asthma, nasal allergies/hay fever, anxiety, depression and sleep disorders compared with controls (all P Atopic dermatitis patients also reported a significantly poorer health-related quality of life, higher overall work and activity impairment, and higher health-care resource utilization (all P atopic dermatitis reported a substantial disease burden relative to adults without atopic dermatitis, suggesting an unmet need for effective strategies targeting disease management. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Dermatological Association.
Lissner, Michelle M; Thomas, Brandon J; Wee, Kathleen; Tong, Ann-Jay; Kollmann, Tobias R; Smale, Stephen T
A variety of age-related differences in the innate and adaptive immune systems have been proposed to contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection of human neonates and older adults. The emergence of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) provides an opportunity to obtain an unbiased, comprehensive, and quantitative view of gene expression differences in defined cell types from different age groups. An examination of ex vivo human monocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide stimulation or Listeria monocytogenes infection by RNA-seq revealed extensive similarities between neonates, young adults, and older adults, with an unexpectedly small number of genes exhibiting statistically significant age-dependent differences. By examining the differentially induced genes in the context of transcription factor binding motifs and RNA-seq data sets from mutant mouse strains, a previously described deficiency in interferon response factor-3 activity could be implicated in most of the differences between newborns and young adults. Contrary to these observations, older adults exhibited elevated expression of inflammatory genes at baseline, yet the responses following stimulation correlated more closely with those observed in younger adults. Notably, major differences in the expression of constitutively expressed genes were not observed, suggesting that the age-related differences are driven by environmental influences rather than cell-autonomous differences in monocyte development.
Li, Xiaolong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Fu, Shihong; Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Zhi; He, Ying; Lei, Wenwen; Liang, Guodong
A Japanese encephalitis (JE) epidemic occurred in 2013 in China. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial-temporal pattern of JE cases in adults occurring in 2013, as well as identify potential hotspots of incidences in the afflicted regions in China. To generate a spatial-temporal pattern of JE cases in China, epidemiological and demographic data between 2011 and 2013 were collected. Our results indicate that the total number of JE cases in 2013 was significantly higher compared with those in 2011 and 2012. While the incidence of JE in individuals aged less than 15 years decreased in 2013, the incidence rate increased substantially in those aged 15 years and older. The population aged over 40 years was associated with the greatest increase of JE. Demographic analysis revealed a consistent increase in the proportion of JE cases aged 15 years and older in 2013 (42%) compared with that in 2012 (15%). In addition, JE cases from areas located between 35°N, 114°E and 40°N, 120°E in northern China were found to account for 27.17% of total JE cases nationwide in 2013, compared with 2.21% and 3.13% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. In these northern regions, the group aged 15 years and older represents the predominant population with JE, accounting for 73% of total cases. Further cluster analysis identified a large number of hotspots of JE in adults (>15 years of age) in northern China. Unlike the JE epidemics primarily in children below 15 years old in southern China, a significant outbreak of JE occurred in northern China in 2013, with the older age groups being the primary population affected. The increasing incidence of JE in adults has become an important public health issue and poses a new challenge to the successful prevention and control of JE in China, as well as other countries in East Asia.
Full Text Available Participation in a sports group is key for the prevention of incident functional disability. Little is known about the correlates of older adults' participation in sports groups, although this could assist with the development of effective health strategies. The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental correlates of sports group participation among Japanese older adults.Data were obtained from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study, which was a population-based cohort of people aged ≥65 years without disability enrolled from 31 municipalities across Japan (n = 78,002. Poisson regression analysis was used to determine the associations between the factors and participation in sports groups.Non-regular participation in sports groups was associated with lower educational level, being employed, and working the longest in the agricultural/forestry/fishery industry among the demographic and biological factors and poor self-rated health and depression among the psychosocial factors. Of the behavioral factors, current smoking was negatively associated and current drinking was positively associated with regular participation in sports groups. Among the social and cultural factors, having emotional social support and participating in hobby clubs, senior citizen clubs, or volunteer groups were associated with a high prevalence of participation in sports groups. Perceptions of the presence of parks or sidewalks, good access to shops, and good accessibility to facilities were positively associated with participation in sports groups among the environmental factors.Our study suggests that the promotion of activities that could increase older adults' participation in sports groups should consider a broad range of demographic and biological, psychosocial, behavioral, social and cultural, and environmental factors. Although future longitudinal studies to elucidate
Morinaka, Tomoko; Wozniewicz, Malgorzata; Jeszka, Jan; Bajerska, Joanna; Nowaczyk, Paulina; Sone, Yoshiaki
Nowadays, the process of the westernization of eating habits is perceived to be one of the main causes of epidemics of civilization diseases, such as metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to assess the westernization of eating habits among 100 Japanese (aged 18-23 years) and 111 Polish female students (aged 19-25 years) of nutrition science related faculties. Food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess a dietary pattern during the four seasons of a one-year investigation. Data obtained in each season was pooled. The frequency of consumption of different foods (servings/week) between the two countries was compared and characterization of the dietary patterns of both studied populations was analyzed by factor analysis. When food consumption between the two countries was compared, apart from total meat and meat products and high-energy drink intake, significant differences were observed in all foods and food groups. Three dietary patterns were identified in both groups. Among Japanese participants, the first pattern was 'traditional Japanese', the second 'sweets and beverages', and the third 'Western', explaining 9.0%, 8.5% and 6.4% of the total variance, respectively. Among Polish participants, the first pattern was 'prudent', the second 'Western', and the third 'sweets and alcoholic beverages', explaining 8.2%, 7.7%, 6.4% of the total variance, respectively. Although the 'Western' dietary pattern was found in both groups, there were some differences in the remaining dietary patterns between the two countries. In the Japanese participants, significant cultural influences on habitual food intake could still be observed, and the extent of diet westernization seems to be smaller compared to the Polish participants.
Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Lodigiani, Corrado; Patella, Rosalba; Gandolfo, Carlo; Casoni, Federica; Musolino, Rossella; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bovi, Paolo; Adami, Alessandro; Delodovici, Maria Luisa; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Rota, Lidia Luciana; Rasura, Maurizia; Del Sette, Massimo; Giossi, Alessia; Volonghi, Irene; Zini, Andrea; Cerrato, Paolo; Costa, Paolo; Magoni, Mauro; Iacoviello, Licia; Padovani, Alessandro
the mechanisms underlying the relationship between migraine and ischemic stroke remain uncertain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the predictive value of major cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac interatrial abnormalities, and additional biological markers on migraine subtypes in young adults with ischemic stroke. ischemic stroke patients aged 45 years or younger were consecutively enrolled as part of the Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults. A comprehensive evaluation was performed including assessment of self-reported migraine and cardiovascular risk factors, interatrial right-to-left shunt, and genotyping to detect factor V Leiden and the G20210A mutation in the prothrombin gene. nine hundred eighty-one patients (mean age, 36.0 ± 7.6 years; 50.7% women) were included. The risk of migraine with aura increased with decreasing number of cardiovascular risk factors (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.24-0.99 for 2 factors or more), increasing number of thrombophilic variants (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.05-4.68 for carriers of at least 1 of the 2), and the presence of right-to-left shunt (OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.37-3.45), as compared to patients without migraine. None of these factors had influence on the risk of migraine without aura. in young adults with ischemic stroke, low cardiovascular risk profile, right-to-left shunt, and an underlying procoagulant state are predictors of migraine with aura. The biological effects of these factors should be considered in future studies aimed at investigating the mechanisms linking migraine to brain ischemia.
Buchanan, Limin; Kelly, Bridget; Yeatman, Heather
Young adults experience faster weight gain and consume more unhealthy food than any other age groups. The impact of online food marketing on "digital native" young adults is unclear. This study examined the effects of online marketing on young adults' consumption behaviours, using energy drinks as a case example. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion was used as the theoretical basis. A pre-test post-test experimental research design was adopted using mixed-methods. Participants (age...
Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat
[Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...
Tanaka, Keiko; Hitsumoto, Shinichi; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Arakawa, Masashi
The intrauterine environment, including maternal nutrition status, may affect the development, formation, and mineralization of children's teeth. We assessed the relationship between self-reported maternal dietary vitamin D intake during pregnancy and the risk of dental caries among young Japanese children. This study is based on a prospective analysis of 1210 Japanese mother-child pairs. Information on maternal intake during pregnancy was collected using a validated diet history questionnaire. Data on oral examination at 36-46 months of age were obtained from the mothers, who transcribed the information from their maternal and child health handbooks to our self-administered questionnaire. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or had been filled. Compared with the lowest quartile of maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy, adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for quartiles 2, 3, and 4 were 1.06 (0.72-1.56), 0.53 (0.34-0.81), and 0.67 (0.44-1.02), respectively (P for trend = .01). When maternal vitamin D intake was treated as a continuous variable, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.94 (0.89-0.995). Higher maternal vitamin D intake during pregnancy may be associated with a lower risk of dental caries in children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henkel, Ayoe Qvist
The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...... of game aesthetics. The way the young person is articulated within such texts must be presumed to be new, and the pivotal point of this paper will be to explore how the young adult reader is thematized in content, form, and medium in digital young adult literature....
The impact of social class backgrounds on young children's educational experiences has attracted increasing attention in early childhood research. However, few longitudinal studies related to social class and parental involvement in young children's education are available, especially in East Asian contexts. In this longitudinal qualitative study,…
Hébert, Emily T; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Businelle, Michael S; Harrell, Melissa B; Kelder, Steven H; Perry, Cheryl L
We used ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to examine young adults' attitudes towards pro-tobacco messages encountered in real time and their association with intentions to use tobacco. Young adults (N = 92, ages 18-29) recorded sightings of marketing or social media related to tobacco in real time via mobile app for 28 days. Participants reported message characteristics, their attitudes towards the message, and intentions to use the depicted product for each submission. We used generalized linear mixed models to examine factors related to attitude towards message and intentions to use tobacco. Messages depicting e-cigarettes (p < .001) or hookah (p < .05) were associated with significantly more favorable attitudes compared with traditional cigarettes. Positive attitude towards the message was significantly associated with intention to use the depicted product (p < .001). Messages depicting e-cigarettes and hookah were significantly associated with higher intention to use. Message source was not significantly related to attitudes towards the message or product use intentions. Marketing featuring e-cigarettes and hookah is an important target for future regulation. Given that pro-tobacco and e-cigarette messages are prevalent online, future research should consider the Internet and social media as important venues for counter-marketing and intervention efforts.
Raísa Coutinho Vitcel
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To obtain reference values of chewing time of several food textures in young adults. METHOD: descriptive study with a quantitative approach that was developed in a clinical reference, being the population composed of 40 young adults between 18-30 years of age, of both genres. As exclusion criteria: those with neuromuscular and / or degenerative diseases or consequences thereof, as well as subjects who were making use of any orthodontic / orthopedic resource. We conducted a dental evaluation, followed by a clinical assessment. One at a time, the following foods were offered: French bread, wafer biscuit, roasted cashews, for voluntary chewing. To measure the food chewing time, we used a stopwatch, and this collection procedure was filmed. Data analysis was performed by means of the SPSS statistics 20.0 (IBM® program. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between the medians of chewing time of French bread, wafer biscuit and cashew nuts, which were 33.0s (interquartile amplitude 29.0 - 40.0, 10.0s (interquartile amplitude 8.25-12.0 and 18.5s (interquartile amplitude 15.0-23.75, respectively. CONCLUSION: The texture of foods influences the length of mastication. The more rigid is the food, the more cycles and mandibular movements, and therefore the longer the duration of chewing.
Hoek, Janet; Wong, Christiane; Gendall, Philip; Louviere, Jordan; Cong, Karen
Tobacco industry documents illustrate how packaging promotes smoking experimentation and reinforces existing smokers' behaviour. Plain packaging reduces the perceived attractiveness of smoking and creates an opportunity to introduce larger pictorial warnings that could promote cessation-linked behaviours. However, little is known about the effects such a combined policy measure would have on smokers' behaviour. A 3 (warning size) *4 (branding level) plus control (completely plain pack) best-worst experiment was conducted via face-to-face interviews with 292 young adult smokers from a New Zealand provincial city. The Juster Scale was also used to estimate cessation-linked behaviours among participants. Of the 13 options tested, respondents were significantly less likely to choose those featuring fewer branding elements or larger health warnings. Options that featured more branding elements were still preferred even when they also featured a 50% health warning, but were significantly less likely to be chosen when they featured a 75% warning. Comparison of a control pack representing the status quo (branded with 30% front of pack warning) and a plain pack (with a 75% warning) revealed the latter would be significantly more likely to elicit cessation-related behaviours. Plain packs that feature large graphic health warnings are significantly more likely to promote cessation among young adult smokers than fully or partially branded packs. The findings support the introduction of plain packaging and suggest use of unbranded package space to feature larger health warnings would further promote cessation.
Rosenthal, Samantha R; Buka, Stephen L; Marshall, Brandon D L; Carey, Kate B; Clark, Melissa A
To examine whether negative Facebook (FB) experiences were independently associated with depressive symptoms among young adults in a longitudinal family cohort. Negative FB experiences were measured by type (e.g., bullying or meanness, unwanted contact, misunderstandings, or any), recency, number of experiences, and severity of upset. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for sibling correlation; adjusted models were constructed for each negative FB experience measure accounting for sex, race/ethnicity, social support, adolescent depressive symptoms, parental psychological distress, average monthly income, educational attainment, and employment. In a sample of 264 young adults, all negative FB experience measures were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. There is a clear association between negative FB experience and depressive symptoms. Future work should examine: (1) whether negative FB experiences cause incident depression or exacerbate preexisting depression; and (2) who is most prone to being upset by negative FB experiences. With further research, recommendations for limiting or altering FB use among high-risk subpopulations could be useful in reducing depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maria Regina Rachmawati
Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.
Maria Regina Rachmawati
Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.
Minna K Salonen
Full Text Available Low physical activity (PA is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS, its components and body composition among young Finnish adults.The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET.The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours or intensity (MET were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS.MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS.
Test, M A; Wallisch, L S; Allness, D J; Ripp, K
Use of nonprescribed mood altering substances is pervasive and problematic in young adults with serious mental illnesses in community care. Fifty-eight percent of young adult clients with clearly defined schizophrenia or schizophrenia-related disorders participating in a long-term community treatment study were rated by staff or themselves as using alcohol, cannabis, or other street drugs several times a week or more. We interviewed in depth a random sample of these "significant users" to obtain their perspective on their frequencies, patterns, histories, contributing factors to, and effects of substance use and their related treatment experiences. Results revealed these clients' substance use to be of long duration and deeply entrenched, with current use often involving multiple substances including both street drugs and substances of "everyday life" (e.g., caffeine, nicotine). Clients reported compelling reasons for use including anxiety reduction, relief of boredom, and a means for social contact. Staff and clients clearly view substance use quite differently, with the latter focusing at least as much on consequences of symptom relief as symptom exacerbation. Treatment implications are discussed.
G Ruben H Regterschot
Full Text Available This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT, Stroop Difference Score (SDS and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20 and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16 performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.
Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A
This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p = 0.009; effect size r = 0.20) and SDS (p = 0.034; r = 0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.
Cortese, Daniel K.; Lewis, M. Jane; Ling, Pamela M.
Purpose This is the first study describing the tobacco industry’s objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Methods Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Results Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999 targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Conclusions Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the “under the radar” strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking. PMID:19699423
Cortese, Daniel K; Lewis, M Jane; Ling, Pamela M
This is the first study describing the tobacco industry's objectives developing and publishing lifestyle magazines, linking them to tobacco marketing strategies, and how these magazines may encourage smoking. Analysis of previously secret tobacco industry documents and content analysis of 31 lifestyle magazines to understand the motives behind producing these magazines and the role they played in tobacco marketing strategies. Philip Morris (PM) debuted Unlimited in 1996 to nearly 2 million readers and RJ Reynolds (RJR) debuted CML in 1999, targeting young adults with their interests. Both magazines were developed as the tobacco companies faced increased advertising restrictions. Unlimited contained few images of smoking, but frequently featured elements of the Marlboro brand identity in both advertising and article content. CML featured more smoking imagery and fewer Camel brand identity elements. Lifestyle promotions that lack images of smoking may still promote tobacco use through brand imagery. The tobacco industry still uses the "under-the-radar" strategies used in development of lifestyle magazines in branded Websites. Prohibiting lifestyle advertising including print and electronic media that associate tobacco with recreation, action, pleasures, and risky behaviors or that reinforces tobacco brand identity may be an effective strategy to curb young adult smoking.
Full Text Available The paper examines young adult dystopian novels written in the first decade of the 21st century, as heirs to the tradition of the bildungsroman, and the great dystopias. The focus of this new genre has shifted from maintaining "the best of all worlds" – where the young person adjusts and fits into the existing world, to the shaping of the hero’s critical spirit which is supposed to result in the hero/heroine growing up, but also in changes in the world which they inhabit. Two other important characteristics of these novels are the critical relationship toward ancestors and tradition on the one hand, and on the other the positive assessment of non-rational decisions which are made impulsively and are based on emotions, which points to the abandonment of different aspects of the heritage of modernity (the traditions of rationalism and romanticism. Thus they set the stage for a new, different view of the world and the role which the individual is to fulfill by growing from a child into an adult in such a world.
Mitchell, Andrew B; Cole, John W; McArdle, Patrick F; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ryan, Kathleen A; Sparks, Mary J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J
Body mass index has been associated with ischemic stroke in older populations, but its association with stroke in younger populations is not known. In light of the current obesity epidemic in the United States, the potential impact of obesity on stroke risk in young adults deserves attention. A population-based case-control study design with 1201 cases and 1154 controls was used to investigate the relationship of obesity and young onset ischemic stroke. Stroke cases were between the ages of 15 and 49 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between body mass index and ischemic stroke with and without adjustment for comorbid conditions associated with stroke. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, and ethnicity, obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2)) was associated with an increased stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-1.94) although this increased risk was highly attenuated and not statistically significant after adjustment for smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. These results indicate that obesity is a risk factor for young onset ischemic stroke and suggest that this association may be partially mediated through hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or other variables associated with these conditions. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Wilson, Kathryn; Fornasier, Stephanie; White, Katherine M
Young people are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs) like MySpace and Facebook to engage with others. The use of SNSs can have both positive and negative effects on the individual; however, few studies identify the types of people who frequent these Internet sites. This study sought to predict young adults' use of SNSs and addictive tendency toward the use of SNSs from their personality characteristics and levels of self-esteem. University students (N = 201), aged 17 to 24 years, reported their use of SNSs and addictive tendencies for SNSs use and completed the NEO Five-Factor Personality Inventory and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Multiple regression analyses revealed that, as a group, the personality and self-esteem factors significantly predicted both level of SNS use and addictive tendency but did not explain a large amount of variance in either outcome measure. The findings indicated that extroverted and unconscientious individuals reported higher levels of both SNS use and addictive tendencies. Future research should attempt to identify which other psychosocial characteristics explain young people's level of use and propensity for addictive tendencies for these popular Internet sites.
Juho M. Strömmer
Full Text Available Aging is associated with cognitive decline and alterations in early perceptual processes. Studies in the auditory and visual modalities have shown that the mismatch negativity (or the mismatch response, MMR, an event-related potential (ERP elicited by a deviant stimulus in a background of homogenous events, diminishes with aging and cognitive decline. However, the effects of aging on the somatosensory MMR are not known. In the current study, we recorded ERPs to electrical pulses to different fingers of the left hand in a passive oddball experiment in young (22–36 years and elderly (66–95 years adults engaged in a visual task. The MMR was found to deviants as compared to standards at two latency ranges: 180–220 ms and 250–290 ms post-stimulus onset. At 180–220 ms, within the young, the MMR was found at medial electrode sites, whereas aged did not show any amplitude difference between the stimulus types at the same latency range. At 250–290 ms, the MMR was evident with attenuated amplitude and narrowed scalp distribution among aged (Fz compared to young (fronto-centrally and lateral parietal sites. Hence, the results reveal that the somatosensory change detection mechanism is altered in aging. The somatosensory MMR can be used as a reliable measure of age-related changes in sensory-cognitive functions.
Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum
Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...
This study evaluated efficacy of biopesticides for reducing foliar diseases and feeding damage from Japanese beetle adults on hybrid T rose (Rosa spp.), oakleaf hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia), and crapemyrtle (Lagerstroemia indica). The materials tested included household soaps with Triclosan act...
Jaffre, A; Guidolin, B; Ruidavets, J-B; Nasr, N; Larrue, V
Up to 50% of ischaemic strokes in young adults are classified as cryptogenic despite extensive work-up. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis (NOCA) and its association with patent foramen ovale (PFO) in young adults with cryptogenic stroke (CS). Patients aged 18-54 years, consecutively treated for first-ever CS in an academic stroke service, were included. NOCA was assessed using carotid ultrasound examination and was defined as carotid plaque with young adults with CS. NOCA is negatively associated with PFO. Detecting NOCA is an important component of stroke investigation in young adults. © 2017 EAN.
Lanoye, Autumn; Gorin, Amy A; LaRose, Jessica Gokee
Young adults are underrepresented in standard behavioral weight loss trials, and evidence suggests that they differ from older adults on many weight-related constructs. The aim of this review is to explore young adults' attitudes toward obesity and weight management, with particular attention to those factors that may play a role in the development of future treatment efforts. Both intrapersonal and interpersonal considerations unique to young adulthood are assessed; in addition, we examine young adults' perceptions of specific weight-related behaviors such as dieting, physical activity, and self-weighing. Conclusions are consistent with other findings suggesting that weight management interventions should be adapted and designed specifically for this age group.
Gorman, Jessica R; Whitcomb, Brian W; Standridge, Daniel; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Romero, Sally A D; Roberts, Samantha A; Su, H Irene
We compared adoption consideration between female young adult cancer survivors and women of the same age in the general US population, hypothesizing that cancer survivors who desired children would report greater interest in adoption than an age-adjusted general population sample who desired children. After age-standardizing the cancer survivor cohort to match the age distribution of the 2006-2010 National Survey for Family Growth (NSFG), we estimated adoption consideration among women age 18-35 years who wanted a (another) child in the two cohorts overall and within age groups. We assessed characteristics and concerns related to adoption consideration among cancer survivors. Among cancer survivors, 81.6 % (95 % CI 75.7-87.6) reported that they would consider adoption compared to 40.3 % (95 % CI 40.3-40.3) of women in the general population. While over 80 % of the cancer survivor sample reported that they would consider adoption, only 15 % of cancer survivors reported no concerns about adoption. The most common concerns were desire for a biological child (48 %), expense (45 %), adoption agency candidacy (41 %), and needing more information (39 %). We observed a twofold higher interest in adoption when comparing the cancer survivor with the general population, suggesting that adoption is a consideration for many young women who have survived cancer. Adoption is an important family-building option for those who want to have a child but are unable to or choose not to have a biological child. However, young adult survivors may need more support to understand and navigate this process.
Lustgarten, Michael S; Price, Lori L; Phillips, Edward M; Kirn, Dylan R; Mills, John; Fielding, Roger A
Lustgarten, MS, Price, LL, Phillips, EM, Kirn, DR, Mills, J, and Fielding, RA. Serum predictors of percent lean mass in young adults. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2194-2201, 2016-Elevated lean (skeletal muscle) mass is associated with increased muscle strength and anaerobic exercise performance, whereas low levels of lean mass are associated with insulin resistance and sarcopenia. Therefore, studies aimed at obtaining an improved understanding of mechanisms related to the quantity of lean mass are of interest. Percent lean mass (total lean mass/body weight × 100) in 77 young subjects (18-35 years) was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty analytes and 296 metabolites were evaluated with the use of the standard chemistry screen and mass spectrometry-based metabolomic profiling, respectively. Sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression was used to determine serum analytes and metabolites significantly (p ≤ 0.05 and q ≤ 0.30) associated with the percent lean mass. Two enzymes (alkaline phosphatase and serum glutamate oxaloacetate aminotransferase) and 29 metabolites were found to be significantly associated with the percent lean mass, including metabolites related to microbial metabolism, uremia, inflammation, oxidative stress, branched-chain amino acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, glycerolipid metabolism, and xenobiotics. Use of sex-adjusted stepwise regression to obtain a final covariate predictor model identified the combination of 5 analytes and metabolites as overall predictors of the percent lean mass (model R = 82.5%). Collectively, these data suggest that a complex interplay of various metabolic processes underlies the maintenance of lean mass in young healthy adults.
Porter, Jerlym S; Wesley, Kimberly M; Zhao, Mimi S; Rupff, Rebecca J; Hankins, Jane S
The aim of this study was to explore perspectives of transition and transition readiness of young adult patients (YAs) with sickle cell disease (SCD) who have transitioned to adult health care. In all, 19 YAs with SCD (ages 18-30 years) participated in one of three focus groups and completed a brief questionnaire about transition topics. Transcripts were coded and emergent themes were examined using the social-ecological model of adolescent and young adult readiness for transition (SMART). Themes were consistent with most SMART components. Adult provider relationships and negative medical experiences emerged as salient factors. YAs ranked choosing an adult provider, seeking emergency care, understanding medications/medication adherence, knowing SCD complications, and being aware of the impact of health behaviors as the most important topics to include in transition programming. The unique perspectives of YAs can inform the development and evaluation of SCD transition programming by incorporating the identified themes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com
This paper examines the adult gaze on children’s literature through the lens of Eric Tribunella’s article “From Kiddie Lit to Kiddie Porn” (2008) which explores the implications of child sexuality through an examination of Chris Kent’s parodies of The Coral Island by R. M. Ballantyne and Tom Brown’s Schooldays by Thomas Hughes. Introducing Kincaid’s term ‘child-loving,’ I explore the implications of the types of ‘child-loving’ as they are examined in children’s and young adult literature. Thi...
Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro
Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating homocysteine concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We investigated the hypothesis that intakes of nutrients and foods are associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, intakes of all B vitamins (folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and riboflavin) were inversely associated with homocysteine concentration. However, only vitamin B-6 remained significant after further adjustment for other B vitamins. Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake showed an inverse association, but this was not independent of intakes of B vitamins. For foods, pulses, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were independently and inversely associated with homocysteine concentration, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for intakes of other foods. Conversely, an inverse association for dairy products and a positive association for green and oolong tea remained even after adjustment for other foods. To conclude, in a group of young Japanese women, higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea were independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although there is wide variation in the prevalence of nasal allergies internationally, the extent to which this is due to variation in etiological factors is not known. The purpose of the present study was to define the relative importance of atopy and other risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, among young adults in Melbourne. The subjects were participants in the second phase of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey; 876 adults between 20 and 45 years of age completed a detailed respiratory questionnaire, 745 had skin prick testing with common aeroallergens and 675 underwent methacholine challenge. Total and allergen-specific IgE levels were measured in 701 and 693 subjects by radioimmunoassay and RAST, respectively. Nasal allergies, including hayfever, were reported by 47.5% of randomly selected participants. Females, non- smokers, subjects with a family history of allergies, those with current asthma, a history of eczema and nasal symptoms induced by dust, pollen or food were significantly more likely to have nasal allergies. Oral antihistamines had been used by 45.7% of those reporting nasal allergies and 12.4% had received allergen immunotherapy. The risk of nasal allergies, including hayfever, was increased 6.1-fold by atopy, particularly by positive skin tests to outdoor allergens such as Birch, Timothy grass, plantain, olive, Cladosporium and Rye grass pollen. Total serum IgE was significantly higher in subjects reporting nasal allergies than in those who did not report such allergies. There were significant trends in the prevalence of nasal allergies with increasing titers of specific IgE directed against all allergens tested. In conclusion, the significant independent risk factors for nasal allergies, including hayfever, in young adults were atopy, particularly sensitization to Timothy grass, house dust mites and plantain, current asthma, not smoking, a history of eczema and female gender. Future research
Hoppmann, Christiane A; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda
In the present study, we examined the link between goal and problem-solving strategy preferences in 130 young and older adults using hypothetical family problem vignettes. At baseline, young adults preferred autonomy goals, whereas older adults preferred generative goals. Imagining an expanded future time perspective led older adults to show preferences for autonomy goals similar to those observed in young adults but did not eliminate age differences in generative goals. Autonomy goals were associated with more self-focused instrumental problem solving, whereas generative goals were related to more other-focused instrumental problem solving in the no-instruction and instruction conditions. Older adults were better at matching their strategies to their goals than young adults were. This suggests that older adults may become better at selecting their strategies in accordance with their goals. Our findings speak to a contextual approach to everyday problem solving by showing that goals are associated with the selection of problem-solving strategies.
Lee, Sungchul; Lee, Sangyoon; Harada, Kazuhiro; Bae, Seongryu; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between kidney function with concomitant diabetes or hypertension and frailty in community-dwelling Japanese older adults. The participants were 9606 residents (community-dwelling Japanese older adults) who completed baseline assessments. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) was determined according to the serum creatinine level, and participants were classified into four mutually exclusive categories: ≥60.0 (normal range), 45.0-59.9, 30.0-44.9 and who met three, four or five criteria satisfied the definition of having frailty. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between estimated glomerular filtration rate and frailty. After multivariate adjustment, participants with lower kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate hypertension (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.45-5.12) showed a significantly increased risk of frailty in the lower kidney function group, regardless of multivariate controls. Furthermore, the analyses showed an even greater increase in the risk of frailty in patients with a history of both diabetes and hypertension (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.13-14.1) CONCLUSIONS: A lower level of kidney function was associated with a higher risk of frailty in community-dwelling Japanese older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1527-1533. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available This article focuses on women’s use of pornography in modern Taiwan, with an eye to making sense their “claimed” preference for American pornography. Our research shows that men and women display vast differences in pornography use and pornography preference with men tending to identify with Japanese adult videos and women with American pornography. Such gendered use of pornography has been substantially documented and examined through multiple disciplinary lenses. While illuminating, these studies tend not to examine further how such gender differences come about. It fosters an impression that gender can be used to explain away the reasons that men and women will differ in pornography use and sex. Gender is thus seen as universally applicable and able to explain everything without providing any concrete explanations. From this vantage, the specific, concrete gender norms that gave rise to the differences in pornography use in different cultures are dismissed as just manifestations of their genders. This article therefore aims to recover the specific gender norms and politics in Taiwan, which are often lumped together and explained away as gender inclinations and see how these specific contents gave rise to gender differences in pornography use. To understand how these gender differences ultimately come about, one needs to first explore how and why men and women consume pornography, respectively. Elsewhere, we have explored Taiwanese men’s use of, and preference for, pornography. This article therefore aims to examine Taiwanese women’s use of pornography with reference to gender norms in Taiwan.
Oka, Koichiro; Shibata, Ai
Dog ownership appears to have associated health benefits as a result of increased physical activity through dog walking. This study examined the association between dog ownership and health-related physical activity among Japanese adults. Male and female respondents to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey were divided into the following groups: dog owner (DOG), nondog pet owner (NDOG), and nonpet owner (NPOG). Moderate and vigorous physical activity amount (MVPA), walking amount (Walking), and sedentary behavior time (SB) were estimated from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Analyses of covariance and logistic regression analysis were used. The differences in MVPA, Walking, and SB were statistically significant among the three groups. DOG had a significantly greater amount of MVPA than NDOG and NPOG. DOG also had a significantly greater amount of Walking and less SB time than NPOG, and DOG was 1.5 times more likely to meet the physical activity recommendation than NDOG and NPOG. The dog owners had higher physical activity levels than owners of other kinds of pets and those without any pets, suggesting that dogs may play a major role in promoting physical activity. However, only 30% of the dog owners met the recommended criteria for physical activity.
Sanford, Stacy D; Zhao, Fengmin; Salsman, John M; Chang, Victor T; Wagner, Lynne I; Fisch, Michael J
Cancer incidence has increased among young adults (YAs) and survival rates have not improved compared with other age groups. Patient-reported outcomes may enhance our understanding of this vulnerable population. In a multisite prospective study, patients completed a cancer symptom inventory at the time of enrollment (T1) and 4 weeks to 5 weeks later (T2). YAs (those aged ≤ 39 years) with breast or colorectal cancer were compared with older adults (those aged ≥ 40 years) with breast or colorectal cancer with regard to symptom severity, symptom interference, changes over time, and medical care. Participants included 1544 patients with breast cancer (96 of whom were YAs) and 718 patients with colorectal cancer (37 of whom were YAs). Compared with older adults, YAs with breast cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe drowsiness, hair loss, and symptom interference with relationships at T1. YAs with colorectal cancer were more likely to report moderate/severe pain, fatigue, nausea, distress, drowsiness, shortness of breath, and rash plus interference in general activity, mood, work, relationships, and life enjoyment compared with older adults. Compared with older adults, shortness of breath, appetite, and sore mouth were more likely to improve in YAs with breast cancer; vomiting was less likely to improve in YAs with colorectal cancer. Referrals for supportive care were few, especially among patients with colorectal cancer. YAs with breast cancer were somewhat more likely to be referred to nutrition and psychiatry services than older patients. YAs reported symptom severity, symptom interference, and variations over time that were distinct from older patients. Distinctions were found to differ by diagnostic group. These findings enhance the understanding of symptom burden in YAs and inform the development of targeted interventions and future research. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
Schmitz, Rachel M; Tyler, Kimberly A
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and other sexual and gender minority (LGBTQ+) young adults face unique identity-related experiences based on their immersion in distinctive social contexts. The predominant framework of performing separate analyses on samples of LGBTQ+ young people by their primary social status obfuscates more holistic understandings of the role of social context. Using 46 in-depth interviews with LGBTQ+ college students and LGBTQ+ homeless young adults, we ask: How are LGBTQ+ young adults' capacities for "doing" their gender and sexual identities shaped by their distinctive social contexts? In developing their identities, both groups of LGBTQ+ young adults navigated their social environments to seek out resources and support. Most college students described their educational contexts as conducive to helping them develop their identities, or "undo" rigid norms of gender and sexuality. Homeless young adults' social environments, meanwhile, imposed complex barriers to self-expression that reinforced more normative expectations of "doing" gender and sexual identities.
Chu, Shin Ying; Sakai, Naomi; Mori, Koichi; Iverach, Lisa
This study reports Japanese normative data for the Unhelpful Thoughts and Beliefs about Stuttering (UTBAS) scales. We outline the translation process, and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the UTBAS scales. The translation of the UTBAS scales into Japanese (UTBAS-J) was completed using the standard forward-backward translation process, and was administered to 130 Japanese adults who stutter. To validate the UTBAS-J scales, scores for the Japanese and Australian cohorts were compared. Spearman correlations were conducted between the UTBAS-J and the Modified Erickson Communication Attitude scale (S-24), the self-assessment scale of speech (SA scale), and age. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the UTBAS-J were assessed. Independent t-tests were conducted to evaluate the differences in the UTBAS-J scales according to gender, speech treatment experience, and stuttering self-help group participation experience. The UTBAS-J showed good test-retest reliability, high internal consistency, and moderate to high significant correlations with S-24 and SA scale. A weak correlation was found between the UTBAS-J scales with age. No significant relationships were found between UTBAS-J scores, gender and speech treatment experience. However, those who participated in the stuttering self-help group demonstrated lower UTBAS-J scores than those who did not. Given the current scarcity of clinical assessment tools for adults who stutter in Japan, the UTBAS-J holds promise as an assessment tool and outcome measure for use in clinical and research environments. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Altintzoglou, T.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Einarsdottir, G.; Schelvis, R.; Luten, J.B.
This article describes the results of a study that tested the responses to 14 seafood concepts among young adults and families with young children in Denmark, Norway, and Iceland. This study was aimed at gaining insight into the evaluation of new seafood product concepts by individuals with low
Tomita, Yoshihito; Arima, Kazuhiko; Tsujimoto, Ritsu; Kawashiri, Shin-ya; Nishimura, Takayuki; Mizukami, Satoshi; Okabe, Takuhiro; Tanaka, Natsumi; Honda, Yuzo; Izutsu, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Naoko; Ohmachi, Izumi; Kanagae, Mitsuo; Abe, Yasuyo; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi
Abstract To determine the prevalence of fear of falling and associated factors among Japanese community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional study between 2011 and 2013. Community in which residents voluntarily attended a health examination. We recruited 844 older adults (male, n = 350; female, n = 494) aged 60 to 92 years from among those who presented at the health examination. We assessed fear of falling, falls in the previous year, pain, comorbidity, and cataracts. Five times chair stand time was applied as an indicator of physical performance. The prevalence of fear of falling was 26.9% and 43.3% among the men and women, respectively. Men and women who feared falling were older (P < .01), had longer 5 times chair stand time (P < .01), and more falls in the previous year (P < .05), pain (P < .01), and comorbidity (P < .05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified advanced age (odds ratios [OR], 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–2.39), falls in the previous year (OR, 2.44; 95%CI, 1.29–4.64), and pain (OR, 1.82; 95%CI, 1.03–3.22) in men, and advanced age (OR, 1.59; 95%CI, 1.13–2.24), longer 5 times chair stand times (OR, 1.28; 95%CI, 1.04–1.59), falls in the previous year (OR, 2.59; 95%CI, 1.54–4.34), and pain (OR, 1.65; 95%CI, 1.06–2.55) in women as being independently associated with fear of falling. The prevalence of fear of falling was similar to previous reports. Advanced age, falls in previous year, and pain were associated with fear of falling in men. A longer 5 times chair stand time was also associated with fear of falling among older adult women. Maintenance of physical function and pain management might be important for older adults with fear of falling. PMID:29369207
Gough, Aisling; Linden, Mark A; Spence, Dale; Halliday, Henry L; Patterson, Christopher C; McGarvey, Lorcan
To assess long-term impairments of executive functioning in adult survivors of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Participants were assessed on measures of executive functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and social functioning. Survivors of BPD (n = 63; 34 males; mean age 24.2 years) were compared with groups comprising preterm (without BPD) (executive functioning relating to problem solving (OR: 5.1, CI: 1.4-19.3), awareness of behavior (OR: 12.7, CI: 1.5-106.4) and organization of their environment (OR: 13.0, CI: 1.6-107.1). Birth weight, HRQoL and social functioning were predictive of deficits in executive functioning. This study represents the largest sample of survivors into adulthood of BPD and is the first to show that deficits in executive functioning persist. Children with BPD should be assessed to identify cognitive impairments and allow early intervention aimed at ameliorating their effects. Implications for Rehabilitation Adults born preterm with very-low birth weight, and particularly those who develop BPD, are at increased risk of exhibiting defects in executive functioning. Clinicians and educators should be made aware of the impact that BPD can have on the long-term development of executive functions. Children and young adults identified as having BPD should be periodically monitored to identify the need for possible intervention.
Le Tuan, Thanh; Nguyen, Ngoc Minh; Demoulin, Bruno; Bonabel, Claude; Nguyen-Thi, Phi Linh; Ioan, Iulia; Schweitzer, Cyril; Nguyen, H T T; Varechova, Silvia; Marchal, Francois
In healthy Vietnamese children the respiratory resistance has been suggested to be similar at 110 cm height but larger at 130 cm when compared with data in Caucasians from the literature, suggesting smaller airways in older Vietnamese children (Vu et al., 2008). The hypothesis tested here is whether the difference in airway resistance remains consistent throughout growth, and if it is larger in adult Vietnamese than in Caucasians. Airway resistance and Functional Residual Capacity were measured in healthy young Caucasian and Vietnamese adults in their respective native country using identical equipment and protocols. Ninety five subjects in Vietnam (60 males) and 101 in France (41 males) were recruited. Airway resistance was significantly larger in Vietnamese than in Caucasians and in females than in males, consistent with difference in body dimensions. Specific airway resistance however was not different by ethnicity or gender. The findings do not support the hypothesis that airway size at adult age - once normalized for lung volume - differs between Vietnamese and Caucasians. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov
The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. © The Author(s) 2014.
Bergman, Yoav S; Bodner, Ehud
Upon encountering older adults, individuals display varying degrees of prosocial attitudes and behaviors. While some display compassion and empathy, others draw away and wish to maintain their distance from them. The current study examined if and how ageist attitudes influence the association between the sight of physical incapacity in older age and compassionate reactions toward them. We predicted that ageist attitudes would interfere with the ability to respond to them with compassion. Young adults (N = 149, ages 19-29) were randomly distributed into two experimental conditions, each viewing a short video portraying different aspects of older adult physicality; one group viewed older adults displaying incapacitated behavior, and the other viewed fit behavior. Participants subsequently filled out scales assessing aging anxieties, and ageist and compassionate attitudes. Ageism was associated with reduced compassion toward the figures. Moreover, viewing incapacitated older adults led to increased concern toward them and perceived efficacy in helping them. However, significant interactions proved that higher scores of ageism in response to the videos led to increased need for distance and reduced efficacy toward incapacitated adults, an effect not observed among subjects with lower ageism scores. Ageism seems to be a factor which disengages individuals from older adults displaying fragility, leading them to disregard social norms which dictate compassion. The results are discussed from the framework of terror management theory, as increased mortality salience and death-related thoughts could have led to the activation of negative attitudes which, in turn, reduce compassion.
Berge, Jerica M; Bauer, Katherine W; Eisenberg, Marla E; Denny, Kara; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
Previous research has shown a relationship between childhood/adolescent chronic conditions and negative health behaviors, psychological outcomes, and social outcomes. Less is known about whether these negative outcomes are experienced by young adults with chronic health conditions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young adults' BMI, health behaviors, and psychological and social outcomes differ depending on whether they have diabetes, asthma, or neither of these chronic conditions. Data were drawn from the third wave of Project EAT-III: Eating and Activity in Young Adults, a population-based study of 2287 young adults (mean age = 25.3; range 19.8 - 31.2). General linear models were used to test differences in BMI, health behaviors (e.g., fast food intake) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. depressive symptoms) by young adults' chronic disease status. Young adults with diabetes had higher BMIs, engaged in less physical activity and more unhealthy weight control behaviors and binge eating, had lower self-esteem and lower body satisfaction, and experienced more depressive symptoms and appearance-based teasing compared to young adults with asthma or no chronic conditions, after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and, when relevant, for BMI. There were no significant differences between young adults with asthma and young adults with no chronic condition on all of the psychosocial and health behavior outcomes. Young adults with diabetes reported higher prevalence of negative health behaviors and psychosocial outcomes. Providers may find it useful to assess for negative health behaviors and psychosocial variables with young adults with diabetes in order to improve treatment and quality of life for these individuals.
Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S.
Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers. PMID:28588530
Dhir, Amandeep; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Pallesen, Ståle; Andreassen, Cecilie S
Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today's culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies), editing (cropping and filtering), and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties) was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women ( n = 2,509, 66.7%). The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult) by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting) among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.
Full Text Available Selfies, or self-portraits, are often taken and shared on social media for online self-presentation reasons, which are considered essential for the psychosocial development and well-being of people in today’s culture. Despite the growing popularity and widespread sharing of selfies in the online space, little is known about how privacy concerns moderate selfie behavior. In addition to this, it is also not known whether privacy concerns across age and gender groups influence selfie behavior. To address this timely issue, a survey assessing common selfie behaviors, that is, frequency of taking (individual and group selfies, editing (cropping and filtering, and posting selfies online, and social media privacy concerns (over personal data being accessed and misused by third parties was conducted. The web-survey was administered to 3,763 Norwegian social media users, ranging from 13 to 50 years, with a preponderance of women (n = 2,509, 66.7%. The present study investigated the impact of privacy concerns on selfie behaviors across gender and age groups (adolescent, young adult, and adult by use of the structural equation modeling approach. The results suggest that young adults have greater privacy concerns compared to adolescents and adults. Females have greater privacy concerns than males. Greater privacy concerns among female social media users were linked to lower engagement in selfie behavior, but privacy concerns did not influence selfie behavior in the case of male adolescents and young adults. Overall, privacy concerns were more consistently and inversely related to selfie behavior (taking and posting among females than males. The study results have theoretical as well as practical implications for both researchers and policy makers.
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Full Text Available Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult ce10 RNA polymerase Adult Germline containing young adult... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Pol.Adl.05.AllAg.Germline_containing_young_adult.bed ...
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Sepede, Gianna; Tavino, Margherita; Santacroce, Rita; Fiori, Federica; Salerno, Rosa Maria; Di Giannantonio, Massimo
To report the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies pertaining internet addiction disorder (IAD) in young adults. We conducted a systematic review on PubMed, focusing our attention on fMRI studies involving adult IAD patients, free from any comorbid psychiatric condition. The following search words were used, both alone and in combination: fMRI, internet addiction, internet dependence, functional neuroimaging. The search was conducted on April 20(th), 2015 and yielded 58 records. Inclusion criteria were the following: Articles written in English, patients' age ≥ 18 years, patients affected by IAD, studies providing fMRI results during resting state or cognitive/emotional paradigms. Structural MRI studies, functional imaging techniques other than fMRI, studies involving adolescents, patients with comorbid psychiatric, neurological or medical conditions were excluded. By reading titles and abstracts, we excluded 30 records. By reading the full texts of the 28 remaining articles, we identified 18 papers meeting our inclusion criteria and therefore included in the qualitative synthesis. We found 18 studies fulfilling our inclusion criteria, 17 of them conducted in Asia, and including a total number of 666 tested subjects. The included studies reported data acquired during resting state or different paradigms, such as cue-reactivity, guessing or cognitive control tasks. The enrolled patients were usually males (95.4%) and very young (21-25 years). The most represented IAD subtype, reported in more than 85% of patients, was the internet gaming disorder, or videogame addiction. In the resting state studies, the more relevant abnormalities were localized in the superior temporal gyrus, limbic, medial frontal and parietal regions. When analyzing the task related fmri studies, we found that less than half of the papers reported behavioral differences between patients and normal controls, but all of them found significant differences in cortical
Oliveira, Carlos R.; Rock, Robert M.; Shapiro, Eugene D.; Xu, Xiao; Lundsberg, Lisbet; Zhang, Liye B.; Gariepy, Aileen; Illuzzi, Jessica L.; Sheth, Sangini S.
BACKGROUND Despite the availability of a safe and efficacious vaccine against human papillomavirus, uptake of the vaccine in the United States is low. Missed clinical opportunities to recommend and to administer human papillomavirus vaccine are considered one of the most important reasons for its low uptake in adolescents; however, little is known about the frequency or characteristics of missed opportunities in the young adult (18–26 years of age) population. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to assess both the rates of and the factors associated with missed opportunities for human papillomavirus immunization among young adult women who attended an urban obstetrics and gynecology clinic. STUDY DESIGN In this cross-sectional study, medical records were reviewed for all women 18–26 years of age who were underimmunized (<3 doses) and who sought care from Feb. 1, 2013, to January 31, 2014, at an urban, hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinic. A missed opportunity for human papillomavirus immunization was defined as a clinic visit at which the patient was eligible to receive the vaccine and a dose was due but not administered. Multivariable logistic regression was used to test associations between sociodemographic variables and missed opportunities. RESULTS There were 1670 vaccine-eligible visits by 1241 underimmunized women, with a mean of 1.3 missed opportunities/person. During the study period, 833 of the vaccine eligible women (67.1%) had at least 1 missed opportunity. Overall, the most common types of visits during which a missed opportunity occurred were postpartum visits (17%) or visits for either sexually transmitted disease screening (21%) or contraception (33%). Of the patients with a missed opportunity, 26.5% had a visit at which an injectable medication or a different vaccine was administered. Women who identified their race as black had higher adjusted odds of having a missed opportunity compared with white women (adjusted odds ratio, 1
Ruebner, Rebecca L; Laney, Nina; Kim, Ji Young; Hartung, Erum A; Hooper, Stephen R; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Furth, Susan L
Neurocognitive dysfunction is a known complication in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, less is known about putative mechanisms or modifiable risk factors. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine risk factors for cognitive dysfunction in children, adolescents, and young adults with CKD compared with controls. Cross-sectional study. The Neurocognitive Assessment and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Children and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease (NiCK) Study included 90 individuals aged 8 to 25 years with CKD compared with 70 controls. CKD versus control, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), ambulatory blood pressure. Performance on neurocognitive assessment with relevant tests grouped into 11 domains defined a priori by expert opinion. Results of tests were converted to age-normalized z scores. Each neurocognitive domain was analyzed through linear regression, adjusting for eGFR and demographic and clinical variables. For domains defined by multiple tests, the median z score of tests in that domain was used. We found significantly poorer performance in multiple areas of neurocognitive function among individuals with CKD compared with controls. Particular deficits were seen in domains related to attention, memory, and inhibitory control. Adjusted for demographic and clinical factors, we found lower performance in multiple domains with decreasing eGFRs (attention: β=0.053, P=0.02; visual spatial: β=0.062, P=0.02; and visual working memory: β=0.069, P=0.04). Increased diastolic load and decreased diastolic nocturnal dipping on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were independently associated with impairments in neurocognitive performance. Unable to assess changes in neurocognitive function over time, and neurocognitive tests were grouped into predetermined neurocognitive domains. Lower eGFR in children, adolescents, and young adults is associated with poorer neurocognitive performance, particularly in
Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Cassel, Kevin; Trinidad, Dennis R; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Herzog, Thaddeus A
Cigarette smoking may be one of the factors contributing to the high levels of cancer-related mortality experienced by certain Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI) subgroups (e.g., Native Hawaiian). Given the collectivist cultural orientation attributed to A/PI groups, social strategies are recommended for substance abuse or smoking cessation treatment among A/PI. However, research examining how social network characteristics and social support relate to smoking across A/PI subgroups has been lacking. This study investigated the associations between social network characteristics (e.g., size, composition), perceived social support, and recent cigarette use across Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and East Asian (e.g., Japanese, Chinese) young adults (18-35 year old). Cross-sectional, self-report data were collected from N = 435 participants (M age = 25.6, SD = 8.3; 61% women). Ethnic differences were found in a number of pathways linking social network characteristics, perceived social support, and cigarette smoking. Larger network size was strongly associated with higher perceived social support and lower recent cigarette smoking among Native Hawaiians but not Filipinos or East Asians. Higher perceived social support was associated with lower recent smoking among East Asians and Filipinos but not Native Hawaiians. Implications are discussed with regard to smoking prevention and cessation among A/PI. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine which behavioral factors to include in guidelines for the Japanese public to achieve an acceptable level of oral healthiness. The objective was to determine the relationship between oral health related behaviors and symptoms related to oral disease and tooth loss in a Japanese adult community. Methods Oral health status and lifestyle were investigated in 777 people aged 20 years and older (390 men and 387 women. Subjects were asked to complete a postal questionnaire concerning past diet and lifestyle. The completed questionnaires were collected when they had health examinations. The 15 questions included their preference for sweets, how many between-meal snacks they usually had per day, smoking and drinking habits, presence of oral symptoms, and attitudes towards dental visits. Participants were asked about their behaviors at different stages of their life. The oral health examinations included examination of the oral cavity and teeth performed by dentists using WHO criteria. Odds ratios were calculated for all subjects, all 10 year age groups, and for subjects 30 years or older, 40 years or older, 50 years or older, and 60 years or older. Results Frequency of tooth brushing (OR = 3.98, having your own toothbrush (OR = 2.11, smoking (OR = 2.71 and bleeding gums (OR = 2.03 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in males. Frequency of between-meal snacks was strongly associated with number of retained teeth in females (OR = 4.67. Having some hobbies (OR = 2.97, having a family dentist (OR = 2.34 and consulting a dentist as soon as symptoms occurred (OR = 1.74 were significantly associated with number of retained teeth in females. Factors that were significantly associated with tooth loss in both males and females included alcohol consumption (OR = 11.96, males, OR = 3.83, females, swollen gums (OR = 1.93, males, OR = 3.04, females and toothache (OR = 3.39, males, OR
Full Text Available Abstract: This study focuses on Japanese pupils’ motivation with other attitudinal attitudes about learning English. The writer surveyed the 5th and 6th grade pupils’ motivation and its effect factors at an elementary school in Japan at the end of the school year 2007 and 2008. The main focus of this study is to find the relationship between motivation and effect factors using both the 2007 and 2008 data and to examine differences of the pupils’ attitudes between 2007 and 2008. Since the 2008 school year, pupils have received lessons by not only an assistant language teacher (ALT but also their home room teachers (HRTs. The finding showed that the 2008 and 2007 results were similar in most valuables, but the value of “Motivation” increased in 2008 compared to the previous year. Furthermore, “people around the learner” influenced on motivation more positively. Finally, this study presented a model which could be suggested as one of the motivational models of Japanese pupils for English activities. The writer concluded that the involvement of HRTs brought about generally good effects on pupils’ attitudes in this elementary school at this point.
Dyke, Paula; Bourke, Jenny; Llewellyn, Gwynnyth; Leonard, Helen
Background: The transition from school to adulthood for young adults with an intellectual disability involves movement from a generally secure and supported school environment to an emerging adult life that may be characterised by a wide variation in adoption of adult roles related to employment, independent living, friendships, and day…
Tsunoda, Kenji; Soma, Yuki; Kitano, Naruki; Tsuji, Taishi; Mitsuishi, Yasuhiro; Yoon, Ji-Yeong; Okura, Tomohiro
This study aimed to compare relationships of leisure-time, household, and work-related physical activity (PA) with physical performance by age and gender in older Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study included 525 community-dwelling older adults (73.3 ± 5.2 years) recruited in 2009-2011 in Kasama City, rural Japan. We used the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly to assess PA variables. Physical performance was evaluated by 11 performance tests: grip strength, single-leg balance, functional reach, sit-and-reach, standing time from long sitting position, sit-to-stand, timed up and go, habitual walk, hand working, and simple and choice reaction times. After adjusting for potential confounders, leisure-time PA in young-old (≤ 74 years) men correlated significantly with eight performance tests (absolute value of Spearman's partial rank correlation coefficient: r = 0.18-0.39), whereas in old-old (≥ 75 years) men it correlated with three performance tests (r = 0.20-0.23). Although leisure-time PA correlated with six performance tests (r = 0.19-0.22) in young-old women, there were no significant correlations between leisure-time PA and performance tests in old-old women. Household PA of young-old men (r = 0.20-0.23) and old-old women (r = 0.26-0.34) correlated with four performance tests. In old-old men and young-old women, no significant correlation was found between household PA and performance tests. Work-related PA did not relate significantly to any performance tests in any groups. This study showed that leisure-time PA is related to physical performance, especially in young-old men and women, and household PA is especially related in young-old men and old-old women. Our findings suggest that supporting strategies for maintaining physical functions would differ by gender and age. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Bowman, Stephanie L.; Plourde, Lee A.
Teens and young adults with Intellectual Disabilities (ID) meet the criteria of teen and adult learners chronologically, but may be deficient in many other areas of teen and adult learning. The spectrum of intellectual and adaptive capabilities among teens and adults with ID is vast, with each individual being unique. There are specific teaching…
Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja
Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas by secondary school students and young nurses. Background: Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. Methods: The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (n = 68), some of whom were immigrants (n = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analysed using content analysis. Results: According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. Conclusion: New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. Implication for nursing management: The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees.
Harmoinen, Merja; Niiranen, Kaisa; Niiranen, Vuokko; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi; Suominen, Tarja
Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the phenomenon of management by way of the ideas of secondary school students and young nurses. Young adults are changing workplaces more than ever before, yet their work expectations and perspectives of management differ to those of previous generations. The data was collected from upper secondary school students and professionally educated nurses (N = 68), some of whom were immigrants (N = 41). Framed essays were used as a research method and emergent data was analyzed using content analysis. According to the results, good management involves systematic management, equality, appreciation of know-how, and the promotion of wellbeing at work. New perspectives on management were drawn from the study, in particular the multiple dimensions of equality in workplace organization and the manager's role in an employee's professional development process. The interactive skills of the manager are emphasized in promoting wellbeing at work. This is especially so in multi-cultural teams, where the manager is expected to be adept at understanding intercultural communication and the values of young employees.
Park, M Jane; Scott, Jazmyn T; Adams, Sally H; Brindis, Claire D; Irwin, Charles E
Adolescence and young adulthood are unique developmental periods that present opportunities and challenges for improving health. Health at this age can affect health throughout the lifespan. This review has two aims: (1) to examine trends in key indicators in outcomes, behaviors, and health care over the past decade for U.S. adolescents and young adults; and (2) to compare U.S. adolescents and young adults on these indicators. The review also assesses sociodemographic differences in trends and current indicators. Guided by our aims, previous reviews, and national priorities, the present review identified 21 sources of nationally representative data to examine trends in 53 areas and comparisons of adolescents and young adults in 42 areas. Most health and health care indicators have changed little over the past decade. Encouraging exceptions were found for adolescents and young adults in unintentional injury, assault, and tobacco use, and, for adolescents, in sexual/reproductive health. Trends in violence and chronic disease and related behaviors were mixed. Review of current indicators demonstrates that young adulthood continues to entail greater risk and worse outcomes than adolescence. Young adults fared worse on about two-thirds of the indicators examined. Differences among sociodemographic subgroups persisted for both trends and current indicators. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The way adults perceive and regulate learning (metamemory is an important indicator of how they perform on memory tasks. This study assessed memory monitoring, control and performance in young and intermediate-age adults according to item type (with or without semantic relation, type of judgment of learning (JOL - immediate or delayed, and age. Twenty-six young adults (M = 22 years old and 18 intermediate-age adults (M = 47 years old participated, who responded to an experimental paradigm to evaluate metamemory. Results showed that related word-pairs received higher magnitude for the JOLs and better cued-recall scores. JOLs’ accuracy was similar between the age groups, delayed JOLs being more accurate only for young adults. Intermediate-age adults apparently based their allocation of study time less on JOLs or cued-recall than young adults.
Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Boice, John D
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease has emerged as a serious late effect in survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer, but risk has not been quantified comprehensively in a population-based setting. METHODS: In the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified 43153 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed...... at ages 15 to 39 years (1943-2009) and alive in 1977; from the Danish Civil Registration System, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of the same age and sex. Subjects were linked to the Danish Patient Register, and observed numbers of first hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease (International......-sided. RESULTS: During follow-up, 10591 survivors (24.5%) were discharged from the hospital with cardiovascular disease, whereas 8124 were expected (RR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI)] = 1.28 to 1.33; P cardiovascular disease per 100000...
Full Text Available Currently, evidence concerning electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use in the West Indies is unavailable. This study examines the prevalence and associated factors of e-cigarette use in young Trinidadian adults, 6 years after e-cigarettes were introduced in Trinidad. Young adults between the ages of 18 and 40 years were surveyed from May–June 2016. Based on the survey results, descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to identify correlations in e-cigarette use. The prevalence of those who had used e-cigarettes was 24.6%, and 41.9% of these people had used both e-cigarettes and tobacco cigarettes. A high proportion (16.95% of those who had never used tobacco cigarettes had used e-cigarettes. Males were twice as likely as females to have used e-cigarettes (odds ratio [OR]: 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.85–3.68, and participants aged 18–25 years were more likely than those aged 36–40 years to use e-cigarettes (OR: 0.37; 95% CI: 0.14–0.81. The predictors of e-cigarette use as assessed by univariate analysis were current tobacco cigarette smoking (OR: 9.34; 95% CI: 6.14–14.39; p<0.001 and the belief that e-cigarettes are dangerous to health (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.44–0.85; p=0.004. The predictors as assessed by multivariate logistic regression (adjusted OR were ethnicity (p=0.043, education (p=0.012, and age group (p=0.007. Those who quit using tobacco cigarettes were 7.98 times more likely to use e-cigarettes (95% CI: 4.21–15.45, and those who knew that e-cigarettes contain nicotine were 2.70 times more likely to use them (95% CI: 1.53–4.86; p<0.001. Two summative scales were constructed that measured knowledge and perception. The perception scale, but not the knowledge scale (Cronbach’s alpha=0.736, was a significant predictor of e-cigarette use. The number of e-cigarette users is high (24.6% in young adults in Trinidad and in those who have never smoked tobacco (16.95%. Current smokers, as well as