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Sample records for janeiro brazil avaliacao

  1. Evaluation of quality of tomographs of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade dos tomografos do estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Travassos, P.C.B.; Belem, V.R.; Magalhaes, L.A.; Almeida, C.E.A. de, E-mail: luisalexandregm@hotmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Ciencias Radiologicas

    2014-07-01

    Computerized tomographs used in 56 institutions in the state of Rio de Janeiro were evaluated. Criteria of image quality and dosimetry were submitted. The results showed that some not performed optimize their protocols examinations or perform wrongly, which results in an increase in the dose received by patients, and an image in compromised quality. (author)

  2. Dose evaluation due to the effluent liberation by medical installations at city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Avaliacao de doses devido a liberacao de efluentes por instalacoes medicas na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

    Shu, Jane; Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: jshu@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: erochedo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Instalacoes Nucleares; Heilbron, Paulo F.L., E-mail: paulo@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (COREJ/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Rejeitos; Crispim, Verginia R., E-mail: verginia@con.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-10-26

    This paper, the city of Rio de Janeiro was taken as a case study. It was processed deterministic and probabilistic simulations vor evaluation of the dose in two exposure sceneries, one of them referring to public members exposure and the other relative to exposure of sewage sanitary treatment plant workers. The results showed that at present the doses for inhabitants of the city and operators of treatment station are lower to dose limit established for the public, the approach presently in use in Brazil is not sufficient to accomplish whit international requirements and the regulation should be revised to be adopted specific values for each radionuclide

  3. Evaluation of radiation protection parameters in dental radiography in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Avaliacao de parametros de radioprotecao em radiologia odontologica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Dovales, Ana Cristina M; Oliveira, Sergio L. Girao de; Cucco, Antonio Carlos S; Bezerra, Marcos Antonio; Mota, Helvecio C [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the results obtained in a program for the postal evaluation of radiation protection parameters in dental radiography in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The postal kit contains a radiographic film and two pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters separated by a 3 mm aluminium filter and is accompanied by a questionnaire about equipment characteristics and exposition parameters. The analysis of 2596 equipment in the last three years showed that near half of the examinations produces doses higher than the diagnostic reference level established by the health authorities for this kind of examination. Field diameter is within the acceptable range in 73,5% of the tests and total filtration is higher than 1,5 mm Al equivalent in 86,64% of the cases. Comparing with earlier results this analysis suggests that radiation protection conditions in dental radiography are improving in the state of Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  4. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Schubach, Armando; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis.

  5. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis. PMID:16485488

  6. Birds, Montane forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Foster, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys in montane Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, provided a list of 82 bird species in four sitesvisited. Our protocol relied on standardized use of mist nets and observations. The birds recorded include 40 Atlanticforest endemics, three globally and two nationally Vulnerable species, and two regionally Endangered species. Data onspecies elevation are included and discussed. This work enhances baseline knowledge of these species to assist futurestudies in these poorly understood, but biologically important areas.

  7. Medical slang in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Christopher Peterson

    Full Text Available The author analyzes medical slang in Rio de Janeiro based on the view of interactive or live metaphor proposed by such authors as Black and Ricoeur, applied to puns and other jokes from medical work, with the goal of unveiling what physicians mean by this linguistic register. The article classifies medical slang in three broad areas, pertaining to the physician's relations with professional training and knowledge, patients, and health care services. Comparing his empirical material with previous studies focusing on hospital slang for patients, the author identifies, in addition, a range of slang terms for health care services themselves. The article points to interfaces between medical slang and the Brazilian "health hypercrisis" identified by Schramm.

  8. The epidemiological scenario of feline sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Pereira, Sandro Antonio; Gremião, Isabella Dib Ferreira; Kitada, Amanda Akemi Braga; Boechat, Jéssica Sepulveda; Viana, Paula Gonçalves; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a mycosis affecting both humans and animals. Within the context of the ongoing sporotrichosis epidemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, sick cats plays an important role in the zoonotic transmission. The aim of this study was to update the number of feline cases diagnosed at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (2005-2011). The medical records of the cats followed were reviewed; the inclusion criterion was the isolation of Sporothrix spp. in culture. In total, 2,301 feline cases were identified. These results should alert sanitary authorities to the difficulties associated with sporotrichosis control.

  9. The epidemiological scenario of feline sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Sandro Antonio Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sporotrichosis is a mycosis affecting both humans and animals. Within the context of the ongoing sporotrichosis epidemic in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, sick cats plays an important role in the zoonotic transmission. The aim of this study was to update the number of feline cases diagnosed at the Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (2005-2011. Methods The medical records of the cats followed were reviewed; the inclusion criterion was the isolation of Sporothrix spp. in culture. Results In total, 2,301 feline cases were identified. Conclusions These results should alert sanitary authorities to the difficulties associated with sporotrichosis control.

  10. [Urban sporotrichosis: a neglected epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Silva, Margarete Bernardo Tavares da; Costa, Mônica Motta de Mattos; Torres, Carla Carrilho da Silva; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do; Magalhães, Mônica de Avelar F M; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Oliveira, Rosely Magalhães de

    2012-10-01

    In the scientific literature, sporotrichosis has traditionally been associated with agricultural work, since the causative agent is found naturally in the soil. However, cases have been reported recently in an urban area, related to zoonotic transmission. The current study aimed to contribute to knowledge on sporotrichosis in an urban area through an exploratory analysis of its socio-spatial distribution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1997 to 2007, identifying the areas with the heaviest transmission. The database from the Health Surveillance Service at the Evandro Chagas Institute for Clinical Research, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, was used to estimate incidence rates and spatial distribution. During the study period, 1,848 cases of sporotrichosis were reported, predominantly in adult women not currently in the labor market. The leading source of infection was wounds caused by domestic cats, which contributed to the spread of sporotrichosis in this urban area. Georeferencing of 1,681 cases showed a transmission belt along the border between the city of Rio de Janeiro and the adjacent municipalities in the Greater Metropolitan Area.

  11. Hydrogeological Study of Mangrove Areas Around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Gerson Cardoso da Silva Júnior;; Carlos Eduardo Braga; Ingrid de Carvalho Lage

    2003-01-01

    The study area covers part of the mangrove belt located around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representing a continental-marine transition, the mangrove ecosystem is very susceptible to environmental variations and impacts. The vegetation cover plays an important role in prevention of erosion and contamination processes in those areas. An ongoing extensive research effort in the Petrochemical Complex of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on the man-induced cha...

  12. Uncertainties regarding dengue modeling in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Paula Mendes Luz

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is currently the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in Brazil. Mathematical modeling of disease dynamics is a very useful tool for the evaluation of control measures. To be used in decision-making, however, a mathematical model must be carefully parameterized and validated with epidemiological and entomological data. In this work, we developed a simple dengue model to answer three questions: (i which parameters are worth pursuing in the field in order to develop a dengue transmission model for Brazilian cities; (ii how vector density spatial heterogeneity influences control efforts; (iii with a degree of uncertainty, what is the invasion potential of dengue virus type 4 (DEN-4 in Rio de Janeiro city. Our model consists of an expression for the basic reproductive number (R0 that incorporates vector density spatial heterogeneity. To deal with the uncertainty regarding parameter values, we parameterized the model using a priori probability density functions covering a range of plausible values for each parameter. Using the Latin Hypercube Sampling procedure, values for the parameters were generated. We conclude that, even in the presence of vector spatial heterogeneity, the two most important entomological parameters to be estimated in the field are the mortality rate and the extrinsic incubation period. The spatial heterogeneity of the vector population increases the risk of epidemics and makes the control strategies more complex. At last, we conclude that Rio de Janeiro is at risk of a DEN-4 invasion. Finally, we stress the point that epidemiologists, mathematicians, and entomologists need to interact more to find better approaches to the measuring and interpretation of the transmission dynamics of arthropod-borne diseases.

  13. Uncertainties regarding dengue modeling in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Luz Paula Mendes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is currently the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in Brazil. Mathematical modeling of disease dynamics is a very useful tool for the evaluation of control measures. To be used in decision-making, however, a mathematical model must be carefully parameterized and validated with epidemiological and entomological data. In this work, we developed a simple dengue model to answer three questions: (i which parameters are worth pursuing in the field in order to develop a dengue transmission model for Brazilian cities; (ii how vector density spatial heterogeneity influences control efforts; (iii with a degree of uncertainty, what is the invasion potential of dengue virus type 4 (DEN-4 in Rio de Janeiro city. Our model consists of an expression for the basic reproductive number (R0 that incorporates vector density spatial heterogeneity. To deal with the uncertainty regarding parameter values, we parameterized the model using a priori probability density functions covering a range of plausible values for each parameter. Using the Latin Hypercube Sampling procedure, values for the parameters were generated. We conclude that, even in the presence of vector spatial heterogeneity, the two most important entomological parameters to be estimated in the field are the mortality rate and the extrinsic incubation period. The spatial heterogeneity of the vector population increases the risk of epidemics and makes the control strategies more complex. At last, we conclude that Rio de Janeiro is at risk of a DEN-4 invasion. Finally, we stress the point that epidemiologists, mathematicians, and entomologists need to interact more to find better approaches to the measuring and interpretation of the transmission dynamics of arthropod-borne diseases.

  14. Clinical conditions associated withintestinal strongyloidiasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Anna Caryna Cabral

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth that produces an infection that can persist for decades. The relationships between certain clinical conditions and strongyloidiasis remains controversial. This study aims to identify the clinical conditions associated with intestinal strongyloidiasis at a reference center for infectious diseases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: The clinical conditions that were assessed included HIV/AIDS, HTLV infection, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, obstructive respiratory diseases, viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, cancer, chronic renal disease, nutritional/metabolic disorders, psychiatric conditions, rheumatic diseases and dermatologic diseases. We compared 167 S. stercoralis-positive and 133 S. stercoralis-negative patients. RESULTS: After controlling for sex (male/female OR = 2.29; 95% (CI: (1.42 - 3.70, rheumatic diseases remained significantly associated with intestinal strongyloidiasis (OR: 4.96; 95% CI: 1.34-18.37 in a multiple logistic regression model. With respect to leukocyte counts, patients with strongyloidiasis presented with significantly higher relative eosinophil (10.32% ± 7.2 vs. 4.23% ± 2.92 and monocyte (8.49% ± 7.25 vs. 5.39% ± 4.31 counts and lower segmented neutrophil (52.85% ± 15.31 vs. 61.32% ± 11.4 and lymphocyte counts (28.11% ± 9.72 vs. 30.90% ± 9.51 than S. stercoralis-negative patients. CONCLUSIONS: Strongyloidiasis should be routinely investigated in hospitalized patients with complex conditions facilitate the treatment of patients who will undergo immunosuppressive therapy. Diagnoses should be determined through the use of appropriate parasitological methods, such as the Baermann-Moraes technique.

  15. Detection of Zika Virus in April 2013 Patient Samples, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Borges dos Santos, Maria A.; Cerbino-Neto, José; Buonora, Sibelle N.; Souza, Thiago M.L.; de Oliveira, Raquel V.C.; Vizzoni, Alexandre; Barbosa-Lima, Giselle; Vieira, Yasmine R.; Silva de Lima, Marcondes; Hökerberg, Yara H. M.

    2017-01-01

    We tested 210 dengue virus‒negative samples collected from febrile patients during a dengue virus type 4 outbreak in Rio de Janeiro in April 2013 and found 3 samples positive for Zika virus. Our findings support previously published entomological data suggesting Zika virus was introduced into Brazil during October 2012–May 2013. PMID:28953451

  16. Chikungunya virus infection: report of the first case diagnosed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Isabella Gomes Cavalcanti de Albuquerque

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Initially diagnosed in Africa and Asia, the Chikungunya virus has been detected in the last three years in the Caribbean, Italy, France, and the United States of America. Herein, we report the first case for Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2010.

  17. Exploratory Practice: Work at the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Allwright, Dick; Lenzuen, Rosa

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the aim of the Cultural Inglesa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which is the development of a new, fully sustainable concept for classroom-based research--exploratory practice--and its assimilation into the normal working and professional-development practices of Rio Cultura teachers. (Author/VWL)

  18. Dating and characterization of archaeological ceramics of the Araruama area at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Vinagre Filho, Ubirajara M.; Bellido, Alfredo V.B.; Latini, Rose M.; Rossi, Alexandre M.

    2000-01-01

    Ceramic of three archaeological sites (Serrano, Morro Grande, and condominium Bela Vista) of the Araruama area (Rio de Janeiro/Brazil), are being dated by the thermoluminescence technique. These ceramics are being characterized, in your elementary chemical composition, by INAA. Preliminary results are presented and the samples treatment method is described. (author)

  19. Mobile phone appropriation in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Sutko, Daniel; Salis, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative case study describes the social appropriation of mobile phones among low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) by asking how favela (slum) residents appropriate cell phones. Findings highlight the difficulty these populations encounter in acquiring and using cell phones due...

  20. The Implementation and Use of Computers in Education in Brazil: Niteroi City/Rio de Janeiro

    de Fatima D'Assumpcao Castro, Maria; Alves, Luiz Anastacio

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of computer technology has touched off an actual revolution for teaching and learning activities. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the implementation and use of computers in the public school system, from the elementary grades to high school, in Niteroi city, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). This city, with a total…

  1. 78 FR 57619 - Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013

    2013-09-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife, Brazil, October 7-10, 2013 AGENCY: International Trade Administration... 38687, June 27, 2013, regarding the Architecture Services Trade Mission to Rio de Janeiro and Recife...

  2. Sky luminosity for Rio de Janeiro City - Brazil

    Corbella, O.D.

    1995-12-01

    This paper presents sky luminosity data for Rio de Janeiro City, useful to be used in daylighting design in architecture. The data are presented as monthly graphics that correlate sunshine-hours with the frequency of occurrence during the day of a specific type of sky, that would present one of five defined characteristics (among clear and overcast sky). These results were derived from the knowledge of daily solar radiation and sunshine-hours data, for every day for a twelve year period. (author). 10 refs, 13 figs, 16 tabs

  3. Late Holocene evolution of the Northeast intertidal region of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    Anita Fernandes Souza Pinto; Maria Virgínia Alves Martins; Maria Antonieta da Conceição Rodrigues; Leandro Nogueira; Lazaro Luiz Mattos Laut; Egberto Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This work is based on the study of the core T1 collected in the Guaratiba Mangrove, located on the northeastern margin of Sepetiba Bay. Few studies dealing with the application of benthic foraminifera to study sea level changes during the Holocene have been conducted in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In order to fill this gap, the core T1 was studied using textural, geochemical (carbonate, total organic carbon, total sulfur and stable isotopes evaluated in Ammonia tepida) and ...

  4. Living benthic Foraminifera from the Saquarema lagoonal system (Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil)

    Belart, Pierre; Laut, Vanessa; Clemente, Iara; Raposo, Débora; Martins, Virgínia; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Lorini, Maria; Fortes, Rafael; Laut, Lazaro

    2017-01-01

    Transitional environments such as coastal lagoons with narrow connections to the sea are ecosystems very sensitive to natural or anthropogenic pressures. They are biodiversity hotspots and for this reason it should be studied and preserved. This study lists the benthic Foraminifera species from the Saquarema lagoonal system (SLS), Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. This complex ecosystem consists of four large connected lagoons, namely Urussanga, Jardim, Boqueirão, and Saquarema. A poorly diversif...

  5. Herpetofauna of Núcleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Martins, AR; Bruno, SF.; Navegantes, AQ.

    2012-01-01

    The Atlantic Rain forest, which is considered the second largest pluvial forest in the American continent, has had an estimated 93% of its original area destroyed. Although studies concerning the herpetofaunal diversity in this biome have been intensified in the past years, its diversity is still underestimated. The Nucleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande (NEIG) is included in an Environmental Protection Area (APA de Sapeatiba) in the Iguaba Grande municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (22º...

  6. Record of Pleopis schmackeri (Poppe Branchiopoda in Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Wanda Maria Monteiro-Ribas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the first occurrence of Pleopis schmackeri (Poppe, 1889 (Branchiopoda, Onychopoda in Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is described. This marine cladoceran species occurred in zooplanktonic samples obtained on July, 2003 with mean density of 10 ind.m-3. Its presence may be related to two hypotheses, due to ballast water and through the Brazilian current, which gets closer to the coast Winter.

  7. Orchidaceae of the Grumari restinga: floristic and similarity among restingas in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Moreira, Marina Muniz; Barberena, Felipe Fajardo Villela Antolin; Lopes, Rosana Conrado

    2014-01-01

    Orchidaceae is one of the largest and most diverse plant families in the world. The number of floristic studies of this family in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, has increased significantly in recent years. However, only a few such studies have been conducted in areas of restinga vegetation and none of those have examined the similarity, in terms of orchid diversity, among such areas. The present study sought to improve our knowledge of the Orchidaceae diversity occurring in Grumari restinga, a...

  8. Urban forest and environmental inequality in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Silva, Victor; Pedlowski, Marcos; Heynen, Nikolas

    2002-01-01

    Social and spatial inequality regarding environmental resources and services is one of most complex issues affecting contemporary urban life. The objective of this research is to study the spatial distribution of trees in public areas in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This researc...... and education levels of the population seem to play a more causal on tree quantity and species diversity. This inequality stresses a problem with environmental justice, a characteristic of Brazilian cities intrinsically connected to urban sustainability....

  9. Radioisotope production at the cyclotron in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Silva, A.G. da; Lemos, O.F.; Britto, J.L.O. de; Osso, J.A.; Bastos, M.A.V.; Braghirolli, A.M.S.; Chamma, D.F.S.; Newton, G.W.A.; Weinreich, R.

    1982-01-01

    A radioisotope production laboratory has been installed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro. It is intended primarily for processing short-lived radioisotopes produced by a multiparticle, variable energy, isochronous, compact CV-28 Cyclotron and for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled molecules. Carrier-free iodine-123, indium-111, thalium-201, bromine-77 and gallium-67 with high purity have been produced. An irradiated target transport system has been built. Special targets that can dissipate high surface power densities are being developed. Each radioisotope is processed in a remotely controlled cell equiped with electric and pneumatic systems as well as manipulators ans tongs. Quality control is achieved by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, spot tests, gamma-ray spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography. Biological tests in mice have confirmed the good quality of the radiopharmaceuticals. (Author) [pt

  10. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases

    Bruno Moreira Carvalho

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: Species distribution and potential vectors of leishmaniases. Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, has endemic areas of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases. In these areas, entomologic surveillance actions are highly recommended by Brazil's Ministry of Health. The present work describes the results of sand fly captures performed by the Health Department of Rio de Janeiro State between 2009 and 2011 in several municipalities. An updated species list and distribution of phlebotomine sand flies in the state are provided based on an extensive literature review. Currently, the sand fly fauna of Rio de Janeiro State has 65 species, belonging to the genera Brumptomyia (8 spp. and Lutzomyia (57 spp.. Distribution maps of potential leishmaniases vector species Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N. whitmani, L. (N. flaviscutellata and L. (Lutzomyia longipalpis are provided and their epidemiological importance is discussed.

  11. Patient exposures in oral radiology, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Peixoto, J.E.; Souza Ferreira, R. de.

    1982-01-01

    The Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, started in 1980 a program called 'PATIENT EXPOSURES IN ORAL RADIOLOGY'. The basic goal is the reduction of patient exposure during dental X-ray examinations. The program is being applied by mail to the pilot area of the city of Rio de Janeiro and covers the following topics: 1. Determination of skin doses and all physical parameters inherent to radiographic examinations wich are needed for effective dose equivalent calculations; 2. Guidance to dentists regarding proper techniques, basic procedures in Radiation Protection and aptimization of the radiographic image. According to the results obtained from 308 people studied the exposure ranged from 200mR to 4000mR at the patient skin during a molar X-ray. In regard to field diameter measurements in this group it was observed that 40% of the X-ray units used showed higher values than the acceptable limit of 7.5cm at skin. (Author) [pt

  12. Height, weight, weight change and risk of breast cancer in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Anelise Bezerra de Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The relationship between body size and breast cancer still remains controversial in considering menopausal status. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of height, weight and weight changes with breast cancer in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: National Cancer Institute (INCA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ. SAMPLE: 177 incident cases of invasive breast cancer admitted to the main hospital of INCA between May 1995 and February 1996, and 377 controls recruited from among female visitors to the same hospital. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Height and weight were measured and information on maximum weight, weight at ages 18 and 30 years, and potential risk factors were ascertained by interview at the hospital. RESULTS: Height was not related to risk of breast cancer among both pre and postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, women in this study were shorter than in studies that have found a positive association. Premenopausal women in the upper quartile of recent body mass index (BMI and maximum BMI showed a reduced risk of breast cancer (P for trend <= 0.03. Weight loss between ages 18 and 30 years and from 18 years to present was also associated with breast cancer among premenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: These findings may merely indicate the known association between leanness and breast cancer. Further studies should explore the role of weight loss on breast cancer risk.

  13. Distribution of Blastocystis subtypes isolated from humans from an urban community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Carolina Valença Barbosa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blastocystis is a cosmopolitan protist parasite found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is highly prevalent in developing countries. Recent molecular studies have revealed extensive genetic diversity, which has been classified into different subtypes (STs based on sequence analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Blastocystis is one of the most common fecal parasites in Brazil, but the diversity of subtypes remains unknown in the country. This study aimed to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs in an urban community in Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods A total of 64 stool samples positive for Blastocystis in Pavlova’s medium were subtyped by PCR and sequenced using primers targeting the small subunit rRNA gene, in addition to phylogenetic analysis and subtype-specific PCR using sequence-tagged-site (STS primers. Results Endolimax nana (14%, Entamoeba complex (10.5%, Taenia sp. (0.6%, Trichuris trichiura (1.3% and Enterobius vermicularis (1.3% were detected in Blastocystis-positive samples. Of the 64 samples tested by PCR/DNA sequencing, 55 were identified as ST1 (42%, ST3 (49%, ST2 (7% and ST4 (2%, and the presence of mixed ST (ST1 + ST3 infection was detected in nine samples (14%. Conclusions DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Brazilian Blastocystis isolates identified four different subtypes. To our knowledge, this study provided the first genetic characterization of Blastocystis subtypes in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We also identified ST4 for the first time in Brazil. Further studies are necessary to determine the distribution of STs across human populations in Rio de Janeiro.

  14. Determination of cocaine in Real banknotes circulating at the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Almeida, V G K; Cassella, R J; Pacheco, W F

    2015-06-01

    This paper shows the result of a study on the extent of cocaine contamination in Real banknotes in circulation in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). A study of the percentage of contaminated banknotes was made, as well as a study on the contamination of banknotes based on different values, and a study of contamination depending on the region where the banknote was collected. The idea of this last study was to verify if the peculiar characteristics of the region of study (in particular, the city of Rio de Janeiro) influence the amount of cocaine in the banknotes. Some regions have higher consumption/drug trafficking of cocaine than others. Also, some contaminated banknotes confiscated directly from drug dealers and users were analyzed. Also, is showed in this paper all the optimization of the available analytical techniques for making the measurements possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 77 FR 18215 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30...

    2012-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and S[atilde]o Paulo, Brazil, August 30-September 6, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Department of...

  16. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Soares Quinete, Natalia, E-mail: nataliaquinete@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica e Metrologia em Quimica, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Departamento de Energia, Av. Venezuela, 82 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20081-312 (Brazil); Fernandes, Daniella R. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Souza Avelar, Andre de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Geografia, Instituto de Geociencias, CCMN, Bloco F, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-919 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Erthal Santelli, Ricardo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Quimica, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, CT - Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria, 21941-909 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: > The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. > PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. > Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. > Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. > A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  17. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Soares Quinete, Natalia; Santos de Oliveira, Elba dos; Fernandes, Daniella R.; Souza Avelar, Andre de; Erthal Santelli, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraiba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresopolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments. - Highlights: → The organochlorine pollutants occurrence in the Atlantic Rain Forest was investigated. → PARNASO was considered a control area of environmental quality. → Extractions methods were compared for typical C-rich soils samples from Brazil. → Low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples. → A monitoring program is demanded due to the environmental importance of the area. - The occurrence of organochlorine pollutants in soils of the Atlantic rainforest fragments in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil demands a monitoring program of its compartments.

  18. Fisheries and conflicts in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Silvio Jablonski

    2006-01-01

    coleta de mexilhões nos costões rochosos da entrada da baía e ilhas adjacentes são, também, importantes. A ausência de estatísticas pesqueiras prévias ao vazamento de 1,3 milhão de litros de óleo, em janeiro de 2000, levou à reivindicação de indenizações, por parte das organizações representativas dos pescadores, de valores correspondentes a cerca de 50 anos de produção de pescado na baía. Um sistema de coleta de dados pode ser estabelecido de forma participativa com as associações de pescadores locais. As pescarias relativamente estáveis na baía sugerem que inferências razoáveis podem ser obtidas sem que, necessariamente, se tenha uma cobertura completa de todos os pontos de desembarque.

  19. Hippeastrum species in areas of restinga in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: pollen characters

    Renata Suzano Candido

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The order Asparagales comprises 14 families, five of which occur in Brazil. Amaryllidaceae is a family of economic relevance and includes numerous ornamental genera. The genus Hippeastrum is widely distributed in Brazil and comprises 34 species, 11 of which occur in areas of restinga (coastal woodland and Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The morphology of Hippeastrum has not been extensively studied in Brazil, where only a few systematic floristic surveys have been carried out with native species. In field studies and reviews of herbarium collections, we identified five Hippeastrum species occurring in areas of restinga in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The five species identified could be distinguished according to the following palynological characteristics: pollen grain size, polarity, pollen units, shape, aperture (number and type, exine sculpture, colpus length and pattern of sexine ornamentation. Of the five species identified, Hippeastrum aulicum Herb. and H. glaucescens (Ker Gawl. Herb. were not identified in the field. Among the three species that were found in the field, H. striatum had the widest distribution in the study area, whereas the distribution of H. reticulatum was restricted to a single area of restinga, in the Jaconé district of the municipality of Saquarema. Through palynological examinations of specimens from herbaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, we were able to confirm the identity of all five species of Hippeastrum studied. Our data represent a relevant contribution to increasing knowledge of this plant group in the region and will aid in future conservation efforts.

  20. Record of Pleopis schmackeri (Poppe Branchiopoda in Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Wanda Maria Monteiro-Ribas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n1p201 The paper describes the first occurrence of Pleopis schmackeri (Poppe, 1889 (Branchiopoda, Onychopoda in Rio das Ostras, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is described. This marine cladoceran species occurred in zooplanktonic samples obtained on July, 2003 with mean density of 10 ind.m-3. Its presence may be related to two hypotheses, due to ballast water and through the Brazilian current, which gets closer to the coast Winter.

  1. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of skin lesions from sporotrichosis epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Ferreira, Cassio Porto; Oliveira de Almeida, Ana Cristina; Corte-Real, Suzana

    2015-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy can yield useful information in a range of scientific fields; it is capable of imaging at a significantly higher resolution than light microscopes and has been a very useful tool in the identification of morphological changes of the dermis as well as assessment of changes in the extracellular matrix. Our aim is to characterize by electron microscopy the cellular profile of lesions caused by Sporothrix schenckii from the sporotrichosis epidemic in its zoonotic form that occurs in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

    ALEXANDRE PORTE

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from fresh leaves of Thymus vulgaris L. from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed through a combination of GC and GC/MS. Compounds representing 95.1 % of the oil were identified. Thirty-nine constituents were detected, of which twenty-eight were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra. The major constituents of the oil were thymol (44.7 %, p-cymene (18.6 % and g-terpinene (16.5 %.

  3. Triagem neonatal para hemoglobinopatias no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Neonatal screening for hemoglobinopathies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Clarisse Lopes de Castro Lobo

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os principais resultados do programa de triagem neonatal para a doença falciforme do Estado do Rio de Janeiro em 15 meses de funcionamento (agosto de 2000 a novembro de 2001. MÉTODOS: A partir de agosto de 2000, amostras de sangue passaram a ser coletadas de todos os recém-nascidos atendidos em postos de atenção básica à saúde no Estado para triagem neonatal da doença falciforme. Essas amostras são submetidas a cromatografia líquida de alta resolução. Se o cromatograma resultante for compatível com a doença falciforme, a criança e seus pais são encaminhados para confirmação diagnóstica e tratamento. RESULTADOS: De agosto de 2000 a novembro de 2001, 99 260 recém nascidos participaram da triagem. Houve um caso de homozigose para Hb C. Um em cada 27 recém-nascidos triados pelo programa apresentou o traço falciforme (Hb AS. A doença falciforme foi constatada em 83 casos (um caso novo para cada 1 196 nascimentos: 62 Hb S, 18 Hb SC, 3 Hb SD. Uma criança não compareceu para confirmação diagnóstica. As 82 crianças acompanhadas apresentaram 15 intercorrências (infecções de vias aéreas superiores, febre, seqüestro esplênico, síndrome mão-pé e crises de vaso-oclusão, motivando sete internações. Houve necessidade de transfusão sangüínea em 15 crianças, mas nenhuma tornou-se alo-imunizada. Os demais bebês estão evoluindo satisfatoriamente com o uso de penicilina profilática. CONCLUSÕES: Nossos dados evidenciam a importância do diagnóstico precoce da doença falciforme, de forma a prevenir e evitar as freqüentes complicações infecciosas enfrentadas por esses pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To describe the main results obtained in the first 15 months of neonatal screening for sickle cell disease in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from August 2000 to November 2001. METHODS: Starting in August 2000, blood samples began to be collected for sickle cell disease screening from all newborns

  4. 77 FR 1667 - Nelson S. Galgoul, Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent...

    2012-01-11

    ..., Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, Respondent; Order Relating to Nelson S. Galgoul The Bureau of... entry of the Order, Nelson S. Galgoul, with a last known address of Av. Edison Passess 909, Rio De Janeiro, R.J., Brazil 20531-070, and when acting for or on his behalf, his representatives, assigns...

  5. Spatial distribution and socioeconomic context of tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the spatial distribution of risk for tuberculosis and its socioeconomic determinants in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.METHODS An ecological study on the association between the mean incidence rate of tuberculosis from 2004 to 2006 and socioeconomic indicators of the Censo Demográfico (Demographic Census of 2000. The unit of analysis was the home district registered in the Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Notifiable Diseases Information System of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. The rates were standardized by sex and age group, and smoothed by the empirical Bayes method. Spatial autocorrelation was evaluated by Moran’s I. Multiple linear regression models were studied and the appropriateness of incorporating the spatial component in modeling was evaluated.RESULTS We observed a higher risk of the disease in some neighborhoods of the port and north regions, as well as a high incidence in the slums of Rocinha and Vidigal, in the south region, and Cidade de Deus, in the west. The final model identified a positive association for the variables: percentage of permanent private households in which the head of the house earns three to five minimum wages; percentage of individual residents in the neighborhood; and percentage of people living in homes with more than two people per bedroom.CONCLUSIONS The spatial analysis identified areas of risk of tuberculosis incidence in the neighborhoods of the city of Rio de Janeiro and also found spatial dependence for the incidence of tuberculosis and some socioeconomic variables. However, the inclusion of the space component in the final model was not required during the modeling process.

  6. Professional profile of pediatric intensivists in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil.

    Lacerda, Jandra Corrêa de; Barbosa, Arnaldo Prata; Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da

    2011-12-01

    This study described the sociodemographic profile and professional qualifications of pediatric intensive care physicians in the State of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), southeastern Brazil. This investigation was an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study that was conducted in neonatal, pediatric and mixed intensive care units in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Physicians working in the participating intensive care units voluntarily completed a semistructured and anonymous questionnaire. Questionnaires that were not returned within 30 days were considered lost, and questionnaires with less than 75% questions completed were excluded. The differences in neonatal and pediatric intensive care physicians' medical training were compared using the Chi-squared test with a 5% significance level. A total of 410 physicians were included in this study: 84% female, 48% between 30 and 39 years old and 45% with monthly incomes between US $1,700 to 2,700. Forty percent of these physicians worked exclusively in this specialty, and 72% worked in more than one intensive care unit. Only 50% of the participants had received specific training (either medical residency or specialization) in neonatology, and only 33% were board-certified specialists in this area. Only 27% of the physicians had received specific training in pediatric intensive care medicine, and only 17% were board-certified specialists (p professional activity; 49% were dissatisfied due to working conditions, 23% due to low incomes and 18% due to training-related issues. These results suggested that the medical qualifications of neonatal and pediatric intensive care physicians in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are inadequate, especially in pediatric intensive care medicine. A high level of dissatisfaction was reported, which may jeopardize the quality of medical assistance that is provided by these professionals.

  7. Insect galls of restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Alene Ramos Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect galls of restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study carried out an insect gall inventory in restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly from April 2010 to March 2011 along the full extension of seven beaches. A total number of 147 gall morphotypes associated with 70 plant species were found, distributed in 33 plant families, and at least 54 genera. Myrtaceae was the botanical family with the highest richness of gall morphotypes and host species, followed by Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, and Malpighiaceae. Most of the gall morphotypes occurred in leaves (78 morphotypes, 38 in stems, 14 in flowers, eight in buds and fruits, and one in adventitious roots. The galling insects belong to the five orders: Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, and Thysanoptera. Cecidomyiidae (Diptera was the most common galling taxon (78 morphotypes, represented by 87 species, being 78 gallers, seven inquilines and two predators. In addition to the gallers, parasitoids, inquilines, and predators were also found.

  8. Supply and usage of hemodynamic services in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Maria de Fatima Siliansky de Andreazzi

    Full Text Available Objective: The paper analyzes the supply and the utilization of hemodynamic services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Methods: It's an exploratory study that uses data obtained from Brazilian official databases. The period of supply analysis was from 1999 to 2009, and of utilization was from 2008 to October 2012.Results: Since 1999 there is a growth of hemodynamic equipment purchase. The private sector concentrates most of the supply, but it has been reducing its availability to SUS. The rate between population and equipment in Brazil exceeds the ones of some rich countries. In the sense of supply, there are in 2009, a supply rate of 1,4 equipments for 1 million inhabitants in RJ state, larger than brazilian rate, of 3,4 but the rates are similar for public customers.Conclusion: Interventional cardiology procedures have improved in the state, but in a different way. And this is because the public hospitals at Rio de Janeiro have mostly reduced their production, while the private ones have increased their production. The observed result is the SUS users performing their procedures at great distances.

  9. Bat assemblages from three Atlantic Forest fragments in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil

    Roberto Leonan Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bat species richness in Neotropical localities is generally higher than that of any other group of mammals, and surveys of local bat assemblages may provide useful data for conservation management plans. Although the bat fauna of the Rio de Janeiro state is currently one of the best known in Brazil, there are several localities not adequately surveyed yet, and most of them are in the mountainous regions and in the northern portion of the state. From January 2008 to November 2009, we conducted surveys of bats in three localities in the state of Rio de Janeiro (municipalities of Varre-Sai, Sumidouro, and Cantagalo, and our fieldwork constitutes the first assessment of the bat assemblages of these localities. Surveys were conducted using mist nets in four different habitat types in each locality (forest interior, forest edge, riparian forest, and open areas [pastures]. We captured a total of 148 individuals in 17 species, 14 genera and 3 families. Among them, 11 species were recorded in Sumidouro, seven in Cantagalo, and nine in Varre-Sai. Although species richness was low compared with previous surveys in other close localities, we recorded species that have been rarely sampled in Southeastern Brazil (e.g., Macrophyllum macrophyllum [Phyllostomidae]. The results reinforce the importance of sampling different habitats in short surveys to improve the number of species registered.

  10. Hydrogeological Study of Mangrove Areas Around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Gerson Cardoso da Silva Júnior;

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study area covers part of the mangrove belt located around Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representing a continental-marine transition, the mangrove ecosystem is very susceptible to environmental variations and impacts. The vegetation cover plays an important role in prevention of erosion and contamination processes in those areas. An ongoing extensive research effort in the Petrochemical Complex of Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, focuses on the man-induced changes in the physical environment (soils, groundwater flow system, type and volumes of contaminants, geochemical aspects and the consequences on the neighboring mangrove ecosystem. This article describes the importance of hydrogeological studies in mangrove areas as part of an appropriate environmental assessment, taking as an example an industrial dumping area located in that Petrochemical Complex. Field work included extensive drilling and sampling to obtain basic geological and hydrogeological parameters and data in the pilot area, such as hydraulic conductivity and piezometric heads; emphasizing the tracking of possible contamination by industrial effluents and the marine influence; validation of the conceptual model with mathematical models (numerical and analytical models was carried out. Results show the great importance of well conducted and detailed hydrogeological studies to properly address environmental problems caused by industrial plants in mangrove areas.

  11. In Search Of the Ideal City. The Favela-Bairro Program Experience in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    Silva, Victor

    The socio-economic and environmental inequalities in Brazil are well publicized facts and one can state that spatial segregation has been a defining factor in its urbanization. Brazilian cities, such as Rio de Janeiro, are increasingly characterized by the presence of very wealthy neighborhoods...... by Rio de Janeiro Municipality in the 1990 decade, is one of the most successful urban upgrading and poor alleviation projects developed in Brazil. To date Favela-Bairro is the largest-scale squatter settlement upgrading programme implemented in Latin America. It aims to comprehensively upgrade squatter...... of Favela-Bairro in the current urban development process in Rio de Janeiro. The main question we are interested in is: in the contemporary scenario of social polarization, spatial segregation, environmental injustice and lack of good governance, what lessons can be learned from the Favela-Bairro experience?...

  12. Evaluation of the radiologic potential due to the nuclear submarine visits to the Rio de Janeiro port; Avaliacao do impacto radiologico potencial relativo a visita de submarinos nucleares ao Porto do Rio de Janeiro

    Pereira, Jose Francisco

    2004-07-01

    Brazil is signatory of international protocols related to the visit of nuclear-powered vessels, aircraft carriers and submarines to Brazilian ports. The submarines, during their stay in Brazilian ports, inform that there is no release of radioactive material to the environment. However, the possibility of occurrence of accidents with environmental releases from PWR reactors is real. Between 1993 and 2003, 13 nuclear submarines visited Brazilian ports. This work aimed to evaluate the potential impact due to the visits of nuclear-powered ships and submarines to the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in relation to releases of radioactive materials to the environment, considering both routine releases and accidental situations. The models selected to perform the assessments took into account the scenarios to be simulated. Simple, but conservative methodologies were used for the evaluation of routine releases. For accidental releases, the dynamics of the materials dispersion into the environment were considered. The present study was mainly focalized on the initial phase of an accident. The doses for the crew of the Brazilian navy ships, for IRD teams performing environmental monitoring, and for the population around the Guanabara Bay, close to the points of anchorage, were assessed. The results indicated that, in normal operational conditions, no significant radiological impact due to the visit of nuclear submarines to the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro is expected, even considering the occurrence of small routine radionuclide releases. The analysis of accidental releases, however, indicated that the submarines should be located at a minimum distance of 2,5 km from inhabited areas in the coast of the Guanabara Bay. The need for environmental control and training of the teams involved in the attendance of the submarines, during the period of their visit, was also considered. The need for revising the procedures for the preoperational surveys to be performed at the

  13. Characterization of sewage sludge generated in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and perspectives for agricultural recycling

    Alan Henrique Marques de Abreu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sanitary sewage collection and treatment is a serious environmental problem in Brazilian cities, as well as the destination of solid waste resulting from this process, i.e. the sewage sludge, a substance rich in organic matter and nutrients, which is normally discarded in landfills. The aim of this study was to characterize the sewage sludge generated in four treatment stations in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil and check if they meet the legal criteria of the National Environment Council (CONAMA, Resolution No. 375/2006. It also focused on analyzing the perspectives for its agricultural recycling based on the potential demand for main agricultural crops grown in Rio de Janeiro State. Samples from eight sewage sludge lots from four treatment stations located in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro were analyzed. These stations receive and treat only domestic sewage by activated sludge system. For chemical and biological characterization of these lots, representative samples were collected and analyzed according to parameters of CONAMA Resolution No. 375/2006. In order to analyze the perspectives of agricultural recycling of sewage sludge in Rio de Janeiro State, 10 crops with the largest cultivated area in the state were surveyed and analyzed which of them are apt to receive sewage sludge as fertilizer and/or soil amendment. To determine the potential demand for sewage sludge in agriculture, the area occupied by these crops were multiplied by each fertilizer recommendation considering the sewage sludge as fertilizer. The analyzed sludge presented a high content of nutrients and organic matter and was included in the parameters of heavy metals, pathogenic agents, and bacteriological indicators stipulated by CONAMA Resolution No. 375/2006. The agricultural panorama of Rio de Janeiro State is favorable for agricultural recycling of sewage sludge since there is a great potential demand for this residue and, among the 10 agricultural crops with the

  14. Seasonal variations of total suspended particles (TSP) and heavy metals under tropical conditions in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Trindade, H.A.; Costa-Ribeiro, C.; Londres, H.; Oliveira, A.E.

    The total suspended particle (TSP) and heavy metal concentrations are studied in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from 1974 until 1981. The principal aims are to determine how these things vary in two different areas and how meteorological parameters responsible for the transport and dilution of atmospheric pollutants affect these areas. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Multivariate analysis applied to monthly rainfall over Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Brito, Thábata T.; Oliveira-Júnior, José F.; Lyra, Gustavo B.; Gois, Givanildo; Zeri, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    Spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall were identified over the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. The proximity to the coast and the complex topography create great diversity of rainfall over space and time. The dataset consisted of time series (1967-2013) of monthly rainfall over 100 meteorological stations. Clustering analysis made it possible to divide the stations into six groups (G1, G2, G3, G4, G5 and G6) with similar rainfall spatio-temporal patterns. A linear regression model was applied to a time series and a reference. The reference series was calculated from the average rainfall within a group, using nearby stations with higher correlation (Pearson). Based on t-test ( p River (G5) and the metropolitan area of the city of Rio de Janeiro (G6). The driest months in all regions were June, July and August, while November, December and January were the rainiest months. Sharp transitions occurred when considering monthly accumulated rainfall: from January to February, and from February to March, likely associated with episodes of "veranicos", i.e., periods of 4-15 days of duration with no rainfall.

  16. Mortality in children, adolescents and adults with sickle cell anemia in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Lobo, Clarisse Lopes de Castro; Nascimento, Emilia Matos do; Jesus, Leonardo José Carvalho de; Freitas, Thiago Gotelip de; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo; Ballas, Samir K

    To determine the mortality rate of children, adolescents and adults with sickle cell anemia in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The number of deaths, the mortality rate and the causes of deaths in patients with sickle cell anemia who were treated and followed up at our institution for 15 years were determined and compared to data available for the Brazilian population. The overall number of deaths was 281 patients with a mortality rate of 16.77%. Survival probability was significantly higher in females. The number of deaths and the mortality rate were age-specific with a significant increase in the 19- to 29-year-old age group. The remaining life expectancy of the patients with sickle cell anemia was less than that of Brazilians at large. The gap between the two was about 20 years for ages between one and five years with this gap decreasing to ten years after the age of 65 years. The most common causes of death were infection, acute chest syndrome, overt stroke, organ damage and sudden death during painful crises. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Brazilian study in a single institution in Rio de Janeiro; the mortality rate was 18.87% among adult patients with sickle cell anemia. The mortality rates in children and adults are higher than those reported in developed countries of the northern hemisphere. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Trace Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Wastewater Treatment Plants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and fate of trace-level contamination of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment has been recognized as one of the emerging issues in environmental chemistry. The effluents of wastewater treatment plants, usually directly emitted to the environment, often contain the anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Diclofenac was chosen because it is of high consumption; by background literature indicate toxic effects on biota and the lack of profile in sewage removal provided by the city. For this purpose, a survey on the presence of diclofenac in urban wastewater of Rio de Janeiro was carried out. It were evaluated diclofenac concentration in the affluent and effluent from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP Penha and Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected along the line of treatment of each WWTP, and for clean up the samples were solid phase extraction (SPE, analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, assisted by diode array detector (DAD techniques. The removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in the wastewater treatment plants was roughly evaluated. Diclofenac was detected in all samples analysed wastewater (treated and raw, which confirms the low removal efficiency of conventional treatment systems, aerobes and anaerobes.

  18. Hemophilia care in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil El tratamiento de la hemofilia en el estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Eva M. A. Fontes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In the developing countries of the world, few people with hemophilia receive adequate care. Nevertheless, Brazil has made significant advances in the treatment of hemophilia over the last decade. The provision of factor concentrates imported by the Government of Brazil is gradually increasing, and patients receive the concentrates for free. A national register was established as well as a coordinated program for comprehensive care. Of the 6 297 persons with hemophilia in Brazil who were registered as of January 2001, 689 of them (11.1% were registered in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Of those 689, 664 of them were being monitored at the state's coordinating blood transfusion center, which is located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Among those 664, factor VIII inhibitors were identified in 81 of them (12.2%. Among 653 of the Rio de Janeiro patients who were tested for transfusion-transmitted diseases, the overall prevalence found was 41.5%, with the specific rates being 13.3% for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, 2.9% for hepatitis B virus (HBV, and 39.4% for hepatitis C virus (HCV. The state of Rio de Janeiro has adopted a comprehensive hemophilia management approach that includes medical, psychological, and social care. As a result, the quality of life of hemophilia patients has improved noticeably. For example, the rate of hospitalization among patients fell by 30% between 1998 and 2001, and there has also been a decline in the school and work activities that they have missed.En los países en desarrollo, pocas personas con hemofilia reciben un tratamiento adecuado. No obstante, el Brasil ha logrado grandes avances en este sentido en el último decenio. La provisión de concentrados de factores de la coagulación importados por el gobierno de Brasil va aumentando gradualmente y los pacientes reciben el concentrado gratis. Un registro nacional se estableció junto con un programa coordinado de atención global. De las 6 297 personas con

  19. Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Stumpf, M; Ternes, T A; Wilken, R D; Rodrigues, S V; Baumann, W

    1999-01-12

    The drug residues of lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories and some drug metabolites have been detected in raw sewage, treated waste water and river water in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These residues are mainly derived from humans via excretion. The median concentrations in the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) of most drugs investigated in this study ranged from 0.1 to 1 microgram/l. The removal rates of individual drugs during passage through a Brazilian STP varied from 12 to 90%. As a consequence of the incomplete removal of these residues during passage through a STP, rivers were also found to be contaminated. Median concentrations ranged from between 0.02 and 0.04 microgram/l in river water, whereas the maximum values were observed to be up to 0.5 microgram/l.

  20. New species of Parotocinclus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from coastal drainages of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil.

    Roxo, Fábio F; Melo, Bruno F; Silva, Gabriel S C; Oliveira, Claudio

    2017-02-15

    A new species of Parotocinclus is described from tributaries of rio São João, an Atlantic coastal river of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the possession of a triangular patch of dark pigmentation on the anterior portion of the dorsal-fin base, a fully developed adipose fin, complete exposure of the ventral surface of the pectoral girdle, and a distinctive pigmentation pattern of the caudal fin. The caudal fin has a hyaline background with a large black blotch covering its anterior portion, tapering irregularly through distal portions of the ventral lobe with a hyaline rounded area, and a small patch of dark pigmentation on distal portions of the dorsal lobe.

  1. Knowledge of Dentists on the Management of Tooth Avulsion Injuries in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Menezes, Mariana Cezário; Carvalho, Ricardo G; Accorsi-Mendonça, Thais; De-Deus, Gustavo; Moreira, Edson J L; Silva, Emmanuel J N L

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate dentists' professional experience and knowledge of emergency management of tooth avulsion injuries in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 100 questionnaires were evaluated. The first part of the questionnaire consisted of questions regarding personal information. The second part evaluated dentists' knowledge of emergency management in cases of dental avulsion. The responses for each question were counted and expressed as percentages. All dentists had a college degree or above. Only three dentists had a Master's or PhD degree. Most of the dentists (94.5%) considered time and storage media important for the prognosis of avulsed teeth. However, the dentists did not show consistent responses about the adequate time and ideal storage media to transport avulsed teeth. The study highlighted Brazilian dentists' need for continuing education in order to improve current knowledge in emergency management of avulsed teeth.

  2. First autochthonous case of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Volta Redonda, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Monique Paiva de Campos

    Full Text Available In Brazil, American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL is caused byLeishmania (Leishmania chagasi and its main vector isLutzomyia longipalpis. Cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in non-endemic areas have been reported over the last few years throughout the country. The objective of this research note is to describe an autochthonous case of CVL that occurred in the municipality of Volta Redonda, state of Rio de Janeiro, an area where the disease is not endemic, alerting veterinarians and the scientific community to the expansion of this important zoonosis and advising veterinary practitioners on how to deal with a suspicion of CVL. Canine visceral leishmaniasis can be misdiagnosed within a broad spectrum of canine diseases based on clinical and laboratory findings. Therefore, knowledge of its clinical manifestations, specific and sensitive laboratory diagnostic tests and parasitological procedures are of the utmost importance for rapid confirmation and notification of a case, thus contributing directly to the control of a focus.

  3. [Factors associated with psychological distress among military police in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Silva, Juliana Guimarães e; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates factors associated with psychological distress among military police (n = 1,120) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The article describes their social, economic, and demographic characteristics, quality of life, mental health, and work conditions. Measurement of psychological distress used the Self-Reported Questionnaire. Analysis of associations used logistic regression, considering factors associated with psychological distress. The results indicate an association between psychological distress and factors such as ability to react to difficult situations, dissatisfaction with life, health problems (especially digestive, nervous, and musculoskeletal symptoms), and adverse work conditions such as excessive workload, constant stress, and victimization. The article concludes by highlighting the need for health promotion interventions for the military police, focusing especially on their mental health.

  4. Capture of Caliptrate flies with different breeding substrates on beaches in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    José Mário D'Almeida

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscidae flies belonging to four Familia and 13 species in a total number of 3.652 specimens were collected from beaches at Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil using different breeding substrates, and subsequently bred in the laboratory. Captures were done from April to November 1989, using in a first phase different substrates: fruits (banana and papaya, vegtable (tomato, animal viscera (bovine liver, marine animals (fish, crab, shrimp, squid, mouse carcass and feaces (human and canine. The species collected more often were: Fannia sp. (subgroup pusio, Chrysomya megacephala, Phaenicia eximia, Synthesiomyia nudiseta, Peckya chrysostoma, Musca domestica and Atherigona orientalis. In a later phase, only fish was used, as bait and placed directly on the beach sand. From a total of 189 pupae, the following adult specimen were obtained: Peckia chrysostoma (58.06%, Chrysomya megacephala (30.64% and in lesser numbers Synthesiomyia nudiseta and Phaenicia eximia.

  5. An epidemic of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: epidemiological aspects of a series of cases

    BARROS, M. B. L.; SCHUBACH, A. O.; SCHUBACH, T. M. P.; WANKE, B.; LAMBERT-PASSOS, S. R.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY The first epidemic of sporotrichosis in humans as a result of zoonotic transmission was identified in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1998. A cross-sectional study was conducted applying questionnaires to patients seen in 2002 at Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute, Fiocruz, with a confirmed diagnosis of sporotrichsosis. A total of 73 dwellings were studied, where 255 individuals, including 94 patients and 161 healthy household contacts, lived with 133 cats with sporotrichosis. Most dwellings were houses with 83% having complete basic sanitation. Among patients, there was a predominance of women with a median age of 41 years who were engaged in domestic activities. These women contracted the disease twice more often than men. The prevalence of sporotrichosis was four times higher among patients caring for animals, irrespective of gender. In the current epidemic of sporotrichosis, taking care of sick cats was the main factor associated with transmission of the disease to humans. PMID:18028580

  6. blaGES carrying Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Flávia L. P. C. Pellegrino

    Full Text Available Previous analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa class-1 integrons from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, revealed the blaGES gene in one isolate. We screened isolates of two widespread PFGE genotypes, A and B, at a public hospital in Rio, for the presence of blaGES. The gene was detected in all seven P. aeruginosa isolates belonging to genotype B. Three of the seven genotype-B isolates were resistant to amikacin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam and ticarcillin-clavulanic acid. The other four isolates were resistant to all these agents, except gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam. A synergistic effect between ceftazidime and imipenem or clavulanic acid suggested the production of GES-type ESBL.

  7. Evidence of spotted fever group rickettsiae in state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    ROZENTAL Tatiana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks were obtained from dogs from February to September of 1999 at weekly intervals, in the County of Piraí, State of Rio de Janeiro. Four hundred seventy four ixodids were taxonomically identified, 103 Amblyomma cajennense, seven Amblyomma ovale, 209 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 155 Amblyomma sp. An hemolymph test associated with Giemsa's stain revealed two specimens in 163 ticks tested (R. sanguineus and Amblyomma sp, containing rickettsia-like organisms. Direct immunofluorescence verified the presence of spotted fever group rickettsia in one specimen of R. sanguineus. Considering the limited information on rickettsiosis in Brazil, principally in relation to the vectors involved in perpetuating it in foci, these preliminary results give us an idea on the importance of infection in ticks, allowing to expand our knowledge on this zoonosis.

  8. Statistical Study of Corrosion Types in Constructions in South Region of Rio De JaneiroBrazil

    Carolina Lacerda da Cruz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most difficult and troubling problems encountered in construction are those caused by corrosive processes. The corrosion processes are constituted by some material degradation, generally metallic material, by means of chemical or electrochemical actions of environment in which the material are and can or cannot be combined with mechanical stress. Corrosion is present in the materials in general. Their deterioration is caused by such physical-chemical interaction between the material and the corrosive environment where it causes major problems in several activities. In order to prevent material losses, anticorrosive techniques are used which include coatings, medium modification techniques, anodic and cathodic protection, and corrosion inhibitors such as the organic compounds use. This article analyses the statistical study of corrosion types in construction in south region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  9. Public exposure in commercial national flights to and from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Alves, Vanusa A.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Ferreira, Nadya M.P.D.

    2013-01-01

    The exposure to cosmic radiation in aircraft travel is significantly higher than at ground level and varies with the route due to the effect of latitude, the altitude of flight, the flight time, and the year according to the solar cycle effects in galactic cosmic ray flux. A database, including about 4000 domestic flights in Brazil, was implemented in Excel spreadsheets based on data flights for November 2011. The fields included on the database are the origin and destination of flights, time of departure and arrival, plane type, number of passengers, airline and total time of flight. In this work, doses from flights to and from the town of Rio de Janeiro within Brazil have been assessed using the computer program CARI-6, developed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, that calculates the effective dose of galactic cosmic radiation received by an individual in an aircraft flying the shortest route between two airports of the world. Average effective doses for individual flights ranged from 0.2 to 8.8 μSv. This is a very small contribution to average overall exposure to natural background radiation (2.4 mSv/y). A frequent flyer with weekly flights on the most usual route, Rio-São Paulo, would receive about 0.18 mSv/y, which means about 7,5 % increase to its usual exposure to natural radiation sources. Collective dose to passengers due to all national flights to and from Rio de Janeiro was estimated to be about 100 manSv per year. (author)

  10. Public exposure in commercial national flights to and from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Alves, Vanusa A.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Ferreira, Nadya M.P.D., E-mail: vanusa_abreu@ymail.com, E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: nadya@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The exposure to cosmic radiation in aircraft travel is significantly higher than at ground level and varies with the route due to the effect of latitude, the altitude of flight, the flight time, and the year according to the solar cycle effects in galactic cosmic ray flux. A database, including about 4000 domestic flights in Brazil, was implemented in Excel spreadsheets based on data flights for November 2011. The fields included on the database are the origin and destination of flights, time of departure and arrival, plane type, number of passengers, airline and total time of flight. In this work, doses from flights to and from the town of Rio de Janeiro within Brazil have been assessed using the computer program CARI-6, developed by the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration, that calculates the effective dose of galactic cosmic radiation received by an individual in an aircraft flying the shortest route between two airports of the world. Average effective doses for individual flights ranged from 0.2 to 8.8 μSv. This is a very small contribution to average overall exposure to natural background radiation (2.4 mSv/y). A frequent flyer with weekly flights on the most usual route, Rio-São Paulo, would receive about 0.18 mSv/y, which means about 7,5 % increase to its usual exposure to natural radiation sources. Collective dose to passengers due to all national flights to and from Rio de Janeiro was estimated to be about 100 manSv per year. (author)

  11. Observed Trends in Indices of Daily Precipitation and Temperature Extremes in Rio de Janeiro State (brazil)

    Silva, W. L.; Dereczynski, C. P.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2013-05-01

    One of the main concerns of contemporary society regarding prevailing climate change is related to possible changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme events. Strong heat and cold waves, droughts, severe floods, and other climatic extremes have been of great interest to researchers because of its huge impact on the environment and population, causing high monetary damages and, in some cases, loss of life. The frequency and intensity of extreme events associated with precipitation and air temperature have been increased in several regions of the planet in recent years. These changes produce serious impacts on human activities such as agriculture, health, urban planning and development and management of water resources. In this paper, we analyze the trends in indices of climatic extremes related to daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperatures at 22 meteorological stations of the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in the last 50 years. The present trends are evaluated using the software RClimdex (Canadian Meteorological Service) and are also subjected to statistical tests. Preliminary results indicate that periods of drought are getting longer in Rio de Janeiro State, except in the North/Northwest area. In "Vale do Paraíba", "Região Serrana" and "Região dos Lagos" the increase of consecutive dry days is statistically significant. However, we also detected an increase in the total annual rainfall all over the State (taxes varying from +2 to +8 mm/year), which are statistically significant at "Região Serrana". Moreover, the intensity of heavy rainfall is also growing in most of Rio de Janeiro, except in "Costa Verde". The trends of heavy rainfall indices show significant increase in the "Metropolitan Region" and in "Região Serrana", factor that increases the vulnerability to natural disasters in these areas. With respect to temperature, it is found that the frequency of hot (cold) days and nights is

  12. Spatial evaluation and modeling of Dengue seroprevalence and vector density in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, experienced a severe dengue fever epidemic in 2008. This was the worst epidemic ever, characterized by a sharp increase in case-fatality rate, mainly among younger individuals. A combination of factors, such as climate, mosquito abundance, buildup of the susceptible population, or viral evolution, could explain the severity of this epidemic. The main objective of this study is to model the spatial patterns of dengue seroprevalence in three neighborhoods with different socioeconomic profiles in Rio de Janeiro. As blood sampling coincided with the peak of dengue transmission, we were also able to identify recent dengue infections and visually relate them to Aedes aegypti spatial distribution abundance. We analyzed individual and spatial factors associated with seroprevalence using Generalized Additive Model (GAM.Three neighborhoods were investigated: a central urban neighborhood, and two isolated areas characterized as a slum and a suburban area. Weekly mosquito collections started in September 2006 and continued until March 2008. In each study area, 40 adult traps and 40 egg traps were installed in a random sample of premises, and two infestation indexes calculated: mean adult density and mean egg density. Sera from individuals living in the three neighborhoods were collected before the 2008 epidemic (July through November 2007 and during the epidemic (February through April 2008. Sera were tested for DENV-reactive IgM, IgG, Nested RT-PCR, and Real Time RT-PCR. From the before-after epidemics paired data, we described seroprevalence, recent dengue infections (asymptomatic or not, and seroconversion. Recent dengue infection varied from 1.3% to 14.1% among study areas. The highest IgM seropositivity occurred in the slum, where mosquito abundance was the lowest, but household conditions were the best for promoting contact between hosts and vectors. By fitting spatial GAM we found dengue seroprevalence hotspots located at the

  13. Cryptosporidium diagnosis by qPCR in cats at Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Lara Patrícia Santos Carrasco

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Carrasco L.P.S., Oliveira R.L.S., Moreira C.M.R., Santos C.R.G.R., Corgozinho K.B. & Souza H.J.M. [Cryptosporidium diagnosis by qPCR in cats at Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.] Diagnóstico de Cryptosporidium spp. pela técnica de qPCR em gatos no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.:22-26, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em MedicinaVeteriná- ria, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: carrasco.lara@gmail.com Cryptosporidium spp. is recognized as an important etiologic agent of diarrhea in many countries. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of DNA of the parasite Cryptosporidium spp. in feces of cats with history of chronic diarrhea attended in the Feline Medicine Sector of the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, by the polymerase chain reaction technique in real time (RT-PCR. In this study, 100 animals were admitted, of any breed or sex and from 8 weeks of age. As inclusion criteria, patients had to have diarrhea history for more than three weeks, with little success of clinical response to previously established therapies. From the samples obtained by collecting via washing the animal colon and spontaneous defecation, methods of direct examination of the feces, centrifugal flotation technique and real-time PCR were carried out. Of all cats selected for this study, 10% showed infection by Cryptosporidium spp. Most positive animals were aged over one year (70% and only 30% had up to one year old. Cats were 50% purebred and 50% were domestic short hair cats. The clinical signs presented by these cats at the time of consultation were diarrhea (60% and prolapsed rectum (40%. Four animals had co-infections with other enteropathogens (40%, such as Giardia, Toxocara sp. or Tritrichomonas fetus alone or combined. We concluded that infection by

  14. Geodiversity, Geoturism and Geoconservation: Trails in Serra da Bocaina National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Santos Filho, Raphael; Guerra, Antonio; Fullen, Michael; do Carmo Jorge, Maria

    2015-04-01

    The human being has always been concerned with the preservation of memory, of cultural heritage. Only now he started to protect its natural heritage and the immediate environment. It is time to learn how to protect the Earth's past and, through this protection and learn to know it. This memory comes before the human memory. It is a new asset: the geological heritage, a book written long before our appearance on the Planet (...)"(IPHAN, 2014). Since the XXth century, Brazilian geographers (GUERRA, 1980; AB'SABER, 2003 and others) dedicated to carry out research on the relationship of geographical knowledge between the environment and society. On the other hand, Brazil is a signatory of the Convention for the Protection of the World Heritage Cultural and Natural (UNESCO, 1972), where the nations recognize to keep under their responsibility the conservation, to the rest of humanity and future generations, goods of exceptional value situated within its territorial limits, considered as World Heritage. Under this perspective, it is proposed here a survey on the environmental impacts, resulting from the human activities that directly or indirectly affect the health, safety and welfare of the population; social and economic activities; the biota; the aesthetic and sanitary conditions of the environment; the quality of the environment (CONAMA Resolution 001/86) - and resulting geotourism practiced on trails - paths for pedestrians, cyclists and animals, existing in the protected area of the Serra da Bocaina National Park, in Rio de Janeiro State, such as unplanned use, erosive features, presence of litter, graffiti and burned, degraded areas on the trails indicating the need for recovery (drainage, etc.). This survey is based on research work of the environmental degradation and analysis undertaken by the Laboratory of Environmental Geomorphology and Soils Degradation (LAGESOLOS / UFRJ) in the area, in order to contribute to the geoconservation, so that the encountered

  15. Unveiling HIV dynamics among transgender women: a respondent driven sampling study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Jalil, Emilia Moreira; Monteiro, Laylla; Velasque, Luciane; Moreira, Ronaldo I.; Garcia, Ana Cristina F.; Castro, Cristiane V.; Krüger, Alícia; Luz, Paula M.; Liu, Albert Y.; Farland, Willi Mc; Buchbinder, Susan; Veloso, Valdilea G.; Wilson, Erin C.

    2017-01-01

    Background The burden of HIV in transgender women (transwomen) in Brazil remains unknown. We aimed to estimate HIV prevalence among transwomen, and identify the factors associated with newly diagnosed HIV infections. Methods “Transcender” was a respondent driven sampling study of transwomen in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, conducted from August 2015 to January 2016. Twelve seeds were recruited from social movements and formative phase. Eligibility criteria were: self-identification as transwomen, being 18 years of age or older, living in Rio de Janeiro or metropolitan area, and having a valid peer recruitment coupon. Participants were categorized as HIV-negative, known HIV infected, or newly diagnosed as HIV infected. Predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections were assessed by comparing the newly diagnosed with the HIV-negative. Population estimates were adjusted using the RDSII estimator. Findings In total, 345 eligible transwomen were enrolled. The study sample was young and diverse on gender identity. Population estimates of no prior HIV testing, HIV-infection and newly diagnosed as HIV-infected were 29·1%, 32·1% and 7·0%, respectively (based on n=60 with no prior testing, n=141 HIV-infected, n=40 newly diagnosed). Syphilis, rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea infection were diagnosed in 28·9%, 14·6%, and 13·5%, respectively. Newly diagnosed HIV infections were associated with black race (22·8; 95%CI 2·9–178·9), travesti (34·1; 95%CI 5·8–200·2) or transsexual woman (41·3; 95%CI 6·3–271·2) gender identity, history of sex work (30·7; 95%CI 3·5–267·3), and history of sniffing cocaine (4·4; 95%CI 1·4–14·1). Interpretation Our results suggest that transwomen bear the largest burden of HIV among any population at risk in Brazil. The high proportion of HIV diagnosis among young participants points to the need for tailored long-term health care and prevention services in order to curb the HIV epidemic and improve the quality-of-life of

  16. Achatina fulica infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis on beaches, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    André H. Bechara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Angiostrongylus cantonensis is considered the main etiological agent of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. At present, this zoonosis is considered an emerging disease mainly in the Americas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Achatina fulica infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in restinga areas along beaches in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. The study areas included the following beaches: Barra da Tijuca, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Reserva, Prainha and Grumari. Ninety specimens of Achatina fulica were collected. Positive molluscs were found only in Barra da Tijuca. Infection prevalence was 5.5%. The presence of this parasite in the beachfront areas, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city demonstrates the potential risk of infection for visitors and the expansion of this helminth in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  17. Achatina fulica infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis on beaches, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Bechara, André H; Simões, Raquel O; Faro, Marta Júlia; Garcia, Juberlan S

    2018-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is considered the main etiological agent of eosinophilic meningitis in humans. At present, this zoonosis is considered an emerging disease mainly in the Americas. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Achatina fulica infected by Angiostrongylus cantonensis in restinga areas along beaches in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. The study areas included the following beaches: Barra da Tijuca, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Reserva, Prainha and Grumari. Ninety specimens of Achatina fulica were collected. Positive molluscs were found only in Barra da Tijuca. Infection prevalence was 5.5%. The presence of this parasite in the beachfront areas, in the west zone of Rio de Janeiro city demonstrates the potential risk of infection for visitors and the expansion of this helminth in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  18. Chrysomelinae species (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and new biological data from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Flinte, Vivian; Abejanella, André; Daccordi, Mauro; Monteiro, Ricardo F.; Macedo, Margarete Valverde

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chrysomelinae is one of the largest subfamilies in Chrysomelidae, yet much basic information remains unknown for Neotropical species. The present study aims to compile the first regional list of Chrysomelinae for the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and assemble natural history traits obtained from our fieldwork from 2005 to 2010 in Serra dos Órgãos National Park, a mountainous area of Atlantic forest. The species list was compiled from data from field work, collections, and literature, and recorded a total of 100 species, belonging to 21 genera in one tribe (Chrysomelini) and three subtribes: Chrysolinina (91 species), Chrysomelina (eight species) and Entomoscelina (one species). Of these, 91 species are new records for the state. Serra dos Órgaõs National Park holds records of 43 species, with Platyphora being the most species-rich genus, and Solanaceae the most common host plant family. Some new records of reproductive mode (larviparous vs. oviparous) and larval behavior are also given. These Brazil Chrysomelinae species exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with more species recorded in the hot and rainy season from October to January, and considerably fewer species from June to August, during the drier and colder months. The fraction of new records in comparison with published species and natural history information illustrates how little we know of Chrysomelinae in the state and in the country. PMID:29391849

  19. PCDDF and pesticides monitoring in a dioxin contaminated area in Rio de Janeiro - Brazil

    Carvalhaes, G.; Azevedo, J.A.; Azevedo, G.; Machado, M.; Brooks, P. [Analytical Solutions, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    During the 40's and 50's there had been a hexachlorocyclohexane(HCH) industry in Duque de Caxias, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Duque de Caxias is a very important borough within the state's political and administrative structure. It is located in a strategic point connecting Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. It also holds one of Brazil's greatest petroleum refineries. For 20 years, this factory (which is located next to an orphanage called Cidade dos Meninos, an area belonging to the Ministry of Social Assistance) produced thousands of tons of HCH and also other pesticides, such as DDT, DDD and DDE. In the beginning of the 60's, the industry had its activities stopped1. In 1989, significant amounts of HCH had been found by local inspectors in Duque de Caxias, where it had been being sold for use in agriculture. Once the product's usage had already been prohibited in Brazil, after a investigation authorities found that it would come from the inactive industry. Both environmental and public health institutions decided to use a mixture of lime and soil, in order to destroy the residues and organic compounds found in the old plant. Such procedure would cause a greater problem, for the lime used wouldn't meet the right proportions of the large area and its contaminated soil. In addition, it also affected the water supply and the local population. The consequences have been disastrous. Data referring to breastfeeding and blood revealed alarming pesticide rates that endangered the local people health conditions both in short and long term. After 14 years, monitoring is still necessary in that region so it is possible to control contamination and its damage related to secondary reactions, climatic effects and soil structure. For this reason, a monitoring program has been developed in order to investigate the rates of certain pesticides and PCDD/F in locations near the contamination field.

  20. Gastrointestinal parasites in domiciled dogs attended at an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Paulo Daniel Sant’Anna Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Leal P.D.S., Moraes M.I.M.R., Barbosa L.L. deO., Figueiredo L.P., Lima e Silva S. & Lopes C.W.G. [Gastrointestinal parasites in domiciled dogs attended at an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Parasitos gastrintestinais em cães domiciliados atendidos em serviço de saú- de animal no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:37-44, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação de Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-970, Brasil. E-mail: pauloleal@ctiveterinario.com.br Study of gastrointestinal parasites in pet dogs is a need for veterinary services and public health, as some helminthes, ascomycetes and coccidia are responsible for disease in dogs. This survey aimed to mark the gastrointestinal parasites of pet dogs that looking for a routine of veterinary medical service in the City of Rio de Janeiro. Fecal samples were evaluated through direct examination for the diagnosis of Dipylidium caninum and Giardia intestinalis; whereas centrifugal-flotation technique with Sheater’s solution for diagnosing the presence of helminth eggs and protozoan oocysts respectively. Of 221 samples examined, 92 of them (41.62% were positive. G. intestinalis cysts were observed in 28 (30.43% while Ancylostoma caninum eggs in 28 (30.43% fecal samples were the most frequent infections, followed by Toxocara canis in 6 (6.52%, pseudohyphae of Cyniclomyces guttulatus in 5 of them (5.43%, Cystoisospora canis oocysts in 3 (3.26%, Dipylidium caninum, Sarcocystis spp. in one (1.08% sample respectively. Multiple infections were observed in stool samples from 20 dogs, where 14 of them showed infection by two etiologic agents consisted of G. intestinalis or A. caninum, following by other associations of A. caninum and D. caninum; G. intestinalis and T. canis; A. caninum and T. vulpis; C. canis and

  1. Urinary dysfunction in women with multiple sclerosis: analysis of 61 patients from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Camila Rodrigues de Almeida

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to describe the type and frequency of bladder dysfunction in a series of female patients with multiple sclerosis (MS from Rio de Janeiro, and analyze the role of the urologist in the multidisciplinary team. A team of urologists and a neurologist from the Hospital da Lagoa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed female patients with MS about illness onset, urologic follow-up since diagnosis, current stage of the disease and current urological symptoms. The interview was followed by an urodynamic testing, ultrasound of the urinary tract and urinalysis. Data resulting from the interviews and exam results were gathered and submitted to statistical evaluation. Sixty one patients were evaluated, with average age of 41.4 years. Urinary symptoms such as urinary incontinence, urinary hesitancy, urinary retention, urinary urgency and incomplete bladder emptying were reported in 44% of patients as initial signs of MS disease. Mean disease duration was 8 years and all patients (100% with the primary progressive form of the disease and 63.5% with the relapsing-remitting presentation had urological symptoms. Analysis of complementary exams showed that 37.7% of urinalysis, 8.2% of the urinary tract ultrasound exams and 66.7% of the urodynamic evaluations were abnormal and the most frequent abnormality were overactive neurogenic bladder. Only 4 patients (6.6% had seen an urologist during the course of their disease and only 1.6% had performed an urodynamic evaluation. This study shows a high prevalence (68% of urinary dysfunction in a female population with MS. Urologic care should be part of the multidisciplinary team since the beginning of the disease. An urodynamic evaluation and simple urinalysis should be included in the routine testing during disease follow-up due to the high incidence of neurogenic bladder and other urologic complications.

  2. Variable compensation in Primary Healthcare: a report on the experience in Curitiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Lisbon, Portugal.

    Poli Neto, Paulo; Faoro, Nilza Teresinha; Prado Júnior, José Carlos do; Pisco, Luís Augusto Coelho

    2016-05-01

    How professionals are compensated may affect how they perform their tasks. Fixed compensation may take the form of wages, payment for productivity or capitation. In addition to fixed compensation, there are numerous mechanisms for variable compensation. This article describes the experience of Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, and Lisbon in Portugal, using different models of performance-based compensation. In all three of these examples, management felt the need to offer monetary reward to achieve certain goals. The indicators analyzed the structure, processes and outcomes, and assessed professionals individual and as part of healthcare teams. In Lisbon, variable compensation can be as high as 40% of the base wage, while in Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro it is limited to 10%. Despite the growing use of this management tool in Brazil and the world, further studies are required to analyze the effectiveness of variable compensation.

  3. Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Paulo Daniel Sant’Anna Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Leal P.D.S., Moraes M.I.M.R., Barbosa L.L. deO. & Lopes C.W.G. [Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Infecção por hematozoários nos cães domésticos atendidos em serviço de saúde animal, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:55-62, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação de Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-970, Brasil. E-mail: pauloleal@ctiveterinario.com.br The vector-borne diseases in dogs are caused by pathogens with different biological behaviors that result in different clinical and laboratory findings presentations. The diagnosis of these diseases is a challenge for veterinarians and those caused by obligate intracellular blood parasites of blood cells constitute vogeli of Babesia canis, Anaplasma platys, Erhlichia canis and Mycoplasma canis. This paper looks at the frequency of these parasites in 204 laboratory results dogs treated at the Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Veterinary through CBC and research of blood parasites in blood estiraço and concentrate platelets and leukocytes. There was one or more species of haemoparasites in 132 dogs (64.7% through blood samples. They were observed: 7 (5.3% dogs for B. c. vogeli, 64 (48.5% for A. platys, 16 (12.2% for M. canis, A. platys and E. canis in one (0.7%, A. platys and M. canis in 36 dogs (27.3%, M. canis and B. c. vogeli five (3.8%, M. canis and E. canis one (0.7%, A. platys, B. c. vogeli and M. canis in two (1.50%, confirming thus the high frequency of blood parasites in pet dogs in an urban environment, treated in the routine, the importance of viewing parasitic inclusions in leukocytes, platelets and red blood cells, It thus demonstrating the need for greater attention to the diagnosis of multiple infections by different parasitic

  4. HEAVY METALS LEVELS IN LARUS DOMINICANUS. CASE STUDY: COROA GRANDE MANGROVE, SEPETIBA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Samples of liver and kidney of Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus) collected on Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analysed for their copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium and nickel content. All the analyses were made using the inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry method (ICP-OES). The investigation focused on the variability of the elements content in kidney and liver from a number of sampling seabirds and over different seasons. The results were interpreted using the analysis ...

  5. Assessment of heavy metals in Egretta thula: case study: Coroa Grande mangrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Ferreira,AP

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on metals analysis in kidney and liver tissues of Egretta thula which were collected prostrate or newly dead in Coroa Grande mangrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 2005 and October 2008. Kidney and liver were collected and analysed to evaluate heavy metal pollution. High values and widest range were detected for all metals in liver and kidney tissues. Geometric mean differences from metals concentrations for Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Cr, respectively, w...

  6. The ethnoecological knowledge of fishermen from three coastal lagoons in the northern of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Lopes, Alexandre Ferreira; Bozelli, Reinaldo Luiz

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated the ethnoecological knowledge developed by fishermen through their fishing activities and searched for ways to match such knowledge to empirical data available in the scientific literature. The research involved fishermen from three coastal lagoons in the northern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who were consulted through semi-structured interviews after the establishment of a trustful relationship over a period of three years with the interviewer...

  7. Organic matter composition in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons: district of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    Zink,Klaus-Gerhard; Furtado,André L. S.; Casper,Peter; Schwark,Lorenz

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater lagoons comprise important coastal ecosystems and natural buffers between urbanized land areas and open ocean in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Studies of sediment and water chemistry, zooplankton and bacterial communities to assess the extent of anthropogenic disturbance are available. Here we contribute with an organic-geochemical approach supplemented by some microbiological aspects to complete the characterization of these lagoonal ecosystems. Bulk organic matter and extract...

  8. Zika Virus Outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Clinical Characterization, Epidemiological and Virological Aspects.

    Patrícia Brasil

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, Brazil was faced with the cocirculation of three arboviruses of major public health importance. The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV presents new challenges to both clinicians and public health authorities. Overlapping clinical features between diseases caused by ZIKV, Dengue (DENV and Chikungunya (CHIKV and the lack of validated serological assays for ZIKV make accurate diagnosis difficult.The outpatient service for acute febrile illnesses in Fiocruz initiated a syndromic clinical observational study in 2007 to capture unusual presentations of DENV infections. In January 2015, an increase of cases with exanthematic disease was observed. Trained physicians evaluated the patients using a detailed case report form that included clinical assessment and laboratory investigations. The laboratory diagnostic algorithm included assays for detection of ZIKV, CHIKV and DENV. 364 suspected cases of Zika virus disease were identified based on clinical criteria between January and July 2015. Of these, 262 (71.9% were tested and 119 (45.4% were confirmed by the detection of ZIKV RNA. All of the samples with sequence information available clustered within the Asian genotype.This is the first report of a ZIKV outbreak in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a large number of suspected (n = 364 and laboratory confirmed cases (n = 119. We were able to demonstrate that ZIKV was circulating in Rio de Janeiro as early as January 2015. The peak of the outbreak was documented in May/June 2015. More than half of the patients reported headache, arthralgia, myalgia, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and lower back pain, consistent with the case definition of suspected ZIKV disease issued by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO. However, fever, when present, was low-intensity and short-termed. In our opinion, pruritus, the second most common clinical sign presented by the confirmed cases, should be added to the PAHO case definition, while fever could be given less

  9. Accelerator mass spectrometry and the prehistoric occupation of the coast of rio de janeiro - brazil

    Damasio Macario, K.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Facure, A.D.; Elmore, M.; Coimbra, M.; Padron, I.; Najjar, R.; Kneip, L.; Lima, T.A.; Buarque, A.; Barbosa, M.; Seda, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique is a very attractive method for mass spectrometry, since it allows determination of concentrations with sensitivity down to 1 atom of isotope in 1015 atoms, using few milligrams samples. A Tandem accelerator is used as a magnetic and electrostatic analyzer. The determination of these extremely low concentrations of rare isotopes, accelerated to the MeV range, is measured by the direct counting of the atoms by nuclear detection techniques. The AMS technique has been implemented recently in Brazil, at the Pelletron 8UD Tandem accelerator (Sao Paulo), following many improvements on the ion source, VGM control, machine parameters control and detection system. In this contribution we report an important application on AMS on archaeological studies, performed at the Prime Lab (USA), on the dating of ceramics, bones, charcoals, nuts and shells samples of the of the coast of Rio de Janeiro. The main objective of this work is to improve the present knowledge on the occupation of Brazil by the Indians in the prehistoric period, studying archaeological sites located in Rio de Janeiro. Studies show that the Brazilian coast was first occupied in the beginning of the Holocene, with the settlements of the collectors of mollusk, builders of shell mounds, called S ambaquis . The word is of Tupi etymology, tamba meaning shellfish and ki to pile up. The Tupi were a horticultural/potter group who used to live on the Brazilian coast at the time of the European arrivals; they coined the term that describes the main characteristic of the sites - the accumulation of great quantities of mollusk shells. One of objectives of this research is to understand those societies functioning structure, spatial ordering, interaction in the environment and their transformation processes, from the study of their remains. It is intended to analyze the region occupation process dynamics and search for possible links between the pre-pottery population socio

  10. Review of 21 cases of mycetoma from 1991 to 2014 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Felipe Maurício Soeiro Sampaio

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is caused by the subcutaneous inoculation of filamentous fungi or aerobic filamentous bacteria that form grains in the tissue. The purpose of this study is to describe the epidemiologic, clinic, laboratory, and therapeutic characteristics of patients with mycetoma at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1991 and 2014. Twenty-one cases of mycetoma were included in the study. There was a predominance of male patients (1.3:1 and the average patient age was 46 years. The majority of the cases were from the Southeast region of Brazil and the feet were the most affected anatomical region (80.95%. Eumycetoma prevailed over actinomycetoma (61.9% and 38.1% respectively. Eumycetoma patients had positive cultures in 8 of 13 cases, with isolation of Scedosporium apiospermum species complex (n = 3, Madurella mycetomatis (n = 2 and Acremonium spp. (n = 1. Two cases presented sterile mycelium and five were negative. Six of 8 actinomycetoma cases had cultures that were identified as Nocardia spp. (n = 3, Nocardia brasiliensis (n = 2, and Nocardia asteroides (n = 1. Imaging tests were performed on all but one patients, and bone destruction was identified in 9 cases (42.68%. All eumycetoma cases were treated with itraconazole monotherapy or combined with fluconazole, terbinafine, or amphotericin B. Actinomycetoma cases were treated with sulfamethoxazole plus trimethoprim or combined with cycles of amikacin sulphate. Surgical procedures were performed in 9 (69.2% eumycetoma and in 3 (37.5% actinomycetoma cases, with one amputation case in each group. Clinical cure occurred in 11 cases (7 for eumycetoma and 4 for actinomycetoma, and recurrence was documented in 4 of 21 cases. No deaths were recorded during the study. Despite of the scarcity of mycetoma in our institution the cases presented reflect the wide clinical spectrum and difficulties to take care of this neglected disease.

  11. Moraceae da Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Moraceae of Ilha Grande, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Leandro Cardoso PEDERNEIRAS

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta o levantamento florístico das espécies nativas de Moraceae ocorrentes na Ilha Grande, município de Angra dos Reis, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Com base na análise de coleções científicas, revisão da literatura e excursões a campo, foram registradas 11 espécies nativas: Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus adhatodifolia, F. arpazusa, F. cyclophylla, F. gomelleira, F. nevesiae, F. organensis, F. pulchella, Sorocea hilarii, S. guilleminiana. Apresentamos, também, a chave de identificação para os táxons, descrições, ilustrações, informações sobre a distribuição geográfica e comentários sobre as espécies. This work presents a floristic survey of native species of Moraceae occurring in Ilha Grande, municipality of Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. It was based on analysis of herbarium collections, literature review and the field excursions, resulting in 11 native species: Brosimum guianense, Dorstenia arifolia, Ficus adhatodifolia, F. arpazusa, F. cyclophylla, F. gomelleira, F. nevesiae, F. organensis, F. pulchella, Sorocea hilarii, S. guilleminiana. We also present the identification key to the taxa, descriptions, illustrations, information about geographic distribution and comments on these species that enriched the results.

  12. Late Holocene evolution of the Northeast intertidal region of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil

    Anita Fernandes Souza Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on the study of the core T1 collected in the Guaratiba Mangrove, located on the northeastern margin of Sepetiba Bay. Few studies dealing with the application of benthic foraminifera to study sea level changes during the Holocene have been conducted in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In order to fill this gap, the core T1 was studied using textural, geochemical (carbonate, total organic carbon, total sulfur and stable isotopes evaluated in Ammonia tepida and microfaunal (benthic foraminifera data, unveiling paleoecological relationships of these organisms and the evolutionary scenario of Guaratiba Mangrove. Radiocarbon results indicate an estimated age of about 2400 yrs cal BP for the core base. Textural, geochemical and benthic foraminifera data suggest that the study area changed significantly during the last 2400 yrs cal BP. It experienced coastal waves action and shoreface processes in the period between ≈2.400-1.400 yrs cal BP; then, this phase gave place to a shallow marine environment similar to that found currently in internal and protected areas of Sepetiba Bay, between ≈1.400-350 yrs cal BP. Thenceforth, the study area evolved to the present mangrove environment. Factors related to climatic oscillations and the formation, evolution and events of rupture of Marambaia sand ridge influenced the late Holocene evolution of the northeast intertidal area of Sepetiba Bay.

  13. International workshop on insecticide resistance in vectors of arboviruses, December 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Corbel, Vincent; Fonseca, Dina M; Weetman, David; Pinto, João; Achee, Nicole L; Chandre, Fabrice; Coulibaly, Mamadou B; Dusfour, Isabelle; Grieco, John; Juntarajumnong, Waraporn; Lenhart, Audrey; Martins, Ademir J; Moyes, Catherine; Ng, Lee Ching; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Vatandoost, Hassan; Vontas, John; Muller, Pie; Kasai, Shinji; Fouque, Florence; Velayudhan, Raman; Durot, Claire; David, Jean-Philippe

    2017-06-02

    Vector-borne diseases transmitted by insect vectors such as mosquitoes occur in over 100 countries and affect almost half of the world's population. Dengue is currently the most prevalent arboviral disease but chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever show increasing prevalence and severity. Vector control, mainly by the use of insecticides, play a key role in disease prevention but the use of the same chemicals for more than 40 years, together with the dissemination of mosquitoes by trade and environmental changes, resulted in the global spread of insecticide resistance. In this context, innovative tools and strategies for vector control, including the management of resistance, are urgently needed. This report summarizes the main outputs of the first international workshop on Insecticide resistance in vectors of arboviruses held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 5-8 December 2016. The primary aims of this workshop were to identify strategies for the development and implementation of standardized insecticide resistance management, also to allow comparisons across nations and across time, and to define research priorities for control of vectors of arboviruses. The workshop brought together 163 participants from 28 nationalities and was accessible, live, through the web (> 70,000 web-accesses over 3 days).

  14. Identification of a criminal by DNA typing in a rape case in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Andréa Carla de Souza Góes

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Human DNA identification is a powerful tool for paternity cases as well as for criminal investigation, in which biological evidence is typed after collection from crime scenes and for the identification of human remains. OBJECTIVE: Identification of a criminal in a rape case with 4 suspects using STR and VNTR DNA analysis. TYPE OF STUDY: Forensic DNA analysis. SETTING: DNA Diagnostic Laboratory, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PARTICIPANTS: Blood from 4 suspects and the victim, and skin from the fetus. PROCEDURES: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP. RESULTS: Three of the suspects were excluded and one of them was identified as the biological father of the fetus after typing with CTT and FFv Multiplexes. Complementary DNA typing at 3 VNTR loci was also carried out. CONCLUSIONS: After typing four suspects using 6 STR loci, one of them was identified as the biological father of the fetus. In order to significantly enhance the Combined Paternity Index (PI, complementary DNA typing in 3 VNTR loci was carried out. The included suspect was found to be the biological father with a PI of 412,860 (Probability of Paternity: 99.9997%.

  15. Characterization of the Lime Mortars of the Rui Barbosa House Museum in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    Daniele Pereira da Silva Dalto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to characterize the mortars of the Rui Barbosa House Museum, built in 1850, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using X-ray diffraction (XRD, gel-CSH determination, Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR, Wavelength-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF, Thermo gravimetric analysis (TG-DTG, and granulometric analysis. Also, petrographic and physical characteristics such as porosity, water absorption, and apparent density of the mortars were used to identify the raw materials employed in their preparation. Mineralogical associations found are similar (quartz, calcite, kaolinite, microcline, muscovite, and albite for the majority of samples and only vary in their proportions; the most prominent phases are quartz and calcite. The collected data, indicating that the binder is hydrated lime, lead us to conclude that the analyzed samples are lime mortars, discarding the possibility of cement as the binder material. Two samples, located on the corner of the building, which underwent repairs, present a differentiated behavior, with high levels of dolomite and the presence of pozzolanic material, with greater water absorption and higher density, indicating the use of a different mortar type. In addition, it was verified that the WDXRF and XRD methods are able to determine the trace element composition with comparable precision with respect to the methodological approach proposed by Teutonico (1988. In addition, it has been verified that the major pollutant causing degradation of building are sulfur emitted by the vehicles and saline spray.

  16. High school students' opinions of gynecological consultations in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    Pereira, Sandra de Morais; Taquette, Stella Regina; Pérez, Maurício de Andrade

    2013-02-01

    To analyze sociocultural differences and perceptions of gynecological consultations for high school girls. A transversal study with 418 high school girls from three schools of different profiles in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil in 2010. A structured questionnaire encompassing socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior and evaluation of gynecological consultations was completed. Yates' Chi-square test and the Student's t-test were utilized adopting a value of p students of private and federal public schools presented similar profiles but both were different from the state school girls. The latter had lower socioeconomic status, and their parents had lower levels of education, the predominance of afro-descendants was observed, as were a larger number of sexual partners, pregnancy and cases of sexual violence. The average age of menarche and sexarche among the students were similar, but the first gynecological consultation was significantly later among the state school students. The majority showed some knowledge of contraception and STDs, although only a minority received guidance from the consultations. Students expressed the desire that the professionals dedicate more time, patience and availability to them during consultations. The provision of gynecological services for teenagers is not satisfactory, according to the teenagers' evaluations. Users of the private health system have gynecological consultations earlier than those who only have access to the public system. It is necessary to create mechanisms that facilitate access and adhesion to a routine of gynecological prevention for this age group.

  17. Herpetofauna of Núcleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    AR Martins

    Full Text Available The Atlantic Rain forest, which is considered the second largest pluvial forest in the American continent, has had an estimated 93% of its original area destroyed. Although studies concerning the herpetofaunal diversity in this biome have been intensified in the past years, its diversity is still underestimated. The Nucleo Experimental de Iguaba Grande (NEIG is included in an Environmental Protection Area (APA de Sapeatiba in the Iguaba Grande municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (22º 51' S and 42º 10' W. The goal of this study was to conduct an inventory of the reptile and amphibian species that occur in this area between July 2008 and December 2009. We recorded 19 species of amphibians (18 anurans and one caecilian and 15 species of reptiles (three lizards, 11 snakes and one amphisbaenian. Leptodactylus latrans and L. mystacinus had the highest capture rates among amphibians captured, and among reptiles, Ameiva ameiva, Hemidactylus mabouia and Mabuya agilis had the highest capture rates. Rarefaction curves for both amphibians and reptiles did not reach the asymptote, indicating that the species richness in the NEIG is still underestimated.

  18. Spatial distribution of heavy metals in surficial sediments from Guanabara Bay: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Neto, José Antônio Baptista; Gingele, Franz Xaver; Leipe, Thomas; Brehme, Isa

    2006-04-01

    Ninety-two surface sediment samples were collected in Guanabara Bay, one of the most prominent urban bays in SE Brazil, to investigate the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants. The concentrations of heavy metals, organic carbon and particle size were examined in all samples. Large spatial variations of heavy metals and particle size were observed. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were found in the muddy sediments from the north western region of the bay near the main outlets of the most polluted rivers, municipal waste drainage systems and one of the major oil refineries. Another anomalous concentration of metals was found adjacent to Rio de Janeiro Harbour. The heavy metal concentrations decrease to the northeast, due to intact rivers and the mangrove systems in this area, and to the south where the sand fraction and open-marine processes dominate. The geochemical normalization of metal data to Li or Al has also demonstrated that the anthropogenic input of heavy metals have altered the natural sediment heavy metal distribution.

  19. Sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Sporothrix brasiliensis is associated with atypical clinical presentations.

    Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; do Valle, Antônio Carlos Francesconi; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2014-09-01

    There have been several recent changes in the taxonomy of Sporothrix schenckii as well as new observations regarding the clinical aspects of sporotrichosis. In this study, we determined the identification of the Sporothrix species associated with both classic and unusual clinical aspects of sporotrichosis observed in the endemic area of sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. To verify whether S. brasiliensis is associated with clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis, a cross-sectional study was performed in which Sporothrix isolates from 50 patients with different clinical manifestations were analyzed and their isolates were studied by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Data from these patients revealed a distinct clinical picture and therapeutic response in infections caused by Sporothrix brasiliensis (n = 45) compared to patients with S. schenckii sensu stricto (n = 5). S. brasiliensis was associated with disseminated cutaneous infection without underlying disease, hypersensitivity reactions, and mucosal infection, whereas patients with S. schenckii presented with less severe and more often localized disease, similar to the majority of previously described sporotrichosis cases. Interestingly, S. brasiliensis-infected patients overall required shorter durations of itraconazole (median 16 weeks) compared to the individuals with S. schenckii (median 24 weeks). These findings suggest that Sporothrix species are linked to different clinical manifestations of sporotrichosis and that S. brasiliensis is effectively treated with oral itraconazole.

  20. Lessons learned from a landslide catastrophe in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Pereira, Bruno Monteiro Tavares; Morales, Wellington; Cardoso, Ricardo Galesso; Fiorelli, Rossano; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira; Briggs, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    On January, 2011, a devastating tropical storm hit the mountain area of Rio de Janeiro State in Brazil, resulting in flooding and mudslides and leaving 30,000 individuals displaced. This article explores key lessons learned from this major mass casualty event, highlighting prehospital and hospital organization for receiving multiple victims in a short period of time, which may be applicable in similar future events worldwide. A retrospective review of local hospital medical/fire department records and data from the Health and Security Department of the State were analyzed. Medical examiner archives were analyzed to determine the causes of death. The most common injuries were to the extremities, the majority requiring only wound cleaning, debridement, and suture. Orthopedic surgeries were the most common operative procedures. In the first 3 days, 191 victims underwent triage at the hospital with 50 requiring admission to the hospital. Two hundred fifty patients were triaged at the hospital by the end of the fifth day. The mortis cause for the majority of deaths was asphyxia, either by drowning or mud burial. Natural disasters are able to generate a large number of victims and overwhelm the main channels of relief available. Main lessons learned are as follows: 1) prevention and training are key points, 2) key measures by the authorities should be taken as early as possible, and 3) the centralization of the deceased in one location demonstrated greater effectiveness identifying victims and releasing the bodies back to families.

  1. Feeding Patterns of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Alencar, Jeronimo; Mello, Cecília Ferreira de; Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce de Leão; Araújo, Andressa Nunes; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; Guimarães, Anthony Érico; Silva, Júlia Dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    The stomach contents of culicids from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were analyzed using the precipitin technique to evaluate the feeding patterns of the species. Sampling was performed from February 2012 to December 2013, using CO2-baited Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps to catch mosquitoes from 15 00 to 07 00 hours. The following antisera were used: bird, rodent, opossum, human, horse, capybara, lizard, and frog. Of the 325 adult bloodfed females caught and analyzed, 273 (84.0%) reacted in the precipitin test. The percentage of specimens with a positive reaction to a single antiserum included bird (39.2%), rodent (22.5%), opossum (13.2%), capybara (6.6%), horse (5.7%), frog (6.2%), human (4.0%), and lizard (2.6%). The specimens that reacted positively against more than one blood source (46) most frequently presented the following combinations: bird + rodent and bird + frog (17.4%), followed by bird + human (13.0%). The predominance of positive results for birds suggested that the avian-rich environment might have influenced the feeding behavior of the culicids. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Amanda Codeço de OLIVEIRA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT. The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%. Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4, animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6, and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1 were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpiswas not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area.

  3. The Territorial Dimension of Sewage Networks: the Case of Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Mendes, Thiago Monteiro; Barcellos, Christovam

    2018-02-01

    The urban suburbs of Brazilian cities have grown without an adequate sanitation infrastructure. Different social groups try to overcome these shortcomings seeking local sanitation alternatives at individual or community levels, contrasting with the universal model of sewage networks. This study was developed in the suburban neighborhood of Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to analyze the installation process of the sewage system under a territorial approach. Data facilitated the construction of territorial schemes related to conflicts during the implementation of sewage networks in this neighborhood, where middle class groups and favela residents coexist with environmental preservation areas, beaches and commercial activities. This work revealed the need for contextualized sanitation information made available by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and state sewage collection company, which conceal these conflicts or the representation of residents about their sanitation problems. Overlapping territorial managing functions should be considered as one of the factors responsible for the conflicts identified in the neighborhood. Further studies are suggested as methodological complementation and data update.

  4. [Effects of environmental factors on the ant fauna of restinga community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Vargas, André B; Mayhé-Nunes, Antônio J; Queiroz, Jarbas M; Souza, Guilherme O; Ramos, Elaine F

    2007-01-01

    The effects of environmental factors on the richness, diversity and abundance of ants were studied in the Restinga da Marambaia, south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The samples were taken using pitfall traps in August/2004 (winter) and March/2005 (summer) in three different vegetation types: (1) herbaceous ridge palmoid (homogeneous habitat); (2) shrub dune thicket and (3) ridge forest (heterogeneous habitats). At each habitat a range of environmental attributes was recorded: soil temperature and humidity, percentage of soil covering by litter and litter depth. Ninety-two ant species belonging to 36 genera and eight subfamilies were recorded. Density of ant species and abundance varied significantly between habitats and seasons; ant diversity varied only between habitats. Homogeneous habitat had lower ant species density, abundance and diversity than heterogeneous habitats. The two first variables were positively correlated with litter depth and both were higher in summer than in winter samples. There were more species of Ponerinae and Ectatomminae in heterogeneous than in the homogeneous habitat, whereas the Formicinae species were more abundant in the later.

  5. Noroviruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in a children's day care facility in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Gallimore C.I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They are the most common cause of outbreaks of gastroenteritis in the adult population and occur in nursing homes for the elderly, geriatric wards, medical wards, and in hotel and restaurant settings. Food-borne outbreaks have also occurred following consumption of contaminated oysters. This study describes the application of a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay using random primers (PdN6 and specific Ni and E3 primers, directed at a small region of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-coding region of the norovirus genome, and DNA sequencing for the detection and preliminary characterisation of noroviruses in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in children in Brazil. The outbreak samples were collected from children <5 years of age at the Bertha Lutz children's day care facility at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, that occurred between 1996 and 1998, where no pathogen had been identified. At the Bertha Lutz day care center facility, only Fiocruz's employee children are provided for, and they come from different social, economic and cultural backgrounds. Three distinct genogroup II strains were detected in three outbreaks in 1997/98 and were most closely related to genotypes GII-3 (Mexico virus and GII-4 (Grimsby virus, both of which have been detected in paediatric and adult outbreaks of gastroenteritis worldwide.

  6. On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Dorneles de Andrade, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the women were either pre- or post-operative; three had not decided whether to have surgery. When asked about their motivations and expectations of the surgery, the majority of the women said they wanted to be "normal". Most of the surgeons said they acted as empathic companions from decision-making through surgery and beyond. Many of the key informants were critical of what was happening to medical ethics in relation to cosmetic surgery. With the growth in a consumer culture, they saw ethics in medicine becoming more bendable and subject to the "law" of the market. The cult of the body has become a mass phenomenon and taken on an important social dimension in a society where norms and images are broadcast widely by the media. The trend towards body-modification by cosmetic surgery at an early age is increasing dramatically. What demands critical thinking and further investigation are the consequences of cosmetic surgery for physical and mental health. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The patterns of tungiasis in Araruama township, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Carvalho Raimundo Wilson de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes patterns of infestation with Tunga penetrans (L., 1758 within the poor community of Araruama municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, assessed by the number of persons and domestic animals parasitized. The overall prevalence of infestation was 49.2% (211 parasitized hosts of the 429 examined. Humans (p < 0.01 and dogs (p < 0.01 were the most important hosts with 62.6% and 35.6% respectively. Dogs were considered as the potential infestation source to humans. Considering sex and age groups, both measures showed a significant difference (p < 0.01: female (62.2% infested of 143 examined and male (43.9% infested of 98 examined. All age classes were found infested with significant difference (G = 42.5; p < 0.01 and most of the infestation occurred in children in the 0-9-year old category (27.3%. In contrast and based on mean of chigoe burden per person, the parasitic intensity was significantly higher on male than on female in all age categories, except for the 50+ (H = 27.1; p < 0.01 and decreasing with the increase of age (chi2 = 69.7, A = -124.6, p < 0.01. Growing urbanization, improved housing and sewage systems, use of appropriate footwear, examination of the feet principally in young children, antitetanus prophylaxis and reduction of stray dogs population are the major prophylactic methods recommended.

  8. [Work-related accidents on oil drilling platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Freitas, C M; Souza, C A; Machado, J M; Porto, M F

    2001-01-01

    The offshore oil industry is characterized by complex systems in relation to technology and organization of work. Working conditions are hazardous, resulting in accidents and even occasional full-scale catastrophes. This article is the result of a study on work-related accidents in the offshore platforms in the Campos Basin, Rio de Janeiro State. The primary objective was to provide technical back-up for both workers' representative organizations and public authorities. As a methodology, we attempt to go beyond the immediate causes of accidents and emphasize underlying causes related to organizational and managerial aspects. The sources were used in such a way as to permit classification in relation to the type of incident, technological system, operation, and immediate and underlying causes. The results show the aggravation of safety conditions and the immediate need for public authorities and the offshore oil industry in Brazil to change the methods used to investigate accidents in order to identify the main causes in the organizational and managerial structure of companies.

  9. Environmental Investigation of Psychiatric Pharmaceuticals: Guandu River, Rio De Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceuticals are considered to be important environmental contaminants. The aim of this study was to evaluate their presence in water intended for public supply to Municipally of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The regional environmental assessment was done from the analysis of surface water and distribution for the presence of psychiatric drugs. The study reveals the presence of benzodiazepine derivatives in all samples of surface water samples of the Guandu River, with the amounts of 42 ng L-1, 198 ng L-1 and 335 ng L-1 for bromazepam, clonazepam, and diazepam, respectively. The population served by Companhia Estadual de Águas e Esgotos (CEDAE is the order of ten million. Psychiatric pharmaceuticals, in particular, are thought to impose significant ecological risks. A better understanding of the real impact of these pollutants implies a comprehensive evaluation of their persistence and fate in environmental matrices. The studies presented in this article are intended to contribute to improve the knowledge about the occurrence of some psychiatric drugs in the water supply.

  10. Mortes no trânsito do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Traffic deaths in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Carlos Henrique Klein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A evolução urbana do município do Rio de Janeiro durante o século XX, especialmente a partir da sua segunda metade, é fortemente marcada por crescentes privilégios concedidos ao crescimento da utilização dos meios de transporte de massa e, principalmente, individuais, feitos por veículos a motor de explosão. Uma das conseqüências desta política é a ascenção da mortalidade por acidentes de trânsito, verificada durante a década de 80, entre homens e mulheres de todas as idades. Neste trabalho demonstra-se também que, em 1990, apenas cerca de 1/3 das vítimas fatais nos acidentes de trânsito estavam "embarcadas" nos veículos. Portanto, a maioria dos óbitos por este tipo de acidente, cerca de 2/3, ocorreu por atropelamentos. Isto indica a necessidade de o poder público reverter a prioridade na prevenção das mortes por acidentes de trânsito em favor de medidas eficazes que protejam os pedestres.The evolution of the city of Rio de Janeiro during the 20th century, particularly since 1950, has been strongly characterized by increasing concession of privileges for the use of motor vehicles for both mass (and especially individual transportation. One of the main consequences of this policy was a rising mortality rate due to traffic accidents during the 1980s, among men and women of all ages. This paper demonstrates that in 1990 only about one-third of the fatal victims of traffic accidents were inside the vehicles involved. In Rio de Janeiro, the majority of deaths from this kind of accident (approximately two-thirds were pedestrians. Thus, policies aimed at reducing traffic-related mortality should give priority to the protection of pedestrians rather than drivers.

  11. Fishing activity in Northern Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil and its relation with small cetaceans

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on fishing activity at Atafona village, in Northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (21°35'S, was carried out between 1987-96 for the purpose of relating it to the accidental capture of small cetaceans and of estimating the relationship between fishing activity and the diet of small cetaceans. Data on fishing operations were obtained at the cold storage plants management, from interviews with fishermen and personal observations. The most representative fishing resources were Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus,and Rhizoprionodon porosus. Gillnets are responsible for the accidental capture of small cetaceans in the region, mainly Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia fluviatilis (marine form. Four types of gillnets that are used on the region ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha" were dangerous to these species because they are placed in their preferred habitat. There is no competition between fishermen and small cetaceans due to the selection in the capture of commercialized fishesInvestigação sobre a atividade pesqueira na localidade de Atafona, Norte do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (21º25`S, foi conduzida entre 1987-96 com o objetivo de relacioná-la com a captura acidental e a dieta dos pequenos cetáceos. Dados sobre as operações pesqueiras foram obtidos na administração dos entrepostos de pesca, através de entrevistas com pescadores e observações pessoais. Os recursos pesqueiros mais representativos foram Xyphopenaeus kroyeri, Micropogonias furnieri, Carcharhinus plumbeus, C. acronotus, and Rhizoprionodon porosus. As redes de espera são responsáveis pela captura acidental de pequenos cetáceos na região, principalmente de Pontoporia blainvillei e Sotalia fluviatilis (forma marinha. Quatro tipos de redes de espera que são usadas na região ("minjuada", "sarda", "caçoá" and "pescadinha" foram mais perigosas para essas espécies pois são colocadas no seu hábitat preferencial

  12. Epidemiology of psychotropic drug use in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gaps in mental illness treatments.

    Maria Ines Quintana

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the prevalence of psychotropic drugs use in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and establish its relationship with the presence of mental disorders. METHODS: A probabilistic sample of non-institutionalized individuals, from the general population of Rio de Janeiro (n = 1208;turn out:81%, 15 years or older, who were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 (depression, anxiety-phobia, OCD\\PTSD, alcoholism sections, and asked about their psychotropic use during a 12 and one-month period before the interview. Data were collected between June/2007-February/2008.The prevalence was estimated with a confidence interval of 95%. The associations between psychotropics use and mental disorders were analyzed through a logistic regression model (Odds Ration - OR. RESULTS: The one-month prevalence of psychotropic drug use was 6.55%, 3.19% for men and 9.13% for women. Antidepressants were the most frequently used drug (2.78%, followed by anorectics (1.65%, tranquilizers (1.61% and mood stabilizers (1.23%. General practitioners issued the highest number of prescriptions (46.3%, followed by psychiatrists (29.3%; 86.6% of the psychotropic drugs used were paid for by the patient himself. Individuals with increased likelihood of using psychotropic drugs were those that had received a psychiatric diagnosis during a one-month period before the study (OR:3.93, females (OR:1.82, separated/divorced (OR:2.23, of increased age (OR:1.03, with higher income (OR:2.96, and family history of mental disorder (OR:2.59; only 16% of the individuals with a current DSM IV diagnosis were using a psychotropic drug; 17% among individuals with a depression-related diagnosis and 8% with Phobic Anxiety Disorders-related diagnosis used psychotropics. CONCLUSION: Approximately 84% of individuals displaying some mental disorder did not use psychotropic drugs, which indicates an important gap between demand and access to treatment. A

  13. Leishmaniasis transmission in an ecotourism area: potential vectors in Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Carvalho, Bruno Moreira; Maximo, Michele; Costa, Wagner Alexandre; de Santana, Antonio Luís Ferreira; da Costa, Simone Miranda; da Costa Rego, Taiana Amancio Neves; de Pita Pereira, Daniela; Rangel, Elizabeth Ferreira

    2013-11-13

    The south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, in Brazil, is endemic for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniases and is frequently visited by tourists from different parts of the world. Since the complex epidemiology of leishmaniases demands local studies, the goal of this study was to investigate the phlebotomine sand fly fauna and leishmaniases transmission in Ilha Grande, an ecotourism area of Angra dos Reis municipality. Sand fly fauna was sampled in three monitoring stations using HP light traps in domiciles, peridomiciles and forests. Species abundance was evaluated by the Index of Species Abundance. A Leishmania natural infection survey was done using multiplex PCR and dot blot hybridization. During 15 consecutive months of sand fly monitoring, 1093 specimens from 16 species were captured. The potential leishmaniases vectors found were Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) intermedia, L. migonei, L. (N.) flaviscutellata, L. (Psychodopygus) ayrozai and L. (Lutzomyia) longipalpis. Five species were new records in Ilha Grande: L. (Sciopemyia) microps, L. termitophila, L. firmatoi, L. rupicola and L. (P.) ayrozai. Higher species richness was found inside forest areas, although potential leishmaniases vectors were present in deforested areas, peridomiciles and inside houses. Lutzomyia (N.) intermedia and L. migonei were the most abundant species. Females of L. migonei showed a high rate (10.3%) of natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia) sp., probably Leishmania (V.) braziliensis. The detection of leishmaniases transmission and potential vectors in Ilha Grande is of public health concern, especially because tourists are frequently visiting the island. Besides reinforcing the epidemiological importance of L. (N.) intermedia in Rio de Janeiro State, the role of L. migonei in cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission is highlighted with its high rate of Leishmania natural infection. The finding of L. (L.) longipalpis confirmed the human autochthonous case of visceral leishmaniasis from the

  14. [Nutritional status of Guarani indigenous children in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil].

    Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2014-03-01

    This article reports the results of a nutritional survey among Guarani indigenous children < 5 years of age in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence rates for malnutrition according to various anthropometric indices were 50.4% (low stature-for-age), 7.9% (low weight-for-age), and 0.8% (low weight-for-stature). Prevalence of stunting in Guarani children was 96% higher than for indigenous children in Brazil as a whole (25.7%) and 7.2 times that in children from the general population (7%). Prevalence of anemia was 65.2%, 3.1 times higher than in non-indigenous children (20.9%). The study highlights the high prevalence of chronic undernutrition and anemia in Guarani children and calls attention to serious inequalities in health and nutrition that affect indigenous children in Brazil.

  15. Summertime thermohaline structure off the Brazil Current Region between Santos (SP and Rio de Janeiro (RJ

    Edmo José Dias Campos

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of the MAR-14 Project, part of the Brazil-Germany Bilateral Agreement in Marine Sciences, an oceanographic survey aboard the R/V Victor Hensen was carried out in Brazilian coastal waters between Santos (23º56'S and Rio de Janeiro (22º54'S, from January 15 to January 22,1991. In this article we report results of preliminary analyses of the hydrographic data collected with CTD, STD, Nansen bottles and XBT's. These preliminary results show intense stratification in the first 200 m depth, and the penetration of the Brazil Current deep into the continental shelf region. Two eddy-like features were detected. The first one, anticyclonic, was located in the northern part of the domain and confined to the uppermost 200 m. The second, a cyclonic vortex, was found a little to the southwest below 200 m and extending downwards to about 800 m depth. Water mass analyses based on T-S diagrams suggest that the interface between the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and the Antarctic Intermediate Water (AIW is located at about 500 m depth. One important aspect of this study is that this was the first time a high resolution survey with a CTD probe was realized along the eastern Brasilian Coast, south of Cabo Frio.Como parte do projeto MAR-14, componente do Acordo Bilateral Brasil-Alemanha em Ciências Marinhas, uma campanha oceanógrafica a bordo do R/V Victor Hensen foi realizada em águas costeiras do Brasil entre Santos (23º56'S, de 15 a 22 de janeiro de 991. Neste artigo reportamos resultados de análises preliminares dos dados hidrográficos coletados com o auxílio de CTD, STD, garrafas de Nansen e XBT's. Esses resultados preliminares mostram uma intensa estratificação nos primeiros 200 m de profundidade, e a penetração da corrente bem adentro da região sobre a plataforma continental. Duas estruturas com características de vórtices de meso-escala foram detectadas. O primeiro, anticiclônico, estava localizado na parte norte da

  16. Diet and potential feeding overlap between Trichiurus lepturus (Osteichthyes: Perciformes and Pontoporia blainvillei (Mammalia: Cetacea in Northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Vanessa T. Bittar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the diet and assesses potential overlap in the feeding habits of Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus, 1758 and Pontoporia blainvilleiGervais & D'Orbigny, 1844 in northern Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Fishes were numerically dominant in both diets, followed by cephalopods for P. blainvillei and crustaceans for T. lepturus. Both predators move along similar coastal feeding areas in northern Rio de Janeiro, but our results indicate differences in their resource exploitation, what allows for their coexistence.

  17. Assessment of the Trophic State of Saquarema Lagoonal System, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil

    Pierre Philippe Belart Brandão Dias

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This work intends to apply new ecological descriptors to a coastal marine area aiming to assess its environmental trophic status. This approach makes possible to identify relevant variables associated with eutrophication process applicable and valid worldwide. The aim of this work is to study the organic matter (OM quality and quantity, in terms of biopolymers, in Saquarema Lagoonal System (SLS located in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil. Sediment samples collected in SLS were analyzed in this study for granulometric and geochemical data such as total organic carbon (TOC, total sulfur (TS and biopolimeric carbon (BPC concentrations, including proteins (PTN, carbohydrates (CHO and lipids (LIP. These data were combined with additional environmental parameters measured in water of the four linked lagoons that compose SLS. Data analyses allowed the identification of four distinct regions in SLS: an inner and impacted zone characterized by sediment particularly enriched in TOC, with lowest quality of OM most probably provided by contaminated effluents and rivers runoff; an outer-less impacted lagoonal area with relatively low TOC content and submitted to high hydrodynamic forces; an intermediate area characterized by transitional features between the two previously mentioned and a zone that is influenced mainly by salinity. The organic matter accumulation depends on the hydrodynamic conditions mostly governed by tidal currents. The quality of organic matter seems to be mainly influenced by the water renewal, rivers inputs and mangroves contributions as well as by the autochthonous lagoonal biological productivity. Results of this work indicate that the inner zone of SLS is being affected by eutrophication not necessarily caused by anthropic factors.

  18. Sporotrichosis: an emerging neglected opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi do; da Silva, Margarete Bernardo Tavares; Campos, Dayse Pereira; Lyra, Marcelo Rosandiski; de Souza, Rogerio Valls; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Galhardo, Maria Clara Gutierrez

    2014-08-01

    Sporotrichosis associated with zoonotic transmission remains a relevant public health problem in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, affecting a large at-risk population, which includes HIV-infected individuals. We assessed patients co-infected by Sporothrix spp. and HIV over time in the context of an unabated sporotrichosis epidemic. A retrospective cohort retrieved information from a National reference institute for infectious diseases regarding 48 patients with sporotrichosis-HIV co-infection (group 1) as well as 3,570 patients with sporotrichosis (group 2), from 1987 through March 2013. Most patients from group 1 were male (68.8%), whereas women were predominant in group 2 (69.1%; psporotrichosis over time, whereas hospitalization was very unlikely in group 2, among whom approximately 1% were hospitalized over time. Dissemination of sporotrichosis was the main cause of hospitalization in both groups, although it was more common among hospitalized patients from group 1 (19/21 [90.5%] vs. 16/37 [43.2%]; psporotrichosis (3/48 vs. 5/3,570). The diagnosis of sporotrichosis elicited HIV testing and subsequent diagnosis in 19/48 patients, whereas 23/48 patients were simultaneously diagnosed with the two infections. HIV infection aggravates sporotrichosis, with a higher incidence of severe disseminated cases and a higher number of hospitalizations and deaths. Underserved populations, among whom sporotrichosis has been propagated, have been affected by different transmissible (e.g., HIV) and non-transmissible diseases. These populations should be targeted by community development programs and entitled to integrated management and care of their superimposed burdens.

  19. Pregnancy rates and predictors in women with HIV/AIDS in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Ruth Khalili Friedman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess incidence and predictors of first pregnancy among women with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: Prospective cohort study was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil, between 1996 and 2003. This study comprised 225 women with HIV/AIDS followed up until their first pregnancy or first censored event (hysterectomy, tubal ligation, menopause, 50 years of age, loss to follow-up, death or the end of December 2003. Pregnancy and abortion rates were estimated, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify baseline characteristics associated with pregnancy risk. RESULTS: The women were followed up for 565 person/years with a median follow-up of 3 years per women. The mean age was 32 years (SD: 7, and 54.7% were white. There were 60 pregnancies in 39 women, and 18 were terminated (induced abortions, accounting for a rate of 6.9% and 2.1% women/year, respectively. Repeated pregnancies occurred in 33.3% of the women (13/39. Higher pregnancy risk was seen among younger women (HR=3.42; 95%CI: 1.69;6.95 and those living with their partners (HR=1.89; 95%CI: 1.00;3.57. Lower pregnancy risk was associated with higher education level (HR=0.43; 95%CI: 0.19;0.99 and use of antiretroviral therapy (HR=061; 95%CI: 0.31;1.17. CONCLUSIONS: Lower pregnancy rates were found in our cohort than in the general population. Sociodemographic characteristics should be taken into consideration in the management of reproductive health in HIV-positive childbearing age women. Reproductive and family planning counseling must be incorporated into HIV/AIDS programs for women to help preventing HIV transmission to their partners and offspring.

  20. Bionomics of Culex quinquefasciatus within urban areas of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Mariana Rocha David

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate density, parity rates, daily survival and longevity of natural populations of Culex quinquefasciatus in three neighborhoods with distinct socio-economic and infrastructure profiles. METHODS: Mosquito collections of the Culex quinquefasciatus species were performed weekly during two four month periods, from August to November 2008 (spring and March to June 2009 (fall, in a favela (slum, a suburban area and a middle class area of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Collections were performed with backpack aspirators, in 20 randomly selected houses in each area per week, during 15-20 minutes per house. Ovaries were removed from captured females and classified as initial, intermediary or final stage. Furthermore, females were dissected for determination of parity based on the condition of the tracheal system. Mosquito survival rate and longevity were estimated on a per month basis for each neighborhood. RESULTS: We collected a total of 2,062 Culex quinquefasciatus, but monthly vector density was not correlated with temperature and rainfall. We dissected the ovaries of 625 Culex quinquefasciatus, and overall, there was a higher proportion of nulliparous females during the dryer months, while gravid females were more frequent in rainy months. In the middle class neighborhood, the parity rate reached up to 93.75% with survivorship of 0.979. Lower parity and survival rates were obtained in the suburban area (as low as 36.4% parity and 0.711 daily survival. Up to 84.7% of Culex quinquefasciatus females could survive the eight day period needed to complete West Nile Virus incubation. CONCLUSIONS: The survival rate of Culex quinquefasciatus varied significantly between the neighborhoods. This suggests that vectorial capacity and disease transmission risk may vary greatly between different urban areas, which is potentially useful information for vector control programs.

  1. Notes on the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida (Araneae, Araneidae) with description of four new species from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira; De Souza Castanheira, Pedro; Prado, AndrÉ Wanderley do

    2018-04-11

    Four new species of the orb-weaving spider genus Alpaida O. P.-Cambridge, 1889 from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil are illustrated and described based on males and females from the following municipalities: Alpaida imperatrix new species (Macaé and Rio de Janeiro); Alpaida imperialis new species (Mendes and Rio de Janeiro); Alpaida marista new species (Mendes and Pinheiral); and Alpaida mendensis new species (Mendes). Furthermore, two new synonymies are herein proposed: Alpaida lanei Levi, 1988 = Alpaida atomaria (Simon, 1895) and Alpaida caxias Levi, 1988 = Alpaida tijuca Levi, 1988, alongside new records for both species and also Alpaida venger Castanheira Baptista, 2015.

  2. Using fish larvae as indicators of estuarine ecosystem condition in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Regis Vinícius Souza Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries enhance growth and maximize the survivorship of initial development stages of fish species, functioning as nursery grounds for many species. However, estuaries throughout the world host a wide variety of human activities, and fish communities can be severely impacted. Protection of aquatic biodiversity and proper management of these coastal systems require robust tools to assess habitat integrity and ecological quality status. Thus, the present study investigated the use of fish larvae as indicators of estuarine ecosystem condition in Brazil, testing the hypothesis that estuaries with different human impacts and environmental conditions carry distinct larval fish assemblages. For this, four estuaries were analysed with: similar environmental conditions (the same water mass surveyed, similar pool of species (the same geographical region and no seasonal influences (different periods analysed separately. Surveys were conducted in Macaé, São João, Bracuí and Perequê-Açu estuaries located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Sampling surveys were conducted every two months between May 2013 and March 2015. All samples were taken in the estuary middle region (salinity 15-25 during nightly ebb tides. At each estuary, ichthyoplankton subsurface tows were perfomed using a Bongo net. Water parameters were measured by a multiparameter probe and surface water samples collected for further analytical analyses. Fish larvae were identified and species were assigned into functional guilds. The water conditions were assessed based on water temperature, pH, chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen and total particulate matter. Faecal coliforms, nutrient load (NO3, NO2, NH3, PO4, SiO3 and presence/absence of dams, dredging and mangroves were used as anthropogenic pressure descriptors. The species composition and ecological guilds of Macaé and Perequê-Açu differed significantly of São João and Bracuí, separating the impacted versus non-impacted estuaries

  3. A neurocisticercose humana na Baixada Fluminense, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Human neurocysticercosis in Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Ernani Costa Mendes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse manuscrito foi conhecer a freqüência e outros aspectos epidemiológicos da neurocisticercose na Baixada Fluminense, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Levantou-se junto ao serviço de tomografia computadorizada do Hospital Geral de Nova Iguaçu entre 1996 e 2002 e no Centro de Neuroimagem "D'IMAGEM" entre 1992 e 2002, os casos registrados de neurocisticercose. Analisaram-se 36379 tomografias, encontrando 72 casos da parasitose, a maioria deles em mulheres (62,5%; p>0,05 e na fase crônica (93,1%. Ocorreram em todas as faixas etárias, aumentando a freqüência conforme o aumento da idade (r=0.84, pThe objective of this manuscript was to know the neurocysticercosis prevalence and some epidemiological aspects in Baixada Fluminense, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The data came from the service of computerized tomography of the Nova Iguaçu General Hospital from 1996 to 2002 and from neuroimage "D'IMAGEM" Center from 1992 to 2002. We analyzed 36379 tomographies identifying 72 cases of the parasitoses, the majority in women (62.5%, p>0.05 and in the chronic phase (93.1%. The neurocysticercosis had occurred in all age groups and increase with age (r=0.84, p<0.05, being that 45.8% of them up to 50 years. The 20 interviewed cases were origin from several municipal districts of Baixada Fluminense, the monthly per capita income was R$ 366. The growing urbanization, deficient sanitary vigilance, absence of sewage systems and sanitary education are the main factors that potentially the transmission of cistycercosis and taeniasis in the Baixada Fluminense.

  4. The impact of industrial anthropization on mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) communities in mangrove areas of Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil).

    de Souza, A S; Couri, M S; Florindo, L

    2012-02-01

    The effects of industrial anthropization on species composition and community diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) were studied in a mangrove area impacted by industrial activities as compared to a preserved area, both around Guanabara Bay in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Diversity, equitability, and species richness in Culicidae community differed between the studied areas. Indicator species analysis and correspondence analysis were carried out and indicated that the Sabethini, especially Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) theobaldi Lane, Wyeomyia (Phoniomyia) fuscipes (Edwards), and a non-identified species of Wyeomyia sp. were associated to the preserved area, whereas Aedes taeniorhynchus Wiedemann and Aedes scapularis (Rondani) to the impacted area.

  5. Dose evaluation due to the effluent liberation by medical installations at city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Shu, Jane; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Heilbron, Paulo F.L.; Crispim, Verginia R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper, the city of Rio de Janeiro was taken as a case study. It was processed deterministic and probabilistic simulations vor evaluation of the dose in two exposure sceneries, one of them referring to public members exposure and the other relative to exposure of sewage sanitary treatment plant workers. The results showed that at present the doses for inhabitants of the city and operators of treatment station are lower to dose limit established for the public, the approach presently in use in Brazil is not sufficient to accomplish whit international requirements and the regulation should be revised to be adopted specific values for each radionuclide

  6. Application of remote sensing data for oil spill monitoring in the Guanabara bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Bentz, Cristina Maria; Miranda, Fernando Pellon de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Centro de Excelencia em Geoquimica

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes the application of remote sensing data for oil spill monitoring in the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. During the emergency, Landsat-5/T M (Thematic Mapper) and Radar sat-1 data were acquired to monitor the location of the spill and its movement. Image classification procedures have been utilized to highlight oil-covered areas on the water surface. Ambiguities in the oil detection were resolved with the aid of ancillary information in a GIS (Geographic Information System) environment. The results obtained helped PETROBRAS to optimize the emergency response procedures and subsequent cleaning efforts. (author)

  7. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepagua Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Parente, Thiago E.M.; Oliveira, Ana C.A.X. de; Paumgartten, Francisco J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ('Nile tilapia', Oreochromis niloticus and 'acara', Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepagua Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes. - Increased EROD activity in the liver of cichlid fishes indicated that Guandu River, the source of drinking water supply for Rio de Janeiro is polluted by CYP1A-inducing chemicals

  8. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepagua Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Parente, Thiago E.M.; Oliveira, Ana C.A.X. de [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica - FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4036, Predio de Expansao do Campus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-361 (Brazil); Paumgartten, Francisco J.R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica - FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4036, Predio de Expansao do Campus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-361 (Brazil)], E-mail: paum@ensp.fiocruz.br

    2008-03-15

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ('Nile tilapia', Oreochromis niloticus and 'acara', Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepagua Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes. - Increased EROD activity in the liver of cichlid fishes indicated that Guandu River, the source of drinking water supply for Rio de Janeiro is polluted by CYP1A-inducing chemicals.

  9. Araceae of Grumari restinga: contribution to the conservation of the flora of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Luana S.B. Calazans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study surveyed species of the family Araceae in Grumari restinga, located in the metropolitan region of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We aimed to: i evaluate the contribution of a single locality (Grumari restinga to regional conservation (Rio de Janeiro State of Araceae; and ii compare the distribution of species of Araceae among restingas of the state. We calculated the extent of occurrence and the area of occupancy in the entire state for eight species of Araceae found in Grumari,and performed a similarity analysis among restingas. Our data demonstrate that the extent of occurrences for Anthurium augustinum, A. coriaceum and A. maricense are influenced by Grumari because this area is the boundary of their known distribution in the state. Grumari did not have an influence on the distribution of the other studied species. We found Anthurium coriaceum, A. luschnathianum and Philodendron crassinervium to exhibit unusual habits as terrestrial plants in sandy soil. The similarity analysis identified six groups of Araceae, four of which are related to the distance from adjacent forests. We demonstrated that this small conservation unit represents a key locality in the preservation of natural populations of species of Araceae in Rio de Janeiro State.

  10. Tentativas de suicídio em um hospital geral no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Suicide attempts recorded at a general hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Guilherme L. Werneck

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A história pregressa de tentativa de suicídio é um importante preditor do suicídio e de novas tentativas. Este artigo apresenta o perfil dos casos de tentativas de suicídio detectados por meio de um sistema de monitoramento para esses agravos em um hospital geral no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Entre abril de 2001 e março de 2002 foram registrados 160 tentativas de suicídio, sendo 68% entre mulheres e 26% entre adolescentes. A ingestão de pesticidas e o abuso de medicamentos foram os principais métodos utilizados. Mulheres utilizaram os dois métodos na mesma proporção, enquanto 2/3 dos homens empregaram pesticidas. Em relação à prevalência dos fatores de risco para tentativas de suicídio, identificou-se que 21% dos pacientes haviam procurado serviços de saúde nos trinta dias anteriores ao evento, 28% referiram tentativas anteriores, 23% fizeram referência a casos de tentativas ou suicídio na família. Ainda que os dados populacionais disponíveis sejam escassos, as tentativas de suicídio parecem ser um evento importante de morbidade, particularmente entre adolescentes e adultos jovens. Sistemas de vigilância para esse agravo podem ser úteis para um melhor conhecimento do problema.Previous suicide attempts are an important predictor of both repeated attempts and suicide. This paper presents the profile of patients who had attempted suicide and were admitted to a general hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From April 2001 to March 2002, 160 suicide attempts were recorded (68% women; 26% adolescents. Ingestion of pesticides and prescription drugs were the two most common methods used. The two methods had been used by similar numbers of women, while two-thirds of men had used pesticides. As for prevalence of factors associated with attempted suicide, 21% of patients had been in contact with health services within 30 days prior to the event, 28% mentioned previous suicide attempts, and 23% reported other cases of suicide or

  11. Esporotricose na gestação: relato de cinco casos numa epidemia zoonótica no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Sporotrichosis in pregnancy: case reports of 5 patients in a zoonotic epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Rosane Orofino Costa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam cinco casos de esporotricose em gestantes numa epidemia zoonótica no Rio de Janeiro. São discutidos principalmente os aspectos clínicos e as dificuldades na escolha terapêutica desse grupo específico de pacientes.Five cases of sporotrichosis occurring in pregnant women in a zoonotic epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are described. The main clinical features, as well as the challenging therapeutic choices for this specific group of patients, are discussed.

  12. ["Hormone bomb": risks of emergency contraception from the perspective of pharmacy attendants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Brandão, Elaine Reis; Cabral, Cristiane da Silva; Ventura, Miriam; Paiva, Sabrina Pereira; Bastos, Luiza Lena; Oliveira, Naira Villas Boas Vidal de; Szabo, Iolanda

    2016-09-19

    This study focused on views towards emergency contraception among pharmacy attendants in Greater Metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The empirical material came from a socio-anthropological study with 20 semi-structured interviews of pharmacy attendants of both sexes (8 females and 12 males). The interviews showed negative views of emergency contraception, emphasizing its potential health risks. Interviews considered emergency contraception a "hormone bomb" that can harm the female reproductive organs and other organ systems. The pharmacy attendants highlighted the risks of "uncontrolled" or "indiscriminate" use, especially by adolescents and young women. Since they considered it "dangerous" to women's bodies, they assigned the responsibility for orientation and counseling on use of the method to gynecologists rather than to pharmacists. The article discusses the need to expand the public debate on emergency contraception in Brazil to include pharmacists and pharmacy attendants, in addition to health professionals in general and teachers.

  13. Spatial variation, speciation and sedimentary records of mercury in the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Covelli, Stefano; Protopsalti, Ioanna; Acquavita, Alessandro; Sperle, Marcelo; Bonardi, Maurizio; Emili, Andrea

    2012-03-01

    As part of the "TAGUBAR" (TAngential GUanabara Bay Aeration Recovery) project, surface and long core sediments of the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) were investigated for mercury (Hg). The main, but not the only, input of Hg into the Bay's waters is known to be a Chlor-Alkali Plant (CAP) located in the Acarì-São João de Merití River system, on the northwestern side of the Bay. Mercury distribution in surface sediments (<0.1-3.22 mg kg-1, average 0.87±0.80, n=40) seems to be controlled by the organic component, along with sulfur rather than grain-size, where Hg concentrations are less than 1 mg kg-1. Conversely, where the metal contents are higher than 1 mg kg-1, accumulation in surface sediments is mostly related to the presence of nearby contamination sources, such as industrial and urban settlements in the western sector of the Bay. Although total Hg contents in surface sediments exceed the values suggested by the effects-based standard quality guidelines as potentially toxic for the benthic community, results from a sequential extraction procedure showed that the contribution of the more soluble, easily exchangeable and eventually bioavailable Hg phases was found almost negligible (<0.1%). Most of the metal is strongly bound to the mineral lattice of the sedimentary matrix and should therefore be considered almost immobilized. The reduction in Hg accumulation in bottom sediments, expected as a consequence of the adoption of contamination control policies (i.e. Hg-free technologies in the CAP and sewage treating facilities), has not been clearly observed in the core profiles. Current estimates of Hg accumulation rates at the core top range from approximately 1 to 18 mg m-2 yr-1. Pre-industrial bottom core samples indicate that the central and northeastern sectors of the Bay are strongly affected by Hg enrichment: concentrations exceed the estimated baseline concentration by up to 20 factors. A cumulative Hg inventory suggests that the metal content

  14. Natural gas conversion program of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil; Projeto de conversao do sistema de distribuicao de gas canalizado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

    Pallottino, J.T.; Costa Filho, M.A.F.; Guarana, L.F.M.L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Margalef, J.M. [Companhia Estadual de Gas (CEG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the Conversion Project of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, that converted all customers and the distribution network from Manufactured Gas (MG) to Natural Gas (NG), evaluating its logistic and benefits, highlighting those related to consumer safety. The Conversion Project was executed under the responsibility of CEG with the support of UERJ, specially on the definition and revision of the technical procedures as well as the quality assurance of the project execution. As main advantages followed by MG to NG network conversion, we can note: increasing of gas distribution network capacity and gas network operational condition improvements; elimination of production plant; revision and renovation of gas network; revision and repairing of building gas facilities; augmenting of NG usage; elimination of carbon monoxide as a supplied gas constituent. Conservation condition of most consumer internal gas facilities and ambient ventilation were so critical that conversion program resulted in no measurable accident prevention. The achieved safety level should be maintained through a periodically re-evaluation program of customer's gas facilities and appliances, with special focus on permanent ventilation required for NG safety usage. (author)

  15. Unveiling of HIV dynamics among transgender women: a respondent-driven sampling study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Jalil, Emilia M; Monteiro, Laylla; Velasque, Luciane; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Garcia, Ana Cristina F; Castro, Cristiane V; Krüger, Alícia; Luz, Paula M; Liu, Albert Y; McFarland, Willi; Buchbinder, Susan; Veloso, Valdilea G; Wilson, Erin C

    2017-04-01

    The burden of HIV in transgender women (transwomen) in Brazil remains unknown. We aimed to estimate HIV prevalence among transwomen in Rio de Janeiro and to identify predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections. We recruited transwomen from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, by respondent-driven sampling. Eligibility criteria were self-identification as transwomen, being 18 years of age or older, living in Rio de Janeiro or its metropolitan area, and having a valid peer recruitment coupon. We recruited 12 seed participants from social movements and formative focus groups who then used peer recruitment coupons to refer subsequent peers to the study. We categorised participants as HIV negative, known HIV infected, or newly diagnosed as HIV infected. We assessed predictors of newly diagnosed HIV infections by comparing newly diagnosed with HIV-negative participants. We derived population estimates with the Respondent-Driven Sampling II estimator. Between Aug 1, 2015, and Jan 29, 2016, we enrolled 345 eligible transwomen. 29·1% (95% CI 23·2-35·4) of participants had no previous HIV testing (adjusted from 60 participants), 31·2% (18·8-43·6) had HIV infections (adjusted from 141 participants), and 7·0% (0·0-15·9) were newly diagnosed as HIV infected (adjusted from 40 participants). We diagnosed syphilis in 28·9% (18·0-39·8) of participants, rectal chlamydia in 14·6% (5·4-23·8), and gonorrhoea in 13·5% (3·2-23·8). Newly diagnosed HIV infections were associated with black race (odds ratio 22·8 [95% CI 2·9-178·9]; p=0·003), travesti (34·1 [5·8-200·2]; p=0·0001) or transsexual woman (41·3 [6·3-271·2]; p=0·0001) gender identity, history of sex work (30·7 [3·5-267·3]; p=0·002), and history of sniffing cocaine (4·4 [1·4-14·1]; p=0·01). Our results suggest that transwomen bear the largest burden of HIV among any population at risk in Brazil. The high proportion of HIV diagnosis among young participants points to the need for tailored long-term health

  16. Dredging and disposal of fine sediments in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Barbosa, M C; de Souza Soares de Almeida, M

    2001-07-30

    Dredging is employed quite frequently in the state of Rio de Janeiro, especially for the installation and upkeep of commercial ports and rehabilitation of the hydraulic section of silted bodies of water. Until recently, all dredged material with no economic use was destined for marine disposal or stored at the edge of the water body. Since the 1990s, however, a new approach has been adopted for dredging as a result of pressure from the environmental organisations, encouraging closer interaction in Rio de Janeiro between the local and state public authorities and the universities on issues relating to licensing of this kind of activity. The recent experiments of the Civil and Ocean Engineering Programs of COPPE-UFRJ (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro) described herein are included in this context. The state of Rio de Janeiro has three bays, several coastal lagoon systems and a number of small and medium sized rivers in or close to urban areas, with a gentle slope as they near the sea. This is, then, a region highly susceptible to silting processes of water bodies, and therefore, to maintenance and/or environmental rehabilitation. As discussed in the article, fine and almost always organic sediments prevail, which is a considerable obstacle to the end disposal and possibility of reuse.

  17. Strategy and use of pipelined natural gas in Brazil: the case of Rio de Janeiro State

    Rodrigues, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The systems of energy distribution by pipelined fuel gas in the residential sector of the state of Rio de Janeiro is analyzed. It studies the potential market for the expansion of pipelined gas and its distribution in urban areas, and presents as well commentaries and recommendation on energy policy for the use of natural gas. (author)

  18. Heavy metals in seafood of Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Pfeiffer, W.C.; Fiszman, M.; Lima, N.R.W.; Lacerda, L.D. de

    Metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Zn, Mn and Pb, were measured in seafood items from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, The results showed that the highest concentrations are presented by filter-feeding molluscs, probably due to their relationship with the bay's suspended particulate matter. (M.A.C.) [pt

  19. Evaluation of quality of tomographs of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Travassos, P.C.B.; Belem, V.R.; Magalhaes, L.A.; Almeida, C.E.A. de

    2014-01-01

    Computerized tomographs used in 56 institutions in the state of Rio de Janeiro were evaluated. Criteria of image quality and dosimetry were submitted. The results showed that some not performed optimize their protocols examinations or perform wrongly, which results in an increase in the dose received by patients, and an image in compromised quality. (author)

  20. Polychaete assemblage of an impacted estuary, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Leonardo Santi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight stations were sampled in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to assess the spatio-temporal diversity and biomass of sublittoral polychaetes. Samples were collected during the dry (September 2000 and rainy season (May 2001 in shallow sublittoral sediments. The polychaete spatial composition showed a heterogeneous distribution throughout the bay. A negative gradient of diversity and biomass was observed towards the inner parts of the bay and sheltered areas. A wide azoic area was found inside the bay. Some high-biomass and low-diversity spots were found near a sewage-discharge point. In these areas, the polychaete biomass increased after the rainy season. A diversified polychaete community was identified around the bay mouth, with no dramatic changes of this pattern between the two sampling periods. Deposit-feeders were dominant in the entire study area. The relative importance of carnivores and omnivores increased towards the outer sector, at stations with coarse sediment fractions. Guanabara Bay can be divided into three main zones with respect to environmental conditions and polychaete diversity and biomass patterns: A High polychaete diversity, hydrodynamically exposed areas composed of sandy, oxidized or moderately reduced sediments with normoxic conditions in the water column. B Low diversity and high biomass of deposit and suspension-feeding polychaete species in the middle part of the bay near continental inflows, comprising stations sharing similar proportions of silt, clay and fine sands. C Azoic area or an impoverished polychaete community in hydrodynamically low-energy areas of silt and clay with extremely reduced sediments, high total organic matter content and hypoxic conditions in the water column, located essentially from the mid-bay towards the north sector. High total organic matter content and hypoxic conditions combined with slow water renewal in the inner bay seemed to play a key role in the polychaete

  1. STATUS OF THE AMERICAN TEGUMENTARY LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO DE JANEIRO , BRAZIL, FROM 2004 TO 2013

    VITA, Gilmar Ferreira; PEREIRA, Maria Angélica Vieira DA COSTA; FERREIRA, Ildemar; SANAVRIA, Argemiro; BARBOSA, Celso Guimarães; AURNHEIMER, Rita de Cássia Martins; de MELLO, Ericson Ramos; da SILVA, Claudia Bezerra; CABRAL, Rísia Brígida Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of the present study was to analyze the status of the American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, from 2004 to 2013, through its spatiotemporal distribution. We also described variables considered relevant to the epidemiology of the disease, such as the clinical form, gender, ethnic group, age group, and progression of disease. This is a descriptive study, which used notified secondary data from the Brazilian Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN), Ministry of Health, Brazil, regarding confirmed diagnoses. To help the calculation of coefficients of detection and mortality, we used population data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). We analyzed 1,470 cases of ATL with the predominance of the cutaneous clinical form (1,292/87.89%). The data has also revealed seven deaths, a predominance of males (922/62.72%), and a higher incidence of ATL in the white ethnic group (731/49.72%). We observed a high incidence of ATL in the group of 20 - 39 years old (477/32.44%). We concluded that there was a decrease in the number of ATL cases in the state of Rio de Janeiro, based on a coefficient of detection of 1.44/100.000 inhabitants in 2004 decreasing to 0.20/100.000 inhabitants in 2013. The localities with the highest occurrences of ATL were the metropolitan region (843 cases) and the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (740 cases). In 2005, the highest incidence of the disease was observed (351 cases) in the study. Among the variables selected to describe the epidemiology of the disease, the following categories: cutaneous clinical form, male patients, white ethnic group, and the age group of 20 - 39 years old were more affected than the others. PMID:27680176

  2. Pollen grains in quaternary sediments from the Campos Basin, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Core BU-91-GL-05

    Aline Gonçalves de Freitas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here, we describe pollen grains extracted from a Pleistocene-Holocene sediment core (BU-91-GL-05; 22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W taken from the Albacora Slope (22°48'45"S; 41°54'13"W, located in the Campos Basin of the northern region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis resulted in the identification and morphological description of 46 types of pollen: one of a gymnosperm genus (Podocarpus; and 45 of angiosperm taxa across 27 families-one family of monocotyledons (Poaceae and 26 families (30 types of dicotyledons. The most common angiosperm families were Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium, Amaranthus and Gomphrena; Fabaceae (Fabaceae type, Bauhinia, Inga and Canavalia; Malpighiaceae (Tetrapteris, Heteropteris and Peixotoa; Malvaceae (Sida, Abutilon, Hibiscus and Pseudobombax; Rubiaceae (Faramea, Borreria and Psychotria; Asteraceae (Eupatorium and tribe Vernonieae; Bignoniaceae (Bignoniaceae type, Adenocalymma and Tabebuia; and Onagraceae (Fuchsia and Ludwigia. The palynoflora in this study are associated with dense montane and submontane Atlantic Forest, semideciduous forest and restinga (coastal woodland, all of which are present in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Palynological analysis can provide important data about paleovegetation and paleoclimatic changes in the studied area during the Quaternary, specifically in the last 145,000 years.

  3. Dioxins and furans in breast milk: a case study of mothers from southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs and polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs was conducted in a pooled sample of breast milk from 27 primiparous mothers living in 12 locations in the meso-region industrial area of southern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between August 2012 and July 2013. Questionnaires with questions regarding food habits, social and economic conditions and places of dwelling were applied. Milk was collected between four and six weeks after delivery from mothers were breast-feeding only one infant. The toxic equivalency (TEQ of PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs were 10.6, 4.77, 6.96 TEQ pg/g, respectively. The understanding and identification of pollution sources may be helpful for applying better counter measures against breast milk dioxin contamination. It is important for pregnant women to have a diet that is as free as possible from chemical contaminants. Further research must be undertaken in the context of epidemiological investigations to more accurately assess the effects of these compounds. The background contamination by PCDD/Fs, and dl-PCBs in mothers living at industrial area in Rio de Janeiro is lower than that generally found in industrialized countries.

  4. Detection and molecular characterization of group A rotavirus from hospitalized children in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2004

    Filipe Anibal Carvalho-Costa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus is a major cause of infantile acute diarrhea, causing about 440,000 deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. The World Health Organization has been recommending the assessment of rotavirus burden and strain characterization as part of the strategies of immunization programs against this pathogen. In this context, a prospective study was made on a sample of 134 children with acute diarrhea and severe dehydration admitted to venous fluid therapy in two state hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from February to September 2004. Rotavirus where detected by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE and by an enzyme-linked immunoassay to rotavirus and adenovirus (EIARA in 48% of the children. Positive samples for group A rotavirus (n = 65 were analyzed by reverse transcription/heminested multiplex polymerase chain reaction to determine the frequency of G and [P] genotypes and, from these, 64 samples could be typed. The most frequent G genotype was G1 (58% followed by G9 (40%. One mixed infection (G1/G9 was detected. The only [P] genotype identified was [8]. In order to estimate the rotavirus infection frequency in children who acquired diarrhea as hospital infection in those hospitals, we studied 24 patients, detecting the pathogen in 41% of them. This data suggest that genotype G9 is an important genotype in Rio de Janeiro, with implications to the future strategies of vaccination against rotavirus, reinforcing the need of continuous monitoring of circulating strains of the pathogen, in a surveillance context.

  5. Description of a widespread outbreak of aseptic meningitis due to echovirus 30 in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Junior

    Full Text Available Echovirus 30 belongs to the genus Enterovirus and is widely associated with aseptic meningitis (AM outbreaks. In Brazil epidemics due to this serotype were reported in several states but in Rio de Janeiro, before this study, it was only involved in sporadic episodes. We retrospectively collected data from AM notifications charts and enterovirus isolation database from Rio de Janeiro State Health Department (RJSHD and Enterovirus Reference Laboratory in the year of 2005. An outbreak of AM was detected during March, April and May associated with a high cell culture isolation rate for echovirus 30 (17.4%. Male children with ages varying from 1 to 9 years were more affected. Of the 22 patients with confirmed echovirus 30 disease, clinical information was available in eight; fever, headache and vomiting were the most common manifestations. CSF analysis showed a typical pattern of viral infection with median of cellularity of 100 cells/mm³ and mononuclear cell predominance in 64.7% of the cases. The median of protein and glucose levels of 49 mg/dL and 56.5 mg/dL. The fatality rate was null. Despite its benign course and the lack of treatment options, aseptic meningitis surveillance is crucial for early identification of causative agents of outbreaks, which helps to avoid additional testing and inappropriate use of antimicrobials.

  6. HEAVY METALS LEVELS IN LARUS DOMINICANUS. CASE STUDY: COROA GRANDE MANGROVE, SEPETIBA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of liver and kidney of Kelp gull (Larus dominicanus collected on Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analysed for their copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium and nickel content. All the analyses were made using the inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometry method (ICP-OES. The investigation focused on the variability of the elements content in kidney and liver from a number of sampling seabirds and over different seasons. The results were interpreted using the analysis of variance test (ANOVA. This has revealed differences in concentration for the majority of elements with regard to organs, and how different sampling metals and organs are related to each other. Results indicate relatively high trace etalcontamination in L. dominicanus, showing potential power of idespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects in trophic levels, and herefore, signalling risk to human health.

  7. Phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Elaine Bernini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociology of planted and natural mangrove forests were compared in the estuary of the Ostras River, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Vegetation sampling was performed by the plot method, and the diameter at breast height (DBH and height of individuals > 1 m tall were recorded. The results indicated that the planted forest had lower average DBH and basal area and higher density of trunks in relation to natural forest. The distribution of individuals by height class and the distribution of stems per diameter class showed that the planted forest was younger. Laguncularia racemosa and Rhizophora mangle occurred in both forests, while Avicennia schaueriana was found only in the planted forest. Laguncularia racemosa showed greater dominance and relative density at all sites analyzed, probably because it is characteristic of sites with less marine influence and the fact that the estuary had been altered by human disturbance.

  8. Mass balance in the monitoring of pollutants in tidal rivers of the Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    da Silveira, Raquel Pinhão; Rodrigues, Ana Paula de Castro; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal; Cordeiro, Renato Campello; Bidone, Edison Dausacker

    2011-10-01

    This study addressed the identification and monitoring of pollution sources of terrestrial origin in rivers (domestic sewage and industrial effluents) and critical fluvial segments in highly polluted environments under tidal influence (mixing marine and continental sources) from Guanabara Bay Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mass balance of contaminants was determined in conditions of continuous flow (low tide) during dry season (lower dilution capability). The results allowed the evaluation of the potential of contaminant mass generation by the different river segments and the estimation of their natural and anthropogenic components. The water quality of Iguaçú and Sarapuí Rivers were evaluated for metals and biochemical oxygen demand. The method gave an excellent response, including the possibility of sources identification and contaminated river segments ranking. The approach also offers fast execution and data interpretation, being highly efficient.

  9. Parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an approach in public health

    Beatriz Coronato

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to describe the frequency of parasites in stool samples in the environment of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One hundred and five stool samples were collected and processed by the coproparasitological techniques ethyl acetate sedimentation and centrifuge-flotation using saturated sugar solution. Parasites were detected in 81.9% of the samples, hookworm being the most prevalent, followed by Trichuris vulpis. Ascaris sp. eggs were also found. A high level of evolutive forms of parasites with public health risk was found in stool samples of the environment studied. We propose that health education programs, allied to an improvement of human and animal health care, must be employed to reduce the environmental contamination.

  10. Ecology and biotechnological potential of bacterial community from three marine sponges of the coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    FÁBIO V. DE ARAÚJO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Marine sponges has been a large reservoir of microbial diversity, with the presence of many species specific populations as well as producing biologically active compounds, which has attracted great biotechnological interest. In order to verify the influence of the environment in the composition of the bacterial community present in marine sponges and biotechnological potential of bacteria isolated from these organisms, three species of sponges and the waters surrounding them were collected in different beaches of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The profile of the bacterial community present in sponges and water was obtained by PCR-DGGE technique and the biotechnological potential of the strains isolated by producing amylase, cellulase, protease and biosurfactants. The results showed that despite the influence of the environment in the composition of the microbial community, studied marine sponges shown to have specific bacterial populations, with some, showing potential in the production of substances of biotechnological applications.

  11. Social Soccer in Three Times: Observations of a Festival Association in Caju, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2014

    Fernando Segura Millan Trejo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article lies in exposing research findings about the use of sport, of football in particular, as a tool for social work. Based on the observation of the Football for Hope´s festival carried out in Caju, the harbor area of Rio de Janeiro, during the World Cup of Brazil 2014, social accompaniment through football is discussed. Taking into consideration other international researches already conducted, the data here presented emanates from the narratives of the participants interviewed and ethnographic observation of this festival that is characterized by the use of a kind of football with three halves. The article reviews the participants´ perceptions about their past, the experience of the festival and their expectations as the ultimate recipients.

  12. Small area estimation of obesity prevalence and dietary patterns: a model applied to Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil.

    Cataife, Guido

    2014-03-01

    We propose the use of previously developed small area estimation techniques to monitor obesity and dietary habits in developing countries and apply the model to Rio de Janeiro city. We estimate obesity prevalence rates at the Census Tract through a combinatorial optimization spatial microsimulation model that matches body mass index and socio-demographic data in Brazil's 2008-9 family expenditure survey with Census 2010 socio-demographic data. Obesity ranges from 8% to 25% in most areas and affects the poor almost as much as the rich. Male and female obesity rates are uncorrelated at the small area level. The model is an effective tool to understand the complexity of the problem and to aid in policy design. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Design of risk communication strategies based on risk perception among farmers exposed to pesticides in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Peres, Frederico; Rodrigues, Karla Meneses; da Silva Peixoto Belo, Mariana Soares; Moreira, Josino Costa; Claudio, Luz

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess pesticide exposure risk perception among farmers from three rural areas of Nova Friburgo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 66 adults and participatory workshops with 27 teenagers and analyzed through content analysis techniques. Systematized results were discussed at local meetings, and two risk communication initiatives were devised. Study results demonstrated the use of defensive strategies by men and a diminished risk perception among women. Teenagers relied on parents to develop their own work practices. These findings supported the importance of cultural and social determinants of farmers' understandings of risk and of the relevance of different pesticide exposure pathways. Risk perceptions and work practices are strongly influenced by local cultural patterns and, therefore, must be taken into account when developing effective intervention strategies, including risk communication initiatives. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Governance mechanisms and the institutional design of the Health Secretariat in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil.

    Ribeiro, José Mendes; Alcoforado, Flávio

    2016-05-01

    In this article, we outline the discussions about the mechanisms of governance and public administration taking into account the main political and economic schools of thought which affect the decisions taken by elected and public bodies. We discuss the pendulum-style approach of the reforms and the degree of minimization of the Weberian thesis on rational bureaucracy. Taking into account conceptual aspects and the trajectory of the debate on a new form of public governance and the 1995 State of Brazil reforms, we analyzed the institutional design of the Municipal Health Secretariat in Rio de Janeiro after the reforms were adopted, based on a social organizational model. We also took into account regulatory capacity and the sustainability of the governmental schools.

  15. [Family and acquaintances of illicit drug users: community perspectives on laws and public policies in Western Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    This article is part of the study 'Illicit Drug Use in Seven Latin American Countries and Canada: Critical Perspectives of Family and Familiars' (7LACC), which investigated four domains: protective and risk factors; preventive initiatives; treatment facilities; and laws and policies. The article presents a section of the results based on four items of the laws and policies domain--as perceived by the family and acquaintances of illicit drug users living in the community. Participants were recruited in urban primary health care units located in Western Rio de Janeiro (city), Brazil. This multi-method, cross-temporal study performed interviews with 100 adults (18 years of age or older), all cognitively healthy. Results and key conclusions included non-compliance with the fundamental principles of the Unique Health System Legislation / Law 8.080/90 and the erroneous implementation of laws and public policies on illicit drug.

  16. Free-living ixodid ticks in an urban Atlantic Forest fragment, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Patrício, Priscilla Maria Peixoto; Sá-Hungaro, Iwine Joyce Barbosa de; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the importance of ticks in forests in protected areas, was conducted survey of species of free-living ticks in the Natural Park Municipal Curió, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Monthly samples were taken by dragging method, dry ice traps and visual search in two transects. Adults and nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense (n= 147), Amblyomma brasiliense (n= 4) and Amblyomma parvum (n= 1) were collected. This is the first occurrence of A. parvum in the state. No correlation was found between the abundance of stages of A. cajennense and rainfall, temperature and relative humidity. The highest abundances of adults were in the months of January and May, and nymphs in September and October. The low diversity of parasites on Curió Park can be attributed to the proximity of households with pets, which would also explain the higher abundance of A. cajennense that is commonly found in areas impacted by anthropogenic pressure.

  17. Intestinal parasite infections in a rural community of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis subtypes.

    Barbosa, Carolina Valença; Barreto, Magali Muniz; Andrade, Rosemary de Jesus; Sodré, Fernando; d'Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini; Peralta, José Mauro; Igreja, Ricardo Pereira; de Macedo, Heloisa Werneck; Santos, Helena Lucia Carneiro

    2018-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The stool samples were evaluated by parasitological methods, fecal culture, nested PCR and PCR/Sequencing. Overall prevalence by parasitological analyses was 64.3% (189 out of 294 cases). Blastocystis sp. (55.8%) was the most prevalent, followed by Endolimax nana (18.7%), Entamoeba histolytica complex (7.1%), hookworm infection (7.1%), Entomoeba coli (5.8%), Giardia intestinalis (4.1%), Iodamoeba butchilii (1.0%), Trichuris trichiura (1.0%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (0.7%), Enterobius vermicularis (0.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%) and Strongyloides stercoralis (0.7%). Prevalence of IPIs was significantly different by gender. Phylogenetic analysis of Blastocystis sp. and BLAST search revealed five different subtypes: ST3 (34.0%), ST1 (27.0%), ST2 (27.0%), ST4 (3.5%), ST8 (7.0%) and a non-identified subtype. Our findings demonstrate that intestinal parasite infection rates in rural areas of the Sumidouro municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are still high and remain a challenge to public health. Moreover, our data reveals significant genetic heterogeneity of Blastocystis sp. subtypes and a possible novel subtype, whose confirmation will require additional data. Our study contributes to the understanding of potential routes of transmission, epidemiology, and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. in rural areas both at a regional and global scale.

  18. Synopsis of Commelina L. (Commelinaceae) in the state of Rio de Janeiro, reveals a new white-flowered species endemic to Brazil

    Pellegrini, Marco Octávio de Oliveira; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A synopsis for the genus Commelina in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is presented here, including a new species, ten new synonyms, five designated lectotypes, two designated epitypes and an excluded name. Commelina huntii, a new species, is remarkable due to the combination of rusty to rusty-brown hairs at the margin of its leaf-sheaths, connate spathes, white flowers with auriculate medial petal, ovaries with sparse black papillae and dehiscent fruits. Additionally, we provide an identification key, illustrations, and conservation status for the species of Commelina recorded in the state of Rio de Janeiro. PMID:28781552

  19. Energetic matrix of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil - 1994/2004

    1996-01-01

    This book has been structured into three parts and three appendices. In the first part, named Energetic matrix of Rio de Janeiro State, the most important economic and social aspects of the State and the methodology for elaboration of economic and energetic scenarios has been detailed. In the second part, an analysis of seven consumption sectors components of the energetic matrix structure ( industrial, transports, residential, commercial, energetic, agriculture and cattle-breeding, non energetic) has been performed, with the objective of providing information on the present status and future prospects of energy consumption by sectors up to 2004. Finally, in the third part, the energy supply of Rio de Janeiro State for the consumption sectors has been discussed

  20. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in frequent in equines from an endemic area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Cruz Manuel Aguilar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available In an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro State where a mule had been found infected, a systematic search among equines was performed, resulting in the detection of Leishmania parasites in skin lesions of 30.8% of the animals, which included horses and mules. The eventual role of equines in the epidemiology of the human disease is being investigated.O achado de uma mula infectada num foco endêmico de leishmaniose tegumentar no Rio de Janeiro, levou-nos a procurar sistematicamente infecções por Leishmania em equinos, resultando no encontro de 30,8% de parasitados, incluindo cavalos e mulas. A possibilidade de esses animais participarem da cadeia epidemiológica da leishmaniose humana está sendo investigada.

  1. FIRST REPORT OF ACUTE CHAGAS DISEASE BY VECTOR TRANSMISSION IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    Luiz Henrique Conde SANGENIS

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Chagas disease (CD is an endemic anthropozoonosis from Latin America of which the main means of transmission is the contact of skin lesions or mucosa with the feces of triatomine bugs infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. In this article, we describe the first acute CD case acquired by vector transmission in the Rio de Janeiro State and confirmed by parasitological, serological and PCR tests. The patient presented acute cardiomyopathy and pericardial effusion without cardiac tamponade. Together with fever and malaise, a 3 cm wide erythematous, non-pruritic, papule compatible with a "chagoma" was found on his left wrist. This case report draws attention to the possible transmission of CD by non-domiciled native vectors in non-endemic areas. Therefore, acute CD should be included in the diagnostic workout of febrile diseases and acute myopericarditis in Rio de Janeiro.

  2. Evaluation of radiation protection parameters in dental radiography in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Dovales, Ana Cristina M.; Oliveira, Sergio L. Girao de; Cucco, Antonio Carlos S.; Bezerra, Marcos Antonio; Mota, Helvecio C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained in a program for the postal evaluation of radiation protection parameters in dental radiography in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The postal kit contains a radiographic film and two pairs of thermoluminescent dosimeters separated by a 3 mm aluminium filter and is accompanied by a questionnaire about equipment characteristics and exposition parameters. The analysis of 2596 equipment in the last three years showed that near half of the examinations produces doses higher than the diagnostic reference level established by the health authorities for this kind of examination. Field diameter is within the acceptable range in 73,5% of the tests and total filtration is higher than 1,5 mm Al equivalent in 86,64% of the cases. Comparing with earlier results this analysis suggests that radiation protection conditions in dental radiography are improving in the state of Rio de Janeiro. (author)

  3. The historiography of psychoanalysis in Brazil: the case of Rio de Janeiro.

    Facchinetti, Cristiana; De Castro, Rafael Dias

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze the background of the historiography of psychoanalysis in Rio de Janeiro. Three different phases and approaches are analyzed, based on the viewpoints of different groups of authors. The first group features authors who displayed an early interest in the subject, in the 1920's-1930's. The second refers to psychiatrists/psychoanalysts who worked with mental health institutes and societies between the 1940's and 1970's, while the third perspective comes from the academic/university environment, from the end of the 70's to the present. This distinction was made not only to better define the timeframe of the arrival and dissemination of psychoanalysis in Rio de Janeiro, but also to provide a better understanding of the relation between the specific professional and intellectual interests of each group and the respective historical context.

  4. Chemical composition of sage (Salvia officinalis L. essential oil from the Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

    A. Porte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil from fresh leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L. from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro State, for international trade. The oil was isolated by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed through a combination of GC-FID and GC-MS. The yield was 2.3 % on dry basis. Forty-seven constituents were identified according to their chromatographic retention indices and mass spectra, corresponding to 94.90 % of the compounds present. The major constituents of the oil were α-thujone (40.90 %, camphor (26.12 %, α-pinene (5.85 % and β-thujone (5.62 %. The essential oil studied was similar to those found in several European countries and can be a valuable product for the small farmers from the Petrópolis region in Rio de Janeiro State.

  5. Trace metal contamination in mangrove sediments, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Farias,Cassia O.; Hamacher,Claudia; Wagener,Angela de Luca R.; Campos,Reinaldo C. de; Godoy,José M.

    2007-01-01

    The Guanabara Bay in Rio de Janeiro has undergone profound alterations of its natural environmental conditions. Metal concentration increase in sediments has been reported to be among these alterations. Trace-metal contamination and availability were studied in sediments of 3 mangrove areas of the bay. Cd, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu and Al concentrations were determined in segments of sediment cores, after treatment with 1 mol L-1 HCl and with concentrated HNO3. Fe and Mn were determined in the leach wit...

  6. Agravos provocados por medicamentos em hospitais do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Drug adverse events in hospitals in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Suely Rozenfeld

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A ocorrência de agravos provocados por medicamentos no meio hospitalar é elevada e gera custos excedentes. O objetivo do estudo foi identificar problemas relacionados a medicamentos ocorridos durante a internação hospitalar e estimar a prevalência desses agravos. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas as internações pagas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde entre 1999 e 2002. Os dados foram extraídos do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares. Selecionaram-se as internações que apresentaram um dos códigos da CID-10 (2000 suspeitos de serem agravos provocados por medicamentos, que estivessem nos campos do diagnóstico principal e/ou do diagnóstico secundário. Para as variáveis contínuas estimou-se a média, e o desvio-padrão, sendo a significância estatística entre as diferenças testada por meio de análise de variância (ANOVA, com intervalo de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 3.421 casos equivalentes à freqüência de 1,8 casos/1.000 internações, ocorridos, sobretudo, em homens (64,5%, nos hospitais contratados (34,9% e nos municipais (23,1%, nos leitos de psiquiatria (51,4% e de clínica médica (45,2%, dos quais 84,1% resultaram em alta. A maioria dos agravos foi por reações adversas e de intoxicações e, entre essas categorias, há diferenças significativas (pOBJECTIVE: The occurrence of drug adverse events in hospital settings is high and generates cost excess. The purpose of the study was to identify drug-related events during hospital admissions and to estimate their prevalence. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil. Hospitalizations from the Brazilian Health System's national hospital database during the period between 1999 and 2002 were assessed. Admitted cases including suspected drug adverse event cases with ICD-10 (2000 coding in the main diagnosis and/or secondary diagnosis fields

  7. Teores de ácidos graxos trans de alguns alimentos consumidos no Rio de Janeiro Trans fatty acids of some foods consumed in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Vera Lúcia Chiara

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Desconhecem-se os teores de ácidos graxos trans em diversos alimentos. Este estudo analisou os teores de ácidos graxos trans, saturados, monoinsaturados e poliinsaturados em batatas fritas, biscoitos e sorvetes. As batatas fritas foram dos tipos chips e de duas redes de fast food, os sorvetes, de duas marcas comerciais e de duas lojas de fast food, e os biscoitos, de marcas diferentes. As amostras de batatas chips e de biscoitos pertenciam a lotes distintos e foram adquiridas em supermercados da região. Analisaram-se seis amostras por produto, através de cromatografia gasosa. O valor médio dos ácidos trans de batatas fritas de redes de fast food foi de 4,74g/100g, enquanto em batatas chips estes ácidos graxos não foram detectados. Nos sorvetes os valores variaram de 0,041g a 1,41g e em biscoitos, de 2,81g a 5,60g. Biscoitos tipo cream cracker apresentaram teores de ácidos graxos trans mais altos e de insaturados mais baixos. Concluiu-se que alguns produtos apresentaram, em 100g, teores de ácidos graxos trans superiores aos recomendados para ingestão total diária em diversos países.The content of trans fatty acids in most consumed foods in Brazil is unknown. This study assessed trans saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in samples of fried potatoes, cookies and ice cream. The analysis included: potato chips and fried potatoes from two popular fast food restaurants, ice cream of two different trademarks and from two fast food restaurants, and cookies of different trademarks. The samples of potato chips and cookies were acquired in different supermarkets in the city of Rio de Janeiro, and distinct manufacture dates were chosen. Six samples of each product were analyzed through gas chromatography. The average trans fatty acids content in fried potatoes from fast food restaurants was 4.74g/100g; in ice cream the values varied from 0.041g to 1.41g; and in cookies the values varied from 2.81g to 5.60g. No trans fatty

  8. New host records for Amblyomma rotundatum (Acari: Ixodidae) from Grussaí restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Viana, Lúcio André; Winck, Gisele Regina; Almeida-Santos, Marlon; Telles, Felipe Bottona da Silva; Gazêta, Gilberto Salles; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Amblyomma rotundatum Koch is a parthenogenetic tick usually associated with reptiles and amphibians. However, relatively few studies on occurrences of ticks in wild reptile populations in Brazil have been produced. The aim of this study was to analyze the presence of ticks associated with reptile species in the Grussaí restinga, in the municipality of São João da Barra, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between December 2010 and January 2011, 131 individuals belonging to nine species of reptiles of the order Squamata were sampled: the lizards Tropidurus torquatus (n = 51), Hemidactylus mabouia (n = 25), Mabuya agilis (n = 30), Mabuya macrorhyncha (n = 6), Cnemidophorus littoralis (n = 5) and Ameiva ameiva (n = 10); and the snakes Philodryas olfersii (n = 2), Oxyrhopus rhombifer (n = 1) and Micrurus corallinus (n = 1). The only tick species found to be associated with any of the reptiles sampled was A. rotundatum. One adult female was detected on one individual of the lizard A. ameiva, one nymph on one individual of the lizard T. torquatus and four nymphs on one individual of the snake P. olfersii. This study is the first record of parasitism of A. rotundatum involving the reptiles T. torquatus and P. olfersii as hosts. Our results suggest that in the Grussaí restinga habitat, A. rotundatum may use different species of reptiles to complete its life cycle.

  9. Patient-provider communication and reproductive health among HIV-positive women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Malta, Monica; Todd, Catherine S; Stibich, Mark A; Garcia, Thais; Pacheco, Diego; Bastos, Francisco I

    2010-12-01

    To qualitatively assess the influence of patient-provider communication on contraceptive choice among HIV-positive women in the context of universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) access. Focus group discussions (FGD; n=3), in-depth (IDI; n=15) and freelist interviews (FLI; n=36) were conducted with HIV-positive women aged 18-40 years recruited from public health units in Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Of 70 participants, 49 used ART and the median time since HIV diagnosis was 6 years (range: 1-18). The majority of participants (71.4%) reported some degree of dissatisfaction with their health providers (usually lack of open dialogue) and a few reported experiences of stigma/prejudice during appointments. Intra, interpersonal and social factors modulated behaviors and reproductive health decisions, and those issues were rarely addressed by providers during HIV clinical care. Despite dramatic increases in survival and life quality after universal ART implementation in Brazil, reproductive health issues are neglected by multiple cadres of HIV health providers. Communication on reproductive health issues remains fragmented and potentially contradictory, compromising care in these settings. Adequate provider training to address reproductive health-related issues in a comprehensive, culturally sensitive manner and improved integration of HIV and reproductive health care are urgently needed in this setting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of soil fauna under the influence of mercury atmospheric deposition in Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Teixeira, Daniel Cabral; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2015-06-01

    The increasing levels of mercury (Hg) found in the atmosphere arising from anthropogenic sources, have been the object of great concern in the past two decades in industrialized countries. Brazil is the seventh country with the highest rate of mercury in the atmosphere. The major input of Hg to ecosystems is through atmospheric deposition (wet and dry), being transported in the atmosphere over large distances. The forest biomes are of strong importance in the atmosphere/soil cycling of elemental Hg through foliar uptake and subsequent transference to the soil through litter, playing an important role as sink of this element. Soil microarthropods are keys to understanding the soil ecosystem, and for such purpose were characterized by the soil fauna of two Units of Forest Conservation of the state of the Rio de Janeiro, inwhich one of the areas suffer quite interference from petrochemicals and industrial anthropogenic activities and other area almost exempts of these perturbations. The results showed that soil and litter of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil tend to stock high mercury concentrations, which could affect the abundance and richness of soil fauna, endangering its biodiversity and thereby the functioning of ecosystems. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Two new species of Neanuridae (Collembola: Poduromorpha) from littoral of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Silveira, T C; Mendonça, M C

    2018-01-06

    Samples collected in "restinga" areas of two conservation units in Rio de Janeiro state revealed the presence of two new species of Neanuridae family. The first, Pseudachorutes solaris sp. nov., from Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and from Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, differs from other species for having 34-50 vesicles in the postantennal organ, and the second, Friesea jurubatiba sp. nov. from Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, differs from other species for having 8 clavate chaetae in the abdominal segment VI.

  12. Palms (Arecaceae) from the restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Reis, Ricardo Carneiro da Cunha

    2006-01-01

    Neste trabalho foram coletadas, identificadas e sistematizadas as palmeiras das restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para a coleta de material, foram eleitas cinco estações de coleta consideradas representativas em termos de ocorrência de palmeiras. Foram identificadas 11 espécies, as quais podem ser reconhecidas pelo uso da chave dicotômica fornecida, e confirmadas pelas descrições e fotos apresentadas. O tratamento taxonômico das espécies encontra-se complementado por informações de distr...

  13. Evaluation of doses in conventional radiology in the cities of Rio de Janeiro e Recife, Brazil

    Azevedo, Ana Cecilia P.; Osibote, Adelaja O.; Khoury, Helen J.

    2005-01-01

    This work is part of a program of evaluating doses in patients developed in several hospitals in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Pernambuco. We used the program DoseCal to evaluate the Input Skin Dose (DEP) and the Effective Dose (DE) in big public hospitals in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Recife. It were included in the survey the doses of chest radiographs, cervical spine, lumbar spine, skull and pelvis in the projections AP, PA and LAT. To chest in PA the average value of DEP for the hospital A was 0.19 mGy. For to hospital B was 0.07 mGy. For the exam of the skull in PA the average value in A was 3.25 mGy and B of 0.49 mGy. With respect to radiological techniques might be noted that in most cases the hospital A used kilovoltage lower than in B and miliamperes higher. This can be one of the explanations for the difference of the values found for DEP and DE. The results showed significant discrepancies in values of doses as radiographic techniques when compared to the requirements established by the European Community for X-rays with image quality. This result is due to several factors: filtration, radiographic technique, professional technical experience and performance of radiographic equipment

  14. Concentration of fallout Cesium-137 in soils of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Ribeiro, F.C.A.; Lauria, D.C.; Silva, J.I.R., E-mail: fribeiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, E.S.A.; Amaral Sobrinho, N.M.B. do [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Perez, D.V. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (CNPS/EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of fallout {sup 137}Cs in soil samples of the Rio de Janeiro State was investigated. Two-hundred sixty-two samples of soil were analyzed for {sup 137}Cs by gamma spectrometry. A reference data set was built containing thirty-six detected values (14%) and two hundred twenty-six (86%) multiple detection limits of non-detected observations. Distribution pattern of the radionuclide, as well their controlling factors were evaluated based on statistical methods for censored data set (with non-detected observations). The mean of concentration values of thirty-six detected observations was 1.25 Bq.kg{sup -1}, while for the censored data sets the mean value was 0.51 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The references values for the Rio de Janeiro State were estimated as 1.44 Bq.kg{sup -1} (75{sup th}) and 1.78 Bq.kg{sup -1} (90{sup th}) (considering the year of 2015). {sup 137}Cs concentrations tend to be higher in soils with high levels of organic matter and clay and locations with high levels of these parameters would provide higher Cs fixation. No influence of the rainfall index and soil pH on the Cs content in soil was observed. The data and information gathered in this study provide valuable information for decision making purposes in case of soil contamination. (author)

  15. Concentration of fallout Cesium-137 in soils of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Ribeiro, F.C.A.; Lauria, D.C.; Silva, J.I.R.; Lima, E.S.A.; Amaral Sobrinho, N.M.B. do; Perez, D.V.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of fallout "1"3"7Cs in soil samples of the Rio de Janeiro State was investigated. Two-hundred sixty-two samples of soil were analyzed for "1"3"7Cs by gamma spectrometry. A reference data set was built containing thirty-six detected values (14%) and two hundred twenty-six (86%) multiple detection limits of non-detected observations. Distribution pattern of the radionuclide, as well their controlling factors were evaluated based on statistical methods for censored data set (with non-detected observations). The mean of concentration values of thirty-six detected observations was 1.25 Bq.kg"-"1, while for the censored data sets the mean value was 0.51 Bq.kg"-"1. The references values for the Rio de Janeiro State were estimated as 1.44 Bq.kg"-"1 (75"t"h) and 1.78 Bq.kg"-"1 (90"t"h) (considering the year of 2015). "1"3"7Cs concentrations tend to be higher in soils with high levels of organic matter and clay and locations with high levels of these parameters would provide higher Cs fixation. No influence of the rainfall index and soil pH on the Cs content in soil was observed. The data and information gathered in this study provide valuable information for decision making purposes in case of soil contamination. (author)

  16. Retrofitting Housing with Lightweight Green Roof Technology in Sydney, Australia, and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Sara Wilkinson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The built environment contributes around half of total greenhouse gas emissions and with 87% of residential buildings that we will have by 2050 already built, it is vital to adopt sustainable retrofitting practices. The question is: what are the viable solutions? One answer may be green roof retrofitting. The environmental benefits include reduced operational carbon emissions, reduced urban heat island effect, increased bio-diversity, housing temperature attenuation and reduced stormwater run-off. The economic benefits are the reduced maintenance costs and lower running costs. The social gain is the creation of spaces where people have access to green areas. However, the barriers to retrofitting include the perceptions of structural adequacy, the risk of water damage, high installation and maintenance costs, as well as access and security issues. Many Australian and Brazilian residential buildings have metal sheet roofs, a lightweight material with poor thermal performance. During the summer, temperatures in Sydney and Rio de Janeiro reach 45 degrees Celsius, and in both cities, rainfall patterns are changing, with more intense downpours. Furthermore, many residential buildings are leased, and currently, tenants are restricted by the modifications that they can perform to reduce running costs and carbon emissions. This research reports on an experiment on two small-scale metal roofs in Sydney and Rio de Janeiro to assess the thermal performance of portable small-scale modules. The findings are that considerable variation in temperature was found in both countries, indicating that green roof retrofitting could lower the cooling energy demand considerably.

  17. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  18. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    SHEILA P. CARVALHO-FERNANDES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  19. Risk factors for arbovirus infections in a low-income community of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2015-2016.

    Nádia Cristina Pinheiro Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Dengue epidemics have occurred in the city of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil since 1986. In the year 2015, Zika and chikungunya viruses were introduced in the city, causing sequential and simultaneous epidemics. Poor socioeconomic conditions have been suggested as contributing factors of arboviral infection.To describe the spatial distribution of human cases of symptomatic arboviral infections and to identify risk factors for infection in a poor community of Rio de Janeiro in the years 2015 and 2016.We built thematic maps of incidence rates for 78 micro-areas in the Manguinhos neighborhood. The micro-areas congregate about 600 inhabitants. Simple and multiple multilevel logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between the incidence of arboviral diseases and socio-demographic factors at both the individual and micro-area levels.From 2015 to 2016, 370 human cases of arbovirus infection were reported in the Manguinhos community: 123 in 2015 and 247 in 2016. There was a significant difference in the risk of arbovirus diseases among different micro-areas, but this was not explained by water and sanitation indicators. The cumulative incidence rate was 849/100,000 in two years. The incidence was greater in those individuals with familiar vulnerability (1,156/100,000 vs. 794/100,000. The multilevel adjusted model showed that the odds of acquiring an arbovirus infection was 55% greater in those with familiar vulnerability.Arbovirus infections cause a high burden of disease in Brazilian urban centers. Our results suggest that even in poor neighborhoods, there is a high spatial variability in the risk of acquiring an arbovirus infection. The conditions that favor vector proliferation and infection by arboviruses are complex and involve both individual and environmental characteristics that vary from place to place. To reduce the burden of arboviral diseases, continued public health policies and basic services should be provided to the

  20. Synoptic thermodynamic and dynamic patterns associated with Quitandinha River flooding events in Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    da Silva, Fabricio Polifke; Justi da Silva, Maria Gertrudes Alvarez; Rotunno Filho, Otto Corrêa; Pires, Gisele Dornelles; Sampaio, Rafael João; de Araújo, Afonso Augusto Magalhães

    2018-05-01

    Natural disasters are the result of extreme or intense natural phenomena that cause severe impacts on society. These impacts can be mitigated through preventive measures that can be aided by better knowledge of extreme phenomena and monitoring of forecasting and alert systems. The city of Petropolis (in a mountainous region of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) is prone to heavy rain events, often leading to River overflows, landslides, and loss of life. In that context, this work endeavored to characterize the thermodynamic and dynamic synoptic patterns that trigger heavy rainfall episodes and the corresponding flooding of Quitandinha River. More specifically, we reviewed events from the time period between January 2013 and December 2014 using reanalysis data. We expect that the overall description obtained of synoptic patterns should provide adequate qualitative aid to the decision-making processes involved in operational forecasting procedures. We noticed that flooding events were related to the presence of the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), frontal systems (FS), and convective storms (CS). These systems showed a similar behavior on high-frequency wind components, notably with respect to northwest winds before precipitation and to a strong southwest wind component during rainfall events. Clustering analyses indicated that the main component for precipitation formation with regard to CS systems comes from daytime heating, with the dynamic component presenting greater efficiency for the FS configurations. The SACZ events were influenced by moisture availability along the vertical column of the atmosphere and also due to dynamic components of precipitation efficiency and daytime heating, the latter related to the continuous transport of moisture from the Amazon region and South Atlantic Ocean towards Rio de Janeiro state.

  1. Temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti in different districts of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, measured by two types of traps.

    Honório, N A; Codeço, C T; Alves, F C; Magalhães, M A F M; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R

    2009-09-01

    Dengue dynamics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, as in many dengue-endemic regions of the world, is seasonal, with peaks during the wet-hot months. This temporal pattern is generally attributed to the dynamics of its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (L.). The objectives of this study were to characterize the temporal pattern of Ae. aegypti population dynamics in three neighborhoods of Rio de Janeiro and its association with local meteorological variables; and to compare positivity and density indices obtained with ovitraps and MosquiTraps. The three neighborhoods are distinct in vegetation coverage, sanitation, water supply, and urbanization. Mosquito sampling was carried out weekly, from September 2006 to March 2008, a period during which large dengue epidemics occurred in the city. Our results show peaks of oviposition in early summer 2007 and late summer 2008, detected by both traps. The ovitrap provided a more sensitive index than MosquiTrap. The MosquiTrap detection threshold showed high variation among areas, corresponding to a mean egg density of approximately 25-52 eggs per ovitrap. Both temperature and rainfall were significantly related to Ae. aegypti indices at a short (1 wk) time lag. Our results suggest that mean weekly temperature above 22-24 degrees C is strongly associated with high Ae. aegypti abundance and consequently with an increased risk of dengue transmission. Understanding the effects of meteorological variables on Ae. aegypti population dynamics will help to target control measures at the times when vector populations are greatest, contributing to the development of climate-based control and surveillance measures for dengue fever in a hyperendemic area.

  2. From Myth to Reality: The Experience of Sustainable Tourism in The Vale Encantado Community in Tijuca Forest, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Barros, Otávio Alves; Melo, Maria Emília

    2011-01-01

    Considered one of the largest urban forests in the world and the third largest in Brazil, the Tijuca Forest, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, faces the great challenge of living harmoniously and sustainably with the 46 slums located around it. One of these communities, Vale Encantado, whose occupation dates from the mid-eighteenth century, experienced the various production cycles that developed in the area, through logging, farming, livestock production, ornamental plants and black granite min...

  3. Microbiological Quality Assessment by PCR and Its Antibiotic Susceptibility in Mangrove Crabs (Ucides cordatus) from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Carvalho, M. C. N.; Jayme, M. M.; Arenazio, G. S.; Ara?jo, F. V.; Leite, S. G. F.; Del Aguila, E. M.

    2016-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of crabs from three different mangroves (Itaóca, Suruí, and Piedade) from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, was investigated using conventional and molecular methods. The results revealed high counts for total coliforms in meat and hepatopancreas samples. PCR analyses identified 25 Escherichia coli colonies in the Itaóca, Piedade, and Suruí samples, detecting 13 enterotoxigenic colonies and 9 enteroaggregative colonies. Respectively, 12, 11, and 21 Vibrio parahaemolyti...

  4. Evaluation of the 40 K internal exposure on the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil

    Santos, Eliane E.; Lauria, Dejanira C.; Amaral, Eliana C.S.; Carvalho, Laercio L.

    2002-01-01

    Among the naturally occurring radionuclides 40 K is the highest contributor for the intake dose. The aiming of this research was to determine the activity concentrations of 40 K in the main consumed foodstuffs by the adult inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro city in view of estimating its daily intake and arisen intake dose. The 40 K activity concentrations in the foodstuffs ranged from 20 to 544 Bq/kg fresh and the estimated daily intake was 61 Bq. The highest contribution for its intake arises from consumption of bean (35%), beef (11%), potato (8%) and rice (8%). The total annual effective dose was estimated to be 138 mSv/a. Value that falls into the range of international literature reported value (from 122 to 200 μSv/a. (author)

  5. Energy matrix of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil 1999-2008; Matriz energetica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ - 1999-2008

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document describes the energetic matrix of the Rio de Janeiro state forecasted up to the year of 2008 for the following sectors; the macroeconomics module, energy offer for petroleum, natural gas, electric power and alcohol; energy demand according to the non-energetic, energetic, residential, service, combined agriculture and stock raising, transportation and industrial sectors.

  6. Hábito alimentar de Triatoma vitticeps no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Feeding patterns of Triatoma vitticeps in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Teresa Cristina M Gonçalves

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O estudo do hábito alimentar dos triatomíneos tem contribuído para o conhecimento da sua biologia no habitat natural. Triatoma vitticeps, espécie que vem invadindo freqüentemente o domicílio apresentando-se infectado por T. cruzi, foi analisado sob esse aspecto, possibilitando conhecer a situação epidemiológica da área. MÉTODOS: De fevereiro de 1989 a abril de 1993, 122 espécimes de T. vitticeps foram capturados em duas áreas da localidade de Triunfo, 2° Distrito do Município de Santa Maria Madalena (RJ. Os insetos foram dissecados para a retirada do conteúdo estomacal. Os anti-soros utilizados foram: homem, vaca, cavalo, cão, porco, tatu, gambá, roedor e ave. RESULTADOS: Do total analisado, 79 estavam positivos e 43 negativos para os anti-soros testados: tatu (30,3% > homem e porco (13,1% > ave e cão (11,5% > cavalo (5,7% > gambá (4,9% > roedor (4,1% > boi (3,3%. As fontes alimentares identificadas variaram de 1 a 4 e 6: 0 - 25,41%; 1 - 45,08%; 2 - 10,66%; 3 - 6,56%; 4 - 1,64% e 6 - 0,82%. Quanto à infecção por T. cruzi, 74 espécimes (65,54% estavam positivos, 39 (34,51% negativos e 9 não foram examinados. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados caracterizam o hábito silvestre de T. vitticeps e a tripanosomíase como uma enzootia. A vigilância epidemiológica se faz necessária para o acompanhamento do comportamento dessa espécie.OBJECTIVE: Feeding patterns of triatomines have contributed to elucidate its biology. Triatoma vitticeps, naturally infected with T. cruzi, has been found in domiciles. Its behavior and epidemiological patterns were investigated. METHODS: One-hundred and twenty two specimens of T. vitticeps were captured from February 1989 to April 1993 in two areas of Triunfo municipality, a subdistrict of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The insects were dissected and their intestinal contents were removed and tested. It was used antisera from: man, cow, horse, dog

  7. Aspectos sobre a biologia de Tonatia bidens (Spix no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae Biological aspects of Tonatia bidens (Spix in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae

    Carlos E. L. Esbérard

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A biologia de Tonatia bidens (Spix, 1823 foi estudada no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Um total de 76 morcegos foi capturado usando redes de neblina e redes manuais para insetos em refúgios diurnos. Algumas observações dos morcegos em cativeiro foram incluídas. Machos compreenderam 47% das capturas. Fêmeas prenhas foram observadas em novembro e maio, e fêmeas lactantes em janeiro, abril e maio. Animais subadultos foram registrados em dezembro, fevereiro, maio e julho. Os restos de presas observadas em refúgios de alimentação demonstram a dieta insetívora e carnívora deste morcego. O comportamento alimentar é similar a de outras espécies carnívoras de morcegos Phyllostomidae.The biology of Tonatia bidens (Spix, 1823 was studied at Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil. A total of 76 bats was captured using mist nets or using hand nets during sampling in diurnal roosts. Some observations of bats in captivity are also included. Males comprised 47% of the captures. Pregnant females were observed in November and May and lactant females in January, April and May. Subadult animals were recorded in December, February, May and July. The prey remains observed in feeding roosts demonstrates the insectivorous and carnivorous diet of this bats. The feeding behavior is similar to other carnivorous species of phyllostomid bats.

  8. Evaluation of qualification and radioprotection knowledge of dentists in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Padilha Filho, L.G.; Borges, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    The status and implications of the actual radioprotection knowledge of people studying dentistry is evaluated. A brief research of the current situation in Brazil is presented. The inclusion of a discipline - or the remaking of existing ones - in the curricula of Brazilian dentistry schools, covering subjects from radioprotection to images quality control is suggested

  9. '"My Land, Your Social Transformation": Conflicts within the Landless People Movement (MST), Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    Caldeira, Rute

    2008-01-01

    The Brazilian "Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra" (MST) is one of the best-known and most prominent rural social movements. The unequal distribution of land in Brazil, and the neglect of this problem by successive Brazilian governments contributed greatly to the organisation of rural movements striving for the implementation…

  10. Psychological issues of the russian sport (towards the 31st Summer Olympic games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Alexander V. Morozov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the psychological issues of the Russian sport in general (including internal and external, objective and subjective ones. The attitudes of the most authoritative sports experts are analyzed. Various media discuss the performance of Russians in the Olympics of the third Millennium, the role and importance of psychology in modern sport and also in preparation of elite sport athletes for such important tournaments as the Olympic Games. The paper discusses fundamental differences of psychological preparation of the Russian and foreign athletes, comparative analysis of national team performances of Russia in the summer Olympics and Paralympic Games over the past 20 years, i.e. in 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008 and 2012. The paper analyses the strongest team performances on the global level in the latest Summer Olympic games and the probabilistic prediction of the performance results in the Summer Olympics in Brazil in reference with November doping scandal in the Russian Athletics Federation associated with charges of the Russian athletes in the mass doping followed by a loud dismissal of a number of sports officials and coaches, with two Russian athletes to be disqualified and stripped of their medals of London Olympics-2012, and also a RAF member in the IAAF to be suspended, which puts into question the possibility of Russian national athletics team participating in the next Olympics. The paper outlines current problematic issues the solution of which is urgent for the 21st Summer Olympics 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and should contribute to a fundamental change in the psychological, spiritual, moral atmosphere not only of an individual athlete, but for all Russian sport in general.

  11. Job strain and other work conditions: relationships with psychological distress among civil servants in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Lopes, Claudia S; Araya, Ricardo; Werneck, Guilherme L; Chor, Dóra; Faerstein, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    In developing countries, traditional sources of employment and work practices have changed rapidly and work environment has appeared as an important factor associated with an increased prevalence of mental disorders in these countries. To investigate the association between job strain and other work characteristics with psychological distress, and to estimate the contextual effects of different working environments on psychological distress, using cross-sectional data from an occupational cohort. The subjects were 3,574 non-faculty civil servants working at university campuses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (Pró-Saúde Study). Psychological distress was measured by the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Work characteristics were measured by the modified version of the Karasek model and through questions about night shift work and occupational status. After adjusting for age, education, income and other work characteristics, low social support at work and high job strain were associated with psychological distress. For low social support, the association was stronger in men (Prevalence Ratio = 2.02; 95% Confidence Interval 1.6-2.6) than in women (PR = 1.46; 95% CI 1.2-1.4). High job strain was similarly significant in both women (PR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.2-1.7) and men (PR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.0-1.7). Men having a routine non-manual work presented 29% more psychological distress than those undertaking professional roles. Night shift work did not show significant association with psychological distress. In the multilevel analysis, the prevalence of psychological distress did not vary significantly across work units. Job strain and poor support at work seem important psychological stressors in the workplace in Brazil. Our findings are comparable to those found in more developed countries, providing additional evidence of an association between an adverse psychosocial work environment and psychological distress, being thus useful for policymakers in planning and promoting

  12. Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Willian Moura de Aguiar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Euglossine bee communities in small forest fragments of the Atlantic Forest, Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Euglossine bees are important pollinators in forests and agricultural areas. Although the structure of their communities is critically affected by anthropogenic disturbances, little is known about these bees in small forest fragments. The objectives of this study were to analyze the composition, abundance, and diversity of euglossine bee species in nine small fragments of different phytophysiognomies of the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil, and to identify the environmental variables that may be related to the species composition of these communities. Males were sampled quarterly from May 2007 to May 2009 with aromatic traps containing methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1558 males, belonging to 10 species and three genera of Euglossina were collected. The richness ranged from five to seven species per fragment. Euglossa cordata, E. securigera, Eulaema nigrita e E. cingulata were common to all fragments studied. The diversity differed significantly among areas, ranging from H' = 1.04 to H' = 1.65. The precipitation, phytophysiognomy, and altitude had the highest relative importance over the species composition variation. The results presented in this study demonstrate that small forest fragments are able to support populations of euglossine bee species, most of which are widely distributed and reportedly tolerant to open and/or disturbed areas and suggest that the conservation of such areas is important, particularly in areas that are regenerating and in regions with agricultural matrices where these bees can act as important pollinators

  13. Mutation analysis of the PAH gene in phenylketonuria patients from Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil.

    Vieira Neto, Eduardo; Laranjeira, Francisco; Quelhas, Dulce; Ribeiro, Isaura; Seabra, Alexandre; Mineiro, Nicole; D M Carvalho, Lilian; Lacerda, Lúcia; G Ribeiro, Márcia

    2018-05-10

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an autosomal recessive disease resulting from mutations in the PAH gene. Most of the patients are compound heterozygotes, and genotype is a major factor in determining the phenotypic variability of PKU. More than 1,000 variants have been described in the PAH gene. Rio de Janeiro's population has a predominance of Iberian, followed by African and Amerindian ancestries. It is expected that most PKU variants in this Brazilian state have originated in the Iberian Peninsula. However, rare European, African or pathogenic variants that are characteristic of the admixed population of the state might also be found. A total of 102 patients were included in this study. Genomic DNA was isolated from dried blood spots. Sanger sequencing was used for PAH gene variant identification. Deletions and duplications were also screened using MLPA analysis. Haplotypes were also determined. Nine (8.8%) homozygous and 93 (91.2%) compound heterozygous patients were found. The spectrum included 37 causative mutations. Missense, nonsense, and splicing pathogenic variants corresponded to 63.7%, 2.9%, and 22.6% of the mutant alleles, respectively. Large (1.5%), and small deletions, inframe (5.4%) and with frameshift (3.9%), comprised the remainder. The most frequent pathogenic variants were: p.V388M (12.7%), p.R261Q (11.8%), IVS10-11G>A (10.3%), IVS2+5G>C (6.4%), p.S349P (6.4%), p.R252W (5.4%), p.I65T (4.4%), p.T323del (4.4%), and p.P281L (3.4%). One novel variant was detected: c.934G>T (p.G312C) [rs763115697]. The three most frequent pathogenic variants in our study (34.8% of the alleles) were also the most common in other Brazilian states, Portugal, and Spain (p.V388M, p.R261Q, IVS10-11G>A), corroborating that the Iberian Peninsula is the major source of PAH mutations in Rio de Janeiro. Pathogenic variants that have other geographical origins, such IVS2+5G>C, p.G352Vfs*48, and IVS12+1G>A were also detected. Genetic drift and founder effect may have also played a role

  14. Natural radionuclides and heavy metals in vegetables of people diet from Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Santos, Eliane Eugenia dos

    2002-01-01

    The characterization of the population exposure to the natural radiation is of extreme importance to set reference levels as a base to a regulatory system. Foodstuff, particularly of vegetable origin, presents variable contents of chemical products, essentials and not essentials according to soil characteristics, agricultural practices, among others. The present work had the goal to establish a methodology that allows evaluating the incorporation of natural radionuclides and heavy metals by the Brazilian population consuming foodstuff from vegetal origin. The results indicate that doses due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides and heavy metals as well in vegetables and derived products consumed by the Rio de Janeiro population are below the reference values set by international organizations. Regarding U and Th decay chain exposure ( 238 U, 23T h, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb), it was estimated an effective dose of 14,5 μSv/a, being 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb responsible by 96%. The K-40 ingestion dose was assessed as 103 μSv/a. The daily intake of metals was assess as 2870 μg/d for Zn, 2499 μg/d for Mn, 1064 μg/d Cu, 96 μg/d Ni, 14,8 μg/d Cr, 11 μg/d Cd e 4,8 μg/d Pb. The most consumed metals by the Rio de Janeiro city inhabitants are Zn, Mn e Cu. The proposed methodology to extend this effective dose to the main Brazilian cities is: 1) to select for special analysis at each region the more consumed fruits at each city, carrots, manioc, tomato and sugar; 2) to use as a base line for all country the results of natural radionuclides and heavy metals obtained in this work for vegetables and derived products at specific locations and/or imported and distributed throughout the country; 3) in relation to natural radionuclides, it is only necessary to analyze 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb. (author)

  15. Peculiarities of tuberculosis control in a scenario of urban violence in a disadvantaged community in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Souza, Fabiana Barbosa Assumpção de; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Cavalcante, Solange Cesar; Ruffino Netto, Antonio; Lopes, Luciane Blanco; Conde, Marcus Barreto

    2007-01-01

    To describe the difficulties and peculiarities encountered by health professionals during the treatment and investigation of contacts of tuberculosis (TB) patients in disadvantaged communities. A qualitative study carried out at health care facilities in Health Programming Area 1.0, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which has a TB incidence rate of 240/100,000 inhabitants. From among the professionals responsible for visiting and treating TB cases and their contacts, two home visit agents and one clinical nurse were selected to be interviewed for the study. Data were transcribed and structured in the form of quotations, emphasizing the predominant ideas. The central ideas focus on the issue of violence, one significant facet of which is the set of rules imposed by narcotraffickers, and on the barriers to the movement of patients/health professionals for TB treatment, as well as on public safety (police). This study provides public health officials, as well as institutions that graduate health professionals, data for reflection and analysis of the difficulties that urban violence creates for the control of TB in a disadvantaged community.

  16. Determination of water quality, toxicity and estrogenic activity in a nearshore marine environment in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil.

    do Nascimento, Marilia Teresa Lima; Santos, Ana Dalva de Oliveira; Felix, Louise Cruz; Gomes, Giselle; de Oliveira E Sá, Mariana; da Cunha, Danieli Lima; Vieira, Natividade; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Baptista Neto, José Antonio; Bila, Daniele Maia

    2018-03-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) can be found in domestic sewage, wastewater treatment plant effluents, natural water, rivers, lakes and in the marine environment. Jurujuba Sound, located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, receives untreated sewage into its waters, one the main sources of aquatic contamination in this area. In this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the estrogenic potential of water sampled from different depths and from areas with differential contamination levels throughout Jurujuba Sound. Water quality was evaluated and acute toxicity assays using Allviibrio fischeri were conducted, while estrogenic activity of the water samples was determined by a Yeast Estrogen Screening assay (YES). Water quality was mostly within the limits established for marine waters by the Brazilian legislation, with only DOC and ammoniacal nitrogen levels above the maximum permissible limits. No acute toxicity effects were observed in the Allivibrio fisheri assay. The YES assay detected moderate estrogenic activity in bottom water samples from 3 sampling stations, ranging from 0.5 to 3.2ngL -1 , as well as in one surface water sample. Estrogenic activity was most frequently observed in samples from the bottom of the water column, indicating adsorption of estrogenic compounds to the sediment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Organic matter composition in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons: district of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    Zink, Klaus-Gerhard; Furtado, André L S; Casper, Peter; Schwark, Lorenz

    2004-03-01

    Freshwater lagoons comprise important coastal ecosystems and natural buffers between urbanized land areas and open ocean in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Studies of sediment and water chemistry, zooplankton and bacterial communities to assess the extent of anthropogenic disturbance are available. Here we contribute with an organic-geochemical approach supplemented by some microbiological aspects to complete the characterization of these lagoonal ecosystems. Bulk organic matter and extractable lipids (aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and fatty acids, sterols) were investigated from two locations per lagoon: at the seaward site and landward ends - and at two depth intervals (0-3 and 3-6 cm) per site. Urbanized Imboacica Lagoon received increased anthropogenic input over the most recent years represented by the topmost 3 cm of sediment, whereas deeper sediment layers are less affected by human influence. Eutrophication or nutrient availability favored enhanced algal/cyanobacterial growth. In remote Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons pristine conditions are preserved. Organic matter from vascular plants dominates (chain length of free lipids up to C36), which is exceptionally well preserved by acidic lagoonal waters. Differentiation between landward and seaward sites in these two lagoons is less well established due to much smaller surface/volume to catchment ratios. No anthropogenic influences are yet detectable in sediments of Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons.

  18. Macro and trace elements in edible mushrooms, Shiitake, Shimeji and Cardoncello from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Jaylei Monteiro Gonçalves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of twenty-five elements (Al, As, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb , Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V and Zn were determined in three edible mushrooms, Shiitake (Lentinula edodes, Black Shimeji (Pleurotus ostreatusi and Cardoncello (Pleurotus eryngyii from Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were collected along the year 2010 and their preparations were made after drying, milling, an acid pre-digestion and a decomposition procedure in a muffle furnace. The analytical techniques employed for the elements determination were Mass Spectrometry with Inductively Coupled Plasma and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Two certified reference materials, Apple Leaves and Mussel Tissue, were used for the evaluation of the analytical procedure and recovery values around 98% were obtained. The results showed that the analyzed mushrooms have high levels of Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn containing more than 30% the recommended daily intake for these nutrients according to Brazilian legislation. These mushrooms presented a very low ratio Na/K. Regarding the levels of some contaminants, the mushrooms had concentrations of Cd, Pb and As below the recommended maximum limits allowed by Brazilian legislation.

  19. Ecology of Mabuya agilis (Raddi (Lacertilia, Scincidae at the restinga of Grumari, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    Davor Vrcibradic

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Some aspects of the ecology of the skink Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 at the restinga habitat of Grumari, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil are studied. Most of the lizards were first sighted on the ground, though a few were using perches (mainly cacti up to 30 cm high. Mean body temperature in activity was 33.1 ± 2.4ºC and was significantly correlated to air temperature. There was sexual dimorphism in size (snout-vent length - SVL, with females growing larger than males. Frequency of broken tails was high overall (83% and did not differ between sexes. Females and males are sexually mature at 49 mm and 47 mm SVL, respectively. Brood size averaged 3.2 ± 1.0 (range 1-5 and was positively and significantly related to female SVL (r = 0.65, p = 0.001. Relative clutch mass (RCM of seven gravid females averaged 0.250 ± 0.042, being relatively low compared to those of other congeners. The diet of M. agilis was composed basically of arthropods, with relatively large and soft-bodied arthropods such as spiders, caterpillars and homopterans being the most important prey. The results of our work confirm and expand the knowledge of ecological tendencies previously observed for M. agilis in other areas.

  20. Assessment of heavy metals in Egretta thula: case study: Coroa Grande mangrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Ferreira, A P

    2011-02-01

    This study focuses on metals analysis in kidney and liver tissues of Egretta thula which were collected prostrate or newly dead in Coroa Grande mangrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 2005 and October 2008. Kidney and liver were collected and analysed to evaluate heavy metal pollution. High values and widest range were detected for all metals in liver and kidney tissues. Geometric mean differences from metals concentrations for Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Cr, respectively, were found in both organs. Results from linear regression analysis were non-significant in kidney (r = -0.79975, P = 0.10428), and in liver (r = -0.53193, P = 0.35618). With ANOVA analysis for metal accumulation differences (kidney*liver), at the 0.05 level, the results were significantly different (F = 33.17676, P = 0.00000; F = 12.47880, P = 0.00000). These results indicate that Sepetiba Bay shows worrying levels of metals in this study with E. thula, showing potential power of widespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects in trophic levels, and therefore, signalling risk to human health.

  1. Assessment of heavy metals in Egretta thula: case study: Coroa Grande mangrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    AP Ferreira

    Full Text Available This study focuses on metals analysis in kidney and liver tissues of Egretta thula which were collected prostrate or newly dead in Coroa Grande mangrove, Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between March 2005 and October 2008. Kidney and liver were collected and analysed to evaluate heavy metal pollution. High values and widest range were detected for all metals in liver and kidney tissues. Geometric mean differences from metals concentrations for Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, and Cr, respectively, were found in both organs. Results from linear regression analysis were non-significant in kidney (r = -0.79975, P = 0.10428, and in liver (r = -0.53193, P = 0.35618. With ANOVA analysis for metal accumulation differences (kidney*liver, at the 0.05 level, the results were significantly different (F = 33.17676, P = 0.00000; F = 12.47880, P = 0.00000. These results indicate that Sepetiba Bay shows worrying levels of metals in this study with E. thula, showing potential power of widespread biological and mutagenic adverse effects in trophic levels, and therefore, signalling risk to human health.

  2. Infant mortality in a very low birth weight cohort from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.

  3. Putting solid household waste to sustainable use: a case study in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Carvalho, Márcia da Silva; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli; Bufoni, André Luiz; Oliveira, Luciano Basto

    2012-12-01

    The management of solid residues has, in recent decades, been a source of concern for public administrators the world over. Experiments in the sustainable use of such residues are highly relevant in social and environmental terms, stimulating widespread interest and debate, with considerable research going into sustainability projects. In many areas, however, adequate public funding for sustainable-use projects is hard to come by. One of the major reasons for this is that public authorities, particularly in times of financial constraints, are reluctant to invest in undertakings in which the economic returns are difficult to quantify. Official scrutiny of the expenditures of public authorities is also normally heavily influenced by cost-benefit analyses. The specific objective of this article is to show that putting solid domestic residue (household solid waste) to sustainable use is capable of generating economic returns, as well as environmental benefits for society as a whole. These economic returns can be set out in financial statements, which may, in turn, be used to justify expenditures by public authorities on sustainable-use projects and as a basis for further investment in such incentives. We drew on the findings of existing research into sustainable use, undertaken by the Municipal Urban Cleaning Company in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to establish a conceptual framework for setting out the economic results of the collection of household solid waste.

  4. Sporotrichosis in HIV-infected patients: report of 21 cases of endemic sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Freitas, Dayvison Francis Saraiva; de Siqueira Hoagland, Brenda; do Valle, Antonio Carlos Francesconi; Fraga, Beatriz Barros; de Barros, Mônica Bastos; de Oliveira Schubach, Armando; de Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Cuzzi, Tullia; Rosalino, Cláudia Maria Valete; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara

    2012-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is endemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and cases have been reported to be associated with HIV. This article describes the clinical manifestations and evolution of sporotrichosis in HIV-positive patients and constitutes the largest case series reported to date. There were 21 HIV-positive patients with sporotrichosis diagnosed by the recovery of the etiologic agent from 1999-2009. Sixteen patients (76.2%) were men and five (23.8%) were women, with a mean age of 41.2 years. Seven of these individuals were previously unaware of their HIV infection. Mean CD4 count was 346.4 cells/μl. The most frequent clinical presentations of sporotrichosis in these patients were the lymphocutaneous and disseminated form (seven patients each, 33.3%), followed by the widespread cutaneous form in five (23.8%), and fixed form in the remaining two (9.5%). In patients with the disseminated forms, clinical manifestations involved the skin in six, mucosa (nasal, oral, or conjunctival) in four, bone in two, and meninges in two. Eleven (52.4%) patients received itraconazole and eight (38.1%) amphotericin B contributing to an overall cure rate of 81%. Spontaneous cure was observed in one patient. The clinical forms of sporotrichosis varied according to the patients' immune status. The results demonstrate the importance of sporotrichosis as an opportunistic infection associated with AIDS in countries where the mycosis occurs.

  5. Molecular characterisation of Sporothrix schenckii isolates from humans and cats involved in the sporotrichosis epidemic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Rosani Santos Reis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An epidemic of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii, is ongoing in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in which cases of human infection are related to exposure to cats. In an attempt to demonstrate the zoonotic character of this epidemic using molecular methodology, we characterised by DNA-based typing methods 19 human and 25 animal S. schenckii isolates from the epidemic, as well as two control strains. To analyse the isolates, the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD technique was performed using three different primers, together with DNA fingerprinting using the minisatellite derived from the wild-type phage M13 core-sequence. The analyses generated amplicons with considerable polymorphism. Although isolates exhibited high levels of genetic relatedness, they could be clustered into 5-10 genotypes. The RAPD profiles of epidemic S. schenckii isolates could be distinguished from that of the United States isolate, displaying 20% similarity to each primer and 60% when amplified with the M13 primer. DNA fingerprinting of S. schenckii isolated from the nails (42.8% and the oral cavities (66% of cats were identical to related human samples, suggesting that there is a common infection source for animals and humans in this epidemic. It is clear that cats act as a vehicle for dissemination of S. schenckii.

  6. [Obesity and poverty: the apparent paradox. A study among women from the Rocinha slum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Ferreira, Vanessa Alves; Magalhães, Rosana

    2005-01-01

    In recent decades the Brazilian population has undergone intense changes in its nutritional conditions, especially with an increase in obesity. According to the National Survey on Health and Nutrition in 1989, 32.0% of adults were overweight. However, distribution of the problem is not homogeneous. The highest prevalence occurs among poor women in the Southeast. Understanding this apparent paradox requires the search for approaches capable of overcoming simplistic interpretations about eating practices. Thus, the objective of this study was to understand obesity combined with poverty, focusing beyond economic determinants on constraints of a cultural and symbolic nature. From this perspective, the study analyzed the daily lives of poor women who used a Municipal Health Center and resided in the Rocinha slum in Rio de Janeiro. The results showed the complexity of the relationship between obesity and poverty. Cultural and material life aspects as well as different concepts of eating and the body proved to be fundamental elements for the analysis of the multiple facets of obesity in Brazil.

  7. Potential radiological impact assessment related to the visit of nuclear submarines to the port of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Pereira, Jose Francisco; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is signatory of international protocols for receiving the visit of nuclear ships and submarines. Such naval units, during their stays in Brazilian ports, inform that there is no release of radioactive material to the environment. However, there is always the possibility of an accident, leading to environmental release of radioactive material. This work had the objective of assessing the potential radiological environmental impact due to the eventual occurrence of an accident during the permanence of ships and submarines of nuclear propulsion in the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in Guanabara Bay. The accident scenarios considered include releases to the marine environment and to the atmosphere. Previous results indicated that, in normal operation conditions, no significant radiological impact is foreseen due to the visits of nuclear submarines to the city, even if small routine radionuclide releases occur. The analysis of the accidental releases, however, indicates that the anchorage points should be located at a minimum distance of 2,5 km of inhabited areas in the contour the Bay. (author)

  8. [Changing in dietary intake by women in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1995 to 2005].

    Pereira, Rosângela Alves; Andrade, Roseli Gomes de; Sichieri, Rosely

    2009-11-01

    This article compares food intake by women 35 years or older in two population-based cross-sectional studies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1995-1996 (n = 1,014) and 2004-2005 (n = 1,001). Food intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire, and nutritional status was defined according to body mass index (BMI = weight/height(2)). Prevalence of obesity (BMI 30 kg/m(2)) increased in the ten-year period (16.6% to 24%). Many high energy density (kcal/g) foods showed a statistically significant increase in the period, such as crackers, candies, bacon, sausage, and hamburger. Some high energy density items were reported less frequently: butter, mayonnaise, potato chips, and sugar. The intake of fruits, milk, beans, roots and potatoes, and meat decreased in the 10-year period. Women with more education showed a larger reduction in fruit and meat intake and a smaller reduction in fish, dairy product, and root and potato intake. Changes in prevalence of obesity were associated with numerous changes in food intake, depending on the level of schooling.

  9. [Suicide and suicide attempts by exogenous poisoning in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: information analysis through probabilistic linkage].

    Santos, Simone Agadir; Legay, Letícia Fortes; Aguiar, Fernanda Pinheiro; Lovisi, Giovanni Marcos; Abelha, Lucia; Oliveira, Sergio Pacheco de

    2014-05-01

    Poisoning is one of the three main means used in suicide and suicides attempts. In order to improve the quality of such information, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on case records in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2006 to 2008, in the databases of the Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN), the Mortality Information System (SIM), and the Poison Control Center in Niterói (CCIn-Niterói). Probabilistic linkage was used to develop a model for monitoring suicides and suicide attempts by poisoning. Although 68.8% of the 948 records at CCIn had been reported by health professionals, only 2.6% were included in the other databases. Linking CCIn and SIM showed 61.3% underreporting. Information is important for surveillance, public policy-making, and decision-making. Probabilistic linkage allowed identifying problems in each system and provided better data quality and a more accurate diagnosis of the real situation in a complex and serious problem like suicidal behavior.

  10. An analysis of the suitability of public spaces to physical activity practice in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Vieira, Marcelo Carvalho; Sperandei, Sandro; Reis, Arianne; da Silva, Cláudia Gonçalves Thaumaturgo

    2013-09-01

    To assess the physical characteristics of public spaces designed for sport/physical activity/leisure in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and their relationship to the socioeconomic indicators. Public spaces (n = 38) spread across the city were evaluated between December 2011 and January 2012 using the Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA) instrument. Based on PARA results, a Quality Indicator (QI) was prepared and the sample was grouped into "High QI" and "Low QI" using a k-means clustering algorithm. The association between QI and the local Social Development Index (SDI) was tested using a Chi-square test. The average QI was 13.6 ± 4.91 and the median was equal to 13 points. The High QI group, composed of sites with a QI above median, reached 17.9 ± 2.35 points, while the Low QI group reached 9.3 ± 2.16 points. Pearson's Chi-square tests identified a significant association between QI and SDI when the value of SDI 0.7 was used as a criterion for separation (χ(2) = 17.84, p public spaces usually had a lower QI. Policies to encourage physical activity need to focus attention on the built environment also, particularly in socially vulnerable areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Use of illicit drugs and critical perspectives of drug users' relatives and acquaintances in Northern Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil].

    Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the partial results of a multicenter, qualitative study, which involved seven Latin-American countries and Canada. The results presented refer to Northern Rio de Janeiro (city), Brazil. The objective of the study was to describe the perspective of relatives/acquaintances of illicit drug users about protective and risk factors, prevention initiatives, treatment services, and legal aspects regarding illicit drugs. Interviews were performed with 99 individuals, who reported being affected by their relationship with an illicit drug user (relative or acquaintance), approaching their perspectives regarding the key-domains. Most participants were women (73.7%); relatives who used drugs were mostly men (78.2%); the most consumed drug was marijuana (77.8%). The highlighted protective factor was having recreational-sports activities in the community (88.9%), and the risk factor was curiosity for trying something new (94.4%). The main treatment services were Church Groups (51.5%), and participants stated that laws should be more punitive (82.8%). In conclusion, this information is essential to fight against drug use/abuse, showing that there is a need for actions that consider different perspectives at different levels.

  12. Spatiotemporal analysis of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide concentrations over the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Zeri, Marcelo; Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; Lyra, Gustavo Bastos

    2011-09-01

    Time series of pollutants and weather variables measured at four sites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2002 and 2004, were used to characterize temporal and spatial relationships of air pollution. Concentrations of particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were compared to national and international standards. The annual median concentration of PM10 was higher than the standard set by the World Health Organization (WHO) on all sites and the 24 h means exceeded the standards on several occasions on two sites. SO2 and CO did not exceed the limits, but the daily maximum of CO in one of the stations was 27% higher on weekends compared to weekdays, due to increased activity in a nearby Convention Center. Air temperature and vapor pressure deficit have both presented the highest correlations with pollutant's concentrations. The concentrations of SO2 and CO were not correlated between sites, suggesting that local sources are more important to those pollutants compared to PM10. The time series of pollutants and air temperature were decomposed in time and frequency by wavelet analysis. The results revealed that the common variability of air temperature and PM10 is dominated by temporal scales of 1-8 days, time scales that are associated with the passage of weather events, such as cold fronts.

  13. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Delir Corrêa Gomes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819, Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934 Freitas & Lent, 1937, Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914, Spirura guianensis (Ortlepp, 1924 Chitwood, 1938 and from the rodents Akodon cursor (Winger, 1887, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oligoryzomys eliurus (Wagner, 1845 and Oryzomys intermedius (Leche, 1886: Hassalstrongylus epsilon (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916, S. venteli Travassos, 1937, Physaloptera bispiculata Vaz & Pereira, 1935, Litomosoides carinii (Travassos, 1919 Vaz, 1934, Viannaia viannai, Hassalstrongylus epsilon, H. zeta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Stilestrongylus aculeata (Travassos, 1918 Durette-Desset, 1971 S. eta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971. Highest worm burdens and prevalences were those related to Cruzia tentaculata in marsupials. Stilestrongylus aculeata was referred for the first time in Akodon cursor.

  14. Groundwater radon, radium and uranium concentrations in Regiao dos Lagos, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Almeida, R.M.R.; Lauria, D.C.; Ferreira, A.C.; Sracek, O.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water from Regiao dos Lagos, a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro state, was analysed for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 222 Rn, 238 U, major ion concentrations, and physico-chemical parameters were also measured. Concentrations values ranged from -1 for 226 Ra, from -1 for 228 Ra and from -4 to 8.0x10 -2 Bq l -1 for 238 U. Detectable 222 Rn concentrations (>3 Bq l -1 ) were found only in two samples. The spatial distribution of Ra concentration delineated one distinct area and some hot spots with high Ra concentration. Low pH value is the most important water parameter linked to high radium concentration. This is probably related to limited adsorption of radium on soil ferric oxides and hydroxides at low pH range. There was a significant correlation between uranium concentrations and electrical conductivity values, and also between uranium concentrations and concentrations of Ca, Mg, Na, K, and Cl, indicating sea water impact. Uranium concentrations were lower than maximum contaminant level for drinking water, whereas 17 out of the 88 ground water samples had levels of radium that exceeded the maximum contaminant level for tap water. The total annual effective dose for adult due to the water consumption reaches values up to 0.8 mSv

  15. Herbarium collection of the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden (RB), Brazil.

    Lanna, João M; da Silva, Luís Alexandre E; Morim, Marli P; Leitman, Paula M; Queiroz, Natália O; Filardi, Fabiana L R; Dalcin, Eduardo C; Oliveira, Felipe A; Forzza, Rafaela C

    2018-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative and general description of the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden herbarium (RB) dataset. Created over a century ago, the RB currently comprises ca. 750,000 mounted specimens, with a strong representation of Brazilian flora, mainly from the Atlantic and Amazon forests. Nearly 100% of these specimens have been entered into the database and imaged and, at present, about 17% have been geo-referenced. This data paper is focused exclusively on RB's exsiccatae collection of land plants and algae, which is currently increasing by about twenty to thirty thousand specimens per year thanks to fieldwork, exchange and donations. Since 2005, many national and international projects have been implemented, improving the quality and accessibility of the collection. The most important facilitating factor in this process was the creation of the institutional system for plants collection and management, named JABOT. Since the RB is continuously growing, the dataset is updated weekly on SiBBr and GBIF portals. The most represented environments are the Atlantic and Amazon forests, a biodiversity hotspot and the world's largest rain forest, respectively. The dataset described in this article contains the data and metadata of plants and algae specimens in the RB collection and the link to access the respective images. Currently, the RB data is publicly available online at several biodiversity portals, such as our institutional database JABOT, the Reflora Virtual Herbarium, the SiBBr and the GBIF portal. However, a description of the RB dataset as a whole is not available in the literature.

  16. Gastrointestinal parasites in stray and shelter cats in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Pâmela Figueiredo Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasingly urban nature of the population has led many people to choose independent pets, such as cats. This situation has also made it possible for these animals to be abandoned, thus increasing the numbers of cats on the streets and in shelters. These animals can act as a source of infection for other hosts. Between 2014 and 2015, the frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and stray cats in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro was analyzed. Ninety-one fecal samples were collected from captive cats and 172 from stray cats. Centrifugal sedimentation and flotation techniques were used. The frequency of parasites among the stray cats was 77.3%, and this was significantly higher than the frequency observed in captive cats (49.5%. Helminths were detected more frequently, and hookworms were the parasites most detected. Toxocara cati, Cystoisospora sp. and Dipylidium caninum were also detected. No statistical difference in the frequency of parasites was observed between the sexes among the captive cats. However, among the stray cats, males (85.5% presented higher positivity than females (71.8%. The high frequency of hookworms, which are the agent for “cutaneous larva migrans” in humans, shows the need to control parasitic infections among the cats studied.

  17. Human papillomavirus infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a retrospective study

    M.O.O Carvalho

    Full Text Available There is considerable data to support a central role for human papillomavirus (HPV in the etiology of cervical cancer. More than a 100 HPV types have been described, and 40 have been isolated from benign and malignant genital lesions. Consequently, there is strong motivation to evaluate HPV testing for cervical cancer screening. Few studies concerning the natural history of HPV infection have been conducted in the state of Rio de Janeiro. We determined the prevalence of HPV types in female genital lesions by using Hybrid Capture Assay (HCA and we retrospectively analyzed the course of HPV infection. Our sample included 788 women attended at Laboratórios Sérgio Franco. The average age of the participants was 29.6 years. HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis were determined. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in the study group was 50.1% (395/788, ranging from 25% (NORMAL to 100% in high-grade intraepithelial lesions (HSIL. High risk HPV was found in 12% inflammatory, 58.3% HPV, 63.2% LSIL and 100% HSIL. A retrospective analysis of 78 patients showed that 22 presented persistent lesions, 2 had progressive lesions, 4 had regressive lesions, 13 showed latent infections, 18 were transiently infected and 19 were submitted to curative treatment. No cases of cancer were registered in this population, which can afford private medical care and regular follow-up exams. We suggest that HCA be used in specific cases involving persistent and recurrent lesions.

  18. Health conditions of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Ribeiro, Adalgisa Peixoto

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of a quantitative and qualitative study on the living conditions and health of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The goal was to produce strategic information to support the action of public officials who work in prisons. The results show that prisoners are young (average age: 30 years), poor, mostly black and brown (70.5%), have little education (only 1.5% of them have a higher education), and have been in prison for less than four years. Among the problems that indirectly affect their health, we emphasize: overcrowding (1.39 prisoners per one vacancy), idleness (only 4.4% of them work), lack of perspective, violence and relationships of conflict. The most common physical health problems include: musculoskeletal problems, such as pain in the neck, back, and spine (76.7%), joint dislocation (28.2%), bursitis (22.9%), sciatica (22, 1%), arthritis (15.9%), bone fracture (15.3%), problems with bone and cartilage (12.5%), and muscle and tendon injuries (15.7%); respiratory problems, such as sinusitis (55.6%), allergic rhinitis (47%), chronic bronchitis (15.6%), tuberculosis (4.7%) and others (11.9%); and skin diseases. Despite legal requirements that include prison health care among the Universal Health System's (SUS) obligations, services are scarce and inefficient and a major cause of inmate dissatisfaction.

  19. Temporal distribution of ten calyptrate dipteran species of medicolegal importance in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Rodrigo Rocha Barbosa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian studies involving entomological succession patterns in carcasses have been used to describe the necrophagous entomofauna of a determined municipality or region with forensic objectives. Following the same objectives, an ecological study with 10 calyptrate dipterans was carried out during the winter of 2007 and the summer of 2008 in the metropolitan region of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe several aspects of the phenology of these species in three neighbouring areas. Carcasses of three domestic pigs (Sus scrofa L. were used in each season as models for forensic and legal medicine investigations in the region. Temperature, relative humidity and rainfall were measured daily and their relations with population abundance of the colonising species and the decomposition stages were analysed. Ten fly species were recorded to be colonising the carcasses, five of which belonged to the Calliphoridae family, three to the Muscidae, one to the Fanniidae and one to the Sarcophagidae family. Data show preferences of these species for climatic season and decomposition stage, as well as for the studied area and suggest that short distances can significantly influence the abundance of some species.

  20. The genetic diversity and phenotypic characterisation of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Ana Beatriz de Almeida Corrêa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae isolates are more common among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases compared to other demographic groups. In this study, we evaluate the genetic and phenotypic diversity in S. agalactiae strains from Rio de Janeiro (RJ that were isolated from asymptomatic carriers. We analysed these S. agalactiae strains using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, as well as by determining the macrolide resistance phenotype, and detecting the presence of the ermA/B, mefA/E and lnuB genes. The serotypes Ia, II, III and V were the most prevalent serotypes observed. The 60 strains analysed were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin and/or clindamycin resistant strains, the ermA, ermB and mefA/E genes were detected and the constitutive macrolides, lincosamides and streptogramin B-type resistance was the most prevalent phenotype observed. The lnuB gene was not detected in any of the strains studied. We found 56 PFGE electrophoretic profiles and only 22 of them were allocated in polymorphism patterns. This work presents data on the genetic diversity and prevalent capsular serotypes among RJ isolates. Approximately 85% of these strains came from pregnant women; therefore, these data may be helpful in developing future prophylaxis and treatment strategies for neonatal syndromes in RJ.

  1. [Homicides in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an analysis of lethal violence].

    Cardoso, Francisca Letícia Miranda Gadelha; Cecchetto, Fátima Regina; Corrêa, Juliana Silva; de Souza, Tiago Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of rates were analyzed for the following categories: murder, larceny, bodily harm followed by death, homicide for resistance to police resulting in death, policeman killed, missing persons and dead bodies found in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro and in Integrated Public Security Area 16 (AISP 16). An ecological study was conducted for the period from 2002 to 2013, using data from the Public Security Institute. To analyze the time trend and evolution of murder charges, resistance to police resulting in death and missing persons rates, Joinpoint regression was performed, using these rates as the dependent variables and the calendar year as the independent variable. For the other categories only the time trends of the rates were analyzed for the relative change in rates at the beginning and end of the period. There were falls in rates in all categories, except for missing persons. The murder rate showed a significant downward trend in the three locations. The results contributed to definition of the pattern of violence in the three locations based on the dialogue between the social sciences, public health and safety that made it possible to establish subjective and objective aspects linked to the study findings.

  2. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: assessment of risk factors

    Cabrera Maria Alice A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Barra de Guaratiba is a coastal area of the city of Rio de Janeiro where American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL is endemic. Although control measures including killing of dogs and use of insecticides have been applied at this locality, the canine seroprevalence remains at 25% and during 1995 and 1997 eight autochthonous human cases were notified. In order to evaluate factors related to the increase of the risk for Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs we have screened 365 dogs by anti-Leishmania immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT and captured sandflies in the domestic and peridomestic environment. Some variables related to the infection were assessed by uni- and multivariate analysis. The distance of the residence from the forest border, its altitude and the presence of the opossum Didelphis marsupialis in the backyard, were found predictor factors for L. (L. chagasi infection in dogs in Barra de Guaratiba. The presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in the peridomestic environment indicates the possibility of appearence of new human cases. Our data also suggest the presence of a sylvatic enzootic cycle at this locality.

  3. First report of multiple lineages of dengue viruses type 1 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Simões Jaqueline BS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil dengue has been a major public health problem since DENV-1 introduction and spread in 1986. After a low or silent co-circulation, DENV-1 re-emerged in 2009 causing a major epidemic in the country in 2010 and 2011. In this study, the phylogeny of DENV-1 strains isolated in RJ after its first introduction in 1986 and after its emergence in 2009 and 2010 was performed in order to document possible evolutionary patterns or introductions in a re-emergent virus. Findings The analysis of the E gene sequences demonstrated that DENV-1 isolated during 2009/2010 still belong to genotype V (Americas/Africa but grouping in a distinct clade (lineage II of that represented by earlier DENV-1 (lineage I. However, strains isolated in 2011 grouped together forming another distinct clade (lineage III. Conclusions The monitoring of DENV is important to observe the spread of potentially virulent strains as well to evaluate its impact over the population during an outbreak. Whether explosive epidemics reported in Brazil caused mainly by DENV-1 was due to lineage replacement, or due the population susceptibility to this serotype which has not circulated for almost a decade or even due to the occurrence of secondary infections in a hyperendemic country, is not clear. This is the first report of multiple lineages of DENV-1 detected in Brazil.

  4. First report of multiple lineages of dengue viruses type 1 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    dos Santos, Flavia B; Nogueira, Fernanda B; Castro, Márcia G; Nunes, Priscila Cg; de Filippis, Ana Maria B; Faria, Nieli Rc; Simões, Jaqueline Bs; Sampaio, Simone A; Santos, Clarice R; Nogueira, Rita Maria R

    2011-08-03

    In Brazil dengue has been a major public health problem since DENV-1 introduction and spread in 1986. After a low or silent co-circulation, DENV-1 re-emerged in 2009 causing a major epidemic in the country in 2010 and 2011. In this study, the phylogeny of DENV-1 strains isolated in RJ after its first introduction in 1986 and after its emergence in 2009 and 2010 was performed in order to document possible evolutionary patterns or introductions in a re-emergent virus. The analysis of the E gene sequences demonstrated that DENV-1 isolated during 2009/2010 still belong to genotype V (Americas/Africa) but grouping in a distinct clade (lineage II) of that represented by earlier DENV-1 (lineage I). However, strains isolated in 2011 grouped together forming another distinct clade (lineage III). The monitoring of DENV is important to observe the spread of potentially virulent strains as well to evaluate its impact over the population during an outbreak. Whether explosive epidemics reported in Brazil caused mainly by DENV-1 was due to lineage replacement, or due the population susceptibility to this serotype which has not circulated for almost a decade or even due to the occurrence of secondary infections in a hyperendemic country, is not clear. This is the first report of multiple lineages of DENV-1 detected in Brazil.

  5. Parasitas gastrointestinais em cães institucionalizados no Rio de Janeiro, RJ Intestinal parasitic helminths in institutionalized dogs of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Mauricio Carvalho de Vasconcellos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a ocorrência de parasitas gastrointestinais em cães recolhidos e mantidos em instituto público de medicina veterinária no Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Amostras de fezes frescas foram coletadas em março de 2004 e analisadas pelos métodos de flutuação de Willis e centrífugo-flutuação em solução de sacarose. De 204 amostras, 45,6% estavam positivas para helmintos gastrointestinais.The occurrence of intestinal parasitic helminths in dogs from a public institute of veterinary medicine in Rio de Janeiro was assessed. Samples of fresh feces were collected in March 2004 and analyzed by Willis and centrifugal-flotation in sucrose solution methods. Of 204 samples, 45.6% were positive for helminths.

  6. Levantamento das aves marinhas no percurso Rio de Janeiro: Bahia (Brasil A survey of the marine birds in the route Rio de Janeiro: Bahía (Brazil

    Elias Pacheco Coelho

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine birds were surveyed between Rio de Janeiro and Bahia, latitudes 24º44'S and 17º50'S, from July to September 1984. Sixteen species were recorded belonging to six families, with most sightings occurring between 24º44'S and 22º3$'S. Data suggest two distinct communities, the more southerly one is represented by Daption capense and the one further north by Puffinus gravis.

  7. Knowledge of AIDS and HIV transmission among drug users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Clair Scott

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proper knowledge of HIV transmission is not enough for people to adopt protective behaviors, but deficits in this information may increase HIV/AIDS vulnerability. Objective To assess drug users' knowledge of HIV/AIDS and the possible association between knowledge and HIV testing. Methods A Cross-sectional study conducted in 2006/7 with a convenience sample of 295 illicit drug users in Rio de Janeiro, assessing knowledge on AIDS/HIV transmission and its relationship with HIV testing. Information from 108 randomly selected drug users who received an educational intervention using cards illustrating situations potentially associated with HIV transmission were assessed using Multidimensional Scaling (MDS. Results Almost 40% of drug users reported having never used condoms and more than 60% reported not using condoms under the influence of substances. Most drug users (80.6% correctly answered that condoms make sex safer, but incorrect beliefs are still common (e.g. nearly 44% believed HIV can be transmitted through saliva and 55% reported that HIV infection can be transmitted by sharing toothbrushes, with significant differences between drug users who had and who had not been tested for HIV. MDS showed queries on vaginal/anal sex and sharing syringes/needles were classified in the same set as effective modes of HIV transmission. The event that was further away from this core of properly perceived risks referred to blood donation, perceived as risky. Other items were found to be dispersed, suggesting inchoate beliefs on transmission modes. Conclusions Drug users have an increased HIV infection vulnerability compared to the general population, this specific population expressed relevant doubts about HIV transmission, as well as high levels of risky behavior. Moreover, the findings suggest that possessing inaccurate HIV/AIDS knowledge may be a barrier to timely HIV testing. Interventions should be tailored to such specific

  8. Herbarium collection of the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden (RB), Brazil

    da Silva, Luís Alexandre E; Morim, Marli P.; Leitman, Paula M.; Queiroz, Natália O.; Filardi, Fabiana L. R.; Dalcin, Eduardo C.; Oliveira, Felipe A.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background This paper provides a quantitative and general description of the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden herbarium (RB) dataset. Created over a century ago, the RB currently comprises ca. 750,000 mounted specimens, with a strong representation of Brazilian flora, mainly from the Atlantic and Amazon forests. Nearly 100% of these specimens have been entered into the database and imaged and, at present, about 17% have been geo-referenced. This data paper is focused exclusively on RB's exsiccatae collection of land plants and algae, which is currently increasing by about twenty to thirty thousand specimens per year thanks to fieldwork, exchange and donations. Since 2005, many national and international projects have been implemented, improving the quality and accessibility of the collection. The most important facilitating factor in this process was the creation of the institutional system for plants collection and management, named JABOT. Since the RB is continuously growing, the dataset is updated weekly on SiBBr and GBIF portals. New information The most represented environments are the Atlantic and Amazon forests, a biodiversity hotspot and the world's largest rain forest, respectively. The dataset described in this article contains the data and metadata of plants and algae specimens in the RB collection and the link to access the respective images. Currently, the RB data is publicly available online at several biodiversity portals, such as our institutional database JABOT, the Reflora Virtual Herbarium, the SiBBr and the GBIF portal. However, a description of the RB dataset as a whole is not available in the literature. PMID:29674937

  9. Distribution of fish assemblages in Lajes Reservoir, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    F. G. ARAÚJO

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of fish assemblages in Lajes Reservoir, a 30 km² impoundment in Rio de Janeiro State (Lat. 22º42'-22º50'S; Long. 43º53'-44º05'W was assessed to detect patterns of available habitat use by the fish. A standardized monthly sampling program was carried out from January to December 1994 at three zones of the reservoir (upper, near tributary mouths; middle; and lower, near the dam. Fishes were caught by gillnets, (50 m long, 3 m height, with mesh ranging having from 25 to 45 mm between knots, submerged during 12 hours. A total of 5,089 fishes were collected comprising 15 species, 14 genera and 9 families. Loricariichthys spixii, Astyanax bimaculatus, Parauchenipterus striatulus, Astyanax fasciatus parahybae, Oligosarchus hepsetus, Rhamdia parahybae, Hypostomus affinis, and Geophagus brasiliensis were the most abundant species, each contributing above 1% of the total number. Loricariichthys spixii was the dominant species, contributing over 80% of total number and biomass. Fish abundance, number of species, and biomass were higher in the upper zone, but differences from this overall pattern were shown by some species. Loricariichthys spixii and Rhamdia parahybae were more abundant in the upper zone, while all other species showed no differences in their abundance among the zones. Seasonal environmental variables of temperature, pH, transparency, and water level did not show a clear association with fish occurrence. Most fish used the different zones of the reservoir with no clear sign of spatial separation. High dominance of L. spixii, reduced abundance of reolific species Leporinus copelandii and Cyphocharax gilberti, and presence of introduced species such as Cichla monoculus and Tilapia rendalli are indications of antropic effects in the fish community.

  10. Adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Glauciene Santana Damasceno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize and estimate the frequency of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs in the population treated at the Centro de Saúde Escola Germano Sinval Faria, a primary health care clinic in Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro City, and to explore the relationship between adverse drug reactions and some of the patients' demographic and health characteristics. METHODS: This descriptive study was conducted via patient record review of incident cases between 2004 and 2008. RESULTS: Of the 176 patients studied, 41.5% developed one or more adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs, totaling 126 occurrences. The rate of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs was higher among women, patients aged 50 years or older, those with four or more comorbidities, and those who used five or more drugs. Of the total reactions, 71.4% were mild. The organ systems most affected were as follows: the gastrointestinal tract (29.4%, the skin and appendages (21.4%, and the central and peripheral nervous systems (14.3%. Of the patients who experienced adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs, 65.8% received no drug treatment for their adverse reactions, and 4.1% had one of the antituberculosis drugs suspended because of adverse reactions. "Probable reactions" (75% predominated over "possible reactions" (24%. In the study sample, 64.3% of the reactions occurred during the first two months of treatment, and most (92.6% of the reactions were ascribed to the combination of rifampicin + isoniazid + pyrazinamide (Regimen I. A high dropout rate from tuberculosis treatment (24.4% was also observed. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a high rate of adverse reactions to antituberculosis drugs.

  11. Trace Metals and Lead Isotopes in modern Sediments Near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Boyle, E. A.; Lazzari, L.; Wagener, A. L.; Carreira, R.; Godoy, J. M.; Noble, A.; Carrasco, G. G.; Moos, S. B.

    2014-12-01

    This work focuses on the export of trace metals and combustion residues from land to ocean and on the Southeast continental margin of Brazil and its historical variability using stable lead isotopes. Two sediment cores were collected, one in highly impacted Guanabara Bay and the other on the Southeast continental shelf. Continental shelf samples were analyzed for trace element concentrations [Mn (117±50 ppm), Ni (6.5±2.3 ppm), Zn (5.0±1.5), (233±46 ppm), ], Pb (5.4±2.4 ppm), as well as Cu, Ag, Cd, Sr, Ba, Tl, U and Pb isotope ratios & Pb-210. Most of the elements show higher concentrations on the upper part of the core compared to the bottom. Downcore changes of the concentrations of these elements were similar. The sediments of adjacent rivers and bays around the upper section of the southeast continental shelf of Brazil are considered highly enriched with Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr such as Guanabara Bay, Sepetiba Bay and Paraíba do Sul River compared with the natural concentrations and other regions in the world. A [Pb] maximum is seen between samples from 24 to 43 cm (~8 ppm). Utilization of tetraethyl lead (TEL) gasoline in Brazil was phased out beginning in 1983 and was largely completed by 1988. Continental shelf Pb-206/Pb-207 varies between 1.174 near the core top to 1.190 at 100 cm, with a sharp difference between samples at 6 and 8 cm. Higher core top Pb, Zn, and Ni corroborate the recent anthropogenic influence on the southeast continental shelf of Brazil. For Guanabara Bay sediment samples [Pb] varies between 90 ppm near the top to 1 ppm at the bottom. Pb-206/Pb-207 varies between 1.161 near the core top to 1.165 near the bottom. Using triple isotope plots we can discern different sources of lead to the region and how these vary with time.

  12. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on landscape development in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    UDO NEHREN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate variations and historical land use had a major impact on landscape development in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica. In southeast Brazil, rainforest expanded under warm-humid climate conditions in the late Holocene, but have been dramatically reduced in historical times. Nevertheless, the numerous remaining forest fragments are of outstanding biological richness. In our research in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro we aim at the reconstruction of the late Quaternary landscape evolution and an assessment of human impact on landscapes and rainforests. In this context, special focus is given on (a effects of climate variations on vegetation cover, soil development, and geomorphological processes, and (b spatial and temporal land use and landscape degradation patterns. In this paper we present some new results of our interdisciplinary research in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range, state of Rio de Janeiro.

  13. Organotin pollution at Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: increasing levels after the TBT ban

    Raquel Toste

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Imposex, an endocrine disruption phenomenon, is a biomarker of tributyltin (TBT exposure in marine gastropod populations. The occurrence and intensity of the syndrome in populations of the neogastropod Stramonita haemastoma were ascertained at nine sampling stations in October 2008 at Arraial do Cabo, a very important tourist resort in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil and part of the Marine Extractive Reserve of Arraial do Cabo. The results obtained made it possible to evaluate the changes which had occurred since the last biomonitoring campaign, undertaken in 2001, at these same stations. Despite the ban on the use of TBT imposed by the Brazilian Navy in 2003, the controls on the use of this agent in Brazil resulting from the establishment of NORMAM 23 by the Navy in 2007 and the complete ban of organotin compounds in antifouling paint formulae by the IMO on a global scale in 2008, imposex was still detected. Instead of the expected reduction, an increase was observed in the areas affected by imposex. Furthermore, populations in the areas seriously affected by imposex in 2001 were absent in the 2008 sampling campaign. These results suggest an increase in TBT pollution in the study area, indicating the inefficacy of legislative measures.O imposex, um fenômeno de desregulação endócrina, é um biomarcador da exposição ao tributilestanho (TBT em populações de gastrópodes marinhos. A ocorrência e intensidade dessa síndrome nas populações do neogastrópode Stramonita haemastoma foram verificadas em nove estações amostrais em outubro de 2008 em Arraial do Cabo, uma área de grande importância turística no Rio de Janeiro (Brasil e integrante da Reserva Extrativista Marinha de Arraial do Cabo. Com os resultados obtidos foi possível avaliar as alterações ocorridas desde o último biomonitoramento realizado em 2001, nessas mesmas estações. Mesmo após o banimento do TBT pela Marinha do Brasil em 2003, a entrada em vigor dos controles ao

  14. Individual and contextual factors of influence on adherence to antiretrovirals among people attending public clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    2013-01-01

    Background There are inconsistencies in the determinants of adherence to antiretrovirals (ARVs) across settings as well as a lack of studies that take into consideration factors beyond the individual level. This makes it necessary to examine factors holistically in multiple settings and populations while taking into consideration the particularities of each context, in order to understand the patterns of ARV adherence. This research explored ARV adherence and individual, relational and environmental-structural factors. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted from August 2008 through July 2009 among participants currently on ARVs recruited from 6 public health clinics, selected to maximize diversity in terms of caseload and location, representing the range of clinics within Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between our multilevel factors with ARV adherence among participants with complete cases (n = 632). Results Eighty-four percent of respondents reported adherence to all of their ARV doses in the last 4 days. Of the socio-demographic variables, those who had one child were positively associated with adherence (AOR 2.29 CI [1.33-3.94]). On the relational level, those with high social support (AOR 2.85 CI [1.50-5.41]) were positively associated with adherence to ARVs. On the environmental-structural level, we found gender was significant with women negatively associated with adherence to ARVs (AOR 0.58 CI [0.38-0.88]) while those with a high asset index (AOR 2.47 CI [1.79-3.40]) were positively associated with adherence to ARVs. Conclusions This research highlights the importance of examining the multiple levels of influence on ARV adherence. Intervention research in lower and middle-income settings should address and evaluate the impact of attending to both gender and economic inequalities to improve ARV adherence, as well as relational areas such as the provision of social support. PMID

  15. Environmental Surveillance of Polioviruses in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in Support to the Activities of Global Polio Eradication Initiative.

    de Oliveira Pereira, Joseane Simone; da Silva, Lidiane Rodrigues; de Meireles Nunes, Amanda; de Souza Oliveira, Silas; da Costa, Eliane Veiga; da Silva, Edson Elias

    2016-03-01

    Wild polioviruses still remain endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) and re-emergency of wild polio has been reported in previously polio-free countries. Environmental surveillance has been used as a supplementary tool in monitoring the circulation of wild poliovirus (PVs) and/or vaccine-derived PVs even in the absence of acute flaccid paralysis cases. This study aimed to monitor the presence of polioviruses in wastewater samples collected at one wastewater treatment plant located in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From December 2011 to June 2012 and from September to December 2012, 31 samples were collected and processed. RD and L20B cell cultures were able to isolate PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in 27/31 samples. Polioviruses were isolated in eight samples (type 1 Sabin = 1, type 2 Sabin = 5, and type 3 Sabin = 2). Vaccine-derived polioviruses were not detected nor evidence of recombination with other PVs or non-polio enterovirus serotypes were observed among the isolates. The Sabin-related serotypes 2 and 3 presented nucleotide substitutions in positions associated with the neurovirulent phenotype at the 5'-UTR. Changes in important Amino acid residues at VP1 were also observed in the serotypes 2 and 3. Environmental surveillance has been used successfully in monitoring the circulation of PVs and non-polio enteroviruses and it is of crucial importance in the final stages of the WHO global polio eradication initiative. Our results show the continuous circulation of Sabin-like PVs and non-polio enteroviruses in the analyzed area during the study period.

  16. Young men in juvenile detention centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gender, sexuality, masculinity and health implications.

    Nascimento, Marcos Antonio Ferreira do; Uziel, Anna Paula; Hernández, Jimena de Garay

    2018-02-19

    This article presents results for young men's health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers. The study showed that these young men have been exposed to police and social violence from a very early age and have been deprived of their freedom due to involvement with the drug traffic, homicides, or episodes of sexual violence. The male and female health professionals that work with them report that the most common health problems are skin conditions, mental disorders, and sexually transmissible infections. Male chauvinism and rigid notions of gender and sexuality are important factors in the views of these young men on health (especially sexual and reproductive). Their discourse takes violence and paternity for granted as important signs in the public demonstration of masculinity. There is an urgent need to include discussions on gender and sexuality in health professionals' training and activities with these young men. It is also necessary to call attention to the strong influence of gender concepts, social group, and sexual orientation in practices, interpersonal relations, and health promotion.

  17. Young men in juvenile detention centers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: gender, sexuality, masculinity and health implications

    Marcos Antonio Ferreira do Nascimento

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This article presents results for young men’s health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers. The study showed that these young men have been exposed to police and social violence from a very early age and have been deprived of their freedom due to involvement with the drug traffic, homicides, or episodes of sexual violence. The male and female health professionals that work with them report that the most common health problems are skin conditions, mental disorders, and sexually transmissible infections. Male chauvinism and rigid notions of gender and sexuality are important factors in the views of these young men on health (especially sexual and reproductive. Their discourse takes violence and paternity for granted as important signs in the public demonstration of masculinity. There is an urgent need to include discussions on gender and sexuality in health professionals’ training and activities with these young men. It is also necessary to call attention to the strong influence of gender concepts, social group, and sexual orientation in practices, interpersonal relations, and health promotion.

  18. Dioxins in soil treated with 2,4-D in a municipality of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Cheble Bahia Braga, A.M.; Monteiro Rosa, J. [National School of Public Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Krauss, T. [National Institute for Quality Control in Health, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2004-09-15

    In Brazil, the herbicide 2,4,5-T was prohibited due to the presence of high dioxins concentrations as impurity in its formulations but the herbicide 2,4-D is widely used to control broad-leaf weeds in several plantations such as sugar cane, coffee, potato among others or prior to planting in order to prepare soil for plantation. The National Agency for Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA), the authority in charge of the pesticides registry, also established the concentration of 0.1 ppm as maximum limit for dioxins in 2,4-D formulations. It is also a common practice to use this herbicide associated with Glyphosate to reduce or replace manual or mechanical weeding. In 2000, the Secretary of Health of Cantagalo, Municipality in the north part of Rio de Janeiro State was notified about a possible environmental contamination by the application of 2,4-D at a coffee farm named Santa Guilhermina. Spraying had occurred in an area close to a creek used as a source of drinking water of a school and as a water supply for a second district of this municipality. Special care was given to the possibility of PCDD/Fs contamination of the drinking water supply directly through 2,4-D aplication and indirectly through the transfer by run-off. Thus, it was requested scientific advice and analytical support to verify whether or not contamination had occurred. They had called for technical support only 8 days after the episode and considering the very low solubility of PCDD/Fs in water and their high tendency to adsorb on particles, it was decided to check if the soil had been contaminated by these activities and to use this database for further decision-making, as well. It was also looked up for original 2,4-D formulation in the area to verify the possible presence of PCDD/Fs but none was available.

  19. Atmospheric pollution and the prevalence of asthma: study among schoolchildren of 2 areas in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Rios, José Luiz Magalhães; Boechat, José Laerte; Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; França, Alfeu Tavares

    2004-06-01

    Air pollutants have been associated with the exacerbation of respiratory diseases. They may intensify the inflammatory allergic response and airways reactivity to inhaled allergens. However, it is still not clear if air pollution contributes to the increased prevalence of asthma. To investigate if different levels of air pollution exposure can be related to differences in the prevalence of asthma. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) protocol was used to determine and compare the prevalence of asthma among schoolchildren in 2 cities of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, Duque de Caxias (DC) and Seropédica (SR), which have different levels of atmospheric pollution. The research involved 4,064 students aged 13 to 14 years from 49 schools in DC and 1,129 from 17 schools in SR. Air pollution was evaluated by the concentration of inhalable particulate matter (PM10). ISAAC's written questionnaire was answered by 4,040 students aged 13 to 14 years in DC and 1,080 in SR. Between 1998 and 2000, the PM10 annual arithmetic mean was 124 microg/m3 in DC and 35 microg/m3 in SR (acceptable level is up to 50 microg/m3). The prevalence of wheezing ever was 35.1% in DC and 29.9% in SR (P = .001), and the prevalence of wheezing in the last 12 months was 19.0% in DC and 15.0% in SR (P = .002). In DC, 14.5% of the adolescents presented 1 to 3 crises of wheezing in the last year, whereas in SR only 11.0% presented 1 to 3 crises (P = .003). In this study, the prevalence of asthma in adolescents was directly related to atmospheric pollution.

  20. [Anthropometric indices and nutritional status of low income school children in a municipality of the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): a pilot study].

    dos Anjos, L A

    1989-06-01

    The growth and nutritional status of 185 school-aged children (97 boys and 88 girls) of low socio-economic level in Nova Iguaçú, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were studied. Nutritional anthropometry identified 3.52 and 6.25% of the children as suffering from wasting and stunting, respectively. These prevalences of malnutrition were comparable to those described in pre-school children living in a "favela" (shanty town) of Rio de Janeiro. In general, the median height fell below the 25th centile of the international standard of growth. The value of 10 year-old boys fell below the 10th centile. The mean values of weight and height of these children were comparable to those of children from the Northeastern region of Brazil ("Nordeste"), higher than those found for children in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, and lower than those for middle-class children of the State of S. Paulo. Skinfold thickness, arm circumference, and arm fat area data were higher in girls than boys. However, arm muscle are values in boys were superior in comparison to those of girls.

  1. Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro

    Loureiro, S.M.; Rovere, E.L.L.; Mahler, C.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ► Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ► We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ► The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ► The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management

  2. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Escherichia coli Isolates from Urine Samples of Hospitalized Patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Ana Carolina C. Campos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTIs are often caused by Escherichia coli. Their increasing resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics challenges the treatment of UTIs. Whereas, E. coli ST131 is often multidrug resistant (MDR, ST69 remains susceptible to antibiotics such as cephalosporins. Both STs are commonly linked to community and nosocomial infections. E. coli phylogenetic groups B2 and D are associated with virulence and resistance profiles making them more pathogenic. Little is known about the population structure of E. coli isolates obtained from urine samples of hospitalized patients in Brazil. Therefore, we characterized E. coli isolated from urine samples of patients hospitalized at the university and three private hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, using whole genome sequencing. A high prevalence of E. coli ST131 and ST69 was found, but other lineages, namely ST73, ST648, ST405, and ST10 were also detected. Interestingly, isolates could be divided into two groups based on their antibiotic susceptibility. Isolates belonging to ST131, ST648, and ST405 showed a high resistance rate to all antibiotic classes tested, whereas isolates belonging to ST10, ST73, ST69 were in general susceptible to the antibiotics tested. Additionally, most ST69 isolates, normally resistant to aminoglycosides, were susceptible to this antibiotic in our population. The majority of ST131 isolates were ESBL-producing and belonged to serotype O25:H4 and the H30-R subclone. Previous studies showed that this subclone is often associated with more complicated UTIs, most likely due to their high resistance rate to different antibiotic classes. Sequenced isolates could be classified into five phylogenetic groups of which B2, D, and F showed higher resistance rates than groups A and B1. No significant difference for the predicted virulence genes scores was found for isolates belonging to ST131, ST648, ST405, and ST69. In contrast, the phylogenetic groups B2, D and F showed a higher

  3. Dengue type 4 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: case characterization following its introduction in an endemic region.

    Heringer, Manoela; Souza, Thiara Manuele A; Lima, Monique da Rocha Q; Nunes, Priscila Conrado G; Faria, Nieli Rodrigues da C; de Bruycker-Nogueira, Fernanda; Chouin-Carneiro, Thaís; Nogueira, Rita Maria R; Dos Santos, Flavia Barreto

    2017-06-09

    Due to the populations' susceptibility, DENV-4 introduction in 2010 led to the occurrence of explosive epidemics in the following years in Brazil. In 2011, DENV-4 was identified in Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and it was prevalent in 2012 and 2013. Here, we aimed to characterize clinical, epidemiological and laboratorial aspects of DENV-4 cases after this serotype introduction in an endemic scenario. Dengue suspected cases (n = 3727) were received and analyzed from January 2011 to December 2013, during outbreaks occurred in RJ, Brazil. Samples were submitted to virological, serological and molecular methods for case confirmation. DENV-4 cases (n = 705) were characterized according to the type of infection, disease severity and, viremia levels and NS1 antigenemia were accessed. Representative strains were partial sequenced for genotyping. DENV-4 was identified in 44.2% (705/1593) of dengue positive cases, virus isolated in 48.7% of the cases. Anti-DENV IgM was detected in 39.4% of the cases, however an increased detection was observed in cases with ≥4 days of symptoms (57.0%). NS1 antigen was identified in 41.5% of DENV-4 cases however, after immune complexes dissociation, the detection significantly increased (87.6%). Females were more affected than males, so did children aged 11-15 years old. Primary cases were more frequently observed than secondary ones and most of them were classified as dengue. No differences on NS1 antigenemia and viraemia within the groups were observed. Despite the higher frequency of severe disease on individuals >65 years old, no differences were observed among the groups and type of infection. However, DENV-4 fatal cases were more frequent on secondary infections (57.1%). DENV-4 Genotype II was identified with a probable origin from Venezuela and Colombia. It has been shown that laboratorial diagnosis is still a reliable tool for the disease surveillance, detecting and confirming emerging epidemics. Despite the occurrence of secondary

  4. Uma nova espécie de Calyptranthes (Myrtaceae da flora do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil A new species of Calyptranthes (Myrtaceae from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Graziela Maciel Barroso

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available É descrita uma nova espécie para o gênero Calyptranthes (Myrtaceae, ocorrente na Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, município de Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro. Trata-se de árvore ou arvoreta do estrato intermediário ou inferior da floresta atlântica que se destaca pela pilosidade densa e rufa de seus raminhos, pecíolos e dorso foliar. Pela sua forma de crescimento com copa pequena e arredondada e beleza de seus ramos esfoliantes, a nova espécie tem aptidão ornamental como arvoreta para áreas sombreadas.Occuring on the Tinguá Biological Reserve in the municipality of Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro state, is described. It is a small tree from the intermediate or inferior layer of the Atlantic forest and is conspicuous because of the dense, reddish indumentum on its branches, petioles and lower blade surface. Due to its architectural form with small rounded canopy and the beauty of its exfoliating branches, the new species may prove useful for ornamental plantings in shady areas.

  5. Palmeiras (Arecaceae das restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Palms (Arecaceae from the restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Ricardo Carneiro da Cunha Reis

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram coletadas, identificadas e sistematizadas as palmeiras das restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para a coleta de material, foram eleitas cinco estações de coleta consideradas representativas em termos de ocorrência de palmeiras. Foram identificadas 11 espécies, as quais podem ser reconhecidas pelo uso da chave dicotômica fornecida, e confirmadas pelas descrições e fotos apresentadas. O tratamento taxonômico das espécies encontra-se complementado por informações de distribuição geográfica, ecologia, nomes vulgares, e listas dos espécimes de herbário examinados.Palms of the restingas of Rio de Janeiro State were collected, identified and treated taxonomically. The plants were collected at five sites that are representative in terms of palm species occurrence. The 11 species can be identified using the dichotomous key and confirmed using descriptions and photos. The taxonomic treatment is accompanied by additional information on geographic distribution, ecology, common names, and lists of herbarium specimens examined.

  6. Nutrient regeneration susceptibility under contrasting sedimentary conditions from the Rio de Janeiro coast, Brazil

    Matos, Christiene R.L.; Mendoza, Ursula; Diaz, Rut; Moreira, Manuel; Belem, Andre L.; Metzger, Edouard; Albuquerque, Ana Luiza S.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolved silicate (DSi), NH 4 + , NO 3 − and PO 4 3− susceptibility to be exchanged between sediment pore waters and overlying waters was evaluated in Jurujuba Sound (JS station) and Coroa Grande Sound (CGS station), southeastern Brazil. Sedimentary elemental (C, N and P) and isotopic (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) compositions evidenced stronger anthropogenic fertilization in JS station. Net NO 3 − influxes from overlying waters occurred, which was two orders of magnitude higher under the more fertilized condition. This condition resulted in 6–13-times higher net effluxes of NH 4 + , DSi and PO 4 3− to overlying waters. Vertical alternation between production and consumption processes in pore waters contributed for a more limited regeneration in CGS station. This was associated with diagenetic responses to sedimentary grain size variability in deeper layers and biological disturbance in upper layers. Nearly continuous production of NH 4 + , DSi and PO 4 3− in pore waters implied in intensified susceptibility to remobilization under the eutrophic condition of JS station. - Highlights: • SO 4 2− reduction was a driver for the larger nutrient regeneration susceptibilities. • NO 3 − reduction processes resulted in net NO 3 − influxes from overlying waters. • Effluxes (NH 4 + > DSi > PO 4 3− ) were accentuated under the more fertilized condition. • Fluxes were limited by alternations between consumption and production processes.

  7. Seasonal abundance of equine strongyles (Nematoda: Strongylidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Abundância sazonal de estrongilídeos de eqüinos (Nematoda: Strongylidae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    I.V.F. Martins

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The seasonal abundance of lumenal and larval forms of equine strongyles in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was evaluated. Thirty horses referred to the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro were necropsied and their gastrointestinal tracts were separated into stomach, small intestine, cecum, ventral colon, dorsal colon and rectum. Two aliquots of 5% of the content were collected and examined for the presence of small strongyles and the rest of the content was examined for the presence of large strongyles. The mesenteric artery, liver, pancreas and peritoneum were examined for the presence of strongyle larvae. The mucosa of intestine segments was cut into parts of equal length, and each one was examined by the mural transillumination technique. Higher abundances of larvae of Strongylus equinus (PEstudou-se a ocorrência sazonal de formas larvares e adultas de estrongilídeos nas mucosas do estômago, intestino delgado, ceco, colon ventral, colon dorsal e reto de 30 eqüídeos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os grandes estrongilídeos foram encontrados em todas as mucosas e duas alíquotas de 5% do conteúdo foram retiradas para a procura de pequenos estrongilídeos. Artéria mesentérica, fígado, pâncreas e peritônio foram também examinados para larvas de estrongilídeos. As mucosas foram examinadas pela técnica de transiluminação. Larvas de Strongylus equinus (P<0,10 e adultos de Strongylus vulgaris (P<0,05 foram mais abundantes na estação seca. Larvas escistadas de ciatostomíneos o foram na estação chuvosa (P<0,02.

  8. Demanda hídrica do milho de cultivo de inverno no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Water demand of winter corn in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estimar a demanda de irrigação suplementar para a cultura do milho, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, utilizando-se coeficientes de cultivo (Kc corrigidos para as diferentes fases de desenvolvimento da cultura. Através de dados climáticos de 34 estações meteorológicas, a demanda de irrigação foi simulada para a cultura do milho cu1tivada no inverno, por meio de um programa computacional. Os valores de Kc corrigidos para o milho variaram de 0,57 a 0,71, para a fase I; de 0,9 a 1,12, para a fase III e de 0,63 a 0,86, para a fase IV. Com esses valores de Kc em comparação com os valores de Kc padrão, obteve-se uma diferença média na lâmina de irrigação de 71,5 mm.This study was conducted in order to estimate the supplemental corn water demand, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, using corrected crop coefficients (Kc for different phases of corn development. Using data from 34 meteorological stations, the irrigation demand was simulated for the corn crop for the winter season through computational program. The corrected Kc values for corn varied from 0.57 to 0.71 in the development stage I, from 0.9 to 1.12 in the stage III and from 0.63 to 0.86 in the stage IV in Rio de Janeiro State. Using these corrected Kc values in detriment of standard values, an average difference in the irrigation demand of 71.5 mm in this region was obtained.

  9. Níveis de mercúrio em atum sólido enlatado comercializado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro Total mercury levels in canned tuna fish commercialized at the Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil

    Allegra YALLOUZ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, estudou-se o nível de mercúrio em atum sólido enlatado, comercializado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Foram analisadas 39 amostras, pertencente a 5 marcas e lotes distintos, utilizando-se a espectrometria de absorção atômica pela técnica de vapor-frio. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que 53% das amostras apresentaram um teor acima do máximo recomendado, sendo que somente uma entre as cinco marcas estudadas apresentou todas as amostras com níveis dentro dos limites tolerados. Tais resultados demonstram a necessidade de um maior controle da qualidade destes produtos.The present study investigated the mercury levels in canned tuna fish, commercialized in the Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Thirty nine samples from five different makers were analyzed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. The results showed that 53% of the samples presented levels above the WHO (World Health Organization recommended value, and only one from the five suppliers presented all their samples below this level. Such results indicate that it urges a better quality control for this food.

  10. O gênero Billbergia Thunb. (Bromeliaceae no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil The genus Billbergia Thunb. (Bromeliaceae in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Joana Viana de Barros

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Billbergia Thunb. é atualmente constituído por 64 espécies distribuídos em dois centros de diversidade: a Mata Atlântica e a Floresta Amazônica. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro, o gênero é representado por 14 espécies ocorrentes em ecossistemas florestais e nas restingas: B. amoena (Lodd. Lindl., B. brasiliensis L.B. Sm., B. distachia (Vell. Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. iridifolia (Nees & Mart. Lindl., B. lymanii E. Pereira & Leme, B. macracantha E. Pereira, B. pyramidalis (Sims Lindl., B. sanderiana E.Morren, B. tweediana Baker, B. vittata Brongn. ex C.Morel e B. zebrina (Herb. Lindl. O trabalho consta de descrições, ilustrações e comentários taxonômicos e fitogeográficos das espécies.The genus Billbergia Thunb. comprises 64 species occurring in two centers of diversity: Atlantic Forest and Amazon Forest. In Rio de Janeiro State, the genus is represented by 14 species found in Atlantic forest and restinga: B. amoena (Lodd. Lindl., B. brasiliensis L.B. Sm., B. distachia (Vell. Mez, B. euphemiae E. Morren, B. horrida Regel, B. iridifolia (Nees & Mart. Lindl., B. lymanii E. Pereira & Leme, B. macracantha E. Pereira, B. pyramidalis (Sims Lindl., B. sanderiana E. Morren, B. tweediana Baker, B. vittata Brongn. ex C.Morel and B. zebrina (Herb. Lindl. Here we present descriptions, figures and notes on taxonomy and geographic distribution of the species.

  11. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of human parvovirus B19 infection in an urban area in Brazil (Niterói city area, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Solange Artimos de Oliveira

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to analyse the clinical and epidemiological data from human parvovirus B19 cases in a six-year study of rash diseases conduct in an urban area in Brazil (Niterói city area, State of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 673 patients with acute rash diseases were seen at two primary health care units and at a general hospital. A clotted blood sample was collected from all subjects at the time of consultation. Forty-nine per cent (330 cases of the patients were negative for dengue, rubella and measles IgM or for low avidity IgG to HHV-6. Of these 330, 105 (31.8% were identified as IgM positive to parvovirus B19 by using an antibody capture EIA. During the study period, three distinct peaks of parvovirus infection were detected, suggesting that the disease appears to cycle in approximately 4-5 years. B19 infection was characterized by variable combinations of fever, flu-like symptoms, arthropathy, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Frequency of fever and arthropathy was substantially higher in adults, 75% [chi2 (1 D.F. = 11.39, p = 0.0007] and 62.5% [chi2 (1 D.F. = 29.89, p = 0.0000], respectively. "Slapped-cheek" appearance and reticular or lace-like rash were seen in only 30.1% of the children. No adult presented this typical rash. The lack of the typical rash pattern in a large proportion of parvovirus B19 and the similarity of clinical manifestations to other rash diseases, specially to rubella, highlight the difficulty of diagnosing B19 infection on clinical grounds alone.

  12. Organic matter composition in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons: district of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil

    Klaus-Gerhard Zink

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater lagoons comprise important coastal ecosystems and natural buffers between urbanized land areas and open ocean in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Studies of sediment and water chemistry, zooplankton and bacterial communities to assess the extent of anthropogenic disturbance are available. Here we contribute with an organic-geochemical approach supplemented by some microbiological aspects to complete the characterization of these lagoonal ecosystems. Bulk organic matter and extractable lipids (aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and fatty acids, sterols were investigated from two locations per lagoon: at the seaward site and landward ends - and at two depth intervals (0-3 and 3-6 cm per site. Urbanized Imboacica Lagoon received increased anthropogenic input over the most recent years represented by the topmost 3 cm of sediment, whereas deeper sediment layers are less affected by human influence. Eutrophication or nutrient availability favored enhanced algal/cyanobacterial growth. In remote Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons pristine conditions are preserved. Organic matter from vascular plants dominates (chain length of free lipids up to C36, which is exceptionally well preserved by acidic lagoonal waters. Differentiation between landward and seaward sites in these two lagoons is less well established due to much smaller surface/volume to catchment ratios. No anthropogenic influences are yet detectable in sediments of Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons.As lagoas costeiras são importantes ecossistemas costeiros no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, localizadas entre áreas urbanizadas da costa e o oceano aberto. Vários estudos enfocando o sedimento, a água, a comunidade zooplanctônica e comunidades bacterianas demonstraram a extensão da influência antrópica sobre estes ecossistemas aquáticos. Neste estudo foi investigada a composição da matéria orgânica presente no sedimento, assim como, alguns parâmetros microbiológicos, com o intuito de

  13. Distribution and relative abundance of anchovies (Clupeiformes-engraulididae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Márcio de Araújo Silva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and relative abundance of juvenile fish of the family Engraulididae in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was assessed to detect patterns of use of the shallows during their early life cycle. Two yearly cycle (March-1996 to February-1997 and March-1997 to February-1998 were studied by a total of 120 beach net samples at five sites, two of them located in the inner Bay and three in the outer Bay near to the sea limit. Six Engraulididae species were identified in two genera: Anchoa januaria, Anchoa marinii, Anchoa tricolor, Anchoa lyolepis, Anchoviella lepidentostole and Anchoviella brevirostris, mainly juveniles in their early life cycle. A. januaria, A. brevirostris, A. lepidentostole and A. tricolor, in decreasing order, were the top numerical abundant species, while A. tricolor and A. januaria showed the highest weight contribution, amounting approximately to 90% of the total number of fish. Spatially, A. tricolor, A. lyolepis and A. marinii distributed mainly in the outer Bay. A. januaria show higher abundance in the inner Bay, while the species of genera Anchoviella show an ample distribution, without a particular zone of higher occurrence. Seasonally, only A. januaria, A. lepidentostole and A. brevirostris presented a clear pattern of occurrence, peaking in the Autumn.A abundância relativa e distribuição espacial de juvenis de peixes da familia Engraulididae ocorrentes na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, foram estudadas visando determinar os padrões de uso da margem continental durante a fase inicial de vida. Dois ciclos anuais (Março-1996 a Fevereiro-1997 e Março-1997 a Fevereiro-1998 foram investigados através de um total de 120 amostragens de arrastos de praia, distribuídas em 5 locais de coleta na margem continental da Baía, duas delas situadas na zona mais interna e três na zona mais externa e próxima do limite com o mar. Foram identificados 6 espécies de Engraulididae, compreendendo dois g

  14. Herpetofauna of an Atlantic rainforest area (Morro São João in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Mauricio Almeida-Gomes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the herpetofaunal community from the Atlantic forest of Morro São João, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and present data on species composition, richness, relative abundance and densities. We combined three sampling methods: plot sampling, visual encounter surveys and pit-fall traps. We recorded sixteen species of amphibians and nine of reptiles. The estimated densities (based on results of plot sampling were 4.5 ind/100 m2 for amphibians and 0.8 ind/100 m² for lizards, and the overall density (amphibians and lizards was 5.3 ind/100 m². For amphibians, Eleutherodactylus and Scinax were the most speciose genera with three species each, and Eleutherodactylus binotatus was the most abundant species (mean density of 3.0 frogs/100 m². The reptile community of Morro São João was dominated by species of the families Gekkonidae and Gymnophtalmidae (Lacertilia and Colubridae (Serpentes. The gymnophtalmid lizard Leposoma scincoides was the most abundant reptile species (mean density of 0.3 ind/100 m². We compare densities obtained in our study data with those of other studied rainforest sites in various tropical regions of the world.Estudamos a comunidade herpetofaunística da Mata Atlântica do Morro São João, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, e apresentamos dados da composição, riqueza, abundância relativa e densidade das espécies. Combinamos três metodologias de amostragem: parcelas, encontros visuais e armadilhas de queda. Registramos 16 espécies de anfíbios e 9 espécies de répteis. As densidades estimadas (baseadas nos resultados da amostragem através de parcelas foram 4.5 ind/100 m² para anfíbios, 0.8 ind/100 m² para lagartos, e a densidade total (anfíbios e répteis foi 5.3 ind/100 m². Para anfíbios, Eleutherodactylus e Scinax foram os gêneros com maior número de espécies, com três espécies cada, e Eleutherodactylus binotatus foi a espécie mais abundante (densidade média de 3.0 anuros/100 m². A

  15. Mercury in sediments from shelf and continental slope at Campos Basin near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Araujo, Beatriz; Hintelmann, Holger; Dimock, Brian; Gomes de Almeida, Marcelo; Falcão, Ana Paula; de Rezende, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a global pollutant due to its ability to undergo long-range transport from source regions to remote parts of the world, and its ubiquitous presence in aquatic ecosystems. The Hg isotope ratios could be an effective tool for tracing the sources and process of Hg in the environment. This study aimed to establish the distribution of mercury in surface sediments of three transects (25- 3000m water depth) in continental shelf and slope in Campos Basin-RJ-Brazil, using the Hg isotopes to understand the geochemical processes relating to Hg cycling that occur in a subtropical coastal environment. The study area was divided into three transects: A (located to the south and close to a upwelling area), D (located opposite the mouth of the Paraiba do Sul River) and I (located north near the top of Vitória-ES). Sampling isobaths were 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 400, 700, 1000, 1300, 1900, 2500 and 3000m. The Total Hg, MMHg and Hg stable isotopes were determined based on EPA Method 1631, EPA method 1630 and Foucher and Hintelmann (2006), respectively. The silt/clay ranged from 0.05 to 95%, and the organic carbon (OC) from 0.07 to 1.43 % for all transects. THg and MMHg concentrations in the shelf were 11.9 ± 7.2 (1.7- 22.2) ng.g-1 and 0.15 ± 0.12 (0.02 - 0.40) ng.g-1; in the slope 30.3 ± 9.2 (11.6 - 51.6) ng.g-1 and 0.13 ± 0.06 (0.03 -0.29) ng.g-1 , respectively. The δ202Hg and Δ199Hg varied from -0.32 to -1.85 ‰ (-0.79 ± 0.44‰) and -0.41 to 0.09 ‰ (-0.03 ± 0.12 ‰) for all transects, respectively. The delta values between both regions are significantly different, the shelf region showed δ202Hg from -0.59 to -2.19 ‰ (mean: -1.52 ±0.65) and Δ199Hg from - 0.53 to 0.08 ‰ (mean: -0.27 ±0.55) and the slope region were observed δ202Hg values from -0.32 to -1.82 ‰ (mean: -0.73 ±0.39 ‰ n=18) and gΔ199Hg from -0.23 to 0.09‰ (mean: -0.02 ±0.08‰ n=5). The slope appears to be enriched with heavier isotopes compared to the shelf, however, in the

  16. Aging with HIV: an overview of an urban cohort in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil across decades of life

    Thiago Silva Torres

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy during the 1990s was crucial to the decline in the rates of morbidity and death related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and turned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection into a chronic condition. Consequently, the HIV/AIDS population is becoming older. The aim of this study was to describe the immunological, clinical and comorbidity profile of an urban cohort of patients with HIV/AIDS followed up at Instituto de Pesquisa Clinica Evandro Chagas, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Retrospective data from 2307 patients during January 1st, 2008 and December 31st, 2008 were collected. For continuous variables, Cuzick's non-parametric test was used. For categorical variables, the Cochran-Armitage non-parametric test for tendency was used. For all tests, the threshold for statistical significance was set at 5%. In 2008, 1023 (44.3%, 823 (35.7%, 352 (15.3% and 109 (4.7% were aged 18-39, 40-49, 50-59 and >60 years-old, respectively. Older and elderly patients (>40 years were more likely to have viral suppression than younger patients (18-39 years (p 0.001. No significant difference in the latest CD4+ T lymphocyte count in the different age strata was observed, although elderly patients (> 50 years had lower CD4+ T lymphocyte nadir (p 0.02. The number of comorbidities increased with age and the same pattern was observed for the majority of the comorbidities, including diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, erectile dysfunction, HCV, renal dysfunction and also for non-AIDSrelated cancers (p 0.001. With the survival increase associated to successful antiretroviral therapy and with the increasing new infections among elderly group, the burden associated to the diagnosis and treatment of the non-AIDS related HIV comorbidities will grow. Longitudinal studies on the impact of aging on the HIV/AIDS population are still necessary

  17. Oceanographic characteristics of an impacted coastal bay: Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Kjerfve, Björn; Ribeiro, Cesar H. A.; Dias, Gilberto T. M.; Filippo, Alessandro M.; Da Silva Quaresma, Valéria

    1997-11-01

    Baía de Guanabara is a 384 km 2 eutrophic coastal bay in Brazil, impacted by the polluted discharge from the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. The structurally controlled bay has a central channel with a depth of 30 m and a sandy bottom near the entrance, reflecting wave and tidal forcing. In contrast, the bay-averaged water depth is 5.7 m and the bottom sediments are mostly muds as a result of the Holocene transgression and rapid fluvial sedimentation, accelerated by channelization of rivers and deforestation. An extensive sand bank is located seaward of the bay entrance and a flood-oriented sand wave system indicates sand transport into the bay. The mean freshwater discharge measures 100±59 m 3 s -1 and is greatest in the rainy austral summer in December and January. Tides are mixed mainly semidiurnal with a range of 0.7 m, and peak spring tidal currents reach 0.5 m s -1 inside the bay and 1.6 m s -1 near the bay entrance. The passage of northward propagating polar fronts results in regular strong southwesterly winds and heavy wave forcing. The bay has mean salinities from 21.0 to 34.5‰ with an average of 29.5±4.8‰. The vertical salinity stratification, Δs/s, varies from 0.06 to 0.21 and is relatively weak and inversely proportional to rms tidal currents. The residual circulation is characterized by both gravitational circulation and transverse residual tidal circulation, measuring 800 and 400 m 3 s -1 respectively. The renewal time of 50% of the bay water volume is 11.4 days. Untreated sewage runoff enters the bay from the west, resulting in locally poor water quality, where the near-bottom mean dissolved oxygen measures only 3.1 mg 1 -1 and results in anoxic bottom muds. The worst water quality is indicated by average fecal coliform of 1140 counts ml -1 and excessive ammonia and phosphate loading. The average chlorophyll concentration in this region responds to the nutrient loading and exceeds 130 μg 1 -1 although 57 μg 1 -1 is the overall mean for

  18. A strong CO2 sink enhanced by eutrophication in a tropical coastal embayment (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Cotovicz, L. C., Jr.; Knoppers, B. A.; Brandini, N.; Costa Santos, S. J.; Abril, G.

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to its small surface area, the coastal zone plays a disproportionate role in the global carbon cycle. Carbon production, transformation, emission and burial rates at the land-ocean interface are significant at the global scale but still poorly known, especially in tropical regions. Surface water pCO2 and ancillary parameters were monitored during nine field campaigns between April 2013 and April 2014 in Guanabara Bay, a tropical eutrophic to hypertrophic semi-enclosed estuarine embayment surrounded by the city of Rio de Janeiro, southeast Brazil. Water pCO2 varied between 22 and 3715 ppmv in the bay, showing spatial, diurnal and seasonal trends that mirrored those of dissolved oxygen (DO) and chlorophyll a (Chl a). Marked pCO2 undersaturation was prevalent in the shallow, confined and thermally stratified waters of the upper bay, whereas pCO2 oversaturation was restricted to sites close to the small river mouths and small sewage channels, which covered only 10 % of the bay's area. Substantial daily variations in pCO2 (up to 395 ppmv between dawn and dusk) were also registered and could be integrated temporally and spatially for the establishment of net diurnal, seasonal and annual CO2 fluxes. In contrast to other estuaries worldwide, Guanabara Bay behaved as a net sink of atmospheric CO2, a property enhanced by the concomitant effects of strong radiation intensity, thermal stratification, and high availability of nutrients, which promotes phytoplankton development and net autotrophy. The calculated CO2 fluxes for Guanabara Bay ranged between -9.6 and -18.3 mol C m-2 yr-1, of the same order of magnitude as the organic carbon burial and organic carbon inputs from the watershed. The positive and high net community production (52.1 mol C m-2 yr-1) confirms the high carbon production in the bay. This autotrophic metabolism is apparently enhanced by eutrophication. Our results show that global CO2 budgetary assertions still lack information on tropical

  19. A large CO2 sink enhanced by eutrophication in a tropical coastal embayment (Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Cotovicz, L. C., Jr.; Knoppers, B. A.; Brandini, N.; Costa Santos, S. J.; Abril, G.

    2015-03-01

    In contrast to its small surface area, the coastal zone plays a disproportionate role in the global carbon cycle. Carbon production, transformation, emission and burial rates at the land-ocean interface are still poorly known, especially in tropical regions. Surface water pCO2 and ancillary parameters were monitored during nine field campaigns between April 2013 and April 2014 in Guanabara Bay, a tropical eutrophic to hypertrophic semi-enclosed estuarine embayment surrounded by the city of Rio de Janeiro, SE-Brazil. Water pCO2 varied between 22 and 3715 ppmv in the Bay showing spatial, diurnal and seasonal trends that mirrored those of dissolved oxygen (DO) and Chlorophyll a (Chl a). Marked pCO2 undersaturation was prevalent in the shallow, confined and thermally stratified waters of the upper bay, whereas pCO2 oversaturation was restricted to sites close to the small river mouths and small sewage channels, which covered only 10% of the bay's area. Substantial daily variations in pCO2 (up to 395 ppmv between dawn and dusk) were also registered and could be integrated temporally and spatially for the establishment of net diurnal, seasonal and annual CO2 fluxes. In contrast to other estuaries worldwide, Guanabara Bay behaved as a net sink of atmospheric CO2, a property enhanced by the concomitant effects of strong radiation intensity, thermal stratification, and high availability of nutrients, which promotes phytoplankton development and net autotrophy. In the inner part of the bay, the calculated annual CO2 sink (-19.6 mol C m2 yr-1) matched the organic carbon burial in the sediments reported in the literature. The carbon sink and autotrophy of Guanabara Bay was driven by planktonic primary production promoted by eutrophication, and by its typology of marine embayment lacking the classical extended estuarine mixing zone, in contrast to river-dominated estuarine systems, which are generally net heterotrophic and CO2 emitters. Our results show that global CO2

  20. Performance on cognitive tests, instrumental activities of daily living and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Lima, Christina Martins Borges; Alves, Heloisa Veiga Dias; Mograbi, Daniel Correa; Pereira, Flávia Furtado; Fernandez, Jesus Landeira; Charchat-Fichman, Helenice

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the performance on basic cognitive tasks, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) who participated in multiple physical, social, and cognitive activities at government-run community centers. Methods A total of 264 educated older adults (> 60 years of age of both genders) were evaluated by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB), Lawton's and Pfeffer's activities of daily living indexes, and the Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS). Results The mean age of the sample was 75.7 years. The participants had a mean of 9.3 years of formal education. With the exception of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), mean scores on the cognitive tests were consistent with the values in the literature. Only 6.4% of the sample had some kind of dependence for activities of daily living. The results of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) indicated mild symptoms of depression in 16.8% of the sample Conclusion This study provided important demographic, cognitive, and functional characteristics of a specific community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:29213494

  1. Performance on cognitive tests, instrumental activities of daily living and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Christina Martins Borges Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the performance on basic cognitive tasks, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil who participated in multiple physical, social, and cognitive activities at government-run community centers. Methods: A total of 264 educated older adults (> 60 years of age of both genders were evaluated by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB, Lawton's and Pfeffer's activities of daily living indexes, and the Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS . Results: The mean age of the sample was 75.7 years. The participants had a mean of 9.3 years of formal education. With the exception of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT, mean scores on the cognitive tests were consistent with the values in the literature. Only 6.4% of the sample had some kind of dependence for activities of daily living. The results of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 indicated mild symptoms of depression in 16.8% of the sample. Conclusion: This study provided important demographic, cognitive, and functional characteristics of a specific community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  2. HTLV-I and HTLV-II infections in hematologic disorder patients, cancer patients, and healthy individuals from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Farias de Carvalho, S M; Pombo de Oliveira, M S; Thuler, L C; Rios, M; Coelho, R C; Rubim, L C; Silva, E M; Reis, A M; Catovsky, D

    1997-07-01

    To clarify the seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) among hematologic and cancer patients in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, we investigated sera from 2430 individuals from the following groups: 152 patients with T-cell diseases, 250 with B-cell disorders, 67 with myeloid leukemia, 41 with Hodgkin's disease, 351 with a history of multiple blood transfusions, 235 patients with solid tumors of different types, and 109 family members of HTLV-I-infected patients. Antibodies to HTLV-I were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or particle agglutination assays (or both). Repeatedly reactive samples were tested by Western blot and polymerase chain reaction assay to differentiate HTLV-I from HTLV-II. We found an increased seroprevalence rate of HTLV-I among those with lymphoid malignancies, mainly in T-cell diseases (28.9%), and these results were important in characterizing 44 cases of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. We confirmed the presence of HTLV-I and HTLV-II infections in blood donors (0.4% and 0.1%, respectively), in patients exposed to multiple blood transfusions (10.2% and 0.8%, respectively), and in 30 (27.5%) of 109 family members of HTLV-I- or HTLV-II-infected patients. We also confirmed the high rate occurrence of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma among lymphoproliferative disorders in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  3. Monitoring of the internal contamination through the in vivo measurements at the whole-body counting unity of the IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Monitoracao da contaminacao interna atraves de medicoes in vivo na unidade de contador de corpo inteiro do IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Lucena, Eder A.; Dantas, Bernardo M., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work approaches the capacity of Whole Body Counting Unity (WBCU) of IRD, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, presenting the main parameters relative to the techniques of monitoring developed, and the available instrumentation for identification and quantification in vivo of radionuclides photon emitters with energies in the range of 10-3000 keV, incorporated by workers and public individuals

  4. Calculation of the correction factors for the primary standard of kerma in the air at the LNMRI-IRD, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Calculo de fatores de correcao para o padrao primario em kerma no ar do LNMRI-IRD, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Silva, Cosme Norival Mello da, E-mail: cosme@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)

    2009-07-01

    In order to determine the primary standardization in terms of kerma in the air, a graphite ionization chamber is used for calculation some correction factors. A program was elaborated, using the Monte Carlo Penelope for simulate the CC01-110 at the LNMRI/IRD, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

  5. O consumo alimentar de gestantes adolescentes no Município do Rio de Janeiro Food consumption by pregnant adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Denise Cavalcante de Barros

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento da gravidez na adolescência é visto com preocupação pela área de saúde pública. O consumo de alimentos que atendam a alta demanda de nutrientes durante a gestação tem sido identificado como um componente relevante. O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer o consumo habitual dos alimentos e de energia e nutrientes entre gestantes adolescentes. Foram entrevistadas 1.180 mães adolescentes em maternidades do Município de Rio de Janeiro e aplicado um Questionário de Freqüência de Consumo Alimentar semiquantitativo simplificado. Os alimentos referidos por pelo menos 50% delas foram arroz, açúcar, manteiga, pão, feijão, leite, refrigerante, sucos, legumes e laranja. Observa-se um menor consumo de sucos, legumes e frutas entre as menores de 15 anos. No primeiro quartil de consumo, a ingestão mínima recomendada de energia, ferro, folato, vitamina C e cálcio não foi alcançada. Encontrou-se uma associação inversa entre o número de pessoas no domicílio e o consumo de energia e nutrientes. O relato de informação sobre alimentação no pré-natal e a informação de mudança de alimentação durante a gravidez esteve associado a um melhor consumo de energia e nutrientes. A atenção pré-natal mostrou-se como um cuidado fundamental para melhores resultados na gestação.The increase in teenage pregnancy has been viewed with concern by public health experts. Food consumption to help maintain high nutrient demands has been identified as one of the most relevant components. This study aims to present the habitual consumption of food and energy-specific nutrients by pregnant adolescents. A total of 1,180 adolescent mothers were interviewed in maternity hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro, and a simplified questionnaire on semi-quantitative frequency of food consumption was applied. Lower consumption of fruit juice, vegetables, and fruits was observed among adolescent mothers over 15. Adolescent mothers classified in the

  6. Sustentabilidade ambiental da água consumida no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Environmental sustainability of water resources in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Aldo Ferreira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um índice de sustentabilidade da água de uso urbano com indicadores que possam fundamentar o desenvolvimento de ações planejadas. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 11 indicadores (incluindo aspectos relativos a água e esgoto com base nos parâmetros do Sistema Nacional de Informação sobre Saneamento (SNIS para os anos-base 2000 e 2001. Para cada indicador foi atribuída uma nota e arbitrado um peso. A partir disso, foi calculado o índice de sustentabilidade da água urbana (ISAU, utilizando-se a fórmula ISAU = produto (Ii pi, onde Ii é a nota para cada indicador i, variando entre 0 e 100; e p i é o peso para cada indicador i, sendo sigmai n=1 p i = 1, onde n é o número de indicadores considerados. A pior qualidade da água é indicada por um valor igual a zero, e a melhor, por um valor igual a 100. RESULTADOS: O valor do índice de sustentabilidade da água urbana do Município do Rio de Janeiro foi de 58,99 e 59,57 para os anos de 2000 e 2001, respectivamente, valores que indicam qualidade boa da água. CONCLUSÕES: A melhora observada na qualidade da água no Rio de Janeiro possivelmente se deve à implantação, na década de 1990, de um programa de recuperação ambiental na região. O planejamento ambiental para uso racional e prevenção da destruição dos recursos hídricos é fundamental para a manutenção da sociedade.OBJECTIVE: To propose an urban water sustainability index based on indicators that may serve as a foundation for developing planned actions concerning water resources. METHODS: Eleven indicators (covering aspects of water and sewage were selected based on the parameters of Brazil's National Water and Sanitation Information System (Sistema Nacional de Informação sobre Saneamento for the years 2000 and 2001. A score and a weight were assigned to each indicator. Based on that, the urban water sustainability index (UWSI was calculated, using the formula UWSI = product (Ii pi, where Ii is the score

  7. Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    VC Maia

    Full Text Available Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae Dasineura ovalifoliae and Clinodiplosis maricaensis are described based on material from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both species are associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae. The former is the gall inducer and the latter an inquiline.

  8. Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae) from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Maia, V C; Fernandes, S P C

    2011-05-01

    Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) Dasineura ovalifoliae and Clinodiplosis maricaensis are described based on material from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both species are associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae). The former is the gall inducer and the latter an inquiline.

  9. An Evaluation of Program M in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: An Analysis of Change in Self-Efficacy in Interpersonal Relationships, Gender Equity, and Self-Reported Risky Behaviors among Women in Two Low-Income Communities

    Rocha, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    This quantitative study examined whether Program M, an intervention targeting young women in a low-income community in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, promoted changes in gender equitable attitudes and self-efficacy in interpersonal relationships among program participants. Further, it investigated whether the program influenced these young…

  10. The experience of the LIGHT (Light and Power Company of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil), in low cost energy networks for rural electrification; A experiencia da LIGHT na implantacao de redes de baixo custo para eletrificacao rural

    Macedo, Fernando F; Andre, Oswaldo P [Light Servicos de Eletricidade SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    This paper shows the experience of LIGHT (Light and Power Company of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil), in planning and implementation of low cost energy networks in rural electrification. Were also showed guidelines for consumer`s orientation, viability of installations and wiring options. 4 figs., 16 tabs., 12 refs.

  11. Kluyveromyces aestuarii, a potential environmental quality indicator yeast for mangroves in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    F.V Araujo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Kluyveromyces aestuarii was found in sediments from 7 of 8 mangroves in Rio de Janeiro; and absent only at one site with heavy plastic bag pollution. Its presence suggests influence in other habitats from a mangrove and its absence in a mangrove suggests some non-fecal pollution or other habitat alteration.

  12. Contamination of Carcasses and Utensils in Small Swine Slaughterhouses by Salmonella in the Northwestern Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Cabral, Claudius Couto; Panzenhagen, Pedro Henrique Nunes; Delgado, Karina Frensel; Silva, Gabriela Rodrigues Alves; Rodrigues, Dália Dos Prazeres; Franco, Robson Maia; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam

    2017-07-01

    Salmonella is a major foodborne pathogen that constantly threatens food safety in developed countries and underdeveloped countries such as Brazil, where it is responsible for 38% of notified cases of foodborne illness. Swine are one of the main meat-producing species that may asymptomatically carry Salmonella, periodically shedding the bacteria through feces. The state of Rio de Janeiro is not a major producer of swine meat, but small slaughterhouses are operational and produce meat for consumption within the state, although few studies have been conducted in the region. In this context, this study was designed to evaluate Salmonella contamination in carcasses, lymph nodes, feces, utensils, and the environment of three small slaughterhouses in the state of Rio de Janeiro. A total of 344 samples from carcasses, utensils, equipment, water, and the environment were collected from these slaughterhouses in the northwestern region of Rio de Janeiro. Salmonella was isolated from 36 (10.5%) samples: 10 of 48 carcasses, 19 of 96 lymph nodes, 4 of 48 fecal samples, 2 of 6 water samples, and 1 of 6 bleeding knives; 55 isolates were recovered. Serotyping revealed the predominance of Salmonella Typhimurium (20 isolates) followed by Salmonella Abony (10 isolates), Salmonella Give (7 isolates), Salmonella Heidelberg (4 isolates), and Salmonella Infantis (1 isolate). Ten isolates were only partially typeable, with only their O antigen identified, and three isolates had rough, nontypeable colonies. Despite the overall low prevalence of Salmonella in this study, all three slaughterhouses had poor hygienic and sanitary conditions, providing easy routes for carcass and, consequently, meat contamination. Thus, it is imperative to enforce sanitary inspections in these establishments and to apply good manufacture practices to assure the safety of the produced pork.

  13. Laboratório químico-prático do Rio de Janeiro: primeira tentativa de difusão da Química no Brasil (1812- 1819) "Laboratório químico-prático do Rio de Janeiro": the first attempt at establishing the science of Chemistry in Brazil (1812- 1819)

    Nadja Paraense dos Santos

    2004-01-01

    Until the present date, historians of science have described inaccurately the first laboratory created in Brazil for establishing and divulging Chemistry, namely the "Laboratório Químico-Prático do Rio de Janeiro". During recent research carried out in the Arquivo do Museu Imperial (Petrópolis, RJ), I localized a document entitled "Ensaio histórico analítico das operações do Laboratório Químico-Prático do Rio de Janeiro", which allowed me to gain the relevant information to correct some of th...

  14. Age-specific Prevalence of Antibodies to Hepatitis A in Children and Adolescents from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1978 and 1995: Relationship of Prevalence to Environmental Factors

    Claudia L Vitral

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The age-specific prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV was determined in two different population groups with low socio-economic status from Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, whose serum samples were collected 17 years apart (Population 1, 1978; Population 2, 1995. In Population 2, analysis of the anti-HAV prevalence was also carried out with respect to environmental factors. Population 1 was composed of 520 stored sera collected from the umbilical cord of term neonates and children aged 1 month to 6 years. In population 2, 720 serum samples were collected from children and adolescents with ages ranging from 1 to 23 years. The overall prevalence rate of anti-HAV in Population 1 and Population 2 was 65.6% and 32.1%, respectively. In Population 1, the anti-HAV prevalence reached 88% at the age of 3, while in Population 2, it increased from 4.5% in children under the age of 3 to 66% in the group of adolescents over the age of 14. The low exposure to HAV infection in younger children from Population 2 could be a result of improved environmental hygiene and sanitation, as demonstrated by the presence of piped water, waste and sewage disposal systems in most houses from this population group. These findings indicate a possible change in the prevalence of hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro

  15. Assessment of urinary infection management during prenatal care in pregnant women attending public health care units in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Vettore, Marcelo Vianna; Dias, Marcos; Vettore, Mario Vianna; Leal, Maria do Carmo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the sociodemographic risk factors for urinary tract infection and the inadequacy of antenatal care, according to the Kotelchuck index, in pregnant women in the city of Rio de Janeiro. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,091 pregnant women, 501 with urinary tract infection, in the public health antenatal care units in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2007-2008. Demographic and socioeconomic data, obstetric history and adequacy of antenatal care were collected by interviews and antenatal care card. Inadequacy management of urinary tract infection was evaluated by professional performance, health services and women dimensions. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression were used to compare groups and to identify associated factors with management of urinary tract infection. Pregnant teenagers, anemic and diabetic pregnant women and quality of prenatal partially adequate or inadequate were those with higher odds of urinary tract infection. In the overall assessment, 72% had inadequate management of urinary tract infection. Inadequate management of urinary tract infection was associated with brown skin color compared to white skin color. In the assessment of health professional performance, inadequacy management of urinary tract infection was more common in pregnant women with low weight and overweight and obesity. According to pregnant women evaluation, primiparous women have lower odds of inadequacy management of urinary tract infection compared to those with one or more children.

  16. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepaguá Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Parente, Thiago E M; De-Oliveira, Ana C A X; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2008-03-01

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ("Nile tilapia", Oreochromis niloticus and "acará", Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepaguá Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes.

  17. Assessment of child and adult users of the degree of orientation of Primary Healthcare in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Harzheim, Erno; Pinto, Luiz Felipe; Hauser, Lisiane; Soranz, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    In the first half of 2014, 6,675 adults and caregivers of children using Primary Care (PC) services in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed using the Primary Care Assessment Tool - PCATool-Brazil. The aim was to arrive at an accurate overview of the extent to which PC services in all of the Planning Areas (PA) of the Rio de Janeiro City Health Department (CHD) - Municipal Health Secretariat have the essential and derivative attributes. This was a cross-sectional study of random, independent samples of the service users (children and adults). Results were measured using the scores assigned to PC attributes. In the opinion of adults and children using PC services, Type A Units - Municipal Healthcare Centers and Family Clinics staffed only with Family Health Teams, performed better than Type B units. The scores for the attributes "first contact accessibility", "comprehensive service - services provided", "community orientation" and "family orientation" still need to be improved. On the other hand "coordinated care" and "continuity" are on their way to quality scores, being always rated at around 6.0 or even higher.

  18. Histopathological findings in lungs of hawksbill turtles collected on the coasts of the states of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    M.A. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present work aimed to report the histopathological findings verified in lungs of hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata retrieved from the coasts of the states of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Between the years 2010 and 2014, 29 E. imbricata individuals were found stranded on the coasts, already dead or dying during treatment. Lung samples of all specimens were collected during necropsies, fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, subjected to routine histological processing and classified histomorphologically. The findings revealed that 37.93% of the specimens presented lung lesions. Of these, 90.91% were rescued alive and 9.09% were found dead; 63.63% were females and 36.37% were males. The mean weight was 5.44 Kg and the mean length 39 cm, characterizing young individuals. The animals originated from São Francisco de Itabapoana - RJ, Aracruz - ES, São Mateus - ES, Guarapari - ES, Linhares - ES, Itapemirim - ES, and Anchieta - ES. Macroscopic analysis revealed presence of foam, hyperemia, nodules in the parenchyma, cyst and caseous material. Microscopic examination evidenced heterophilic bronchopneumonia, parasitic granulomatous pneumonia caused by spirorchiids, bacterial granulomatous pneumonia, fungal granulomatous pneumonia, and congestion. It was concluded that juvenile specimens of Eretmochelys imbricata, females and males, originated from the states of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro and found stranded both alive or dead, have significant lung lesions, mainly inflammatory ones, associated or not with infectious agents.

  19. A segment of rbcL gene as a potential tool for forensic discrimination of Cannabis sativa seized at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Mello, I C T; Ribeiro, A S D; Dias, V H G; Silva, R; Sabino, B D; Garrido, R G; Seldin, L; de Moura Neto, Rodrigo Soares

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis sativa, known by the common name marijuana, is the psychoactive drug most widely distributed in the world. Identification of Cannabis cultivars may be useful for association to illegal crops, which may reveal trafficking routes and related criminal groups. This study provides evidence for the performance of a segment of the rbcL gene, through genetic signature, as a tool for identification for C. sativa samples apprehended by the Rio de Janeiro Police, Brazil. The PCR amplified and further sequenced the fragment of approximately 561 bp of 24 samples of C. sativa rbcL gene and showed the same nucleotide sequences, suggesting a possible genetic similarity or identical varieties. Comparing with other Cannabaceae family sequences, we have found 99% of similarity between the Rio de Janeiro sequence and three other C. sativa rbcL genes. These findings suggest that the fragment utilized at this study is efficient in identifying C. sativa samples, therefore, useful in genetic discrimination of samples seized in forensic cases.

  20. The Participatory Construction of Agro-Ecological Knowledge As A Soil Conservation Strategy In The Mountain Region of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil

    de Assis Renato Linhares

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro State is characterized by intensive soil use and input. Such mountainous environments are vulnerable to climate events; thus, the current article presents a report on methods applied to exchange academic and traditional knowledge. The aim is to expand farmers’ perception about the need of implementing agro-ecological practices, mainly soil management practices, which are important for agricultural sustainability in mountainous environments. The study was conducted in a Nova Friburgo family production unit, in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil. It consisted of implementing three observation and soil organic-matter management units. The idea was to reduce the incidence of clubroot of crucifers disease caused by Plasmidiophora brassicae. The soil fauna was discussed with local farmers, with emphasis on the association between ecological processes and soil management. The present study improved the discussion with farmers and the need of introducing other innovative conservation practices such as no-tillage system and participatory research based on agro-ecological propositions.

  1. Complementary feeding patterns in the first year of life in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: time trends from 1998 to 2008

    Daniel Alves de Oliveira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze time trends in complementary feeding practices among children under one year of age in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1998 to 2008. Based on comparable questions on food consumption in five surveys conducted in representative randomized samples of children in 1998 (n = 3,762, 2000 (n = 3,670, 2003 (n = 4,305, 2006 (n = 3,686, and 2008 (n = 2,621, 16 complementary feeding indicators were constructed. The percentage frequency of all indicators was estimated for each year of the study. Linear trend analyses were also conducted by means of multivariate regression models. All indicators of early complementary feeding decreased from 1998 to 2008. In the 6-11.9 month age group, there was a significant downward trend in the proportion of children receiving food with adequate consistency for their age, consumption of iron-rich foods, and overall adequacy of the diet. A significant upward trend in fruit consumption was observed. There was a decrease in the early complementary feeding, and generally a worsening of complementary feeding practices in children aged 6-11.9 months in Rio de Janeiro during the period studied.

  2. Estudo da incidência de abuso sexual contra crianças no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: an incidence study Sexual abuse of children and adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Naura Liane de Oliveira Aded

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma análise da incidência de exames realizados no Instituto Médico-Legal Afrânio Peixoto, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, entre janeiro e julho de 2000. Foram selecionados 124 casos suspeitos de abuso sexual, envolvendo ambos os sexos em indivíduos com idade entre 0 e 17 anos. Os menores entre 0 e 14 anos representaram 81,45% da amostra, coincidindo com os índices observados em estudo anterior que abrangeu o primeiro trimestre do mesmo ano. O sexo masculino predominou nos casos suspeitos de atentado violento ao pudor - 20,97% do grupo, não havendo registro, em ambos os gêneros, entre 15 e 17 anos. O maior número de casos alegados de conjunção carnal (cópula vaginal foi observado no grupo de menores do sexo feminino entre 10 e 17 anos. Dos alegados agressores, 44,36% eram relacionados às vítimas; os desconhecidos corresponderam a 13,71% do grupo estudado. Em 30,65% dos casos não havia informação sobre o agressor. A maior parte dos registros de ocorrências policiais diz respeito às Zonas Norte e Oeste da cidade. O perfil sócio-econômico-cultural dos indivíduos examinados não foi contemplado no presente estudo.We present an incidence analysis of forensic medical examinations at the Afrânio Peixoto Institute of Forensic Medicine in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from January to July 2000. A sample of 124 cases of suspected sexual abuse was selected, both male and female, aged 0 to 17 years. Minors from 0 to 14 years of age represented 81.45% of the sample, coinciding with rates from a former study spanning the first quarter of 2000. Other than vaginal rape, young male subjects prevailed in cases of suspected anal, oral, or other forms of sexual violence and comprised 20.97% of the total sample, with no such cases, either male or female, in the 15-17-year group. Most cases of alleged vaginal sexual abuse were detected in the 10-17-year group. 44.36% of the alleged aggressors were related to the victims; non-related aggressors

  3. Spatial and temporal variations of diurnal ichthyofauna on surf-zone of São Francisco do Itabapoana beaches, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Gomes Marcelo Paes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations of diurnal ichthyofauna and the environmental variables influences on its distribution were studied at the surf-zone of three beaches of São Francisco do Itabapoana, northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From August/1999 to August/2000, three beach seine hauls were made monthly, and environmental variables were recorded. A total number of 4,562 fishes (74,155g were sampled at the three beaches, where estuarine-dependent species prevailed (44%, followed by marine (31%, estuarine (19% and freshwater species (3%. Species richness, number of individuals and wet weight were significantly higher at Gargaú, followed by Manguinhos and Barra do Itabapoana, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis highlighted influences of the rivers flushing, salinity and plant abundance on the diurnal ichthyofauna distribution and dynamics of São Francisco do Itabapoana surf-zone.

  4. Small todents fleas from the bubonic plague focus located in the Serra dos Órgãos Mountain Range, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Raimundo Wilson de Carvalho

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Eleven species of fleas were collected from 601 small rodents, from November 1995 to October 1997, in areas of natural focus of bubonic plague, including the municipalities of Nova Friburgo, Sumidouro and Teresópolis, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Among 924 fleas collected, Polygenis (Polygenis rimatus (Rhopalopsyllidae was the predominant species regarding the frequency, representing 41.3% (N:382, followed by P. (Neopolygenis pradoi, representing 20% (N:185 and Craneopsylla minervaminerva (Stephanocircidae, representing 18.9% (N:175. The host Akodon cursor harbored 47.9% of these fleas. Other six host species were infested by 52.1% of the remaining fleas. Fleas were found on hosts and in places within the focus not previously reported by the literature.

  5. [Organization of medical specialization in cervical cancer and its control in Brazil: the Instituto de Ginecologia in Rio de Janeiro in the mid-twentieth century].

    Lana, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Instituto de Ginecologia (Institute of Gynecology), in Rio de Janeiro, headed by Dr. Arnaldo de Moraes, was the first institution in Brazil to introduce and divulge medical techniques for the control of cervical cancer in the mid-1900s. It became a benchmark for actions geared towards the disease at the time, organizing a specific diagnostic procedure that set Brazilian medicine apart in the field, in which it remained a leader until the 1970s. The aim of this text is to discuss the organization and running of the institution from two perspectives: its role in enhancing the position of gynecology as a medical specialty, and its role in spreading a standard practice for the control of cervical cancer.

  6. "The first shot": the context of first injection of illicit drugs, ongoing injecting practices, and hepatitis C infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Oliveira, Maria de Lourdes Aguiar; Hacker, Mariana A; Oliveira, Sabrina Alberti Nóbrega de; Telles, Paulo Roberto; O, Kycia Maria Rodrigues do; Yoshida, Clara Fumiko Tachibana; Bastos, Francisco I

    2006-04-01

    The context of first drug injection and its association with ongoing injecting practices and HCV (hepatitis C virus) infection were investigated. Injection drug users (IDUs) (N = 606) were recruited in "drug scenes" (public places, bars) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed, and tested for HCV. Sharing of needles/syringes was more prevalent at the first injection (51.3%) than at the baseline interview (36.8%). Those who shared syringes/needles at first injection were more likely to be currently engaged in direct/indirect sharing practices. Among young injectors (drug injection were identified as independent predictors of HCV infection. To effectively curb HCV transmission among IDUs and minimize harms associated with risk behaviors, preventive strategies should target individuals initiating drug injection beginning with their very first injection and discourage the transition from non-injecting use to the self-injection of illicit drugs.

  7. Temporal analysis of the relationship between dengue and meteorological variables in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2001-2009.

    Gomes, Adriana Fagundes; Nobre, Aline Araújo; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves

    2012-11-01

    Dengue, a reemerging disease, is one of the most important viral diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. Climate is considered an important factor in the temporal and spatial distribution of vector-transmitted diseases. This study examined the effect of seasonal factors and the relationship between climatic variables and dengue risk in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2001 to 2009. Generalized linear models were used, with Poisson and negative binomial distributions. The best fitted model was the one with "minimum temperature" and "precipitation", both lagged by one month, controlled for "year". In that model, a 1°C increase in a month's minimum temperature led to a 45% increase in dengue cases in the following month, while a 10-millimeter rise in precipitation led to a 6% increase in dengue cases in the following month. Dengue transmission involves many factors: although still not fully understood, climate is a critical factor, since it facilitates analysis of the risk of epidemics.

  8. Exploring spatial patterns in the associations between local AIDS incidence and socioeconomic and demographic variables in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Alves, André T J; Nobre, Flavio F; Waller, Lance A

    2016-05-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), universally provided in Brazil since 1996, resulted in a reduction in overall morbidity and mortality due to AIDS or AIDS-related complications, but in some municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, AIDS incidence remains high. Public health surveillance remains an invaluable tool for understanding current AIDS epidemiologic patterns and local socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with increased incidence. Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR) explores spatial varying impacts of these factors across the study area focusing attention on local variations in ecological associations. The set of sociodemographic variables under consideration revealed significant associations with local AIDS incidence and these associations varied geographically across the study area. We find the effects of predictors on AIDS incidence are not constant across the state, contrary to assumptions in the global models. We observe and quantify different local factors driving AIDS incidence in different parts of the state. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Philometra saltatrix (Nematoda: Philometridae) in the ovary of the bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766), off the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    São Clemente, S C; Felizardo, N N; Ferreira, M F; Menezes, R C; Cunha, N C; Aguiar, F C C; Nascimento, E R; Telleria, E L; Tortelly, R; Knoff, M

    2018-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to identify and describe the occurrence of nematode parasites in the gonads of bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix from off the coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Only females were found to be parasitized by the nematodes, which were identified as P. saltatrix using morphological, morphometric and molecular data. Infection of female bluefish by this nematode had the following values: prevalence, 48.7%; mean intensity, 2.6; mean abundance, 1.3; and range of infection, 1-10 specimens. Histopathological examination of transverse and longitudinal sections of the parasitized ovaries showed nematodes at different stages of development among oocytes, but no indication of any associated inflammatory reaction. The presence of nematodes in the ovaries of bluefish is an important indication of fish hygiene, and parasitized fish are usually rejected by consumers because of their repugnant appearance.

  10. Dissemination of Aleurocanthus woglumi in citrus plants, its natural enemies and new host plants in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Rodrigo Garcia Alvim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aleurocanthus woglumi is an exotic pest, widely disseminated in Brazil, with a high preference for citrus plants, but with a polyphagous feeding habit. The contribution of the state of Rio de Janeiro in the Brazilian production of citrus fruits is small; however, there are still public policies that encourage citrus production in the state. In 2010, the appearance of this pest in Rio de Janeiro was confirmed in the municipality of Cachoeiras de Macacu. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the dissemination of A. woglumi in this state, conduct a survey of new species of host plants, identify and evaluate the population of natural enemies present at two orchards that grow 'Tahiti' limes ( Citrus latifolia infested by the pest in Cachoeiras de Macacu, RJ, Brazil. In 19 municipalities, leaves of citrus and other species of plants presenting aleyrodid nymphs were collected, and yellow sticky traps were installed to capture adults for subsequent identification. At the 'Tahiti' lime orchards, the leaf collections were done to confirm the species of Aleyrodidae , and regarding A. woglumi , the natural enemies associated with this pest were collected directly from the infested plants. The results showed that A. woglumi is wide-spread in 12 municipalities. Three new host plants for A. woglumi were identified: Artocarpus heterophyllus ( Moraceae , Pouteria caimito ( Sapotaceae and Struthanthus flexicaulis ( Loranthaceae . In Cachoeiras de Macacu, a new species of parasitoid of A. woglumi nymphs was named: Encarsia pergandiella (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae , while the insects in the Coccinellidae (Coleoptera family have stood out as predators of this pest.

  11. Assessment of microbiological contamination of fresh, minimally processed, and ready-to-eat lettuces (Lactuca sativa), Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Brandão, Marcelo L L; Almeida, Davi O; Bispo, Fernanda C P; Bricio, Silvia M L; Marin, Victor A; Miagostovich, Marize P

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the microbiological contamination of lettuces commercialized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in order to investigate detection of norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII), Salmonella spp., total and fecal coliforms, such as Escherichia coli. For NoV detection samples were processed using the adsorption-elution concentration method associated to real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A total of 90 samples of lettuce including 30 whole fresh lettuces, 30 minimally processed (MP) lettuces, and 30 raw ready-to-eat (RTE) lettuce salads were randomly collected from different supermarkets (fresh and MP lettuce samples), food services, and self-service restaurants (RTE lettuce salads), all located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from October 2010 to December 2011. NoV GII was not detected and PP7 bacteriophage used as internal control process (ICP) was recovered in 40.0%, 86.7%, and 76.7% of those samples, respectively. Salmonella spp. was not detected although fecal contamination has been observed by fecal coliform concentrations higher than 10(2) most probable number/g. E. coli was detected in 70.0%, 6.7%, and 30.0% of fresh, MP, and RTE samples, respectively. This study highlights the need to improve hygiene procedures at all stages of vegetable production and to show PP7 bacteriophage as an ICP for recovering RNA viruses' methods from MP and RTE lettuce samples, encouraging the evaluation of new protocols that facilitate the establishment of methodologies for NoV detection in a greater number of food microbiology laboratories. The PP7 bacteriophage can be used as an internal control process in methods for recovering RNA viruses from minimally processed and ready-to-eat lettuce samples. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. A saprobic index for biological assessment of river water quality in Brazil (Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states).

    Junqueira, Marilia Vilela; Friedrich, Günther; Pereira de Araujo, Paulo Roberto

    2010-04-01

    Based upon several years of experience in investigations with macrozoobenthos in rivers in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, a biological assessment system has been developed to indicate pollution levels caused by easily degradable organic substances from sewers. The biotic index presented here is aimed at determining water's saprobic levels and was, therefore, named the "Saprobic Index for Brazilian Rivers in Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro states" (ISMR). For this purpose, saprobic valences and weights have been established for 122 taxa of tropical macrozoobenthos. Investigations were carried out in little, medium sized and big rivers in mountains and plains. Through ISMR, a classification of water quality and the respective cartographic representation can be obtained. Data collection and treatment methods, as well as the limitations of the biotic index, are thoroughly described. ISMR can also be used as an element to establish complex multimetric indexes intended for an ecological integrity assessment, where it is essential to indicate organic pollution.

  13. Characterization of rickettsia rickettsii in a case of Fatal Brazilian spotted fever in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Cristiane Lamas

    Full Text Available A lethal case of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is presented. Clinical features were initially of gastrointestinal involvement and evolved with progression to septic shock, meningoencephalitis and death on the 6th day of illness. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA for spotted fever group rickettsia (SFGR was non-reactive. Diagnosis was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and the nucleotide sequencing of a fragment of the ompA gene showed 100% homology to Rickettsia rickettsii. BSF has not been reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro in the last three decades, and the present description should alert the clinicians to its presence in urban Rio de Janeiro, and to the differential diagnosis with dengue fever, gastroenteritis, leptospirosis and bacterial septic shock, among others.

  14. Ocorrência de Achatina fulica no Vale do Paraíba, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Occurrence of Achatina fulica in the Vale do Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Maurício Carvalho de Vasconcellos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Registrou-se no município de Resende, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, a primeira ocorrência do molusco Achatina fulica hospedeiro intermediário de Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causador da angiostrongilíase meningoencefálica. Em cinco bairros visitados, foram encontrados moluscos vivendo livremente, e nenhum dos animais coletados apresentava a forma larvar do parasito. A presença de A. fulica pode estar relacionada à comercialização desse molusco como alimento, e representa possibilidade de instalação dessa zoonose na região.The first occurrence of the Achatina fulica, an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the etiological agent of meningoencephalic angiostrongiliasis, is reported in Resende municipality, Brazil. In the five visited localities, snails were found living freely, and the larvae of this parasite was not seen in any of them. The finding of A. fulica in the area may be related to its commercialization as a food item and embodies the possibility of new focus.

  15. Monogenea parasites of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 (Pisces, Sciaenidae from the littoral of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Anna Kohn

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available From the gills of 100 Micropogonia furnieri (Desmarest, 1823 from Atlantic coast of Rio de Janeiro State, were recovered Macrovalvitrema sinaloense Caballero & Bravo-Hollis, 1955, Pterinotrematoides mexicanum Caballero & Bravo-Hollis, 1955, Rhamnocercus rhmnocercus Monaco, Wood & Mizelle, 1954 and Encotyllabe spari Yamaguti, 1934. M. furnieri represents a new host record for them and a new geographical dsitribution is referred for M. sinaloense, P. mexicanum and R. rhmnocercus.

  16. FIRST REPORT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS CAUSED BY Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi IN AN URBAN AREA OF RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Marcelo Rosandiski LYRA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania, and transmitted by sandflies. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, almost all of the cases of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL are caused by Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis, while cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi. The resurgence of autochthonous VL cases in Rio de Janeiro is related to the geographic expansion of the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis and its ability to adapt to urban areas. We report the first case of leishmaniasis with exclusively cutaneous manifestations caused by L. (L. infantum chagasi in an urban area of Rio de Janeiro. An eighty-one-year-old woman presented three pleomorphic skin lesions that were not associated with systemic symptoms or visceromegalies. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis identified L. (L. infantum chagasi, but direct smear and PCR of bone narrow were negative for Leishmania sp. (suggesting exclusively cutaneous involvement. We discuss the different dermatological presentations of viscerotropic leishmaniasis of the New and Old World, and the clinical and epidemiological importance of the case. Etiologic diagnosis of ATL based upon exclusive clinical criteria may lead to incorrect conclusions. We should be aware of the constant changes in epidemiological patterns related to leishmaniases.

  17. Serological surveillance of measles in blood donors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Vigilancia serológica de sarampión en donantes de sangre de Río de Janeiro, Brasil

    Rosângela Castro-Silva

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of individuals seronegative for measles antibody among blood donors from a blood bank in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to describe their social and demographic characteristics, with the goal of exploring the potential use of plasma banks to supplement serological surveillance with relevant data in order to support the program of measles elimination in the city of Rio de Janeiro and elsewhere. METHODS: Plasma samples from 1 101 consecutive blood donations made in November 2000 at HEMORIO, the largest blood bank in the state of Rio de Janeiro, were tested for measles immunoglobulin G, using a commercial enzyme immunoassay and a plaque reduction neutralization test. We calculated the proportion (and 95% confidence interval (CI of samples seronegative for measles antibody for the total sample of blood donors and also for subgroups categorized by age, sex, neighborhood of residence, education, and occupation. We used the chi-square test to assess the statistical significance of differences in proportions and linear trends in proportions. RESULTS: Of the total group of blood donors, 6.9% of them (95% CI: 5.4%­8.4% were seronegative for measles. Women had a higher proportion (10.1%; 95% CI: 6.8%­13.4% of seronegative results than did men (5.6%; 95% CI: 4.0%­7.2%. In terms of age, 86.8% of seronegative individuals were born between 1971 and 1982. Seronegativity was inversely proportional to age (chi-square = 58.0; P OBJETIVOS: Determinar la proporción de personas seronegativas a anticuerpos contra el sarampión entre los donantes de un banco de sangre de la ciudad de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, y describir sus características sociales y demográficas, con el fin de explorar el uso eventual de los bancos de plasma para complementar la vigilancia serológica con datos que permitan apoyar el programa de erradicación del sarampión en la ciudad de Río de Janeiro y en otras localidades. MÉTODOS: Se estudi

  18. Fatores associados ao sofrimento psíquico de policiais militares da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Factors associated with psychological distress among military police in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Edinilsa Ramos de Souza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo, foram investigados fatores associados ao sofrimento psíquico dos policiais militares da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, a partir de estudo transversal com 1.120 policiais, sendo caracterizados o perfil socioeconômico e demográfico, a qualidade de vida, as suas condições de saúde e de trabalho. Para mensurar o sofrimento psíquico, utilizou-se o Self-Reported Questionnaire. Na análise de associações, usou-se o modelo de regressão logística, considerando-se variáveis relacionadas ao sofrimento psíquico. Os resultados indicaram associação entre sofrimento psíquico e fatores como: capacidade de reagir a situações difíceis e grau de satisfação com a vida; problemas de saúde, sobretudo, digestivos, nervosos, musculares e ósseos; e condições adversas de trabalho, como carga excessiva, constante exposição ao estresse e à vitimização. Conclui-se apontando a necessidade de intervenções que visem à promoção da saúde desses profissionais, sobretudo da sua saúde mental.This study investigates factors associated with psychological distress among military police (n = 1,120 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The article describes their social, economic, and demographic characteristics, quality of life, mental health, and work conditions. Measurement of psychological distress used the Self-Reported Questionnaire. Analysis of associations used logistic regression, considering factors associated with psychological distress. The results indicate an association between psychological distress and factors such as ability to react to difficult situations, dissatisfaction with life, health problems (especially digestive, nervous, and musculoskeletal symptoms, and adverse work conditions such as excessive workload, constant stress, and victimization. The article concludes by highlighting the need for health promotion interventions for the military police, focusing especially on their mental health.

  19. Caracterização de demandas judiciais de fornecimento de medicamentos "essenciais" no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Characterization of lawsuits for the supply of "essential" medicines in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Vera Lúcia Edais Pepe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O reconhecimento do direito à saúde possui duas repercussões práticas: a responsabilidade ética e legal do poder público em assegurar atenção integral à saúde da população, e a possibilidade de o cidadão reivindicar judicialmente o cumprimento desta obrigação estatal. Este estudo objetivou pesquisar as demandas de medicamentos considerados essenciais nas decisões da 2ª instância do Tribunal de Justiça do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em 2006. Foram analisados 185 processos e em três casos o pedido foi negado. Os tempos medianos entre início da ação e decisão liminar, sentença na 1a instância, e acórdão na 2ª instância, foram de 7, 239 e 478 dias, respectivamente. Em 98 processos o medicamento pode ser identificado e em 80,6% havia solicitação de ao menos um medicamento não pertencente aos elencos oficiais. Isto sugere que, além de problemas relacionados à aquisição, distribuição e dispensação de itens listados, os não selecionados em listas oficiais foram também grande motivação da demanda. Os medicamentos mais solicitados foram os dos sistemas cardiovascular e nervoso central.Recognition of the right to health raises two practical issues: the government's ethical and legal duty to ensure comprehensive health care and citizens' recourse to legal action to guarantee this right. This study focused on lawsuits to demand "essential" medicines, filed at the State Court of Appeals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2006. One hundred and eighty-five suits were examined, and the claims were granted in all but three cases. Median times between filing the suit, the injunction, first ruling, and appellate ruling were 7, 239, and 478 days respectively. In 80.6% of the 98 suits in which the specific medicines could be identified, at least one drug did not belong to any publicly funded list of medicines. This could indicate that lawsuits demanding "essential" drugs were motivated not only by problems in procurement

  20. Trayectorias juveniles e intervenciones sociales: repercusiones en las prácticas sociales y en la salud (Río de Janeiro, Brasil Juvenile trajectories and social interventions: repercussions for social practices and health (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Simone Monteiro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la percepción de un grupo de jóvenes de las capas populares de Río de Janeiro, Brasil, sobre las repercusiones de programas sociales en sus trayectorias afectivo/sexual y escolar/profesional. Desde una perspectiva comparativa, examinamos las visiones, las prácticas y las condiciones de vida de 42 chicos y chicas, entre 18 y 24 años, con y sin participación en proyectos sociales dirigidos a la profesionalización y promoción de la ciudadanía. Son discutidos, particularmente, los impactos de las intervenciones en las concepciones de salud y SIDA, en los indicadores de movilidad social y profesionalización y en la formación de redes sociales, incluyendo la dimensión de género. Buscamos reflexionar sobre los efectos de organizaciones civiles en la población juvenil de baja renta, en un contexto de crisis socioeconómica y de pocos avances en términos de políticas sociales. Destacamos que, a pesar de las limitaciones de tales intervenciones en el contexto macro social, la experiencia de apoyo social promovida por los proyectos contribuye a la ampliación de la perspectiva de vida y del capital simbólico de este grupo social, con impactos positivos para la esfera de la salud.This article analyzes the perceptions of a group of youth from the lower economic levels of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, about the repercussions of social programs on their affective/sexual and educational/professional trajectories. From a comparative perspective, we examined the perspectives, practices, and conditions of life of 42 boys and girls, between 18 and 24 years of age, who did and did not participate in social projects directed at professionalizing and promoting the population. In particular, we discuss the impacts of interventions on concepts of health and AIDS, on indicators of social mobility and professionalization, and on the formation of social networks, including the dimension of gender. We sought to address the effects of civic

  1. Mudanças no consumo alimentar de mulheres do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 1995-2005 Changing in dietary intake by women in the Municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1995 to 2005

    Rosângela Alves Pereira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Compara-se o consumo alimentar de mulheres de 35 anos e mais investigado em dois estudos transversais de base populacional desenvolvidos no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, em 1995-1996 (n = 1.014 e 2004-2005 (n = 1.001. Utilizou-se questionário de freqüência do consumo de alimentos para estimar o consumo de alimentos e o índice de massa corporal (IMC = peso/estatura² para avaliar o estado nutricional. A prevalência da obesidade (IMC 30kg/m² aumentou no período de 10 anos (16,6% para 24%. O consumo de diversos alimentos com alta densidade energética sofreu incremento, como: biscoitos salgados, doces, bacon, lingüiça/salsicha e hambúrguer. Outros foram relatados com menor freqüência: manteiga/margarina, maionese, batata frita ou chips, e açúcar. Frutas, leite, feijão, raízes e tubérculos, e carnes tiveram redução do consumo. Mulheres com escolaridade elevada apresentaram maior redução no consumo de frutas e carnes. As mudanças na prevalência da obesidade parecem estar relacionadas com as modificações do consumo de alimentos e dependentes do grau de escolarização.This article compares food intake by women 35 years or older in two population-based cross-sectional studies in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1995-1996 (n = 1,014 and 2004-2005 (n = 1,001. Food intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire, and nutritional status was defined according to body mass index (BMI = weight/height². Prevalence of obesity (BMI 30kg/m² increased in the ten-year period (16.6% to 24%. Many high energy density (kcal/g foods showed a statistically significant increase in the period, such as crackers, candies, bacon, sausage, and hamburger. Some high energy density items were reported less frequently: butter, mayonnaise, potato chips, and sugar. The intake of fruits, milk, beans, roots and potatoes, and meat decreased in the 10-year period. Women with more education showed a larger reduction in fruit and meat intake and a smaller reduction

  2. Organic micropollutants on river sediments from Rio de Janeiro State, Southeast Brazil Micro-poluentes orgânicos em sedimentos fluviais no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil

    João Paulo Machado Torres

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a contribution for the knowledge upon concentrations and fate of different kinds of organic micropollutants in Tropical River system from a very industrialized region in Brazil. The presented data was obtained during three years of an International Research Project between Brazilian and Dutch institutions. The sediments were sampled at the Paraiba do Sul-Guandu river watershed, the most important watercourse of Rio de Janeiro state, where up 90 % of the population depends on its water for domestic uses. After extraction with non-polar solvents in a hot sohxlet device and clean up using chromatographic columns, three classes of organic micropollutants were analyzed: organochlorine insecticides (OCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. The organochlorines, including the PCBs were scarcely present in the collected samples probably reflecting the restrictions of use of this class of compounds in the Brazilian market. However, the PAHs levels were high at the vicinity of a huge steelworks located in the city of Volta Redonda. This contamination is probably due to the massive use of coal in the above-cited metallurgical plant.Este artigo pretende contribuir para o conhecimento sobre a concentração e destino de diferentes tipos de micro-poluentes num sistema fluvial tropical de uma região brasileira altamente industrializada. Os dados apresentados foram obtidos ao longo de três anos, como parte de um projeto de pesquisa internacional envolvendo instituições brasileiras e holandesas. As amostras de sedimentos foram obtidas da bacia hidrográfica Paraíba do Sul/Guandu, a mais importante hidrovia no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, onde 90% da população depende dessa água para uso doméstico. Após extração com solventes não-polares num dispositivo sohxlet quente, e limpeza utilizando colunas cromatográficas, foram analisadas três classes de micro-poluentes orgânicos: inseticidas

  3. Perfil antropométrico de pré-escolares de uma creche em Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro Anthropometric profile of preschool children of a day-care center in Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Ana Lilian B. dos Santos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil antropométrico de pré-escolares matriculados em uma creche de Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal descritivo, com aferição de medidas antropométricas (peso e estatura e preenchimento de um questionário socioeconômico. A população estudada foi composta por 33 pré-escolares menores de seis anos de idade matriculados na creche. A população de referência para comparação do grupo estudado foi a do National Center for Health Statistic (NCHS e da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que a maioria (48,5% das crianças fazia parte da classe econômica C. Nenhuma delas apresentou deficit pôndero-estatural (Z escore+2 segundo os índices P/I e P/E, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: Reflexos da transição nutricional foram observados neste estudo, no qual se encontrou ausência de deficits pôndero-estaturais indicativos de desnutrição e um considerável excesso de peso, indicativo de sobrepeso e obesidade.OBJECTIVE: To describe the anthropometric profile of preschool children registered in a day-care center in Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: This cross sectional study enrolled 33 preschool children less than six years old registered in a day care center. All families were asked to answer a socioeconomic questionnaire and the children were assessed regarding weight and height. The National Center for Health Statistic (NCHS and World Health Organization (WHO growth charts were considered as standards for comparison purposes. RESULTS: The majority of children belonged to medium socioeconomic group (C class. None of them presented height-for-age or weight-for-age deficits with Z score+2 Z scores according to weight-for-age and weight-for-height respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional transition seems to be present in the studied children, with absence of indicators of malnutrition and a considerable frequency of overweight and obesity.

  4. Intoxicações e uso de pesticidas por agricultores do Município de Paty do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Pesticide use and poisoning among farmers from the county of Paty do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Isabella Fernandes Delgado

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho é parte de um estudo mais amplo sobre as conseqüências para a saúde da exposição a pesticidas. Em 1997, no Município de Paty do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro, 55 agricultores foram entrevistados sobre o uso de pesticidas, equipamentos de proteção e medidas de higiene, ocorrência de intoxicações, destino das embalagens vazias e o tipo de orientação técnica recebida pelos usuários destes produtos. Os pesticidas mais usados foram inseticidas como a abamectina, os compostos organofosforados e os piretróides, e os fungicidas como o mancozeb, o clorotalonil e produtos à base de cobre. Entre os trabalhadores envolvidos no preparo e/ou aplicação de pesticidas, 92% informaram não usar qualquer tipo de equipamento de proteção individual. 62% dos agricultores entrevistados informaram já ter "passado mal" ao preparar ou aplicar pesticidas. Os sintomas mais freqüentemente citados foram dor de cabeça, enjôo, vômitos, vertigem, irritação da pele e visão embaçada. Destes agricultores, 21% necessitaram de assistência médica e em mais da metade dos casos (51%, em que os lavradores identificaram os pesticidas que usavam quando "passaram mal", foram citados inseticidas organofosforados da classe toxicológica I.This survey is part of a more comprehensive study on the health consequences of pesticide exposure. In the county (municipality of Paty do Alferes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, 55 agricultural workers were interviewed on the use of pesticides, use of personal protective equipment, data on health status, and symptoms related to pesticide exposure, disposal of agrochemical containers, and technical assistance. The most widely used pesticides were insecticides such as abamectin, organophosphate compounds, and pyrethroids, and fungicides such as mancozeb, chlorothalonil, and copper products. As a rule, pesticides are handled carelessly, and 92% of workers involved in the mixing, loading, and spraying of insecticides and

  5. Analysis of clay smoking pipes from archeological sites in the region of the Guanabara Bay (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) by FT-IR

    Freitas, Renato P.; Ribeiro, Iohanna M.; Calza, Cristiane; Oliveira, Ana L.; Silva, Mariane L.; Felix, Valter S.; Ferreira, Douglas S.; Coelho, Felipe A.; Gaspar, Maria D.; Pimenta, André R.; Medeiros, Elanio A.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, twenty samples of clay smoking pipes excavated in an 18 km2 area between the Macacu and Caceribu rivers, in the municipality of Itaboraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were analyzed by FT-IR technique. The samples, excavated in different archeological sites of the region, are dated between the seventeenth and the nineteenth centuries and are part of the material culture left by Africans and African descendants that lived in the complex. FT-IR analyses and complementary SEM-EDS studies showed that the clay paste used in the manufacture of smoking pipes, mostly handcrafted, is composed of quartz, feldspar, phyllosilicates and iron oxides. Multivariate statistical tests (PCA) were applied to FT-IR data to assess the interactions between the archeological sites. The results indicated that one archeological site - Macacu IV - is greatly related to the other sites. The results obtained have helped archeologists and anthropologists in better understanding the manufacturing process employed in ancient ceramic artifacts produced during the period of colonial Brazil.

  6. The Quest to Extend Health Services to Vulnerable Substance Users in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in the Context of an Unfolding Economic Crisis.

    Krawczyk, Noa; Kerrigan, Deanna; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

    2017-07-01

    Calls to address crack-cocaine use in Brazil among homeless and street-frequenting populations who are in urgent need of health services have questioned the capacity of the Brazilian Unified Health System to attend to the nation's most marginalized citizens. In recent years, Brazil has launched several actions to escalate care for substance users, yet many obstacles hindering accessibility and effectiveness of services remain. Paradoxically, these actions have been implemented in the context of a growing economic crisis, and expanding services for a population of poor and stigmatized substance users while cutting other government programs tends to elicit harsh criticism from citizens. In consequence of such prospects, this commentary aims to discuss barriers marginalized substance users face in accessing health services that are at risk of worsening with government cutbacks. Using Rio de Janeiro as an example, we explore two primary issues: the resource-strained, under-staffed and decentralized nature of the Brazilian Unified Health System and the pervading stigma that bars vulnerable citizens from official structures and services. Abandoning initiated government efforts to increase access to health services would risk maintaining vulnerable citizens at the margins of public structures, inhibiting the opportunity to offer this population humane and urgently needed treatment and care.

  7. Molecular identification of the agent of Q fever – Coxiella burnetii – in domestic animals in State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Maria Angélica Monteiro de Mello Mares-Guia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Over the last recent years, the number of Q fever cases have has increased throughout the world. An epidemiological investigation was performed in the area in which the first molecular documentation of Q fever in Brazil was previously reported. Methods Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and PCR of Coxiella burnetii targeting the htpAB gene were performed in samples from 14 dogs (blood; 1 cat (blood; 10 goats (blood, milk, vaginal swab and anal swab; 3 sheep (blood; and 2 horses (blood. Results Two dogs, two sheep and five goats were seroreactive. DNA was amplified from 6 milk and 2 blood samples from goats and from dogs, respectively. The sequence of the amplicons exhibited 99% sequence similarity with the homologous sequence of the htpAB gene of C. burnetii RSA 331 (GenBank - CP000890. Conclusions The results confirm C. burnetii infection in animals in Rio de Janeiro and reinforce the need for the surveillance of Q fever in Brazil.

  8. A novel approach for characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Christensen, Jan H.; Tomasi, Giorgio; Scofield, Arthur de Lemos; Meniconi, Maria de Fatima Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    A novel multivariate method based on principal component analysis of pre-processed sections of chromatograms is used to characterize the complex PAH pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Five distinct sources of 3- to 6-ring PAHs could be revealed. The harbour is the most contaminated site in the bay, its plume stretches in a South West to North East direction and the chemical profile indicates mainly pyrogenic sources mixed with a fraction of high-molecular-weight petrogenic PAHs. Rio Sao Joao de Meriti is the second largest source of PAHs, and introduces mainly a fraction of low-molecular-weight petrogenic PAHs from the western region of Rio de Janeiro. The sites close to the ruptured pipeline at the Duque de Caxias Refinery show a distinctive pollution pattern indicating a heavy petroleum fraction. The method also led to the identification of new potential indicator ratios also involving coeluting peaks (e.g., triphenylene and chrysene). - A novel multivariate method is used to characterize the complex PAH pollution patterns in sediments from Guanabara Bay, Brazil.

  9. Heart rate and energy expenditure during garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Freqüência cardíaca e gasto energético durante a coleta de lixo domiciliar no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Luiz A. Anjos

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Physiological workload is used to estimate the physical demand of tasks in the workforce, but limited information is available for the various work activities in developing countries. Eighty-three randomly selected male workers participated in the present study, aimed at assessing the physiological workload of garbage collection (GC in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Heart rate (HR was obtained on four consecutive workdays. Energy expenditure (EE was extrapolated from heart rate data based on individual laboratory-established heart rate/oxygen consumption curve in 70 workers. Mean HR during GC was 104.0 ± 11.7bpm (± SD, representing 56.9 ± 7.5% of maximum heart rate. EE was 1608.3 ± 738.5kcal for an average of 293.1 ± 103.9 minutes of work per day. Based on all measurements, work in garbage collection in Rio de Janeiro can be considered excessively heavy. These data emphasize the need to develop appropriate classification of workload to be used in health-related research and in the development of maximum acceptable work time in association with the physiological workload, particularly in developing countries.A carga de trabalho fisiológica é utilizada para estimar a demanda física de uma tarefa na população de trabalhadores adultos; no entanto, nos países em desenvolvimento há poucos dados disponíveis sobre as diversas atividades ocupacionais. Oitenta e três trabalhadores masculinos participaram neste estudo, com o objetivo de avaliar a carga fisiológica do trabalho de coleta de lixo domiciliar no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A freqüência cardíaca foi medida em quatro dias de trabalho consecutivos. O gasto energético foi extrapolado a partir da freqüência cardíaca, com base em dados individuais obtidos em laboratório para a curva de freqüência cardíaca/consumo de oxigênio em 70 trabalhadores. A freqüência cardíaca média durante a coleta de lixo era 104,0 ± 11,7bpm, o que representa 56,9 ± 7,5% da freq

  10. Natural uranium: a study on excretion and retention in bone tissue for inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Marao, S.R.

    1981-01-01

    The concentration of natual uranium in human bone and in urine were measured in samples originated from Rio de Janeiro City residents. The solvent extraction scheme, coupled with alpha spectrometry measurement provided a good method for the determination of isotopic uranium in the samples. A mean uranium concentration 0,0195 +- 0,0025 μgU bone ash or 56,6 +- 7,2 μgU for the whole skeleton was derived. The mean daily urinary excretion of the element was estimated in 0,191 +- 0,038 μgU. (Author) [pt

  11. New genera and species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae from three restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Five new genera and fourteen new species of gall midges from restingas of Rio de Janeiro State are described. The larva, pupa, male, female and gall are described for each species. The new genera are: Arrabidaeamyia, Epihormomyia, Manilkaramyia, Mayteniella and Parazalepidota. The new species are: Arrabidaeamyia serrata, Asphondylia peploniae, Clinodiplosis diodiae, Clinodiplosis profusa, Clusiamyia granulosa, Dasineura couepiae, Epihormomyia miconiae, Lopesia grandis, Lopesia marginalis, Lopesia singularis, Manilkaramyia notabilis, Mayteniella distincta, Parazalepidota clusiae and Paulliniamyia ampla. Also, the larva of a previously described species, Clusiamyia nitida Maia, 1996 is described and Asphondylia byrsonimae Maia & Couri is transferred to Bruggmaniella.

  12. Internal contamination monitoring through measurements in vivo at whole body contamination unity of IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Monitoracao da contaminacao interna atraves de medicoes in vivo na Unidade de Contador de Corpo Inteiro do IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Dantas, Ana Leticia A.; Lucena, Eder A.; Dantas, Bernardo M., E-mail: adantas@ird.gov.b, E-mail: eder@ird.gov.b, E-mail: bmdantas@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao In Vivo. Servico de Monitoracao Individual Interna

    2011-10-26

    The present work approaches the internal contamination monitoring capacity through measurements performed at the Whole-body Counter Unity of the in-vivo monitoring laboratory (LABMIV) of the IRD-CNEN, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, present thr main parameters related to the monitoring techniques developed, and the the available instrumentation for identification and quantification in vivo of photon emitter radionuclides with energy in the range of 10-3000 keV, incorporated by workers and public individuals

  13. Rickettsiae of the Spotted Fever group in dogs, horses and ticks: an epidemiological study in an endemic region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Nathalie Costa da Cunha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Cunha N.C., Lemos E.R.S., Rozental T., Teixeira R.C., Cordeiro M.D., Lisbôa R.S., Favacho A.R., Barreira J.D., Rezende J. & Fonseca A.H. Rickettsiae of the Spotted Fever group in dogs, horses and ticks: an epidemiological study in an endemic region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. [Rickettsias do grupo da febre maculosa em cães, equinos e carrapatos: um estudo epidemiológico em região endêmica do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:294-300, 2014. Departamento de Epidemiologia e Saúde Pública, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465, Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: adivaldo@ufrrj.br Spotted fever is a disease of which Rickettsia rickettsii is the most pathogenic agent. Its transmission is by tick bites and the infected ticks can act as vectors, reservoirs or amplifiers. The purpose of this paper is to assess the potential of dogs and horses as sentinels for brazilian spotted fever (BSF emergence and become acquainted with the tick species in a municipal region of Resende, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, where five BSF cases in man were registered. Dog and horse blood samples were collected from rural and periurban properties to assess IgG anti-Rickettsia rickettsii, using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA. First, an analysis was conducted to detect association between IFA results and answers obtained from a questionnaire. Afterwards, a multivariate investigation was undertaken that presented significant statistical differences. Ticks were collected directly from dogs and horses for taxonomic identification. Out of the 107 canine serum samples, 30 (28.0% were reactive, with titers varying from 1:64 to 1:4096, and 77 (72.0% were not reactive. Of 96 animals in the serum analysis of horses, 9 (9.4% were reactive, all with titers of 1:64, and 87 (90.6% were non-reactive. The tick species collected from dogs were

  14. An outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with astrovirus serotype 1 in a day care center, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    AMV Silva

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Between June 4th and June 20th1996 rotavirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus (HAstrV were investigated in fecal samples from 27 children under three years old with acute diarrhea, attending the Bertha Lutz day care center, in Rio de Janeiro. All fecal samples were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, enzyme immunoassays (EIA, and electron microscopy (EM. Nine of them (33% showed positive results for HAstrV by at least one of the employed methodologies. Eight were positive by RT-PCR and EIA, and six by EM. All positive samples were inoculated onto HT-29 (human colon adenocarcinoma cultured cells for HAstrV isolation and seven were positive after three passages. The sequencing analysis of eight RT-PCR products (449 bp from gene that codifies VP2 protein, showed a total nucleotide identity among them and 98% with HAstrV-1 (strain Oxford type 1. This is the first report of a gastroenteritis outbreak associated with HAstrv-1 in a day care center in Rio de Janeiro and it reinforces the importance of this virus in association with infantile acute gastroenteritis.

  15. Assessment of the BTEX concentrations and reactivity in a confined parking area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    de Castro, Barbara Prestes; de Souza Machado, Gladson; Bauerfeldt, Glauco Favila; Nunes Fortes, Julio Domingos; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the contribution of evaporative emissions from light passenger vehicles to the degradation of the air quality was investigated on the basis of the indoor quantification of the monoaromatic volatile compounds Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes (BTEX), specifically, a confined shopping mall parking area in the northern zone of Rio de Janeiro, a site that represents the reality of the vehicular fleet of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro. In order to evaluate the concentration of the BTEX compounds, samples were collected, by an active sampling system using charcoal cartridge as adsorbent. The samples were extracted with organic solvent and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). The average results were 54.14 μg m-3 (benzene), 209.24 μg m-3 (toluene), 45.87 μg m-3 (ethylbenzene) and 118.93 μg m-3 (xylenes). These results are compared with results from the literature of vehicular emissions in confined spaces such as garages and tunnels. Possible correlations with emissions from moving vehicles, obtained from previous studies in a tunnel of large circulation and emissions obtained in other underground parkings, are also investigated. The results suggest different emission sources.

  16. Malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, an Atlantic Forest area: an assessment using the health surveillance service

    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The lethality of malaria in the extra-Amazonian region is more than 70 times higher than in Amazonia itself. Recently, several studies have shown that autochthonous malaria is not a rare event in the Brazilian southeastern states in the Atlantic Forest biome. Information about autochthonous malaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro (RJ is scarce. This study aims to assess malaria cases reported to the Health Surveillance System of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2000-2010. An average of 90 cases per year had parasitological malaria confirmation by thick smear. The number of malaria notifications due to Plasmodium falciparum increased over time. Imported cases reported during the period studied were spread among 51% of the municipalities (counties of the state. Only 35 cases (4.3% were autochthonous, which represents an average of 3.8 new cases per year. Eleven municipalities reported autochthonous cases; within these, six could be characterised as areas of residual or new foci of malaria from the Atlantic Forest system. The other 28 municipalities could become receptive for transmission reintroduction. Cases occurred during all periods of the year, but 62.9% of cases were in the first semester of each year. Assessing vulnerability and receptivity conditions and vector ecology is imperative to establish the real risk of malaria reintroduction in RJ.

  17. Human albumin use at hospitals in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Uso de albumina humana nos hospitais da Região Metropolitana do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Guacira Corrêa de Matos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes the use of human albumin in hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using inpatient data from the information system of Brazil's health system between 1999 and 2001. Death was the main outcome as patients died in 32% of admissions in which human albumin was used as compared with 4% of all admissions in the same period and region. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was included for risk adjustment. Human albumin was used in 10,111 in-patients more than 1 year old. 87,774 50-ml bottles of 20% human albumin were consumed at a cost of US$ 1,755. The main diagnoses were neoplasms (29.1%, diseases of the digestive system (17.5% and circulatory system (16%. Death rate increased with age, public ownership of the hospital, clinical services (as opposed to surgical services, length of stay and use of intensive care. Death was associated with use of more than four bottles of human albumin (PR: 1.30; 99%CI: 1.23-1.37, adjusted for severity and speciality. The results are cause for concern as they may be related to poor compliance with guidelines, excess of risk to patients and unnecessary expenses for the public health system.O estudo analisou o uso da albumina humana em hospitais do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, utilizando os registros do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde (SIH/SUS, 1999 e 2001. Como 32% das internações resultaram em óbito, em comparação com 4% de óbito para todas as internações no mesmo período e região, este foi o desfecho principal do estudo. A albumina humana foi usada em 10.111 internações de maiores de um ano, que consumiram 87.774 frascos - 50mL a 20%, com gasto de US$ 1.755,00. Os principais diagnósticos foram neoplasias (29,1%, doenças do aparelho digestivo (17,5% e do aparelho circulatório (16%. Houve maior proporção de óbitos de pacientes mais idosos, que receberam mais doses de albumina humana, internados por mais tempo, em especialidades clínicas, em UTI, em hospitais p

  18. Sexualidade e gravidez na adolescência entre jovens de camadas médias do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Middle-class teenage sexuality and pregnancy in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Elaine Reis Brandão

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aborda-se a gravidez na adolescência entre jovens de camadas médias, prisma pouco estudado no Brasil. Realizou-se um estudo qualitativo sócio-antropológico com 14 famílias do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, cujos filhos permaneciam solteiros e residindo com os pais, após o nascimento da criança. Foram realizadas 25 entrevistas em profundidade com 6 rapazes e 7 moças entre 18 e 24 anos e seus pais (11 mães e 1 pai, para avaliação retrospectiva da gravidez e de seus impactos na trajetória juvenil e familiar. Três aspectos são analisados: as dificuldades de internalização da norma contraceptiva; a descoberta tardia da gravidez e a tomada de decisão ­ aborto ou reprodução ­ pelos jovens e seus pais. O estudo permitiu configurar a gravidez na adolescência como um evento contingente ao processo de construção da autonomia pessoal em curso nessa fase da vida, no qual a sexualidade tem grande relevância. Conclui-se que o fenômeno precisa ser compreendido em um contexto histórico e cultural específico, distinto de sua ocorrência décadas atrás, pois está marcado pelas regras que organizam o processo de individualização juvenil na contemporaneidade.The subject of this paper is teenage pregnancy among middle-class youth, a topic not sufficiently studied in Brazil. The paper is based on a qualitative, socio-anthropological study of 14 middle-class families in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose children have remained single, living with their parents after the child's birth. A total of 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with 6 young men and 7 young women, ages 18 to 24, and their parents (11 mothers, one father, to examine the event in retrospect and its impact on these young people and their families. Three aspects are analyzed: difficulties young people face in internalizing contraception as a norm; late discovery of pregnancy; and how the decision to either have an abortion or give birth is made by young people and their parents

  19. Patients' costs and cost-effectiveness of tuberculosis treatment in DOTS and non-DOTS facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Ricardo Steffen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Costs of tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment may represent a significant burden for the poor and for the health system in resource-poor countries.The aim of this study was to analyze patients' costs of tuberculosis care and to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of the directly observed treatment (DOT strategy per completed treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.We interviewed 218 adult patients with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. Information on direct (out-of-pocket expenses and indirect (hours lost costs, loss in income and costs with extra help were gathered through a questionnaire. Healthcare system additional costs due to supervision of pill-intake were calculated considering staff salaries. Effectiveness was measured by treatment completion rate. The ICER of DOT compared to self-administered therapy (SAT was calculated.DOT increased costs during the treatment phase, while SAT increased costs in the pre-diagnostic phase, for both the patient and the health system. Treatment completion rates were 71% in SAT facilities and 79% in DOT facilities. Costs per completed treatment were US$ 194 for patients and U$ 189 for the health system in SAT facilities, compared to US$ 336 and US$ 726 in DOT facilities. The ICER was US$ 6,616 per completed DOT treatment compared to SAT.Costs incurred by TB patients are high in Rio de Janeiro, especially for those under DOT. The DOT strategy doubles patients' costs and increases by fourfold the health system costs per completed treatment. The additional costs for DOT may be one of the contributing factors to the completion rates below the targeted 85% recommended by WHO.

  20. Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Atlantic Moonfish, Selene setapinnis (Osteichthyes: Carangidae from the coastal zone of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    A. S. Cordeiro

    Full Text Available Eighty-nine specimens of Selene setapinnis (Mitchill, 1815 collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro (21-23ºS, 41-45ºW and 23º05'S, 44º30'W, Brazil, from August 2001 to May 2002, were necropsied to study their metazoan parasites. Eighty-one (91% specimens of S. setapinnis were parasitized by one or more metazoan species. Twenty-one species of parasites were collected: 8 digeneans, 3 monogeneans, 2 cestodes, 5 nematodes, and 3 copepods. The endoparasites (digeneans, cestodes, and nematodes were 74.1% of total number of parasite specimens collected. The monogenean Pseudomazocraes selene (Hargis, 1957 was the most dominant species with the highest prevalence in the parasite community of S. setapinnis. The metazoan parasites of this host species showed the typical aggregated pattern of distribution. Only one parasite species (Acanthocolpoides pauloi Travassos, Freitas & Buhrnheim, 1955 showed positive correlation between the host total length and parasite abundance in S. setapinnis. Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898, P. selene, and Terranova sp. demonstrated positive correlation between the host total length and prevalence. Larvae of Terranova sp. showed influence of the host sex on its prevalence. A pair of ectoparasite species, P. selene-C. robustus, exhibited positive covariation between their abundances. Two pairs of endoparasite species, L. microstomum-P. merus and A. pauloi-P. merus showed significant covariation among their abundances; and the pair Terranova sp.-Raphidascaris sp. had positive co-ocorrence and covariation in the infracommunities of S. setapinnis. Like the parasite communities of the other carangid fishes from Rio de Janeiro, the parasite community of S. setapinnis is apparently only a slightly ordered species complex, characterized by dominance of endoparasite species.

  1. Postpartum depression according to time frames and sub-groups: a survey in primary health care settings in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Lobato, Gustavo; Moraes, Claudia L; Dias, Alessandra S; Reichenheim, Michael E

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed at estimating the prevalence of postpartum depression (PPD) according to postpartum periods and sub-groups in public primary health care settings in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in five primary health care units and included 811 participants randomly selected among mothers of children up to five postpartum months. Women were classified as depressed and given scores on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) above 11. The overall estimate of PPD was 24.3% (95% CI, 21.4-27.4). However, estimates were not homogeneous during the first 5 months postpartum (p value = 0.002). There was a peak of depressive symptoms around 3 months postpartum, when 128 women (37.5%, 95% CI, 29.1-46.5) disclosed scores above 11 on EPDS. Regarding the magnitude of PPD according to some maternal and partners' characteristics, it was consistently higher among women with low schooling, without a steady partner, and whose partners misused alcohol or used illicit drugs. The prevalence of PPD among women attending primary health care units in Rio de Janeiro seems to be higher than general estimates of 10-15%, especially among mothers with low schooling and that receive little (if any) support from partners. Also, the "burden" of PPD may be even higher around 3 months postpartum. These results are particularly relevant for public health policies. Evaluation of maternal mental health should be extended at least until 3 to 4 months postpartum, and mothers presenting a high-risk profile deserve special attention.

  2. Note on the occurrence of the crebeater seal, Lobodon carcinophagus (Hombron & Jacquinot, 1842 (Mammalia: Pinnipedia, in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Samuel Gomes de Farias Júnior

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available On May 12, 2003, a crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophagus was seen 3km upstream of the mouth of the Cação River (22º54’S; 43º50’W, southern Rio de Janeiro State. It was a female of 212cm in length, weighing approximately 180kg. A week prior (May 5, the same specimen (identified by a parallel scar pattern had been observed at Costão Beach (24º19’S; 47º00’W, Peruíbe, São Paulo State. Two days later, the animal reappeared at Barra do Sahy Beach (23º47’S; 45º33’W, São Sebastião, São Paulo. Subsequently, the seal’s further northerly displacement to Cação River made a total distance covered of 229km. The occurrence of two cold fronts and the prevalence of southern currents in the first fortnight of May may have favored the displacement of this Ocorrência de Lobodon carcinophagus no Rio de Janeiro animal to areas of low latitude in southeastern Brazil. On June 16, 2003, a male of approximately 200cm in length was seen in Tombo Beach (24º00’S ; 46º18’W, Guarujá (São Paulo. It was the second appearance of L. carcinophagus in São Paulo in 41 days. This note confirms the occasional occurrence of this species along the Brazilian coast, and provides insights into the dispersion of the species in the southwestern Atlantic.

  3. Epibenthic colonization on an artificial reef in a stressed environment off the north coast of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Werther Krohling

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sedimentation and turbidity caused by the pluviometric precipitation and by the Paraiba do Sul River during the summer was investigated on an artificial reef along the north coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Four recruitment and four cumulative plates were removed monthly (January 2002 to February 2003 from the external surface of the concrete reef modules. Empty space was not a limiting factor the recruitment. Turnover rate and structural difference index were higher in the first months and reflected low change in the species dominance during almost the entire study period. The high correlation between the precipitation and the empty space suggested that rain influence the recruitment and the succession. The recruitment was possible despite stress factors such as sedimentation, turbidity, abrasion, strong bottom currents and a lack of natural consolidated substrate. Changes in the community structure reflected the substrate colonization history of a few resistant species and their subsequent interactions.A influência da sedimentação e da turbidez causadas pela precipitação pluviométrica e vazão do rio Paraíba do Sul nos meses de verão foi investigada em um recife artificial na costa norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Quatro placas de recrutamento e quarto placas de sucessão eram retiradas mensalmente (Janeiro de 2002 a Fevereiro de 2003 da superfície externa de módulos recifais de concreto. Espaço vazio não foi um fator limitante para o recrutamento. A taxa de substituição de espécies e o grau de diferença na estrutura da comunidade foram superiores nos meses iniciais, refletindo as reduzidas mudanças na dominância das espécies durante o período de estudo. A alta correlação entre precipitação e espaço vazio sugere a influência da precipitação no recrutamento e sucessão dos organismos. Recrutamento foi possível mesmo com fatores estressantes como sedimentação, turbidez, correntes de fundo

  4. Monogeneans of leatherjackets, Oligoplites spp. (Osteichthyes: Carangidae), with the description of a new species of Metacamopia (Monogenea: Allodiscocotylidae) from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Takemoto,Ricardo M; Amato,JFR; Luque,José Luis

    1996-01-01

    Metacamopia oligoplites n. sp., a gill filament parasite of carangid fishes of three species of Oligoplites Gill, O. palometa (Cuvier), O. saurus (Bloch & Schneider), and O. saliens (Bloch), from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described and illustrated. Metacamopia oligoplites n. sp. differs from M. indica by: the shape of the body; the pre-, para-, and post-germarial testes; vaginas lacking sclerotized structures; well-developed seminal receptacles; muscular sleeves...

  5. Spatial distribution of pollen grains and spores in surface sediments of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Barreto, Cintia F; Vilela, Claudia G; Baptista-Neto, José A; Barth, Ortrud M

    2012-09-01

    Aiming to investigate the deposition of pollen grains and spores in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, 61 surface sediment samples were analyzed. The results showed that the current deposition of palynomorphs in surface sediments of Guanabara Bay represents the regional vegetation of this hydrographic basin. The differential distribution of palynomorphs followed a pattern influenced by bathymetry, tidal currents speed, discharge of numerous rivers, and by human activity. The dominance of representatives of Field Vegetation reflects the changes of the original flora caused by intense human activities in the region. The continued presence and richness of pollen types of rain forest in the samples indicates that their source area might be the vegetation from riparian border of rivers in the western sector of the Bay, where the mangrove vegetation is being preserved. The large amount of damaged palynomorphs may be related to abrasion that occurs during river transport, indicating removal or reworking from their areas of origin.

  6. Species composition of Bromeliaceae and their distribution at the Massambaba restinga in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Rocha-Pessôa, T C; Nunes-Freitas, A F; Cogliatti-Carvalho, L; Rocha, C F D

    2008-05-01

    We studied some ecological parameters such as richness, abundance, density, biomass and variation in species composition in four vegetation zones and in a zone with anthropic disturbance in the Massambaba Restinga in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro State. We sampled 100 plots of 100 m(2) (10 x 10 m) recording the bromeliad species and their abundance. We found a total of seven bromeliad species, with Vriesea neoglutinosa (5647 ramets) and Tillandsia stricta (1277 ramets) being the most abundant. The vegetation zone called Clusia shrubs had the highest richness (S = 5) and density (6360 ramets.ha(-1)) of bromeliads. The differences found in abundance and variation in species composition among vegetation zones seems to be related to the vegetation structure of each zone.

  7. [Illicit drug use and the critical perspectives of drug users' relatives and acquaintances in Northern Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil].

    Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Brands, Bruna; Adlaf, Edward; Giesbrecht, Norman; Simich, Laura; Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the partial results of a multicenter, cross-temporal study, which was performed using multiple methods, and involved seven Latin-American countries and Canada. The results presented refer to the city center of Rio de Janeiro (n=108). The central question of the study was: 'How do illicit drug users' relatives and acquaintances describe protective and risk factors, prevention initiatives, treatment services, laws and policies regarding illicit drugs?' The quantitative data was collected using an instrument containing closed questions. In total, 108 young adults (18 years of age or older) were interviewed, who stated being affected by the drug although they were not users. For 104 interviewees (96%), negligence is the family dynamics that causes the greatest exposure to drugs, and 106 (98%) consider that parent support is what offers the greatest protection. Policies, the police and the criminal system have neither reduced drug use nor do they protect users.

  8. Species composition of Bromeliaceae and their distribution at the Massambaba restinga in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    TC. Rocha-Pessôa

    Full Text Available We studied some ecological parameters such as richness, abundance, density, biomass and variation in species composition in four vegetation zones and in a zone with anthropic disturbance in the Massambaba Restinga in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro State. We sampled 100 plots of 100 m² (10 x 10 m recording the bromeliad species and their abundance. We found a total of seven bromeliad species, with Vriesea neoglutinosa (5647 ramets and Tillandsia stricta (1277 ramets being the most abundant. The vegetation zone called Clusia shrubs had the highest richness (S = 5 and density (6360 ramets.ha-1 of bromeliads. The differences found in abundance and variation in species composition among vegetation zones seems to be related to the vegetation structure of each zone.

  9. Functional role of fouling community on an artificial reef at the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Werther Krohling

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State lacks natural consolidate substrates, making it a proper environment to the development of researches using artificial structures. After studies about the type of substrate, concrete seems to be the most appropriate for studying fouling community development. This research was carried out to investigate the functional role of biofouling in the development of the ichthyic community in the north of Rio de Janeiro State. Percentage data of the epibenthic organisms' coverage and samples of the fish community with gillnet and visual census showed that biofouling in artificial reefs might have more than one functional role, acting as a facilitator in the recruitment of fish species and as a link in the trophic marine chain. Through the increase of localized structural complexity provided by the reef itself and by the fouling organisms which act as "engineering species", additional protection options are offered to the ichthyic community, especially recruits. Also, the epibiont biomass represents an important link in the food web, acting either as a direct source or in the transference of energy to higher trophic levels. Through the relationship between the ichthyic and fouling communities we concluded that the functional role of the latter in artificial reef habitats could be characterized mainly as shelter and feeding grounds for few fish species.O litoral norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro possui uma escassez de substrato consolidado natural tornando o ambiente propício para o desenvolvimento de pesquisas com estruturas artificiais. Após estudos conclusivos sobre o tipo de substrato, o concreto parece ser o mais apropriado para o desenvolvimento da comunidade incrustante. Novas pesquisas foram realizadas para investigar o papel funcional da bioincrustação no desenvolvimento da comunidade íctica no norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Dados de porcentagem de cobertura dos organismos epibênticos e

  10. Analysis of the tourism potential in the Campo Grande and Guaratiba Administrative Regions (ARs, west Rio de Janeiro's Municipality (Brazil

    Vivian Castilho da Costa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work summarizes the study conducted in two Administrative Regions (ARs of west Rio de Janeiro's Municipality, namely: Campo Grande AR and Garatiba AR. The main objectives were: assess the development and potential of tourism activities in these two ARs through the use of geo-processing techniques, and propose general guidelines for application. The analysis of key findings was carried out separately for each AR, as they represent areas facing different realities despite their geographic proximity. This process revealed the short-term need of better municipal and state planning in relation of the distribution an characterization of spaces reserved for urban expansion. The assessment of tourism potential also showed significant differences in occupation processes between these two ARs, as well as in the nature of the activities required to make an optimum use of this potential.

  11. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants.

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; de Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-03-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015. Stool samples were collected and processed by sedimentation, flotation, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Graham methods, iron haematoxylin staining and safranin staining. Of the 3245 individuals analysed, 569 (17.5%) were infected with at least one parasite. The most common protozoa were Endolimax nana (28.8%), Entamoeba coli (14.8%), Complex Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.5%), Blastocystis hominis (12.7%), and Giardia lamblia (8.1%). Strongyloides stercoralis (4.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6%), and hookworms (1.5%) were the most frequent helminths. There was a high frequency of contamination by protozoa (87%), and multiple infections were observed in 141 participants (24.8%). A positive association between age (young children) and gender (male) with intestinal parasites was observed. Geospatial distribution of the detected intestinal parasitic infections was not random or homogeneous, but was influenced by socioeconomic conditions (through the material deprivation index (MDI)). Participants classified in the highest levels of deprivation had higher risk of having intestinal parasites. This study provides the first epidemiological information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Intestinal parasites, especially protozoa, are highly prevalent, indicating that parasitic infections are still a serious public health problem

  12. Geospatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its association with social determinants

    Faria, Clarissa Perez; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Dias, Gisele Silva; da Silva, Sidnei; de Freitas, Marcelo Bessa; Almendra, Ricardo; Santana, Paula; Sousa, Maria do Céu

    2017-01-01

    Background Intestinal parasitic infections remain among the most common infectious diseases worldwide. This study aimed to estimate their prevalence and provide a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of intestinal parasites in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, considering demographic, socio-economic, and epidemiological contextual factors. Methods/Principal findings The cross-section survey was conducted among individuals attending the Evandro Chagas National Institute of Infectious Diseases (FIOCRUZ, RJ) during the period from April 2012 to February 2015. Stool samples were collected and processed by sedimentation, flotation, Kato-Katz, Baermann-Moraes and Graham methods, iron haematoxylin staining and safranin staining. Of the 3245 individuals analysed, 569 (17.5%) were infected with at least one parasite. The most common protozoa were Endolimax nana (28.8%), Entamoeba coli (14.8%), Complex Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (13.5%), Blastocystis hominis (12.7%), and Giardia lamblia (8.1%). Strongyloides stercoralis (4.3%), Schistosoma mansoni (3.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.6%), and hookworms (1.5%) were the most frequent helminths. There was a high frequency of contamination by protozoa (87%), and multiple infections were observed in 141 participants (24.8%). A positive association between age (young children) and gender (male) with intestinal parasites was observed. Geospatial distribution of the detected intestinal parasitic infections was not random or homogeneous, but was influenced by socioeconomic conditions (through the material deprivation index (MDI)). Participants classified in the highest levels of deprivation had higher risk of having intestinal parasites. Conclusions/Significance This study provides the first epidemiological information on the prevalence and distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area. Intestinal parasites, especially protozoa, are highly prevalent, indicating that

  13. Paracoccidioidomycosis in children in the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil: Geographic distribution and the study of a "reservarea"

    A. J. RIOS GONÇALVES

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty six cases of acute disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis in 3 to 12 year-old children, natives of the state of Rio de Janeiro, were seen in the period 1981-1996. All patients were residents in the rural region of 15 counties, scattered on the Southwestern part of this state. The rural region of two neighboring counties, where 16 cases (44.4% occurred, was visited. It exhibited the environmental conditions that are considered favorable to the survival of P. brasiliensis. The most important of these conditions, abundant watercourses and autochthonous forest, are distributed on well defined and limited areas, in which the dwellings are also localized. Probably, a careful epidemiological study of forthcoming cases of the disease in children may facilitate the search for the micro-niche of the fungus.No período 1981-1996 foram observados 36 casos de paracoccidioidomicose aguda disseminada em crianças, entre 3 e 12 anos de idade, nativas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Todos os pacientes residiam em região rural, distribuída por 15 municípios localizados na parte sudoeste do estado. Dois municípios vizinhos, onde haviam ocorrido 16 (44,4% dos casos, foram visitados. Na região rural de ambos, existem as condições climáticas e ambientais favoráveis à sobrevivência do P. brasiliensis. Dentre essas condições, as mais importantes, abundantes cursos de água e vegetação nativa, distribuem-se em áreas limitadas e bem definidas. Nessas áreas localizam-se, também, as casas dos rurículas. Provavelmente, um cuidadoso estudo epidemiológico de novos casos, que venham a ocorrer na região, facilitará a busca do nicho do fungo

  14. 77 FR 13560 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30...

    2012-03-07

    ... high level engagement and support of U.S. education by the U.S. Ambassador in Brazil. Commercial..., Environment and Math fields.\\1\\ Science Without Borders, a Brazilian government program, provides scholarships...

  15. Social and Historical Approaches Regarding Street Children in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in the Context of the Transition to Democracy.

    Filho, Gisalio Cerqueira; Neder, Gizlene

    2001-01-01

    This review examines the social literature on Brazilian street children to determine causal factors. Stressing the socioeconomic aspects of poverty and social exclusion, the analyses identify three basic themes: the family, high failure rates in school, and child/adolescent labor. The role of Brazil's economic crisis of the late 1970s and…

  16. Fatores associados à subnotificação de pacientes com Aids, no Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 1996 Variables associated with underreporting of AIDS patients, Brazil, 1996

    Vanja MB Ferreira

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Existe uma expressiva subnotificação de casos de Aids no Município do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Nesse sentido, foi realizado estudo com o objetivo de analisar os fatores associados a esse evento. MÉTODOS: Com base em dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares do Sistema Único de Saúde, referentes ao ano de 1996 e ao Município do Rio de Janeiro, e do Sistema de Informações sobre Agravos de Notificação, atualizado até setembro de 1997, selecionou-se uma amostra aleatória de prontuários, pela qual os pacientes foram classificados em notificados, não notificados e sem evidência para notificação. Foi utilizado um modelo multinomial para a análise das chances de ocorrência de subnotificação versus notificação e não-notificação sem evidência de diagnóstico de Aids versus notificação. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas associações estatisticamente significativas entre as variáveis "idade", "estado civil", "escolaridade", "ocupação" e "gravidade da doença" e subnotificação de casos de Aids. A variável "sexo feminino" apresentou forte associação com as internações por procedimento Aids sem evidências para `fechar caso' dessa doença. Foi encontrada associação bastante expressiva entre ter sido internado no mesmo hospital mais de uma vez e estar notificado. A presença de um setor de vigilância epidemiológica no hospital esteve inversamente associada à subnotificação de casos de Aids. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostraram que a associação significativa entre variáveis organizacionais e estruturais e subnotificação de casos de AIDS apontam para a necessidade de normatização de processos e fluxos, a fim de melhorar a qualidade do sistema de informações em saúde.OBJECTIVE: The underreporting of AIDS cases in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is significant. The study intends to analyze the factors associated to this event. METHODS: Using data provided by the Hospital Information

  17. Saúde bucal dos índios Guaraní no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Oral health of Guaraní Indians in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Pedro Alves Filho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo descrever a situação de saúde bucal em índios Guaraní do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Um inquérito epidemiológico em saúde bucal, utilizando critérios da Organização Mundial da Saúde foi realizado em 508 sujeitos (90,7% da população. Aos 5 anos, 38,5% das crianças estavam livres de cárie e aos 12 o CPOD foi igual a 1,7. Observou-se que 54,2% dos indivíduos entre 35-44 anos e 12% entre 65-74 apresentavam 20 ou mais dentes. O número de dentes para 35-44 e 65-74 anos foi de 18,5 e 8,5. Enquanto o ceod não diferiu entre sexos, o CPOD e a perda dentária foram maiores em mulheres. Aproximadamente 60% da população não demonstraram problemas periodontais, enquanto 20,9% e 11,3% apresentaram sangramento gengival e cálculo como condições periodontais mais graves. Sangramento e cálculo foram mais comuns em homens, e sextantes excluídos em mulheres. Ações de promoção de saúde bucal são necessárias para esse grupo étnico e devem contemplar especificidades para diferentes grupos etários e de gênero.The aim of the present study was to describe the oral health conditions of Guaraní Indians in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A cross-sectional oral health survey was conducted in 508 subjects (90.7% of the Guaraní population using World Health Organization criteria. At 5 years of age, 38.5% of children were caries-free. DMF-T was 1.7 at 12 years. 54.2% of subjects in the 35-44-year group and 12% in the 65-74-year group had at least 20 teeth. Numbers of teeth for the 35-44 and 65-74 age groups were 18.5 and 8.5, respectively. While caries index did not differ by gender for deciduous teeth, DMF-T and tooth loss was higher in women. Nearly 60% of the population showed no periodontal illness. Gingival bleeding and calculus were the most severe periodontal conditions. Gingival bleeding and calculus were more common in men and excluded sextants more common in women. Oral health promotion

  18. Health care factors associated with survival among women with breast cancer on hormone therapy in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2004 – 2010

    Cláudia de Brito

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives To better understand the role that health care plays in breast cancer survival by investigating the effects that hormone therapy adherence and other select health care variables, adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic factors, had among a population of women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Methods This was a longitudinal study based on secondary data of 5 861 women treated with hormone therapy (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors at the National Cancer Institute of Brazil (INCA, from 1 January 2004 – 29 October 2010. Four different sources of data were integrated for analysis: INCA Pharmacy Sector Dispensation System; Hospital-based Cancer Registry; Integrated Hospital System and INCA Absolute System; and Mortality Information System. Analyses explored the effects of adherence to hormone therapy, disease care aspects, and sociodemographic, behavioral, and clinical variables, on the time of survival, using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results The general survival rate was 94% in the first year after initiation of hormone therapy, and 71% in the fifth year. The Cox model indicated a higher hazard of death among women smokers, with more hospitalizations, more exams, and, among those who used, who used only aromatase inhibitors, as hormone therapy modality. The hazard was lower among women with a partner (stable relationship, a high school or college education a family history of cancer, and those who were treated by a mastologist, oncologist, and/or psychotherapist, who underwent surgery, and who adhered to hormone therapy. Conclusions The study indicated more vulnerable sub-groups and the aspects of care that provide best results, bringing new knowledge to improve assistance to this group of women.

  19. Spatial distribution of pollen grains and spores in surface sediments of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Cintia F. Barreto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to investigate the deposition of pollen grains and spores in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, 61 surface sediment samples were analyzed. The results showed that the current deposition of palynomorphs in surface sediments of Guanabara Bay represents the regional vegetation of this hydrographic basin. The differential distribution of palynomorphs followed a pattern influenced by bathymetry, tidal currents speed, discharge of numerous rivers, and by human activity. The dominance of representatives of Field Vegetation reflects the changes of the original flora caused by intense human activities in the region. The continued presence and richness of pollen types of rain forest in the samples indicates that their source area might be the vegetation from riparian border of rivers in the western sector of the Bay, where the mangrove vegetation is being preserved. The large amount of damaged palynomorphs may be related to abrasion that occurs during river transport, indicating removal or reworking from their areas of origin.Com objetivo de investigar a deposição dos grãos de pólen e esporos na Baía de Guanabara, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 61 amostras de sedimentos superficiais foram analisadas. Os resultados mostraram que a deposição atual dos palinomorfos nos sedimentos superficiais da Baía de Guanabara representa a vegetação regional de sua bacia hidrográfica. A distribuição diferencial dos palinomorfos seguiu um padrão influenciado pela batimetria, velocidade das corretes de marés, descarga dos numerosos rios e pela atividade humana. A dominância dos taxa representantes da Vegetação Campestre reflete as mudanças da flora original causadas por intensas atividades humanas na região. A presença contínua e a grande riqueza de tipos polínicos da Floresta Ombrófila nas amostras, indica que a área fonte pode ser a vegetação das bordas dos rios do setor oeste da Baía, onde a vegetação de mangue está sendo preservada. A

  20. Hepatitis A seroprevalence in public school children in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, prior to the introduction of the hepatitis A universal childhood vaccination

    Charbell Miguel Kury

    Full Text Available Abstract: This cross-sectional study was carried out between August 2011 and July 2012 in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Dried blood spot samples were collected on filter paper from 919 individuals between the ages of 1 and 19 and were tested for antibodies against the hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV. The total prevalence was 20.7%, while 94.7% of children under the age of 5 were found to be susceptible to HAV infection. The prevalence of anti-HAV increased with age, reaching 33.3% among individuals aged between 15 and 19, thereby indicating that this municipality has a low level of endemicity for hepatitis A. Age, non-white skin color, accustomed to swimming in the river and more than five people living at home were the factors that were associated with an increase in the chance of a positive anti-HAV result. Mother's education level (secondary or tertiary was considered a protective factor for HAV infection. The data obtained showed that a large proportion of the children from Campos dos Goytacazes were at risk of HAV infection, which should be minimized with the introduction of the vaccination program against hepatitis A that was launched in the municipality in 2011.

  1. Assessment of the mobility of metals and semi-metals in Sepetiba Bay (Rio de Janeiro - Brazil) by analyzing sediments sampled in different periods

    Cortez, Vinicius D.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Santos, Jose O.; Wassermann, Julio C.

    2005-01-01

    In the last three decades, Sepetiba bay, located about 60 km south of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, has been subjected to increasing pollution impacts. The Sepetiba region has undergone fast industrial expansion leading to high levels of pollution by metals. For the last two decades, an industrial park composed of about 400 industrial plants, basically metallurgical, was established in the Sepetiba Bay basin, releasing its effluents either straight into the bay or through local rivers. Potential toxic elements such as As, Zn, Cr, Pb and Cd have been introduced into the bay through industrial and domestic wastes. In the present paper, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was applied to determine the elements As, Cr and Zn in sediments from Sepetiba bay, sampled in August 2003, in order to compare to previous results obtained in 1998, for these elements, by Pellegatti et al. (2001). By using a geostatistical model it was possible to evaluate the spatial mobility of As, Cr and Zn in the last six years. The results obtained showed that none of the studied elements showed a significant spatial mobility. This behavior is probably related to geochemical barriers present in Sepetiba bay. (author)

  2. [The impact of professional activities on the physical and mental health of the civil and military police of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)].

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes

    2011-04-01

    In this article, we analyze the physical and mental stress and illness of military and civil police force officers in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) due to their working conditions and professional activities. The same methodology was used for the study of two categories, namely a quantitative approach (simple random sampling by conglomerates, involving a total of 1,458 civil police officers and 1,108 military police officers, who answered questionnaires anonymously) and a qualitative approach (focal groups involving 143 professionals and 18 interviews with managers of both police forces). The data presented here are all original. Disorders identified were: overweight and obesity in both forces but mainly in the Military Police; low frequency of physical exercise and high levels of cholesterol, especially in the Civil Police. The main health complaints are neck, back or spinal cord pain, eyesight complaints and headaches/ migraines. Sixteen point two per cent of officers of both forces reported physical lesions that were more prevalent in the Military Police, among whom psychic suffering was also more frequent (SRQ20). The need for changes in the individual and professional dimensions and in institutional aspects regarding the conditions and organization of work and of health services is emphasized.

  3. Microbiological Quality Assessment by PCR and Its Antibiotic Susceptibility in Mangrove Crabs (Ucides cordatus) from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Carvalho, M C N; Jayme, M M; Arenazio, G S; Araújo, F V; Leite, S G F; Del Aguila, E M

    2016-01-01

    The bacteriological quality of crabs from three different mangroves (Itaóca, Suruí, and Piedade) from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, was investigated using conventional and molecular methods. The results revealed high counts for total coliforms in meat and hepatopancreas samples. PCR analyses identified 25 Escherichia coli colonies in the Itaóca, Piedade, and Suruí samples, detecting 13 enterotoxigenic colonies and 9 enteroaggregative colonies. Respectively, 12, 11, and 21 Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains were detected in the Itaóca, Piedade, and Suruí samples. Two V. cholerae strains were detected in the Piedade samples. The E. coli strains isolated in the present study showed resistance to gentamicin. E. coli strains from the Piedade samples showed 33% resistance to chloramphenicol and the strains also showed multiresistance to several antimicrobial agents with a MAR index ranging from 0.12 to 0.31. Vibrio strains from Piedade, Itaóca, and Suruí showed 86%, 78%, and 85% resistance, respectively, to ampicillin. The isolated Vibrio strains showed multiresistance to several antimicrobial agents, with a MAR index ranging from 0.12 to 0.25. The presence of these organisms in crab meat is an indication of microbial contamination, which may pose health risks to consumers when improperly cooked.

  4. Dispersal of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae in an urban endemic dengue area in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Nildimar Alves Honório

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental releases of female Aedes (Stegomyia aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia albopictus were performed in August and September 1999, in an urban area of Nova Iguaçu, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to estimate their flight range in a circular area of 1,600 m where 1,472 ovitraps were set. Releases of 3,055 Ae. aegypti and 2,225 Ae. albopictus females, fed with rubidium (Rb-marked blood and surgically prevented from subsequent blood-feeding, were separated by 11 days. Rb was detected in ovitrap-collected eggs by atomic emission spectrophotometry. Rb-marked eggs of both species were detected up to 800 m from the release point. Eggs of Ae. albopictus were more numerous and more heterogeneously distributed in the area than those of Ae. aegypti. Eggs positively marked for Rb were found at all borders of the study area, suggesting that egg laying also occurred beyond these limits. Results from this study suggest that females can fly at least 800 m in 6 days and, if infected, potentially spread virus rapidly.

  5. Partial VP2 sequencing of canine parvovirus (CPV strains circulating in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: detection of the new variant CPV-2c

    T.X. Castro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV is the most important enteric virus for dogs and it seems to be undergoing continuous evolution, generating new genetic and antigenic variants throughout the world. The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution of CPV variants from 1995 to 2009 and to investigate the circulation of the new variant CPV-2c in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In addition, the clinical features of CPV infection were also reported. After CPV laboratorial confirmation by HA/HI and PCR, thirty-two fecal samples were analyzed by sequencing a 583-bp fragment of the VP2 gene. One sample, collected in 2008 was typed as the new type CPV-2c. All samples from 1995 to 2003 were identified as "new CPV-2a". From 2004 to 2006, both "new CPV-2a" and CPV-2b were observed. From 2006 to 2009, most of the samples were characterized as CPV-2b. The classical signs of CPV enteritis were observed in 16/18 CPV-2a and 5/13 CPV-2b infected puppies. These results show that continuous epidemiological surveillance of CPV strain distribution is essential for studying the patterns of CPV-2a and 2b spread and for determining whether the new variant CPV-2c has become permanently established in Brazilian canine population.

  6. The 44th Congress of the International Society of Oncology and Biomarkers: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 7-10 September 2017.

    Kinkorová, Judita

    2018-02-01

    The 44th Congress of the International Society of Oncology and Biomarkers: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 7-10 September 2017 The 44th congress followed the previous one of  International Society of Oncology and Biomarkers (ISOBM) that took place in Chicago (USA) in 2016. The title of the 44th Annual congress was: 'Biomarkers in oncology: new horizons and challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer' [ 1 ]. The congress was co-organized by ISOBM, European Group on Tumor Markers (EGTM) and Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology SBPC/ML. The event attracted more than 180 participants from all over the world. The program offered many topics regarding discovery, validation, evaluation and use of tumor biomarkers. The presentations were split into the key note lectures, oral presentations, poster presentations and satellite symposiums sponsored by companies. The congress offered participants the opportunity to link clinical and research oncologists to discuss new tools for diagnosis and monitoring of cancer diseases. Prominent people in the field of cancer research and clinical oncology were presented and offered the unique opportunity to exchange experiences and knowledge in an international forum [ 2 ]. Compared with previous ISOBM congresses, it was held in Latin America for the first time, and due to that more participants from Latin America were present.

  7. Factors associated with HIV/AIDS treatment dropouts in a special care unit in the City of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

    Schilkowsky, Louise Bastos; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Sá, Marilene de Castilho

    2011-06-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with the health care of patients with HIV/AIDS who drop out. The study was developed in a specialized health care unit of a University hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, considering a stratified sample of adult patients including all dropout cases (155) and 44.0% of 790 cases under regular follow-up. Bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between health care dropout and demographic, socioeconomic and clinical variables. Logistic and Cox regression models were used to identify the independent effects of the explanatory variables on risk for dropout, in the latter by incorporating information on the outcome over time. Patients were, on average, 35 years old, predominantly males (66.4%) and of a low socioeconomic level (45.0%). In both models, health care dropout was consistently associated with being unemployed or having an unstable job, using illicit drugs and having psychiatric background--positive association; and with age, having AIDS, and having used multiple antiretroviral regimens--negative association. In the logistic regression, dropping out was also positively associated with time between diagnosis and the first outpatient visit, while in the Cox model, the hazard for dropping out was positively associated with being single, and negatively associated with a higher educational level. The results of this work allow for the identification of HIV/AIDS patients more likely to drop out from health care.

  8. Ingestion of solid wastes by juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas (L. 1758, in the eastern Rio de Janeiro state coast, Brazil

    Danielle Rodrigues Awabdi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the solid wastes of anthropogenic origin obtained from the stomach contents of juvenile green turtles, Chelonia mydas, on the eastern Rio de Janeiro state coast, southeastern Brazil (22º50’S – 23º00’S. Between June 2009 and May 2010, the stomach contents of 49 specimens stranded on beaches were analyzed. Solid wastes were recorded in 29 stomach contents (59.2% and more than one category of wastes was found out in 22 samples. Plastic bags, categorized as flexible plastic materials, achieved the greatest occurrence frequency (96.5%. Perhaps, these wastes came from the disposal of garbage bags, raffia bags, commercial shop bags and various packaging. Wastes related to manufacture of fishing equipment were also often reported, such as nylon yarns, rubber, ropes, Styrofoam, and fishhooks. The region is an area of regular occurrence of C. mydas and the relatively large intake of solid wastes deposited in the environment poses a risk to the conservation of this species.

  9. Ecology of ticks in a taxocenosis of snakes from the Serra do Mendanha, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with new host records

    Jorge A. L. Pontes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the ecology of ticks found in different species of a taxocenosis of snakes from the Serra do Mendanha, an area of Atlantic Rainforest located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. Snakes were sampled monthly in the field during a period of 48 months. The specific identity of the hosts and their parasites, the number of parasites, and and snout-vent length and body mass of each host were recorded. A total of 25% of the species of snakes in the area were parasitized by ticks (larvae, nymphs and adult females Amblyomma rotundatum Koch, 1844 was the predominant parasite species. The infestation parameters varied among the species of snakes sampled, with the highest prevalence of A. rotundatum being observed in the viperid Bothrops jararaca (Wied, 1824 (71.4%, followed by the colubrids Xenodon neuwiedii Günther, 1820 (33%, Chironius laevicollis (Wied, 1824 and Spilotes pullatus (Linnaeus, 1758 (both with 22%. The latter three species also showed the highest rates of infestation by A. rotundatum. The results of the present study suggest that a combination of skin shedding, habitat of the host, type of scale and pattern of scale distribution on the body of the host can influence the degree to which a given species is parasitized by ticks

  10. A prevalent alpha-proteobacterium Paracoccus sp. in a population of the Cayenne ticks (Amblyomma cajennense from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Erik Machado-Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is the most common tick-borne disease in South America, the presence of Rickettsia sp. in Amblyomma ticks is a possible indication of its endemicity in certain geographic regions. In the present work, bacterial DNA sequences related to Rickettsia amblyommii genes in A. dubitatum ticks, collected in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were discovered. Simultaneously, Paracoccus sp. was detected in aproximately 77% of A. cajennense specimens collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first report of Paracoccus sp. infection in a specific tick population, and raises the possibility of these bacteria being maintained and/or transmitted by ticks. Whether Paracoccus sp. represents another group of pathogenic Rhodobacteraceae or simply plays a role in A. cajennense physiology, is unknown. The data also demonstrate that the rickettsial 16S rRNA specific primers used forRickettsia spp. screening can also detect Paracoccus alpha-proteobacteria infection in biological samples. Hence, a PCRRFLP strategy is presented to distinguish between these two groups of bacteria.

  11. A prevalent alpha-proteobacterium Paracoccus sp. in a population of the Cayenne ticks (Amblyomma cajennense) from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Machado-Ferreira, Erik; Piesman, Joseph; Zeidner, Nordin S.; Soares, Carlos A.G.

    2012-01-01

    As Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is the most common tick-borne disease in South America, the presence of Rickettsia sp. in Amblyomma ticks is a possible indication of its endemicity in certain geographic regions. In the present work, bacterial DNA sequences related to Rickettsia amblyommii genes in A. dubitatum ticks, collected in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, were discovered. Simultaneously, Paracoccus sp. was detected in aproximately 77% of A. cajennense specimens collected in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This is the first report of Paracoccus sp. infection in a specific tick population, and raises the possibility of these bacteria being maintained and/or transmitted by ticks. Whether Paracoccus sp. represents another group of pathogenic Rhodobacteraceae or simply plays a role in A. cajennense physiology, is unknown. The data also demonstrate that the rickettsial 16S rRNA specific primers used forRickettsia spp. screening can also detect Paracoccus alpha-proteobacteria infection in biological samples. Hence, a PCR-RFLP strategy is presented to distinguish between these two groups of bacteria. PMID:23271948

  12. The dynamics of the production of AIDS-related stigma among pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Simone Monteiro

    Full Text Available The study analyses the relationship between AIDS-related stigma and the processes of discrimination prior to diagnosis among pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS. The fieldwork involved interviews about the life trajectories of 29 pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS, recruited at two AIDS services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The analysis revealed that before HIV diagnosis, social and gender inequalities experienced by these women reduced their access to material and symbolic goods that could have enhanced educational and career prospects and their ability and autonomy to exercise sexual and reproductive rights. Being diagnosed with HIV triggered fear of moral judgment and of breakdown in social and family support networks. Given these fears, pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS opt for concealment of the diagnosis. It is necessary for health services, NGOs and government agencies to work together to face the factors that fuel stigma, such as socioeconomic and gender inequalities, taboos and prejudices related to sexuality, and also develop actions to enable women to redefine the meaning of the disease.

  13. High HIV-1 Diversity and Prevalence of Transmitted Drug Resistance Among Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-Infected Pregnant Women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Delatorre, Edson; Silva-de-Jesus, Carlos; Couto-Fernandez, José Carlos; Pilotto, Jose H; Morgado, Mariza G

    2017-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may reduce the efficacy of prophylactic therapy to prevent mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) and future treatment options. This study evaluated the diversity and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions of HIV-1 pol gene among 87 ARV-naive HIV-1-infected pregnant women from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2012 and 2015. The viral diversity comprised HIV-1 subtypes B (67.8%), F1 (17.2%), and C (4.6%); the circulating recombinant forms 12_BF (2.3%), 28/29_BF, 39_BF, 02_AG (1.1% each) and unique recombinants forms (4.5%). The overall prevalence of any TDR was 17.2%, of which 5.7% for nucleoside RT inhibitors, 5.7% for non-nucleoside RT inhibitors, and 8% for PR inhibitors. The TDR prevalence found in this population may affect the virological outcome of the standard PMTCT ARV-regimens, reinforcing the importance of continuous monitoring.

  14. Microbiological Quality Assessment by PCR and Its Antibiotic Susceptibility in Mangrove Crabs (Ucides cordatus from Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    M. C. N. Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacteriological quality of crabs from three different mangroves (Itaóca, Suruí, and Piedade from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, was investigated using conventional and molecular methods. The results revealed high counts for total coliforms in meat and hepatopancreas samples. PCR analyses identified 25 Escherichia coli colonies in the Itaóca, Piedade, and Suruí samples, detecting 13 enterotoxigenic colonies and 9 enteroaggregative colonies. Respectively, 12, 11, and 21 Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains were detected in the Itaóca, Piedade, and Suruí samples. Two V. cholerae strains were detected in the Piedade samples. The E. coli strains isolated in the present study showed resistance to gentamicin. E. coli strains from the Piedade samples showed 33% resistance to chloramphenicol and the strains also showed multiresistance to several antimicrobial agents with a MAR index ranging from 0.12 to 0.31. Vibrio strains from Piedade, Itaóca, and Suruí showed 86%, 78%, and 85% resistance, respectively, to ampicillin. The isolated Vibrio strains showed multiresistance to several antimicrobial agents, with a MAR index ranging from 0.12 to 0.25. The presence of these organisms in crab meat is an indication of microbial contamination, which may pose health risks to consumers when improperly cooked.

  15. Determination of Areas Susceptible to Landsliding Using Spatial Patterns of Rainfall from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Data, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Renato Fontes Guimarães

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of shallow landslide initiation reflect both spatial patterns of heavy rainfall and areas susceptible to mass movements. We determine the areas most susceptible to shallow landslide occurrence through the calculation of critical soil cohesion and spatial patterns of rainfall derived from TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission data for Paraty County, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Our methodology involved: (a creating the digital elevation model (DEM and deriving attributes such as slope and contributing area; (b incorporating spatial patterns of rainfall derived from TRMM into the shallow slope stability model SHALSTAB; and (c quantitative assessment of the correspondence of mapped landslide scars to areas predicted to be most prone to shallow landsliding. We found that around 70% of the landslide scars occurred in less than 10% of the study area identified as potentially unstable. The greatest concentration of landslides occurred in areas where the root strength of vegetation is an important contribution to slope stability in regions of orographically-enhanced rainfall on the coastal topographic flank. This approach helps quantify landslide hazards in areas with similar geomorphological characteristics, but different spatial patterns of rainfall.

  16. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Márcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples. PMID:18485446

  17. "The first shot": the context of first injection of illicit drugs, ongoing injecting practices, and hepatitis C infection in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Maria de Lourdes Aguiar Oliveira

    Full Text Available The context of first drug injection and its association with ongoing injecting practices and HCV (hepatitis C virus infection were investigated. Injection drug users (IDUs (N = 606 were recruited in "drug scenes" (public places, bars in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, interviewed, and tested for HCV. Sharing of needles/syringes was more prevalent at the first injection (51.3% than at the baseline interview (36.8%. Those who shared syringes/needles at first injection were more likely to be currently engaged in direct/indirect sharing practices. Among young injectors (< 30 years, those reporting sharing of needles/ syringes at the first injection were about four times more likely to have been infected by HCV. Hepatitis C virus prevalence among active IDUs (n = 272 was 11%. Prison history and longer duration of drug injection were identified as independent predictors of HCV infection. To effectively curb HCV transmission among IDUs and minimize harms associated with risk behaviors, preventive strategies should target individuals initiating drug injection beginning with their very first injection and discourage the transition from non-injecting use to the self-injection of illicit drugs.

  18. The touristification of the port area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: for a Located Tourism in Morro da Conceição

    Ana Carolina Baker Botelho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is supported by analysis and reflections on a concept of differentiated and essentially relational tourism which takes into account the complexity, diversity and contingencies associated with the local dynamics in the area of the Morro da Conceição, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The theoretical approach was based on the proposals of two authors: Symbolic Site of Belonging and Located Tourism of Hassan Zaoual and Geographic Area of Milton Santos. The empirical approach was developed in the light of the experiences of the Project Palacios do Rio, through participatory observations, interviews and secondary sources review. Elements and dynamics of Morro da Conceição were presented highlighting the historical context, heritage and daily life of residents and visitors of the site, and also conditions that enable the site for embracing Located Tourism. In conclusion we emphasize the importance of addressing human and social relations in tourism. Also, that the current dominant tourism industry, supported by superficial exchange and discrepant profit needs to give way to a kind of tourism that strengthens human and social values such as authenticity, solidarity, trust, empathy, curiosity and time for human relationship.

  19. Dosimetric quality of postal kit used for evaluation in IRD/CNEN of radiation protection parameters in dental radiology in the State of Rio de Janeiro; Qualidade dosimetrica do kit postal utilizado pelo IRD/CNEN para a avaliacao dos parametros de radioprotecao em radiologia odontologica no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Coutinho, Soray Abbud; Mota, Helvecio C; Dovales, Ana Cristina M [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica

    2001-07-01

    This work shows the results of a comparison between the skin entrance doses determined using an ionization chamber or a postal kit routinely used for the evaluation of radiation protection parameters in dental radiology in the state of Rio de Janeiro. By using the dosimetric kit, entrance skin dose is determined from two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) - previously calibrated in a {sup 137} Cs source - by using calibration factors determined in TLDs irradiated in air, on a water phantom and on an aluminium filter. The correspondence between the doses obtained with different methods was evaluated for three different X-ray spectra as radiation source. Results indicate that calibration factors used are adequate and that the kit has enough sensibility and reproducibility, measuring properly the skin entrance dose in dental X-rays. (author)

  20. Gastrointestinal parasites of swine raised in different management systems in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Alynne S. Barbosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: From 2012 to 2013 were surveyed gastrointestinal parasites from pig farms located in different municpaliyies in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Fecal samples from 790 pigs were collected from the rectum on 88 family farms and 702 farms with industrial production. The samples were subjected to Faust et al., Sheather, Ritchie, Lutz and direct examination faecal techniques. The estimated parasite prevalence was 93.1% in family farms and 59.1% in industrial farms. Balantidium coli, coccidia and Entamoeba sp. were the parasites with the highest frequencies, and the male and female reproductive categories and fatteners pigs the most infected (p<0.05. Trophozoites of B. coli were most evident in stool samples from semi-solid followed by solid and diarrheal consistencies. Strongyles eggs and Trichuris suis have been detected exclusively in family farms. Ascaris suum eggs and Strongyloides ransomi showed low frequency. The high degree of parasitism, especially protozoa, indicates the need to reassess the management of pigs in both types of production.

  1. Ethnoecology of small cetaceans: interactions between an artisanal fishery and dolphins in northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Ana Paula Madeira Di Beneditto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies in northern Rio de Janeiro indicate there are interactions between fisheries and cetaceans, but there are no studies that focus on the knowledge fishermen have about these animals. This study describes the interactions between cetaceans and a fishery through the perception of fishermen from Atafona (RJ. Between February and March 2010, 20 fishermen were selected using the “snowball” technique. An ethnographic questionnaire was given to each fisherman. Each participant described more than one species of dolphin, which explains why the sample size of the responses (N=34 is greater than the number of respondents (N=20. Based on the reports, three species and one genus were identified: Sotalia guianensis (N=15; 75%, Pontoporia blainvillei (N=9; 45%, Steno bredanensis (N=6; 30% and Stenella (N=4; 20%. The answer “collision with artifacts” was the only one given for the question about the occurrence of accidents between the fishery and dolphins (N=24; 71%; gillnets are responsible for the entanglement of the animals. The carcasses of dolphins killed by accidental capture are discarded into the sea and/or the muscle and blubber is used as bait to fish for elasmobranchs. The dolphin species identified by the fishermen corresponded to the four main species reported in the literature for the area. All interviewees said that bycatch is caused by dolphins and affects fishing.

  2. Modern processes of palynomorph deposition at lakes of the northern region of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.

    Luz, Cynthia F P da; Barth, Ortrud M; Silva, Cleverson G

    2010-09-01

    Palynological analysis of pollen, Pteridophyta spores and algae deposited in the superficial sediments at Lagoa de Cima and Lagoa do Campelo Lakes, located in the north of Rio de Janeiro state, was used to determine the spatial variation of the palynomorphs deposition. A total of 67 pollen types were identified at Lagoa de Cima, with an expressive contribution of regional arboreous taxa, hydrophytes and ruderal plants of the pastureland. The depositional pattern of palynomorphs depends on the fluvial leakage, the proximity of the local sedimentation to the inlet of the Imbé and Urubu Rivers and the bathymetry of lake bottom. The highest concentrations of palynomorphs were observed in the decentralized and less deeper area, without the interference of the northeastern wind. At Lagoa do Campelo, a total of 58 pollen types were identified, among which the majority of the pollen grains came from hydrophytes, with the highest concentrations found along the northeastern shore. The southeastern shore showed high percentages of pollen and spores with degraded exine and mechanical damage, due to the transport through the lake by the currents caused by the wind, confirmed by the depositional trend of damaged palinomorphs along the same direction as the prevailing winds.

  3. THE STRUCTURE OF SUBTIDAL MACROALGAL ASSEMBLAGES AT THE TAMOIOS ECOLOGICAL STATION, A THREATENED CONSERVATION UNIT IN RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Victor de Souza Koutsoukos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of subtidal rocky bottom communities at Tamoios Ecological Station (TES, situated in Ilha Grande Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, as well as in other Brazilian marine protected areas, is insufficiently characterized. The present study describes the macroalgal assemblages of shallow subtidal rocky bottoms on two islands of the TES-Imboassica (IM and Búzios Pequena (BPadopting species and genera as observational units. Two sites were surveyed on each island in summer 2011. Random 30x30 cm quadrats (n=3 were scraped to collect all macroalgae except crustose species. The subtidal assemblages, in which 58 macroalgal species occurred, were characterized by the high frequency and percent cover of Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh (56.8±8.4%. The sites differed significantly in total number of species and Shannon-Weiner diversity index (PERMANOVA, p5% were Sargassum, Laurencia, Wrangelia, Canistrocarpus, Asparagopsis, Hypnea, Ceratodictyon, Gayliella, Spyridia and Chondria.Dissimilarities within and between the islands, as shown by nMDS of the cover data, suggest that different spatial scales should be considered in monitoring the rocky bottom communities of Ilha Grande Bay.

  4. [Prevalence of mental disorders associated with suicide attempts treated at an emergency hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Santos, Simone Agadir; Lovisi, Giovanni; Legay, Letícia; Abelha, Lúcia

    2009-09-01

    There are few Brazilian studies on prevalence of mental disorders in suicide attempters. The available studies have mainly used secondary data and screening instruments. The principal objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of mental disorders in 96 suicide attempters seen in an emergency ward in Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (2006-2007) using the Composite International Development Interview. Most were female, young, and illiterate, and the main method was ingestion of psychoactive drugs. Other factors included history of prior attempts and use of alcohol at the time of attempt. The most frequent mental disorders were: depression (38.9%), use of psychoactive substances (21.9%), posttraumatic stress disorder (20.8%), alcohol abuse (17.7%), and schizophrenia (15.6%). Total prevalence of mental disorders was 71.9%. These findings are largely consistent with studies conducted in other developing countries. Besides access to treatment for mental disorders, public policies with an emphasis on the control of suicide methods and social responses for the reduction of suicidal behavior are needed.

  5. The impact of prisons on the mental health of prisoners in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Constantino, Patricia; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the mental health status of inmates and people in custody in the state of Rio de Janeiro and the association between mental health and imprisonment using the Beck Depression Inventory and the Lipp Stress Symptom Inventory for Adults. 1,573 individuals, via stratified sampling with probability proportional to size. more than half have up to 29 years old; 70.6% were black/brown; 77.4% had strong family ties; 42.9% had been incarcerated for under a year; and 22,9% performed work tasks in prison. Stress: 35.8% of men and 57.9% of women. Factors associated with stress among men: length of time in prison and family ties. Male prisoners who had been in prison for between 1 and 9 years are 0.55 times less likely to experience stress symptoms than those who had been in prison for less than a year; those with regular/weak family ties are more likely to experience stress than those with strong ties. Women with only regular/weak family ties are more likely to experience stress; work tasks performed in prison was a protective factor. Depression: 7.5% of women and 6.3% of men. Among men, practicing a religion, maintaining strong family ties, and performing prison work tasks are protective factors. Among women, an association was found between depression and family ties.

  6. Vertical distribution of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933 in the Arraial do Cabo region, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Viviane Martins de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seahorses are found all over the world, in tropical and temperate coastal waters. The main aim of this study was to characterize the Hippocampus reidi populations in different depth and hydrodynamism categories in Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro state. The study was developed through scuba diving, with transects of 20m x 5m in two different depth layers: shallow, between 0 and 5m, and deep, between 5 and 10m. Through visual surveys, individuals were identified according to species, sex, and size (height – HT. The density of H. reidi varied according to depth and hydrodynamism. The highest mean depth was found in the Cabo Frio Island – Ponta do Anequin, as the lowest depth was found in Praia do Forno – Ponta D’água. There is no significant difference in the size of individuals nor in the sex ratio between the depth categories. The sex ratio of H. reidi in the population of Arraial do Cabo was 1:1. The results obtained indicated that the population characteristics are similar between the two depth layers.

  7. [The factors associated with the occurrence of immature forms of Aedes aegypti in Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Souza-Santos, R

    1999-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the vector of dengue, a disease that can result in epidemics. Ecological studies are important because different geographical populations of the vector may differ in their bioecological characteristics, which can be helpful in guiding control actions. The objective of this study was to identify and to analyze some factors associated with the occurrence of immature forms of A. aegypti on Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, using data from the National Health Foundation (FNS). The results showed that 58.04% of all the containers examined were supports for plant pots, and plastic or glass cans discarded in the yard. The highest percentages of positive breeding sites were observed in tires (1.41%), wells and cisterns (0.93%), and barrels and large metal cans (0.64%). In the summer, the proportion of positivity was higher for big containers used for water storage and for containers discarded in the yard. In the winter the proportion was higher for small containers used for water storage. The highest rates of positive containers were observed after three months without FNS activities. Our results show the necessity to continue the control, and suggest that less attention was paid to small containers during the winter by FNS. Factorial analysis showed that the determinant factor for the occurrence of immature forms of A. aegypti is represented by environmental factors, while elimination and treatment of breeding sites by FNS play a less important role, a fact possibly causing the maintenance of immature forms of A. aegypti.

  8. Spatial variability of maximum annual daily rain under different return periods at the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Roriz Luciano Machado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of maximum daily rain and its return period in a region is an important tool to soil conservation, hydraulic engineering and preservation of road projects. The objective of this work was to evaluate the spatial variability of maximum annual daily rain considering different return periods, at the Rio de Janeiro State. The data set was composed by historical series of 119 rain gauges, for 36 years of observation. The return periods, estimated by Gumbel distribution, were 2, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 years. The spatial variability of the return periods was evaluated by semivariograms. All the return periods presented spatial dependence, with exponential and spherical model fitted to the experimental semivariograms. The parameters of the fitted semivariogram model were very similar; however, it was observed the presence of higher nugget effects for semivariograms of longer return periods. The values of maximum annual daily average rain in all the return periods increased from north to south and from countryside to the coast. In the region between the Serra do Mar range and the coast, besides increasing in magnitude, an increase in the spatial variability of the studied values with increasing return periods was also noticed. This behavior is probably caused by the orographic effect. The interpolated maps were more erratic for higher return periods and at the North, Northeast and Coastal Plain regions, in which the installation of new pluviometric stations are recommended.

  9. Gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches, Struthio camelus, in different regions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Ederli, Nicole Brand; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The ratite group is composed of ostriches, rheas, emus, cassowaries and kiwis. Little research has been done on parasitism in these birds. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of infections by gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this, fecal samples were collected from 192 on 13 farms. From each sample, four grams of feces were used to determine the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) count, by means of the McMaster technique. Part of the feces sample was used for fecal cultures, to identify 100 larvae per sample. The results were subjected to descriptive central trend and dispersion analysis, using confidence intervals at the 5% error probability level in accordance with the Student t distribution, and Tukey's test with a 95% confidence interval. The mean EPG in the state was 1,557, and the municipality of Três Rios had the lowest average (62). The city of Campos dos Goytacazes presented the highest mean EPG of all the municipalities analyzed. The northern region presented the highest mean EPG, followed by the southern, metropolitan, coastal lowland and central regions. Libyostrongylus species were observed on all the farms: L. douglassii predominated, followed by L. dentatus and Codiostomum struthionis.

  10. The sandfly fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae of the Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Andressa Alencastre Fuzari Rodrigues

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in the state of Rio de Janeiro is sporadic and can be characterised as a peridomestic transmission that occurs in modified natural environments. The aim of this work was to study the fauna and ecological characteristics of sandflies in an environmentally protected area (the State Park of Serra da Tiririca within the remnants of the Atlantic Forest in the municipalities of Niterói and Maricá and their possible relationship with leishmaniasis. Captures were performed using light traps during the night once a month for one year in both sylvatic environments and areas surrounding homes near the park. A total of 1,037 sandflies were captured, belonging to nine genera and 12 species: Evandromyia tupynambai (34.1%, Migonemyia migonei (20.6%, Brumptomyia cunhai (13.8%, Micropygomyia schreiberi (9.7%, Psathyromyia lanei (6.5%, Brumptomyia nitzulescui (5.7%, Evandromyia edwardsi (5.4%, Nyssomyia intermedia (2.8%, Evandromyia cortelezzii (0.6%, Pintomyia bianchigalatiae (0.5%, Lutzomyia longipalpis (0.2% and Sciopemyia microps (0.1%. Both Mg. migonei and Ny. intermedia may be acting as vectors of CL in this area.

  11. ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE ORGANIC MATTER IN HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS OF COASTAL PLAIN FROM PERO BEACH, CABO FRIO, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL

    Taísa Camila Silveira de Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of palynofacies along a core drilled on the coastal plain of Cabo Frio, State of Rio de Janeiro, was carried out in order to contribute to the knowledge of the paleoenvironmental evolution of the Pero Beach region. The ages obtained from 14C datings allowed to verify that the studied core records the past 6761 ± 130 yrs cal BP. Thirty samples were prepared by standard methodology for palynofacies. About three hundred particles of the particulate organic material was classified and recorded for each sample. Statistical methods were employed for the associations of particulate organic matter (R-mode cluster analysis and levels (samples; Q-mode cluster analysis analyzed along the core. Furthermore, the ratio Phytoclast - Total Organic Carbon (Phy-TOC was used to verify the proximity of the source area. The three major groups of particulate organic matter found along the studied core are Phytoclasts, Amorphous Organic Matter (AOM and Palynomorphs. The samples showed in general, a predominance of phytoclasts (73.2%, followed by AOM (18.6% and Palynomorphs (8.2%. Supported by statistical analysis, it was possible to deduce that the study area evolved since the middle Holocene from a marine environment to a paleolagoon.

  12. Marine protected area and the spatial distribution of the gill net fishery in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    R. B. Amorim

    Full Text Available Abstract This study characterizes the gill net fishery at Colônia de Pescadores Z13 (CPZ13, in Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, and its relationship with the marine protected area ‘Monumento Natural do Arquipélago das Ilhas Cagarras – MoNa Cagarras’, describing the fleet and fishing gears, identifying fishing spots, species and their associations by gillnet type. From June 2012 to May 2013, every Tuesday to Sunday, gill net landings were monitored and fishers interviewed regarding their catch. Small boats (dory whaleboats are used to set three types of gillnets: “Corvineira” (target species – whitemouth croaker, “linguadeira” (target species – flounders and “rede-alta” (target species – bluefish. Fifty-nine species within 37 families were captured at 14 fishing spots, showing association with bottom type and distance from shore. The use of fisher’s local ecological knowledge defines gear placement at specific sites targeting fisheries resources. All fishing sites are not within the limits of MoNa Cagarras but would benefit from management plans including an MPA buffering zone.

  13. [Occurrence of Achatina fulica in the Vale do Paraíba, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil].

    Vasconcellos, M C; Pile, E

    2001-12-01

    The first occurrence of the Achatina fulica, an intermediate host of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the etiological agent of meningoencephalic angiostrongiliasis, is reported in Resende municipality, Brazil. In the five visited localities, snails were found living freely, and the larvae of this parasite was not seen in any of them. The finding of A. fulica in the area may be related to its commercialization as a food item and embodies the possibility of new focus.

  14. Briófitas do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, RJ, Brasil Bryophytes of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Caio Amitrano de Alencar Imbassahy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho representa uma síntese do conhecimento florístico de briófitas do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, com resultados de campo, material de herbário e publicações. Foram registrados 61 táxons de briófitas, pertencentes a 15 famílias e 33 gêneros. Para cada táxon foram analisados a distribuição geográfica, o tipo de substrato e a forma de vida. A família predominante foi Lejeuneaceae (25 espécies, seguida de Jubulaceae (sete, Calymperaceae (quatro e Sphagnaceae (quatro. Entre as espécies, predominaram as de distribuição Neotropical (35%. Com relação ao substrato preferencial, a maior parte dos táxons é corticícola. A forma de vida predominante foi o tapete, seguido pelo tufo e a trama. O Parque possui brioflora bastante representativa no que diz respeito à vegetação de restinga, com 45% dos táxons de briófitas conhecidas para as restingas no Brasil e 82% das conhecidas para as restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro. É apresentada uma chave para identificação das espécies.We present a synthesis of the bryophyte flora in Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, based on field work, herbaria material and bibliography. Sixty one taxa were recorded, in 15 families and 33 genera. For each taxa, we analyze geographic distribution, substrata and life form. The most species-rich family was Lejeuneaceae (25 species, followed by Jubulaceae (seven, Calymperaceae (four and Sphagnaceae (four. Most taxa have a Neotropical (35% distribution, and most taxa prefer the corticicolous substrate. Mat was the most common life form. The bryoflora of this National Park is an important reservoir of bryophyte diversity in the restingas, with 45% of the taxa known from the sandy coastal plains of Brazil and 82% known from the this habitat in Rio de Janeiro state. A key to identification of the species is given.

  15. Subtribo Myrciinae O. Berg (Myrtaceae na Restinga da Marambaia, RJ, Brasil Subtribe Myrciinae O. Berg (Myrtaceae at Marambaia Restinga, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Marcelo da Costa Souza

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A família Myrtaceae é uma das famílias com maior riqueza de espécies nas Restingas. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi o levantamento da subtribo Myrciinae (Myrtaceae nas diferentes formações vegetais da Restinga da Marambaia, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro (43º32' e 44º01'W; 23º01' e 23º06'S. Foram registradas as ocorrências dos seguintes táxons: Calyptranthes brasiliensis Spreng., Gomidesia fenzliana O. Berg, G. martiana O. Berg, Marlierea tomentosa Cambess., Myrcia acuminatissima O. Berg, M. lundiana Kiaersk., M. multiflora (Lam. DC., M. recurvata O. Berg e M. richardiana (O. Berg Kiaersk. Dois novos sinônimos são propostos para esta última espécie: Aulomyrcia lúcida O.Berg e Myrcia grandiglandulosa Kiaersk. Apresenta-se uma chave de identificação para as espécies, bem como descrições, ilustrações, dados relativos às épocas de floração e frutificação e distribuição geográfica.The family Myrtaceae is one of the most species-rich families in restinga vegetation. The main objective of this paper was to survey the subtribe Myrciinae (Myrtaceae in the different vegetation types of Marambaia Restinga, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (43º32' - 44º01'W; 23º01' - 23º06'S. The following taxa were found: Calyptranthes brasiliensis Spreng., Gomidesia fenzliana O.Berg, G. martiana O. Berg, Marlierea tomentosa Cambess., Myrcia acuminatissima O. Berg, M. lundiana Kiaersk., M. multiflora (Lam. DC., M. recurvata O. Berg, and M. richardiana (O. Berg Kiaersk. Two new synonyms are proposed for the last specie: Aulomyrcia lucida O. Berg and Myrcia grandiglandulosa Kiaersk. A species key is given, as well as descriptions, illustrations, data on flowering and fruiting periods, and geographic distributions of the species.

  16. Medicinal plants from open-air markets in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil as a potential source of new antimycobacterial agents.

    Leitão, Fernanda; Leitão, Suzana G; de Almeida, Mara Zélia; Cantos, Jéssica; Coelho, Tatiane; da Silva, Pedro Eduardo A

    2013-09-16

    Several medicinal plants are traditionally traded in open-air markets in Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) to treat tuberculosis (TB) and related symptoms. Conduct a survey in the open-air markets of 20 cities of Rio de Janeiro State to find medicinal plants that are popularly used to treat tuberculosis and other related diseases and assess their in vitro antimycobacterial activity. We used direct observation and semi-structured interviews and asked herbalists to list species (free listing) in order to gather data about the plant species most commonly used for lung problems. We calculated a Salience Index and acquired two species of "erva-de-passarinho" (mistletoe), Struthanthus marginatus and Struthanthus concinnus (Loranthaceae), commonly used to treat tuberculosis for a bioassay-guided isolation of the antimycobacterial active principles. Extracts, fractions and isolated compounds of both species were assayed in vitro against susceptible (H37Rv) and rifampicin-resistant (ATCC 35338) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. From the interviews, we generated a list of 36 plant species belonging to 12 families. The mistletoes Struthanthus marginatus and Struthanthus concinnus showed high Salience Index values among plants used to treat tuberculosis. Bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane extracts from both species led to the isolation and/or identification of steroids and terpenoids. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts and isolated compounds ranged from 25 to 200 μg/mL. Some of the isolated compounds have been previously assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, others are reported here for the first time (obtusifoliol: MIC H37Rv 50 μg/mL, MIC ATCC 35338 12.5 μg/mL; 3-O-n-acil-lup-20(29)-en-3β,7β,15α-triol: MIC H37Rv 200 μg/mL, MIC ATCC 35338 100 μg/mL). This study demonstrated the importance of ethnobotanical surveys in markets as a source for new drugs and also for scientific validation of folk medicine. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All

  17. Modern processes of palynomorph deposition at lakes of the northern region of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Cynthia F.P. da Luz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Palynological analysis of pollen, Pteridophyta spores and algae deposited in the superficial sediments at Lagoa de Cima and Lagoa do Campelo Lakes, located in the north of Rio de Janeiro state, was used to determine the spatial variation of the palynomorphs deposition. A total of 67 pollen types were identified at Lagoa de Cima, with an expressive contribution of regional arboreous taxa, hydrophytes and ruderal plants of the pastureland. The depositional pattern of palynomorphs depends on the fluvial leakage, the proximity of the local sedimentation to the inlet of the Imbé and Urubu Rivers and the bathymetry of lake bottom. The highest concentrations of palynomorphs were observed in the decentralized and less deeper area, without the interference of the northeastern wind. At Lagoa do Campelo, a total of 58 pollen types were identified, among which the majority of the pollen grains came from hydrophytes, with the highest concentrations found along the northeastern shore. The southeastern shore showed high percentages of pollen and spores with degraded exine and mechanical damage, due to the transport through the lakeby the currents caused by the wind, confirmed by the depositional trend of damaged palinomorphs along the same direction as the prevailing winds.A análise palinológica de grãos de pólen, esporos de Pteridophyta e algas depositados nos sedimentos superficiais da Lagoa de Cima e Lagoa do Campelo, norte do Rio de Janeiro, foi usada para a avaliação da variação espacial de deposição dos palinomorfos. Um total de 67 tipos polínicos foi identificado na Lagoa de Cima, com expressiva contribuição de taxons arbóreos regionais, plantas hidrófitas e ruderais de pastagens. O padrão deposicional dos palinomorfos está sujeito às vazões fluviais, à proximidade do local de sedimentação em relação à desembocadura dos rios Imbé e Urubu e à batimetria do leito da lagoa. As maiores concentrações de palinomorfos foram

  18. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: clinical, parasitological, therapeutical and epidemiological findings (1977-1983

    Mauro C. A. Marzochi

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty dogs from the periphery of the city of Rio de Janeiro were studied. All dogs where diagnosed as positive for leishmaniasis either parasitologically and/or serologically. Among them, 19 came from areas where only Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL occurs (Realengo, Bangu, Senador Camará. Clinical signs of the disease were seen in 36.8% of the cases, including emaciation - 100%, lymphadenopathy and depilation - 85.7%. The other 21 dogs came from an area (Campo Grande where both diseases (VL, and American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - ACL occur. Clinical signs of the disease, mainly cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers were seen in 76.2% of the cases. Leishmania parasites were found in 39 cases: 22% in viscera, 42.5% in viscera and normal skin and 35% in cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers. All the Leishmania stocks isolated from dogs which came from Realengo, Bangu, Senador Camará (VL area, and from Campo Grande (VL + ACL area were characterized as L. donovani (except in one case according to their schizodeme, zymodeme and serodeme. The only stock characterized as L. b. braziliensis, was isolated from the lymph node of a dog from Campo Grande with visceral disease and without skin lesions. Antimony therapy attempted in eight Leishmania donovani positive dogs was unsuccessful.Durante inquéritos caninos realizados na periferia da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram estudados clínica e laboratorialmente 40 cães. Todos apresentavam diagnóstico parasitológico e/ou sorológico de leishmaniose. Dentre esses, 19 procediam de áreas de ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral (LV - Realengo, Bangu e Senador Camará. Sinais clínicos sugestivos da infecção foram observados em 36,8% deles (incluindo emagrecimento - 100%, linfadenopatia e depilação - 85,7%. Outros 21 cães procediam da área de Campo Grande onde tanto a LV como a leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA ocorrem. Sinais clínicos da infecção por Leishmania, principalmente ulcerações cutâneas e

  19. Testing multivariate analysis in paleoenvironmental reconstructions using pollen records from Lagoa Salgada, NE Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Mauro B. de Toledo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the indisputable significance of identification of modern analogs for Paleoecology research, relatively few studies attempted to integrate modern and fossil samples on paleoenvironmental reconstructions. In Palynology, this general pattern is not different from other fields of Paleoecology. This study demonstrates the practical application of modern pollen deposition data on paleoenvironmental reconstructions based on fossil pollen by using multivariate analysis. The main goal of this study was to use Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA to compare pollen samples from two sediment cores collected at Lagoa Salgada, a coastal lagoon located at northeastern Rio de Janeiro State. Furthermore, modern surface samples were also statistically compared with samples from both cores, providing new paleoecological insights. DCA demonstrated that samples from both cores are more similar than previously expected, and that a strong pattern, related to a paleoenvironmental event, is present within the fossil data, clearly identifying in the scatter plot samples that represent pre- and post-environmental change. Additionally, it became apparent that modern vegetation and environmental conditions were established in this region 2500 years before present (BP. Multivariate Analysis allowed a more reliable integration of modern and fossil pollen data, proving to be a powerful tool in Paleoecology studies that should be employed more often on paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstructions.Apesar da indiscutível importância da identificação de análogos modernos para estudos de Paleoecologia, relativamente poucos estudos procuraram integrar amostras modernas e fósseis em reconstruções paleoambientais. Na Palinologia este padrão não é diferente de outras áreas da Paleoecologia. Este estudo demonstra a aplicação prática de dados de deposição polínica atual em reconstruções paleoambientais baseadas em pólen fóssil utilizando an

  20. Behavioral, climatic, and environmental risk factors for Zika and Chikungunya virus infections in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2015-16.

    Trevon L Fuller

    Full Text Available The burden of arboviruses in the Americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by Zika virus infection (ZIKV and arthritis caused by infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV. We aimed to identify environmental drivers of arbovirus epidemics to predict where the next epidemics will occur and prioritize municipalities for vector control and eventual vaccination. We screened sera and urine samples (n = 10,459 from residents of 48 municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro for CHIKV, dengue virus (DENV, and ZIKV by molecular PCR diagnostics. Further, we assessed the spatial pattern of arbovirus incidence at the municipal and neighborhood scales and the timing of epidemics and major rainfall events. Lab-confirmed cases included 1,717 infections with ZIKV (43.8% and 2,170 with CHIKV (55.4% and only 29 (<1% with DENV. ZIKV incidence was greater in neighborhoods with little access to municipal water infrastructure (r = -0.47, p = 1.2x10-8. CHIKV incidence was weakly correlated with urbanization (r = 0.2, p = 0.02. Rains began in October 2015 and were followed one month later by the largest wave of ZIKV epidemic. ZIKV cases markedly declined in February 2016, which coincided with the start of a CHIKV outbreak. Rainfall predicted ZIKV and CHIKV with a lead time of 3 weeks each time. The association between rainfall and epidemics reflects vector ecology as the larval stages of Aedes aegypti require pools of water to develop. The temporal dynamics of ZIKV and CHIKV may be explained by the shorter incubation period of the viruses in the mosquito vector; 2 days for CHIKV versus 10 days for ZIKV.

  1. The urban heat island in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in the last 30 years using remote sensing data

    Peres, Leonardo de Faria; Lucena, Andrews José de; Rotunno Filho, Otto Corrêa; França, José Ricardo de Almeida

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this work is to study urban heat island (UHI) in Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ) based on the analysis of land-surface temperature (LST) and land-use patterns retrieved from Landsat-5/Thematic Mapper (TM), Landsat-7/Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Landsat-8/Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensors (TIRS) data covering a 32-year period between 1984 and 2015. LST temporal evolution is assessed by comparing the average LST composites for 1984-1999 and 2000-2015 where the parametric Student t-test was conducted at 5% significance level to map the pixels where LST for the more recent period is statistically significantly greater than the previous one. The non-parametric Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon rank sum test has also confirmed at the same 5% significance level that the more recent period (2000-2015) has higher LST values. UHI intensity between ;urban; and ;rural/urban low density; (;vegetation;) areas for 1984-1999 and 2000-2015 was established and confirmed by both parametric and non-parametric tests at 1% significance level as 3.3 °C (5.1 °C) and 4.4 °C (7.1 °C), respectively. LST has statistically significantly (p-value analysis was also performed to identify the urban pixels within MARJ where UHI is more intense by subtracting the LST of these pixels from the LST mean value of ;vegetation; land-use class.

  2. Sedimentary architecture and depositional evolution of the Quaternary coastal plain of Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    André Luiz Carvalho da Silva

    Full Text Available The coastal geomorphology of Maricá (Rio de Janeiro state is characterized by a large lagoon and by two sandy barriers that confine a series of small isolated chain-like lagoons. Data collected from ground-penetrating radar and boreholes from the central coastal plain of Maricá provided information on the sedimentary architecture and evolution of this area in the Quaternary. Six lithological units were identified comprising three depositional sequences limited by erosional surfaces, related to barrier-lagoon systems that migrated onshore, offshore, and longshore, giving rise to a sedimentary deposit 25 m thick or more. The data reveal a retrograding barrier overlying a basal mud unit which rests in unconformity upon Precambrian basement, thus characterizing an important Pleistocene transgression. A second Pleistocene barrier of 45,000 cal years BP migrated over a lagoonal mud unit (48,000-45,000 cal years BP reaching over the previous barrier. A progradational phase followed due to a fall of sea level. A long interval of erosion of the barrier created an unconformity that represents the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. A beachrock in nearby Itaipuaçu, 100 m offshore from the present-day beach, dated as 8,500 cal years BP marks the onset of Holocene sedimentation due to gradually rising sea level, which continued until at about 5,000 years ago. This promoted the retrogradation of the barrier-lagoon system. A brief episode of progradation is observed as a series of paleobeach scarps. Today's rising sea level is causing the retrogradation of the barrier.

  3. Behavioral, climatic, and environmental risk factors for Zika and Chikungunya virus infections in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2015-16.

    Fuller, Trevon L; Calvet, Guilherme; Genaro Estevam, Camila; Rafael Angelo, Jussara; Abiodun, Gbenga J; Halai, Umme-Aiman; De Santis, Bianca; Carvalho Sequeira, Patricia; Machado Araujo, Eliane; Alves Sampaio, Simone; Lima de Mendonça, Marco Cesar; Fabri, Allison; Ribeiro, Rita Maria; Harrigan, Ryan; Smith, Thomas B; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Brasil, Patrícia; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Nielsen-Saines, Karin

    2017-01-01

    The burden of arboviruses in the Americas is high and may result in long-term sequelae with infants disabled by Zika virus infection (ZIKV) and arthritis caused by infection with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV). We aimed to identify environmental drivers of arbovirus epidemics to predict where the next epidemics will occur and prioritize municipalities for vector control and eventual vaccination. We screened sera and urine samples (n = 10,459) from residents of 48 municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro for CHIKV, dengue virus (DENV), and ZIKV by molecular PCR diagnostics. Further, we assessed the spatial pattern of arbovirus incidence at the municipal and neighborhood scales and the timing of epidemics and major rainfall events. Lab-confirmed cases included 1,717 infections with ZIKV (43.8%) and 2,170 with CHIKV (55.4%) and only 29 (<1%) with DENV. ZIKV incidence was greater in neighborhoods with little access to municipal water infrastructure (r = -0.47, p = 1.2x10-8). CHIKV incidence was weakly correlated with urbanization (r = 0.2, p = 0.02). Rains began in October 2015 and were followed one month later by the largest wave of ZIKV epidemic. ZIKV cases markedly declined in February 2016, which coincided with the start of a CHIKV outbreak. Rainfall predicted ZIKV and CHIKV with a lead time of 3 weeks each time. The association between rainfall and epidemics reflects vector ecology as the larval stages of Aedes aegypti require pools of water to develop. The temporal dynamics of ZIKV and CHIKV may be explained by the shorter incubation period of the viruses in the mosquito vector; 2 days for CHIKV versus 10 days for ZIKV.

  4. [Information, attitudes, perceptions, and symbolic representations of AIDS risk and prevention among poor adolescents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil].

    Merchán-Hamann, E

    1995-01-01

    Four hundred and sixteen poor adolescents of both sexes in Rio de Janeiro were interviewed to study both their level of information and symbolic representations concerning AIDS risk and prevention. The most common source of information on HIV/AIDS was the mass media, particularly television broadcasts. There were doubts and lack of trust regarding official government information on HIV/AIDS. Nearly 70% of the adolescents interviewed believe in HIV transmission through mosquito bites and some 40% through casual contact with wounds or scars or sharing of bathroom utensils. Men seemed to show a greater awareness and autonomy vis- -vis taking initiatives in sex encounters. Attitudes of segregation and exclusion of people with AIDS persist. Lack of prevention was attributed to the impossibility of predicting sexual encounters. The study of symbolic aspects concerning causes of HIV/AIDS displayed broad variability: 80% of the interviewees associated AIDS with excesses in sexual behavior and 40% with homosexual practices. Causal images vary from the predominant view of AIDS as unfair punishment to the less frequent stance considering AIDS as fair punishment (due to sinful behavior). An ambiguous attitude towards transgression (taking as its sterotype the figure of Rio's "malandro", or "streetwise dude") may influence perception of risk and prevention. The paper calls attention to the need for implementing clearer and more direct educational programs. This could be useful for the implementation of culturally sensitive control measures through a reshaping of AIDS symbols. The author recommends a better understanding of the social and economic determinants of disease and reinforcement of the kinds of discourse which empower and raise the self-esteem of poor adolescents by endorsing their civil rights.

  5. Concentrations of heavy metals in river sediments of the Canes River Basin, the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    De Meneses Silva, M.; Teixeira de Andrade, G.

    2010-01-01

    Research about chimism in the Bengalas river basin was performed as a part of the environmental study project developed in the area, encompassing several knowledge fields. Among these, Environmental Geochemistry played an important role. This work presents the results related to heavy metals in stream sediments, indicating its origins (natural or anthropic) and its availability for aquatic biota. The basin under study has 135.07 Km2, laying in the oriental portion of the Teresópolis country, 100 Km far from the of Rio de Janeiro city. The rivers forming the Bengalas basin cut Pre-Cambrian terrain, formed by Orthognaiss takes 70% of the area, post-tectonic granite(20%), migmatite gneiss (10%) and gabro dikes. The methodology used was the determination of the content of heavy metals through sequencial extraction technique, consisting in the selective remove of metals in the geochemical fractions found in the sediments, cation exchange (bioavailable), carbonaceous, reducible and organic (potentially bioavailable) and residual (non available).The analyze of the results showed that iron was present in all sequential phases and predominated in the residual phase The same behavior was verified for zinc and copper. Manganese had the best distribution through the fractions due to its redox character, allowing bigger solubility and transportation; it appeared in the exchange, residual, organic and carbonaceous phases. Cadmium was found only in the carbonaceous phase, confirming its geochemical tendency. Chrome, on the other hand, was present in the residual and organic phase, while lead was found in the residual and carbonaceous phase

  6. Analysis of the perception of risk of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro using the risk evaluation system in radiotherapy (SEVRRA / FORUM); Analise da percepcao de risco de servicos de radioterapia da regiao metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro usando o sistema de avaliacao de risco em radioterapia (SEVRRA/FORO)

    Burgos, Adam de Freitas

    2015-07-01

    In this work it was possible to analyze the perception of risks associated with existing processes in the high-dose rate brachytherapy and teletherapy using linear accelerators of radiotherapy services in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, through the combined use of two proposed methods: FMECA and risk matrix, using a general analysis and other more specific ones. The database software (SEVRRA) was used to identify possible existing processes in radiotherapy services (brachytherapy and teletherapy) and to classify the sequence of events in risk levels. The risk levels were analyzed at each stage and sub-stage, present in the treatment of patients undergoing high dose rate gynecological intracavitary brachytherapy and teletherapy treatments with the use of linear accelerators applying electron or photon beams in order to establish recommendations to the risks of highest priority for each case. The results show that although the procedure of high dose rate brachytherapy be automated and less susceptible to errors or failures, daily, one can still find considerable amounts of processes with worrying levels of risk perception. The processes that are more subject to radiological accident risks was associated with procedures, for of which the majority of the failures record and planning step of the treatment. The controls analyzed showed low efficiency, warning of the need to seek and implement new more efficient controls in routine brachytherapy for each participant service. About teletherapy procedure it was found that most of the failures were related to the registration and planning of treatment and equipment stages. The controls analyzed to teletherapy showed a poor result with a first type of analysis performed by suggesting a new type of more appropriate analysis. With a second type of analysis, these controls could be better analyzed and showed an order of importance according to a percentage of efficiency. Controls such as 'Double-check', &apos

  7. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  8. Bartonella and Coxiella infective endocarditis in Brazil: molecular evidence from excised valves from a cardiac surgery referral center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1998 to 2009.

    Lamas, Cristiane da Cruz; Ramos, Rosana Grandelle; Lopes, Gabriel Quintino; Santos, Marisa Silva; Golebiovski, Wilma Felix; Weksler, Clara; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini D'Almeida; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    PCR was used to detect Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella spp in heart valves obtained during the period 1998-2009 from patients operated on for blood culture-negative endocarditis in a cardiac surgery hospital in Brazil. Of the 51 valves tested, 10 were PCR-positive; two were positive for Bartonella and one for C. burnetii. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of estrogenic activity in environmental waters in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil) using the yeast estrogen screen.

    Dias, Amanda Cristina Vieira; Gomes, Frederico Wegenast; Bila, Daniele Maia; Sant'Anna, Geraldo Lippel; Dezotti, Marcia

    2015-10-01

    The estrogenicity of waters collected from an important hydrological system in Brazil (Paraiba do Sul and Guandu Rivers) was assessed using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Sampling was performed in rivers and at the outlets of conventional water treatment plants (WTP). The removal of estrogenic activity by ozonation and chlorination after conventional water treatment (clarification and sand filtration) was investigated employing samples of the Guandu River spiked with estrogens and bisphenol A (BPA). The results revealed a preoccupying incidence of estrogenic activity at levels higher than 1ngL(-1) along some points of the rivers. Another matter of concern was the number of samples from WTPs presenting estrogenicity surpassing 1ngL(-1). The oxidation techniques (ozonation and chlorination) were effective for the removal of estrogenic activity and the combination of both techniques led to good results using less amounts of oxidants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Equality inter generation and petroleum royalties at the debate on climate changes: considerations on a state policy on climate changes at the state or Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Equidade intergeracional e royalties do petroleo no debate sobre mudancas climaticas: consideracoes sobre uma politica estadual sobre mudanca do clima no estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Carvalho, Flavia Cahete Lopes; Araujo, Maria Silvia Muylaert de; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a basis for reflection on the petrol exploitation and the royalty concept for a state policy of facing the climate changes at the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Conceptually, objective of the payment of royalties for exploitation of a exaustable natural resource is to guarantee that thr next human generations be compensated by the absence of the explored natural resource. The paper intends to verify if the present Brazilian model of distribution and application of the resources referring to the payment of royalties coming from the petroleum production provides for the future generations which can not to count with the finite natural resource.

  11. Multimetric index for assessing ecological condition of running waters in the upper reaches of the Piabanha-Paquequer-Preto Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Darcilio F. Baptista

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a rapid multimetric index using benthic macrofauna as bioindicators of ecological conditions for the upper reaches of the Piabanha-Paquequer-Preto Basin located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 33698 macroinvertebrates were collected in 27 sites. Benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled using the multi-habitat method that consists in sampling 20 m² of substrate collected in approximate proportion to the representation of all major habitat types in the reach. A subsampling procedure was used. The main steps followed to develop and test the index were: exclusion of unsuitable metrics using box-whisker plots, considering the degree of overlapping among interquartile limits (1º-3º and confirmed by Mann-Whitney U test (p < 0.05 using six reference rivers and six impaired rivers. From all the candidate potential metrics, 36 were considered suitable. After identifying redundant metrics, through Spearman correlation analysis, and considering practical application criteria, six core metrics were selected to compose the Piabanha-Paquequer-Preto Multimetric Index (PPPMI using the continuous method: Family richness, Shannon-Wiener family diversity, EPT family richness, %Diptera, %MOLD (Mollusca + Diptera and %Collectors. The sensitivity of the index was tested in 15 rivers using a Principal Components Analysis (PCA of the six environmental variables. The first axis of the PCA was highly correlated to the PPPMI scores (r = 0.703, p < 0.001. The PPPMI responded to a set of environmental variables associated to a gradient of human disturbance affecting the ecological condition of the waterbodies. This indicates that the PPPMI is an effective tool for biological monitoring and decision making in the hydrographic region of the Piabanha-Paquequer-Preto rivers.

  12. Detection and characterization of multidrug-resistant enterobacteria bearing aminoglycoside-modifying gene in a university hospital at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, along three decades.

    Dias-Gonçalves, Verônica; Bohrer-Lengruber, Françoise; Oliveira-Fonseca, Bianca; Santos-Pereira, Renata Meirelles; Barbosa de Melo, Luis Dione; Gazos-Lopes, Ulisses; Ribeiro-Bello, Alexandre; Adler-Pereira, José Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, particularly those resistant to gentamicin, have become one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. We sought to investigate the presence of genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides, specially to gentamicin, in Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli multidrug-resistant strains isolated from different clinical materials among patients hospitalized in a university hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ten colonization strains and 20 infection strains were evaluated during three decades (1980 to 2010) using selective media containing 8 µg/ml of gentamicin. Thirty strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Twenty two strains were subjected to plasmid DNA extraction and 12 to hybridization assays using as probe a 1.9 kb plasmid DNA fragment from one of the K. pneumoniae strains isolated from faecal samples. This fragment was sequenced and assigned to the GQ422439 GenBank record. PCR was also performed using oligonucleotides designed for aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes. An accC2 acetylase, besides transposons and insertion sequences, were evidenced. Twenty-four (80%) of the isolates were positive for the aacC2 gene in agreement with antibiotic susceptibility testing profiles, indicating the persistent presence of this gene throughout the three decades. We detected high molecular weight plasmids in 54,5% of the strains. Of the tested strains, 91% showed positive signal in the hybridization assays. A gene codifying for one specific aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme was detected all throughout the three decades. Our data back the adoption of preventive measures, such as a more conscious use of antimicrobial agents in hospital environments, which can contribute to control the dissemination of microorganisms harboring resistance gene plasmids.

  13. Use of GIS in hydrological study and impact assessment for heavy metals in area next to radioactive wastes deposit, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Borges, Renata Coura; Santos, Fabio Ventura dos; Vieira, Paloma da Conceicao; Cabral, Denise Cunha; Barros, Marcio Paes de, E-mail: rcborges@hotmail.com, E-mail: fabio.ventura.santos@gmail.com, E-mail: dcunha@ien.gov.br, E-mail: paloma.c.vieira@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (LIMA/IEN/CNEN-RJ), RJ (Brazil). Departamento Lab. de Impactos Ambientais

    2013-07-01

    Studies around the management and disposal of radioactive waste have been conducted for decades. In Brazil, the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is responsible for Intermediate Radioactive Waste deposits, located in Fundao Island, Rio de Janeiro (RJ). According to CNEN 8.01 norm, it is necessary to characterize and to study the location area around the deposit. Within this context, the objective of this study was to characterize the Canal Cunha Basin, the western of Guanabara Bay and study the Environmental Impact, with determination of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) in said river basin and bay. The work involves collecting water and sediment samples in five georeferenced points. The sediment samples was collected using the EPA Method 3051 and the reading of the concentrations of heavy metals in water and sediment was performed by ICP-OES. Maps were generated for characterization and spatial distribution of these metals on Canal Cunha Basin. The Canal Cunha's drainage composes a territory with 62.85 km{sup 2} (approximated area) and 37.01 km of perimeter The high occupancy rates in the urban area that decrease the rate of infiltration and changes in physiography caused by construction of embankments because a reverse behavior expected, which increases the runoff coefficient of 0.74. The results show that in periods of high river discharge, there is a drift of large amounts of Pb, Cu and Cd to the waters of the Canal Cunha and Guanabara Bay. Zn and Ni presented higher concentrations in the dry season. The Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni concentrations are smaller than the concentrations found in the sediment. This probably happens because Cunha Canal Basin and western of Guanabara Bay receive high organic load, and also because of the high percentage of fine sediment in this, thus promoting the adsorption of metals, not contaminating the water and thus not reaching the food chain. (author)

  14. Distinct mortality profile in systemic sclerosis: a death certificate study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2006-2015) using a multiple causes of death analysis.

    de Rezende, Rodrigo Poubel Vieira; Gismondi, Ronaldo Altenburg; Maleh, Haim Cesar; de Miranda Coelho, Elisa Mendes; Vieira, Carol Sartori; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Mocarzel, Luis Otavio

    2017-12-16

    The objective of this study was to assess the mortality profile related to SSc in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We retrospectively examined all registered deaths in the region (2006-2015 period) in which the diagnosis of SSc was mentioned on any line of the death certificates (underlying cause of death [UCD], n = 223; non-UCD, n = 151). Besides the analysis of gender, age, and the causes of death, we also compared the mortality from UCDs between individuals whose death causes included SSc (cases) and those whose death causes did not include SSc (deceased controls). For the latter comparison, we used the mortality odds ratio to approximate the cause-specific standardized mortality ratio. We identified 1495 death causes among the 374 SSc cases. The mean age at death of the SSc cases (85% women) was significantly lower than that of the controls (n = 1,294,117) (58.7 vs. 65.5 years, respectively). The main death causes were circulatory system diseases, infections, and respiratory diseases (36%, 34%, and 21% of SSc cases, respectively). Compared to the deceased controls, there were proportionally more deaths among the SSc cases from pulmonary arterial hypertension, lung fibrosis, septicemia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, other systemic connective tissue diseases, and heart failure (for death age causes in this predominantly non-Caucasian sample of SSc patients. Of interest, the percentage of infection-related deaths in our report was about three times higher than that in SSc studies with predominantly Caucasian populations.

  15. DEPOSITIONAL ENVIRONMENTS OF SUPRACRUSTAL METASEDIMENTARY SEQUENCE AND POSSIBLE MODEL FOR ZINC MINERALIZATION OF RIO CLARO AREA, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE (BRAZIL

    Ronaldo Mello Pereira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on Neoproterozoic supracrustal rocks related to Andrelandia megasequence, which are superimposed on the basis represented by neoarchean granulites and palaeoproterozoic ortogneiss, in order to define palaeoenvironments of deposition of metasedimentary rocks and typological model of zinc mineralization of Rio Claro, Rio de Janeiro State, SE of Brazil. Three stratigraphic units in the area were considered for the studies: Valadão, São Roque and Lidice. Valadão unit was divided into three subunits: psamitic, psamitic / pelitic and pelitic. On the whole, it represents a turbiditic sequence influenced by underwater hydrothermal exhalations that led to the formation of quartzite with magnetite, considered as banded iron formations. São Roque Unit is composed of four subunits (São Roque I, II, III and IV and presents a typical pattern of deposition of low energy environments, in marine deep basins. Gondite, coticules levels and (Mn-almandine present in the local gneiss mark the manganese exalative contribution in that unit. Lídice unit has different sedimentation palaeoenvironments and is subdivided into Lídice I, II and III. Lídice subunits I and II exhibit quartzite interleaved with pelitic rocks and graphite gneiss, suggesting deposition in deeper environments of the basin, probably related to turbidity currents. In Lídice III subunit, more carbonated and with more quartz, limestone quartzite stand out, which enclose mineralized zones, reflecting depositional environment in shallow platform, possibly involving evaporitic environment, sabkha type. Sulfite mineralization of Rio Claro, associated with platformal rocks intensely metamorphosed and deformed, as well as its local geological context, features similarities with sedimentary exhalative deposits (SEDEX Zn-Pb-Ag model, Shuswap and Monashee type, present in Monashee and Shuswap Complexes of British Columbia in Canada.

  16. Use of GIS in hydrological study and impact assessment for heavy metals in area next to radioactive wastes deposit, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Borges, Renata Coura; Santos, Fabio Ventura dos; Vieira, Paloma da Conceicao; Cabral, Denise Cunha; Barros, Marcio Paes de

    2013-01-01

    Studies around the management and disposal of radioactive waste have been conducted for decades. In Brazil, the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) is responsible for Intermediate Radioactive Waste deposits, located in Fundao Island, Rio de Janeiro (RJ). According to CNEN 8.01 norm, it is necessary to characterize and to study the location area around the deposit. Within this context, the objective of this study was to characterize the Canal Cunha Basin, the western of Guanabara Bay and study the Environmental Impact, with determination of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni) in said river basin and bay. The work involves collecting water and sediment samples in five georeferenced points. The sediment samples was collected using the EPA Method 3051 and the reading of the concentrations of heavy metals in water and sediment was performed by ICP-OES. Maps were generated for characterization and spatial distribution of these metals on Canal Cunha Basin. The Canal Cunha's drainage composes a territory with 62.85 km 2 (approximated area) and 37.01 km of perimeter The high occupancy rates in the urban area that decrease the rate of infiltration and changes in physiography caused by construction of embankments because a reverse behavior expected, which increases the runoff coefficient of 0.74. The results show that in periods of high river discharge, there is a drift of large amounts of Pb, Cu and Cd to the waters of the Canal Cunha and Guanabara Bay. Zn and Ni presented higher concentrations in the dry season. The Pb, Cu, Cd, Zn and Ni concentrations are smaller than the concentrations found in the sediment. This probably happens because Cunha Canal Basin and western of Guanabara Bay receive high organic load, and also because of the high percentage of fine sediment in this, thus promoting the adsorption of metals, not contaminating the water and thus not reaching the food chain. (author)

  17. Estimation of environmental radiological implications arising from the operation of the Nuclear Engineering Institute - IEN, locate at Fundao Island, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Peres, Sueli da Silva

    1999-07-01

    The Nuclear Engineering Institute is located at the Fundao Island in the City of the Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The Institute works in several fields such as reactors, physics, radiation protection and radioactive waste management, instrumentation and control, chemistry and metallurgy. It has a nuclear installation, represented by the Argonauta reactor, and the other installations are classified as radioactive. During the operation of these installations, some radioactive liquid and gaseous effluents are generated and released into the sanitary sewerage system and in the atmosphere, respectively. The main radioactive effluents are generated during the radioisotopes production and processing. The critical radionuclides released by Institute, in the period covered by this work, from 1985 to 1995, were 65 Zn and 123 l, respectively for the aquatic and atmospheric pathways. This study has shown that the main radiation exposure pathways to man were the inhalation of 123 l contaminated plume and external exposure to the 65 Zn contaminated sewage sludge - coming from the final treatment of the liquid effluents at the Sewage Treatment Plant - in the Sanitary landfilling. Considering the conditions of operation studied, the individual equivalent doses received by the critical groups of the population did not exceed 1/500 of the annual limit of 1 mSv.ano -1 established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission for the members of the public. These values do not represent any significant radiological risk increase for the local population. Therefore, the exposure calculated in this work, 2 (μSv.year -1 , can be considered acceptable. However, any future dose increment should be carefully evaluated in terms of cost-benefit analysis, according to the system of dose limitation established in the national rules and in the recommendations of the ICRP. (author)

  18. Natural radioactivity in soils of the state of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil): Radiological characterization and relationships to geological formation, soil types and soil properties.

    Ribeiro, F C A; Silva, J I R; Lima, E S A; do Amaral Sobrinho, N M B; Perez, D V; Lauria, D C

    2018-02-01

    Located in the south-western part of Brazil, the state of Rio de Janeiro is geotectonically contained within a complex structural province that resulted in the amalgamation of the Western Gondwana Paleocontinent. To undertake an extensive radiological characterization of this complex geological province and investigate the influence of bedrock, soil type and soil chemical-physical characteristics on natural radionuclide levels in soils, 259 surface soil samples were collected that encompassed the main soil types and geological formations throughout the state. Gamma spectrometry analysis of the samples resulted in median values of 114 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K, 32 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra and 74 Bq.kg -1 for 228 Ra. The median value for 226 Ra was similar to the world median value for soils, the 40 K value was well below the worldwide value, and that for 228 Ra exceeded the world median value. The intense weathering caused by the high rainfall rates and high temperatures may be responsible for the low levels of 40 K in the soils, of which the strongly acidic and clayey soils are markedly K-depleted. A soil from a high-grade metamorphic rock (granulite) presented the lowest 226 Ra (18 Bq.kg -1 ) content, whereas the highest levels for 226 Ra (92 Bq.kg -1 ) and 228 Ra (139 Bq.kg - 1) were observed in a young soil enriched in primary minerals (Leptsol). A lowland soil (Gleysol) showed the highest median of 40 K (301 Bq.kg -1 ). Strongly acidic soils tended to present high amounts of 226 Ra, and sandy soils tended to contain low levels of 228 Ra. The external radiation dose indicates that the state has a background radiation level within the natural range. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A cross-sectional study of high-risk human papillomavirus clustering and cervical outcomes in HIV-infected women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Castilho, Jessica L.; Levi, José Eduardo; Luz, Paula M.; Cambou, Mary Catherine; Vanni, Tazio; Andrade, Angela de; Derrico, Mônica; Veloso, Valdiléa G.; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Friedman, Ruth K.

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, the rate of cervical cancer remains high despite the availability of screening programs. With ongoing vaccine development and implementation, information on the prevalence of specific HPV types is needed, particularly among high-risk populations, such as HIV-infected women. We performed a study of HIV-infected women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, who underwent cervical HPV genotype testing between 2005-2013. We examined the prevalence of high-risk HPV types and the patterns of high-risk HPV type clustering. Using logarithmic binomial regression, we estimated the risk of abnormal cytology by HPV genotype result. Of the 562 women included, 498 (89 %) had at least one HPV type detected. 364 women (65 %) had at least one high-risk HPV type detected and 181 (32 %) had more than one high-risk type detected. HPV 58 was the most frequent HPV type detected overall (prevalence 19.8 % [95 % confidence interval 16.4–23.1]), followed by HPV 53 (prevalence 15.5 % [12.5–18.5]) and HPV 16 (prevalence 13 % [10.2–15.8]). Women infected with more than one high-risk HPV type were younger, had lower CD4+ lymphocyte counts, and were more likely to be infected with HPV 16 or 18. In adjusted analyses, presence of more than one high-risk HPV type was associated with a two-fold increased risk of abnormal cytology after adjusting for presence of individual high-risk type, age, and CD4+ lymphocyte count (adjusted prevalence ratios 1.88–2.07, all p <0.001). No single high-risk HPV type was statistically associated with abnormal cytology after adjusting for the presence of more than one high-risk HPV type. In the largest study of cervical HPV genotypes among HIV-infected women in Latin America, infection by high-risk HPV types other than 16 or 18 and infection by more than one high-risk HPV types were common. Infection by more than one high-risk type was more strongly associated with abnormal cervical cytology than any individual high-risk HPV type, highlighting the need for

  20. Ecology of Ischnocnema parva (Anura: Brachycephalidae at the Atlantic Rainforest of Serra da Concórdia, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Ana Cristina J. S. Martins

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ischnocnema (Brachycephalidae includes many species that are important members of the leaf litter frog communities in the Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853 is endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest biome and is restricted to the forests of southeastern Brazil. Currently, the available information about the ecology of I. parva is scarce. We studied the diet, the habitat use, reproduction and density of I. parva in an area of Atlantic Rainforest at the Concórdia mountain range, Rio de Janeiro. Individuals of I. parva were captured in April 2005 using different sampling methods: time constrained search (transects, plots of 5 x 5 m (25 m² on the litter, and pitfall traps with drift fences. We found 240 frogs; 35 females and 205 males. Females (mean SVL = 19.1 mm were significantly larger (F1,238 = 143.016, R² = 0.375, p < 0.001 than males (13.2 mm. The species preyed mainly on arthropods, with ants and isopods being the most important items, both showing high values of importance index (Ix = 50.0 and 26.7, respectively. Ischnocnema parva is a terrestrial species whose preferential microhabitat at the Serra da Concórdia was the litter of the forest floor (78.7%. The activity was predominantly crepuscular-nocturnal and the estimated density of I. parva was 24.9 ind/100 m². For the eight ovigerous females captured, the mean number of mature oocytes per female was 25 (range: 22-30 and the oocyte mean diameter was 1.11 mm (N = 40 oocytes. Oocyte number increased with female body size (R² = 0.504, F1,6 = 6.107, p < 0.05, N = 8, indicating that as females increase in size they produce larger clutches. Some ecological aspects such as diet and microhabitat use were similar to that observed for an insular population of I. parva, whereas reproductive traits differed. Thus, long term studies are necessary to understand the extent to which these differences are explained by environmental factors.

  1. Comunidade de aves de sub-bosque em uma área de entorno do Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Understory bird community in a surrounded area of Itatiaia National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Eliana R. Maia-Gouvêa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado em mata secundária no Município de Itatiaia, Estado do Rio de Janeiro (22º30'S e 44º30'W próximo ao Parque Nacional do Itatiaia, com o objeitvo de descrever a comunidade de aves ali presente. Foram amostrados três tipos vegetacionais distintos: reflorestamento, bosque e pomar, tendo sido realizadas 19 excursões entre 1984 e 1999. As aves foram amostradas através de capturas com redes de neblina e anilhamento, tendo sido utilizadas de 15 a 31 redes de 12 x 2 m e malha 36 mm. Foram também obtidas medidas morfométricas (comprimento total, asa, bico, cauda e tarso e dados biológicos (sexo, idade reprodução e muda. Depois de 5.621,79 horas-rede, foi registrado um total de 553 capturas, com 71 recapturas (12,84%; 417 indivíduos foram anilhados, e 65 beija-flores deixaram de ser marcados por falta de anilhas específicas. A comunidade estudada esteve representada por 77 espécies e 18 famílias, apresentando índice de diversidade H' = -1,594 e a curva do coletor com tendência à estabilização. As famílias com maior número de espécies foram Emberizidae (n = 21; 27,27% e Tyrannidae (n = 15; 19,48%. As espécies com maior abundância relativa foram Turdus leucomelas (n = 40; 9,59% e Turdus rufiventris (n = 36; 8,63%. Seis das espécies amostradas (7,8% são endêmicas do bioma Mata Atlântica. Na estação chuvosa foram amostradas 68 espécies, e na estação seca, 42; e as capturas estiveram relacionadas com as chuvas (rs = -0,6778; p = 0,05. O período reprodutivo ocorreu de outubro a março estando correlacionado com o início da estação chuvosa (rs = -0,702; p = 0,052.This study was conduced in a second growth woodland close to Itatiaia National Park (22º30'S e 44º30'W, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and aimed to describe the understory bird community living in this area. We sampled three different vegetation types, reforestation, wood and orchard, through 19 field trips between 1984 and 1999. Birds

  2. Tendência temporal da amamentação na cidade do Rio de Janeiro: 1996-2006 Tendencia temporal del amamantamiento en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: 1996-2006 Time trend in breast-feeding in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil: 1996-2006

    Inês Rugani Ribeiro de Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a tendência temporal da prática de aleitamento materno (AM e de aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados de sistema de monitoramento baseado em inquéritos realizados nos anos de 1996, 1998, 2000, 2003 e 2006 durante a Campanha Nacional de Imunização na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ. A população de estudo foi constituída de 19.044 crianças menores de um ano de idade que compareceram aos postos de vacinação. Para cada ano foi estudada uma amostra probabilística por conglomerado (postos de vacinação, auto-ponderada representativa da população de crianças menores de 12 meses (6 e em AMEOBJETIVO: Analizar la tendencia temporal de la práctica del amamantamiento materno (AM y del amamantamiento materno exclusivo (AME. MÉTODOS: Fueron analizados datos del sistema de monitoreo con base en pesquisas realizadas en los años de 1996, 1998, 2000, 2003 y 2006 durante la Campaña Nacional de Inmunización en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, Sureste de Brasil. La población de estudio fue constituida por 19.044 niños menores de un año de edad que asistieron a los puestos de vacunación. Para cada año fue estudiada una muestra probabilística por conglomerado (puestos de vacunación, autoponderada representativa de la población de niños menores de 12 meses (6 y en AMEOBJECTIVE: To analyze time trend in breast-feeding (BF and exclusive breast-feeding (EBF. METHODS: Data from a monitoring system, based on surveys conducted during the National Immunization Campaign in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil, in 1996, 1998, 2000, 2003 and 2006, were analyzed. Study population was comprised of 19,044 children younger than one year of age, who were present in vaccination stations. A probability cluster sample (vaccination stations, self-weighted and representative of the population of children younger than 12 months of age (6 and EBF<6 were found in all categories of all maternal

  3. Consulta ginecológica sob a ótica de estudantes do ensino médio do Rio de Janeiro, RJ Consulta ginecológica bajo la óptica de estudiantes de educación secundaria en Rio de Janeiro, RJ High school students' opinions of gynecological consultations in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Sandra de Morais Pereira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar diferenças socioculturais e percepções sobre a consulta ginecológica por adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 418 alunas do ensino médio de três escolas de diferentes perfis, localizadas na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, em 2010. Aplicou-se questionário estruturado, abordando características sociodemográficas, comportamento sexual e avaliação da consulta ginecológica. Utilizou-se o teste de Qui-quadrado (Yates e o t de Student, adotando-se p OBJETIVO: Analizar diferencias socioculturales y percepciones sobre la consulta ginecológica en adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con 418 alumnas de educación secundaria de tres escuelas con diferentes perfiles, localizadas en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, RJ, en 2010. Se aplicó cuestionario estructurado, abordando características sociodemográficas, comportamiento sexual y evaluación de la consulta ginecológica. Se utilizó la prueba de Chi-cuadrado (Yates y el t de Student, adoptándose un pOBJECTIVE: To analyze sociocultural differences and perceptions of gynecological consultations for high school girls. METHODS: A transversal study with 418 high school girls from three schools of different profiles in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil in 2010. A structured questionnaire encompassing socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behavior and evaluation of gynecological consultations was completed. Yates' Chi-square test and the Student's t-test were utilized adopting a value of p < 0.05. RESULTS: The students of private and federal public schools presented similar profiles but both were different from the state school girls. The latter had lower socioeconomic status, and their parents had lower levels of education, the predominance of afro-descendants was observed, as were a larger number of sexual partners, pregnancy and cases of sexual violence. The average age of menarche and sexarche among the students were similar, but the first

  4. Transcranial sonography as a diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease: a pilot study in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Rita de Cássia Leite Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil there is no systematic study on Transcranial Sonography (TCS, a neuroimaging method that depicts echogenic deep brain structures using ultrasound. OBJECTIVE: To establish the percentage of subjects with permissive temporal windows and to address the ability of TCS of the substantia nigra (SN to distinguish parkinsonian patients in a Brazilian sample. METHOD: We performed TCS using the Acuson X300 (Siemens, Germany in 37 individuals: 23 with Parkinson's disease (PD and 14 healthy controls. RESULTS: 10.8% of subjects had insufficient temporal acoustic bone windows. SN echogenic areas were larger in patients (mean±SD, 0.31±0.08cm² compared to controls (mean±SD, 0.17±0.02cm². TCS accurately identified 88.2% of PD patients. CONCLUSION: A large proportion of Brazilians seem to be eligible for TCS. An expressive number of PD patients could be diagnosed by TCS based on an expanded SN echogenic area. However, the current data is preliminary and must be corroborated by larger studies.

  5. Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805 (Diptera: Calliphoridae as new biological vector of eggs of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781 (Diptera: Oestridae in Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Marinho Clarissa Rezende

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this note was to record for the first time the finding of Hemilucilia segmentaria acting as biological vector of Dermatobia hominis, during a study of the diversity of Calliphoridae at Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The insects were captured using traps baited with chicken vicera, for a period of 28-30 h twice per month. In the period of one year, 1987 insects were collected, 7.5% of which belonged to the H. segmentaria; of these a female was captured in May 2001, carrying a mass of 20 eggs on the left side of its abdomen.

  6. Extraction procedure compared to attenuation model to assess heavy metals mobility in sediments from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro; Procedimento de fracionamento comparado a modelo de atenuacao para a avaliacao de mobilidade de metais pesados em sedimentos da Baia de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella

    2006-07-01

    Sepetiba bay, located about 60 km west of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro city, has undergone notable development in the last decades, with the establishment of about 400 industrial plants in its basin, basically metallurgical, which release its industrial waste either straight into the bay or through local rivers. The Sepetiba harbor also brought up a lot of industrial investment in that area. This urban and industrial expansion caused several environmental impacts, mainly due to the presence of heavy metals and other potentially toxic substances present in the effluents discharged into the bay. This work aimed to assess heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn) contamination and mobility in sediments from Sepetiba bay. The acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) and the concentration of simultaneously extracted metals (SIGMA[SEM) were determined in 65 sediment samples from Sepetiba bay, representing the whole area. The results obtained showed that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the northeastern area (mainly in the mouth of Guandu and Canal de Sao Francisco rivers), while the highest concentration of Ni were observed in the western region of the bay. The comparison between SEM concentrations with the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (TEL and PEL) indicated that Cd and Zn presented values which may hazard to aquatic organisms (concentration levels above PEL); the elements Cu, Pb and Ni presented concentration levels below PEL, suggesting low probability of toxicological effects to the aquatic organisms. On the other hand, the ratio {sigma}[SEM]/[AVS] was below 1 in the northeastern region, indicating that, in spite of the high concentration of the analyzed metals in this area, they are trapped in the sediment, as sulfides. The total metal concentrations in the sediments were also determined and the same distribution pattern obtained for the SEM were observed, with high concentrations in the northeastern region of the bay, classifying the area as

  7. Evaluation of positive and false-positive results in syphilis screening of blood donors in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Sandes, V S; Silva, S G C; Motta, I J F; Velarde, L G C; de Castilho, S R

    2017-06-01

    We propose to analyse the positive and false-positive results of treponemal and nontreponemal tests in blood donors from Brazil and to evaluate possible factors associated with the results of treponemal tests. Treponemal tests have been used widely for syphilis screening in blood banks. The introduction of these tests in donor screening has caused an impact and a loss of donors who need to be assessed. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study of syphilis screening and confirmatory test results of blood donors that were obtained before and after adopting a chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA). A comparative analysis was performed using a second sample drawn from positive donors. The possible factors associated with CLIA-positive or CLIA-false-positive results were investigated in a subgroup. Statistical tests were used to compare the proportions and adjusted estimates of association. The reactivity rate increased from 1·01% (N = 28 158) to 2·66% (N = 25 577) after introducing the new test. Among Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL)- and CLIA-confirmed results, the false-positive rates were 40·5% (N = 180) and 37·4% (N = 359), respectively (P = 0·5266). Older donors (OR = 1·04; P = 0·0010) and donors with lower education levels (OR = 6·59; P = 0·0029) were associated with a higher risk of positivity for syphilis. CLIA represents an improvement in blood bank serological screening. However, its use in a healthy population appears to result in high rates of false positives. Identifying which characteristics can predict false positives, however, remains a challenge. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  8. Spatial, temporal and diel variations of fish assemblages at two sandy beaches in the Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Pessanha, André Luiz Machado; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2003-08-01

    Fish assemblages from two beaches, one in the inner and the other in the outer Sepetiba Bay (latitude: 22°54'-23°04'S; longitude: 43°34'-44°10'W), Southeast Brazil, were sampled by beach seine net, simultaneously, on both seasonal and diel scales, between August 1998 and June 1999. Sites were selected to encompass different environmental conditions which reflect the two bay zones, thus providing a comprehensive assessment of the factors influencing surf zone fish assemblages, and their spatial, seasonal and diel variations. A total of 55 fish species was recorded, mostly young-of-the-year. Anchoa tricolor, Micropogonias furnieri, Gerres aprion, Diapterus rhombeus, Harengula clupeola, Atherinella brasiliensis and Mugil liza were numerically dominant and contributed to 95.2% of the total fish catches. Strong differences in fish assemblages were observed between the two areas, with higher number of species in the outer bay. Increases in fish numbers occurred in winter, while the highest biomass occurred in winter and summer. Transparency, followed by salinity, was responsible for most of the spatial variability and played an important role in structuring fish assemblages. Overall, diel patterns did not reveal any significant trends; however, if we consider each season separately, an increase in fish numbers during the day with peak at sunset was observed in winter, and a higher biomass occurred at night in winter and summer. Species preferences for various combinations of environmental variables are responsible for shifts in the structure and overall abundance of assemblages and dictated some patterns. The sciaenid M. furnieri, the second most abundant species, occurred only in the inner zone, being more abundant in winter. The species of Engraulidae were more abundant in the outer zone in winter/spring during the day. The gerreids G. aprion and D. rhombeus occurred mainly in summer. Overall, temporal fluctuations act more at a specific level than at a structural

  9. Factors associated with colposcopy-histopathology confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia among HIV-infected women from Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.

    Angela Cristina Vasconcelos de Andrade

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite the availability of preventive strategies (screening tests and vaccines, cervical cancer continues to impose a significant health burden in low- and medium-resourced countries. HIV-infected women are at increased risk for infection with human papillomavirus (HPV and thus development of cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN. METHODS: Study participants included HIV-infected women enrolling the prospective open cohort of Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (IPEC/FIOCRUZ. At cohort entry, women were subjected to conventional Papanicolaou test, HPV-DNA test and colposcopy; lesions suspicious for CIN were biopsied. Histopathology report was based on directed biopsy or on specimens obtained by excision of the transformation zone or cervical conization. Poisson regression modeling was used to assess factors associated with CIN2+ diagnosis. RESULTS: The median age of the 366 HIV-infected women included in the study was 34 years (interquartile range: 28-41 years. The prevalence of CIN1, CIN2 and CIN3 were 20.0%, 3.5%, and 2.2%, respectively. One woman was found to have cervical cancer. The prevalence of CIN2+ was 6.0%. Factors associated with CIN2+ diagnosis in the multivariate model were age < years compared to ≥ 35 years (aPR  =  3.22 95%CI 1.23-8.39, current tobacco use (aPR  =  3.69 95%CI 1.54-8.78, nadir CD4 T-cell count <350 cells/mm3 when compared to ≥ 350 cells/mm3 (aPR  =  6.03 95%CI 1.50-24.3 and concomitant diagnosis of vulvar and/or vaginal intraepithelial lesion (aPR  =  2.68 95%CI 0.99-7.24. DISCUSSION: Increased survival through wide-spread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy might allow for the development of cervical cancer. In Brazil, limited cytology screening and gynecological care adds further complexity to the HIV-HPV co-infection problem. Integrated HIV care and cervical cancer prevention programs are needed for the prevention of cervical

  10. Geochemical behavior and dissolved species control in acid sand pit lakes, Sepetiba sedimentary basin, Rio de Janeiro, SE - Brazil

    Marques, Eduardo D.; Sella, Sílvia M.; Bidone, Edison D.; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel V.

    2010-12-01

    This work shows the influence of pluvial waters on dissolved components and mineral equilibrium of four sand pit lakes, located in the Sepetiba sedimentary basin, SE Brazil. The sand mining activities promote sediment oxidation, lowering pH and increasing SO 4 contents. The relatively high acidity of these waters, similar to ore pit lakes environment and associated acid mine drainage, increases weathering rate, especially of silicate minerals, which produces high Al concentrations, the limiting factor for fish aquaculture. During the dry season, basic cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na), SiO 2 and Al show their higher values due to evapoconcentration and pH are buffered. In the beginning of the wet season, the dilution factor by rainwater increases SO 4 and decreases pH values. The aluminum monomeric forms (Al(OH) 2+ and Al(OH) 2+), the most toxic species for aquatic organisms, occur during the dry season, while AlSO 4+ species predominate during the wet season. Gibbsite, allophane, alunite and jurbanite are the reactive mineral phases indicated by PHREEQC modeling. During the dry season, hydroxialuminosilicate allophane is the main phase in equilibrium with the solution, while the sulphate salts alunite and jurbanite predominate in the rainy season due to the increasing of SO 4 values. Gibbsite is also in equilibrium with sand pit lakes waters, pointing out that hydrolysis reaction is a constant process in the system. Comparing to SiO 2, sulphate is the main Al retriever in the pit waters because the most samples (alunite and jurbanite) are in equilibrium with the solution in both seasons. This Al hydrochemical control allied to some precaution, like pH correction and fertilization of these waters, allows the conditions for fishpond culture. Equilibrium of the majority samples with kaolinite (Ca, Mg, Na diagrams) and primary minerals (K diagram) points to moderate weathering rate in sand pit sediments, which cannot be considered for the whole basin due to the anomalous

  11. Critical evaluation of the external occupational exposure in nuclear medicine services in Brazil; Avaliacao critica da exposicao ocupacional externa nos servicos de medicina nuclear no Brasil

    Kubo, Ana Luiza Silva Lima

    2016-07-01

    Currently in Brazil (2016), there are 421 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). In nuclear medicine, the possibility of occupational internal contamination and external exposure is unavoidable. The chest individual monitoring, to estimate the effective dose, is mandatory, but the extremity monitoring is not always made. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of data for external exposure of NMS professionals in Brazil from 1987 to 2010, analysing them in terms of trends and comparing them with measurements carried out in this work and in other countries. Although most of the NMS is still located in large urban centres (54% in the Southeast region), there is no state without any NMS. The increasing number of NMS has generated the need for more professionals. In the year 1987, they were 755 workers and, in 2010, 4134, with the following distribution of specialties: 29% of Nuclear Medicine Technicians (NMT), 23% of Nursing professionals, 29% of Physicians and 3% of Physicists. The average annual effective dose reached more than 3.0 mSv in some regions of the country, from 1987 to 2010, but tends to 1.0 mSv in 2010. The highest doses, as expected, are received by NMT and Nursing. The professionals who handle radiopharmaceuticals have their hands much more exposed than the chest. During 2010, only 31% of NMT and 16% of Nursing used extremity dosimeters as compared to chest dosimeters. The data from the measurements indicate that not all individual dosimeters are used properly. Generally, both in the measurements as in national registries, the hand doses were higher for professionals who prepared the radiopharmaceutical (NMT) than those who injected (Nursing). The value measured by chest dosimeters can be used to estimate the equivalent dose to the eye lenses, except for NMT at preparation practices at conventional NMS, where the equivalent dose of the lens is about 2 times higher than the dose at the chest. The most exposed areas of the hands are the tips of the index

  12. A water quality index model using stepwise regression and neural networks models for the Piabanha River basin in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Villas Boas, M. D.; Olivera, F.; Azevedo, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    The evaluation of water quality through 'indexes' is widely used in environmental sciences. There are a number of methods available for calculating water quality indexes (WQI), usually based on site-specific parameters. In Brazil, WQI were initially used in the 1970s and were adapted from the methodology developed in association with the National Science Foundation (Brown et al, 1970). Specifically, the WQI 'IQA/SCQA', developed by the Institute of Water Management of Minas Gerais (IGAM), is estimated based on nine parameters: Temperature Range, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Fecal Coliforms, Nitrate, Phosphate, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The goal of this study was to develop a model for calculating the IQA/SCQA, for the Piabanha River basin in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), using only the parameters measurable by a Multiparameter Water Quality Sonde (MWQS) available in the study area. These parameters are: Dissolved Oxygen, pH and Electrical Conductivity. The use of this model will allow to further the water quality monitoring network in the basin, without requiring significant increases of resources. The water quality measurement with MWQS is less expensive than the laboratory analysis required for the other parameters. The water quality data used in the study were obtained by the Geological Survey of Brazil in partnership with other public institutions (i.e. universities and environmental institutes) as part of the project "Integrated Studies in Experimental and Representative Watersheds". Two models were developed to correlate the values of the three measured parameters and the IQA/SCQA values calculated based on all nine parameters. The results were evaluated according to the following validation statistics: coefficient of determination (R2), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Akaike information criterion (AIC) and Final Prediction Error (FPE). The first model was a linear stepwise regression between three independent variables

  13. Hipertensão arterial na Ilha do Governador, Brasil: II. Prevalência Arterial hypertension in Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: II. Prevalence

    Carlos Henrique Klein

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Este segundo artigo (de uma série de dois tem como finalidade apresentar apenas os resultados básicos de um estudo, em amostra representativa de população, sobre Hipertensão Arterial na Ilha do Governador (região administrativa do município do Rio de Janeiro, em três estratos de acordo com a renda média domiciliar (baixa, média e alta de setores censitários. No conjunto da Ilha do Governador a prevalência de hipertensão não controlada foi de 16,1 % (I.C. de 95%: 13,4 a 18,9%, e incluindo-se os hipertensos controlados, este índice subiu para 24,9% (I.C. de 95%: 21,7 a 28,1 %. Por ambos os critérios (incluindo ou não os hipertensos controlados, as prevalências mais elevadas foram as do estrato de renda baixa e as menores do estrato de renda alta. Porém, só foi possível rejeitar a homogeneidade de prevalências de hipertensão (incluindo os controlados entre os estratos, e ainda assim para uma significância de 10%, quando se ajustou o efeito de confusão da idade. As mulheres hipertensas parecem controlar em maior proporção seus níveis de pressão arterial em qualquer faixa etária dos adultos, do que os homens.The aim of this paper (the second of two is to present the basic results of a cross–sectional study on arterial hypertension in adults in Ilha do Governador (a district of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a representative sample of the population, stratified by the census tracts' mean household incorre (low, median, and high. Overall, prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension in Ilha do Governador was 16.1% (C.I. of 95%: 13.4 to 18.9%, and with the inclusion of controlled hypertensive individuals this figure rose to 24.9% (C I. of 95%: 21.7 to 28.7%. Under both criteria (whether including controlled hypertensive individuais or not, higher prevalences were from low‑incorre strata, while lower ones were from the high‑incorre strata. However, it was only possible to reject the hypothesis of strata homogeneity

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with frailty in an older population from the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: the FIBRA-RJ Study

    Virgílio Garcia Moreira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty syndrome can be defined as a state of vulnerability to stressors resulting from a decrease in functional reserve across multiple systems and compromising an individual's capacity to maintain homeostasis. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of frailty and its association with social and demographic factors, functional capacity, cognitive status and self-reported comorbidities in a sample of community-dwelling older individuals who are clients of a healthcare plan. METHODS: We evaluated 847 individuals aged 65 years or older who lived in the northern area of the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The subjects were selected by inverse random sampling and stratified by gender and age. To diagnose frailty, we used the scale proposed by the Cardiovascular Health Study, which consisted of the following items: low gait speed, grip strength reduction, feeling of exhaustion, low physical activity and weight loss. The data were collected between 2009 and 2010, and the frailty prevalence was calculated as the proportion of individuals who scored positive for three or more of the five items listed above. To verify the association between frailty and risk factors, we applied a logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of frailty syndrome was 9.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.3-11.3; 43.6% (95% CI, 40.3-47 of the individuals were considered robust, and 47.3% (95% CI 43.8-50.8 were considered pre-frail (p<0.001. The frail individuals tended to be older (odds ratio [OR] 13.2, 95% CI, 8.7-20 and have lower education levels (OR 2.1, 95% CI, 1-4.6, lower cognitive performance (OR 0.76, 95% CI, 0.73-0.79 and reduced health perception (OR 65.8, 95% CI, 39.1-110.8. Frail individuals also had a greater number of comorbidities (OR 6.6, 95% CI, 4.4-9.9 and worse functional capacity (OR 3.8, 95% CI, 2.9-5. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of frailty was similar to that seen in other international studies and was

  15. Enzymes produced by halotolerant spore-forming gram-positive bacterial strains isolated from a resting habitat (Restinga de Jurubatiba) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: focus on proteases.

    D Santos, Anderson Fragoso; Pacheco, Clarissa Almeida; Valle, Roberta D Santos; Seldin, Lucy; D Santos, André Luis Souza

    2014-12-01

    The screening for hydrolases-producing, halotolerant, and spore-forming gram-positive bacteria from the root, rhizosphere, and non-rhizosphere soil of Blutaparon portulacoides, a plant found in the Restinga de Jurubatiba located at the northern region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, resulted in the isolation of 22 strains. These strains were identified as Halobacillus blutaparonensis (n = 2), Oceanobacillus picturae (n = 5), and Oceanobacillus iheyensis (n = 15), and all showed the ability to produce different extracellular enzymes. A total of 20 isolates (90.9 %) showed activity for protease, 5 (22.7 %) for phytase, 3 (13.6 %) for cellulase, and 2 (9.1 %) for amylase. Some bacterial strains were capable of producing three (13.6 %) or two (9.1 %) distinct hydrolytic enzymes. However, no bacterial strain with ability to produce esterase and DNase was observed. The isolate designated M9, belonging to the species H. blutaparonensis, was the best producer of protease and also yielded amylase and phytase. This strain was chosen for further studies regarding its protease activity. The M9 strain produced similar amounts of protease when grown either without or with different NaCl concentrations (from 0.5 to 10 %). A simple inspection of the cell-free culture supernatant by gelatin-sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed the presence of three major alkaline proteases of 40, 50, and 70 kDa, which were fully inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) (two classical serine protease inhibitors). The secreted proteases were detected in a wide range of temperature (from 4 to 45 °C) and their hydrolytic activities were stimulated by NaCl (up to 10 %). The serine proteases produced by the M9 strain cleaved gelatin, casein, albumin, and hemoglobin, however, in different extensions. Collectively, these results suggest the potential use of the M9 strain in biotechnological

  16. Detection of enterotoxins produced by B. cereus through PCR analysis of ground and roasted coffee samples in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Cyllene de Matos Ornelas da Cunha Corrêa de Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the most appreciated drinks in the world. Coffee ground is obtained from the fruit of a small plant that belongs to the genus Coffea. Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora robusta are the two most commercially important species. They are more commonly known as arabica and robusta, respectively. Two-thirds of Coffea arabica plants are grown in South and Central America, and Eastern Africa - the place of origin for this coffee species. Contamination by microorganisms has been a major matter affecting coffee quality in Brazil, mainly due to the harvesting method adopted. Brazilian harvests are based on fruits collected from the ground mixed with those that fall on collection cloths. As the Bacillus cereus bacterium frequently uses the soil as its environmental reservoir, it is easily capable of becoming a contaminant. This study aimed to evaluate the contamination and potential of B. cereus enterotoxin genes encoding the HBL and NHE complexes, which were observed in strains of ground and roasted coffee samples sold in Rio de Janeiro. The PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction results revealed high potential of enterotoxin production in the samples. The method described by Speck (1984 was used for the isolation of contaminants. The investigation of the potential production of enterotoxins through isolates of the microorganism was performed using the B. cereus enterotoxin Reverse Passive Latex Agglutination test-kit (BCET-RPLA, Oxoid, according to the manufacturer's instructions. The potential of enterotoxin production was investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods for hblA, hblD and hblC genes (encoding hemolysin HBL and for nheA, nheB and nheC genes (encoding non-hemolytic enterotoxin - NHE. Of all the 17 strains, 100% were positive for at least 1 enterotoxin gene; 52.9% (9/17 were positive for the 3 genes encoding the HBL complex; 35.3% (6/17 were positive for the three NHE encoding genes; and 29.4% (5/17 were positive for

  17. Prepregnancy Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Blood Lipid Level Changes During Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Eshriqui, Ilana; Franco-Sena, Ana Beatriz; Farias, Dayana Rodrigues; Freitas-Vilela, Ana Amélia; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Barros, Erica Guimarães; Emmett, Pauline M; Kac, Gilberto

    2017-07-01

    Physiologic adaptations lead to an increase in blood lipid levels during pregnancy, yet little is known about the influence of prepregnancy dietary patterns. To identify whether prepregnancy dietary patterns that explain the consumption of fiber, energy, and saturated fat are associated with blood lipid levels throughout pregnancy. Prospective cohort study, with data collection at gestational weeks 5 to 13, 20 to 26, and 30 to 36. A food frequency questionnaire was administered at baseline (gestational week 5 to 13). Women with singleton pregnancy (N=299) aged 20 to 40 years, without infectious/chronic disease (except obesity) were enrolled in the study. One hundred ninety-nine women were included in the final analysis. The study took place at a prenatal service of a public health care center in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during the period from 2009 to 2012. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, measured at all trimesters. Dietary patterns were derived by reduced rank regression. Fiber density, dietary energy density, and percent energy from saturated fat were response variables. Crude and adjusted longitudinal linear mixed-effects regression models were performed to account for confounders and mediators. Interaction terms between dietary pattern and gestational week were tested. Fast Food and Candies; Vegetables and Dairy; and Beans, Bread, and Fat patterns were derived. Our Fast Food and Candies pattern was positively associated with triglyceride level (β=4.961, 95% CI 0.945 to 8.977; P=0.015). In the HDL-C rate of change prediction, significant interactions were observed between both the Fast Food and Candies and Vegetables and Dairy patterns and gestational week (β=-.053, 95% CI -0.101 to -0.004; P=0.035 and β=.055, 95% CI -0.002 to 0.112; P=0.060, respectively). The Beans, Bread, and Fat pattern was not associated with blood lipid levels. Prepregnancy dietary patterns

  18. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria I: one year clinical isolates identification in Tertiary Hospital Aids Reference Center, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in pre highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    Ferreira Rosa Maria Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM isolates at University Hospital, Reference Center for Aids in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, during one year. We used standard biochemical tests for species identification and IS1245 PCR amplification was applied as a Mycobacterium avium specific identification marker. Four hundred and four specimens from 233 patients yielded acid-fast bacilli growth. M. tuberculosis was identified in 85% of the patients and NTM in 15%. NTM disseminated infection was a common event correlated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients and only in HIV negative patients the source of NTM was non sterile site. M. avium complex (MAC was biochemically identified in 57.8% (49/83 of NTM isolates, most of them from sterile sites (75.5%, and in 94% (46/49 the IS 1245 marker specific for M. avium was present. Twenty NTM strains showed a MAC biochemical pattern with the exception of a urease-positive (99% of MAC are urease-negative, however IS1245 was detected in 96% of the strains leading to their identification as M. avium. In this group differences in NTM source was not significant. The second most frequently isolated NTM was identified as M. scrofulaceum (7.2%, followed by M. terrae (3.6%, M. gordonae (2.4%, M. chelonae (1.2%, M. fortuitum (1.2% and one strain which could not be identified. All were IS1245 negative except for one strain identified as M. scrofulaceum. It is interesting to note that non-sterile sites were the major source of these isolates (92.8%. Our finding indicated that M. avium is still the major atypical species among in the MAC isolates recovered from Brazilian Aids patients without highty active antiretroviral therapy schema. Some discrepancies were seen between the identification methods and further investigations must be done to better characterize NTM isolates using other phenotypic and genotypic methods.

  19. Morphology and 18S rDNA gene sequence of Spirostomum minus and Spirostomum teres (Ciliophora: Heterotrichea from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Noemi M. Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Species of Spirostomum Ehrenberg, 1838 are widely used as model organisms in ecological studies of environmental impacts and symbioses between ciliates and human pathogenic bacteria. However, the taxonomy of this genus is confused by the superficiality of the morphological descriptions of its included species, and the use of only a few characters for their differentiation. The present study provides details of total infraciliature, nuclear apparatus, morphometric data and 18S rDNA gene sequences of Spirostomum teres Claparède & Lachmann, 1858 and Spirostomum minus Roux, 1901, isolated from a sewage treatment plant and a freshwater lake in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, respectively. For the morphological descriptions of S. teres and S. minus, living cells were observed using bright-field and differential interference contrast (DIC microscopy, the total infraciliature and nuclear apparatus were revealed by staining with protargol, and ciliary patterns were observed also with scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The complete sequences of the 18S rDNA of S. teres and S. minus were obtained using eukaryotic universal primers, and then compared with sequences of other species and populations of Spirostomum deposited in the GenBank database. Living S. minus measured 400-800 µm in length and 55-115 µm in width, with the following characteristics: adoral zone of membranelles approximately 112 µm long; inconspicuous paroral kinety; 30-40 kineties in somatic ciliature; moniliform macronucleus with 9-25 nodes, approximately 12 micronuclei; single and posterior contractile vacuole; and yellow-brown cytoplasm. Living and fully extended S. teres measured approximately 250 µm in length and 65 ìm in width, with the following characteristics: adoral zone of membranelles approximately 92 µm long; approximately 30 somatic kineties; compact macronucleus, approximately five micronuclei; macronuclear groove present; single and posterior contractile vacuole

  20. Performance comparison between the mycobacteria growth indicator tube system and Löwenstein-Jensen medium in the routine detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis at public health care facilities in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: preliminary results of a pragmatic clinical trial.

    Moreira, Adriana da Silva Rezende; Huf, Gisele; Vieira, Maria Armanda; Fonseca, Leila; Ricks, Monica; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu

    2013-01-01

    In view of the fact that the World Health Organization has recommended the use of the mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and that there is as yet no evidence regarding the clinical impact of its use in health care systems, we conducted a pragmatic clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance and cost-effectiveness of the use of MGIT 960 at two health care facilities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. Here, we summarize the methodology and preliminary results of the trial. (ISRCTN.org Identifier: ISRCTN79888843 [http://isrctn.org/]) In view of the fact that the World Health Organization has recommended the use of the mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) 960 system for the diagnosis of tuberculosis and that there is as yet no evidence regarding the clinical impact of its use in health care systems, we conducted a pragmatic clinical trial to evaluate the clinical performance and cost-effectiveness of the use of MGIT 960 at two health care facilities in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where the incidence of tuberculosis is high. Here, we summarize the methodology and preliminary results of the trial. (ISRCTN.org Identifier: ISRCTN79888843 [http://isrctn.org/]).

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias das praias da Grande Vitoria, ES

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 21}'4Bi, the {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 2}'1{sup 2}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the concentration of {sup 40}K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K. {sup 226}Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. {sup 232}Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. {sup 40}K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach

  2. Assessment of natural radioactivity in wall paints of commercial use in Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em tintas de uso comercial no Brasil

    Fonseca, Leandro Milhomens da

    2016-11-01

    Natural radioactivity in soils, rocks and construction materials, due to {sup 40}K and the natural series of {sup 232}Th and {sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, is the main contribution to external exposure in mankind. In this work, activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra ({sup 238}U series), {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K were determined for 50 white latex wall paints samples, commercialized in Brazil, namely 15 Economic quality samples, 15 Standard quality samples and 20 Premium quality samples and for a single titanium dioxide sample. The samples were tightly sealed and stored for a minimum period of 30 days, to reach the radioactive secular equilibrium from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series, then measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration was determined using the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi for {sup 232}Th. The {sup 4}'0K activity concentration was determined by its single transition of 1460.8 keV. Self attenuation correction factors of the samples whose densities are higher than 1.0 g.cm{sup -3}, were determined and used to make the necessary corrections. The radiological indices radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), activity concentration index (I{sub γ}), internal exposure risk index (H{sub in}) and external exposure risk index (H{sub ex}) and also the absorbed dose rate (D) and annual effective dose (D{sub ef}) were calculated from the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The activity concentration values for {sup 226}Ra ranged from under the minimum detectable activity to 38.7 Bq.kg{sup -1}, for {sup 232}Th from under the minimum detectable activity to 101.2 Bq.kg{sup -1} and for {sup 40}K from under the minimum detectable activity to 256 Bq.kg{sup -1}. Ra{sub eq} ranged from 1.41 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 203 Bq.kg{sup -1}, I{sub γ} ranged from 0.0047 to 0.720, H{sub in} from 0.0076 to 0.653 and H{sub ex

  3. Potencial atrator de tubarões costeiros em recife artificial no litoral norte do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Attractive potential of coastal sharks in artificial reef on the Northern Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Vicente Vieira Faria

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Artificial reefs have been used in many countries to increase coastal fishery productivity. In order to increase fish attraction to the Northern Coast of Rio de Janeiro State, it was installed an artificial reef (1,500 m² 5 nautical miles off Manguinhos's Bay (São Francisco de ltabapoana, Rio de Janeiro. The artificial structures were made of tires, concrete and cement blocks. A gill net of 125 x 3 m was monthly used in the artificial reef (AR and in a control area (CA to determine the effect of the experimental structures on the stock and diversity of coastal sharks. Considering the complexity of a sustainable elasmobranch exploitation, sharks were focused in this study. During 24 months of investigation (April/96 to March/98, a total of 325 individuais distributed in four shark species were captured in the two areas (AR and CA: Mustelus higmani (Springer & Lowe, 1963 (AR = 70; CA = 82 individuals, Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes, 1839 (AR = 86; CA = 56 individuals, R. porosus (Poey, 1861 (AR = 16; CA = 14 individuals and Carcharhinus brachyurus (Günther, 1870 (AR = 1 individual. The attractive potential of the artificial reef is suggested by the predominance of the shark R. lalandii in the reef complex after the first year of monitoring, with the increase of the structures.

  4. The Rio de Janeiro HIV Vaccine Site : I. Recruitment Strategies and Socio-demographic Data of a HIV Negative Homosexual and Bisexual Male Cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Sutmoller Frits

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial effort of the Brazilian Ministry of Health to be an active partner in the world effort in the preparation of future accurate human immune deficiency virus (HIV efficacy trials was the establishment of a multi-centered cohort of homosexual and bisexual men. An open cohort was established to determine the HIV incidence and the socio-behavioral aspects involved in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 318 potential participants, originated from multiple sources (health units, public information, snowball recruitment, were screened and recruitment became effective through the direct involvement of target communities (with the support of Non Governmental Organizations and the population. Among this group, seropositivity for sexually transmitted diseases was high with 23, 32 and 46% for HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B, respectively. The socio-demographic data from the first 200 participants of this HIV negative cohort suggests that the cohort volunteers are an appropriate sample of the general male population of the State of Rio de Janeiro

  5. Brazil has its eye on you”: sexual panic and the threat of sex tourism in Rio de Janeiro during the FIFA World Cup, 2014

    Thaddeus Blanchette

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article draws upon ethnographic research undertaken in the principal sexual commercial zones of the city of Rio de Janeiro and in the institutions and agencies responsible for combating sexual exploitation in Rio during the 2012-2014 period, as well as the analysis of media stories, to explain how and why carioca authorities have not been able to discover and repress the sex crimes they claim exist on a massive scale. We seek to show what effects the moral panic over child sexual exploitation during the 2015 World Cup has had in transforming security in Rio de Janeiro.

  6. The Phlebotominae sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae fauna of two Atlantic Rain Forest Reserves in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Souza Nataly A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available During two consecutive years, studies on the sand fly fauna in Poço das Antas and Fazenda Bom Retiro, two Atlantic Rain Forest Reserves from the State of Rio de Janeiro, were performed using Shannon traps, CDC light traps and human bait collections. Eleven species were identified; Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. edwardsi, L. intermedia, L. whitmani, L. fischeri, L. shannoni, L. ayrozai, L. hirsuta, L. monticola and L. misionensis (first occurrence in the State of Rio de Janeiro. L. intermedia and L. whitmani were the predominant anthropophilic species around houses, while L. hirsuta predominated in the forest.

  7. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the region of Saquarema: potential area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Pontes, Michelle Cristina de Queiroz; Passos, Wagner Lança; Fuzari, Andressa Alencaste; Brazil, Beatriz Gomes

    2012-02-01

    Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main vector of Leishmania infantum chagasi in the Americas. Phlebotomine captures were conducted during 2008 and 2009 in a rural area endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the municipality of Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro. Among other species captured, we observed the presence of Lutzomyia longipalpis. This is the first report of the occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in this region, demonstrating the potential risk of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the coastal area of the State of Rio de Janeiro. Therefore, active vigilance by all municipalities in the area is necessary.

  8. Erosividade das chuvas associada a períodos de retorno e probabilidade de ocorrência no estado do Rio de Janeiro Rainfall erosivity associated to return periods and occurrence probability in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Roriz Luciano Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento da erosividade das chuvas associada à probabilidade de ocorrência e ao período de retorno pode contribuir para o planejamento conservacionista de uma região, em médio e longo prazo. A fim de gerar informações para melhor utilizar modelos e controle da erosão, dados de chuvas de 30 séries pluviográficas e pluviométricas, abrangendo 25 municípios, entre 1933 e 2006, foram estudados quanto à adequação das séries e do cálculo da probabilidade de ocorrência teórica (P e período de retorno (T da erosividade das chuvas (EI30 e KE>25, para o Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foi feita a espacialização do potencial erosivo associado aos períodos de retorno de 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 e 100 anos para todo o Estado. A erosividade anual média (EI30 ou fator R da USLE para qualquer localidade no Estado do Rio de Janeiro pode ser igualada ou superada pelo menos uma vez, em média, em um período de 1,8 a 2,1 anos, com faixa de 48,5 a 54,9 % de probabilidade de ocorrência teórica. As localidades que apresentam maior erosividade associada aos períodos de retorno estão situadas nas mesorregiões Metropolitanas e em partes das mesorregiões Sul e Centro Fluminense. Foi possível identificar de oito a 12 regiões homogêneas, quanto à distribuição espacial da erosividade associada aos períodos de retorno de dois para 100 anos no Estado. De modo geral, a maior variação da distribuição espacial da erosividade apresenta-se na faixa de período de retorno de dois a cinco anos.Knowledge on rainfall erosivity associated to occurrence probability and return periods can contribute to conservation planning in the medium and long term. With the objective of generating information for a better use of medium and long-term erosion models and erosion control, rainfall data of 30 pluviometric and pluviographic data sets from 25 cities ranging from 1933 to 2006 were studied in terms of adjustment of data sets, calculation of the probability of

  9. Elaboração de questionário de frequência alimentar semiquantitativo para adolescentes da região metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Development of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire for adolescents from the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Brazil

    Marina Campos Araujo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a elaboração de um questionário de frequência alimentar para adolescentes do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Para seleção dos itens alimentares incluídos no questionário de frequência alimentar, utilizaram-se dados de três dias de registro alimentar obtidos em uma amostra de 430 estudantes, na faixa etária de 12 a 19 anos, da rede de ensino estadual de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Foram incluídos os itens alimentares mais citados nos registros e que contribuíram com 95% do consumo de energia e nutrientes dos registros alimentares. As porções de referência foram as mais frequentemente referidas nos registros do estudo de base. As opções de frequência foram definidas de forma diferenciada para os diversos itens do questionário. RESULTADOS: Nos registros foram listados 306 alimentos, dos quais 249 itens foram incluídos no questionário, isoladamente ou agrupados, compondo uma lista de 90 itens. Os 14 itens alimentares mais consumidos por adolescentes do Rio de Janeiro, nesse estudo e em estudo anterior, foram associados a oito opções de frequência de consumo; 18 itens alimentares foram acoplados a sete opções de frequência e para 58 itens foram definidas cinco opções de frequência. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo permitiu a elaboração do questionário de frequência alimentar para adolescentes da Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, o qual será submetido às análises de reprodutibilidade e validade. Este questionário representa um instrumento valioso para pesquisas epidemiológicas que investiguem o consumo alimentar de adolescentes.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to describe the development of a food frequency questionnaire for adolescents from the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, Brazil. METHODS: The selection of food items included in the questionnaire was done by recording the foods consumed during 3 days by 430 students aged 12 to 19 years from the public schools of Niterói (RJ Brasil

  10. Excesso de peso e o risco cardiovascular em jovens seguidos por 17 anos: estudo do Rio de Janeiro El exceso de peso y el riesgo cardiovascular en jóvenes seguidos durante 17 años: estudio del Rio de Janeiro Overweight and cardiovascular risk among young adults followed-up for 17 years: the Rio de Janeiro study, Brazil

    Flávia Lopes Fonseca

    2010-02-01

    el HOMA-IR. En A3 se añadió la medida de la circunferencia abdominal (CA, relación abdomen/cadera (RAC y porcentaje de grasa corporal (%GC. RESULTADOS: 1 Grupo S/O presentó mayores promedios de PA aumentada (pBACKGROUND: The adoption of primary prevention measures among young people has a favorable impact on the context of cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: To assess blood pressure (BP and cardiovascular risk variables among young adults stratified according to the body mass index (BMI behavior obtained along 17 years, since childhood/adolescence (C/A. METHODS: Three assessments were carried out in 115 individuals pertaining to the study cohort of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A1: 12.97 ± 1.48 years old; A2: 21.90 ± 1.71 years old; A3: 30.65 ± 2.00 years olds and divided into three groups according to BMI in the three assessments: Group N (always normal BMI; n=46, Group L (varying BMI; n=49 and Group O/O (always increased BMI; n=20. In A1, A2 and A3, BP and BMI were obtained. In A2 and A3, glucose (G and lipidic profile were dosed. Also in A2, insulin (INS was dosed and HOMA-IR was calculated. In A3, the measurement of waist circumference (WC, abdomen/hip relation (AHR and body fat percentage (%BF were added. RESULTS: 1 Group O/O presented higher mean values of increased BP (p<0.0001 at the three assessments; 2 In A3, Group O/O showed higher mean values for WC, AHR and %BF and prevalence of increased WC and metabolic syndrome (MS (p<0.0001; 3 higher mean values were observed for INS, HOMA-IR, LDL-c in A2, and G, cholesterol, LDL-c and triglycerides in A3 for Group O/O (p<0.05; 4 masculine sex and O/O at A1 determined higher risk for MS occurrence in adult age. CONCLUSION: The presence of O/O since C/A was associated with higher BP values, anthropometric indexes and higher prevalence of MS in the young adult phase.

  11. Manoel Ferreira de Araújo Guimarães, a Academia Real Militar do Rio de Janeiro e a definição de um gênero científico no Brasil em inícios do século XIX Manoel Ferreira de Araújo Guimarães, the Royal Military Academy of Rio de Janeiro and the definition of a scientific genre in Brazil in the early 19th century

    Luís Miguel Carolino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Na sequência da transferência da Corte portuguesa para o Rio de Janeiro, em 1807/1808, foi fundada a Academia Real Militar do Rio de Janeiro, em 1810, com o objetivo de formar a elite técnico-científica do Estado joanino. Orientada por tais objetivos educativos, essa escola superior de ensino técnico instituiu, no Brasil, um modelo de ciência e de ensino científico de matriz politécnica. A astronomia foi um exemplo dessa tendência. Num período em que a astronomia esférica se ia tornando crescentemente uma disciplina autônoma, Manoel Ferreira de Araújo Guimarães, professor de astronomia na Academia Real Militar do Rio de Janeiro, decidiu orientar o seu curso para esse ramo aplicado da astronomia e escreveu aquele que viria a tornar-se um dos primeiros manuais de astronomia esférica, um gênero maior da literatura científica do século XIX.Following the transfer of the Portuguese court to Rio de Janeiro in 1807-8, the Royal Military Academy of Rio de Janeiro was created in 1810 to train the state's technical and scientific elite. Guided by its educational aims, this higher education technical school institutionalized a polytechnic model of science and science teaching in Brazil. Astronomy is a case in point. In a period when spherical astronomy was becoming an autonomous discipline, Manoel Ferreira de Araújo Guimarães, professor of astronomy at the Royal Military Academy of Rio de Janeiro, decided to orient his course to this applied branch of astronomy and authored what was to become one of the first textbooks on spherical astronomy, a major genre of scientific literature in the nineteenth century.

  12. Cascade of access to interventions to prevent HIV mother to child transmission in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Elaine S. Pires Araujo

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: Access to the full package of interventions for the prevention of HIV vertical transmission was low, with no significant trend of improvement over the years. The vertical transmission rates observed were higher than those found in reference services in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro and in the richest regions of the country.

  13. In War Those Who Die Are Not Innocent: Human Rights Implementation, Policing, and Public Security Reform in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Husain, S.

    2007-01-01

    This book concerns itself with the implementation of human rights strategies within the state police forces of Rio de Janeiro as an attempt to improve policing and enhance police compliance with human rights standards. For the sake of this research, police human rights strategies have been defined

  14. Where the Boys Are: Attitudes Related to Masculinity, Fatherhood, and Violence toward Women among Low-Income Adolescent and Young Adult Males in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Barker, Gary; Loewenstein, Irene

    1997-01-01

    Qualitative research with 127 low-income young men and women, aged 14 to 30, in Rio de Janeiro found rigid gender roles with males displaying widespread "machista" attitudes (an exaggerated deep structure of masculinity) and acceptance of violence against women that was greater in low-income urban areas. Implications for working with…

  15. Physically-based slope stability modelling and parameter sensitivity: a case study in the Quitite and Papagaio catchments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    de Lima Neves Seefelder, Carolina; Mergili, Martin

    2016-04-01

    We use the software tools r.slope.stability and TRIGRS to produce factor of safety and slope failure susceptibility maps for the Quitite and Papagaio catchments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The key objective of the work consists in exploring the sensitivity of the geotechnical (r.slope.stability) and geohydraulic (TRIGRS) parameterization on the model outcomes in order to define suitable parameterization strategies for future slope stability modelling. The two landslide-prone catchments Quitite and Papagaio together cover an area of 4.4 km², extending between 12 and 995 m a.s.l. The study area is dominated by granitic bedrock and soil depths of 1-3 m. Ranges of geotechnical and geohydraulic parameters are derived from literature values. A landslide inventory related to a rainfall event in 1996 (250 mm in 48 hours) is used for model evaluation. We attempt to identify those combinations of effective cohesion and effective internal friction angle yielding the best correspondence with the observed landslide release areas in terms of the area under the ROC Curve (AUCROC), and in terms of the fraction of the area affected by the release of landslides. Thereby we test multiple parameter combinations within defined ranges to derive the slope failure susceptibility (fraction of tested parameter combinations yielding a factor of safety smaller than 1). We use the tool r.slope.stability (comparing the infinite slope stability model and an ellipsoid-based sliding surface model) to test and to optimize the geotechnical parameters, and TRIGRS (a coupled hydraulic-infinite slope stability model) to explore the sensitivity of the model results to the geohydraulic parameters. The model performance in terms of AUCROC is insensitive to the variation of the geotechnical parameterization within much of the tested ranges. Assuming fully saturated soils, r.slope.stability produces rather conservative predictions, whereby the results yielded with the sliding surface model are more

  16. Epidemiologic Study of Retinoblastoma in Recife, Pernambuco - Brazil: January 1985 - July 1997 Estudo Epidemiológico do Retinoblastoma no Recife - Pernambuco - Brasil: janeiro 1985 - julho 1997

    Armando Anderson Abreu

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinoblastoma is by far the most frequent malignant intraocular tumor of childhood. This study was performed to characterize the clinical, diagnostic, treatment and prognostic aspects in patients with retinoblastoma in three reference centers for this pathology in the city of Recife, Pernambuco - Brazil. Methods: A consecutive series of 85 patients with retinoblastoma was reviewed. The authors selected 66 patients (77.6% that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for these study. Results: Of a total of 66 patients with retinoblastoma, 4.5% had a previous history of the disease in the family. Males were more affected than females at a ratio (male/female of 1.12. The mean age of appearance of the first symptoms was 23.8 months, with leukocoria and ocular hyperemia being the most frequent. The mean age at time of diagnosis was 31.7 months and for surgical treatment 32.8 months. The right eye was affected in 42.4% of the cases and the left was involved in 37.9% of cases. The tumor was unilateral in 80.3% and bilateral in 19.7% of the cases. There was extraocular involvement in 62.1%, and it was intraocular in 37.9% of the patients. Treatment was surgery combined with chemotherapy in 47.0% of the patients. 27.3% of the patients died and 19.7% abandoned the treatment. Conclusions: The data on the epidemiology of retinoblastoma found in our city resembles that of other developing countries, concerning the epidemioloy of retinoblastoma.Objetivo: O retinoblastoma é o tumor maligno intraocular mais freqüente da infância. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar aspectos clínicos, de diagnóstico, tratamento e prognóstico em pacientes portadores de retinoblastoma atendidos em três centros de referência para esta patologia na cidade do Recife - PE. Métodos: Revisamos 85 prontuários de portadores de retinoblastoma e apresentamos o resultado da análise de 66 destes pacientes, atendidos durante o período de janeiro de 1985 a julho de 1997

  17. Nível de atividade física em adolescentes do Município de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Level of physical activity in adolescents from Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Rosane C. Rosendo da Silva

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar o nível de atividade física (AF de adolescentes de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Alunos (n = 325 da rede pública de ensino tiveram seus AF avaliados pelo questionário de Crocker et al. (1997, PAQ-C. Dados antropométricos (massa corporal, estatura e índice de massa corporal e horas que assistem à televisão (TV também foram coletados. As médias dos escores do PAQ-C foram 2,3 e 2,0 para meninos e meninas, respectivamente (p This study focused on levels of physical activity (PA in adolescents from Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Adolescents (n = 325 from the public school system filled out the physical activity questionnaire (PAQ-C developed by Crocker et al. (1997. Anthropometric data (body mass, stature, and body mass index and television (TV viewing time were also assessed. Mean PAQ-C scores were 2.3±0.6 and 2.0±0.6 for males and females, respectively (p < 0.01. Mean TV times were 4.4 h/day and 4.9 h/day for males and females, respectively. The most popular PA was soccer for boys and soccer and walking for girls. Adolescents in the sample tended to be more active on weekends as compared to weekdays. PAQ-C scores classified 85% of boys and 94% of girls as inactive individuals. These results pose a concern as to the high prevalence of inactivity in this age group, which increases the probability of inactive adults. However, other studies are needed to investigate PA throughout adolescence and the determinants of PA in Brazilian adolescents.

  18. Clinical and diagnostic aspects of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV-infected patients with chronic diarrhea in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Aspectos clínicos e diagnósticos da microsporidiose intestinal em pacientes com infecção pelo HIV e diarréia crônica, no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Patrícia BRASIL

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine both the prevalence of microsporidial intestinal infection and the clinical outcome of the disease in a cohort of 40 HIV-infected patients presenting with chronic diarrhea in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Each patient, after clinical evaluation, had stools and intestinal fragments examined for viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens. Microsporidia were found in 11 patients (27.5% either in stools or in duodenal or ileal biopsies. Microsporidial spores were found more frequently in stools than in biopsy fragments. Samples examined using transmission electron microscopy (n=3 or polymerase chain reaction (n=6 confirmed Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the causative agent. Microsporidia were the only potential enteric pathogens found in 5 of the 11 patients. Other pathogens were also detected in the intestinal tract of 21 patients, but diarrhea remained unexplained in 8. We concluded that microsporidial infection is frequently found in HIV infected persons in Rio de Janeiro, and it seems to be a marker of advanced stage of AIDS.Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a prevalência e o prognóstico clínico da infecção por microsporídios em uma coorte de 40 pacientes com infecção pelo HIV e diarréia crônica na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Cada paciente teve suas fezes e fragmentos de intestino examinados para a pesquisa de CMV, bactérias e parasitos. A prevalência de microsporidiose foi de 27,5% (n=11. Esporos de microsporídios foram encontrados com maior frequência no exame direto das fezes do que em biópsias de intestino delgado. A microscopia eletrônica de transmissão e a reação de polimerase em cadeia (PCR identificaram Enterocytozoon bieneusi, respectivamente, em 3 e 6 amostras examinadas, confirmando a espécie como único agente causal. Nenhum outro microrganismo patogênico, além dos microsporídios, foi detectada em 5 dos pacientes com diarréia. Outros parasitos foram encontrados

  19. Índice de desenvolvimento da família: uma análise comparativa em 21 municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Family development index: a comparative analysis in 21 municipalities in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Alberto Lopes Najar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma adaptação do índice de desenvolvimento da família, e detalha os resultados de sua aplicação em 21 municípios do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil no ano 2000. O estudo insere-se na pesquisa de linha de base do Projeto de Expansão e Consolidação do Saúde da Família, e foi proposto como um instrumento para acompanhamento e análise da realidade municipal no contexto de discussão de uma política pública que tem a família como eixo central. Os resultados mostram uma situação muito grave ou grave das famílias no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As dimensões mais críticas são aquelas relativas às desigualdades de resultado, nos aspectos de disponibilidade de recursos e acesso ao mercado de trabalho; além de uma dimensão relativa à desigualdade de oportunidade, qual seja o acesso ao conhecimento. Os grupos mais vulneráveis são aqueles formados por famílias cujo chefe tem mais do que 65 anos de idade e por famílias cujos chefes são mulheres.This article presents an adaptation of the family development index, with a detailed description of the results of its application in 21 municipalities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2000. The research is part of the Baseline Study on the Project for Expansion and Consolidation of the Family Health Strategy and was proposed as an instrument for monitoring and analyzing the municipal reality in the context of a family-centered public policy. The results show a serious-to-severe situation for families in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The most critical dimensions relate to inequalities in results, availability of resources, and labor market access, in addition to a key aspect involving inequality of opportunities, namely access to knowledge. The most vulnerable groups consist of families headed by individuals over 65 years of age and families headed by women.

  20. Subtribos Eugeniinae O. Berg e Myrtinae O. Berg (Myrtaceae na Restinga da Marambaia, RJ, Brasil Subtribes Eugeniinae O. Berg and Myrtinae O. Berg (Myrtaceae at Marambaia Restinga, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Marcelo da Costa Souza

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Myrtaceae é uma das famílias com maior riqueza de espécies nas Restingas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi o levantamento das subtribos Eugeniinae e Myrtinae (Myrtaceae nas diferentes formações vegetais da Restinga da Marambaia, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro (43º32' e 44º01'W; 23º01' e 23º06'S. Foram registrados 17 táxons para Eugeniinae e quatro para Myrtinae, sendo a subtribo com maior número de espécies Eugeniinae. Apresenta-se uma chave de identificação para as espécies, bem como descrições, ilustrações, dados relativos às épocas de floração e de frutificação e distribuição geográfica.The Myrtaceae is one of the most species-rich families in "restinga" vegetation. This study aimed to survey the subtribes Eugeniinae and Myrtinae (Myrtaceae within the different vegetation types at Marambaia Restinga, in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil (43º32' - 44º01'W; 23º01' - 23º06'S. Seventeen taxa of Eugeniinae and four of Myrtinae were found, the subtribe with greatest number of species being the Eugeniinae. A species key is presented, as well as descriptions, illustrations, data on flowering and fruiting periods, and the geographic distribution of these species.

  1. A profile of patients treated at a national leprosy outpatient referral clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1986-2007 Perfil de los enfermos tratados en un servicio nacional de remisión de pacientes ambulatorios con lepra en Río de Janeiro, Brasil, 1986-2007

    Mariana A. Hacker

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze a profile of patients treated at a national leprosy outpatient referral clinic in metropolitan Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, over a period of more than two decades, and the subgroup of nationally registered leprosy cases from the same residential area, as well as all registered cases statewide. METHODS: An observational, descriptive analysis was carried out for patients treated from 1986 to 2007 at the Souza Araújo Outpatient Clinic (Ambulatório Souza Araújo, ASA, a national referral center for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz that serves clients from the city of Rio de Janeiro and other municipalities in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro State. Demographic and clinical data for the subgroup of leprosy cases registered with Brazil's National Disease Notification System (Sistema Nacional de Informação de Agravos de Notificação, SINAN between 2001 and 2007 and residing in the same municipalities as the ASA patients, and for all registered cases statewide, were also analyzed. RESULTS: Among the ASA patients, there was a decrease in average family income (from 3.9 to 2.7 times the minimum salary between the periods 1998-2002 and 2003-2007; the proportion of multibacillary (MB patients (from 52.7% to 46.9%; and the proportion of patients younger than 15 years old (from 12.8% to 8.7%. Among the MB patients, the average initial and final bacilloscopic indices were significantly higher in 2003-2007. Compared with the SINAN cases, more ASA cases involved disability and were younger than 15 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Patients living with leprosy in the metropolitan area of the state of Rio de Janeiro belong to the most deprived social strata and have not benefited from the overall improvement in socioeconomic conditions in Brazil.OBJETIVO: Analizar el perfil de los enfermos tratados en un servicio nacional de remisión de pacientes ambulatorios con lepra ubicado en la zona

  2. [Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil].

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; de Carvalho, Mauren Lopes; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli; Arraes, Eduardo Fonseca; Gomes, José Orlando

    2012-06-01

    Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio-environmental vulnerability context are highlighted. These involve changes in the current patterns of social, economic and environmental development geared toward ecological sustainability and social justice as pillars of sustainable development.

  3. Índices antropométricos e estado nutricional de escolares de baixa renda de um município do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil: um estudo piloto Anthropometric indices and nutritional status of low-income school-aged children of a county of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a pilot study

    Luiz Antonio dos Anjos

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o crescimento e o estado nutricional, por meio de índices antropométricos, de 185 crianças (97 meninos e 88 meninas em idade escolar (7,0-10,9 anos de baixa renda familiar do município de Nova Iguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil. A antropometria nutricional identificou 3,52 e 6,25% das crianças como desnutridas recentes e crônicas, respectivamente; valores que se comparam aos descritos para crianças faveladas do Município do Rio de Janeiro. Em geral, as medianas de altura das crianças ficaram abaixo do 25.º centil do padrão internacional de crescimento, sendo que a partir dos 10 anos a mediana da altura dos meninos foi inferior ao 10.º centil. As médias de peso e altura dessas crianças foram comparáveis à do nordeste urbano, superiores à da Paraíba, e inferiores às crianças de classe média de São Paulo. Os valores de 7 dobras cutâneas, do perímetro do braço, e da área de gordura do braço foram superiores nas meninas de todas as faixas etárias. A área muscular do braço foi maior nos meninos do que nas meninas de todas as faixas etárias.The growth and nutritional status of 185 school-aged children (97 boys and 88 girls of low socio-economic level in Nova Iguaçú, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were studied. Nutritional anthropometry identified 3.52 and 6.25% of the children as suffering from wasting and stunting, respectively. These prevalences of malnutrition were comparable to those described in pre-school children living in a "favela" (shanty town of Rio de Janeiro. In general, the median height fell below the 25th centile of the international standard of growth. The value of 10 year-old boys fell below the 10th centile. The mean values of weight and height of these children were comparable to those of children from the Northeastern region of Brazil ("Nordeste", higher than those found for children in the State of Paraíba, Brazil, and lower than those for middle-class children of the State of

  4. Amblyomma cajennense infestation on horses in two microregions of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Infestação por Amblyomma cajennense em equinos de duas microrregiões do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Marcus Sandes Pires

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with infestation by Amblyomma cajennense on horses in two microregions of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Horses on 62 farms in the municipalities of the Itaguaí and Serrana microregions were evaluated between January and May 2009. The animals were examined to determine the presence of ticks and infestation level. The animals' rearing and management were assessed on each farm property using an epidemiological questionnaire. Out of the 635 horses evaluated, 41.6% were infested with A. cajennense. It was observed that farms in low-altitude regions (OR=3.69; CI: 2.3-5.8, with unsatisfactory zootechnical and sanitary management (OR=5.92; CI: 3.8-9.2 and an extensive rearing system (OR=4.25; CI: 2.1-8.5 were factors associated with tick infestation (p O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os fatores associados à infestação por Amblyomma cajennense em equinos em duas microrregiões do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Equinos de 62 fazendas nos municípios das microrregiões de Itaguaí e Serrana foram avaliados entre janeiro e maio de 2009. Os animais foram inspecionados quanto à presença e ao nível de infestação destes carrapatos. As condições de criação e o manejo foram avaliados em cada propriedade, por um questionário epidemiológico. Dos 635 equinos avaliados, 41,6% apresentavam-se infestados por A. cajennense. Observou-se que as criações dos animais em regiões de baixas altitudes (OR=3,69, IC: 2,3-5,8, em propriedades com manejo zootécnico e sanitário insatisfatório (OR=5,92, IC: 3,8-9,2 e em sistema de criação extensivo (OR=4,25, IC: 2,1-8,5 foram fatores associados (p < 0,05 à infestação, sendo também relacionados à intensa infestação nos equinos. O uso de carrapaticida nos equinos também apresentou associação (p < 0,05 à infestação, sendo descritas pelos proprietários, diferentes condutas terapêuticas, em intervalos alternados de tratamento. Baixas

  5. Algumas repercussões emocionais negativas da gravidez precoce em adolescentes do Município do Rio de Janeiro (1999-2001 Some emotional repercussions of adolescent pregnancy in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (1999-2001

    Adriane Reis Sabroza

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se a associação entre gravidez precoce e as repercussões emocionais negativas para a adolescente, segundo variáveis sócio-demográficas e psicossociais. Foram entrevistadas 1.228 adolescentes em maternidades do Município do Rio de Janeiro. Avaliou-se as repercussões emocionais por meio das variáveis autovalorização negativa, pouca ou nenhuma expectativa frente ao futuro e sofrimento psíquico. O teste do chi2 e a Odds Ratio foram usadas para análise dos dados. As adolescentes que referiram uma reação negativa da família se sentiram menos valorizadas (OR 1,8, com poucas expectativas em relação ao futuro (OR 2,3 e manifestaram grande sofrimento psíquico (OR 1,5. As que estavam fora da escola quando engravidaram tiveram também uma pior autovalorização (OR 1,9 e menores expectativas em relação ao futuro (OR 2,2. Um grande nível de sofrimento psíquico relacionou-se inversamente à freqüência ao pré-natal (0,7. Pode-se concluir que o suporte familiar, independente da condição social de origem, foi identificado neste estudo como o principal fator minimizador das repercussões emocionais negativas da gestação na adolescência.This study analyzed the association between early pregnancy and negative emotional repercussions for adolescents, according to socio-demographic and psychosocial variables. The study interviewed 1,228 adolescents in maternity hospitals in the City of Rio de Janeiro. Emotional repercussions were evaluated with negative self-assessment variables, showing little or no expectation towards the future, as well as psychological distress. The chi2 test and odds ratio were used to analyze the data. Adolescents who reported a negative reaction by the family felt less valued (OR 1.8, with little expectation towards the future (OR 2.3, and presented major psychological distress (OR 1.5. Those not enrolled in school when they became pregnant also showed worse self-esteem (OR 1.9 and fewer expectations

  6. Ticks on birds caught on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Carrapatos em aves capturadas no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Ísis Daniele Alves Costa Santolin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of parasitic infections, particularly those caused by ectoparasites, may influence the biology and ecology of wild birds. The aim of this study was to investigate occurrences and identify the species of ticks collected from wild birds caught on the campus of the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro. The birds were caught using mist nets between October 2009 and December 2010. In total, 223 birds were caught, represented by 53 species and 19 families in nine orders. Nineteen birds (n = 7 species were parasitized by immature ticks (prevalence of 8.5%. Forty-four ticks were collected, of which 23 were nymphs and 21 were larvae. There were associations between parasitism by ticks and non-Passeriformes birds, and between parasitism and ground-dwelling birds, which was possibly due to the presence (or inclusion among the captured birds of Vanellus chilensis (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae. All the nymphs collected were identified as Amblyomma cajennense. In general terms, we must emphasize that wild birds in the study area may play the role of dispersers for the immature stages of A. cajennense, albeit non-preferentially.A prevalência das infecções parasitárias e em particular, aquelas causadas por ectoparasitos, pode influenciar na biologia e ecologia das aves silvestres. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar a ocorrência e identificar as espécies de carrapatos coletadas em aves silvestres capturadas no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. As aves foram coletadas em rede-de-neblina durante o período de outubro de 2009 a dezembro de 2010. No total foram capturadas 223 aves representadas por 53 espécies, 19 famílias em 9 ordens. Parasitismo por formas imaturas de carrapatos, foram encontradas em 19 aves (n = 7 espécies correspondendo a uma prevalência de 8,5%. Foram coletados 44 carrapatos onde 23 estavam em estágio de ninfa e 21 em estágio de larva. Houve associação entre o parasitismo por carrapatos

  7. Análise florística das pteridófitas do Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Floristic analysis of the pteridophytes of the Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Marcelo Guerra Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O Parque Nacional da Restinga de Jurubatiba, localizado no norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, abrange os municípios de Macaé, Carapebus e Quissamã. Foram registradas para a área de estudo 12 famílias com 21 gêneros e 32 espécies. As famílias encontradas foram Blechnaceae, Cyatheaceae, Davalliaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Polypodiaceae, Pteridaceae, Salviniaceae, Schizaeaceae e Thelypteridaceae. Dessas, as mais representativas em número de espécies foram Polypodiaceae (5 spp. e Pteridaceae (5 spp.. Os gêneros com maior número de espécies foram Nephrolepis, Polypodium e Thelypteris. Das 32 espécies registradas, 23 são ervas terrestres, três são ervas epífitas, três ervas aquáticas, duas arborescentes e uma erva hemiepífita. A maior riqueza de espécies e famílias foi registrada para a formação de mata periodicamente inundada e a menor, para a formação arbustiva fechada de pós-praia. Há baixa similaridade entre a flora pteridofítica de diferentes áreas de restingas analisadas e entre as restingas e a mata atlântica. Blechnum serrulatum e Polypodium triseriale são espécies de ocorrência comum em áreas de restingas. Das 32 espécies inventariadas, 17 possuem usos atribuídos (medicinais, ornamentais e comestíveis.The Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park is located on the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State (municipalities of Macaé, Carapebus and Quissamã. There are 12 families, 21 genera and 32 species, with the following families present: Blechnaceae, Cyatheaceae, Davalliaceae, Dennstaedtiaceae, Dryopteridaceae, Gleicheniaceae, Lycopodiaceae, Polypodiaceae, Pteridaceae, Salviniaceae, Schizaeaceae and Thelypteridaceae. The most species-rich families are Pteridaceae (5 spp. and Polypodiaceae (5 spp.. Nephrolepis, Polypodium and Thelypteris were the richest genera. Of the 32 species recorded for the area, 23 are terrestrial herbs, three are epiphytes, three are aquatics

  8. Ecomorphometric structure of Restinga da Marambaia lizard community, Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil Estrutura ecomorfométrica da comunidade de lagartos da Restinga da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil

    André L. G. de Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In restinga areas of Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, we recorded nine species of lizards, grouped in four families. The morphometric analysis suggested an invasion-structured pattern, with two distinct groups of species in the community: the "ground-runners", composed of animals with robust bodies and long limbs, represented by Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820, Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758, Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938, Cnemidophorus littoralis Rocha, Araujo, Vrcibradic & Costa, 2000 and Tupinambis merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839; and the "hiders", composed of small-bodied animals with short limbs, represented by Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818, Gymnodactylus darwinii (Gray, 1845, Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 and M. macrorhyncha Hoge, 1947. The morphological relationships within the restinga lizard community reflect the influence of the habitat physical structure: bromeliad availability and other refugia, used by the "hiders", and the distribution of open areas, used by the "ground-runners". Our results also indicate that the restingas hold "ecomorphological spaces" (vacant niches available for occupation by additional lizard species.Em áreas de restinga da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, foram registradas nove espécies de lagartos, pertencentes a quatro famílias. A análise morfométrica sugeriu um padrão de estruturação por invasão, com dois grupos distintos de espécies compondo a comunidade: os "corredores de chão", formado pelos animais de corpo mais robusto e membros mais longos, representados por Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820, Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758, Liolaemus lutzae Mertens, 1938,Cnemidophorus littoralis Rocha, Araujo, Vrcibradic & Costa, 2000 e Tupinambis merianae (Duméril & Bibron, 1839; e os "escondedores", reunindo lagartos de menor tamanho e membros mais curtos, representados por Hemidactylus mabouia (Moreau de Jonnès, 1818, Gymnodactylus darwinii (Gray, 1845, Mabuya agilis (Raddi, 1823 e M. macrorhyncha

  9. Evaluation of Perna perna (Linné, 1758 as a tool to monitoring trace metals contamination in estuarine and coastal waters of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Francioni Eleine

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Perna perna was collected from several sites along the coast of Rio de Janeiro and analysed for the content of copper, zinc, cadmium and chromium. In spite of the observed concentration variability in organisms pertaining to the same population, statistical evaluation allowed metal level differentiation among regions and sites as well as between males and females. Differences in metal contents did not confirm expectations based on source strength and existing data on water concentration.

  10. Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa of the intertidal zone of Governador and Paquetá islands, Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Hidróides (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa da zona entremarés das ilhas do Governador e Paquetá, Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Priscila A. Grohmann

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available During six consecutive months, sampling were made at three points located on Governador Island and three on Paquetá Island in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Material was collected from dock pilings and rocks in the intertidal zone. In these samples, five species belonging to three families, Corynidae, Kirchenpaueriidae and Campanulariidae, were identified. The campanulariid species Obelia dichotoma Linnaeus, 1758, dominated at nearly all points sampled. The small number of species obtained in this survey is attributed to the intense pollution in the bay, which borders the second-largest industrial complex and the second-largest demographic center of Brazil.Durante seis meses consecutivos foram feitas coletas em três pontos localizados na ilha do Governador e três em Paquetá, sendo colhido material em pilares de cais e rochas na zona entremarés. Foram identificadas cinco espécies pertencentes a três famílias: Corynidae, Kirchenpaueriidae e Campanulariidae. A espécie Obelia dichotoma Linnaeus, 1758 dominou em praticamente todos os pontos. O pequeno número de espécies encontradas neste levantamento deve-se, provavelmente, ao alto grau de poluição atualmente existente na baía, uma vez que ela abriga o segundo maior polo industrial e o segundo maior centro demográfico do Brasil.

  11. Geological, geotechnical and environmental evaluation of influence area of the oil production in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Avaliacao geologico-geotecnica e ambiental da zona de influencia do duto petrolifero no municipio de Mangaratiba (RJ)

    Rodrigues, Andre Ferreira; Polivanov, Helena [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia; Silva, Jorge Xavier da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geografia; Oliveira, Wilson J. de [PETROBRAS Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is applicable for a specials and strategies areas that must be permanently controlled called pipelines and their proximities. Those areas are liable to be under the influence of different situations like potential environmental risks - eg. conflagrations, floods, soil erosion, slumps and also accidental risks like located spills. Besides those negatives environmental situations, the pipelines also cross different regions that has an important natural resource like forests, watersheds, urban, industrial and agricultural areas. For main regulator of this work the pipeline was developed a series of maps that can be used single or overlayed with another maps. Those maps can be useful for Mangaratiba city urban management and demonstrate possible environmental risks that can occur on pipelines proximities of this city. (author)

  12. Drug utilization and polypharmacy among the elderly: a survey in Rio de Janeiro City, Brazil Uso de medicamentos y polifarmacia en adultos mayores: encuesta en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Suely Rozenfeld

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe drug utilization by Brazilian retirees with an emphasis on inappropriate use. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with a simple random sample of 800 retirees of the Brazilian Institute of Social Security, 60 years of age and older, residing in Rio de Janeiro City, through face-to-face interviews. RESULTS:Medication use in the 15 days before the study was reported by 85% of the sample, with a mean of 3.7 products per person (standard deviation = 2.9. About half the sample used one to four medications and a third used five or more. The highest number of drugs used per patient was 24. More women than men used multiple medications. There is a tendency toward positive association (P OBJETIVOS:Describir el uso de medicamentos en los jubilados brasileños, con énfasis en su uso inapropiado. MÉTODOSEstudio transversal mediante entrevistas presenciales a una muestra simple aleatoria de 800 jubilados del Instituto Brasileño de Seguridad Social, de 60 años de edad o más, que residen en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro. RESULTADOS:Del total de encuestados, 85% informó el uso de medicamentos en los 15 días previos al estudio, con una media de 3,7 productos por persona (desviación estándar = 2,9. Aproximadamente la mitad de los encuestados utilizaron de uno a cuatro medicamentos y una tercera parte empleó cinco o más. El mayor número de medicamentos usado por un paciente fue de 24. Más mujeres que hombres emplearon múltiples medicamentos. Se observó una tendencia hacia una asociación positiva (P < 0,001 entre el consumo de medicamentos y las variables relacionadas con las enfermedades y la atención sanitaria. Esta tendencia se mantuvo al hacer el análisis según el sexo. Los hombres que informaron padecer cinco enfermedades o más tuvieron cinco veces más probabilidad de usar múltiples medicamentos que los hombres con dos enfermedades o menos (razón de prevalencia [RP] = 5,21; intervalo de confianza de 95% [IC95%]: 2,48 a 10

  13. Fatores associados à ocorrência de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti na Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Factors associated to the ocurrence of immature forms of Aedes aegypti in the Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Reinaldo Souza-Santos

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti é o vetor urbano da dengue, doença que pode resultar em epidemias. Estudos ecológicos tornam-se importantes uma vez que populações do vetor de diferentes áreas podem diferir quanto a características bio-ecológicas, relevantes para orientar ações de controle. Este trabalho objetiva identificar e analisar fatores associados à ocorrência de formas imaturas de A. aegypti na Ilha do Governador, Rio de Janeiro, a partir dos dados da Fundação Nacional de Saúde (FNS. Os resultados mostram que 58,04% do total de criadouros inspecionados foram constituídos por suportes para vasos com plantas, vasilhames de plástico ou vidro abandonados no peridomicílio. Maiores percentuais de criadouros positivos foram observados para pneus (1,41%, tanques, poços e cisternas (0,93%, e barris, tonéis e tinas (0,64%. Maiores proporções de criadouros positivos durante o verão foram as dos grandes reservatórios de água e a dos criadouros provenientes do lixo doméstico. No inverno, verificamos maior valor para os pequenos reservatórios de água para uso doméstico. As maiores proporções de criadouros positivos foram observadas após três meses sem atividades da FNS. A análise fatorial mostrou que o principal fator determinante da ocorrência de fases imaturas de A. aegypti é aquele que leva em consideração os fatores meteorológicos. A eliminação e tratamento de criadouros pelos agentes da FNS apresentaram-se como menos importantes. Tais fatos apontam a necessidade de controle contínuo, indicando menor atenção da FNS, durante o inverno, em relação aos pequenos reservatórios, que podem manter formas imaturas de A. aegypti.Aedes aegypti is the vector of dengue, a disease that can result in epidemics. Ecological studies are important because different geographical populations of the vector may differ in their bio-ecological characteristics, which can be helpful in guiding control actions. The objective of this study was to

  14. Palinologia de espécies de Solanum L. (Solanaceae A. Juss. ocorrentes nas restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Palynology of species of Solanum L. (Solanaceae A. Juss. from the restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Carla Patrícia Rodrigues Batista-Franklim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 21 táxons de Solanum L., com o objetivo de caracterizá-los palinologicamente e, assim, contribuir para a elaboração de um catálogo polínico da flora das restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Os táxons examinados foram Solanum affine Sendtn., Solanum americanum Mill. var. americanum,Solanum argenteum Dunal ex Poir., Solanum aturense Dunal, Solanum caavurana Vell., Solanum capsicoides All., Solanum carautae Carv., Solanum cordifolium Dunal, Solanum curvispinum Dunal, Solanum echidnaeforme Dunal, Solanum gardneri Sendtn.,Solanum indigoferum A. St.-Hil., Solanum insidiosum Mart., Solanum mauritianum Scop., Solanum paludosum Moric., Solanum paniculatum L., Solanum paratyense Vell., Solanum pseudoquina A.St.-Hil., Solanum sisymbriifolium Lam., Solanum torvum Sw., Solanum velleum Sw. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, mensurados, descritos e fotomicrografados. A análise sob microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi utilizada, em grãos de pólen não acetolisados, para confirmar as descrições feitas sob microscopia de luz e, em alguns casos para confirmar as descrições de abertura e ornamentação. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen são pequenos ou médios, isopolares, subprolatos a oblato-esferoidais, 3-colporados, sexina granulada, rugulado-granulada ou escabrada. Pela análise dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que os táxons analisados apresentam certa heterogeneidade polínica, quanto à forma, aos atributos das aberturas e à ornamentação da sexina, podendo-se usar estes caracteres na taxonomia do gênero.In this study 21 taxa of Solanum L. were investigated for palynological characterization and to contribute to the Pollen Catalog of the Flora of the Rio de Janeiro restingas. The taxa analysed were Solanum affine Sendtn., Solanum americanum Mill. var. americanum,Solanum argenteum Dunal ex Poir., Solanum aturense Dunal, Solanum caavurana Vell., Solanum capsicoides All., Solanum carautae Carv., Solanum

  15. Palinologia de espécies de Nyctaginaceae Juss. ocorrentes nas restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Palynology of species of Nyctaginaceae Juss. from the restingas of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Mariana Albuquerque de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas oito espécies de Nyctaginaceae Juss., com o objetivo de caracterizá-las palinologicamente e, assim, contribuir para a elaboração de um catálogo polínico da flora das restingas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. As espécies examinadas foram Boerhavia diffusa L., Bougainvillea glabra Choisy, B. spectabilis Willd., Guapira obtusata (Jacq. Little, G. opposita (Vell. Reitz, G. pernambucencis (Casar. Lund., Leucaster caniflorus (Mart. Choisy e Mirabilis jalapa L. Os grãos de pólen foram acetolisados, mensurados, descritos e fotomicrografados. A análise de microscopia eletrônica de varredura foi utilizada em grãos de pólen não acetolisados, para confirmar as descrições feitas sob microscopia de luz e, em alguns casos para confirmar as descrições de abertura e ornamentação. Constatou-se que os grãos de pólen da espécie B. diffusa L. são grandes, apolares, esferoidais, 12-18-porados, com sexina espiculada; as espécies de Bougainvillea possuem grãos de pólen médios, isopolares, suboblatos, âmbito subtriangular, área polar grande, 3-colpados, sexina reticulada contendo espinhos diminutos sobre o muro e báculos livres no interior dos lumens; em Guapira os grãos de pólen são médios, isopolares, prolato-esferoidais, âmbito subtriangular, área polar grande, 3-colpados, colpos apresentando opérculo, sexina espinhosa em G. obtusata e G. pernambucensis, e microrreticulada em G. opposita; L. caniflorus apresenta grãos de pólen pequenos, isopolares, prolato-esferoidais, âmbito subtriangular, área polar pequena, 3-colpados, sexina reticulada; M. jalapa apresenta grãos de pólen muito grandes, apolares, esferoidais, pantoporados (ca. 32 poros, sexina espinhosa. Pela análise dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que as espécies analisadas apresentam certa heterogeneidade polínica quanto à forma, aos atributos das aberturas e à ornamentação da sexina, podendo-se usar estes caracteres na taxonomia da fam

  16. Evaluation of methane fugitive emissions in systems of natural gas transportation. The Bolivia-Brazil pipeline case; Avaliacao das emissoes fugitivas de metano em sistemas de transporte de gas natural. O caso do gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil

    Costa, Daniele Mesquita Bordalo da; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: danielembc@poli.ufrj.br, emilio@ppe.ufrj.br; Sarno, Ruy Alberto Campos [Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia-Brasil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: ruy@tbg.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper verifies the total annual of fugitive emissions of methane from the Bolivia-Brazil pipeline, presently the largest pipeline in operation in Brazil, beside to estimate the financial loss associated to those emissions.

  17. Assistência e mortalidade neonatal no setor público do Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: uma análise do período 1994/2000 Neonatal care and mortality in public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1994/2000

    Maria Auxiliadora de Souza Mendes Gomes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma avaliação da intervenção realizada pela Secretaria Municipal de Saúde do Rio de Janeiro(SMS-RJ (estratégias de organização e qualificação da assistência neonatal na rede municipal, incluindo a ampliação dos leitos neonatais de risco, com o objetivo de reduzir a mortalidade neonatal. Analisamos as mudanças ocorridas no atendimento dos diferentes prestadores do setor público (período 1994/2000, na taxa de mortalidade neonatal dos nascimentos ocorridos nas instituições do Sistema Único de Saúde (1995/2000 e o perfil das internações em quatro Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal (UTIN da SMS-RJ (2000. Encontramos a concentração do atendimento neonatal de risco nas unidades municipais (de 28,0% do atendimento de nascidos vivos prematuros, em 1994, para 67,0% em 2000, redução na mortalidade neonatal dos nascimentos ocorridos no SUS (de 19,9 óbitos por mil nascidos vivos em 1996 para 15,5 em 2000. Não houve redução nas taxas de prematuridade e baixo peso ao nascer entre as mães residentes no Município do Rio de Janeiro. Na análise das internações nas UTIN encontramos elevada proporção de neonatos de mães moradoras de outros municípios, 14,0% de mães que não realizaram pré-natal e 32,0% de mortalidade entre neonatos com peso ao nascer This article analyzes an intervention by the Rio de Janeiro Municipal Health Department (SMS-RJ, Brazil, to reduce the neonatal mortality rate (strategies for organizing and upgrading neonatal care in the municipal system, including an increase in the number of neonatal high-risk beds. We studied the trends in neonatal mortality rate (1995/2000, neonatal care provided in different public hospitals (1994/2000, and admissions profile and mortality in four neonatal intensive care units (NICUs under the SMS-RJ (2000. There was a concentration of high-risk neonatal care in the municipal hospitals (an increase from 28.0% of the care provided for live premature

  18. A syphilis co-infection study in human papilloma virus patients attended in the sexually transmitted infection ambulatory clinic, Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Lúcia Maria de Sena Souza

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of syphilis worldwide, little is known about its manifestations when associated with other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI, specifically the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV. Current epidemiological studies show that there is a high incidence of both diseases in ambulatory clinics all over Brazil. This study aims to estimate the incidence of syphilis - HPV co-infections, among patients from the STI ambulatory clinic at the Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Two-hundred and seven patients were seen in the clinic between March and December 2005, of which 113 (54.6% sought care for an HPV infection. Blood samples were taken from all patients to check syphilis serology using the flocculation and the non-treponemic test or VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and the TPHA (Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay treponemic and confirmatory method. Of the 207 patients, 113 (54.6% consulted referring to HPV as their primary complaint, and of these, 18 (15.9% also presented with positive syphilis serology, demonstrating a high incidence of coinfection. The average age of the patients varied between 20 and 25 years, 203 (98.1% were male and 4 (1.9% were female. The predominance of the male sex in this sample confirms the profile usually treated in STI clinics across the country, and the age range is that of typically high sexually activity. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the need for a differentiated examination of all STD patients.

  19. Defeitos congênitos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil: uma avaliação através do SINASC (2000-2004 Birth defects in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an evaluation through birth certificates (2000-2004

    Fernando Antônio Ramos Guerra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a ocorrência de defeitos congênitos em nascidos vivos no Município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, com base no Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC, no período de 1º de janeiro de 2000 a 31 de dezembro de 2004. Através de um estudo seccional e descritivo, estudaram-se as variáveis relativas aos defeitos congênitos (presença e aparelho ou sistema acometido, aos serviços de saúde, às mães, às gestações, aos recém-natos e aos partos. Constatou-se uma prevalência de defeitos congênitos de 83/10 mil nascidos vivos. Os sistemas orgânicos mais afetados foram o osteomuscular, nervoso central, genital, as fendas lábio-palatinas e as anomalias cromossômicas. A maioria dos casos nasceu nas maternidades municipais e na rede privada, e maior prevalência de defeitos congênitos ocorreu no Instituto Fernandes Figueira da Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Os defeitos congênitos foram mais prevalentes entre os filhos de mulheres mais velhas e menos instruídas. O percentual de casos ignorados foi alto, chegando a 21% em algumas maternidades. Uma maior divulgação das informações do SINASC sobre defeitos congênitos deveria ser estimulada. Estudos de confiabilidade são recomendados para melhor aproveitamento das informações.To evaluate the occurrence of birth defects in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the Live Birth Information System (SINASC, we performed a cross-sectional study on all live newborns with birth defects from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2004. The variables referred to birth defects (presence and system affected, type of health service, mothers, gestations, live births, and deliveries. Prevalence of birth defects was 83/10,000 live births. The most frequent birth defects involved the musculoskeletal system, central nervous system, cleft lip and palate, and chromosomal anomalies. The majority of cases were born in public (municipal and private maternity hospitals, with the highest prevalence

  20. Associação entre o estado nutricional antropométrico e a situação sócio-econômica de adolescentes em Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Association between anthropometric nutritional status and socioeconomic conditions among adolescents in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Fabio da Silva Gomes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a relação entre o estado nutricional e a situação sócio-econômica familiar de adolescentes moradores de Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Os dados de 523 adolescentes, pertencentes a uma amostra probabilística de 1.734 domicílios, foram coletados entre janeiro e dezembro de 2003 e representam os 71.922 jovens residentes em Niterói. As análises incluíram a estimação de intervalos de confiança de razões de prevalência e testes de distribuições proporcionais e de independência entre classes de estado nutricional e classes de renda familiar per capita e as faixas de número de moradores do domicílio. Foi encontrada uma associação positiva significativa entre baixo peso/magreza e o número de moradores do domicílio (sexo masculino: p This study focused on the relationship between nutritional and socioeconomic status among adolescents in Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Data from 523 adolescents living in 1,734 households were collected from January to December 2003, from a total of 71,922 adolescents living in Niterói. Subjects were selected through a probabilistic household sample. The analyses included the estimation of confidence intervals for prevalence ratios and proportional distributions and independence tests between categories of nutritional status and per capita family income and number of residents per household. There was a significant positive association between underweight/thinness and number of residents in the same household (male: p < 0.05; female: p < 0.001. Number of residents in the same household was positively associated with prevalence of underweight/thinness in adolescents. Overweight/obesity was positively associated with per capita family income.

  1. Câmbio na assistência perinatal como determinante de consumo e diversidade de antiinfecciosos? Estudo em UTI neonatal no Rio de Janeiro Changes in perinatal care as a determinant of the level and diversity of antiinfectives use in a neonatal intensive care unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O perfil de utilização de antiinfecciosos, constando de consumo e diversidade dos fármacos empregados, bem como seus determinantes, foram estudados em um período de cinco anos, de janeiro de 1990 a dezembro de 1994, em duas enfermarias de uma unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI neonatal do Rio de Janeiro. Para tanto, cumpriu-se estudo de utilização de medicamentos com desenho descritivo, longitudinal e retrospectivo. Como sistemática foram empregadas a classificação Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC e a unidade de medida dose diária definida para lactentes (DDDi. Foram coletados dados de serviço, através de pesquisa documental, observações e entrevistas semi-estruturadas, e dados numéricos, através de consulta aos registros de fornecimento do Serviço de Farmácia e registros do censo hospitalar diário. Os resultados numéricos sugerem um incremento real do consumo total e a diminuição da diversidade no uso de antiinfecciosos no período. Analisados à luz da realidade institucional e do uso racional de medicamentos, indicam que mudanças na assistência perinatal ao longo do período foram determinantes para o perfil de utilização revelado.This study focuses on a five-year profile (1990-1994 in the utilization of antiinfectives in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Total antiinfectives consumption, diversity, and possible determinants were analyzed. A descriptive, longitudinal, and retrospective drug utilization study design was adopted. Document research, observation, and semi-structured interviews provided information on the neonatal intensive care provided, and drug supply and daily hospital records provided data on antiinfectives use, based on the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC classification and the infant defined daily dose (DDDi as units of measurement. The numerical results suggest an increase in total consumption of antiinfectives and a decrease in their diversity. Analyzed in

  2. Effect of sediment composition on methane concentration and production in the transition zone of a mangrove (Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)

    Marinho,CC.; Campos,EA.; Guimarães,JRD.; Esteves,FA.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of sediment composition on methane (CH4) dynamics in sediments of different areas in the transition zone between a mangrove and the sea. This research was conducted in a mangrove at Coroa Grande, on the southern coast of Rio de Janeiro. Samples were collected at three stations: (1) region colonised by Rhizophora mangle L. on the edge of the mangrove, (2) region colonised by seagrasses and (3) infra-littoral region without vegetation. Samples...

  3. Spatial and seasonal distribution and population structure of the crab Aratus pisonii (H. Milne Edwards) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Sesarmidae) in Itacuruçá mangrove, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Nicolau, Cristiane F.; Oshiro, Lídia M. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Este trabalho teve por objetivo analisar a distribuição espacial e sazonal e a estrutura populacional do caranguejo arborícula Aratuspisonii (H. Milne Edwards, 1837). O trabalho foi realizado através de coletas mensais de junho de 2000 a maio de 2001, para estudo da estrutura populacional e coletas sazonais de janeiro a outubro de 2002 para o estudo da distribuição espacial e sazonal, dividiu-se o manguezal em três áreas. Para a distribuição espacial e sazonal foram capturados 694 indivíduos ...

  4. The impact of professional activities on the physical and mental health of the civil and military police of Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil)

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Oliveira, Raquel Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de

    2011-01-01

    Neste artigo, analisamos o adoecimento físico e mental de policiais civis e militares do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, segundo condições de trabalho e atividades profissionais. Utilizamos a mesma metodologia para o estudo de duas categorias: abordagem quantitativa (amostragem aleatória simples por conglomerados, alcançando um total de 1.458 policiais civis e 1.108 policiais militares que responderam a questionários anônimos) e abordagem qualitativa (grupos focais com 143 profissionais e 18 entrev...

  5. Redescriptions of two species of Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Caligidae parasitic on teleost marine fishes from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    José Luis Luque

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Two species of Lepeophtheirus Nordmann, 1832 parasitic on the ariid fish Netuma barba Lacépède, 1803, and the bothiid fish Paralichthys sp. from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, are redescribed and illustrated: L. bagri Dana, 1852, and L. monacanthus Heller, 1865. New junior synonyms for these species are proposed: L. marginatus syn.n., L. christianensis syn.n. and L. platensis syn.n. of L. bagri and L. unispinosus syn.n. of L. monacanthus.

  6. High visceral leishmaniasis mortality rate in Barra Mansa, a new area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nine cases of visceral leishmaniasis occurred recently in Barra Mansa, State of Rio de Janeiro, with a high mortality rate. Methods We reviewed the medical records of the patients. Results Eight were male; 7 were adults. Patients who died progressed to death quickly and presented with aggravating factors: systemic steroid therapy before diagnosis, bleeding, severe liver involvement, infection, and/or refusal to receive transfusion. Conclusions We warn clinicians to be aware of the emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in new areas and to keep in mind the possibility of atypical clinical pictures and aggravating factors, so timely diagnosis can be made and prompt and adequate treatment can be initiated.

  7. Assistência oncológica pelo SUS a mulheres com câncer de mama no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Public care for breast cancer women in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Cláudia Brito

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A nova política de assistência oncológica do Sistema Único de Saúde, implantada em novembro de 1999, propôs modificações substanciais na forma de credenciamento das unidades de tratamento. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever o perfil do atendimento ao câncer de mama e de suas usuárias, após a implantação dessa nova política. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo descritivo sobre o tratamento do câncer de mama nas unidades credenciadas pelo Sistema Único de Saúde, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, de 1999 a 2002. As informações foram obtidas a partir das unidades de atendimento, por meio da ficha de cadastro ambulatorial do Sistema Único de Saúde, e das pacientes, pelas autorizações de procedimentos de alta complexidade em oncologia e de prontuários. Foi analisada uma amostra aleatória simples de 310 prontuários, provenientes das 15 unidades credenciadas. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a distribuição percentual dos dados pelas categorias de interesse e o teste chi2 para avaliar a associação entre variáveis. RESULTADOS: Houve predomínio do tratamento nos Centros de Alta Complexidade Oncológica (81,3%; em unidades públicas (73,5% e localizadas na capital do Estado (78,1%. Observou-se má distribuição dos atendimentos em relação às unidades credenciadas, com 70% dos tratamentos sendo executados por apenas uma única unidade assistencial. O perfil de uso das intervenções terapêuticas variou nas unidades isoladas credenciadas entre pacientes cobertas e não cobertas por planos de saúde, com as últimas apresentando menor uso das intervenções consideradas. Foi identificada a subutilização de terapêuticas recomendadas, bem como o uso de intervenções contra-indicadas. A caracterização da população estudada mostrou que 43,9% foram diagnosticadas sem a perspectiva de cura e 68,4% residiam em municípios com serviço oncológico credenciado. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostraram diferen

  8. Characteristics of the dairy goat primary sector at the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Características do setor primário da caprinocultura leiteira no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Edizio Santos Junior

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey was done based on 19 goat shepherds at counties of Centre-highlands, Northern and North-western regions of the Rio de Janeiro State and at the county of Pedra Dourada, Zona da Mata region, State of Minas Gerais. We aimed to characterise the primary sector of the goat milk production chain settled at those regions. Therefore, questionnaires were applied in order to depict profiles of the shepherds, their families, the role of the wife in the activity, the resources available, dependence on income generated by the activity, and how producers administrate their business. Farms were distributed in five strata according to the following daily milk production averages and standard deviations: 8.8 ± 0.9, 15.7 ± 3.9, 22.6 ± 2.7, 34.4 ± 3.4, and 183.8 ± 54.2 L/d. Approximately 42% of the interviewed producers conducted their activities according to a household production model and the income earned was exclusively from the dairy goat husbandry. Sons and daughters performed an important role in the business (27.80%, but most of them (62.73% worked out at non farm activities. The percentage of wives that worked directly in the activity (@47% indicated that it could contribute to gender equity in the rural environment. Most of the production systems (63.16% presented positive gross margins. We have noticed, however, that shepherds perceived only the business gross margin and that the most accurate registries taken were those related to revenues. In general, producers of the higher strata were favoured by their larger production scale, but asymptotic behaviours for costs and amounts invested in animals, equipments and buildings were observed. These characteristics should be considered when policies related to the dairy goat primary sector have to be planned.Realizou-se um levantamento com base em 19 caprinoculturas de municípios das regiões Centro-Serrana, Norte e Noroeste do estado do Rio de Janeiro e do município de Pedra Dourada, regi

  9. Vulnerabilidade ao HIV em favela do Rio de Janeiro: impacto de uma intervenção territorial HIV vulnerability in a shantytown: the impact of a territorial intervention, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Kátia Edmundo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o impacto da implementação de um programa participativo de promoção da saúde sexual em uma comunidade empobrecida, e descrever como o uso dos espaços públicos e privados para práticas sexuais constitui-se um fator que exacerba a vulnerabilidade ao HIV/Aids. MÉTODOS: Estudo etnográfico conduzido em 2002, em favela localizada no município do Rio de Janeiro. Os 6.000 moradores viviam em condições de vida deficitárias em que se verificou a ausência de políticas públicas, postos de saúde, lazer, oportunidades de emprego e segurança, o que consolida o poder de grupos criminosos. Foram abordadas as condições referentes à saúde sexual e à implantação do programa participativo de promoção da saúde sexual pelo Núcleo Comunitário de Prevenção, criado por uma organização não-governamental. Após dois meses de observação participante, foram realizadas 35 entrevistas semi-estruturadas em profundidade com moradores com idade entre 17 e 65 anos. Foram analisadas 11 histórias de vida de líderes comunitários e agentes comunitários de prevenção e sete grupos focais formados a partir dos grupos pré-existentes na comunidade. O material foi categorizado e analisado qualitativamente. RESULTADOS: A precariedade das moradias favorecia maior exposição às práticas sexuais, acentuando o estigma de ser morador de favela vivenciado pela comunidade. Com a implantação do programa do Núcleo, crianças, jovens e adultos se familiarizaram e passaram a ter conhecimento sobre prevenção do HIV/Aids; e jovens e adultos passaram a ter acesso a preservativos. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados decorrentes da intervenção mostraram que embora a vulnerabilidade permaneça, a prevenção pode ser inserida na cultura local. A prevenção da Aids pode ser fomentada por meio de uma abordagem territorial com base na participação dos moradores e no fortalecimento da organização coletiva.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of a

  10. Modelo preditivo do uso de cocaína em prisões do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Predictive model for cocaine use in prisons in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Márcia Lazaro de Carvalho

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar variáveis preditoras e grupos mais vulneráveis ao uso de cocaína em prisão. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 376 presos com história de uso de cocaína em prisão (casos e 938 presos sem história de uso de cocaína na vida (controles, que cumpriam pena no sistema penitenciário do Rio de Janeiro em 1998. A análise considerou as variáveis de exposição em três níveis de hierarquia: distal, intermediário e proximal. Na análise bivariada utilizou-se regressão logística e na multivariada, regressão hierarquizada, resultando em valores de odds ratio. RESULTADOS: As variáveis associadas ao uso de cocaína na prisão, no nível proximal, foram uso de álcool e maconha e tempo de reclusão em anos. O efeito das variáveis de vulnerabilidade social (nível distal é intermediado pelas variáveis dos níveis seguintes. Considerando apenas os níveis distal e intermediário, o uso de maconha antes de ser preso (OR=4,50; IC 95%: 3,17-6,41 e o fato de ter cometido delito para obter droga (OR=2,96; IC 95%: 1,79-4,90 são as mais fortemente associadas ao desfecho. Para cada ano a mais que se passa na prisão, a chance de usar cocaína aumenta em 13% (OR=1,13; IC 95%: 1,06-1,21. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando os níveis distal e intermediário, o uso de maconha antes da prisão e delito para obtenção de droga foram as variáveis com maior poder de predição. O modelo final revelou o uso de álcool, de maconha na prisão e o tempo de cumprimento de pena são importantes preditores do desfecho. O ambiente carcerário aparece como fator estimulante da continuidade do uso de drogas.OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of and groups vulnerable to cocaine use in prison. METHODS: We selected 376 inmates with history of cocaine use in prison (cases and 938 inmates with no history of drug use (controls serving sentences in the Rio de Janeiro State prison system in 1998. The analysis included exposure variables divided into three

  11. Depression during pregnancy: prevalence and risk factors among women attending a public health clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Depressão durante a gravidez: prevalência e fatores de risco em mulheres atendidas em uma unidade básica de saúde na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Priscila Krauss Pereira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Depression is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder during pregnancy and is associated with psychosocial and clinical obstetric factors. Despite being an important public health issue, there are few studies about this issue in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out, involving 331 pregnant women attending a public primary health service over a one-year period in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Participants were interviewed about their socio-demographic status, obstetric/medical conditions, life events and violence during pregnancy. Depression was assessed using the Composite International Development Interview. The prevalence of depression during pregnancy was 14.2% (95%CI: 10.7-18.5 and associated factors included: previous history of depression and any psychiatric treatment, unplanned pregnancy, serious physical illness and casual jobs. These data emphasize the need for screening for depression and its risk factors during pregnancy in settings where care is available. Psychosocial interventions and social policies need to be devised for this population.A depressão é o transtorno mental de maior prevalência durante a gravidez e está associada a fatores psicossociais e clínicos/obstétricos. Apesar de ser uma importante questão de Saúde Pública, há poucos estudos sobre o tema no Brasil. Trata-se de um estudo seccional com 331 gestantes atendidas durante o período de um ano na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. As participantes foram entrevistadas sobre características sócio-demográficas, condições médicas/obstétricas, eventos estressantes e violência durante a gravidez. A depressão foi avaliada através do Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. A prevalência da depressão na gravidez foi 14,2% (IC95%: 10,7-18,5, sendo os fatores associados: história anterior de depressão e de tratamento psiquiátrico, gravidez não-planejada, problema físico grave e trabalho informal. Os resultados reforçam a

  12. Accuracy of the WHO’s body mass index cut-off points to measure gender- and age-specific obesity in middle-aged adults living in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Wollner Materko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO as a disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat. Obesity is considered a public health problem, leading to serious social, psychological and physical problems. However, the appropriate cut-off point of body mass index (BMI based on body fat percentage (BF% for classifying an individual as obese in middle-aged adults living in Rio de Janeiro remains unclear. Materials and methods. This was a prospective cross-sectional study comprising of 856 adults (413 men and 443 women living in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ranging from 30-59 years of age. The data were collected over a two year period (2010-2011, and all participants were underwent anthropometric evaluation. The gold standard was the percentage of body fat estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The optimal sensitivity and specificity were attained by adjusting BMI cut-off values to predict obesity based on the WHO criteria: BF% >25% in men and >35% in women, according to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis adjusted for age and for the whole group.Results. The BMI cut-offs for predicting BF% were 29.9 kg/m2 in men and 24.9 kg/m2 in women. Conclusions. The BMI that corresponded to a BF% previously defining obesity was similar to that of other Western populations for men but not for women. Furthermore, gender and age specific cut-off values are recommended in this population.

  13. Prognóstico de pacientes com tumor de Wilms unilateral no Rio de Janeiro, 1990-2000 Prognosis for patients with unilateral Wilms' tumor in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1990-2000

    Marilia Fornaciari Grabois

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a sobrevida e os principais fatores prognósticos entre os pacientes com tumor de Wilms unilateral. MÉTODOS: A coorte de estudo incluiu 132 casos de tumor de Wilms unilateral em menores de 15 anos de idade matriculados em serviço de oncologia pediátrica, de janeiro de 1990 a dezembro de 2000. Curvas de sobrevida foram confeccionadas utilizando-se o método de Kaplan-Meier e fatores prognósticos foram analisados pelo modelo de riscos proporcionais de Cox. RESULTADOS: A estimativa de sobrevida global em cinco anos foi 84,6%. As probabilidades de sobrevida para os estádios I, II, III e IV foram de 100%; 94,2%; 83,2% e 31,3%, respectivamente. A taxa de sobrevida para os pacientes com: histologia favorável foi de 89,4%, para aqueles com anaplasia focal 66,7 % e com anaplasia difusa 40%. Todos os pacientes com doença em estádio IV e anaplasia difusa foram a óbito (n=4. Todos os pacientes com doença em estádio I, independente da histologia, permaneceram vivos até o final do período de seguimento. CONCLUSÕES: Entre as variáveis escolhidas para o modelo final apenas o estadiamento e a histologia permaneceram associados ao elevado risco de óbito enquanto que os casos na faixa etária entre 24 e 47 meses apresentaram melhor prognóstico que os demais. Esses resultados mostram a importância do diagnóstico em fases iniciais da doença e que a histologia é fundamental para orientar a terapia adequada.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the survival and the main prognostic factors among patients with unilateral Wilms' tumor patients. METHODS: The study cohort included 132 patients with unilateral Wilms' tumor aged under 15 years, who were enrolled in a pediatric oncology service. Survival curves were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and the prognostic factors were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: The overall survival rate for five years was 84.6%. The survival probabilities for disease in stages I, II

  14. Dimensioning of the biogas production from the residential, industrial and swine matrices residues at the Vila Paciencia community, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Dimensionamento da producao de biogas a partir de residuos residenciais, industriais e de matrizes suinas na comunidade de Vila Paciencia, RJ

    Silva, Edison Renato Pereira da; Navarro, Leonardo Luiz Lima [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia. Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], e-mail: edison@ufrj.br, e-mail: leonardo.navarro@gpi.ufrj.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper performs a preliminary technical analysis on the viability of thermal energy production through biogas, synthesized from solid waste coming from residences,an industrial restaurant and swine matrixes at Vila Paciencia, a needy community in Santa Cruz, west zone barrio in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The preliminary study indicates that even tough the system not be self-sustainable, the use of bio digesters is a possible solution for the problem of solid wastes destination at Via Paciencia.

  15. Tuberculose como doença definidora de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: dez anos de evolução na Cidade do Rio de Janeiro Tuberculosis as a disease defining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ten years of surveillance in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Elizabeth Cristina Coelho Soares

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a freqüência da tuberculose e das outras principais doenças oportunistas definidoras de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, no momento em que estes casos são notificados, no Município do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Análise do banco de dados do Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Programa de Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis e Síndrome da Imunodeficiência Adquirida da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 1993 a 2002. RESULTADOS: A expansão da definição de casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida ocorrida em 1998 criou um aumento substancial no número de casos notificados de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida, principalmente por aqueles que passaram a ser definidos pelo critério imunológico. Dentre os casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida que foram definidos apenas por doença, a candidíase em suas diversas formas manteve-se como a doença oportunista de maior freqüência no momento da notificação. Embora a pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii se apresentasse como a segunda doença mais freqüente na maioria dos anos observados, a partir de 2001, a tuberculose ultrapassou-a em freqüência, tornando-se a segunda doença mais freqüente no momento da notificação dos casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da diminuição do número de casos de síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida definidos por doença, a tuberculose manteve-se como um importante evento definidor dessa síndrome, sendo atualmente de ocorrência mais freqüente do que a pneumonia por Pneumocystis carinii e a toxoplasmose, provavelmente por sua alta taxa de prevalência na cidade.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency of tuberculosis and of the other principal opportunistic infections defining acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at the time such cases were reported in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Analysis of the data compiled in the Rio de Janeiro Municipal

  16. X-ray microtomography characterization of carbonate microbialites from a hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Rio de Janeiro State—Brazil

    Machado, A.S., E-mail: alemachado@lin.ufrj.br [Laboratório de Geologia Sedimentar—IGEO, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear—COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Dal Bó, P.F.F. [Laboratório de Geologia Sedimentar—IGEO, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lima, I. [Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear—COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Borghi, L. [Laboratório de Geologia Sedimentar—IGEO, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, R. [Laboratório de Instrumentação Nuclear—COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study is to apply the micro-CT technique to assess recent microbialite samples from a hypersaline coastal lagoon in the Rio de Janeiro State. The study comprises structural assessment, mineralogical characterization and porosity distribution of each sample. Micro-CT is increasingly present in geological reservoir analyses, and has advantages over other laboratory techniques since it is non-invasive and allows 2D/3D visualization of inner structures without previous preparation method, such as slabbing, polishing, thinning or impregnation. This technique renders structural analyses which can be spatially resolved to a scale of micrometers. Results show that micro-CT technique is also adequate for the characterization of carbonate microbialites, providing excellent high resolution 3D images, that enabled to distinguish different mineralogies and porosity distribution beyond it is inner structure.