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Sample records for italian military submarine

  1. Enhancing Submarine Operational Relevance: A Leadership Challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daigle, Jr, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    .... This vision of submarine operations must change. As the military continues to shift to operations focused on joint capabilities, the submarine force must break from the closed, protective, and risk averse culture of its past and push forward...

  2. The Wellbeing of Italian Peacekeeper Military: Psychological Resources, Quality of Life and Internalizing Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yura Loscalzo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Working as a peacekeeper is associated with the exposure to acute and/or catastrophic events and chronic stressors. Hence, the meager literature about peacekeepers’ wellbeing has mainly analyzed Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. This study aims to deep the analysis of the wellbeing of peacekeepers military. Based on the few studies on this population, we hypothesized that Italian peacekeeper military officers and enlisted men (n = 167; 103 males, 6 females, 58 missing exhibit lower levels of internalizing symptoms (i.e., PTSD, depression, general anxiety, obsessions, and somatization as compared to a control group (n = 60; 32 males, 28 females. Moreover, we hypothesized that peacekeepers have higher levels of psychological resources (i.e., self-efficacy, self-esteem, social support and quality of life (i.e., higher life satisfaction and lower general stress. We compared the groups by means of MANOVAs on the subscales of the Psychological Treatment Inventory (PTI; Gori et al., 2015. We found that Italian peacekeepers have lower internalizing symptoms and higher levels of self-efficacy and self-esteem than the control group; however, no statistically significant differences were observed on perceived social support. Finally, peacekeepers have a higher quality of life: scores reflect higher life satisfaction and lower distress than the control group. This study is in line with previous literature supporting the claim that Italian peacekeeper military officers have sufficient psychological resources for coping with the stressful situations implied in peacekeeping missions. Future studies should deepen the analysis of the military’s psychological characteristics by comparing war veterans and peacekeeper military.

  3. History of Military Psychology at the U. S. Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-23

    the first nuclear submarine, were gigantic increases in the environmental demands imposed upon the submarine crewmembers. Some of these changes had to...urgency for an empirical determination of the maximum duration a submarine could remain submerged before debilitative symptoms appeared in significant

  4. The Italian Submarine Force in the Battle of the Atlantic: Left in the Dark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    ADM Admiral ASW Anti-submarine warfare BDA Battle damage assessment C2 Command and Control CDR Commander HF/DF High frequency direction finder...damage assessment ( BDA ) if you will, the submarine captain decided if further action might be warranted, and made a decision as to how to engage

  5. They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States Navy Submarine Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-11

    submarine duty could lead to sexual problems aboard ship and marital problems at home .”22 Some argue that wives do not trust women at sea with...enforces the argument that women are here to stay in submarines. While political and military experts continue to debate the roles of women in submarines...ACSC/Meyer, J/FY16 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY They Have Not Yet Begun to Fight: Women in the United States

  6. The Effectiveness of Military Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    against the heart of the U.S. Pacific Fleet in 1941. Italy’s uneven naval buildup, stressing submarines and unemployed battleships, posed a particular...military, not to speak of a society which has yet to recover from its psychic wounds. How to arrange our American military institutions so that they

  7. Relationship between work stress and health in submariners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-nan JIANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the relationship between work stress and health in submariners. Methods In April 2008, 272 submariners trained in a navy base were selected as study subjects by random group sampling method, and tested by primary personal information questionnaire, self-rated health measurement scale (SRHMS, self-developed submariners' work stressors questionnaire, and work stress self-rated scale. Physical health, mental health and social health of submariners were analyzed, and scores were compared with the norm of reference scores. Correlations were analyzed respectively between 10 items of submariners' general information (including age, length of military service, education degree, years at the present post, times of receiving awards, on-duty hours, off-duty hours, hours of sleep, lost days of leave, positive attitude to work and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score, total health score, as well as between 15 submariners' work stressors (including workrelated risks, diet problems, high temperature, humidity and noise in workplace, shortage of clean clothes, illness, losing contact with outside, lack of information about the task, lacking supports from family members, relationship problems, lack of involvement in task decisions, boring and dull work, on duty, heavy work, high quality of work, coping with unexpected threat and their physical health score, mental health score, social health score and total health score. Results No significant difference was found between submariners' SRHMS total score and the normal referenced score (t=0.56, P>0.05, but the physical health score and mental health score were significantly lower than normal referenced scores respectively (t=–2.172, P<0.05; t=–3.299, P<0.01, and the social health score was significantly higher than normal referenced score (t=9.331, P<0.001. The age, length of military service, years at present post of submariners were related

  8. Exploring the submarine Graham Bank in the Sicily Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Coltelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Sicily Channel, volcanic activity has been concentrated mainly on the Pantelleria and Linosa islands, while minor submarine volcanism took place in the Adventure, Graham and Nameless banks. The volcanic activity spanned mostly during Plio-Pleistocene, however, historical submarine eruptions occurred in 1831 on the Graham Bank and in 1891 offshore Pantelleria Island. On the Graham Bank, 25 miles SW of Sciacca, the 1831 eruption formed the short-lived Ferdinandea Island that represents the only Italian volcano active in historical times currently almost completely unknown and not yet monitored. Moreover, most of the Sicily Channel seismicity is concentrated along a broad NS belt extending from the Graham Bank to Lampedusa Island. In 2012, the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV carried out a multidisciplinary oceanographic cruise, named “Ferdinandea 2012”, the preliminary results of which represent the aim of this paper. The cruise goal was the mapping of the morpho-structural features of some submarine volcanic centres located in the northwestern side of the Sicily Channel and the temporary recording of their seismic and degassing activity. During the cruise, three OBS/Hs (ocean bottom seismometer with hydrophone were deployed near the Graham, Nerita and Terribile submarine banks. During the following 9 months they have recorded several seismo-acoustic signals produced by both tectonic and volcanic sources. A high-resolution bathymetric survey was achieved on the Graham Bank and on the surrounding submarine volcanic centres. A widespread and voluminous gas bubbles emission was observed by both multibeam sonar echoes and a ROV (remotely operated vehicle along the NW side of the Graham Bank, where gas and seafloor samples were also collected.

  9. International aid is needed in resolving the military nuclear waste problems in Kola peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forss, S.

    1995-01-01

    Information about military nuclear waste problems in the counties of Murmansk and Arkhangelsk has become public on an unprecedented scale since the end of the cold war and the collapse of the Soviet Union. Relevant technical details about the nuclear waste problem are still unclassified. The amount of knowledge is, however, steadily increasing despite military secrecy. It is now possible to perform a fairly reliable evaluation of the scope and magnitude of the nuclear waste problem that stems from more than three decades of operation of nuclear submarines and ships of the former Soviet Northern Fleet. The former Soviet Navy built some 240 nuclear submarines, most of them with twin reactors. About 180 nuclear submarines will have to be disposed of in the coming years. Since the late eighties the Soviet/Russian Navy has retired about twenty nuclear submarines a year. Approximately one hundred nuclear submarines now lie in Russian harbours in the North and in the Far East, awaiting disposal. More than seventy are in the Kola and Arkhangelsk areas. Most of the retired submarines still carry nuclear fuel in their reactor. (orig.)

  10. Design of a small nuclear reactor for extending the operational envelope of the Victoria Class Submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to conceptually design a small, inherently safe, quasi-homogeneous nuclear reactor that will provide enough power to maintain the hotel load of the Victoria Class Submarine and extend her operational envelope. This research is in its early stages. The purpose of this paper is to outline the background of the research, present results found to date, and indicate the direction of the research over the next two years. The Canadian Forces has recently acquired four U.K. built Upholder Class submarines to replace the ageing Oberon Class submarines purchased in the early 1960's. The Upholders, like the Oberons, are diesel-electric powered. The Upholders were renamed the Victoria Class upon commissioning in Canada. Submarines are strategic military weapons that have several roles including: intelligence gathering, inflicting surprise attacks, controlling shipping lanes and covert operations. For each of these roles the submarine must remain undetected. To remain undetected, it is imperative that the submarine remains submerged. To remain submerged and continue to function, a submarine requires an air-independent power generation system, such as a nuclear reactor. (author)

  11. Collective Training & Thinking in JAMD : The Italian JPOWX Experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, L.R.M.A.; Schavemaker-Piva, O.; Meijer, Y.G.S.; Nuvoloni, P.; Cioli, C.; Manca, R.; Argiolas, G.

    2009-01-01

    Mission Training through Distributed Simulation (MTDS) has established itself as a powerful tool for collective training in the military domain. This potential has been recognized by the Italian Joint Forces Command and has led to the Italian participation in the 10th edition of Exercise Joint

  12. Nuclear-powered submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, T.

    1989-01-01

    The proposed acquisition of nuclear-powered submarines by the Canadian Armed Forces raises a number of legitimate concerns, including that of their potential impact on the environment. The use of nuclear reactors as the propulsion units in these submarines merits special consideration. Radioactivity, as an environmental pollutant, has unique qualities and engenders particular fears among the general population. The effects of nuclear submarines on the environment fall into two distinct categories: those deriving from normal operations of the submarine (the chief concern of this paper), and those deriving from a reactor accident. An enormous body of data must exist to support the safe operation of nuclear submarines; however, little information on this aspect of the proposed submarine program has been made available to the Canadian public. (5 refs.)

  13. Sunken nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, V.O.

    1990-01-01

    The increasing number of accidents with nuclear submarines is a worriment to the general public. Five nuclear submarines are resting on the bottom of the North Atlantic. Design information on nuclear propulsion plants for submarines is classified. The author describes a potential generic nuclear submarine propulsion plant. Design information from the civilian nuclear industry, nuclear power plants, research reactors, nuclear cargo vessels and nuclear propelled icebreakers are used for illustration of relevant problems. A survey is given of nuclear submarines. Factors influencing the accident risks and safety characteristics of nuclear submarines are considered, and potential accident scenarios are described. The fission product content of the nuclear plant can be estimated, '' source terms'' can be guessed and potential release rates can be judged. The mechanisms of dispersion in the oceans is reviewed and compared with the dumping of radioactive waste in the Atlantic and other known releases. 46 refs., 49 figs., 14 tabs

  14. Submarine Medicine Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Submarine Medicine Team conducts basic and applied research on biomedical aspects of submarine and diving environments. It focuses on ways to optimize the health...

  15. The use of nuclear powered submarines for oceanographic research in ICE covered regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sambrotto, Raymond; Chayes, Dale

    2000-01-01

    unsurpassed platform for sea ice and geological and geophysics measurements because remote sensing of important properties in these disciplines is possible. Thus, the submarine was able to collect sea ice thickness and the topography and other characteristics of the bottom almost continuously along track, expanding available data for some of these parameters several fold. The mobility and extended duty period of nuclear submarines complement observations from surface ships and satellite sensors. Although the submarines were used without significant engineering modifications, improved sampling devices could overcome many of the limitations imposed by their restricted depth ranges. The continuing availability of dedicated science missions on military submarines is uncertain due to the reduced fleet size. However, even science measurements made on an ancillary basis during non-science cruises to ice covered seas would be highly informative. The Scicex program demonstrated that nuclear submarines are able to provide a unique observational platform for scientific measurements in ice covered seas that can be used for both basic and applied research. (author)

  16. Submarine hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Renilson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This book adopts a practical approach and presents recent research together with applications in real submarine design and operation. Topics covered include hydrostatics, manoeuvring, resistance and propulsion of submarines. The author briefly reviews basic concepts in ship hydrodynamics and goes on to show how they are applied to submarines, including a look at the use of physical model experiments. The issues associated with manoeuvring in both the horizontal and vertical planes are explained, and readers will discover suggested criteria for stability, along with rudder and hydroplane effectiveness. The book includes a section on appendage design which includes information on sail design, different arrangements of bow planes and alternative stern configurations. Other themes explored in this book include hydro-acoustic performance, the components of resistance and the effect of hull shape. Readers will value the author’s applied experience as well as the empirical expressions that are presented for use a...

  17. Russian Nuclear Submarines: U.S. Participation in the Arctic Military Environmental Cooperation Program Needs Better Justification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    .... AMEC has primarily focused on Russia's aging fleet of nuclear submarines. Section 324 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2004 required GAO to review AMEC, including its relationship to the Department of Defense's (DoD...

  18. To the problem of utilization of nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarakanov, E.; Larin, V.

    1999-01-01

    Paper discusses a concept of step-by-step utilization of nuclear submarines in Russia. By the late 2000 minimum 160 nuclear submarines with over 300 nuclear reactors should be removed. Unloading of spent nuclear fuel from reactors, dismounting of nuclear submarines, efforts to arrange storage facilities for liquid and solid radioactive waste are the main steps of nuclear submarine utilization. Under the rates of nuclear submarine utilization being as they are, the utilization of 160 nuclear submarines will take about 30 years. Paper analyzes the alternative variants of nuclear submarine utilization and discusses the social and ecological aspects of utilization of nuclear submarines [ru

  19. Changes in body composition of submarine crew during prolonged submarine deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Bhutani

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: Increased body fat along with lack of physical activity can lead to development of lifestyle disorders in submarine crew. These crew members need to be actively encouraged to participate in physical activity when in harbour. In addition dieting program specifically to encourage reduced fat consumption needs to be instituted in submarines during sorties at sea.

  20. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  1. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukharin, O.; Handler, J.

    1995-01-01

    Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems

  2. What the submarine is

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liuzzi, A

    1972-03-01

    A short review of submarine problems and design is presented. Included are trim and stability concepts; propulsion and steering gears (surface and submerged); batteries on a conventional (diesel) submarine; optical and electronic sensing equipments; and an outline of new hull designs and shipbuilding methods.

  3. Low cost submarine robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponlachart Chotikarn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A submarine robot is a semi-autonomous submarine robot used mainly for marine environmental research. We aim todevelop a low cost, semi-autonomous submarine robot which is able to travel underwater. The robot’s structure was designedand patented using a novel idea of the diving system employing a volume adjustment mechanism to vary the robot’s density.A light weight, flexibility and small structure provided by PVC can be used to construct the torpedo-liked shape robot.Hydraulic seal and O-ring rubbers are used to prevent water leaking. This robot is controlled by a wired communicationsystem.

  4. Analysis of SSN 688 Class Submarine Maintenance Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Simplified Notional Submarine FRP (Independent Deployer) ..................11  Figure 8.  Evolution of Los Angeles Class Submarine Notional...Number TFP Technical Foundation Paper URO Unrestricted Operations xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank my lead advisor, Professor Nick Dew...only on Los Angeles (SSN 688)-class submarines. Being the higher quantity and older generation submarine hull type, the Los Angeles class submarine

  5. Comparative safety assessment of surface versus submarine plutonium shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepper, D.S.; Feltus, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The recent shipment of plutonium from France to Japan aboard the freighter Akatsuki Maru touched off protests from environmental and antinuclear organizations. These protests arose from the fear of an accidental sinking of the vessel that would release its cargo to the sea, as well as the threat of a terrorist nation highjacking the ship for its cargo to produce atomic weapons. The sinking of a merchant ship is not uncommon, as illustrated by the famous losses of the tankers Amoco Cadiz and Exxon Valdez. The highjacking of a lightly armed freighter such as the Akatsuki Maru is possible and would not be unduly difficult for a well-equipped terrorist nation. The combined threats of weapons proliferation and environmental damage arising from the diversion or destruction of a sea vessel carrying plutonium will continue to abound as the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel increases. An alternate method for the transportation with reduced risks of both diversion and destruction needs to be developed. The shipment aboard the Akatsuki Maru was originally proposed to be flown from France to Japan over the continental United States. This proposal was rejected by the Reagan administration in 1988. A third alternative to the current ideas of air transport and surface transport is subsurface transport. This research project investigates the transportation of plutonium by submarine and compares it to the current method of transportation by freighter. This analysis involves a study of the military threat to a submarine by a terrorist nation and comparable threat to a surface vessel. To study the nonmilitary aspects of plutonium shipping, a fault-tree evaluation is performed for transportation by submarine and compared with the current risk analysis performed for surface vessels

  6. The Finmeccania experience in military conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airaghi, A.; Corsi, C.

    1994-01-01

    Experience of the Italian aerospace, defense, energy, transportation and automation group Finmeccanica in military conversion is presented. The defence activities represent about 30% of the total turnover. The group involves 100 laboratories, 7000 fully dedicated employees and several centers of excellence. Since defense market is declining, production volumes are smaller, there is a decline in research and development public expenditures and there are less programs. The industry's challenge is how to survive since conversion in principle is not viable and diversification does not defend the high technology content. Some examples are described which show the possibility of convergence from military to commercial requirements

  7. Nuclear Italy. An International history of Italian Nuclear Policies during the Cold War

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bini, Elisabetta; Londer, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the history of Italy’s nuclear policies during the Cold War, by placing the Italian case in an international and comparative framework. It highlights the importance the international context had in shaping the country’s specific experience, and analyzes the ways in which international politics and economics, technological and scientific exchanges, as well as social and cultural movements, influenced Italian nuclear policies, both civilian and military. All the essays published in this volume assume that the history of nuclear energy should be written by adopting an international perspective. The spread of nuclear knowledge (scientific, civilian, as well as military), and the implementation of nuclear policies, have a specific international dimension that should be taken into consideration, since no nuclear program has ever had a distinctly national character, and every country pursuing a nuclear policy has been, in one way or another, deeply influenced by the international context.

  8. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    important concern is a suite of products from chemical reactions among oxidizing compounds with biological chemicals such as amines, thiols and carbonyls. SAMAP Meeting We (Armin and Joachim) attended the 2011 SAMAP conference in Taranto, Italy (10-14 October), which occurred just a few weeks after the IABR meeting in Parma, Italy (11-15 September 2011). It was held at the Officers' Club of the Taranto Naval Base under the patronage of the Italian navy; the local host was Lucio Ricciardi of the University of Insubria, Varese, Italy. At the 2011 SAMAP meeting, the theme was air-independent propulsion (AIP), meaning the capability of recharging the main batteries of the submarine without the need to surface. Only a few navies (e.g. US, UK, France, Russia, China) have historically had this capability using nuclear-powered submarines that can function underwater for extended periods of time (months). Most navies operate submarines with conventional diesel-electric propulsion, wherein diesel-powered generators charge battery banks which then drive an electric motor connected to the propeller. The batteries are charged while the boat is on the surface or during snorkelling, when the boat is submerged a few meters below the surface and a snorkel tube is extended to the surface. The period between battery charges can vary from several hours to one or two days depending on the power requirements and the nature of the mission. The process is necessary for breathing air revitalization (flushing out accumulated contaminants) and for the operation of the diesel engines. However, during this period the submarine is vulnerable to detection. Since the 1940s there have been various attempts to develop a power generation system that is independent of external air (AIP). To this end hydrogen peroxide was initially used and later liquid oxygen (LOX). Currently, most AIP submarines use fuel cell technology (LOX and hydrogen) to supplement the conventional diesel-electric system in order to

  9. Potential tsunamigenic hazard associated to submarine mass movement along the Ionian continental margin (Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceramicola, S.; Tinti, S.; Praeg, D.; Zaniboni, F.; Planinsek, P.

    2012-04-01

    Submarine mass movements are natural geomorphic processes that transport marine sediment down continental slopes into deep-marine environments. Type of mass wasting include creep, slides, slump, debris flows, each with its own features and taking place over timescale from seconds to years. Submarine landslides can be triggered by a number of different causes, either internal (such as changes in physical chemical sediment properties) or external (e.g. earthquakes, volcanic activity, salt movements, sea level changes etc.). Landslides may mobilize sediments in such a way as to form an impulsive vertical displacement of a body of water, originating a wave or series of waves with long wavelengths and long periods called tsunamis ('harbor waves'). Over 600 km of continental margin has been investigated by OGS in the Ionian sea using geophysical data - morpho-bathymetry (Reson 8111, 8150) and sub-bottom profiles (7-10 KHz) - collected aboard the research vessel OGS Explora in the framework of the MAGIC Project (Marine Geohazard along the Italian Coasts), funded by the Italian Civil Protection. The objective of this project is the definition of elements that may constitute geological risk for coastal areas. Geophysical data allowed the recognition of four main types of mass wasting phenomena along the slopes of the ICM: 1) mass transport complexes (MTCs) within intra-slope basins. Seabed imagery show the slopes of all the seabed ridges to be marked by headwall scarps recording widespread failure, multiple debris flows in several basins indicate one or more past episodes of failure that may be linked to activity on the faults bounding the structural highs. 2) submarine landslide - a multiple failure event have been identified (Assi landslide) at about 6 km away from the coastline nearby Riace Marina. Headwall scars up to 50 m high across water depths of 700 to 1400 m, while sub-bottom profiles indicate stacked slide deposits at and near seabed. 4) canyon headwalls - in the

  10. Arctic Submarine Slope Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, D.; Geissler, W.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine landsliding represents aside submarine earthquakes major natural hazard to coastal and sea-floor infrastructure as well as to coastal communities due to their ability to generate large-scale tsunamis with their socio-economic consequences. The investigation of submarine landslides, their conditions and trigger mechanisms, recurrence rates and potential impact remains an important task for the evaluation of risks in coastal management and offshore industrial activities. In the light of a changing globe with warming oceans and rising sea-level accompanied by increasing human population along coasts and enhanced near- and offshore activities, slope stability issues gain more importance than ever before. The Arctic exhibits the most rapid and drastic changes and is predicted to change even faster. Aside rising air temperatures, enhanced inflow of less cooled Atlantic water into the Arctic Ocean reduces sea-ice cover and warms the surroundings. Slope stability is challenged considering large areas of permafrost and hydrates. The Hinlopen/Yermak Megaslide (HYM) north of Svalbard is the first and so far only reported large-scale submarine landslide in the Arctic Ocean. The HYM exhibits the highest headwalls that have been found on siliciclastic margins. With more than 10.000 square kilometer areal extent and app. 2.400 cubic kilometer of involved sedimentary material, it is one of the largest exposed submarine slides worldwide. Geometry and age put this slide in a special position in discussing submarine slope stability on glaciated continental margins. The HYM occurred 30 ka ago, when the global sea-level dropped by app. 50 m within less than one millennium due to rapid onset of global glaciation. It probably caused a tsunami with circum-Arctic impact and wave heights exceeding 130 meters. The HYM affected the slope stability field in its neighbourhood by removal of support. Post-megaslide slope instability as expressed in creeping and smaller-scaled slides are

  11. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  12. Anaerobic methanotrophic communities thrive in deep submarine permafrost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Matthias; Mitzscherling, Julia; Overduin, Pier P; Horn, Fabian; Winterfeld, Maria; Rijkers, Ruud; Grigoriev, Mikhail N; Knoblauch, Christian; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wagner, Dirk; Liebner, Susanne

    2018-01-22

    Thawing submarine permafrost is a source of methane to the subsurface biosphere. Methane oxidation in submarine permafrost sediments has been proposed, but the responsible microorganisms remain uncharacterized. We analyzed archaeal communities and identified distinct anaerobic methanotrophic assemblages of marine and terrestrial origin (ANME-2a/b, ANME-2d) both in frozen and completely thawed submarine permafrost sediments. Besides archaea potentially involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) we found a large diversity of archaea mainly belonging to Bathyarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota. Methane concentrations and δ 13 C-methane signatures distinguish horizons of potential AOM coupled either to sulfate reduction in a sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) or to the reduction of other electron acceptors, such as iron, manganese or nitrate. Analysis of functional marker genes (mcrA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) corroborate potential activity of AOM communities in submarine permafrost sediments at low temperatures. Modeled potential AOM consumes 72-100% of submarine permafrost methane and up to 1.2 Tg of carbon per year for the total expected area of submarine permafrost. This is comparable with AOM habitats such as cold seeps. We thus propose that AOM is active where submarine permafrost thaws, which should be included in global methane budgets.

  13. Monitoring of radioactivity at the Russian nuclear submarine Kursk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, I.; Lind, B.

    2002-01-01

    In the morning of August 12th 2000, a Russian submarine accident occurred in international waters east of Rybatschi Peninsula in the Barents Sea about 250 km from Norway. The submarine, a Russian Oscar class II attack submarine, sunk to 116 meters depth at the position 69 deg. 36,99N, 37 deg. 34,50E. The submarine 'Kursk' is 154 meters long, equipped with two pressurised water reactors and the submerged displacement is 24000 tons. Each reactor has a thermal effect or 190 megawatt, or less than 10% of a typical nuclear power plant reactor. The submarines in Oscar-II class is one of the largest and most capable in the Russian Northern Fleet. No indications of leakage from the submarine have so far been observed during the monitoring expeditions. Elevated levels of radioactivity have note been detected in any dose-rate readings or at any of the measurements of environmental samples taken close to Kursk. Furthermore, no increased levels were measured on bits and pieces from the submarine or from water sampled inside the submarine. A more comprehensive report covering experience and monitoring results from the two expeditions term and impact assessments of possible future releases from Kursk. (LN)

  14. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  15. What threat do turbidity currents and submarine landslides pose to submarine telecommunications cable infrastructure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Michael; Pope, Edward; Talling, Peter; Hunt, James; Carter, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    The global economy relies on uninterrupted usage of a network of telecommunication cables on the seafloor. These submarine cables carry ~99% of all trans-oceanic digital data and voice communications traffic worldwide, as they have far greater bandwidth than satellites. Over 9 million SWIFT banks transfers alone were made using these cables in 2004, totalling 7.4 trillion of transactions per day between 208 countries, which grew to 15 million SWIFT bank transactions last year. We outline the challenge of why, how often, and where seafloor cables are broken by natural causes; primarily subsea landslides and sediment flows (turbidity currents and also debris flows and hyperpycnal flows). These slides and flows can be very destructive. As an example, a sediment flow in 1929 travelled up to 19 m/s and broke 11 cables in the NE Atlantic, running out for ~800 km to the abyssal ocean. The 2006 Pingtung earthquake triggered a sediment flow that broke 22 cables offshore Taiwan over a distance of 450 km. Here, we present initial results from the first statistical analysis of a global database of cable breaks and causes. We first investigate the controls on frequency of submarine cable breaks in different environmental and geological settings worldwide. We assess which types of earthquake pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks. Meteorological events, such as hurricanes and typhoons, pose a significant threat to submarine cable networks, so we also discuss the potential impacts of future climate change on the frequency of such hazards. We then go on to ask what are the physical impacts of submarine sediment flows on submerged cables? A striking observation from past cable breaks is sometimes cables remain unbroken, whilst adjacent cables are severed (and record powerful flows travelling at up to 6 m/s). Why are some cables broken, but neighbouring cables remain intact? We provide some explanations for this question, and outline the need for future in

  16. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Li, Yang; Su, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  17. TEMPS-A[P] temperament profile related to professional choice. Differences between applicants to become a cadet officer in the Italian Air Force or Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, Luca; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Leonardi, Annalisa; Bacciardi, Silvia; Rugani, Fabio; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Akiskal, Hagop S; Maremmani, Icro

    2013-02-15

    Temperament appears to be a factor involved in professional attitudes. The most impressive findings are those on the importance of cyclothymia in art and of hyperthymia in leadership. In this study we raise the issue of whether the relationship between hyperthymic temperament and the choice of a military career, previously reported among Italian Air Force applicants, can be extended to another military service such as the Italian Navy. We compared temperaments between those who had applied to become a cadet officer in the Italian Air Force or in the Italian Navy, with special reference to gender differences and the ability of the two types of applicants to pass the psychiatric examination for admission that we had recently assessed in the Italian Air Force. Hyperthymic traits were well represented in both these armed services. Navy applicants differed from air-force applicants in obtaining higher depressive, cyclothymic and irritable scores. Navy applicants who passed the psychiatric entrance examination (PEE) showed the same incidence of hyperthymic temperament as their Air Force counterparts, but higher depressive, cyclothymic and irritable scores. Considering gender, among Air Force applicants depressive traits were better represented in males; conversely, among Navy applicants they were better represented in females. If we consider gender together with PEE results, the highest hyperthymic scores were more frequently found among males who passed and females who failed to pass the PEE. On the other hand, a greater number of cyclothymic traits were found in females who passed and males who failed to pass the PEE. It was confirmed that hyperthymic temperament represents the temperamental profile of those who aim to become a cadet officer in the Italian armed forces. This study further supports the idea that hyperthymic traits bring distinct advantages in a professional field, such as a military career, which is closely related to leadership. Copyright © 2012

  18. Influence of Anchoring on Burial Depth of Submarine Pipelines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhuang

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, there has been widespread construction of submarine oil-gas transmission pipelines due to an increase in offshore oil exploration. Vessel anchoring operations are causing more damage to submarine pipelines due to shipping transportation also increasing. Therefore, it is essential that the influence of anchoring on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines is determined. In this paper, mathematical models for ordinary anchoring and emergency anchoring have been established to derive an anchor impact energy equation for each condition. The required effective burial depth for submarine pipelines has then been calculated via an energy absorption equation for the protection layer covering the submarine pipelines. Finally, the results of the model calculation have been verified by accident case analysis, and the impact of the anchoring height, anchoring water depth and the anchor weight on the required burial depth of submarine pipelines has been further analyzed.

  19. Submarine Landslides: What we Know and Where we are Going!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscardelli, L. G.; Mountjoy, J. J.; Micallef, A.; Strasser, M.; Vanneste, M.; Chaytor, J. D.; Mosher, D.; Krastel, S.; Lo Iacono, C.; Yamada, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine landslides and other gravity-induced movements can disrupt very large areas of continental margins resulting in long-term seafloor morphologic change and multi-scale mass transport deposits (MTDs). Potential consequences of submarine landslides include damage to seabed infrastructure, offshore facilities, as well as generation or enhancement of tsunamis. MTDs are common on the modern seafloor and within the stratigraphic record. Slides, slumps and debris flows can be constituents of MTDs and can co-occur in the same event or depositional unit. Recent research indicates that relationships exist between MTD geological setting, causal mechanisms, and geometries. Quantitative data analysis suggests that MTD morphometric parameters can be used to link these three parameters. Despite many advances in this field, it still remains unclear how to definitively identify pre-conditioning factors and triggers of submarine landslides in modern slopes, and how submarine landslides evolve after initiation. In addition, new questions regarding the interaction between submarine landslides and active marine processes, such as bottom currents and fluid flow, have emerged.One of the mandates of the S4SLIDE (IGCP-640) project, a joint endeavor of UNESCO and IGCP that represents the broad field of submarine landslide research, is to facilitate interactions at an international level among scientists, industry and government representatives to advance our knowledge on a number of outstanding science questions: (i) What is the nature of the interaction between current-controlled sedimentation and submarine landslides? (ii) What role do transient turbulent-laminar flows play in the formation of submarine landslides? (iii) Do climatic variations control the occurrence of submarine landslides? (iv) What is the economic significance of submarine landslides? (v) Do we understand the hazards that submarine landslides pose to the environment and to humans? This presentation will cover

  20. Worldwide Emerging Environmental Issues Affecting the U.S. Military. September 2006 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Environmental, Health, and Security Issues Related to Nanotechnology………………………………………………………………..11 8.2.2 Nanotechnology and the Food and Agriculture ...Secretariat is located at the UN Food and Agriculture Organization headquarters in Rome and is supported by the Italian Ministry for the Environment...liquid/ hydrogel layer, maximizing sensitivity. Military Implications: The military should investigate the incorporation of this new technology into

  1. Chemical environments of submarine hydrothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L.

    1992-01-01

    Perhaps because black-smoker chimneys make tremendous subjects for magazine covers, the proposal that submarine hydrothermal systems were involved in the origin of life has caused many investigators to focus on the eye-catching hydrothermal vents. In much the same way that tourists rush to watch the spectacular eruptions of Old Faithful geyser with little regard for the hydrology of the Yellowstone basin, attention is focused on the spectacular, high-temperature hydrothermal vents to the near exclusion of the enormous underlying hydrothermal systems. Nevertheless, the magnitude and complexity of geologic structures, heat flow, and hydrologic parameters which characterize the geyser basins at Yellowstone also characterize submarine hydrothermal systems. However, in the submarine systems the scale can be considerably more vast. Like Old Faithful, submarine hydrothermal vents have a spectacular quality, but they are only one fascinating aspect of enormous geologic systems operating at seafloor spreading centers throughout all of the ocean basins. A critical study of the possible role of hydrothermal processes in the origin of life should include the full spectrum of probable environments. The goals of this chapter are to synthesize diverse information about the inorganic geochemistry of submarine hydrothermal systems, assemble a description of the fundamental physical and chemical attributes of these systems, and consider the implications of high-temperature, fluid-driven processes for organic synthesis. Information about submarine hydrothermal systems comes from many directions. Measurements made directly on venting fluids provide useful, but remarkably limited, clues about processes operating at depth. The oceanic crust has been drilled to approximately 2.0 km depth providing many other pieces of information, but drilling technology has not allowed the bore holes and core samples to reach the maximum depths to which aqueous fluids circulate in oceanic crust. Such

  2. Monitoring of the nuclear submarine Komsomolets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde E.; Flo, Janita K.; Liebig, Penny L. [Institute of Marine Research, P. O. Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Gaefvert, Torbjoern; Rudjord, Anne Liv [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Gwynn, Justin P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, The Fram Centre, N-9296 Tromsoe (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The Soviet nuclear submarine Komsomolets sank on the 7 April 1989, 180 km southwest of Bear Island in the Norwegian Sea to a depth of about 1655 m. The submarine contains one nuclear reactor containing long-lived radionuclides such as cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) along with other fission and activation products, in addition to 2 mixed uranium/plutonium nuclear warheads containing weapons grade plutonium. Although several model studies have shown that a radioactive leakage from Komsomolets will have insignificant impact on fish and other marine organisms, there are still public concerns about the condition of the submarine and the potential for radioactive leakage. In order to document the contamination levels and to meet public concerns, monitoring of radioactive contamination in the area adjacent to the submarine has been ongoing since 1993. Samples of bottom seawater and sediments have been collected annually by the Institute of Marine Research (IMR) and have been analysed for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium-239,240 ({sup 239,240}Pu). So far, activity concentrations in the samples have been comparable to levels found in other samples from the Norwegian and Barents Seas. During sampling from R/V 'G. O. Sars' in April 2013, an area of about 1 km{sup 2} of the seabed around Komsomolets was mapped to precisely locate the submarine using a Kongsberg EM302 multibeam echo sounder, a Simrad EK60 single beam echo sounder and an Olex 3D bottom-mapping system. For sediment sampling, a Simrad MST342 mini-transponder was attached to a Smoegen box corer to allow for precise positioning of the corer. With the aid of the Kongsberg HiPAP (High Precision Acoustic Positioning) system, 4 box cores were collected around the submarine at a distance of 10 to 20 m. In addition, one box core was collected from a reference station about 100 m upstream of the submarine. Surface sediments and sediment cores were collected from the box cores taken at each sampling location. Sediment cores

  3. Submarine fans: A critical retrospective (1950–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Shanmugam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available When we look back the contributions on submarine fans during the past 65 years (1950–2015, the empirical data on 21 modern submarine fans and 10 ancient deep-water systems, published by the results of the First COMFAN (Committee on FANs Meeting (Bouma et al., 1985a, have remained the single most significant compilation of data on submarine fans. The 1970s were the “heyday” of submarine fan models. In the 21st century, the general focus has shifted from submarine fans to submarine mass movements, internal waves and tides, and contourites. The purpose of this review is to illustrate the complexity of issues surrounding the origin and classification of submarine fans. The principal elements of submarine fans, composed of canyons, channels, and lobes, are discussed using nine modern case studies from the Mediterranean Sea, the Equatorial Atlantic, the Gulf of Mexico, the North Pacific, the NE Indian Ocean (Bay of Bengal, and the East Sea (Korea. The Annot Sandstone (Eocene–Oligocene, exposed at Peira-Cava area, SE France, which served as the type locality for the “Bouma Sequence”, was reexamined. The field details are documented in questioning the validity of the model, which was the basis for the turbidite-fan link. The 29 fan-related models that are of conceptual significance, developed during the period 1970–2015, are discussed using modern and ancient systems. They are: (1 the classic submarine fan model with attached lobes, (2 the detached-lobe model, (3 the channel-levee complex without lobes, (4 the delta-fed ramp model, (5 the gully-lobe model, (6 the suprafan lobe model, (7 the depositional lobe model, (8 the fan lobe model, (9 the ponded lobe model, (10 the nine models based on grain size and sediment source, (11 the four fan models based on tectonic settings, (12 the Jackfork debrite model, (13 the basin-floor fan model, (14 supercritical and subcritical fans, and (15 the three types of fan reservoirs. Each model is unique

  4. Improved Submariner Eyewear for Routine Wear and Emergency Equipment Use Underway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    information. 2.0 DESCRIPTION Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory (NSMRL) is seeking information from the eyewear industry that will provide...Improved Submariner Eyewear for Routine Wear and Emergency Equipment Use Underway by Alison America, MA Wayne G. Horn, MD...Submariner Eyewear for Routine Wear and Emergency Equipment Use Underway 50818 Alison America, MA Wayne G. Horn, MD Naval Submarine Medical Research

  5. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    1472G. VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan and Preliminary Results © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of...19 th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium Title: VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VICTORIA Class Submarine Human-in-the-Loop Experimentation Plan 5a. CONTRACT

  6. Index of Submarine Medical Officer’s Qualification Theses 1944-1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    USING HYPOTHERMIA AND HYPERBARIC CXYGENATI 1972-3011 0 A CASE REPO+ HYPOBARIC HYPOXIA ABOARD A SUBMERGED SUBMARINE 1972-0014 THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE HYPOXIA...G009 LEVEL. VENTILATORY DYNAMICS UNDER HYPERBARIC STATES.= SUBMARINE MEDICAL QUALIFICATION THESES U. So NAVAL SJBMARINE MEDICAL CENTER SUBMARINE BASE...CONNECTICUT. 23 OCT 62 StJRL ____________ 1962-0019 WOO3D W.- - ____ VENTILATORY DYNAMICS UNDER HYPERBARIC STATES.= SUBMARINE MEDICAL QUALIFICATION THESES

  7. 33 CFR 165.1302 - Bangor Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bangor Naval Submarine Base... Bangor Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, WA. (a) Location. The following is a security zone: The waters of... States Naval vessels. (ii) Vessels that are performing work at Naval Submarine Base Bangor pursuant to a...

  8. Phase 1 Final Report: Titan Submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Paul, Michael V.

    2015-01-01

    The conceptual design of a submarine for Saturn's moon Titan was a funded NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase 1 for 2014. The proposal stated the desire to investigate what science a submarine for Titan's liquid hydrocarbon seas might accomplish and what that submarine might look like. Focusing on a flagship class science system (100 kg), it was found that a submersible platform can accomplish extensive science both above and below the surface of the Kraken Mare. Submerged science includes mapping using side-looking sonar, imaging and spectroscopy of the lake, as well as sampling of the lake's bottom and shallow shoreline. While surfaced, the submarine will not only sense weather conditions (including the interaction between the liquid and atmosphere) but also image the shoreline, as much as 2 km inland. This imaging requirement pushed the landing date to Titan's next summer period (2047) to allow for lighted conditions, as well as direct-to-Earth communication, avoiding the need for a separate relay orbiter spacecraft. Submerged and surfaced investigation are key to understanding both the hydrological cycle of Titan as well as gather hints to how life may have begun on Earth using liquid, sediment, and chemical interactions. An estimated 25 Mb of data per day would be generated by the various science packages. Most of the science packages (electronics at least) can be safely kept inside the submarine pressure vessel and warmed by the isotope power system.The baseline 90-day mission would be to sail submerged and surfaced around and through Kraken Mare investigating the shoreline and inlets to evaluate the sedimentary interaction both on the surface and then below. Depths of Kraken have yet to be sensed (Ligeia to the north is thought to be 200 m (656 ft) deep), but a maximum depth of 1,000 m (3,281 ft) for Kraken Mare was assumed for the design). The sub would spend 20 d at the interface between Kraken Mare and Ligeia Mare for clues to the drainage of

  9. Submarine films as narratives of masculinity

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Alex

    2002-01-01

    The research for this thesis is on representations of masculinity in Anglo-American submarine films since 1943. The discussion will draw on relevant work on the representation of masculinity and popular cinema in film and cultural studies. In particular, the thesis will account for the notion of hegemony in relation to masculinity in the submarine film. Further, the notion of hegemonic masculinity will be addressed in terms of four key claims. These are as follows: that relations between grou...

  10. On the geotechnical characterisation of the polluted submarine sediments from Taranto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitone, Claudia; Federico, Antonio; Puzrin, Alexander M; Ploetze, Michael; Carrassi, Elettra; Todaro, Francesco

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the results of the first geomechanical laboratory experiments carried out on the polluted submarine clayey sediments of the Mar Piccolo in Taranto (South of Italy). The study had to face with extreme difficulties for the very soft consistency of the sediments and the contaminants. The mineralogy, composition and physical properties of the sediments were analysed, along with their compression and shearing behaviour. The investigation involved sediments up to about 20 m below the seafloor, along three vertical profiles in the most polluted area of the Mar Piccolo, facing the Italian Navy Arsenal. The experimental results were used to derive a preliminary geotechnical model of the site, necessary for the selection and design of the most sustainable in situ mitigation solutions. Moreover, the experimental data reveal that the clayey sediments of the most polluted top layer do not follow the classical geotechnical correlations for normally consolidated deposits. This seems to open interesting perspectives about the effects of pollutants on the geotechnical behaviour of the investigated sediments.

  11. The Ministry of Dilemmas [decommissioning nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1995-01-01

    A consultant for Greenpeace, the anti-nuclear campaigners, looks at the United Kingdom Government's problems with decommissioning of its nuclear submarine fleet as the vessels become obsolete, and at the transport and storage of spent fuels from the submarine's propulsion reactors. It is argued that no proper plans exist to decommission the vessels safely. The Ministry of Defence sites such as Rosyth and Devonport are immune from inspection by regulatory bodies, so there is no public knowledge of any potential radioactive hazards from the stored out-of-service carcasses, floating in dock, awaiting more active strategies. The author questions the wisdom of building new nuclear submarines, when no proper program exists to decommission existing vessels and their operational waste. (U.K.)

  12. Cappellani militari e prospettive di riforma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cavana

    2016-03-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Riforma dell’assistenza spirituale nelle Forze armate e impegni pattizi - 2. L’evoluzione dei sistemi di difesa in Europa e la sua incidenza sull’assistenza spirituale: il passaggio dalla coscrizione obbligatoria a un servizio di tipo professionale - 3. L’assistenza spirituale tra modello confessionista e modello pluralista. Le ragioni del ritardo legislativo - 4. L’inquadramento dei cappellani militari all’interno delle Forze armate, tra esigenze di ammodernamento e tendenze alla smilitarizzazione - 5. Inquadramento gerarchico dei cappellani militari e tradizione storica - 6. Inquadramento militare dei cappellani, principio di laicità ed esigenze funzionali - 7. Compiti delle Forze armate, principi costituzionali e nuovo ruolo dei cappellani militari - 8. La recente valorizzazione del ruolo dei cappellani militari nel sistema di difesa NATO. Osservazioni conclusive. Abstract: Military Chaplaincy in the process of reform This paper examines the service of spiritual assistance in the State military forces according to the Italian system of law, in the context of their current evolution given to the principles of the Constitution and the changing international situation and policy. After some preliminary remarks about the origins of the present debate, it compares the models of other countries concerning the service of military chaplains and focuses on the issue of their juridic status as commissioned officers in the Army, taking into consideration the advantages and disadvantages of this legal framework. In the end it makes some conclusive remarks about the new role of chaplains in military organizations, not only religious support but also advisor to the command on issue of religion and ethics and liaison with local religious leaders in an effort to understand the role of religion as both a factor in hostility and war and as a force for reconciliation and peace.

  13. Modeling Submarine Lava Flow with ASPECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storvick, E. R.; Lu, H.; Choi, E.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine lava flow is not easily observed and experimented on due to limited accessibility and challenges posed by the fast solidification of lava and the associated drastic changes in rheology. However, recent advances in numerical modeling techniques might address some of these challenges and provide unprecedented insight into the mechanics of submarine lava flow and conditions determining its wide-ranging morphologies. In this study, we explore the applicability ASPECT, Advanced Solver for Problems in Earth's ConvecTion, to submarine lava flow. ASPECT is a parallel finite element code that solves problems of thermal convection in the Earth's mantle. We will assess ASPECT's capability to model submarine lava flow by observing models of lava flow morphology simulated with GALE, a long-term tectonics finite element analysis code, with models created using comparable settings and parameters in ASPECT. From these observations we will contrast the differing models in order to identify the benefits of each code. While doing so, we anticipate we will learn about the conditions required for end-members of lava flow morphology, for example, pillows and sheet flows. With ASPECT specifically we focus on 1) whether the lava rheology can be implemented; 2) how effective the AMR is in resolving morphologies of the solidified crust; 3) whether and under what conditions the end-members of the lava flow morphologies, pillows and sheets, can be reproduced.

  14. Geo-hazard by sediment mass movements in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaith, Afif; Fakhri, Milad; Ivaldi, Roberta; Ciavola, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Submarine mass movements and their consequences are of major concern for coastal communities and infrastructures but also for the exploitation and the development of seafloor resources. Elevated awareness of the need for better understanding of the underwater mass movement is coupled with great advances in underwater mapping technologies over the past two decades. The seafloor in the Nahr Ibrahim and Saida regions (Lebanon) is characterized by deep canyons, reaching one thousand meters depths in proximity of the coast. Signs of submarine mass movement instability related to these canyons create a connection between shallow and deep water. The presence of these canyons in a tectonically active area generates a particular drained mechanism to the sediment in form of mass movement and slumping. Identification of potential areas where slope movements could be triggered requires data with high spatial resolution. Since this area is poorly explored, in the framework of an international project between Lebanese Navy, Lebanese National Center for Marine Sciences, University of Ferrara and Italian Hydrographic Institute, we analyse the morpho-bathymetric and sedimentological characters of the coastal and shelf sectors. Multibeam echosounder and sub-bottom profiler acoustic systems calibrated with ground truths (sediment grab and core samples) allow us to characterize the nature of seafloor and sub-seafloor with particular detail to the geotechnical properties of sediments and high resolution seismic stratigraphy of the shallow layers. The detection of particular undersea features provides detail maps which are in support to littoral morpho-dynamics, coastal transport and sediment budget. Multilayer hydro-oceanographic map, referring to the seafloor dynamics in connection with deep water environment and drainage system, in accordance to the International Hydrographic Standards and nautical supports, are produced. This high resolution multibeam bathymetry dataset, integrated

  15. 'Good Hunting': German submarine offensives and South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By the latter half of 1942, the High Command of the German U-boats (BdU) realised that the 'sinking results' of the North Atlantic had decreased immensely. The successes of the Allied anti-submarine operations in the North Atlantic precluded the successful employment of the German submarines in said waters.

  16. Submarine tectonic relief off Enshunada. Enshunadaoki no hendo chikei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwabuchi, Y; Sasahara, N; Hamamoto, F [Maritime Safety Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Yoshioka, S [10th Resional Maritime Safety Headquarters, Kagoshima (Japan); Kondo, T [Maritime Safety School, Kyoto (Japan)

    1991-08-15

    This paper reports on the results of investigations on the submarine relief structure off the Enshunada (a sea area which is on the south of the Tenryu River mouth and has about 50km east and west and about 100km north and south) using a bathymetric surveying ship equipped with a narrow multibeam echo sounder. The submarine relief structure of this sea area is clarified into the following topographical districts arranged north to south (each extends roughly in the northeast-southwest direction): the Enshu trough and Tenryu submarine canyon upper valley located in the center thereof, ridges represented by No.l and No.2 Tenryu knolls, the ridge and trough zone where minor ridges and troughes appear complicatedly and repeatedly, and the Nankai trough. The paper contains causes of formation of the Tenryu submarine canyon, the Ryuyo submarine canyon which is located in the northwestern slope of No.2 Tenryu knoll and has a distinct shape, oval-shaped domes scattered in the bottom of Nankai trough, etc. and also opinions on landslide topography seen in the ridge and trough zone. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Lack of evidence for post-vaccine onset of autoimmune/lymphoproliferative disorders, during a nine-month follow-up in multiply vaccinated Italian military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlito, Claudia; Barnaba, Vincenzo; Abrignani, Sergio; Bombaci, Mauro; Sette, Alessandro; Sidney, John; Biselli, Roberto; Tomao, Enrico; Cattaruzza, Maria Sofia; Germano, Valentina; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Salerno, Gerardo; Lulli, Patrizia; Caporuscio, Sara; Picchianti Diamanti, Andrea; Falco, Mirella; Biselli, Valentina; Cardelli, Patrizia; Autore, Alberto; Lucertini, Elena; De Cesare, Donato Pompeo; Peragallo, Mario Stefano; Lista, Florigio; Martire, Carmela; Salemi, Simonetta; Nisini, Roberto; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    Anecdotal case reports, amplified by mass media and internet-based opinion groups, have recently indicated vaccinations as possibly responsible for autoimmunity/lymphoproliferation development. Multiply vaccinated Italian military personnel (group 1, operating in Italy, group 2, operating in Lebanon) were followed-up for nine months to monitor possible post-vaccine autoimmunity/lymphoproliferation onset. No serious adverse event was noticed in both groups. Multivariate analysis of intergroup differences only showed a significant association between lymphocyte increase and tetanus/diphtheria vaccine administration. A significant post-vaccine decrease in autoantibody positivity was observed. Autoantibodies were also studied by microarray analysis of self-proteins in subjects exposed to ≥4 concurrent vaccinations, without observing significant difference among baseline and one and nine months post-vaccine. Moreover, HLA-A2 subjects have been analyzed for the possible CD8T-cell response to apoptotic self-epitopes, without observing significant difference between baseline and one month post-vaccine. Multiple vaccinations in young adults are safe and not associated to autoimmunity/lymphoproliferation onset during a nine-month-long follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Introduction to the special issue on submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Chuen Chen Jia-Jyun Dong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Submarine landslides frequently occur in passive continental margins or active margins (Hampton et al. 1996; Wynn et al. 2000; Mienert et al. 2002; Korup et al. 2007; Twichell et al. 2009; Cukur et al. 2016. Submarine landslides have been studied extensively not only for scientific research but also for submarine geohazards. Submarine landslides could jeopardize marine infrastructures, such as offshore drilling platforms or submarine telecommunication cables, and could even trigger disastrous tsunamis (Bondevik et al. 2005; Harbitz et al. 2006; Hornbach et al. 2007, 2008; Hsu et al. 2008; Su et al. 2012; Tappin et al. 2014; Li et al. 2015. For instance, one disastrous tsunami hitting the coastal area of southwestern Taiwan in 1781 or 1782 was reported (Chen 1830; Hsu 1983; the tsunami event was probably generated by submarine landslides in the offshore area of southwestern Taiwan (Li et al. 2015. Moreover, several submarine landslides triggered by the 2006 Pingtung earthquake have induced turbidity currents off southwest Taiwan and destroyed about 14 submarine telecommunication cables off SW Taiwan (Hsu et al. 2008. The area of southwest Taiwan currently has a dense population (more than 3 million people in total, one deep-water Kaohsiung Port, several tanks of liquefied natural gas and a nuclear power plant on the coast (Fig. 1. Numerous submarine telecommunication cables exist off SW Taiwan. If a considerable tsunami event would hit again the costal area of SW Taiwan, the damage could very serious. Likewise, there are two nuclear power plants on the coast of northern Taiwan (Fig. 2, and the population in northern Taiwan has more than 10 million people. Submarine telecommunication cables also exist off northern Taiwan. In any case, it is important to understand the status of seafloor stability in the offshore areas of SW and NE Taiwan. For that, this special issue of submarine geohazard records and potential seafloor instability is aimed to

  19. Operational Planning for Theater Anti-Submarine Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    or P-8 as a supplementary platform to a ship or sub and never assigned to search alone . This thesis allows the MPRA to search alone and has 10 a...Marina, I will truly miss sitting in class with you guys wondering what a basis is. Finally, to my dog, Dougie: thank you for not eating my homework...can have trouble searching and tracking one submarine, let alone multiple submarines in different regions or mission areas. B. LITERATURE REVIEW

  20. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  1. Durable terrestrial bedrock predicts submarine canyon formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot; Finnegan, Noah J.; Mueller, Erich R.; Best, Rebecca J.

    2017-01-01

    Though submarine canyons are first-order topographic features of Earth, the processes responsible for their occurrence remain poorly understood. Potentially analogous studies of terrestrial rivers show that the flux and caliber of transported bedload are significant controls on bedrock incision. Here we hypothesize that coarse sediment load could exert a similar role in the formation of submarine canyons. We conducted a comprehensive empirical analysis of canyon occurrence along the West Coast of the contiguous United States which indicates that submarine canyon occurrence is best predicted by the occurrence of durable crystalline bedrock in adjacent terrestrial catchments. Canyon occurrence is also predicted by the flux of bed sediment to shore from terrestrial streams. Surprisingly, no significant correlation was observed between canyon occurrence and the slope or width of the continental shelf. These findings suggest that canyon incision is promoted by greater yields of durable terrestrial clasts to the shore.

  2. Fracture propagation in gas pipelines - relevance to submarine lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnehough, G D [British Gas Corp., Newcastle upon Tyne. Engineering Research Station

    1976-09-01

    This paper reviews the factors which control fracture propagation in pipes and suggests how they are influenced by submarine environments. If fracture arrest capability is required then these factors should be considered in terms of the design philosophy and the maximum tolerable length of fracture which can be repaired. The paper shows that brittle fracture characteristics of submarine pipelines are probably similar to land based lines and fracture arrest can only be guaranteed by appropriate material toughness specification. Resistance to ductile fracture propagation in submarine lines is enhanced by lower design stresses, thicker pipe, concrete coating and the effect of hydrostatic head on gas dynamics. However, additional factors due to submarine design can be deleterious viz: uncertainty about backfill integrity and a tendency of thicker steels to low fracture resistance arising from 'separation' formation. Attention is drawn to problems which may arise with transportation of gases rich in hydrocarbons and the use of mechanical methods of fracture arrest.

  3. Italian and Italian American Identity: A Visual Approach | Krase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This essay is a brief exploration of the related concepts of Italian Ethnicity and Italian Ethnic Identity via a Visual Sociological study of two geographically different venues — Italian American neighbourhoods in the United States and neighbourhoods in Rome, Italy. By studying the Vernacular Landscape (Jackson, 1984) via ...

  4. Submarine landslides on the north continental slope of the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiwei; Wang, Dawei; Wu, Shiguo; Völker, David; Zeng, Hongliu; Cai, Guanqiang; Li, Qingping

    2018-02-01

    Recent and paleo-submarine landslides are widely distributed within strata in deep-water areas along continental slopes, uplifts, and carbonate platforms on the north continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS). In this paper, high-resolution 3D seismic data and multibeam data based on seismic sedimentology and geomorphology are employed to assist in identifying submarine landslides. In addition, deposition models are proposed that are based on specific geological structures and features, and which illustrate the local stress field over entire submarine landslides in deep-water areas of the SCS. The SCS is one of the largest fluvial sediment sinks in enclosed or semi-enclosed marginal seas worldwide. It therefore provides a set of preconditions for the formation of submarine landslides, including rapid sediment accumulation, formation of gas hydrates, and fluid overpressure. A new concept involving temporal and spatial analyses is tested to construct a relationship between submarine landslides and different time scale trigger mechanisms, and three mechanisms are discussed in the context of spatial scale and temporal frequency: evolution of slope gradient and overpressure, global environmental changes, and tectonic events. Submarine landslides that are triggered by tectonic events are the largest but occur less frequently, while submarine landslides triggered by the combination of slope gradient and over-pressure evolution are the smallest but most frequently occurring events. In summary, analysis shows that the formation of submarine landslides is a complex process involving the operation of different factors on various time scales.

  5. SCICEX: Submarine Arctic Science Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Submarine Arctic Science Program, SCICEX, is a federal interagency collaboration among the operational Navy, research agencies, and the marine research community...

  6. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J

    1998-01-01

    .... The Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program was developed to address submarine-specific issues regarding the use of ventilation systems to control smoke and heat movement, maintain habitability...

  7. Displaying Uncertainty: A Comparison Between Submarine Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    known as the “submarine capital of the world” and is the home for many of the schools relating to the submarine service. The administering officer for...and Woods, D. D. (1988). Aiding Human Performance: I. Cognitive Analysis, Le Travail Humain 51(1), 39-64. Roth, E. M., Patterson, E. S., and Mumaw

  8. Early history of military radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that soon after Roentgen's discovery, physicians in the armed services of the major powers grasped the importance of x-ray sin military surgery. By May of 1896, radiographic examinations were being performed on Italian soldiers returning from the ill-fated Ethiopian campaign. Initially, radiographs were used for foreign body localization and the detection of fractures; later, a full range of diagnostic services was offered. The early challenges of obtaining x-ray examinations in the field - fragility of tubes and plates, mobility of machines and patients, and unpredictability of radiation dosage - became the basis for innovations that would fundamentally alter the daily practice of radiology in civilian life

  9. Situation awareness measures for simulated submarine track management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loft, Shayne; Bowden, Vanessa; Braithwaite, Janelle; Morrell, Daniel B; Huf, Samuel; Durso, Francis T

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) predict incremental variance in performance on a simulated submarine track management task and to measure the potential disruptive effect of these situation awareness (SA) measures. Submarine track managers use various displays to localize and track contacts detected by own-ship sensors. The measurement of SA is crucial for designing effective submarine display interfaces and training programs. Participants monitored a tactical display and sonar bearing-history display to track the cumulative behaviors of contacts in relationship to own-ship position and landmarks. SPAM (or SAGAT) and the Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) were administered during each scenario, and the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Situation Awareness Rating Technique were administered postscenario. SPAM and SAGAT predicted variance in performance after controlling for subjective measures of SA and workload, and SA for past information was a stronger predictor than SA for current/future information. The NASA-TLX predicted performance on some tasks. Only SAGAT predicted variance in performance on all three tasks but marginally increased subjective workload. SPAM, SAGAT, and the NASA-TLX can predict unique variance in submarine track management performance. SAGAT marginally increased subjective workload, but this increase did not lead to any performance decrement. Defense researchers have identified SPAM as an alternative to SAGAT because it would not require field exercises involving submarines to be paused. SPAM was not disruptive, but it is potentially problematic that SPAM did not predict variance in all three performance tasks. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  10. Risk factors for dermatitis in submariners during a submerged patrol: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaxman, Amy; Allen, Elizabeth; Lindemann, Claudia; Yamaguchi, Yuko; O'Shea, Matthew K; Fallowfield, Joanne L; Lindsay, Michael; Gunner, Frances; Knox, Kyle; Wyllie, David H

    2016-06-02

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine risk factors, including Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, for dermatitis in submariners during a submarine patrol. 36 submariners undertaking a submerged 6-week patrol participated in the study. Severity of dermatitis and its impact was assessed using visual analogue scales and questionnaires at baseline and weekly throughout the patrol. S. aureus carriage levels in submariners were determined by nasal swabbing at baseline and shortly before disembarking the submarine. Occurrence of any skin or soft tissue infections (SSTI) were reported to the medical officer and swabs of the area were taken for subsequent analysis. S. aureus carriers were significantly more likely than non-carriers to have previously received treatment for a cutaneous abscess (39% vs 5%, OR=13 (95% CI 1.3 to 130)) with a trend to being submariners longer (p=0.051). Skin scores at baseline and on patrol were not significantly associated with carriage status. Higher dermatitis scores were observed in those who had been submariners longer (p=0.045). Smoking and allergies were not found to be linked to carriage status or skin health score in this cohort. This small pilot study investigates S. aureus carriage status and skin health in submariners. Length of submarine service but not S. aureus carriage was identified as a risk factor for worsening skin health in this small cohort during a 6-week patrol. This does not support S. aureus decolonisation to improve skin health in this population. Further investigation into causes of dermatitis in submariners is required. This data supports a better understanding of the potential impact of exposure to environmental factors that could affect skin health in submariners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. The multi-element ultrasonic technology: examples of application on military naval structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recolin, P.; Rivalin, S.

    2009-01-01

    DCNS is the European leader in the military ship construction and maintenance (conventional and nuclear propulsion). The potential of ultrasonic technologies with multi-element probes has been studied in its Materials laboratory since the end of the 80's, and a growing number of applications has appeared these last ten years. A series of examples is given: in-service nuclear reactor pipe welds monitoring, time-of-flight diffraction (TOFD) technique for the inspection of containment welds, coating fabrication control, detection of laminating corrosion on aluminum rings, detection of corrosion on submarine hulls in basin, inspection of hull welded joints

  12. An Air Quality Assessment Onboard an Oberon Class Submarine: HMCS Okanagan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severs, Y

    2000-01-01

    ... submarine to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The objective of the study was to obtain information to assist in developing plans for future submarine air quality management...

  13. An air quality assessment onboard an Oberon class submarine : HMCS Okanagan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, Y.D.; Sabiston, B.H.

    2000-09-01

    The Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) re-examined the air quality on an Oberon class submarine, the HMCS Okanagan, to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The main objective of the assessment was to help in the development of future submarine air quality management. The information obtained from the Oberon class submarine could be readily applied to the Victoria class submarines. The assessment involved a trial aboard an Oberon under patrol conditions. The functional and detection capabilities of analytical air monitoring instruments were assessed for a 24-hour period to obtain data regarding the contaminants onboard the submarine. A profile of carbon dioxide accumulation and oxygen consumption was determined. This was followed by an assessment of the effectiveness of air purification such as carbon dioxide scrubbing, oxygen generation and snorting. Carbon monoxide was also monitored and carboxyhemoglobin was measured in both smokers and non-smokers. In order to determine if the sanitary or electrical systems, or engine exhaust posed any danger, ammonia, ozone and nitrous compounds were also measured. In addition, hydrogen, arsine and stibene were monitored to determine any possible danger from charging batteries. The health risks associated with aerosolized particles from cooking, smoking and exhaust gases were also measured. Results showed that all contaminants were within allowable limits. However, the study also confirmed that air purification measures on diesel submarines are minimal and poorly placed and that there is a lack of exhaust ventilation. Poor air exchange was worsened by compartmentalization and blackout curtains. Several recommendations were proposed to improve the management of air quality in Victoria class submarines. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  14. An air quality assessment onboard an Oberon class submarine : HMCS Okanagan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severs, Y.D.; Sabiston, B.H.

    2000-09-01

    The Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM) re-examined the air quality on an Oberon class submarine, the HMCS Okanagan, to determine if the atmosphere complied with Air Purification Standard BR 1326. The main objective of the assessment was to help in the development of future submarine air quality management. The information obtained from the Oberon class submarine could be readily applied to the Victoria class submarines. The assessment involved a trial aboard an Oberon under patrol conditions. The functional and detection capabilities of analytical air monitoring instruments were assessed for a 24-hour period to obtain data regarding the contaminants onboard the submarine. A profile of carbon dioxide accumulation and oxygen consumption was determined. This was followed by an assessment of the effectiveness of air purification such as carbon dioxide scrubbing, oxygen generation and snorting. Carbon monoxide was also monitored and carboxyhemoglobin was measured in both smokers and non-smokers. In order to determine if the sanitary or electrical systems, or engine exhaust posed any danger, ammonia, ozone and nitrous compounds were also measured. In addition, hydrogen, arsine and stibene were monitored to determine any possible danger from charging batteries. The health risks associated with aerosolized particles from cooking, smoking and exhaust gases were also measured. Results showed that all contaminants were within allowable limits. However, the study also confirmed that air purification measures on diesel submarines are minimal and poorly placed and that there is a lack of exhaust ventilation. Poor air exchange was worsened by compartmentalization and blackout curtains. Several recommendations were proposed to improve the management of air quality in Victoria class submarines. 18 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Military conversion and its impacts on science and technology: Elements of the Italian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farinelli, F.; Perani, G.

    1994-01-01

    Italy represents on of the success stories of post-war economic growth, gross national product has been higher in Italy than in most other industrialized countries. On the other hand the research and development growth initially did not result in successful performance in high technology products. This is due to existing of two innovation systems: a small firms network and core R and D system. These systems are quiet different in terms of capabilities, organization and performance. From the performed analysis of innovation system and military R and D activity it is suggested that the role of small/medium sized firms should be emphasized and that different public policies should be coordinated more efficiently. The industrial and technological policy should be matched together and investments on dual use technologies should be increased. A more selective procurement policy should lead to a wide process of restructuring military R and D and production system, the number of military firms should probably diminish and the remaining ones should have to increase their presence in competitive civilian markets

  16. Exploration of submarine wake and powering performance using CFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizhi, Y.; Hongcui, S.; Nan, Z.; Renyou, Y.; Liangmei, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the needs of better design and less time, Computational Fluid Dynamic(CFD) methods have become an impartible part in the ship design, especially in the earlier design phases. In this paper FLUENT software was used to predict the wake character and powering performance of submarine at model scale. By an effective combination of the block topology, grid, turbulence model and validation, the simulation scheme was developed and applied to the predictions of multiple designs and optimizations of the earlier submarine design iterations. The incompressible RANS equations with different turbulence models were solved. To handle the block interface between the propeller and submarine stern, sliding girds in multiple blocks were employed, unstructural grids were used in the block around the propeller. Submarine with/without stator and/or propeller were studied. The flow feature, forces and powering performance at various conditions were calculated. The results were compared with experimental data, and a good agreement was obtained. (author)

  17. Fuel-cell-propelled submarine-tanker-system study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Court, K.E.; Kumm, W.H.; O'Callaghan, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a systems analysis of a commercial Arctic Ocean submarine tanker system to carry fossil energy to markets. The submarine is to be propelled by a modular Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell system. The power level is 20 Megawatts. The DOE developed electric utility type fuel cell will be fueled with methanol. Oxidant will be provided from a liquid oxygen tank carried onboard. The twin screw submarine tanker design is sized at 165,000 deadweight tons and the study includes costs and an economic analysis of the transport system of 6 ships. The route will be under the polar icecap from a loading terminal located off Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to a transshipment facility postulated to be in a Norwegian fjord. The system throughput of the gas-fed methanol cargo will be 450,000 barrels per day. The total delivered cost of the methanol including well head purchase price of natural gas, methanol production, and shipping would be $25/bbl from Alaska to the US East Coast. Of this, the shipping cost is $6.80/bbl. All costs in 1981 dollars

  18. Modern Weapons and Military Equipment for Issue 1/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen R. Tišma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Czech Aero star development of L-169 trainer; Scorpion light attack jet performs maiden flight; New M-345 HET trainer revealed; Turkish attack helicopter again in delay; India’s LCA Tejas reaches IOC; Iran reveals UCAV Fotros; Integration of Meteor missile onto Gripen E agreed; French MoD and MBDA signed development and production contract for antitank system Moyenne Portee; UK invests 79 million Pounds into development of new generation submarines; German Iris-T SL surface-to-air missile successful trails; Alexander Nevsky submarine enters into operation with the Russian Navy; Maiden flight of Chinese Z-20 helicopter; F-35’s first live AMRAAM firing; KAI reveals model of the new version of its KFX fighter; Lockheed’s Skunk Works reveals SR-72; India’s DRDO presents tactical ballistic missile Pragati; Sikorsky Innovations wins contract for VTOL experimental aircraft; Jordanian gunship CN235 performs maiden flight; General Atomics shows its EMRG railgun; Aurora too wins contract for Phase I of VTOL X-Plane program; Airbus Military reveals more details on new Fire-fighter; US proposal of weapons and equipment for Romanian F-16A/B; Russia to develop light-weight front-line fighter; Start of Eurofighter cruise missile integration trails.

  19. Formation of submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloviev, V.; Ginsburg, G.D. (Reserch Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Ocean ' ' VNII Okeangeologia' ' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1994-03-01

    Submarine gas hydrates have been discoverd in the course of deep-sea drilling (DSDP and ODP) and bottom sampling in many offshore regions. This paper reports on expeditions carried out in the Black, Caspian and Okhotsk Seas. Gas hydrate accumulations were discovered and investigated in all these areas. The data and an analysis of the results of the deep-sea drilling programme suggest that the infiltration of gas-bearing fluids is a necessary condition for gas hydrate accumulation. This is confirmed by geological observations at three scale levels. Firstly, hydrates in cores are usually associated with comparatively coarse-grained, permeable sediments as well as voids and fractures. Secondly, hydrate accumulations are controlled by permeable geological structures, i.e. faults, diapirs, mud volcanos as well as layered sequences. Thirdly, in the worldwide scale, hydrate accumulations are characteristic of continental slopes and rises and intra-continental seas where submarine seepages also are widespread. Both biogenic and catagenic gas may occur, and the gas sources may be located at various distances from the accumulation. Gas hydrates presumably originate from water-dissolved gas. The possibility of a transition from dissolved gas into hydrate is confirmed by experimental data. Shallow gas hydrate accumulations associated with gas-bearing fluid plumes are the most convenient features for the study of submarine hydrate formation in general. These accumulations are known from the Black, Caspian and Okhotsk Seas, the Gulf of Mexico and off northern California. (au) (24 refs.)

  20. Submarine canyons off Madras Coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    Submarine canyons off the coast of Madras, Tamil Nadu, India were studied during cruise of @iINS Kistna@@ as part of the IIOE programme They consist of hill-like projections and V-shaped valleys Their other features are also reported...

  1. Italian information geographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paradiso

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A range of papers focusing on Italian cases of ICTs use and changes in society are presented here in this NETCOM issue. A national research group on Geography of Information Society was founded in 2007 and hosted by the Italian Geographical Society later evolved in a specialty group within AgeI, the Association of Italian Geographers. This issue brings together papers from members of the Italian specialty group along the general theme of Internet mediation in everyday life. A pre...

  2. Submarine landslides: advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locat, Jacques; Lee, Homa J.

    2002-01-01

    Due to the recent development of well-integrated surveying techniques of the sea floor, significant improvements were achieved in mapping and describing the morphology and architecture of submarine mass movements. Except for the occurrence of turbidity currents, the aquatic environment (marine and fresh water) experiences the same type of mass failure as that found on land. Submarine mass movements, however, can have run-out distances in excess of 100 km, so their impact on any offshore activity needs to be integrated over a wide area. This great mobility of submarinemass movements is still not very well understood, particularly for cases like the far-reaching debris flows mapped on the Mississippi Fan and the large submarine rock avalanches found around many volcanic islands. A major challenge ahead is the integration of mass movement mechanics in an appropriate evaluation of the hazard so that proper risk assessment methodologies can be developed and implemented for various human activities offshore, including the development of natural resources and the establishment of reliable communication corridors. Key words : submarine slides, hazards, risk assessment, morphology, mobility, tsunami. Le dveloppement rcent de techniques de levs hydrograhiques pour les fonds marins nous a permis d'atteindre une qualit ingale dans la cartographie et la description des glissements sous marins. l'exception des courants de turbidit, on retrouve dans le domaine aquatique les mmes types de mouvements de terrain que sur terre. Par contre, les glissements sous-marins peuvent atteindre des distances excdant 100 km de telle sorte que leur impact sur les activits offshore doit tre pris en compte sur degrandes tendues. La grande mobilit des glissements sous-marins n'est pas encore bien comprise, comme pour le cas des coules dedbris cartographies sur le cne du Mississippi ainsi que pour les grandes avalanches rocheuses sous-marines retrouves au pourtour des les volcaniques. Un dfi majeur

  3. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose

    2005-01-01

    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  4. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, G H; Kang, W J; Kim, T J. and others [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-01-15

    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria.

  5. Study on the locational criteria for submarine rock repositories of low and medium level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G. H.; Kang, W. J.; Kim, T. J. and others

    1992-01-01

    Submarine repositories have significant advantages over their land counterparts locating close to the areas of daily human activities. Consequently, the construction of submarine repositories on the vast continental shelves around Korean seas is considered to be highly positive. In this context, the development of locational criteria primarily targeting the safety of submarine rock repositories is very important.The contents of the present study are: analyzing characteristics of marine environment: Search of potential hazards to, and environmental impact by, the submarine repositories; Investigation of the oceanographic, geochemical, ecological and sedimentological characteristics of estuaries and coastal seas. Locating potential hazards to submarine repositories by: Bibliographical search of accidents leading to the destruction of submarine structures by turbidity currents and other potentials; Review of turbidity currents. Consideration of environmental impact caused by submarine repositories: Logistics to minimize the environmental impacts in site selection; Removal and dispersion processes of radionuclides in sea water. Analyses of oceanographical characteristics of, and hazard potentials in, the Korean seas. Evaluation of the MOST 91-7 criteria for applicability to submarine repositories and the subsequent proposition of additional criteria

  6. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Dulai, H.; Kroeger, K.D.; Smith, C.G.; Dimova, N.; Storlazzi, C. D.; Prouty, N.G.; Gingerich, S.B.; Glenn, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region encompasses the nearshore, coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii. Here abundant groundwater—that carries with it a strong land-based fingerprint—discharges into the coastal waters and over a coral reef.Study focusCoastal groundwater discharge is a ubiquitous hydrologic feature that has been shown to impact nearshore ecosystems and material budgets. A unique combined geochemical tracer and oceanographic time-series study addressed rates and oceanic forcings of submarine groundwater discharge at a submarine spring site off west Maui, Hawaii.New hydrological insights for the regionEstimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d) mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn,t1/2 = 56 s) groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  7. Exploring American and Italian consumer preferences for Californian and Italian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Noble, Ann Curtis; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2013-06-01

    To increase the market share of Californian wines in other countries, wine preferences need to be explored in potential markets. This work studied the preferences of American and Italian consumers for red wines produced in California and Italy, focusing on wines made from the same varieties in each location. Descriptive analysis and consumer preference tests were performed. Americans scored each of the Californian wines significantly higher in preference than the Italian wines. In contrast, the Italian consumer preference scores for many Italian and Californian wines overlapped. By external preference mapping of the American consumer segments, the ideal flavour of one cluster was closest to the Californian Zinfandel, Merlot and Syrah, which had the 'most balanced' flavour profiles. Another cluster of Italians also preferred the Californian wines. In addition, one Italian cluster was driven by a dislike of the leather, band-aid and medicinal aromas of the Italian Merlot and Refosco. The results provided information that can contribute to wine marketing research necessary for successfully exporting Californian red wines to Italy and vice versa. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Indian, Japanese, And U.S. Responses To Chinese Submarine Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited INDIAN, JAPANESE ...DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INDIAN, JAPANESE , AND U.S. RESPONSES TO CHINESE SUBMARINE MODERNIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...is unlimited INDIAN, JAPANESE , AND U.S. RESPONSES TO CHINESE SUBMARINE MODERNIZATION David E. Kiser Lieutenant Commander, United States

  9. Detecting frontal ablation processes from direct observations of submarine terminus morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, M.; Carroll, D.; Catania, G. A.; Sutherland, D. A.; Stearns, L. A.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Shroyer, E.; Nash, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Tidewater glacier termini couple glacier and ocean systems. Subglacial discharge emerging from the terminus produces buoyant plumes that modulate submarine melting, calving, fjord circulation and, in turn, changes in ice dynamics from back-stress perturbations. However, the absence of critical observational data at the ice-ocean interface limits plume and, by extension, melt models from incorporating realistic submarine terminus face morphologies and assessing their impact on terminus behavior at tidewater glaciers. Here we present a comprehensive inventory and characterization of submarine terminus face shapes from a side-looking, multibeam echo sounding campaign across Kangerdlugssuaq Sermerssua glacier, central-west Greenland. We combine these observations with in-situ measurements of ocean stratification and remotely sensed subglacial discharge, terminus positions, ice velocity, and ice surface datasets to infer the spectrum of processes sculpting the submarine terminus face. Subglacial discharge outlet locations are confirmed through observations of sediment plumes, localized melt-driven undercutting of the terminus face, and bathymetry of the adjacent seafloor. From our analysis, we differentiate terminus morphologies resulting from submarine melt and calving and assess the contribution of each process to the net frontal ablation budget. Finally, we constrain a plume model using direct observations of the submarine terminus face and conduit geometry. Plume model simulations demonstrate that the majority of discharge outlets are fed by small discharge fluxes, suggestive of a distributed subglacial hydrologic system. Outlets with the largest, concentrated discharge fluxes are morphologically unique and strongly control seasonal terminus position. At these locations, we show that the spatiotemporal pattern of terminus retreat is well correlated with time periods when local melt rate exceeds ice velocity.

  10. A local area network and information management system for a submarine overhaul facility

    OpenAIRE

    Bushmire, Jeffrey D

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design of a local area network for a submarine overhaul facility is developed using System Engineering concepts. SOFLAN, the Submarine Overhaul Facility Local Area Network, is necessary to provide more timely and accurate information to submarine overhaul managers in order to decrease the overhaul time period and become more competitive. The network is a microcomputer based system following the Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 standards with a server .. client architecture. SOFLAN serves...

  11. A submarine volcanic eruption leads to a novel microbial habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Canals, Miquel; Tangherlini, Michael; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Gambi, Cristina; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Frigola, Jaime; Calafat, Antoni M; Pedrosa-Pàmies, Rut; Rivera, Jesus; Rayo, Xavier; Corinaldesi, Cinzia

    2017-04-24

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria. Metagenomic analyses of the filaments identified a new genus and species of the order Thiotrichales, Thiolava veneris. Venus's hair shows an unprecedented array of metabolic pathways, spanning from the exploitation of organic and inorganic carbon released by volcanic degassing to the uptake of sulfur and nitrogen compounds. This unique metabolic plasticity provides key competitive advantages for the colonization of the new habitat created by the submarine eruption. A specialized and highly diverse food web thrives on the complex three-dimensional habitat formed by these microorganisms, providing evidence that Venus's hair can drive the restart of biological systems after submarine volcanic eruptions.

  12. Morphodynamic Model of Submarine Canyon Incision by Sandblasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Parker, G.; Izumi, N.; Cartigny, M.; Li, T.; Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are carved by turbidity currents under the deep sea. As opposed to subaerial canyons, the relevant processes are not easy to observe directly. Turbidity currents are bottom-hugging sediment gravity flows of that can incise or deposit on the seafloor to create submarine canyons or fans. The triggers of turbidity currents can be storms, edge waves, internal waves, canyon wall sapping, delta failure, breaching and hyperpycnal flows. The formation and evolution mechanisms of submarine canyons are similar to those of subaerial canyons, but have substantial differences. For example, sandblasting, rather than wear due to colliding gravel clasts is more likely to be the mechanism of bedrock incision. Submarine canyons incise downward, and often develop meander bends and levees within the canyon, so defining "fairways". Here we propose a simple model for canyon incision. The starting point of our model is the Macro Roughness Saltation Abrasion Alluviation model of Zhang et al. [2015], designed for bedrock incision by gravel clasts in mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers. We adapt this formulation to consider sandblasting as a means of wear. We use a layer-averaged model for turbidity current dynamics. The current contains a mixture of mud, which helps drive the flow but which does not cause incision, and sand, which is the agent of incision. We show that the model can successfully model channel downcutting, and indeed illustrate the early formation of net incisional cyclic steps, i.e. upstream-migrating undulations on the bed associated with transcritical (in the Froude sense) flow. These steps can be expected to abet the process of incision.

  13. Hybrid Intelligent Control for Submarine Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While sailing near the sea surface, submarines will often undergo rolling motion caused by wave disturbance. Fierce rolling motion seriously affects their normal operation and even threatens their security. We propose a new control method for roll stabilization. This paper studies hybrid intelligent control combining a fuzzy control, a neural network and extension control technology. Every control strategy can achieve the ideal control effect within the scope of its effective control. The neuro-fuzzy control strategy is used to improve the robustness of the controller. The speed control strategy and the course control strategy are conducted to extend the control range. The paper also proposes the design of the controller and carries out the simulation experiment in different sea conditions. The simulation results show that the control method proposed can indeed effectively improve the control performance of submarine stabilization.

  14. Observations of nearshore groundwater discharge: Kahekili Beach Park submarine springs, Maui, Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.W. Swarzenski

    2017-06-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Estimates of submarine groundwater discharge were derived for a primary vent site and surrounding coastal waters off west Maui, Hawaii using an excess 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 d mass balance model. Such estimates were complemented with a novel thoron (220Rn, t1/2 = 56 s groundwater discharge tracer application, as well as oceanographic time series and thermal infrared imagery analyses. In combination, this suite of techniques provides new insight into the connectivity of the coastal aquifer with the near-shore ocean and examines the physical drivers of submarine groundwater discharge. Lastly, submarine groundwater discharge derived constituent concentrations were tabulated and compared to surrounding seawater concentrations. Such work has implications for the management of coastal aquifers and downstream nearshore ecosystems that respond to sustained constituent loadings via this submarine route.

  15. Support to Military or Humanitarian Counterterrorism Interventions: The Effect of Interpersonal and Intergroup Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Passini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new interest in terrorism and psychological factors related to supporting the war on terrorism has been growing in the field of psychology. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of various socio-political attitudes on the level of agreement with military and humanitarian counterterrorism interventions. 270 Italian participants responded to a news article concerning measures against terrorism. Half of the participants read an article regarding a military intervention while the other half read about a humanitarian intervention. They then evaluated the other type of intervention. Results showed that military intervention was supported by people with high authoritarian, dominant, ethnocentric attitudes and by people who attach importance to both positive and negative reciprocity norms. Instead, none of these variables was correlated with humanitarian intervention. Finally, there was a considerable influence of media on the acceptance of both interventions.

  16. Effect of Topography on Subglacial Discharge and Submarine Melting During Tidewater Glacier Retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, J. M.; Carroll, D.

    2018-01-01

    To first order, subglacial discharge depends on climate, which determines precipitation fluxes and glacier mass balance, and the rate of glacier volume change. For tidewater glaciers, large and rapid changes in glacier volume can occur independent of climate change due to strong glacier dynamic feedbacks. Using an idealized tidewater glacier model, we show that these feedbacks produce secular variations in subglacial discharge that are influenced by subglacial topography. Retreat along retrograde bed slopes (into deep water) results in rapid surface lowering and coincident increases in subglacial discharge. Consequently, submarine melting of glacier termini, which depends on subglacial discharge and ocean thermal forcing, also increases during retreat into deep water. Both subglacial discharge and submarine melting subsequently decrease as glacier termini retreat out of deep water and approach new steady state equilibria. In our simulations, subglacial discharge reached peaks that were 6-17% higher than preretreat values, with the highest values occurring during retreat from narrow sills, and submarine melting increased by 14% for unstratified fjords and 51% for highly stratified fjords. Our results therefore indicate that submarine melting acts in concert with iceberg calving to cause tidewater glacier termini to be unstable on retrograde beds. The full impact of submarine melting on tidewater glacier stability remains uncertain, however, due to poor understanding of the coupling between submarine melting and iceberg calving.

  17. Stability of submarine slopes in the northern South China Sea: a numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Luan, Xiwu

    2013-01-01

    Submarine landslides occur frequently on most continental margins. They are effective mechanisms of sediment transfer but also a geological hazard to seafloor installations. In this paper, submarine slope stability is evaluated using a 2D limit equilibrium method. Considerations of slope, sediment, and triggering force on the factor of safety (FOS) were calculated in drained and undrained ( Φ=0) cases. Results show that submarine slopes are stable when the slope is 13° with earthquake peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.5 g; whereas with a weak layer, a PGA of 0.2 g could trigger instability at slopes >10°, and >3° for PGA of 0.5 g. The northern slope of the South China Sea is geomorphologically stable under static conditions. However, because of the possibility of high PGA at the eastern margin of the South China Sea, submarine slides are likely on the Taiwan Bank slope and eastern part of the Dongsha slope. Therefore, submarine slides recognized in seismic profiles on the Taiwan Bank slope would be triggered by an earthquake, the most important factor for triggering submarine slides on the northern slope of the South China Sea. Considering the distribution of PGA, we consider the northern slope of the South China Sea to be stable, excluding the Taiwan Bank slope, which is tectonically active.

  18. A New Foodservice System Concept for Aircraft Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Hot Italian Submarine Sandwich 292 r Hot Meatball Submarine Sandwich 293 t Combination Submarine Sandwich 294 t Tuna Fish...new shelf-stable pizza shell - dehydrated milk shake mix - pre-cooked roast beef - canned meatballs and pizza sauce - frozen diced meat toppings...To illustrate this latter point, suppose cheeseburgers, meatball subs, ham salad subs, french fries, onion rings, and two varieties of milk shakes

  19. Airborne Radar Search for Diesel Submarines (ARSDS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pilnick, Steven E; Landa, Jose

    2005-01-01

    .... In this research, a detection rate model is developed to analyze the effectiveness of an airborne radar search for a diesel submarine assumed to be intermittently operating with periscopes or masts...

  20. PAUT-based defect detection method for submarine pressure hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-jae Jung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A submarine has a pressure hull that can withstand high hydraulic pressure and therefore, requires the use of highly advanced shipbuilding technology. When producing a pressure hull, periodic inspection, repair, and maintenance are conducted to maintain its soundness. Of the maintenance methods, Non-Destructive Testing (NDT is the most effective, because it does not damage the target but sustains its original form and function while inspecting internal and external defects. The NDT process to detect defects in the welded parts of the submarine is applied through Magnetic particle Testing (MT to detect surface defects and Ultrasonic Testing (UT and Radiography Testing (RT to detect internal defects. In comparison with RT, UT encounters difficulties in distinguishing the types of defects, can yield different results depending on the skills of the inspector, and stores no inspection record. At the same time, the use of RT gives rise to issues related to worker safety due to radiation exposure. RT is also difficult to apply from the perspectives of the manufacturing of the submarine and economic feasibility. Therefore, in this study, the Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT method was applied to propose an inspection method that can address the above disadvantages by designing a probe to enhance the precision of detection of hull defects and the reliability of calculations of defect size. Keywords: Submarine pressure hull, Non-destructive testing, Phased array ultrasonic testing

  1. Cold-water coral banks and submarine landslides: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mol, Ben; Huvenne, Veerle; Canals, Miquel

    2009-06-01

    This paper aims to review the relation between cold-water coral bank development and submarine landslides. Both are common features on continental margins, but so far it has not been reviewed which effect—if at all—they may have upon each other. Indirect and direct relations between coral banks and landslides are evaluated here, based on four case studies: the Magellan Mound Province in the Porcupine Seabight, where fossil coral banks appear partly on top of a buried slide deposit; the Sula Ridge Reef Complex and the Storegga landslide both off mid-Norway; and the Mauritania coral bank province, associated with the Mauritanian Slide Complex. For each of these locations, positive and negative relationships between both features are discussed, based on available datasets. Locally submarine landslides might directly favour coral bank development by creating substratum where corals can settle on, enhancing turbulence due to abrupt seabed morphological variations and, in some cases, causing fluid seepage. In turn, some of these processes may contribute to increased food availability and lower sedimentation rates. Landslides can also affect coral bank development by direct erosion of the coral banks, and by the instantaneous increase of turbidity, which may smother the corals. On the other hand, coral banks might have a stabilising function and delay or stop the headwall retrogradation of submarine landslides. Although local relationships can be deduced from these case studies, no general and direct relationship exists between submarine landslides and cold-water coral banks.

  2. Submarine paleoseismology based on turbidite records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Many of the largest earthquakes are generated at subduction zones or other plate boundary fault systems near enough to the coast that marine environments may record evidence of them. During and shortly after large earthquakes in the coastal and marine environments, a spectrum of evidence may be left behind, mirroring onshore paleoseismic evidence. Shaking or displacement of the seafloor can trigger processes such as turbidity currents, submarine landslides, tsunami (which may be recorded both onshore and offshore), and soft-sediment deformation. Marine sites may also share evidence of fault scarps, colluvial wedges, offset features, and liquefaction or fluid expulsion with their onshore counterparts. This article reviews the use of submarine turbidite deposits for paleoseismology, focuses on the dating and correlation techniques used to establish stratigraphic continuity of marine deposits, and outlines criteria for distinguishing earthquake deposits and the strategies used to acquire suitable samples and data for marine paleoseismology.

  3. Italian: Area Background Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This booklet has been assembled in order to provide students of Italian with a compact source of cultural information on their target area. Chapters include discussion of: (1) introduction to Italian; (2) origins of the Italian population; (3) geography; (4) history including the Roman Era, the Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the "Risorgimento," and…

  4. Acute Exposure to Low-to-Moderate Carbon Dioxide Levels and Submariner Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeheffer, Christopher D; Chabal, Sarah; Clarke, John M; Fothergill, David M

    2018-06-01

    Submarines routinely operate with higher levels of ambient carbon dioxide (CO2) (i.e., 2000 - 5000 ppm) than what is typically considered normal (i.e., 400 - 600 ppm). Although significant cognitive impairments are rarely reported at these elevated CO2 levels, recent studies using the Strategic Management Simulation (SMS) test have found impairments in decision-making performance during acute CO2 exposure at levels as low as 1000 ppm. This is a potential concern for submarine operations, as personnel regularly make mission-critical decisions that affect the safety and efficiency of the vessel and its crew while exposed to similar levels of CO2. The objective of this study was to determine if submariner decision-making performance is impacted by acute exposure to levels of CO2 routinely present in the submarine atmosphere during sea patrols. Using a subject-blinded balanced design, 36 submarine-qualified sailors were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 CO2 exposure conditions (600, 2500, or 15,000 ppm). After a 45-min atmospheric acclimation period, participants completed an 80-min computer-administered SMS test as a measure of decision making. There were no significant differences for any of the nine SMS measures of decision making between the CO2 exposure conditions. In contrast to recent research demonstrating cognitive deficits on the SMS test in students and professional-grade office workers, we were unable to replicate this effect in a submariner population-even with acute CO2 exposures more than an order of magnitude greater than those used in previous studies that demonstrated such effects.Rodeheffer CD, Chabal S, Clarke JM, Fothergill DM. Acute exposure to low-to-moderate carbon dioxide levels and submariner decision making. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(6):520-525.

  5. The project of the submarine of nuclear propulsion under the optics of its protagonists: an historical analysis from Geisel to Lula 1974 - 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Fernanda das Gracas

    2009-01-01

    Tancredo, these authorities had joined forces so that this project survived the democratic transition. Sarney, when becoming the president of Brazil, due to the death of Tancredo, governed with the ministerial team mounted by the forms. Sarney only demonstrated being favorable and interested in the construction of the nuclear submarine after a commission verified irregularities in the Brazilian nuclear program. In 1987, Sarney says he is totally favorable to this construction. Despite of all the problems that the military troops had had to allow continuity to the nuclear project of the Navy of Brazil, this project survived to the neoliberal times. The terrorist acts on September 11 th 2001 exposed the fragilities of the defensive system of the EUA. This way, the American hegemony in the international system once again questioned, the new real enemies had been disclosed and developing countries as Brazil initiated a more determined and more independent position in the making of its external politics. The requirement for the acquisition of sensible nuclear systems occurred by means of the technology transfer and was fundamental for the world to acknowledge the economic growth of Brazil and for the developed countries to perceive the political evolution that Brazil conquered throughout its history. (author)

  6. Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Topology Model of the Flow around a Submarine Hull Form S.-K. Lee Maritime Division Defence Science and Technology Group DST-Group–TR...3177 ABSTRACT A topology model constructed from surface-streamer visualisation describes the flow around a generic conventional submarine hull form at...pure yaw angles of 0 ◦, 10 ◦ and 18 ◦. The model is used to develop equations for sway-force and yaw-moment coefficients which relate to the hull - form

  7. Broaching the Ship: Rethinking Submarines as a Signaling Tool in Naval Diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Bateman , “Perils of the Deep: the Dangers of Submarine Proliferation in the Seas of East Asia,” Asian Security 7, no. 1 (Spring 2011), 64. 89 Brent...Science. London: Routledge, 2012. Bateman , Sam. “Perils of the Deep: The Dangers of Submarine Proliferation in the Seas of East Asia.” Asian Security

  8. Information Assurance as a System of Systems in the Submarine Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Shell SSL Secure Socket Layer SSN Submerged Ship Nuclear STDA Submarine Tactical Display Auxiliary SUBLAN Submarine Local Area Network...Internet Protocol TLS T Transport Layer Security TS-SCI Top Secret-Special Compartment Information TYCOM Type Commander USB Universal...administrators or users. Layer 4 and 5: This is the layer that deals with providing a protected connection via a Secure Socket Layer ( SSL ) and Transport Layer

  9. Research on the hydrogeological and geochemical conditions at the coastal area and submarine formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Tomochika; Taniguchi, Makoto; Goto, Junji

    2003-05-01

    One of the major concerns for the high-level radioactive waste disposal is the possibility of the radionuclides to reach biosphere by groundwater flow. Recent research results have shown that the fresh groundwater discharge from subsea formations are widespread phenomena, thus, it is necessary to evaluate the submarine groundwater discharge as possible pathways of contaminant discharge towards the biosphere. It is also important to unravel the groundwater flow and associated material transport at the coastal area and subsea formations. To better understand the groundwater flow processes and the submarine groundwater discharge, we have conducted the hydrological, hydrogeological, geochemical, and numerical modeling studies at the Kurobe alluvial fan and its offshore, Toyama Prefecture, Japan. In this report, the results of the following research activities are presented: 1) Development and application of a method to detect the locations of the submarine groundwater discharge. 2) Development and application of a method to collect uncontaminated groundwater samples from subsea formations. 3) Measurements of submarine groundwater discharge fluxes by automated seepage meter. 4) Hydrological and geochemical studies for groundwater flow at the coastal area. 5) Geochemical studies to understand sources of fresh submarine groundwater discharge. 6) Examination of groundwater flow and submarine groundwater discharge using methane concentration and carbon isotope ratio. 7) Numerical modeling studies for coastal groundwater flow system. (author)

  10. A Nuclear Submarine in the South Atlantic: The Framing of Threats and Deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Herz

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we analyse one aspect of Brazilian nuclear policy during the tenure of the Workers Party (2003–2016: the development of a nuclear-propelled submarine. We propose that the project of building a nuclear-propelled submarine has become possible partly because of the mobilisation of a set of arguments for the construction of the South Atlantic as a strategic area, framed in terms of security and development. On the other hand, we contend that the need for a nuclear-propelled submarine is framed through the mobilisation of a specific notion of deterrence. In other words, we claim that the notions of ‘strategic area’, ‘general deterrence’, ‘conventional deterrence’, and ‘deterrence by denial’ can help us analyse the fundamental aspects involved in the framing of the South Atlantic as a security concern, justifying the nuclear-propelled submarine project.

  11. Coastal submarine hydrothermal activity off northern Baja California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, V.M.V.; Vidal, F.V.; Isaacs, J.D.; Young, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    In situ observations of submarine hydrothermal activity have been conducted in Punta Banda. Baja Califronia, Mexico, approximately 400 m from the coast and at a seawater depth of 30 m. The hydrothermal activity occurs within the Agua Blanca Fault, a major transverse structure of Northern Baja California. Hot springwater samples have been collected and analyzed. Marked differences exist between the submarine hot springwater, local land hot springwaters, groundwater, and local seawater. SiO 2 , HCO 3 , Ca, K, Li, B, Ba, Rb, Fe, Mn, As, and Zn are enriched in the submarine hot springwater, while Cl, Na, So 4 2 , Mg, Cu, Ni, Cd, Cr, and perhaps Pb are depleted in relation to average and local seawater values. Very high temperatures, at the hydrothermal vents, have been recorded (102 0 C at 4-atm pressure). Visible gaseous emanations rich in CH 4 and N 2 coexist with the hydrothermal solutions. Metalliferous deposits, pyrite, have been encountered with high concentrations of Fe, S, Si, Al, Mn, Ca, and the volatile elements As, Hg, Sb, and Tl, X ray dispersive spectrometry (1500-ppm detection limit). X ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy of the isolated metalliferous precipitates indicate that the principal products of precipitation are pyrite and gypsum accompanied by minor amounts of amorphous material containing Si and Al. Chemical analyses and XRD of the reference control rocks of the locality (volcanics) versus the hydrothermally altered rocks indicate that high-temperature and high-pressure water-rock interactions can in part explain the water chemistry characteristics of the submarine hydrothermal waters. Their long residence time, the occurrence of an extensive marine sedimentary formation, their association with CH 4 and their similarities with connate waters of oil and gas fields suggest that another component of their genesis could be in cation exchange reactions within deeply buried sediments of marine origin

  12. In-service inspection of the vessels of nuclear submarine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglio, R.; Mercier L'Abbe, G.

    1977-02-01

    Description is given of a machine of automatic inspection of the reactor vessels of nuclear submarines, that was developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). A focused ultrasound testing method is used. The equipment such described meets the safety requirements prescribed for the primary circuits of nuclear submarine boiler plants. The sensitivity and resolution power of the apparatus allow such high precision to be obtained as rupture mechanics gains a credibility that could not have been obtained with using conventional apparatus [fr

  13. Exercise Aboard Attack Submarines: Rationale and New Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watenpaugh, Donald

    2004-01-01

    .... However, most submariners do not exercise during deployment for a variety of reasons, including lack of space, time limitations, equipment limitations, lack of entertainment or recreational value...

  14. Operating Below Crush Depth: The Formation, Evolution, and Collapse of the Imperial Japanese Navy Submarine Force in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Subamrine, Medium) LCDR Lieutenant Commander LT Lieutenant NM Nautical Mile RADM Rear Admiral ST Sen- Taka (Submarine, High Speed) STo Sen-Toku...Special Submarine) STS Sen- Taka -Sho (Submarine, High Speed(Victory)) USS United States Ship VADM Vice Admiral 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION On...Kirai-Sen meaning Mine-Layer, KT for Kai-Toku-Chu meaning Medium, Special Submarine, ST for Sen- Taka meaning Submarine, High speed, STo for Sen Toku

  15. Submarine Volcanic Eruptions and Potential Analogs for Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.; Mouginismark, P. J.; Fryer, P.; Gaddis, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    As part of an analysis program to better understand the diversity of volcanic processes on the terrestrial planets, an investigation of the volcanic landforms which exist on the Earth's ocean floor was initiated. In part, this analysis is focused toward gaining a better understanding of submarine volcanic landforms in their own right, but also it is hoped that these features may show similarities to volcanic landforms on Venus, due to the high ambient water (Earth) and atmospheric (Venus) pressures. A series of numerical modelling experiments was performed to investigate the relative importance of such attributes as water pressure and temperature on the eruption process, and to determine the rate of cooling and emplacement of lava flows in the submarine environment. Investigations to date show that the confining water pressure and the buoyancy effects of the surrounding water significantly affect the styles of volcanism on the ocean floor. In the case of Venusian volcanism, confining pressures will not be as great as that found at the ocean's abyssal plains, but nevertheless the general trend toward reducing magma vesiculation will hold true for Venus as well as the ocean floor. Furthermore, other analogs may also be found between submarine volcanism and Venusian activity.

  16. The sinking of the Soviet Mike class nuclear powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to assess the quantities of the longer-lived or persistent radioactive materials, or source terms, that have been lost at sea with the sinking of the Soviet MIKE class submarine off Bear Island on 7 April 1989. The report arrives at an assessment of the amount of radioactivity and compares this to the quantities of radioactive materials dumped by the UK from 1953 to 1982 at which time sea dumping of radioactive wastes was suspended by international resolve. This comparison can be used to assess the relative significance of the sinking of this submarine. The study does not extrapolate the estimated radioactive source terms to an environmental or radiological significance of the sinking, although it is concluded that unless the submarine is recovered intact from the ocean floor, the by far greater part of the radioactive materials on board will disperse to the marine environment at some future time, if they are not doing so already. (author)

  17. Coastal submarine springs in Lebanon and Syria: Geological, geochemical, and radio-isotopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A.

    2004-10-01

    The coastal karst aquifer system (upper Cretaceous) and the submarine springs in the Syrian coast have been studies using chemical and isotopic methods in order to determine the hydraulic connections between the groundwater and the submarine springs. Results show that the groundwater and submarine springs are having the same slope on the σ 18 O/σ 2 H plot indicate the same hydrological origin for both. In addition this relation is very close to the local meteoric water line (LMWL) reflecting a rapid infiltration of rainfall to recharge coastal aquifer. The calculated percentage of freshwater in the two locations (Bassieh and Tartous) range from 20 to 96%. The estimation rate of the permanent submarine springs (BS1, BS2 and TS2, TS3) is 11m 3 /s or 350 million m 3 /y. The maximum residence time of the groundwater in the Cenomanian/Turonian aquifer was estimated at around 8 years, using the piston-flow model.(author)

  18. Losses in armoured three-phase submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    The number of offshore wind farms will keep increasing in the future as a part of the shift towards a CO2 free energy production. The energy harvested from the wind farm must be brought to shore, which is often done by using a three-phase armoured submarine power cable. The use of an armour...... increases the losses in armoured cables compared to unarmoured cables. In this paper a thorough state of the art analysis is conducted on armour losses in three-phase armoured submarine power cables. The analysis shows that the IEC 60287-1-1 standard overestimates the armour losses which lead...... to the installation of cables with excessive phase conductor cross section. This paper also presents an example of the potential economic benefits of having a better knowledge of the losses introduced by the armour....

  19. Submarine Groundwater Discharge in the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakti, Hendra

    2018-02-01

    Indonesia is one of the archipelagic countries that has the longest coastline in the world. Because it is located in the tropics, in general it has a very high rainfall. Each island has a different morphology which is composed of a variety of rocks with different hydrogeological properties. This natural condition allows for the presence of groundwater in different amount in each island. The difference in groundwater hydraulics gradients in aquifer continuous to the sea has triggered the discharge of groundwater to offshore known as submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Its presence can be as seepage or submarine springs with components derived from land and sea and a mixture between them. The understanding of SGD phenomenon is very important because it can be useful as a source of clean water in coastal areas, affecting marine health, and improving marine environment.

  20. The characters of emergency rescue and the measures to prevent accidents for nuclear-powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of emergency rescue and the measures for preventing and decreasing accidents in nuclear-powered submarine have been presented. The breakdown of equipment and human factors are the main reasons which lead to accidents. Four preventive measures are suggested: enhancing capabilities to take precautions against fire, seriously controlling the environmental factors which affect the health of the submariners, reinforcing the constitutions of the submariners, and working out emergency planning against serious accidents in advance

  1. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, C.K.; Ussler, W., III

    2014-01-01

    luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz sand deposits and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured on benthic foraminifera to examine the timing of sediment transport through the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan, offshore California. The OSL ages date the timing of sediment entry...... dates with water depth provides evidence of mixing and temporary storage of sediment as it moves through the canyon system. The ages also indicate that the frequency of sediment transport events decreases with distance down the canyon channel system. The amalgamated sands near the canyon head yield OSL......While submarine canyons are the major conduits through which sediments are transported from the continents out into the deep sea, the time it takes for sediment to pass down through a submarine canyon system is poorly constrained. Here we report on the first study to couple optically stimulated...

  2. Management of hemodynamically unstable pelvic trauma: results of the first Italian consensus conference (cooperative guidelines of the Italian Society of Surgery, the Italian Association of Hospital Surgeons, the Multi-specialist Italian Society of Young Surgeons, the Italian Society of Emergency Surgery and Trauma, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology -Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology- and the World Society of Emergency Surgery)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Hemodynamically Unstable Pelvic Trauma is a major problem in blunt traumatic injury. No cosensus has been reached in literature on the optimal treatment of this condition. We present the results of the First Italian Consensus Conference on Pelvic Trauma which took place in Bergamo on April 13 2013. An extensive review of the literature has been undertaken by the Organizing Committee (OC) and forwarded to the Scientific Committee (SC) and the Panel (JP). Members of them were appointed by surgery, critical care, radiology, emergency medicine and orthopedics Italian and International societies: the Italian Society of Surgery, the Italian Association of Hospital Surgeons, the Multi-specialist Italian Society of Young Surgeons, the Italian Society of Emergency Surgery and Trauma, the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care, the Italian Society of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, the Italian Society of Emergency Medicine, the Italian Society of Medical Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology and the World Society of Emergency Surgery. From November 2012 to January 2013 the SC undertook the critical revision and prepared the presentation to the audience and the Panel on the day of the Conference. Then 3 recommendations were presented according to the 3 submitted questions. The Panel voted the recommendations after discussion and amendments with the audience. Later on a email debate took place until December 2013 to reach a unanimous consent. We present results on the 3 following questions: which hemodynamically unstable patient needs an extraperitoneal pelvic packing? Which hemodynamically unstable patient needs an external fixation? Which hemodynamically unstable patient needs emergent angiography? No longer angiography is considered the first therapeutic maneuver in such a patient. Preperitoneal pelvic packing and external fixation, preceded by pelvic binder have a pivotal role in the management of these patients

  3. NDT in submarines construction-HY 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, C.A.; Talmadge, J.

    1988-01-01

    In submarines construction, provided that metallurgic characteristics have been established, the NDT methods and equipments as well as the application ways should be taken into account. It is then fundamental purpose of this work to emphasize all that coming from conventional context in the field of use of already known nondestructive techniques

  4. Nuclear submarine utilization. Financial deadlock and search for its output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovgusha, V.V.; Tikhonov, M.N.

    1995-01-01

    Program of nuclear submarine utilization in the Russian Federation is described. The program provides for complete solution of all problems, connected with nuclear submarine utilization, including reconstruction of ship-repair and ship-cutting plants, metal fabrication plants, construction of points of temporary radioactive waste storages, new burials, as well as required social support of personnel, working under unhealthy conditions. The program is based on guaranteed and sufficient financing from extra-budgetary sources, as well as on new technologies, enabling to utilize all written off ships during 10-15 years

  5. Subjective Symptomology and Postural Control During Simulation of a Survival Environmemt Aboard a Disabled Submarine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cymerman, Allen

    2000-01-01

    Subjective symptoms and postural control were assessed in 7 submariners during 5 days exposure to a simulated disabled submarine environment (DISSUB) (4C, 2.5% carbon dioxide, 16.75% oxygen, 85% humidity...

  6. Apologizing in Italian and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Maxine

    1994-01-01

    Compared apology exchanges in Italy and the United States by having 10 Italian university students view American situation comedy television programs and rewrite particular conflict and apology exchanges in an Italian context. The status and role of the programs' participants affected the Italian students' choice of apology strategies more so than…

  7. Collection of Arctic Ocean Data from US Navy Submarines on the New SCICEX Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smethie, W. M.; Sambrotto, R.; Boyd, T.; Richter-Menge, J.; Corbett, J.

    2011-12-01

    The SCICEX submarine Arctic science program originated in the 1990s when six dedicated science cruises were conducted in the Arctic Ocean aboard US Navy Sturgeon class submarines. After the cold war era Sturgeon class submarines were retired, several Science Accommodation cruises, for which a few days for scientific measurements were added to planned submarine transits through the Arctic Ocean, were carried out when opportunities arose. Renewed interest in conducting further Science Accommodation cruises on a regular basis to better document and understand how the Arctic Ocean responds to climate change resulted in publication of a scientific plan in 2010 (http://www.arctic.gov/publications/scicex_plan.pdf). In the spring of 2011 testing of data collection and water sampling methods aboard newer Virginia and Seawolf class submarines on transit from a Navy ice camp in the Beaufort Sea, was conducted in order to develop protocols and evaluate techniques. Ice draft measurements were also taken in the vicinity of the ice camp and near the North Pole to evaluate new data collection systems. This evaluation will include a comparison of the ice draft data with a comprehensive set of in situ ice thickness measurements taken near the ice camp. Under-ice submarine-launched eXpendable Condutivity Temperature Depth (XCTD) probes were deployed from the USS Connecticut (SSN-22), a Seawolf class submarine, and the resulting profiles compared to CTD casts from the APLIS ice station and historical profiles. Water samples were collected through the hull for measurements of tritium, helium isotopes, oxygen isotopes, chlorofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton and particulates levels. These samples were returned to Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and were in the process of being measured at the time this abstract was written. Measurements completed at this time indicate good samples can be collected for CFC-12

  8. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    Scientia Militaria vol 44, no 1, 2016, pp 168-189. doi: 10.5787/44-1-1166 ..... report the presence of a body of German submarines moving south towards Cape Town. Despite ...... London: Arms and Armour Press, 1989, 100–101; Keegan op.

  9. The independent nuclear state. The United States, Britain and the military atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1983-01-01

    A chronological account and overview are presented of the 40-year history of British military research, development and production work in atomic energy. The United Kingdom's efforts in this field have always had close links with equivalent activities in the United States, and have often been conducted on a mutually co-operative basis. This book contains descriptions of the technical evolution of British nuclear weapon designs and production models, estimates of annual output figures for fissile material and weapon types, and indications of the nature of the weapon-testing programme. Decision-points are charted. The impact of the agreements with the United States, both upon weapon development and production programmes and upon stockpiling, is analysed, as well as their effects upon the nuclear submarine programme. The impact of later events upon Anglo-American relations is identified, together with the recent British attempts to move to a closer political association with Europe. The study concludes by evaluating the essential nature of four decades of United Kingdom military nuclear development, and identifying the practical limits imposed by past policies upon any attempt by a British government to implement a policy of unilateral nuclear disarmament. (author)

  10. A Helicopter submarine Search Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Figure 3. Graphical representation of Baston and Bostock ................. 10 Figure 4. Dips and Speed Circle...dimen.ional helicopter submarine gaines studied by Meinardi [Ref. 7] and more recently by Baston and Bostock [Ref. 8]. Meinardi solves a discr,-te form of...the game while Baston and Bostock solve the continuous case. Bes.ides Danskin’s game, not much work has been done on the two dimensional case except

  11. Health Risks Among Submarine Personnel in the U.S. Navy, 1974-1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-11

    observed dif- ferences in hospitalization rates ( Lilienfeld , 1980). T- tests were used to assess statistical significance of the descriptive variables...the direct method of adjustment ( Lilienfeld , 1980). The standard population was the sum of the two groups. Age-adjusted rates for submariners and...must undergo stringent psychological and medical screening prior to assignment aboard a nuclear submarine because of the relatively long periods of

  12. Relativistic Archimedes law for fast moving bodies and the general-relativistic resolution of the 'submarine paradox'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsas, George E. A.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate and solve in the context of general relativity the apparent paradox which appears when bodies floating in a background fluid are set in relativistic motion. Suppose some macroscopic body, say, a submarine designed to lie just in equilibrium when it rests (totally) immersed in a certain background fluid. The puzzle arises when different observers are asked to describe what is expected to happen when the submarine is given some high velocity parallel to the direction of the fluid surface. On the one hand, according to observers at rest with the fluid, the submarine would contract and, thus, sink as a consequence of the density increase. On the other hand, mariners at rest with the submarine using an analogous reasoning for the fluid elements would reach the opposite conclusion. The general relativistic extension of the Archimedes law for moving bodies shows that the submarine sinks. As an extra bonus, this problem suggests a new gedankenexperiment for the generalized second law of thermodynamics

  13. Italian in the Modern World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Elvira, Ed.

    This booklet of 15 reprinted letters sent in response to a query concerning the actual use of Italian in the United States designates various areas of professional application. Some reference to current Italian publications is included. It is hoped that these letters will help promote the study of Italian in American schools. (RL)

  14. Decompression illness in goats following simulated submarine escape: 1993-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, F M; Thacker, J C; Fisher, A S; Jurd, K M; White, M G; Loveman, G A M

    2014-01-01

    The United Kingdom Ministry of Defence commissioned work to define the relationship between the internal pressure of a distressed submarine (DISSUB), the depth from which escape is made and the risk of decompression illness (DCI). The program of work used an animal model (goat) to define these risks and this paper reports the incidence and type of DCI observed. A total of 748 pressure exposures comprising saturation only, escape only or saturation followed by escape were conducted in the submarine escape simulator between 1993 and 2006. The DCI following saturation exposures was predominantly limb pain, whereas following escape exposures the DCI predominantly involved the central nervous system and was fast in onset. There was no strong relationship between the risk of DCI and the range of escape depths investigated. The risk of DCI incurred from escape following saturation was greater than that obtained by combining the risks for the independent saturation only, and escape only, exposures. The output from this program of work has led to improved advice on the safety of submarine escape.

  15. Environmental isotopic and hydrochemical study of the coastal submarine springs in Lebanon and Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Charideh, A. R.

    2007-08-01

    The groundwater of major karst system and the submarine springs in the Syrian coastal limestone aquifer have been studied using chemical and isotopic techniques. Stable isotopes show that the groundwater and submarine springs originates from the direct infiltration of atmospheric water. The elevation of recharge zones feeding the Banyas area (400-600 m a.s.l). The δ 18 O e xtracted for the major submarine spring at Bassieh suggests a mean recharge area elevation of 600-700 m a.s.l. Based on the measured velocity and percentage of fresh water at the submarine springs outlet (Bassieh and Tartous), the estimated discharge rate is 350 million m 3 /y. Adopting a model with exponential time distribution, the mean turnover time of groundwater in the Al-sen spring was evaluated to be 60 years. A value of about 3.7 billion m 3 was obtained for the maximum groundwater reservoir size.(Author)

  16. Alteration of submarine volcanic rocks in oxygenated Archean oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmoto, H.; Bevacqua, D.; Watanabe, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Most submarine volcanic rocks, including basalts in diverging plate boundaries and andesites/dacites in converging plate boundaries, have been altered by low-temperature seawater and/or hydrothermal fluids (up to ~400°C) under deep oceans; the hydrothermal fluids evolved from shallow/deep circulations of seawater through the underlying hot igneous rocks. Volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits (VMSDs) and banded iron formations (BIFs) were formed by mixing of submarine hydrothermal fluids with local seawater. Therefore, the behaviors of various elements, especially of redox-sensitive elements, in altered submarine volcanic rocks, VMSDs and BIFs can be used to decipher the chemical evolution of the oceans and atmosphere. We have investigated the mineralogy and geochemistry of >500 samples of basalts from a 260m-long drill core section of Hole #1 of the Archean Biosphere Drilling Project (ABDP #1) in the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. The core section is comprised of ~160 m thick Marble Bar Chert/Jasper Unit (3.46 Ga) and underlying, inter-bedded, and overlying submarine basalts. Losses/gains of 65 elements were quantitatively evaluated on the basis of their concentration ratios against the least mobile elements (Ti, Zr and Nb). We have recognized that mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of many of these samples are essentially the same as those of hydrothermally-altered modern submarine basalts and also those of altered volcanic rocks that underlie Phanerozoic VMSDs. The similarities include, but are not restricted to: (1) the alteration mineralogy (chlorite ± sericite ± pyrophyllite ± carbonates ± hematite ± pyrite ± rutile); (2) the characteristics of whole-rock δ18O and δ34S values; (3) the ranges of depletion and enrichment of Si, Al, Mg, Ca, K, Na, Fe, Mn, and P; (4) the enrichment of Ba (as sulfate); (5) the increases in Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios; (6) the enrichment of U; (7) the depletion of Cr; and (8) the negative Ce anomalies. Literature data

  17. Ensuring an Italian Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Ann H.

    1978-01-01

    Factors contributing to the renaissance of Italian and the goals of students who study the language are discussed. Alternatives to rote learning in the classroom and ways to generate interest in Italian in the community are suggested. (SW)

  18. Origin of Abiotic Methane in Submarine Hydrothermal Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewald, J. S.; German, C. R.; Grozeva, N. G.; Klein, F.; McDermott, J. M.; Ono, S.; Reeves, E. P.; Wang, D. T.

    2018-05-01

    Results of recent investigations into the chemical and isotopic composition of actively venting submarine hydrothermal fluids and volatile species trapped in fluid inclusions will be discussed in the context of processes responsible for abiotic CH4 formation.

  19. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D. [Grupo General Cable Sistemas, S.A., 08560-Manlleu, Barcelona (Spain); Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, 20009 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  20. Environmental assessment of submarine power cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isus, Daniel; Martinez, Juan D.; Arteche, Amaya; Del Rio, Carmen; Madina, Virginia

    2011-03-01

    Extensive analyses conducted by the European Community revealed that offshore wind energy have relatively benign effects on the marine environment by comparison to other forms of electric power generation [1]. However, the materials employed in offshore wind power farms suffer major changes to be confined to the marine environment at extreme conditions: saline medium, hydrostatic pressure... which can produce an important corrosion effect. This phenomenon can affect on the one hand, to the material from the structural viewpoint and on the other hand, to the marine environment. In this sense, to better understand the environmental impacts of generating electricity from offshore wind energy, this study evaluated the life cycle assessment for some new designs of submarine power cables developed by General Cable. To achieve this goal, three approaches have been carried out: leaching tests, eco-toxicity tests and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. All of them are aimed to obtaining quantitative data for environmental assessment of selected submarine cables. LCA is a method used to assess environmental aspects and potential impacts of a product or activity. LCA does not include financial and social factors, which means that the results of an LCA cannot exclusively form the basis for assessment of a product's sustainability. Leaching tests results allowed to conclude that pH of seawater did not significantly changed by the presence of submarine three-core cables. Although, it was slightly higher in case of broken cable, pH values were nearly equals. Concerning to the heavy metals which could migrate to the aquatic medium, there were significant differences in both scenarios. The leaching of zinc is the major environmental concern during undersea operation of undamaged cables whereas the fully sectioned three-core cable produced the migration of significant quantities of copper and iron apart from the zinc migrated from the galvanized steel. Thus, the tar

  1. The sedimentary record of submarine channel morphodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, J.

    2017-01-01

    Submarine channels are ubiquitous on the ocean floor and are considered to be the equivalent of rivers on land. These channels are created by turbidity currents, which originate from the continental margins and which can transport sediment for thousands of kilometres into the oceans. The aim of this

  2. Estimating the empirical probability of submarine landslide occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.; Mosher, David C.; Shipp, Craig; Moscardelli, Lorena; Chaytor, Jason D.; Baxter, Christopher D. P.; Lee, Homa J.; Urgeles, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The empirical probability for the occurrence of submarine landslides at a given location can be estimated from age dates of past landslides. In this study, tools developed to estimate earthquake probability from paleoseismic horizons are adapted to estimate submarine landslide probability. In both types of estimates, one has to account for the uncertainty associated with age-dating individual events as well as the open time intervals before and after the observed sequence of landslides. For observed sequences of submarine landslides, we typically only have the age date of the youngest event and possibly of a seismic horizon that lies below the oldest event in a landslide sequence. We use an empirical Bayes analysis based on the Poisson-Gamma conjugate prior model specifically applied to the landslide probability problem. This model assumes that landslide events as imaged in geophysical data are independent and occur in time according to a Poisson distribution characterized by a rate parameter λ. With this method, we are able to estimate the most likely value of λ and, importantly, the range of uncertainty in this estimate. Examples considered include landslide sequences observed in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and in Port Valdez, Alaska. We confirm that given the uncertainties of age dating that landslide complexes can be treated as single events by performing statistical test of age dates representing the main failure episode of the Holocene Storegga landslide complex.

  3. Radon as an indicator of submarine groundwater discharge in coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Noble; Shivanna, K.; Suresh Babu, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the various available methodologies to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and demonstrates the utility of radon with a case study. An attempt has been made to identify the existence of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and semi-quantitatively estimate its rate in the coastal area of Vizhinjam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. Natural 222 Rn (half-life = 3.8 days) was used as a tracer of SGD because of its conservative nature, short half-life, easiness in measurement and high abundance in groundwater. As in situ radon ( 222 Rn) monitoring study conducted in this region indicated comparatively higher 222 Rn activities (average 14.1±1.7 Bq/m 3 ) in the coastal waters revealing significant submarine groundwater discharge. The SGD may be a combination of fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater that is controlled by the hydraulic gradient in the adjacent aquifer and varying tidal conditions in the coastal waters. Using a transient 222 Rn mass balance model for the coastal waters, SGD rates were computed and the average value was found to be 10.9±6.1 cm/day. These estimates are comparable with those reported in the literature. In general, identification and estimation of submarine groundwater discharge is important in the Indian context because of the possibility of large amounts of groundwater loss through its long coastline, that can be judiciously exploited to cater to the present water requirements for drinking and irrigation purposes. (author)

  4. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.

    1984-09-01

    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, and obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular, the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented.

  5. Lava delta deformation as a proxy for submarine slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Traglia, Federico; Nolesini, Teresa; Solari, Lorenzo; Ciampalini, Andrea; Frodella, William; Steri, Damiano; Allotta, Benedetto; Rindi, Andrea; Marini, Lorenzo; Monni, Niccolò; Galardi, Emanuele; Casagli, Nicola

    2018-04-01

    The instability of lava deltas is a recurrent phenomenon affecting volcanic islands, which can potentially cause secondary events such as littoral explosions (due to interactions between hot lava and seawater) and tsunamis. It has been shown that Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a powerful technique to forecast the collapse of newly emplaced lava deltas. This work goes further, demonstrating that the monitoring of lava deltas is a successful strategy by which to observe the long-term deformation of subaerial-submarine landslide systems on unstable volcanic flanks. In this paper, displacement measurements derived from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery were used to detect lava delta instability at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Recent flank eruptions (2002-2003, 2007 and 2014) affected the Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) depression, created a "stacked" lava delta, which overlies a pre-existing scar produced by a submarine-subaerial tsunamigenic landslide that occurred on 30 December 2002. Space-borne X-band COSMO-SkyMED (CSK) and C-band SENTINEL-1A (SNT) SAR data collected between February 2010 and October 2016 were processed using the SqueeSAR algorithm. The obtained ground displacement maps revealed the differential ground motion of the lava delta in both CSK and SNT datasets, identifying a stable area (characterized by less than 2 mm/y in both datasets) within the northern sector of the SdF and an unstable area (characterized by velocity fields on the order of 30 mm/y and 160 mm/y in the CSK and SNT datasets, respectively) in the central sector of the SdF. The slope stability of the offshore part of the SdF, as reconstructed based on a recently performed multibeam bathymetric survey, was evaluated using a 3D Limit Equilibrium Method (LEM). In all the simulations, Factor of Safety (F) values between 0.9 and 1.1 always characterized the submarine slope between the coastline and -250 m a.s.l. The critical surfaces for all the search volumes corresponded to

  6. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  7. Size distributions and failure initiation of submarine and subaerial landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Barkan, R.; Andrews, B.D.; Chaytor, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Landslides are often viewed together with other natural hazards, such as earthquakes and fires, as phenomena whose size distribution obeys an inverse power law. Inverse power law distributions are the result of additive avalanche processes, in which the final size cannot be predicted at the onset of the disturbance. Volume and area distributions of submarine landslides along the U.S. Atlantic continental slope follow a lognormal distribution and not an inverse power law. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we generated area distributions of submarine landslides that show a characteristic size and with few smaller and larger areas, which can be described well by a lognormal distribution. To generate these distributions we assumed that the area of slope failure depends on earthquake magnitude, i.e., that failure occurs simultaneously over the area affected by horizontal ground shaking, and does not cascade from nucleating points. Furthermore, the downslope movement of displaced sediments does not entrain significant amounts of additional material. Our simulations fit well the area distribution of landslide sources along the Atlantic continental margin, if we assume that the slope has been subjected to earthquakes of magnitude ??? 6.3. Regions of submarine landslides, whose area distributions obey inverse power laws, may be controlled by different generation mechanisms, such as the gradual development of fractures in the headwalls of cliffs. The observation of a large number of small subaerial landslides being triggered by a single earthquake is also compatible with the hypothesis that failure occurs simultaneously in many locations within the area affected by ground shaking. Unlike submarine landslides, which are found on large uniformly-dipping slopes, a single large landslide scarp cannot form on land because of the heterogeneous morphology and short slope distances of tectonically-active subaerial regions. However, for a given earthquake magnitude, the total area

  8. Visit of the Italian President

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "CERN stands as the demonstration of the great results that science can achieve [...] when it succeeds in getting all the main players in international scientific cooperation involved," stated the President of the Italian Republic, Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, in front of an overcrowded and enthusiastic Main Auditorium. The President visited CERN on 2nd December, and met the CERN directorate as well as the Italians at CERN. With about 1500 Italians working at CERN, which is one sixth of the total personnel, they are the second largest nationality at CERN. The Italian President visited the CMS assembly hall and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall before meeting the CERN community, in particular Italian personnel, in the main auditorium. There he emphasised the role of CERN as a transnational model for research which not only achieved great results in science but is also a powerful vehicle for progress in other fields. President Ciampi visits the LHC superconducting test hall together with Luciano Maiani and Lu...

  9. A kuroko-type polymetallic sulfide deposit in a submarine silicic caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizasa; Fiske; Ishizuka; Yuasa; Hashimoto; Ishibashi; Naka; Horii; Fujiwara; Imai; Koyama

    1999-02-12

    Manned submersible studies have delineated a large and actively growing Kuroko-type volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit 400 kilometers south of Tokyo in Myojin Knoll submarine caldera. The sulfide body is located on the caldera floor at a depth of 1210 to 1360 meters, has an area of 400 by 400 by 30 meters, and is notably rich in gold and silver. The discovery of a large Kuroko-type polymetallic sulfide deposit in this arc-front caldera raises the possibility that the numerous unexplored submarine silicic calderas elsewhere might have similar deposits.

  10. Submarine geologic disposal of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, C.D.; Corliss, B.H.; Anderson, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Site suitability characteristics of submarine geological formations for the disposal of radioactive wastes include the distribution coefficient of the host medium, permeability, viscoelastic nature of the sediments, influence of organic material on remobilization, and effects of thermal stress. The submarine geological formation that appears to best satisfy these criteria is abyssal ''red'' clay. Regions in the ocean that have coarse-grained deposits, high or variable thermal conductivity, high organic carbon content, and sediment thickness of less than 50 m are not being considered at this time. The optimum geological environment should be tranquil and have environmental predictability over a minimum of 10 5 years. Site selection activities for the North Atlantic and North Pacific are reviewed and future activities which include international cooperation are discussed. A paleoenvironmental model for Cenozoic sedimentation in the central North Pacific is presented based on studies of a long core from the Mid-Plate Gyre MPG-1 area, and is an example of the type of study that will be carried out in other seabed study areas. The data show that the MPG-1 region has been an area of slow, continuous accumulation during the past 65 million years. (author)

  11. Virtual Reality Training System for a Submarine Command Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Maxwell, Douglas B

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is a system that uses a combined real and virtual display interaction methodology to generate the visual appearance of submarine combat control rooms and allow interaction...

  12. Gender integration on U.S. Navy submarines: views of the first wave

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, Krysten J.; Munson, Garold I.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This project is an ethnographic case study documenting the experiences of the first group of women integrated into the United States Submarine Force. The study seeks to: 1) document the process through which each of the women was selected and became a submariner; 2) identify hindering and supporting issues and concerns (e.g., life-work balance, job-role expectations, and career development); 3) describe the organizational culture and c...

  13. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  14. Multicore fibers for high-capacity submarine transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nooruzzaman, Md.; Morioka, Toshio

    2018-01-01

    Applications of multicore fibers (MCFs) in undersea transmission systems are investigated, and various potential architectures of branching units for MCF-based undersea transmission systems are presented. Some MCF-based submarine network architectures based on the amount of data traffic are also...

  15. Crustal volumes of the continents and of oceanic and continental submarine plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.; Sandwell, D.

    1989-01-01

    Using global topographic data and the assumption of Airy isostasy, it is estimated that the crustal volume of the continents is 7182 X 10 to the 6th cu km. The crustal volumes of the oceanic and continental submarine plateaus are calculated at 369 X 10 to the 6th cu km and 242 X 10 to the 6th cu km, respectively. The total continental crustal volume is found to be 7581 X 10 to the 6th cu km, 3.2 percent of which is comprised of continental submarine plateaus on the seafloor. An upper bound on the contintental crust addition rate by the accretion of oceanic plateaus is set at 3.7 cu km/yr. Subduction of continental submarine plateaus with the oceanic lithosphere on a 100 Myr time scale yields an upper bound to the continental crustal subtraction rate of 2.4 cu km/yr.

  16. A submarine landslide source for the devastating 1964 Chenega tsunami, southern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel; Haeussler, Peter J.; Lee Liberty,; David Finlayson,; Geist, Eric L.; Labay, Keith A.; Michael Byerly,

    2016-01-01

    During the 1964 Great Alaska earthquake (Mw 9.2), several fjords, straits, and bays throughout southern Alaska experienced significant tsunami runup of localized, but unexplained origin. Dangerous Passage is a glacimarine fjord in western Prince William Sound, which experienced a tsunami that devastated the village of Chenega where 23 of 75 inhabitants were lost – the highest relative loss of any community during the earthquake. Previous studies suggested the source of the devastating tsunami was either from a local submarine landslide of unknown origin or from coseismic tectonic displacement. Here we present new observations from high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection surveys conducted in the waters adjacent to the village of Chenega. The seabed morphology and substrate architecture reveal a large submarine landslide complex in water depths of 120–360 m. Analysis of bathymetric change between 1957 and 2014 indicates the upper 20–50 m (∼0.7 km3) of glacimarine sediment was destabilized and evacuated from the steep face of a submerged moraine and an adjacent ∼21 km2 perched sedimentary basin. Once mobilized, landslide debris poured over the steep, 130 m-high face of a deeper moraine and then blanketed the terminal basin (∼465 m water depth) in 11 ± 5 m of sediment. These results, combined with inverse tsunami travel-time modeling, suggest that earthquake- triggered submarine landslides generated the tsunami that struck the village of Chenega roughly 4 min after shaking began. Unlike other tsunamigenic landslides observed in and around Prince William Sound in 1964, the failures in Dangerous Passage are not linked to an active submarine delta. The requisite environmental conditions needed to generate large submarine landslides in glacimarine fjords around the world may be more common than previously thought. 

  17. Evolution and Submarine Landslide Potential of Monterey Canyon Head, Offshore Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, K. L.; Johnson, S. Y.; Hart, P. E.; Hartwell, S. R.

    2016-12-01

    Monterey Canyon, offshore central California, incises the shelf from near the shoreline to 30 km seaward where axial water depths approach 2,000 m. It is one of the world's most studied submarine canyons, yet debate continues concerning its age, formation, and associated geologic hazards. To address these issues, the USGS, with partial support from the California Seafloor Mapping Program, collected hundreds of kilometers of high-resolution, mini-sparker, single-channel (2009 and 2011 surveys) and multichannel (2015 survey) seismic-reflection profiles near the canyon head. The seismic data were combined with multibeam bathymetry to generate a geologic map of the proximal canyon, which delineates numerous faults and compound submarine landslide headwall scarps (covering up to 4 km2) along canyon walls. Seismic-reflection data reveal a massive ( 100 km2 lateral extent) paleochannel cut-and-fill complex underlying the proximal canyon. These subsurface cut-and-fill deposits span both sides of the relatively narrow modern canyon head, crop out in canyon walls, and incise into Purisima Formation (late Miocene and Pliocene) bedrock to depths of up to 0.3 s two-way travel time ( 240 m) below the modern shelf. We propose that the paleochannel complex represents previous locations of a migrating canyon head, and attribute its origin to multiple alternating cycles of fluvial and submarine canyon erosion and deposition linked to fluctuating sea levels. Thus, the canyon head imaged in modern bathymetry is a relatively young feature, perhaps forming in the last 20,000 years of sea-level rise. The paleocanyon deposits are significantly less consolidated than bedrock in deeper canyon walls, and therefore, are probably more prone to submarine landsliding. Nearby mapped faults occur within the active, distributed, San Andreas fault system, and earthquake-generated strong ground motions are likely triggers for past and future submarine landslides and potential associated tsunamis.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Effect of the Sail with Leading Edge Fillet on Flow around a Submarine

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Rahmany; Amir Hamzeh Farajollahi; Mojtaba Dehghan Manshadi

    2016-01-01

    Because of connecting the various appendages of submarine to the main body the vortices have been created that disrupt the flow uniformity and make the undesirable features such as vortex formation to flow. Vortices that have been created due to the connectivity of sail to the body of submarines have a significant impact on non-uniformity of submarine wake at location of the propeller disc. In present research the use of hot wire anemometer has created vertical flow field in back of the two s...

  19. The Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The energy sector in Italy, as in Europe and in many other areas of the world, is undergoing rapid and profound changes. The 1986 ratification of the European Single Act was intended to create a European internal market, where circulation of people, capital, goods, and services would reach the highest possible liberalization. In 1988, in the document The Energy Internal Market, the European Union (EU) commission stressed the need for creation of an internal energy market--free of obstacles--to increase security of supply, to reduce costs, and to strengthen the competitiveness of the European economic system. In 1990, the Community Council adopted directives to implement the EU energy sector. This article describes Italy's role as part of the EU energy sector. It covers the following topics: the Italian energy sector; electricity vs gas transportation; project finance; recent developments advance Italian power industry; specifying powerplant components -- Italian stype; buyers' guide to Italian equipment, services

  20. German Submarine Offensives and South African Countermeasures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    World War, with a number of opportunistic attacks also made by submarines travelling to the Far ..... This time round, however, the strategic importance of the Indian Ocean ... offensive operations in the Indian Ocean between the Gulf of Aden and the ... American seaboards, which ensured that an attack around the coast off ...

  1. MVAC Submarine cable, magnetic fields measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Expethit, Adrian; Pedersen, Morten Virklund

    2017-01-01

    Standard 60287. Researchers believe that the wire armour of three phased submarine cables is the reason for the inaccurate calculations by the standard. Studies show that the magnetic behaviour of these cables are changed due to the wire armour. In order to investigate this hypothesis, this paper intends...... to supply the theoretical research with data from magnetic field measurements on a wire armoured 3-phase submarine cable, together with an investigation of the induced currents in the different cable components. The influence of the physical arrangement of the armour wires on the electric behaviour is also...... investigated, since several researchers believe that the twisting of the armour wires result in zero net induced voltage over one helix length. This is shown to be valid for the tested cable. Finally a replica of the armour has been built with just a single conductor in the centre. This setup was used...

  2. Stresses in a submarine topography under ocean waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, C.C.; McTigue, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of submarine slope stability is of interest to both offshore engineering and geology. In an uneven topography, the weight above a horizontal plane induces two-dimensional variation in the static stress field. The action of wave pressure, which changes with depth, further introduces excess pore pressure and dynamic stresses in the sea bottom. In the present paper, we combine a simple analytical theory for the static stress by the present authors, and the recent solution by Mei and Foda for wave-induced stresses in a plane poro-elastic sea bed to account for mild bottom slope and wave shoaling, to obtain the effective stress field in a submarine topography under sea waves. Sample results are given for a ridge and a canyon. In particular the dynamic pore pressure and the combined static and dynamic effective stresses are presented. 10 references, 11 figures.

  3. Understanding losses in three core armoured submarine cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    . For practical an economical reasons the preferred choice of cable for both the array and the transmission cables are three-core armoured submarine cables. Therefore, it has becoming increasingly important to be able to calculate the ampacity of such cables accurately. At present time, the ampacity of three......-core armoured submarine cables is calculated according to IEC 60287-1-1 [1]. Various measurements conducted both by cable manufacturers and transmission system operators (TSO) have shown that using the cable rating method stated in IEC 60287-1-1 underestimates the cable ampacity [2]-[6]. Furthermore......, measurements conducted within the cable industry have shown that an armoured three core cable has higher losses than equal unarmoured three core cables. It is also suggested that the inaccuracy in the IEC armour’s loss factor (λ2) is the main responsible for the conservatism in the IEC cable rating method...

  4. Submarine Biofouling Control- Chlorination DATS Study at Pearl Harbor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wegand, John

    2001-01-01

    The intent of this document is to sumarize the chlorination studies performed at Naval Station, Pearl Harbor in support of biofouling control initiatives for the submarine community, as requested by NAVSEA 92T...

  5. ESR dating of submarine hydrothermal activities using barite in sulfide deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, S.; Fujiwara, T.; Ishibashi, J.; Isono, Y.; Uchida, A.; Takamasa, A.; Nakai, S.

    2012-12-01

    The temporal change of submarine hydrothermal activities has been an important issue in the aspect of the evolution of hydrothermal systems which is related with ore formation (Urabe, 1995) and biological systems sustained by the chemical species arising from hydrothermal activities (Macdonald et al., 1980). Determining the ages of the hydrothermal deposit will provide essential information on such studies. Dating methods using disequilibrium between radioisotopes such as U-Th method (e.g. You and Bickle, 1998), 226}Ra-{210Pb and 228}Ra-{228Th method (e.g. Noguchi et al., 2011) have been applied to date submarine hydrothermal deposits. ESR (electron spin resonance) dating method is commonly applied to fossil teeth, shells, and quartz of Quaternay period where the natural accumulated dose is obtained from the intensities of the ESR signals which are created by natural radiation. The natural dose is divided by the dose rate to the mineral/sample to deduce the age. Okumura et al., (2010) made the first practical application of ESR (electron spin resonance) dating technique to a sample of submarine hydrothermal barite (BaSO4) to obtain preliminary ages, where Kasuya et al. (1991) first pointed out that barite can be used for ESR dating. Knowing that ESR dating of barite is promising, in this paper, we will present how we have investigated each factor that contributes ESR dating of barite in submarine hydrothermal sulfide deposition. (1) The best ESR condition for measuring the SO3- signal in barite is with the microwave power of 1mW and modulation amplitude of 0.1mT. (2) As results of heating experiments, the signal was found to be stable for the dating age range of several thousands. (3) 226Ra replacing Ba in barite is the source of the radiation. The amount of radioactive elements in sulfide mineral surrounding barite is negligible. (4) The external radiation from the sea water is negligible even in the submarine hydrothermal area where the radiation level is much

  6. [Dynamics of functional status of submarine personnel during the pre-deployment period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankevich, Iu R; Bloshchinskiĭ, I A; Val'skiĭ, A V; Nabokov, N L

    2014-09-01

    Authors came to conclusions that during the pre-deployment period submarine personnel are stressed out. During this period submarine personnel .usually resupply, conduct maintenance and other monitoring-and-checkout measures, which leads to functional stress. Authors came to conclusion that it is necessary to use simple and easy, but at the same time informative methods for early diagnosis of worsen functional health status. One of these methods is evaluation of indicators of cardiovascular system. This method is a base for functional health status prophylaxis.

  7. The Italian gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.

    2004-01-01

    The first meeting of the French gas association (AFG) of the year 2004 was devoted to the Italian gas market. Two experts of this market were invited: A. Ferrari, general director of the Italian gas and electricity regulation authority, and D. Dispenza, vice-general director of Eni Division Gas and Power. This conference was the occasion to compare the French and Italian gas industries. France and Italy have a border in common and also a series of common structural characteristics: the dependence with respect to foreign supplies, the position of the public company, the sensitiveness with respect to the security of supplies, to the role of storage and to the public utility. The French and Italian decisions are inter-dependent. The liberalization taking place with an unpredictable rate, it is necessary for the gas industry to anticipate its effects. When the political, legal and regulatory decisions are enforced, the initiative comes back to the hands of the industry. In this context, the trend of the transfrontier industries becomes particularly important for the regulatory authority. (J.S.)

  8. The Eagle’s Nest in the Horn of Africa: US Military Strategic Deployment in Djibouti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degang Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Djibouti is the only country in the world in which US, French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Japanese military forces are stationed simultaneously; China will soon have a presence there as well. The US military deployment in Djibouti has shifted from a soft military presence to an arrangement of significant strategic import, and from a small outpost to a large garrison in the past two decades. The internal dynamics of the US deployment are geopolitical, as the US presence facilitates the carrying out of its strategies regarding antiterrorism, anti-proliferation, the protection of energy investments, and anti-piracy. The external dynamics of the US deployment are geo-economic: the government of Djibouti, as the host nation, reaps economic windfalls from the US presence in this strategically located country. Given that the United States has failed since 2008 to persuade any country on the continent to host AFRICOM, the base in Djibouti is likely to remain the only one in East Africa. Djibouti may be part of a pattern whereby some small African nations, such as São Tomé and Príncipe, collect revenue through the provision of military bases to big powers.

  9. Annotated bibliography: Marine geologic hazards of the Hawaiian Islands with special focus on submarine slides and turbidity currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Normark, W.R.; Herring, H.H.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to highlight the submarine geology of the Hawaiian Islands and identify known and potential marine geologic hazards with special emphasis on turbidity currents, submarine slides and tsunamis. Some references are included that are not specific to Hawaii but are needed to understand the geologic processes that can affect the integrity of submarine cables and other man-made structures. Entries specific to the Hawaiian Island area are shown in bold type.

  10. The human factor in the operation of nuclear powered submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambier, M.

    1982-05-01

    The conditions characterizing the operation of nuclear powered submarines are described and the precautionary measures suitable to reduce the incidence of human errors and their consequences are explained

  11. Submarine slope failures due to pipe structure formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elger, Judith; Berndt, Christian; Rüpke, Lars; Krastel, Sebastian; Gross, Felix; Geissler, Wolfram H

    2018-02-19

    There is a strong spatial correlation between submarine slope failures and the occurrence of gas hydrates. This has been attributed to the dynamic nature of gas hydrate systems and the potential reduction of slope stability due to bottom water warming or sea level drop. However, 30 years of research into this process found no solid supporting evidence. Here we present new reflection seismic data from the Arctic Ocean and numerical modelling results supporting a different link between hydrates and slope stability. Hydrates reduce sediment permeability and cause build-up of overpressure at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. Resulting hydro-fracturing forms pipe structures as pathways for overpressured fluids to migrate upward. Where these pipe structures reach shallow permeable beds, this overpressure transfers laterally and destabilises the slope. This process reconciles the spatial correlation of submarine landslides and gas hydrate, and it is independent of environmental change and water depth.

  12. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Wadham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Australia. Civil–military relations describe the complex set of relationships between the civil and military spheres. The role of the military, the relationship between the state and the military, the division of labor between civilian and military entities, foreign policy, and knowledge of military service are some of the fields that constitute a study of civil–military relations. This article reports on beliefs about, and attitudes to the specificities of military service and responses to the broader field of civil–military relations.

  13. Simple models for the simulation of submarine melt for a Greenland glacial system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Johanna; Perrette, Mahé; Ganopolski, Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Two hundred marine-terminating Greenland outlet glaciers deliver more than half of the annually accumulated ice into the ocean and have played an important role in the Greenland ice sheet mass loss observed since the mid-1990s. Submarine melt may play a crucial role in the mass balance and position of the grounding line of these outlet glaciers. As the ocean warms, it is expected that submarine melt will increase, potentially driving outlet glaciers retreat and contributing to sea level rise. Projections of the future contribution of outlet glaciers to sea level rise are hampered by the necessity to use models with extremely high resolution of the order of a few hundred meters. That requirement in not only demanded when modeling outlet glaciers as a stand alone model but also when coupling them with high-resolution 3-D ocean models. In addition, fjord bathymetry data are mostly missing or inaccurate (errors of several hundreds of meters), which questions the benefit of using computationally expensive 3-D models for future predictions. Here we propose an alternative approach built on the use of a computationally efficient simple model of submarine melt based on turbulent plume theory. We show that such a simple model is in reasonable agreement with several available modeling studies. We performed a suite of experiments to analyze sensitivity of these simple models to model parameters and climate characteristics. We found that the computationally cheap plume model demonstrates qualitatively similar behavior as 3-D general circulation models. To match results of the 3-D models in a quantitative manner, a scaling factor of the order of 1 is needed for the plume models. We applied this approach to model submarine melt for six representative Greenland glaciers and found that the application of a line plume can produce submarine melt compatible with observational data. Our results show that the line plume model is more appropriate than the cone plume model for simulating

  14. Go big or die out: Bifurcation and bimodality in submarine sediment flow behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talling, P.; Paull, C. K.; Lintern, G.; Gwiazda, R.; Cartigny, M.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Xu, J.; Clare, M. A.; Parsons, D. R.; Simmons, S.; Maier, K. L.; Gales, J. A.; Hage, S.; McGann, M.; Pope, E.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Stacey, C.; Barry, J.; Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Chapplow, N.; Vendettuoli, D.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine flows of sediment (turbidity currents) flush globally significant volumes of sediment and organic carbon into deep-sea basins. These flows create the largest sediment accumulations on Earth, which hold valuable oil and gas reserves. These flows affect global carbon burial, how deep-sea ecosystems function, and pose a hazard to offshore infrastructure. Only river systems transport such large amounts of sediment across such long distances. However, there are remarkably few direct measurements from active submarine flows, which is a stark contrast to >1 million direct observations from rivers. Here we present unusually detailed information on frequency, power and runout distance of multiple submarine flows at two contrasting locations. The first data set comes from Monterey Canyon, offshore California, which is fed by littoral cells. The second site is a river-fed delta in Bute Inlet, British Columbia. In both cases, the timing and runout distance of submarine flows was documented using instruments on multiple moorings placed along the 50-km long flow pathway. A striking observation is that flow behaviour and runout is strongly bimodal in both locations. Flows tend to either dissipate rapidly, or runout through the entire mooring arrays. We thus test whether i) the character of short or long runout flows can be distinguished at the first mooring and ii) whether long and short runout flows have different triggers. It has been proposed that submarine flows have two modes of behaviour; either eroding and accelerating, or depositing and dissipating. These field data support such a view of bifurcation and bimodality in flow behaviour. However, some short runout flows resemble their longer runout cousins at the first mooring, and there is no clear relationship between flow trigger and runout. Thus, some flows reach a point where their character is no longer dependent on their initial trigger or initial structure, but on factors acting along the flow pathway.

  15. Submarine canyons along the upper Sardinian slope (Central Western Mediterranean) as repositories for derelict fishing gears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Alessandro; Alvito, Andrea; Moccia, Davide; Canese, Simonepietro; Pusceddu, Antonio; Rita, Cannas; Angiolillo, Michela; Follesa, Maria C

    2017-10-15

    By means of ROV surveys, we assessed the quantity, composition and bathymetric distribution of marine litter in 17 sites along the Sardinian continental margin (Central Western Mediterranean) at depths ranging from 100 to 480m. None of the investigated sites was litter free, but the mean density of litter (0.0175±0.0022itemsm -2 ) was lower than that reported from other Tyrrhenian regions. The difference in the total litter density among sites was negligible, but the density of derelict fishing gear (DFG) items (most of which ascribable to small scale fishery) in submarine canyons was higher in submarine canyons than in other habitats. Our result suggest that submarine canyons (known to be highly vulnerable ecosystems) act as major repositories of DFGs, and, therefore, we anticipate the need of specific measures aimed at minimizing the loss and abandonment of DFGs in submarine canyons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of submarine canyons on tsunami heights, currents and run-up off the southeast coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.; ManiMurali, R.; Baldock, T.E.

    Tsunami numerical model studies are mostly focused on inundation and run-up onto the coast. Fewer studies have been aimed at investigating role of submarine canyons on the tsunami heights, currents and run-up. The influence of submarine canyons...

  17. [Assessment of congenital malformation risk in the progeny of the military and civilian personnel of the Salto di Quirra military base: preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, G; Pilleri, M; Garofalo, E; Masala, E; Pili, C; Tocco, A; Ursi, M; D'Andrea, I; Campagna, M; Carta, W; Castellet y Ballarà, A; Chiodini, S; Nonne, T; Sartorello, A; Addis, M; Cocco, P

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the congenital malformation rate in the progeny of the personnel of the Salto di Quirra military base in Sardinia. During 2011, we gathered questionnaire information on the reproductive history of 389 employees, more then 99% of those eligible for routine health surveillance. the observed congenital malformation rate (20.1 x 10(-3), 95% CI 6.3 - 33.8) was lower than that reported by the Italian Registries of Congenital Malformations, and it did not vary by exposure to radiofrequency, elf electromagnetic fields, and solvents, and by jobs associated with alleged exposure to nanoparticles or alpha radiation. Our findings suggest that the documented or alleged occupational exposures among the PISQ workforce did not increase the congenital malformation rate in the progeny.

  18. Magmatic sill intrusions beneath El Hierro Island following the 2011-2012 submarine eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Saz, María Á.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Parks, Michelle M.; García-Cañada, Laura; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2016-04-01

    El Hierro, the most southwestern island of Canary Islands, Spain, is a volcano rising from around 3600 m above the ocean floor and up to of 1500 m above sea level. A submarine eruption occurred off the coast of El Hierro in 2011-2012, which was the only confirmed eruption in the last ~ 600 years. Activity continued after the end of the eruption with six magmatic intrusions occurring between 2012-2014. Each of these intrusions was characterized by hundreds of earthquakes and 3-19 centimeters of observed ground deformation. Ground displacements at ten continuous GPS sites were initially inverted to determine the optimal source parameters (location, geometry, volume/pressure change) that best define these intrusions from a geodetic point of view. Each intrusive period appears to be associated with the formation of a separate sill, with inferred volumes between 0.02 - 0.3 km3. SAR images from the Canadian RADARSAT-2 satellite and the Italian Space Agency COSMO-SkyMed constellation have been used to produce high-resolution detailed maps of line-of-sight displacements for each of these intrusions. These data have been combined with the continuous GPS observations and a joint inversion undertaken to gain further constraints on the optimal source parameters for each of these separate intrusive events. The recorded activity helps to understand how an oceanic intraplate volcanic island grows through repeated sill intrusions; well documented by seismic, GPS and InSAR observations in the case of the El Hierro activity.

  19. Biomonitoring of physiological status and cognitive performance of underway submariners undergoing a novel watch-standing schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplessis, C. A.; Cullum, M. E.; Crepeau, L. J.

    2005-05-01

    Submarine watch-standers adhere to a 6 hour-on, 12 hour-off (6/12) watch-standing schedule, yoking them to an 18-hr day, engendering circadian desynchronization and chronic sleep deprivation. Moreover, the chronic social crowding, shift work, and confinement of submarine life provide additional stressors known to correlate with elevated secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) and cortisol levels, reduced performance, immunologic dysfunction, malignancies, infections, gastrointestinal illness, coronary disease, anxiety, and depression. We evaluated an alternative, compressed, fixed work schedule designed to enhance circadian rhythm entrainment, sleep hygiene, performance, and health on 10 underway submariners, who followed the alternative and 6/12 schedules for approximately 2 weeks each. We measured subjects" sleep, cognitive performance, and salivary biomarker levels. Pilot analysis of the salivary data on one subject utilizing ELISA suggests elevated biomarker levels of stress. Average PM cortisol levels were 0.2 μg/L (normal range: nondetectable - 0.15 μg/L), and mean sIgA levels were 562 μg/ml (normal range: 100-500 μg/ml). Future research exploiting real-time salivary bioassays, via fluorescent polarimetry technology, identified by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) as a future Naval requirement, allows researchers to address correlations between stress-induced elaboration of salivary biomarkers with physiological and performance decrements, thereby fostering insight into the underway submariner"s psychoimmunological status. This may help identify strategies that enhance resilience to stressors. Specifically, empirically-based modeling can identify optimal watch-standing schedules and stress-mitigating procedures -- within the operational constraints of the submarine milieu and the mission --that foster improved circadian entrainment and reduced stress reactivity, enhancing physiological health, operational performance, safety, and job satisfaction.

  20. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval...Affairs April 5, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41129 Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine...1,091.1 million in research and development funding for the Ohio replacement program (ORP), a program to design and build a new class of 12 ballistic

  1. At Periscope Depth: Exploring Submarine Proliferation In Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    papers and op-eds; and relevant books . This thesis will not include human subjects because the scope of the research will not permit gathering...Soviet-built submarines required.36 Furthermore, the hulls were purchased secondhand and thus had a shortened

  2. Health and environmental risk assessment associated with a potential recovery of the Russian submarine K-27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, A.; Amundsen, I.; Brown, J.E.; Dowdall, M.; Standring, W. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority/CERAD CoE (Norway); Bartnicki, J. [Norwegian Meteorological Institute/CERAD CoE (Norway); Karcher, M. [O.A.Sys - Ocean Atmosphere Systems GmbH (Germany); Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences/CERAD CoE (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The nuclear submarine K-27 is one of several objects with spent nuclear fuel (SNF) which has been dumped in the Arctic. It contained two liquid metal reactors (LMRs) of 70 MW maximum thermal power each and used Pb-Bi as the coolant. The reactors were loaded with 180 kg of U-235 at an enrichment of 90 %. In September 1981, the submarine was sunk in the shallow waters of Stepovoy Fjord at an estimated depth of 30 m. Concerns have been expressed by various parties regarding the issue of dumped nuclear waste in the Kara Sea and in particular the submarine K-27. To address these concerns and to provide a better basis for evaluating possible radiological impact (especially as a consequence of a potential recovery of the submarine), an environmental impact assessment has been undertaken. The study is based on construction of different hypothetical accident scenarios and evaluating possible associated consequences for human and the environment. In general, three main scenarios seem probable and thus appropriate for consideration. One is the 'zero- alternative', i.e. investigate the current and future impact assuming no interventions. The second considers an accidental scenario involving the raising of the submarine and the third an accidental scenario related to the transportation of the submarine to shore for defueling. With regards to the accidental scenarios related to raising and transportation of the submarine, two alternatives can be considered depending on where and how a hypothetical accident will take place and whether the subsequent releases occur under water or at the water surface. The issue of an uncontrolled chain reaction occurring as a result of a potential recovery of the submarine will be included in the assessment. The work includes application of state of the art 3D hydrodynamic and atmospheric dispersion models to investigate the transport, distribution and fate of relevant radionuclides following a hypothetical accident in aquatic and

  3. Enhancement of submarine pressure hull steel ultrasonic inspection using imaging and artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D. Robert; Brassard, Michel; Matthews, James R.; Garneau, Stephane; Morchat, Richard

    1995-06-01

    The convergence of a number of contemporary technologies with increasing demands for improvements in inspection capabilities in maritime applications has created new opportunities for ultrasonic inspection. An automated ultrasonic inspection and data collection system APHIUS (automated pressure hull intelligent ultrasonic system), incorporates hardware and software developments to meet specific requirements for the maritime vessels, in particular, submarines in the Canadian Navy. Housed within a hardened portable computer chassis, instrumentation for digital ultrasonic data acquisition and transducer position measurement provide new capabilities that meet more demanding requirements for inspection of the aging submarine fleet. Digital data acquisition enables a number of new important capabilites including archiving of the complete inspection session, interpretation assistance through imaging, and automated interpretation using artificial intelligence methods. With this new reliable inspection system, in conjunction with a complementary study of the significance of real defect type and location, comprehensive new criteria can be generated which will eliminate unnecessary defect removal. As a consequence, cost savings will be realized through shortened submarine refit schedules.

  4. A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the

  5. A real two-phase submarine debris flow and tsunami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Miller, Stephen A. [Department of Geodynamics and Geophysics, Steinmann Institute, University of Bonn Nussallee 8, D-53115, Bonn (Germany)

    2012-09-26

    The general two-phase debris flow model proposed by Pudasaini is employed to study subaerial and submarine debris flows, and the tsunami generated by the debris impact at lakes and oceans. The model, which includes three fundamentally new and dominant physical aspects such as enhanced viscous stress, virtual mass, and generalized drag (in addition to buoyancy), constitutes the most generalized two-phase flow model to date. The advantage of this two-phase debris flow model over classical single-phase, or quasi-two-phase models, is that the initial mass can be divided into several parts by appropriately considering the solid volume fraction. These parts include a dry (landslide or rock slide), a fluid (water or muddy water; e.g., dams, rivers), and a general debris mixture material as needed in real flow simulations. This innovative formulation provides an opportunity, within a single framework, to simultaneously simulate the sliding debris (or landslide), the water lake or ocean, the debris impact at the lake or ocean, the tsunami generation and propagation, the mixing and separation between the solid and fluid phases, and the sediment transport and deposition process in the bathymetric surface. Applications of this model include (a) sediment transport on hill slopes, river streams, hydraulic channels (e.g., hydropower dams and plants); lakes, fjords, coastal lines, and aquatic ecology; and (b) submarine debris impact and the rupture of fiber optic, submarine cables and pipelines along the ocean floor, and damage to offshore drilling platforms. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics of debris impact induced tsunamis in mountain lakes or oceans are fundamentally different than the tsunami generated by pure rock avalanches and landslides. The analysis includes the generation, amplification and propagation of super tsunami waves and run-ups along coastlines, debris slide and deposition at the bottom floor, and debris shock waves. It is observed that the

  6. Non-linearity aspects in the design of submarine pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    An arbitrary attempt has been made to classify and discuss some non-linearity aspects related to design, construction and operation of submarine pipelines. Non-linearities usually interrelate and take part of a comprehensive design, making difficult to quantify their individual influence or

  7. Sustaining U.S. Nuclear Submarine Design Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    million annually in the NSWC’s Card- erock Division submarine design workforce in excess of reimburs - able demand to sustain skills that might...large testing infrastructure. Conse- quently, the Navy retains management and operation of these facili- ties under direct reimbursement from private...the water. 4 These facilities are maintained within the naval warfare centers, which, as working capi- tal organizations, require reimbursement from

  8. Environmental Analysis of U.S. Navy Submarine Solid Waste Discharges. Report of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    generation rates between the USS Cincinnati and the USS Kamehameha (shown in table 6-1) were described in the NNS study (1994) as due to differences in crew...habits, menus, variations in at-sea time, and differences in waste reduction efforts. It was noted that some boats, including the USS Kamehameha , have...kg·person-l·d-l) PCMG(%) (kg·person-l·d-l) PCMG(%) Submarine Submarine USS Cincinnati USS Kamehameha Cardboard 0.21 0.05 Paper(FC) 0.06 0.06 Paper(NFC

  9. Submarine Tailings Disposal (STD—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The mining industry is a fundamental industry involved in the development of modern society, but is also the world’s largest waste producer. This role will be enhanced in the future, because ore grades are generally decreasing, thus leading to increases in the waste/metal production ratio. Mine wastes deposited on-land in so-called tailings dams, impoundments or waste-dumps have several associated environmental issues that need to be addressed (e.g., acid mine drainage formation due to sulphide oxidation, geotechnical stability, among others, and social concerns due to land use during mining. The mining industry recognizes these concerns and is searching for waste management alternatives for the future. One option used in the past was the marine shore or shallow submarine deposition of this waste material in some parts of the world. After the occurrence of some severe environmental pollution, today the deposition in the deep sea (under constant reducing conditions is seen as a new, more secure option, due to the general thought that sulphide minerals are geochemically stable under the reduced conditions prevailing in the deep marine environment. This review highlights the mineralogical and geochemical issues (e.g., solubility of sulphides in seawater; reductive dissolution of oxide minerals under reducing conditions, which have to be considered when evaluating whether submarine tailings disposal is a suitable alternative for mine waste.

  10. Assessment of the environmental consequences of demolishing two Russian nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Norway has financed the demolition of two Russian Viktor II nuclear submarines through the Government's plan of action for nuclear issues. The British company Enviros Consulting has made an independent assessment of the environmental consequences of the project, which has been evaluated by the Foreign Department in cooperation with The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA). The consequence assessment has examined the health, environment and safety aspects of the entire demolition process, from towing the submarine to delivering the rubbish at the destination site. From Russian documentation and by visiting the shipyards it has been concluded that the demolition has been carried out in agreement with Russian law and in accordance with international instructions

  11. Boulder emplacement and remobilisation by cyclone and submarine landslide tsunami waves near Suva City, Fiji

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, A. Y. Annie; Terry, James P.; Ziegler, Alan; Pratap, Arti; Harris, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    The characteristics of a reef-top boulder field created by a local submarine landslide tsunami are presented for the first time. Our examination of large reef-derived boulders deposited by the 1953 tsunami near Suva City, Fiji, revealed that shorter-than-normal-period tsunami waves generated by submarine landslides can create a boulder field resembling a storm boulder field due to relatively short boulder transport distances. The boulder-inferred 1953 tsunami flow velocity is estimated at over 9 m s- 1 at the reef edge. Subsequent events, for example Cyclone Kina (1993), appear to have remobilised some large boulders. While prior research has demonstrated headward retreat of Suva Canyon in response to the repeated occurrence of earthquakes over the past few millennia, our results highlight the lingering vulnerability of the Fijian coastlines to high-energy waves generated both in the presence (tsunami) and absence (storm) of submarine failures and/or earthquakes. To explain the age discrepancies of U-Th dated coral comprising the deposited boulders, we introduce a conceptual model showing the role of repeated episodes of tsunamigenic submarine landslides in removing reef front sections through collapse. Subsequent high-energy wave events transport boulders from exposed older sections of the reef front onto the reef where they are deposited as 'new' boulders, alongside freshly detached sections of the living reef. In similar situations where anachronistic deposits complicate the deposition signal, age-dating of the coral boulders should not be used as a proxy for determining the timing of the submarine landslides or the tsunamis that generated them.

  12. Evaluation of the radiologic potential due to the nuclear submarine visits to the Rio de Janeiro port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose Francisco

    2004-01-01

    Brazil is signatory of international protocols related to the visit of nuclear-powered vessels, aircraft carriers and submarines to Brazilian ports. The submarines, during their stay in Brazilian ports, inform that there is no release of radioactive material to the environment. However, the possibility of occurrence of accidents with environmental releases from PWR reactors is real. Between 1993 and 2003, 13 nuclear submarines visited Brazilian ports. This work aimed to evaluate the potential impact due to the visits of nuclear-powered ships and submarines to the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in relation to releases of radioactive materials to the environment, considering both routine releases and accidental situations. The models selected to perform the assessments took into account the scenarios to be simulated. Simple, but conservative methodologies were used for the evaluation of routine releases. For accidental releases, the dynamics of the materials dispersion into the environment were considered. The present study was mainly focalized on the initial phase of an accident. The doses for the crew of the Brazilian navy ships, for IRD teams performing environmental monitoring, and for the population around the Guanabara Bay, close to the points of anchorage, were assessed. The results indicated that, in normal operational conditions, no significant radiological impact due to the visit of nuclear submarines to the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro is expected, even considering the occurrence of small routine radionuclide releases. The analysis of accidental releases, however, indicated that the submarines should be located at a minimum distance of 2,5 km from inhabited areas in the coast of the Guanabara Bay. The need for environmental control and training of the teams involved in the attendance of the submarines, during the period of their visit, was also considered. The need for revising the procedures for the preoperational surveys to be performed at the

  13. Research on Big Data Attribute Selection Method in Submarine Optical Fiber Network Fault Diagnosis Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ganlang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, in the fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, the attribute selection of large data is completed by detecting the attributes of the data, the accuracy of large data attribute selection cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, a large data attribute selection method based on support vector machines (SVM for fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network is proposed. Mining large data in the database of optical fiber network fault diagnosis, and calculate its attribute weight, attribute classification is completed according to attribute weight, so as to complete attribute selection of large data. Experimental results prove that ,the proposed method can improve the accuracy of large data attribute selection in fault diagnosis database of submarine optical fiber network, and has high use value.

  14. New infrastructure at Alboran island (Western Mediterranean): a submarine and on-land Geophysical Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Antonio; Martín Davila, José; Buforn, Elisa; Jesús García Fernández, Maria; Bullón, Mercedes; Gárate, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    The Eurasian-African plate boundary crosses the called "Ibero-Maghrebian" region from San Vicente Cape (SW Portugal) to Tunisia including the South of Iberia, Alboran Sea, and northern of Morocco and Algeria. The low convergence rate at this plate boundary produces a continuous moderate seismic activity of low magnitude and shallow depth, where the occurrence of large earthquakes is separated by long time intervals. In this region, there are also intermediate and very deep earthquakes. Since more than hundred years ago San Fernando Naval Observatory (ROA), in collaboration with other Institutes, has deployed different geophysical and geodetic equipment in the Southern Spain - North-western Africa area in order to study this broad deformation. Currently a Broad Band seismic net (Western Mediterranean, WM net), a permanent geodetic GPS net and a Geomagnetic Observatory have been installed by ROA in this area. To complement the available data, since past October a permanent marine-on land geophysical observatory is being installed by ROA in Alboran Island and surrounding marine zones. Till now the following facilities has been installed: • Submarine: 2 km submarine fibre optics cable (power and data transmission); Broad Band Seismometer (CMG-3T, buried); Accelerometer (Guralp 3 channels), buried); Differential Pressure Gauge (DPG); Thermometer. • On land: Permanent geodetic GPS station; Automatic meteorological station; Data acquisition system for submarine equipment; Satellite Data Transmission system. Data are already being transmitted in real time to ROA headquarters via satellite Intranet. The marine part, currently installed in a 50 m depth platform, has been designed to be enlarged by extending the cable to greater depths and/or installing additional submarine equipment, such a way in short an ADCP profiler will be installed. In this work we aim to show the present status, scientific possibilities and the next future plans of this submarine-on land

  15. Submarine Upward Looking Sonar Ice Draft Profile Data and Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of upward looking sonar draft data collected by submarines in the Arctic Ocean. It includes data from both U.S. Navy and Royal Navy...

  16. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically,…

  17. Development and validation of a modified Hybrid-III six-year-old dummy model for simulating submarining in motor-vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Reed, Matthew P; Kokkolaras, Michael; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2012-06-01

    In motor-vehicle crashes, young school-aged children restrained by vehicle seat belt systems often suffer from abdominal injuries due to submarining. However, the current anthropomorphic test device, so-called "crash dummy", is not adequate for proper simulation of submarining. In this study, a modified Hybrid-III six-year-old dummy model capable of simulating and predicting submarining was developed using MADYMO (TNO Automotive Safety Solutions). The model incorporated improved pelvis and abdomen geometry and properties previously tested in a modified physical dummy. The model was calibrated and validated against four sled tests under two test conditions with and without submarining using a multi-objective optimization method. A sensitivity analysis using this validated child dummy model showed that dummy knee excursion, torso rotation angle, and the difference between head and knee excursions were good predictors for submarining status. It was also shown that restraint system design variables, such as lap belt angle, D-ring height, and seat coefficient of friction (COF), may have opposite effects on head and abdomen injury risks; therefore child dummies and dummy models capable of simulating submarining are crucial for future restraint system design optimization for young school-aged children. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Italian Mediterranean Index and risk of colorectal cancer in the Italian section of the EPIC cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoli, Claudia; Grioni, Sara; Sieri, Sabina; Palli, Domenico; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Giurdanella, Maria Concetta; Pala, Valeria; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amalia; Panico, Salvatore; Krogh, Vittorio

    2013-03-15

    Colorectal cancer is among the commonest cancers worldwide. Dietary factors have been linked to colorectal cancer risk, however, few studies have evaluated the relationship between a priori dietary patterns and colorectal cancer risk. We evaluated the effect of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, as measured by the Italian Mediterranean Index, on the risk of colorectal cancer in the 45,275 participants of the Italian section of the EPIC study who completed a dietary questionnaire. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer in relation to categories of Italian Mediterranean Index score were estimated by multivariate Cox models adjusted for known risk factors, on the whole cohort, on men and women and according to cancer subsite. During a mean follow-up of 11.28 years, 435 colorectal cancer cases were identified. The Italian Mediterranean Index was inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.35-0.71 for the highest category compared to the lowest, P-trend: 0.043). Results did not differ by sex. Highest Italian Mediterranean Index score was also significantly associated with reduced risks of any colon cancer (HR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.36-0.81), distal colon cancer (HR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.26-0.75) and rectal cancer (HR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.20-0.81), but not of proximal colon cancer. These findings suggest that adherence to a Mediterranean diet (as measured by the Italian Mediterranean Index) protects against colorectal cancer in general but not against cancer developing in the proximal colon. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  19. An IKBS approach to surveillance for naval nuclear submarine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadas, C.N.; Bowskill, J.; Mayfield, T.; Clarke, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes work being carried out to develop an IKBS for use in surveillance of naval nuclear submarine propulsion plant. In recent years, modern process plants have increased automation and installed surveillance equipment while reducing the level of manpower operating and monitoring the plant. As a result, some of the local watchkeeping tasks have been transferred to control room operators, and the data reduction and warning filtering expertise inherent in local plant operators has been lost, while an additional workload has been placed upon operators. The surveillance systems installed to date have therefore been less usable than anticipated. The solution being achieved for submarine power plant is to introduce IKBS into surveillance to replace lost expertise, i.e. to return to a situation in which operators receive small amounts of high quality information rather than large amounts of low quality information

  20. The down canyon evolution of submarine sediment density flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, D. R.; Barry, J.; Clare, M. A.; Cartigny, M.; Chaffey, M. R.; Gales, J. A.; Gwiazda, R.; Maier, K. L.; McGann, M.; Paull, C. K.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Rosenberger, K. J.; Simmons, S.; Sumner, E. J.; Talling, P.; Xu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine density flows, known as turbidity currents, transfer globally significant volumes of terrestrial and shelf sediments, organic carbon, nutrients and fresher-water into the deep ocean. Understanding such flows has wide implications for global organic carbon cycling, the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, seabed infrastructure hazard assessments, and interpreting geological archives of Earth history. Only river systems transport comparable volumes of sediment over such large areas of the globe. Despite their clear importance, there are remarkably few direct measurements of these oceanic turbidity currents in action. Here we present results from the multi-institution Coordinated Canyon Experiment (CCE) which deployed multiple moorings along the axis of Monterey Canyon (offshore California). An array of six moorings, with downward looking acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) were positioned along the canyon axis from 290 m to 1850 m water depth. The ADCPs reveal the internal flow structure of submarine density flows at each site. We use a novel inversion method to reconstruct the suspended sediment concentration and flow stratification field during each event. Together the six moorings provide the first ever views of the internal structural evolution of turbidity current events as they evolve down system. Across the total 18-month period of deployment at least 15 submarine sediment density flows were measured with velocities up to 8.1 m/sec, with three of these flows extending 50 kms down the canyon beyond the 1850 m water depth mooring. We use these novel data to highlight the controls on ignition, interval structure and collapse of individual events and discuss the implications for the functioning and deposits produced by these enigmatic flows.

  1. Italian singer Annalisa at CERN for a week of filming

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    CERN welcomed Italian singer-songwriter Annalisa for a week-long visit to the Laboratory to shoot an Italian television production about the Laboratory.   Annalisa in the CERN Control Centre.   The Italian artist has a degree in physics from the University of Turin, Italy. She is a singer and songwriter, famous for her successful participation in the Italian talent show, Amici di Maria De Filippi. She has recorded four albums as solo artist and has participated twice in the Sanremo Music Festival, the most important Italian song contest. She has also received numerous Italian music awards, and has earned international recognition. Thanks to her knowledge of physics and her great influence with the Italian youth, Annalisa was selected to host an Italian television production about CERN aimed at young people. 

  2. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ≥2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge

  3. Authentic Italian food as Mamma used to make it!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Halberg; d'Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests.......The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests....

  4. Active normal faults and submarine landslides in the Keelung Shelf off NE Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hui Tsai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The westernmost Okinawa Trough back-arc basin is located to the north of the Ryukyu islands and is situated above the northward dipping Ryukyu subducted slab. In the northern continental margin of the Okinawa Trough, the continental slope between the Keelung Valley and the Mein-Hua Submarine Canyon shows a steep angle and future slope failures are expected. The question is how slope failures will proceed? A sudden deep-seated slump or landslide would probably cause local tsunami and hit northern coast of Taiwan. To understand the probable submarine landslides, we conducted multi-channel seismic reflection, sub-bottom profilers, and multi-beam bathymetry surveys off NE Taiwan. Two general trends of shallow crustal faults are observed. The NE-SW trending faults generally follow the main structural trend of the Taiwan mountain belt. These faults are products of inversion tectonics of reverse faults from the former collisional thrust faults to post-collisional normal faults. Another trend of roughly E-W faults is consistent with the current N-S extension of the southern Okinawa Trough. The fault offsets in the eastern portion of the study area are more pronounced. No obvious basal surface of sliding is found beneath the continental margin. We conclude that the movement of the submarine landslides in the Keelung Shelf off northeastern Taiwan could be in a spread type. The submarine landslides mainly occur in the continental slope area and it is more obvious in the east than in the west of the Keelung Shelf.

  5. Military Strategy vs. Military Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific st...... strategic and operational context, using doctrine as building blocks for a context specific military strategy, that the military commander outwits and defeats or coerces the adversary and achieves the military objectives....

  6. Meta-Analysis of Data from the Submarine Ventilation Doctrine Test Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoover, J

    1998-01-01

    ... in critical spaces or provide safe ingresslegress routes. This program sponsored six test series between January 1995 and August 1996 and made specific recommendations for the use of ventilation during submarine firefighting...

  7. The Italian LPG market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    As happened in other European countries, the Italian LPG consumption market narrowed in 1997 for climatic reasons. Still, with some 3,5 million tones it is the first LPG market in Europe thanks to automotive LPG which represents some 1,2 million tones, for 1,4 million tones for the bulk and 760, 000 tonnes for bottled products. Another characteristic of the Italian market: demand is slightly lowering in the North while increasing in the South and in the large islands. (author)

  8. “Hello, HELLO! Anyone there? - on the need to assess the tsunami risk to global submarine telecommunications infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominey-Howes, D.; Goff, J. R.

    2009-12-01

    National economies are increasingly dependent on the global telecommunications system - and in particular, its submarine cable infrastructure. Submarine cable traffic represents about 30% of global GDP so the cost of losing, or even simply slowing, communications traffic is high. Many natural hazards are capable of damaging and destroying this infrastructure but tsunamis are the most significant threat, particularly in waters >1000 m deep. Submarine cables and their shore-based infrastructure (the anchor points), are at risk from direct and indirect tsunami-related effects. During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in India and Indonesia, cables were broken (direct effect) as the tsunami eroded supporting sediments, and were further damaged by floating/submerged objects and intense nearshore currents. Shore-based infrastructure was also directly damaged in India, Indonesia, and the Maldives. The 1929 Grand Banks earthquake generated a submarine landslide and tsunami off Newfoundland which broke 12 submarine telegraph cables. In 2006, an earthquake in Taiwan generated submarine landslides and a tsunami. These landslides caused one of the largest disruptions of modern telecommunications history when nine cables in the Strait of Luzon were broken disabling vital connections between SE Asia and the rest of the world. Although electronic traffic in and out of Australia was slowed, it did not cease because >70% of our traffic is routed via cables that pass through Hawaii. This is extremely significant because Hawaii is an internationally recognised bottleneck or “choke point” in the global telecommunications network. The fact that Hawaii is a choke point is important because it is regularly affected by numerous large magnitude natural hazards. Any damage to the submarine telecommunications infrastructure routed through Hawaii could result in significant impacts on the electronic flow of data and voice traffic, negatively affecting dependent economies such as Australia

  9. Funding fears spark Italian protests

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    2001-01-01

    150 Italian scientists took part in a symbolic funeral in Milan for Italian research. Scientists are worried that the new government will reduce support for basic research. Rumours that budgets will be cut are being confirmed and last week the government rejected the 3-year plan of the National Research Council, which had proposed an expansion of staff (1/2 page).

  10. Toxic Emissions from a Military Test Site in the Territory of Sardinia, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Triolo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work assesses the environmental impact from chemical emissions due to military tests and routine activities in the area occupied by the Italian Inter-force Test Range (PISQ, located at Salto di Quirra, Sardinia, Italy. After reviewing the military activities carried out at PISQ, such as rocket launching, blasting and armament destruction, projectile and mortar fire impact, the associated pollution is evaluated. Chemical analyses were performed by means of Scanning Electronic Microscopy and Energy Dispersion Spectrometry on biotic and abiotic matrices. Residues of Rb, Tl, W, Ti and Al were found in matrices collected in the PISQ areas and environs. A review of experimental data on air, water, soil, milk, forage and animal tissues obtained by various Public Agencies of Sardinia proved that toxic element residues often exceeded the legal limits. PM10 and PM2.5 air concentrations also exceeded the legal limits after military blasting. Cd and Pb contents in the liver and kidneys of sheep living in farms at PISQ and in control farms that were located more than 20 km away from PISQ were higher than the legal limits. This work was performed to investigate concentration of xenobiotics in ecosystems emitted from PISQ activities. This assessment could be useful to focus future epidemiological studies carried out in PISQ and its neighbouring areas.

  11. Young Australians’ Attitudes to the Military and Military Service

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Wadham; Grace Skrzypiec; Phillip Slee

    2014-01-01

    What are young Australians’ understandings of, and attitudes to, the military and military service? This article describes a pilot study of 320 young Australian university students’ attitudes to the military and military service during a time when Australia was engaged in the Afghanistan war. The main purpose of this study was to develop a survey instrument for further work in researching civil–military relations in Au...

  12. Submarine landslide: A case study from the southwestern of Taiwan offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Y. H.; Dong, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Based on the new multibeam bathymetric data and seismic reflection profiles of the southwestern Taiwan, more and more submarine landslides developed there have been being discovered nowadays. Palm Ridge, located between the boundary of the active and passive margins, is the place where a deformation front passes through. And previous studies suspected that there were old submarine landslides developed here. To learn whether there are old submarine landslides here, a further study is conducted with the collection and analysis of new high-resolution swath-bathymetry and seismic data. Firstly, based on the swath-bathymetry, the topography range of the landslide is mapped and interpreted with the three dimensional model. Then, according to the profile of the mapping, the extending of the sliding surface is predicted. And referred on the properties of soil in adjacent region, the engineering geologic models of the landslide before and after failure are proposed. Thirdly, through a detailed analysis of the seismic data of Taiwan in the past three decades, a magnitude of 7.7 MW is selected as the lower bound of earthquake for the analysis of the trigger of the submarine landslide. And based on the record of earthquakes with 8 MW in the world, some other earthquake magnitudes are also considered in this study. After applying them into STABL 5M, the failure process of the landslide is modeled with its possible deposited ranges being reached. Finally, the sub-bottom and seismic data are used to verify the rationality of the above results. Preliminary result shows that there were at least three landslides occurred in Palm Ridge. The first landslide is largest which covers the approximate range of the study area. The second one is developed in the margin area of the first one, which is resulted by the occurrence of the first one. The third event is caused by the further collapse of the first one due to the loose of its inner structure.

  13. Estimation of submarine mass failure probability from a sequence of deposits with age dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Parsons, Thomas E.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2013-01-01

    The empirical probability of submarine mass failure is quantified from a sequence of dated mass-transport deposits. Several different techniques are described to estimate the parameters for a suite of candidate probability models. The techniques, previously developed for analyzing paleoseismic data, include maximum likelihood and Type II (Bayesian) maximum likelihood methods derived from renewal process theory and Monte Carlo methods. The estimated mean return time from these methods, unlike estimates from a simple arithmetic mean of the center age dates and standard likelihood methods, includes the effects of age-dating uncertainty and of open time intervals before the first and after the last event. The likelihood techniques are evaluated using Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC) and Akaike’s Bayesian Information Criterion (ABIC) to select the optimal model. The techniques are applied to mass transport deposits recorded in two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) drill sites located in the Ursa Basin, northern Gulf of Mexico. Dates of the deposits were constrained by regional bio- and magnetostratigraphy from a previous study. Results of the analysis indicate that submarine mass failures in this location occur primarily according to a Poisson process in which failures are independent and return times follow an exponential distribution. However, some of the model results suggest that submarine mass failures may occur quasiperiodically at one of the sites (U1324). The suite of techniques described in this study provides quantitative probability estimates of submarine mass failure occurrence, for any number of deposits and age uncertainty distributions.

  14. A re-evaluation of the Italian historical geomagnetic catalogue: implications for paleomagnetic dating at active Italian volcanoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D'Ajello Caracciolo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Paleomagnetism is proving to represent one of the most powerful dating tools of volcanics emplaced in Italy during the last few centuries/millennia. This method requires that valuable proxies of the local geomagnetic field (paleosecular variation ((PSV are available. To this end, we re-evaluate the whole Italian geomagnetic directional dataset, consisting of 833 and 696 declination and inclination measurements, respectively, carried out since 1640 AD at several localities. All directions were relocated via the virtual geomagnetic pole method to Stromboli (38.8° N, 15.2° E, the rough centre of the active Italian volcanoes. For declination-only measurements, missing inclinations were derived (always by pole method by French data (for period 1670–1789, and by nearby Italian sites/years (for periods 1640–1657 and 1790–1962. Using post-1825 declination values, we obtain a 0.46 ± 0.19° yr−1 westward drift of the geomagnetic field for Italy. The original observation years were modified, considering such drift value, to derive at a drift-corrected relocated dataset. Both datasets were found to be in substantial agreement with directions derived from the field models by Jackson et al. (2000 and Pavon-Carrasco et al. (2009. However, the drift-corrected dataset minimizes the differences between the Italian data and both field models, and eliminates a persistent 1.6° shift of 1933–1962 declination values from Castellaccio with respect to other nearly coeval Italian data. The relocated datasets were used to calculate two post-1640 Italian SV curves, with mean directions calculated every 30 and 10 years before and after 1790, respectively. The curve comparison suggests that both available field models yield the best available SV curve to perform paleomagnetic dating of 1600–1800 AD Italian volcanics, while the Italian drift-corrected curve is probably preferable for the 19th century. For the 20th century, the global model by

  15. Water quality, Multivariate statistical techniques, submarine out fall, spatial variation, temporal variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Francisco; Palacio, Carlos; Garcia, Uriel

    2012-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques were used to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of water quality at the Santa Marta coastal area where a submarine out fall that discharges 1 m3/s of domestic wastewater is located. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), cluster and principal component analysis and Krigging interpolation were considered for this report. Temporal variation showed two heterogeneous periods. From December to April, and July, where the concentration of the water quality parameters is higher; the rest of the year (May, June, August-November) were significantly lower. The spatial variation reported two areas where the water quality is different, this difference is related to the proximity to the submarine out fall discharge.

  16. An IKBS approach to surveillance for naval nuclear submarine propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadas, C.N.; Bowskill, J.; Mayfield, T.; Clarke, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    This Paper describes work being carried out to develop an intelligent knowledge-based system (IKBS) for use in the surveillance of naval nuclear submarine propulsion plant. In recent years, modern process plants have increased automation and installed surveillance equipment while reducing the level of manpower operating and monitoring the plant. As a result, some of the local watchkeeping tasks have been transferred to control room operators, and the data reduction and warning filtering expertise inherent in local plant operators has been lost, while an additional workload has been placed upon operators. The surveillance systems installed to date have therefore been less usable than anticipated. The solution being achieved for submarine power plant is to introduce IKBS into surveillance to replace lost expertise and return to a situation in which operators receive small amounts of high quality information rather than large amounts of low quality information. (author)

  17. A Baseline Air Quality Assessment Onboard a Victoria Class Submarine: HMCS Windsor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Severs, Y. D

    2006-01-01

    .... This trial thus represents a baseline habitability evaluation of Canada's Victoria class submarines to confirm compliance with the current maximum permissible contaminant limits stipulated in the Air...

  18. Third party liability of nuclear installation decommissioning with Russian nuclear submarines as an example: insurance versus technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, S.D.; Derevyankin, A.A.; Khamyanov, L.P.; Kovalenko, V.N.; Kovalivich, O.M.; Smirnov, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    Third party and environment of civil liability damage caused by incidents at military nuclear installations, for instance at decommissioned NPS (nuclear powered submarines), may be divided into three main trends: -) Liability of NPS without high-enriched irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) for its self-submersion (radiation incident); -) Liability of NPS with SNF aboard for its self-submersion (radiation incident); and -) Liability of floating NPS for its SNF discharge (nuclear accident). Without step-by-step transition from the Russian Federation guaranties to insurance and making allowance for liability limits according to the Vienna Convention approach, the sizes of the financial guarantee for the civil liability of the NPS owner (Russian state), in US dollars of 2000, are approximately assessed as the following: -) storing decommissioned NPS or a floating module without SNF - from 12 to 25 thousand dollars per year (per one submarine or module); -) storing decommissioned NPS with SNF inside reactors cores - from 25 to 40 thousand dollars per year; -) assembly-by-assembly removing SNF from reactors' core of decommissioned NPS - up to 1.5 million dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period; -) SNF removing within reactor using the filled in-space reactor's core by liquid-phased hardened or dispersed solid-phase materials from decommissioned NPS - from 30 to 50 thousand dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period. Both rates and sums for NPS with damaged reactors are to be estimated for the each damaged reactor and NPS at all. It is necessary to perform the measures reducing the risk of nuclear accidents of NPS with undamaged SNF and NPS with damaged reactors in possibly short time. It will allow not only to cut risks by ten times and more, but also to accumulate necessary insurance reserves faster. These measures can be partially or completely executed using the preventing measures reserves assigned to all decommissioned Russian NPS and

  19. Third party liability of nuclear installation decommissioning with Russian nuclear submarines as an example: insurance versus technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.D. [PREKSAT Ltd., Moscow (Russian Federation); Derevyankin, A.A. [Reseaarch and Development Institute of Nuclear Power Engineering, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khamyanov, L.P. [All-Russian Research Institute on NPP Operation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, V.N. [Ministry for Nuclear Energy Of Russian, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kovalivich, O.M. [Research and Technological Center for Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Supervisory, Nuclear Energy State Commitee of Russia, Moscow (Russian Federation); Smirnov, P.L. [Nuclear Safety Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Third party and environment of civil liability damage caused by incidents at military nuclear installations, for instance at decommissioned NPS (nuclear powered submarines), may be divided into three main trends: -) Liability of NPS without high-enriched irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) for its self-submersion (radiation incident); -) Liability of NPS with SNF aboard for its self-submersion (radiation incident); and -) Liability of floating NPS for its SNF discharge (nuclear accident). Without step-by-step transition from the Russian Federation guaranties to insurance and making allowance for liability limits according to the Vienna Convention approach, the sizes of the financial guarantee for the civil liability of the NPS owner (Russian state), in US dollars of 2000, are approximately assessed as the following: -) storing decommissioned NPS or a floating module without SNF - from 12 to 25 thousand dollars per year (per one submarine or module); -) storing decommissioned NPS with SNF inside reactors cores - from 25 to 40 thousand dollars per year; -) assembly-by-assembly removing SNF from reactors' core of decommissioned NPS - up to 1.5 million dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period; -) SNF removing within reactor using the filled in-space reactor's core by liquid-phased hardened or dispersed solid-phase materials from decommissioned NPS - from 30 to 50 thousand dollars for undamaged reactor per the discharging period. Both rates and sums for NPS with damaged reactors are to be estimated for the each damaged reactor and NPS at all. It is necessary to perform the measures reducing the risk of nuclear accidents of NPS with undamaged SNF and NPS with damaged reactors in possibly short time. It will allow not only to cut risks by ten times and more, but also to accumulate necessary insurance reserves faster. These measures can be partially or completely executed using the preventing measures reserves assigned to all decommissioned Russian NPS

  20. The history of Italian psychiatry during Fascism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Testa, Luana; Del Missier, Giovanni; Dario, Mariopaolo; Stocco, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Specific features characterized Italian psychiatry during Fascism (1922-45), distinguishing it from Nazi psychiatry and giving rise to different operational outcomes, so we have investigated the state of Italian psychiatry during this period. We review the historical situation that preceded it and describe the social and health policies that Fascism introduced following new legislative and regulatory acts. We examine the preventive and therapeutic role played by psychiatry (the electric shock was an Italian invention) and, thanks to the Enciclopedia Italiano published during those years, we are able to highlight psychiatry's relationship to psychology, psychoanalysis, philosophy and religion. The shortcomings of Italian psychiatric research and practice are also seen in terms of what the State failed to do rather than what it did.

  1. Autarky and Material Contingencies in Italian Architectural Debate (1936-1954

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pep Avilés

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available On 3 October 1935, Mussolini’s fascist regime invaded Ethiopia with undesired but foreseeable consequences for its imperialist aims: four days after the conquest, the Society of Nations imposed economic sanctions, promoting an international economic blockade. This soon translated in both a control of foreign currencies in order to purchase iron and steel on the international markets, and a vociferous campaign discouraging the use of materials that were demanded by the military endeavour. Architecture as a discipline and all the industrial activity around it suffered from government directions as well as the scarcity and control of commodities. Hence, its discourse accommodated to the new material situation. National and autochthonous values came to the fore, promoting local materials like wood or stone for construction as well as artificial and newly created ones.By the end of the 1930s and beginning of the 1940s the dispute about available materials became one of the main concerns in Italian architecture. If during the immediate past the defence of modern materials was traditionally articulated around technical and social values, the battle in interwar Italy was understood in political and economic terms. After stigmatising modern materials such as iron and steel as ‘antinational’, the dispute between those who recognised in modern techniques a threat to traditional Italian architecture, and those embracing the formal and intellectual basis of the modern movement, became predominantly ideological and represented both sides of the political spectrum. This paper examines the way these interwar debates were shaped by economic policy, political ideology, and material scarcity, and in turn affected architectural production during Italy’s postwar reconstruction.

  2. The brazilian nuclear submarine dossier: Navy's priority and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    This work discusses the feasibility of the brazilian nuclear submarine. It is related to navy's remodeling and is considered as a priority. It would bring Brazil closer to developed countries. It considers the slip, itself, the weapon's system as well as the nuclear propulsion. (author)

  3. Constraining the sedimentology and stratigraphy of submarine intraslope lobe deposits using exhumed examples from the Karoo Basin, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spychala, Y. T.; Hodgson, D. M.; Flint, S. S.; Mountney, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Intraslope lobe deposits provide a process record of the infill of accommodation on submarine slopes and their recognition enables the accurate reconstruction of the stratigraphic evolution of submarine slope systems. Extensive exposures of discrete sand-prone packages in Units D/E and E, Fort Brown

  4. Temperamental traits and results of psychoaptitude tests in applicants to become a cadet officer in the Italian Navy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maremmani, Icro; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Leonardi, Annalisa; Rovai, Luca; Bacciardi, Silvia; Rugani, Fabio; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Akiskal, Kareen; Akiskal, S Hagop

    2013-09-05

    Consistently with the involvement of affective temperaments in professional choices, our research team is aiming to outline the temperamental profile of subjects who are applying to enter a military career in the Italian Armed Forces. In this study we aim to verify the importance of temperamental traits not only in choosing the military career as a profession, but also in passing or failing the entrance examinations. We compared the affective temperaments (evaluated by TEMPS-A[P]) of those applying to become a cadet officer in the Italian Navy, divided into various subgroups depending on whether they passed or failed the entrance examination at various levels (high school final test, medical (physical and psychiatric), mathematical examination and aptitude test). We also tested for correlations between grades received and temperamental scores. Higher scores for those with a hyperthymic and lower scores for those with a depressive, cyclothymic or irritable temperament characterized applicants taking medical exams and aptitude tests. Higher scores on the high school final test correlated with lower hyperthymic, cyclothymic and irritable temperament scores. No correlations were found between temperamental traits and mathematical examinations. Multivariate analysis stressed the negative impact of a cyclothymic temperament and the poor discriminant power of temperaments regarding medical and mathematical examinations, and aptitude tests. Conversely, temperaments showed good discriminant power as far as psychiatric examinations are concerned. Hyperthymic temperamental traits appear to be important not only in choosing a profession, but also in passing entrance examinations. Even so, affective temperaments (strong hyperthymic and weak cyclothymic, depressive and irritable traits) are the only successfully predictors of the outcome of psychiatric examinations and, to a lesser extent, medical examinations and aptitude tests. Achieving high school graduation and passing

  5. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  6. Large submarine sand-rubble flow on Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornari, D J [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY; Moore, J G; Calk, L

    1979-05-01

    Papa'u seamount on the south submarine slope of Kilauea volcano is a large landslide about 19 km long, 6 km wide, and up to 1 km thick with a volume of about 39 km/sup 3/. Dredge hauls, remote camera photographs, and submersible observations indicate that it is composed primarily of unconsolidated angular glassy basalt sand with scattered basalt blocks up to 1 m in size; no lava flows were seen. Sulfur contents of basalt glass from several places on the sand-rubble flow and nearby areas are low (< 240 ppm), indicating that the clastic basaltic material was all erupted on land. The Papa'u sandrubble flow was emplaced during a single flow event fed from a large near-shore bank of clastic basaltic material which in turn was formed as lava flows from the summit area of Kilauea volcano disintegrated when they entered the sea. The current eruptive output of the volcano suggests that the material in the submarine sand-rubble flow represents about 6000 years of accumulation, and that the flow event occurred several thousand years ago.

  7. Simulation of Wave-Plus-Current Scour beneath Submarine Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke; Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2016-01-01

    A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed and suspen......A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed...... and suspended load descriptions forming the basis for seabed morphology. The model was successfully validated against experimental measurements involving scour development and eventual equilibrium in pure-current flows over a range of Shields parameters characteristic of both clear-water and live-bed regimes....... This validation complements previously demonstrated accuracy for the same model in simulating pipeline scour processes in pure-wave environments. The model was subsequently utilized to simulate combined wave-plus-current scour over a wide range of combined Keulegan–Carpenter numbers and relative current strengths...

  8. Submarine Volcanology: 1950 to 2050 and Beyond (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, J. R.; Kelley, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    The vigorous pursuit of submarine volcanism as a major field emerged in the mid 1900’s with the post WWII recognition that there is a Mid-Ocean Ridge System that is a 70,000 km long volcanic mountain chain stretching around the world like the strings on a baseball. By the mid 1960’s it emerged that rocks from volcanic feature were consistently basaltic in character and that they were the direct result of major melting processes associated with rise of much deeper mantle material beneath the spreading ridges in a global plate tectonics framework. More than 60% of the volcanism on the planet occurs in submarine environments. The next major discovery, using the deep diving submarine ALVIN, was in the late 1970’s involving hydrothermal systems near active ridges close to the Galapagos Islands and Baja California. The idea that these vent sites were the locus of major biological productivity based on volcanically-driven chemosynthesis was a fundamental new insight in the deep ocean ecology of our planet. This was a major planetological discovery and was followed within about 15 years with an even more powerful realization: our planet has a vast sub seafloor microbial biosphere thriving in the pores and the cracks of the oceanic crust driven by circulation of modified ocean fluids through large portions of the lithosphere. These organisms are largely supported by degassing and water-rock reactions associated with submarine volcanoes. Some estimates have posited that: 1) these thermally active systems and the chemosynthetic lifestyle are a natural consequence of certain types of planetary evolution, 2) that life may have originated in these systems, and, 3) that the biomass associated with the modern sub seafloor systems rivals most other living carbon on the continents. Indeed, parallel exploration of the outer solar system has lead to propositions that the second moon of Jupiter, Europa, has (or had) a high potential to harbor analogous hydrothermal life forms

  9. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulai, Henrietta; Waters, Ch.A.; Kennedy, Joseph; Kamenik, Jan; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez; Babinec, James; Jolly, James; Williamson, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We developed a fully autonomous underwater gamma-spectrometer for long-term coastal submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) monitoring. The instrument represents a significant improvement over previous submarine gamma-spectrometers in that it is very robust, has high sensitivity allowing high temporal resolution, and is completely autonomous. Here we describe the technical parameters of the new instrument as well as data collected over its 9-month deployment in Kiholo Bay, HI, USA. We also present methods to convert the measured activities to SGD rates. In Kiholo Bay, the derived SGD matched previous estimates but in addition it revealed previously undocumented short- and long-term patterns in SGD. (author)

  10. The missing link between submarine volcano and promising geothermal potential in Jinshan, Northern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. C.; Hutchings, L.; Chang, C. C.; Lee, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic group (TVG) and the Keelung submarine volcano (KSV) are active volcanoes and surrounding three nuclear plant sites in north Taiwan. The famous Jinshan-Wanli hot springs locates between TVG and KSV, moreover, the geochemical anomalies of acidic boiling springs on the seacoast infer that the origin is from magmatic fluids, sea water and meteoric water mixture, strongly implying that mantle fluids ascends into the shallow crust. The evidence for a magma chamber, submarine volcano, and boiling springs have a close spatial relationship. Based on UNECE specifications to Geothermal Energy Resources (2016), the Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area could be classified as Known Geothermal Energy Source for geothermal direct use and Potential Geothermal Energy Source for conventional geothermal system. High resolution reservoir exploration and modeling in Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area is developing for drilling risk mitigation. The geothermal team of National Taiwan Ocean University and local experts are cooperating for further exploration drilling and geothermal source evaluation. Keywords: geothermal resource evaluation, Jinshan-Wanli geothermal area, submarine volcano

  11. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  12. Italian Modernities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    assumptions that have substituted for thought and that have perpetuated prejudices both within and outside Italy’s borders. Grounded in meticulous historical and ethnological research, Italian Modernities deserves as wide an audience as its scholarship is deep.” (Michael Herzfeld, Ernest E. Monrad Professor...

  13. International year of planet earth 7. Oceans, submarine land-slides and consequent tsunamis in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Canada has the longest coastline and largest continental margin of any nation in the World. As a result, it is more likely than other nations to experience marine geohazards such as submarine landslides and consequent tsunamis. Coastal landslides represent a specific threat because of their possible proximity to societal infrastructure and high tsunami potential; they occur without warning and with little time lag between failure and tsunami impact. Continental margin landslides are common in the geologic record but rare on human timescales. Some ancient submarine landslides are massive but more recent events indicate that even relatively small slides on continental margins can generate devastating tsunamis. Tsunami impact can occur hundreds of km away from the source event, and with less than 2 hours warning. Identification of high-potential submarine landslide regions, combined with an understanding of landslide and tsunami processes and sophisticated tsunami propagation models, are required to identify areas at high risk of impact.

  14. Particular intervention plan of Cherbourg's military harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Particular intervention plan (PPI in French) is an emergency plan which foresees the measures and means to be implemented to address the potential risks of the presence and operation of a nuclear facility. This plan is implemented and developed by the Prefect in case of nuclear accident (or incident leading to a potential accident), the impact of which extending beyond the facility perimeter. It represents a special section of the organisation plan for civil protection response (ORSEC plan). The PPI foresees the necessary measures and means for crisis management during the first hours following the accident and is triggered by the Department Prefect according to the information provided by the facility operator. Its aim is to protect the populations leaving within 10 km of the facility against a potential radiological hazard. The PPI describes: the facility, the intervention area, the protection measures for the population, the conditions of emergency plan triggering, the crisis organisation, the action forms of the different services, and the post-accident stage. This document is the public version of the Particular intervention plan of the military harbour of Cherbourg (Manche, France) which hosts several nuclear facilities devoted to the construction and dismantling of nuclear submarines (without weapons)

  15. ITALIAN AND ITALIAN AMERICAN IDENTITY: A VISUAL APPROACH

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    It is flexible without overall plan and contains spaces .... of Symbolic Capital, defined by Bourdieu as “The collection of luxury goods attesting to the taste and distinction of the owner” (1977: 188), ... Since “the most successful ideological effects are those which have no words ..... a market dominated by non-Italian proprietors.

  16. Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Garzonio

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Italian and Russian Verse: Two Cultures and Two Mentalities The present text was given as a talk at Stanford University in 2003. Here the author presents a comparative analysis of Russian and Italian versification and pays attention to the cultural contacts between these two poetical traditions in an effort to define the role played by Italian patterns in Russian verse. In this perspective the author offers a history of Russian poetical translation of Italian texts pointing out the different opinions of Russian poets about the “musicality” of Italian verse. The combined influence of language and culture in modelling different Russian poetical forms in a chronological perspective is underlined.

  17. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  18. Hydroids from submarine cliffs near Arthur Harbour, Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, W.

    1972-01-01

    At the instigation of Dr. Joel W. Hedgpeth, Resident Director, Marine Science Center, Oregon State University, Newport, Oregon, U.S.A., I studied samples of hydroids, collected by Dr. John C. McCain and Dr. William E. Stout from submarine cliffs in the region around Palmer Station, Antarctica. The

  19. Syria’s Military Capabilities and Options for Military Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan-Blach, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    This background paper does not endorse any military action towards Syria. The document does not reflect or express any official Danish policy or a position of the University of Copenhagen or the Centre for Military Studies. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe military capabilities...... and options in order to provide a factual background for the ongoing discussion on possible military intervention in the Syrian conflict and Denmark’s possible participation in such an intervention. The paper is primarily based on the Military Balance published by the International Institute for Strategic...

  20. European energy policy and Italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, A.; Verdelli, A.

    2008-01-01

    The competitiveness of the Italian industry is very sensitive to the rising costs of energy. The European energy policy, if intended as an additional constraint, could deteriorate the situation. It could be, however, a good opportunity for the Italian industry to become more independent from fossil fuels, through an innovatory project at country level [it

  1. 1861-1981: Statistics teaching in Italian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donata Marasini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to outline the development of Statistics from 1861 to 1981 with respect to its contents. The paper pays particular attention to some statistical topics which have been covered by basic introductory courses in the Italian Universities since the beginning of the Italian unification. The review takes as its starting point the well-known book “Filosofia della Statistica” of Melchiorre Gioja. This volume was published 35 years before Italian unification but it already contains the fundamental topics of exploratory and inductive Statistics. These topics give the opportunity to mention Italian statisticians who are considered the pioneers of this discipline. In particular, the attention is focused on four statisticians: Corrado Gini, well-known for its modern insights; Marcello Boldrini, high cultured man also in the epistemological field; Bruno de Finetti, founder of subjective school and Bayesian reasoning; Giuseppe Pompilj, precursor of random variables and sampling theory. The paper browses the indexes of three well-known Italian handbooks that, although published after the period 1861-1981, deal with topics covered in some basic teachings of exploratory statistics, statistical inference and sampling theory from finite population.

  2. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  3. Semen quality of Italian local pig breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gandini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1996 to 1999 a conservation programme was carried out within the framework of EC contract “European gene banking project for the pig genetic resources” (Ollivier et al., 2001 in the Italian local pig breeds. The aims of the program included the primary characterization of the breeds, i.e. information on the organization in charge of the breed, breeding population numbers, breed description and qualifications, and field trials on productive and reproductive performances. In this context the “Semen Bank of Italian local pig breeds” was built. A total of 30,835 straws of four Italian local pig breeds (Cinta Senese, Casertana, Mora Romagnola and Nero Siciliano, collected from 42 sires, have been stored. In this work semen quality traits, lipid composition and freezability of the four Italian local pig breeds are reported.

  4. Serreta Submarine Eruption 1998-2001, Azores: a new compositional end-member?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipa Marques, Ana; Hamelin, Cédric; Madureira, Pedro; Rosa, Carlos; Silva, Pedro; Relvas, Jorge; Lourenço, Nuno; Conceição, Patrícia; Barriga, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    The Azores platform, where the Eurasian, Nubian and American plates meet, comprises nine volcanic islands extending to both sides of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). East of the MAR, the plate boundary between Eurasian and Nubian plates is defined by the Terceira Rift, interpreted as an intra-oceanic spreading system where the Islands of S. Miguel, Terceira and Graciosa emerge as well and the submarine D.João de Castro Bank, separated by deep avolcanic zones [1, 2]. Submarine and subaerial lavas from the Terceira Rift are characterized by small-scale elemental and isotopic variations, and several distinct compositional end-members have been identified [2,3] supporting the concept of significant mantle source heterogeneity. A recent submarine eruption (1998-2001) occurred ~4-5 NM WNW of Terceira Island, at the Serreta Ridge where lava balloons were observed floating at the surface [4]. In 2008, an oceanographic cruise was conducted to the Serreta ridge to investigate the site of the 1998-2001 eruption, map the seafloor, identify vent location, and characterize possible products of eruption [5]. An ROV from the EMEPC (Task Group for the Extension of the Continental Shelf) was used in this survey providing high-definition video footage and fresh lava samples. Three survey ROV dives (D15, D16, D17) were made on the Serreta ridge. D15 and D17 dives were located on the southern wall of the crater, whereas D16 explored the central and northern areas of the crater floor. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of representative samples from the Serreta submarine ridge are presented for the first time. On the 208Pb/204Pb vs. 206Pb/204Pb diagram Serreta samples plot on a linear array with the remaining Terceira rift samples. However, these results show that Serreta submarine volcanics lay on the most depleted end of the Terceira Rift array. Radiogenic isotopes also show that samples from the central and northern wall of the crater are distinct from the younger southern wall sector

  5. Assessment of Fire Growth and Mitigation in Submarine Plastic Waste Stowage Compartments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ndubizu, Chuka

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests to assess the fire growth characteristics and the ease of fire control in the proposed Virginia-class and the Ohio-class submarine plastic waste stowage compartments...

  6. 14 CFR 61.73 - Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military pilots or former military pilots... Ratings and Pilot Authorizations § 61.73 Military pilots or former military pilots: Special rules. (a... a disciplinary action involving aircraft operations, a U.S. military pilot or former military pilot...

  7. Converting Resources from Military to Non-military Uses

    OpenAIRE

    Jurgen Brauer; John Tepper Marlin

    1992-01-01

    As a proportion of gross national product, U.S. military spending has declined steadily since the mid-1980s. The end of the Cold War has given rise to calls for even more cuts in military spending. In early 1992, President George Bush proposed to reduce military spending by 3 percent per year, in real dollars, for the next five years. The Democratic leadership in the House of Representatives countered with a plan calling for substantially deeper cuts. Any substantial changes in military expen...

  8. Tuning Nursing Educational in an Italian academic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Anna; Venturini, Giulia; Virgolesi, Michele; Gobbi, Mary; Rocco, Gennaro; Pulimeno, Ausilia Maria Lucia; Stievano, Alessandro; Piredda, Michela; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2015-09-01

    The European Union Bologna Process has laid the foundation for a common European competence-based educational framework. In many countries, nursing education is in transition from vocational to higher education, with many diverse systems. The competence-based approach provided by the project Tuning Educational Structures offers a common and coherent framework able to facilitate the implementation of the principles underpinning the Bologna Process reform. This study aimed to ascertain the relevance that Italian nursing university lecturers attributed to the 40 competences of the Italian version of the nursing Bachelor's and Master's Degrees. These competences were developed through adoption of the Tuning Methodology in the nursing context. The study was conducted in the 4 universities of one region of Italy which offer nursing Bachelor's and Master's Degrees. A total of 164 Italian university nursing lecturers. Using a four point scale, a cross sectional survey was conducted from March 2011 to April 2012. Participants evaluated each competence according to its relevance for Bachelor's or Master's Education. Frequency analysis was conducted. The significance for each competence of Tuning was rated very high by Italian lecturers and appeared to overlap partially with the original European study. In Italy, the most relevant competences for Bachelor's Degree were the skills associated with the use of appropriate interventions, activities and skills in nursing and the skills associated with nursing practice and clinical decision-making. For Master's Degree, leadership, management and team competences were the most important. The Tuning Nursing Project was accepted by the Italian lecturers. The competence-based approach was considered by Italian lectures as a support enabling to reflect on the current Italian nursing education cycles of study and to ensure shared visions and common approaches between Italian and European lecturers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. [Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics, TIB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarini, Claudia; Poltronieri, Elisabetta

    2004-01-01

    The article aims at illustrating the characteristics and functions of a monolingual thesaurus, focusing on the Italian Thesaurus of Bioethics (Thesaurus Italiano di Bioetica, TIB) the controlled vocabulary used to index and retrieve documents within SIBIL (Italian Online Bioethics Information System). TIB includes controlled terms (descriptors) translated from the Bioethics Thesaurus adopted by the Kennedy Institute of Ethics of the Georgetown University of Washington and revised according to the Italian context of study and scientific debate in the field of bioethics. The overall amount of TIB terms consists in over 1600 headings. Methods to link thesaurus terms hierarchically, by association and by showing synonyms as recommended in ISO standards are applied with reference to descriptors drawn from TIB. Future plans to make the English version of TIB available online within European networks are also illustrated, aiming at spreading information relating to bioethics at an international level.

  10. Hydrate-bearing Submarine Landslides in the Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D.; Mason, A.; Cook, A.; Portnov, A.; Hillman, J.

    2017-12-01

    The co-occurrence of submarine landslides and hydrate-bearing sediment suggests that hydrates may play a role in landslide triggering and/or the mobility and dynamic characteristics of the submarine landslide. In turn, the removal of large sections of seafloor perturbs the hydrate stability field by removing overburden pressure and disturbing the temperature field. These potential hydrate-landslide feedbacks are not well understood. Here we combine three-dimensional seismic and petrophysical logs to characterize the deposits of submarine landslides that failed from hydrate-bearing sediments in the Orca Basin in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The Orca Basin contains a regionally mappable bottom simulating reflector, hydrate saturations within sands and muds, as well as numerous landslides. In addition, the Orca Basin features a well-known 123 km2 anoxic hypersaline brine pool that is actively being fed by outcropping salt. Lying at the bottom of the brine pool are deposits of submarine landslides. Slope instability in the Orca Basin is likely associated with near-seafloor salt tectonics. The most prominent landslide scar observable on the seafloor has a correlative deposit that now lies at the bottom of the brine pool 11.6 km away. The headwall is amphitheater-shaped with an average height of 80 meters and with only a minor amount of rubble remaining near the headwall. A total of 8.7 km3 of material was removed and deposited between the lower slopes of the basin and the base of the brine pool. Around the perimeter of the landslide headwall, two industry wells were drilled and well logs show elevated resistivity that are likely caused by gas hydrate. The slide deposits have a chaotic seismic facies with large entrained blocks and the headwall area does not retain much original material, which together suggests a relatively mobile style of landslide and therefore may have generated a wave upon impacting the brine pool. Such a slide-induced wave may have sloshed

  11. Risks and consequences of a hypothetical radiological accident on nuclear powered submarine traversing Suez canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salama, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Egypt has unique problem in Suez Canal, although there are, a number of radioactive Cargos traveling through the Canal which includes new and spent reactor fuel and about 100 metric tons of uranium hexafluoride each year, under the regulatory control of the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, there is, still a major problem concerning the passage of a number of nuclear powered vessels and submarines passing through the canal several times each year. The passage of these vessels and submarines has a political situation and not under the regulatory control of the Egyptian regulatory body. In spite of all precautions that are taken, in the nuclear powered vessels and submarines from the point of view of the rugged design of the reactor plant, multiple safety systems and operation with exceptional consideration for safety. Although of all of these a potential for a serious accident may does arise, even though, its probability is minimal. The Government of Egypt has established a national radiological emergency plan in order to cope with any radiological accidents, which may arise inside the country. Suez Canal lies in the north east of Egypt, and passes through a zone of considerable business, agriculture and industrial activities. The zone consists of three populated provinces, Port Said, Ismailia and Suez. According to Suez Canal authority regulations it is not allowed for these vessels and submarines to be landed in port. The motivation of the present paper was undertaken to discuss a hypothetical nuclear reactor accident aboard a nuclear powered submarine occurred during its passage in the Suez Canal. Such an accident will produce a radioactive cloud containing a number of radioactive materials. In such type of accidents contamination and causality zones, could extend to several kilometers. The different phases of the accident are going to be discussed and analyzed. The emergency actions taken during the accident phases are going to be presented. The

  12. Italian research on Antarctic atmosphere: 1st workshop. Ricerche italiane sull'atmosfera antartica: 1o workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colacino, M. (ed.); Giovannelli, G. (ed.); Stefanutti, L. (ed.)

    1989-01-01

    The papers and reports, presented at this 1st workshop on 'Italian research on antarctic atmosphere', deal with several main topics: meteorology and climatology, aerosol and tropospheric clouds, planetary boundary layer, chemical-physic stratospheric property, aeronomy. They define the stage of development of Italian research in this area after 3 years of activity in Antarctica.

  13. Noble gas systematics of submarine alkalic lavas near the Hawaiian hotspot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanyu, T.; Clague, D.A.; Kaneoka, I.; Dunai, T.J.; Davies, G.R.

    2005-01-01

    Noble gas isotopic ratios were determined for submarine alkalic volcanic rocks distributed around the Hawaiian islands to constrain the origin of such alkalic volcanism and hence understand the details of mantle upwelling beneath Hawaii. Samples were collected by dredging or using submersibles from

  14. Russian nuclear submarine elimination 2001 - 2011 by the international community - 59041

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washer, Michael; Heyes, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Following the 911 attack on the USA in 2001 the international community under Canada's G8 leadership established a $20 billion Global Partnership initiative to collaboratively address threats to global security posed by the proliferation and potential terrorist use of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction (WMMD) and related materials and knowledge. As an integral component of this initiative the international community agreed to assist Russia in advancing the elimination of its Cold War legacy of nearly 200 nuclear powered submarines left over from the collapse of the Soviet Union. This presentation presents an overview of the 10 years work that has now entirely eliminated that submarine legacy. The scale and complexity of the challenge along with each country's contribution and approach is discussed along with key success factors and unique solutions adopted. (authors)

  15. Can sea level rise cause large submarine landslides on continental slopes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlaub, Morelia

    2014-05-01

    Submarine landslides are one of the volumetrically most important sediment transport processes at continental margins. Moreover, these landslides are a major geohazard as they can cause damaging tsunamis and destroy seabed infrastructure. Due to their inaccessibility our understanding of what causes these landslides is limited and based on hypotheses that are difficult to test. Some of the largest submarine landslides, such as the Storegga Slide off Norway, occurred during times of eustatic sea level rise. It has been suggested that this global sea level rise was implicated in triggering of the landslides by causing an increase in excess pore pressure in the subseafloor. However, in a homogeneous slope a change in the thickness of the overlying water mass is not expected to affect its stability, as only the hydrostatic pressure component will change, whereas pore pressures in excess of hydrostatic will remain unaltered. Whether sufficiently rapid sea level rise, aided by rather impermeable sediment and complex layering, could cause excess pore pressures that may destabilise a continental slope is more difficult to answer and has not yet been tested. I use Finite Element Modelling to explore and quantify the direct effect of changes in the thickness of the overlying water mass on the stability of a generic sediment column with different stratigraphic conditions and hydro-mechanical properties. The results show that the direct effect of sea level rise on continental slope stability is minimal. Nevertheless, sea level rise may foster other processes, such as lithospheric stress changes resulting in increased seismicity, that could potentially cause large submarine landslides on continental slopes.

  16. Measurement of submarine groundwater discharge using diverse methods in Coleroon Estuary, Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R.; Srinivasamoorthy, K.; Gopinath, S.; Saravanan, K.

    2018-03-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is described as submarine inflow of fresh and brackish groundwater from land into the sea. The release of sewages from point and non-point source pollutants from industries, agricultural and domestic activities gets discharged through groundwater to ocean creating natural disparity like decreasing flora fauna and phytoplankton blooms. Hence, to quantify fluxes of SGD in coastal regions is important. Quantification of SGD was attempted in Coleroon estuary, India, using three dissimilar methods like water budget, Darcy law and manual seepage meter. Three seepage meters were installed at two prominent litho units (alluvium and fluvio marine) at a distance of (0-14.7 km) away from Bay of Bengal. The water budget and Darcy law-quantified submarine seepage at a rate of 6.9 × 106 and 3.2 × 103 to 308.3 × 103 m3 year-1, respectively, and the seepage meter quantified seepage rate of 0.7024 m h-1 at an average. Larger seepage variations were isolated from three different techniques and the seepage rates were found to be influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the litho units and distance from the coast.

  17. Marine environmental radioactivity surveys at nuclear submarine berths 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowling, E.; Ball, R.; Simpson, C.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents the results of the marine environmental radioactivity monitoring surveys of intertidal and underwater areas around nuclear submarine berths which were carried out by DRPS during 2001. Also included are results of smaller scale intertidal surveys carried out by local staff but co-ordinated by DRPS. Cobalt-60, the nuclide of major importance in naval discharges, was detected in a number of samples but in many cases was attributable to discharges by other operators. Concentrations in any case were found to be low, and at no survey location did the calculated annual radiation dose commitment to the most exposed members of the general public due to the presence of cobalt-60 exceed 1% of the ICRP principal dose limit for members of the public (1000μSv). These results are consistent with those obtained in the independent monitoring programmes as reported in the Radioactivity in Food and the Environment (RIFE) annual reports. It is concluded that existing discharge arrangements are providing effective control over environmental levels of radioactivity, and that there has been no radiological hazard to any member of the general public during 2001 from the operation of nuclear powered submarines. (author)

  18. ’The Italian Color’: Race, Crime Iconography and Dubbing Conventions in the Italian-language Versions of Scarface (1932

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Mereu Keating

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1930s the crime film Scarface: The Shame of a Nation (1932, USA, dir. Howard Hawks stirred censorship controversies in the United States because of its gritty portrayal of criminality and violence. Debates over crime, race and immigration proliferated in the North-American press and finally led to Italian-American pressure groups to call out for the film’s boycott because it ‘offended the Italian nation and people’ and vilified immigrant communities. Archival historical research in AVT has revealed how film versions have frequently been cut and dialogues ideologically manipulated to suit political agendas, commercial interests and dominant sexual and religious moralities. Indeed the translation of films has often served too many masters, suffering direct or indirect censorship intervention whenever a film defied existing societal taboos. My contribution aims to offer a diachronic perspective on the reception of Scarface lo sfregiato in Italy. It will look at the film’s Italian-language translation and re-translations for cinema, television and DVD, prepared by different hands and re-voiced by different actors during a span of fifty years (1940-90s. From the textual and contextual analysis of the film’s different Italian editions, it will be possible to trace significant ideological shifts in the reception of Italian-American crime iconography and in the language used to communicate it.

  19. Production in Italian industry: Electric power demand indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajello, V.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of the recession in Italy were first evidenced during the period spanning 1990-1992 with a sharp drop in the international competitiveness of Italian products. This phase was then followed by a significant drop in internal demand, the devaluation of the Italian Lira and subsequent market uncertainty. This paper presents graphs of national and regional electric power production and consumption figures which reflect the downturn in the viability of the Italian economy, especially in the industrial sector

  20. The pumice raft-forming 2012 Havre submarine eruption was effusive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manga, Michael; Fauria, Kristen E.; Lin, Christina; Mitchell, Samuel J.; Jones, Meghan; Conway, Chris E.; Degruyter, Wim; Hosseini, Behnaz; Carey, Rebecca; Cahalan, Ryan; Houghton, Bruce F.; White, James D. L.; Jutzeler, Martin; Soule, S. Adam; Tani, Kenichiro

    2018-05-01

    A long-standing conceptual model for deep submarine eruptions is that high hydrostatic pressure hinders degassing and acceleration, and suppresses magma fragmentation. The 2012 submarine rhyolite eruption of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc provided constraints on critical parameters to quantitatively test these concepts. This eruption produced a >1 km3 raft of floating pumice and a 0.1 km3 field of giant (>1 m) pumice clasts distributed down-current from the vent. We address the mechanism of creating these clasts using a model for magma ascent in a conduit. We use water ingestion experiments to address why some clasts float and others sink. We show that at the eruption depth of 900 m, the melt retained enough dissolved water, and hence had a low enough viscosity, that strain-rates were too low to cause brittle fragmentation in the conduit, despite mass discharge rates similar to Plinian eruptions on land. There was still, however, enough exsolved vapor at the vent depth to make the magma buoyant relative to seawater. Buoyant magma was thus extruded into the ocean where it rose, quenched, and fragmented to produce clasts up to several meters in diameter. We show that these large clasts would have floated to the sea surface within minutes, where air could enter pore space, and the fate of clasts is then controlled by the ability to trap gas within their pore space. We show that clasts from the raft retain enough gas to remain afloat whereas fragments from giant pumice collected from the seafloor ingest more water and sink. The pumice raft and the giant pumice seafloor deposit were thus produced during a clast-generating effusive submarine eruption, where fragmentation occurred above the vent, and the subsequent fate of clasts was controlled by their ability to ingest water.

  1. Determination of diffusion parameters using radioactive tracers, aiming at a project of a submarine sewage outfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.L. dos.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive tracers technology is applied to pollutant dispersion studies in water bodies, for the project of submarine sewage outfall. The models proposed by Hansen/Harremoes and Okubo, respectively, for the prediction of physical dilution rates and determination of turbulent diffusion laws, are discussed. The methodology for field work as well as data processing is described. The results from field investigations carried out in Brazilian litoral waters for submarine release of sewage in Santos - Sao Vicente, Guaruja and Maceio, are presented and commented. (Author) [pt

  2. The Thermal Regime Around Buried Submarine High-Voltage Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeana, C. J.; Dix, J.; Henstock, T.; Gernon, T.; Thompson, C.; Pilgrim, J.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion of offshore renewable energy infrastructure and the desire for "trans-continental shelf" power transmission, all require the use of submarine High Voltage (HV) cables. These cables have maximum operating surface temperatures of up to 70oC and are typically buried at depths of 1-2 m beneath the seabed, within the wide range of substrates found on the continental shelf. However, the thermal properties of near surface shelf sediments are poorly understood and this increases the uncertainty in determining the required cable current ratings, cable reliability and the potential effects on the sedimentary environments. We present temperature measurements from a 2D laboratory experiment, designed to represent a buried, submarine HV cable. We used a large (2.5 m-high) tank, filled with water-saturated ballotini and instrumented with 120 thermocouples, which measured the time-dependent 2D temperature distributions around the heat source. The experiments use a buried heat source to represent a series of realistic cable surface temperatures with the aim for identifying the thermal regimes generated within typical non-cohesive shelf sediments: coarse silt, fine sand and very coarse sand. The steady state heat flow regimes, and normalised and radial temperature distributions were assessed. Our results show that at temperatures up to 60°C above ambient, the thermal regimes are conductive for the coarse silt sediments and convective for the very coarse sand sediments even at 7°C above ambient. However, the heat flow pattern through the fine sand sediment shows a transition from conductive to convective heat flow at a temperature of approximately 20°C above ambient. These findings offer an important new understanding of the thermal regimes associated with submarine HV cables buried in different substrates and has huge impacts on cable ratings as the IEC 60287 standard only considers conductive heat flow as well as other potential near surface impacts.

  3. Italianization Accomplished. Forms and Structures of Albanian Television’s Dependency on Italian Media and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Carelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of communist regimes in 1989, national media systems of the Eastern European countries belonging to the Soviet bloc began a process of transformation along the way of liberalization and commercialization. In Albania, this process occurred in different phases, but with a common trend, that is the Italian television as a structural, economic and cultural model to inspire. In this article, I try to outline the deep influences and legacies between Italian and Albanian television systems (dating back to the last years of the regime showing how, despite a progressive sliding towards americanization, they remain a typical landmark of Albanian media. From the formats of the first programmes after the regime to the recent appearances of Italian Tv presenters (in particular, from Berlusconi's channels on Albanian private channels, we can observe a subtle but rooted and continuous dependency from the country on the other side of the Adriatic Sea.  

  4. Use of an UROV to develop 3-D optical models of submarine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, W. D.; Landry, B. J.

    2017-12-01

    The ability to rapidly obtain high-fidelity bathymetry is crucial for a broad range of engineering, scientific, and defense applications ranging from bridge scour, bedform morphodynamics, and coral reef health to unexploded ordnance detection and monitoring. The present work introduces the use of an Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (UROV) to develop 3-D optical models of submarine environments. The UROV used a Raspberry Pi camera mounted to a small servo which allowed for pitch control. Prior to video data collection, in situ camera calibration was conducted with the system. Multiple image frames were extracted from the underwater video for 3D reconstruction using Structure from Motion (SFM). This system provides a simple and cost effective solution to obtaining detailed bathymetry in optically clear submarine environments.

  5. Shrinking the Civil-Military Divide: A Military Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    behavior and rights, the values of the military are different and unique. Senior military officers highlight the importance of understanding the...Examples include on-base housing, shopping , schools, children’s sports leagues, and community and social events such as concerts, comedy shows, and movies... mall , a sporting event, or the movies provides a simple, 16 Skelton, “The Civil-Military Gap

  6. Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of Italian salami ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the inclusion of different levels of pequi (Caryocar Brasiliense, Cambess) pulp in the processing of Italian salami made of lamb for the evaluation of their physicochemical and microbiological characteristics. Six formulations of Italian salamis were processed: no pequi ...

  7. Migrations, families, generations: Language transmission among several Italian communities in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Di Salvo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper researches the ethnic language shift in two Italian communities in the UK, those in Bedford and Cambridge. It focuses mainly on Italians of first and second generation. The present study questions whether the loss of the ethnic language (Italian or an Italian dialect, can be very costly to the migrants and their families and what happens in family in which adults do not understand children and children do not understand adults and how, in these dynamics, Italian identity remains.

  8. Spelling acquisition in English and Italian: A cross-linguistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Valeria eMarinelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the spelling acquisition in children up to late primary school of a consistent orthography (Italian and an inconsistent orthography (English. The effects of frequency, lexicality, length and regularity in modulating spelling performance of the two groups were examined. English and Italian children were matched for both chronological age and number of years of schooling. Two-hundred and seven Italian children and 79 English children took part in the study. We found greater accuracy in spelling in Italian than English children: Italian children were very accurate after only two years of schooling, while in English children the spelling performance was still poor after five years of schooling. Cross-linguistic differences in spelling accuracy proved to be more persistent than the corresponding ones in reading accuracy. Orthographic consistency produced not only quantitative, but also qualitative differences, with larger frequency and regularity effects in English than in Italian children.

  9. Spelling Acquisition in English and Italian: A Cross-Linguistic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, Chiara V; Romani, Cristina; Burani, Cristina; Zoccolotti, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    We examined the spelling acquisition in children up to late primary school of a consistent orthography (Italian) and an inconsistent orthography (English). The effects of frequency, lexicality, length, and regularity in modulating spelling performance of the two groups were examined. English and Italian children were matched for both chronological age and number of years of schooling. Two-hundred and seven Italian children and 79 English children took part in the study. We found greater accuracy in spelling in Italian than English children: Italian children were very accurate after only 2 years of schooling, while in English children the spelling performance was still poor after 5 years of schooling. Cross-linguistic differences in spelling accuracy proved to be more persistent than the corresponding ones in reading accuracy. Orthographic consistency produced not only quantitative, but also qualitative differences, with larger frequency and regularity effects in English than in Italian children.

  10. Research on Fairing design and CFD Analysis of Submarine Pipeline Inspection ARV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xiaojian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with the fast development of the ocean exploitation, the cost-effective requirement of autonomous & remotely operated vehicle (ARV, which can perform more complicated missions such as the oil exploitation and the inspection of the submarine pipeline is more urgent. The submarine pipeline inspection ARV can help us better understand, protect and efficiently utilize them for human welfare. Fairing design of a new detection ARV are introduced in this paper. In order to select an appropriate thruster that will achieve the required speed of the ARV, the ANSYS-CFX tools are used to predicted the drag force. The CFD results reveal the distribution of velocity and pressure values of the ARV. In order to verify the CFD modeling process, a towed body was developed and analyzed, compared against the corresponding physical test data.

  11. Method and apparatus for disposing a radioactive waste container to submarine bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Kiyoshi; Yoshida, Shoichi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To completely eliminate a danger occurred by the rolling of a hull in the ocean in a method and apparatus for disposing radioactive waste container to submarine bottom by independently handling the radioactive waste containers when loading the container in a compartment carried on a barge and sinking the containers together with the compartment to the submarine bottom at its disposing time. Method: Radioactive waste containers are carried into a compartment loaded on a barge floating completely, and the barge is then applied with external force thereto by a ship or the like and sailed to the marine disposal area. Then, water is filled in the ballast tank of the barge to submerge the barge, the compartment is floated and separated from the containers, and water is charged into the compartment to sink the compartment. (Aizawa, K.)

  12. Satellite-derived submarine melt rates and mass balance (2011-2015) for Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nat; Straneo, Fiammetta; Heimbach, Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Ice-shelf-like floating extensions at the termini of Greenland glaciers are undergoing rapid changes with potential implications for the stability of upstream glaciers and the ice sheet as a whole. While submarine melting is recognized as a major contributor to mass loss, the spatial distribution of submarine melting and its contribution to the total mass balance of these floating extensions is incompletely known and understood. Here, we use high-resolution WorldView satellite imagery collected between 2011 and 2015 to infer the magnitude and spatial variability of melt rates under Greenland's largest remaining ice tongues - Nioghalvfjerdsbræ (79 North Glacier, 79N), Ryder Glacier (RG), and Petermann Glacier (PG). Submarine melt rates under the ice tongues vary considerably, exceeding 50 m a-1 near the grounding zone and decaying rapidly downstream. Channels, likely originating from upstream subglacial channels, give rise to large melt variations across the ice tongues. We compare the total melt rates to the influx of ice to the ice tongue to assess their contribution to the current mass balance. At Petermann Glacier and Ryder Glacier, we find that the combined submarine and aerial melt approximately balances the ice flux from the grounded ice sheet. At Nioghalvfjerdsbræ the total melt flux (14.2 ± 0.96 km3 a-1 w.e., water equivalent) exceeds the inflow of ice (10.2 ± 0.59 km3 a-1 w.e.), indicating present thinning of the ice tongue.

  13. France and nuclear proliferation: the new generation of nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrillot, B.

    2001-01-01

    Ten years after the end of the 'cold war' the French government has pursued its national defense program with the construction of a new generation of nuclear submarines with new type of missiles and nuclear heads. This book analyzes the possible solutions for a step by step elimination of nuclear weapons from the French weapons stock. (J.S.)

  14. Italian R and D in field of environmental biotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertiello, A.; Levi, G.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis carried out on the Italian R and D allows to draw the following conclusions: 1) There are about 1,000 'inside workers' totalling an outlay of 2,700 billion Italian Liras per year. 2) In the five years from 1987 to 1992, state financing to R and D on environmental biotechnologies was around 80 billion Italian Liras, averaging 16 billion Italian Liras a year. 3) Although these are rough estimates, it can be seen that, given the gap between resources made available and actual expense, there must be other incentive mechanism justifying the commitment of Italian R and D and the quality of the work so far carried out in this specific field. 4) These mechanisms could possibly be of two kinds; the realization that a large part of the market is dissatisfied; the pervasiveness of biotechnologies, especially in the field of environmental conservation

  15. Public health assessment for US Naval Submarine Base, New London, Groton, New London County, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD980906515. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The New London Submarine Base was divided by the town boundaries of Groton to the south and Ledyard to the north in New London County, Connecticut. In 1983, the Navy identified 16 potential source areas of environmental contamination during their investigations. The submarine base was listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List in August 1990 because of the potential for on-base groundwater contamination to migrate to off-base residential wells that are close to the New London Submarine Base

  16. The SPOT Project (Potentially Triggerable Offshore Seismicity and Tsunamis): a First Appraisal of the Possible Impact of Oil and Gas Platforms on the Seismic and Tsunami Risks along the Italian Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, R.; Di Bucci, D.; Antoncecchi, I.; Ciccone, F.; Teofilo, G.; Argnani, A.; Rovere, M.; Ligi, M.; Coltelli, M.; Lorito, S.; Borzi, B.; Germagnoli, F.; Di Ludovico, M.; Lignola, G. P.; Prota, A.

    2017-12-01

    The majority of oil and gas production in Europe takes place offshore and Italy is one of the European countries with the longest coastlines facing these operations. Given the generally growing energy demand, and the increasing concern toward human-driven hazards, scientists are called to provide background information for helping ensure a safe energy supply. We here present the activities of the project SPOT, which is aimed to help Italian authorities comply with the application of the Safety of Offshore Oil and Gas Operations European Directive (2013/30/EU) and the ensuing Italian codes. We carry out a reconstruction of offshore geological structures to assess the existence of potentially seismogenic faults in the surroundings of off-shore platforms. This study is a propaedeutic step for the assessment of potentially triggered seismicity connected with operations on such platforms. The descriptive parameters (3D geometry and behavior) of the identified faults will be used to estimate their natural earthquake rates. The impact of these natural earthquakes along the coasts will then be modeled in terms of expected ground shaking and tsunamis. The tsunamis potentially generated by submarine landslides induced by earthquake shaking will also be analyzed. In turn, these models will be used to estimate potential human and economic losses in a multi-hazard approach to risk assessment. Wherever the combined earthquake and tsunami modeling indicates a relevant impact along the coasts, a more detailed analysis will be carried out, also involving the operators of the related platforms, to perform specific models which also take into account production and/or storage data. Activities with a consolidated background, such as those concerning the impact scenarios of earthquakes, and more innovative activities, such as those dedicated to build up the first vulnerability/fragility curves related to tsunamis for the Italian building stock, will be integrated within the project

  17. Results of radioactivity analysis made in Corsica following the navigation incident of the USS Hartford submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    No radiological impact has been revealed in relation with the navigation incident of the Uss Hartford submarine at the north of Sardinia. The analysis have been made by the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.).The Uss Hartford submarine had hit the bottom of the sea, on the 25. of october 2003, between the islands of Sardinia at a thirty kilometers distance in the south of Bonifacio. The accident had been declared to the public only on the 12. of November 2003. (N.C.)

  18. H2O Contents of Submarine and Subaerial Silicic Pyroclasts from Oomurodashi Volcano, Northern Izu-Bonin Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, I. M.; Tani, K.; Nichols, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Oomurodashi volcano is an active shallow submarine silicic volcano in the northern Izu-Bonin Arc, located ~20 km south of the inhabited active volcanic island of Izu-Oshima. Oomurodashi has a large (~20km diameter) flat-topped summit located at 100 - 150 metres below sea level (mbsl), with a small central crater, Oomuro Hole, located at ~200 mbsl. Surveys conducted during cruise NT12-19 of R/V Natsushima in 2012 using the remotely-operated vehicle (ROV) Hyper-Dolphin revealed that Oomuro Hole contains numerous active hydrothermal vents and that the summit of Oomurodashi is covered by extensive fresh rhyolitic lava and pumice clasts with little biogenetic or manganese cover, suggesting recent eruption(s) from Oomuro Hole. Given the shallow depth of the volcano summit, such eruptions are likely to have generated subaerial eruption columns. A ~10ka pumiceous subaerial tephra layer on the neighbouring island of Izu-Oshima has a similar chemical composition to the submarine Oomurodashi rocks collected during the NT12-19 cruise and is thought to have originated from Oomurodashi. Here we present FTIR measurements of the H2O contents of rhyolitic pumice from both the submarine deposits sampled during ROV dives and the subaerial tephra deposit on Izu-Oshima, in order to assess magma degassing and eruption processes occurring during shallow submarine eruptions.

  19. Modeling ecosystem processes with variable freshwater inflow to the Caloosahatchee River Estuary, southwest Florida. II. Nutrient loading, submarine light, and seagrasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, Christopher; Doering, Peter; Wan, Yongshan; Sun, Detong

    2014-12-01

    Short- and long-term changes in estuarine biogeochemical and biological attributes are consequences of variations in both the magnitude and composition of freshwater inputs. A common conceptualization of estuaries depicts nutrient loading from coastal watersheds as the stressor that promotes algal biomass, decreases submarine light penetration, and degrades seagrass habitats. Freshwater inflow depresses salinity while simultaneously introducing colored dissolved organic matter (color or CDOM) which greatly reduces estuarine light penetration. This is especially true for sub-tropical estuaries. This study applied a model of the Caloosahatchee River Estuary (CRE) in southwest Florida to explore the relationships between freshwater inflow, nutrient loading, submarine light, and seagrass survival. In two independent model series, the loading of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus (DIN and DIP) was reduced by 10%, 20%, 30%, and 50% relative to the base model case from 2002 to 2009 (2922 days). While external nutrient loads were reduced by lowering inflow (Q0) in the first series (Q0 series), reductions were accomplished by decreasing the incoming concentrations of DIN and DIP in the second series (NP Series). The model also was used to explore the partitioning of submarine light extinction due to chlorophyll a, CDOM, and turbidity. Results suggested that attempting to control nutrient loading by decreasing freshwater inflow could have minor effects on water column concentrations but greatly influence submarine light and seagrass biomass. This is because of the relative importance of Q0 to salinity and submarine light. In general, light penetration and seagrass biomass decreased with increased inflow and CDOM. Increased chlorophyll a did account for more submarine light extinction in the lower estuary. The model output was used to help identify desirable levels of inflow, nutrient loading, water quality, salinity, and submarine light for seagrass in the lower CRE

  20. The near boiling reactor: design of a small nuclear reactor for extending the operational envelope of the Victoria Class Submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.; Bonin, H.

    2005-01-01

    A small, inherently safe nuclear reactor that will provide enough power to maintain the hotel load of the Victoria Class Submarine and extend her operational envelope, has been conceptually designed. The final reactor concept, named the Near Boiling (NB) Reactor, employs TRISO fuel particles in Zirconium cladded fuel rods. The reactor is light water moderated and cooled. The core life is specifically designed to coincide with the refit cycle of the Victoria Class Submarine. The reactor employs a simple and reliable control and shut down system that requires little intervention on the part of the submarine's crew. Also, a kinetic model is developed that demonstrates the inherent safety features of the reactor during several accident scenarios. (author)

  1. The near boiling reactor: design of a small nuclear reactor for extending the operational envelope of the Victoria Class Submarine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, C.; Bonin, H. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: chris.cole@rmc.ca; bonin-h@rmc.ca

    2005-07-01

    A small, inherently safe nuclear reactor that will provide enough power to maintain the hotel load of the Victoria Class Submarine and extend her operational envelope, has been conceptually designed. The final reactor concept, named the Near Boiling (NB) Reactor, employs TRISO fuel particles in Zirconium cladded fuel rods. The reactor is light water moderated and cooled. The core life is specifically designed to coincide with the refit cycle of the Victoria Class Submarine. The reactor employs a simple and reliable control and shut down system that requires little intervention on the part of the submarine's crew. Also, a kinetic model is developed that demonstrates the inherent safety features of the reactor during several accident scenarios. (author)

  2. Catholic Modernity and the Italian Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    and give direction to the very idea of political modernity, bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy, and freedom. The specific argument is embedded within a larger aim to recognize attempts within Catholic philosophy and political thought to articulate a trajectory that moved away from......This article analyzes the Catholic contribution to the Italian republican and democratic Constitution of 1948. The focus is on the specific way in which the Italian citizen became symbolically coded as a ‘person’ and not as an ‘individual’, inspired by Catholic social philosophy. The Catholic...... project for the new Constitution had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics and on the building of a modern mass democracy and welfare state. During the crucial historical juncture that followed the collapse of Fascism, Catholic politicians and intellectuals sought to interpret...

  3. Italian Studies, Italian Theory and the politics of trans-lation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.

    2016-01-01

    Italian Theory has emerged as the result of the search for new conceptual frameworks in the face of a series of international political events concerning not only the proliferation of states of exception but also of new forms of politicization of life related to biomedical science and the

  4. Navigation and history of science: autopsy to submarine Kursk. Survival previsions were not sufficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jáuregui-Lobera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available On August 12, 2000, Saturday, a Russian submarine of the Oscar II class, the K-141 Kursk, sank in the Barents Sea, while sailing as part of the "Summer-X Exercise" manoeuvres. The Kursk was a giant double-hulled submarine, with nine sealed compartments, considered impossible to be sunk. During the manoeuvres, at 08:51 local time, the Kursk requested permission to prepare a torpedo and it received the response "Dobro" (good in English. At 11:29:34 (07:29:50 UTC the Norwegian seismic monitoring network (NORSAR registered an earthquake of intensity 1.5 on the Richter scale at northeast of Murmansk, approximately 250 Km from Norway, and 80 Km from the Kola Peninsula. At 11:31:48, two minutes and fourteen seconds later, a second movement, 4.2 on the Richter scale and 250 times longer than the first, was recorded by different seismographs, even being detected in Alaska. It was equivalent to an explosion of 2-3 Tm of TNT. After a great confusion and propaganda, there was no choice other than to accept the facts: the Kursk had suffered two explosions, had sunk and the whole crew had perished. But what happened in that submarine? It seems clear that survival previsions were not sufficient.

  5. Electricity : Italian style

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, L.

    2007-01-01

    Italy's electricity system was described. Italy relies on outside sources for between 10 and 15 per cent of its electricity supply. Most Italians use gas, wood stoves and fossil fuels, and are conservative about lighting. Electricity costs more in Italy than in any other European country. Italy made the decision to decommission its nuclear power stations after Chernobyl. In 2005, Italy's largest utility group signed a memorandum of understanding ensuring that they would contract energy from France's nuclear reactors. Italy is now financing and managing projects in Russia and eastern Europe, and has strengthened its ties in Spain and the Netherlands. Although Italy is intent on producing its own power, the perceptions of health hazards from electricity towers cause citizens to strongly protest new installations. It was concluded that rising energy prices may force Italians to reconsider the use of alternative energy sources. 3 figs

  6. Wind power: Italian auto-production legislation (ISES convention)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, G.

    1991-01-01

    With reference to what was discussed at the Bologna (Italy) June 1991 ISES (International Solar Energy Society) convention on wind energy, this paper summarizes the Italian legislative framework relative to on-site power generation and outlines the National Energy Plan objectives regarding the promotion of the use, by industry, of renewable energy sources. Brief notes are also provided on wind energy promotional activities being carried out by ENEL (the Italian National Energy Board), ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment), and EWEA (the European Wind Energy Association)

  7. 75 FR 64611 - Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    .... As we honor the long history and vast contributions of Italian Americans, let us recommit to... society and steer the course of our history. During Italian American Heritage and Culture Month, we... Culture Month. I call upon all Americans to learn more about the history of Italian Americans, and to...

  8. Submarine groundwater discharge within a landslide scar at the French Mediterranean coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oehler, Till; Mogollón, José M.; Moosdorf, Nils; Winkler, Andreas; Kopf, Achim; Pichler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), the flow of fresh and saline groundwater from the seabed into the coastal ocean, has been intensively investigated in the recent years. This research has usually been restricted to shallow water and intertidal areas, whereas knowledge about groundwater seepage

  9. Military and Political Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issu...

  10. Gravitational, erosional and depositional processes on volcanic ocean islands: Insights from the submarine morphology of Madeira Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartau, Rui; Ramalho, Ricardo S.; Madeira, José; Santos, Rúben; Rodrigues, Aurora; Roque, Cristina; Carrara, Gabriela; Brum da Silveira, António

    2018-01-01

    The submarine flanks of volcanic ocean islands are shaped by a variety of physical processes. Whilst volcanic constructional processes are relatively well understood, the gravitational, erosional and depositional processes that lead to the establishment of large submarine tributary systems are still poorly comprehended. Until recently, few studies have offered a comprehensive source-to-sink approach, linking subaerial morphology with near-shore shelf, slope and far-field abyssal features. In particular, few studies have addressed how different aspects of the subaerial part of the system (island height, climate, volcanic activity, wave regime, etc.) may influence submarine flank morphologies. We use multibeam bathymetric and backscatter mosaics of an entire archipelago - Madeira - to investigate the development of their submarine flanks. Crucially, this dataset extends from the nearshore to the deep sea, allowing a solid correlation between submarine morphologies with the physical and geological setting of the islands. In this study we also established a comparison with other island settings, which allowed us to further explore the wider implications of the observations. The submarine flanks of the Madeira Archipelago are deeply dissected by large landslides, most of which also affected the subaerial edifices. Below the shelf break, landslide chutes extend downslope forming poorly defined depositional lobes. Around the islands, a large tributary system composed of gullies and channels has formed where no significant rocky/ridge outcrops are present. In Madeira Island these were likely generated by turbidity currents that originated as hyperpycnal flows, whilst on Porto Santo and Desertas their origin is attributed to storm-induced offshore sediment transport. At the lower part of the flanks (-3000 to -4300 m), where seafloor gradients decrease to 0.5°-3°, several scour and sediment wave fields are present, with the former normally occurring upslope of the latter

  11. Tobacco Pricing in Military Stores: Views of Military Policy Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elizabeth A; Jahnke, Sara A; Poston, Walker S C; Malone, Ruth E; Haddock, Christopher K

    2016-10-01

    Higher tobacco taxes reduce tobacco use. On military installations, cigarettes and other tobacco products are sold tax-free, keeping prices artificially low. Pricing regulations in the military specify that tobacco should be within 5% of the local most competitive price, but prices still average almost 13% lower than those at local Walmarts. To gain insight into policy leaders' ideas and positions on military tobacco pricing, we interviewed members of the Department of Defense (DoD) Addictive Substances Misuse Advisory Committee and the Advisory Committee on Tobacco about tobacco pricing policies (n = 12). Participants frequently lacked specific knowledge of details of military pricing policy, and the impact higher prices might have on military tobacco use. Most participants thought tobacco should not be sold at military stores, but many also felt that this policy change was unlikely due to tobacco industry pressure, and DoD reliance on tobacco profits to support Morale, Welfare, and Recreation funds. Achieving a tobacco-free military will require changing pricing policy, but this study suggests that for effective implementation, military leadership must also understand and articulate more clearly the rationale for doing so. Previous work has found that adherence to military tobacco pricing policy is inconsistent at best. This study suggests that lack of knowledge about the policy and conflicting pressures resulting from the funding stream tobacco sales represent extend to high level military policy leaders. Without clearer information and direction, these leaders are unlikely to be able to establish and implement better tobacco pricing policy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Frontally confined versus frontally emergent submarine landslides: A 3D seismic characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey-Martinez, Jose; Cartwright, Joe; James, David [3DLab. School of Earth, Ocean and Planetary Sciences, Cardiff University, P.O. Box 914, Cardiff CF10 3YE (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data from the continental margin offshore Israel (Eastern Mediterranean) have been used to analyse the compressional structures within the toe regions of two major buried submarine landslides: the ISC and the T20. Both landslides are developed within a Plio-Pleistocene slope succession composed predominately of claystones, limestones and siltstones. The high spatial resolution provided by the seismic data has allowed a detailed analysis of the geometries and deformational structures within the toe regions of the two landslides, and this has been used to develop a mechanical model for their development. Importantly, it has been recognised that submarine landslides may be divided into two main types according to their form of frontal emplacement: frontally confined and frontally emergent. In the former, the landslide undergoes a restricted downslope translation and does not overrun the undeformed downslope strata. In the latter, much larger downslope translation occurs because the landslide is able to ramp up from its original basal shear surface and translate in an unconfined manner over the seafloor. We propose that these two types of submarine landslides are end members of a continuum of gravity-driven slope failure processes, which extends from landslides where the headscarp is completely evacuated, to landslides where the material remains entirely within the headscarp. The differentiation of these two end members is of critical importance as their respective mechanisms of formation, downslope propagation and emplacement are significantly different, and hence need to be taken into consideration when analysing their respective kinematics. (author)

  13. L'insegnamento dell'economia industriale nelle università italiane

    OpenAIRE

    Alzona Gianluigi; Frigero Piercarlo; Ninni Augusto

    2003-01-01

    The study analyses the importance and characteristics of Industrial Economics/Organisation and related courses (e.g. Firm Economics, Innovation Economics, Applied Economics) in Italian Universities. Attention is concentrated on first level (3-year) degree courses, set up by Italian Faculties according to the New Organisation of Studies. The research points out that the IE-IO teaching cluster plays a major role in Italian Universities, counting on about 170 courses and 160 professors. Most of ...

  14. Italian Studies in Southern Africa/Studi d'Italianistica nell'Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal aims at providing a forum for academic discussion on all aspects of Italian culture. It features articles on Italian language and literature and, since it is one of the primary aims of the journal to foster multi- and inter-disciplinary study and communication, contributions are invited from all writers interested in Italian ...

  15. Environmental monitoring of El Hierro Island submarine volcano, by combining low and high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio, F.; Martin, J.; Marcello, J.; Fraile-Nuez, E.

    2014-06-01

    El Hierro Island, located at the Canary Islands Archipelago in the Atlantic coast of North Africa, has been rocked by thousands of tremors and earthquakes since July 2011. Finally, an underwater volcanic eruption started 300 m below sea level on October 10, 2011. Since then, regular multidisciplinary monitoring has been carried out in order to quantify the environmental impacts caused by the submarine eruption. Thanks to this natural tracer release, multisensorial satellite imagery obtained from MODIS and MERIS sensors have been processed to monitor the volcano activity and to provide information on the concentration of biological, chemical and physical marine parameters. Specifically, low resolution satellite estimations of optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under these abnormal conditions have been assessed. These remote sensing data have played a fundamental role during field campaigns guiding the oceanographic vessel to the appropriate sampling areas. In addition, to analyze El Hierro submarine volcano area, WorldView-2 high resolution satellite spectral bands were atmospherically and deglinted processed prior to obtain a high-resolution optimal diffuse attenuation coefficient model. This novel algorithm was developed using a matchup data set with MERIS and MODIS data, in situ transmittances measurements and a seawater radiative transfer model. Multisensor and multitemporal imagery processed from satellite remote sensing sensors have demonstrated to be a powerful tool for monitoring the submarine volcanic activities, such as discolored seawater, floating material and volcanic plume, having shown the capabilities to improve the understanding of submarine volcanic processes.

  16. Evaluation and comparison of electric propulsion motors for submarines

    OpenAIRE

    Harbour, Joel P.

    2001-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document The Navy has announced its conviction to make its warships run on electric power through the decision to make its newest line of destroyers propelled with an electric propulsion system. Several ship construction firms and electric motor manufacturers are thus striving to develop enabling technology, including high power density motors. The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate some of the proposed motor designs for use in a submarine. Permanen...

  17. Military Librarians Workshop: A Premier Gathering of Military Librarians, 1957-1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palmer, William A., Jr; Hanna, Marcia

    2000-01-01

    The Military Librarian Workshop(MLW) is an annual meeting that brings together civilian and military personnel who serve as special librarians, library supervisors, or technical information officers in military or governmental...

  18. Macro- and megafauna recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic, Mediterranean Sea using different tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D'ONGHIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and megafauna were recorded in the submarine Bari Canyon (southern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea during an oceanographic cruise carried out in May-June 2012 and an experimental fishing survey conducted in November 2013. During the former, a total of 20 benthic samples were taken using a Van Veen grab at depths between 268 and 770 m and 4 deployments of a baited lander, for about 43 hours of video records, were carried out at depths between 443 and 788 m. During the latter, 8 longline fishing operations were conducted from 338 down to 612 m. Eighty-five living benthic and benthopelagic species were recorded: 29 Porifera, 1 Cnidaria, 2 Mollusca, 11 Annelida, 1 Arthropoda, 19 Bryozoa, 3 Echinodermata and 19 Chordata. A total of 51 species are new records for the Bari Canyon, 29 new records for the Adriatic Sea. Among the Porifera Cerbaris curvispiculifer is a new addition for the Italian Sponge Fauna. The first certain record of living specimens for the bryozoan Crisia tenella longinodata is reported. A total of 6 Mediterranean endemic species have been identified: 4 Porifera and 2 Annelida. The bathymetric range of some species has been extended. New information acquired for deep sea species confirms their importance in the structure of cold-water coral communities. This study has updated the knowledge on the biodiversity of the Adriatic Sea, as well as of the Bari Canyon in particular, one of the sites designated as “jewels of the Mediterranean” for which urgent conservation measures are needed.

  19. CLAM - CoLlAborative eMbedded networks for submarine surveillance: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Casari, Paolo; Petrioli, Chiara; Grythe, Knut; Husoy, Thor; Zorzi, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the CLAM project, which aims at developing a collaborative embedded monitoring and control platform for submarine surveillance by combining cutting edge acoustic vector sensor technology and 1D, 2D, 3D sensor arrays, underwater wireless sensor networks protocol

  20. Constraining the sedimentology and stratigraphy of submarine intraslope lobe deposits using exhumed examples from the Karoo Basin, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Flint, Stephen; Hodgson, David; Spychala, Yvonne; Mountney, Nigel

    2017-01-01

    Intraslope lobe deposits provide a process record of the infill of accommodation on submarine slopes and their recognition enables the accurate reconstruction of the stratigraphic evolution of submarine slope systems. Extensive exposures of discrete sand-prone packages in Units D/E and E, Fort Brown Formation, Karoo Basin, South Africa, permit analysis of the sedimentology and stacking patterns of three intraslope lobe complexes and their palaeogeographic reconstruction via bed-scale analysis...

  1. O projeto do submarino nuclear brasileiro The Brazilian nuclear submarine project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Martins Filho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo procura reconstruir a trajetória do programa do submarino nuclear brasileiro desde suas origens, no governo Geisel, aos dias atuais. Lançando mão do conceito de oportunismo tecnológico, procura analisar a atitude dos diferentes governos federais sobre o projeto, mostrando que os governos neoliberais de Fernando Collor, Itamar Franco e Fernando Henrique Cardoso cortaram radicalmente verbas para o programa, sem, no entanto, suspendê-lo por completo. Surpreendentemente, parece haver uma continuidade entre os governos militares e o governo Lula, quanto ao apoio decidido à ideia do submarino nuclear. Quanto às relações de força na Marinha, o texto conclui que não há divergências significativas sobre a relevância do programa, o que não exclui choques de personalidades navais, em virtude do caráter autárquico assumido pelo projeto e da dificuldade de continuá-lo apenas com verbas da própria força. O artigo utilizou entrevistas recentes com atores-chaves do processo.The article aims to reconstruct the history of the Brazilian nuclear-powered submarine program, from its origins to the present. Using the concept of technological opportunism, it seeks to understand the position of the different federal administrations vis-à-vis the project, concluding that the Collor, Franco and Cardoso administrations did not support the program. However, they did not terminate the project. Surprisingly, there is a continuity between the military governments and the Lula administration, in the decisive support each gave to the program. With repect to the Navy, the analysis concludes that there were no significant disagreements, with the exception of personal conflicts originating in the autarchic features that the program had assumed and in the problem of scarcity of resources. The article is based on interviews with key actors.

  2. To the Question on the Nature of Military Threats and Non-Military Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambu R. Tsyrendorzhjyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of "military danger, military threats, military and non-military measures to Parry, and other definitions from the policy of the State to ensure the military security of the now widely used in journalism, conceptual, other documents and research. The attentive reader it is not difficult to notice the ambiguity in the interpretation of these concepts. This makes it difficult to not only the perception of the relevant topics for ensuring military security publications, but also the development of the theory and practice of ensuring the defence and security of the State. The author's view on the essence of the reasoning logic of non-military measures to counter military threats, as the ultimate goal of the article is the following.First the task of analyzing the concept of "national security", "object of national security" and understand the functions of the State, society and the individual to ensure national security. Decomposition of an object of national security, which is "national property" (the content of the concepts described in the article has made it possible to substantiate the basis for classification of national security threats and with better understanding of the nature, variety, Genesis. This provided a rationale for the role and the place of the tasks ensuring military security in the common task of ensuring national security, the correlation of military and non-military threats.The final phase of the research, the results of which are set out in the article is devoted to analysis of military threats, which made it possible to identify their main structural elements: source, media, military-political and strategic nature, install the main factors defining the content of these elements and their interaction. Based on these results, the proposed definition of the essence of non-military measures for counteracting of military threats, as well as guidelines for developing these measures.

  3. Representation of the serial killer on the Italian Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, P; Bastianoni, P; Melotti, G

    2001-10-01

    The representation of serial killers was examined from the analysis of 317 Web pages in the Italian language to study how the psychological profiles of serial killers are described on the Italian Internet. The correspondence analysis of the content of these Web pages shows that in Italy the serial killer is associated with words such as "monster" and "horror," which suggest and imply psychological perversion and aberrant acts. These traits are peculiar for the Italian scenario.

  4. Italian validation of the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonanno, Pasquale; Laiola, Anna; Palumbo, Chiara; Spinelli, Gianmario; Terminiello, Virginia; Servillo, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    Preoperative anxiety is usually experienced by patients awaiting surgical procedures and it can negatively impact patient's outcome. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a questionnaire created to identify anxious patients and their need for information: it has been translated and validated in many languages because of its reliability and ease of completion. To date, no Italian version of the APAIS has been produced; our aim was to translate and validate the APAIS in Italian. We produced an Italian version of the APAIS and we administered it to 110 patients undergoing elective surgery; we explored its structure by factor analysis and its reliability by Cronbach's alpha. We analyzed its external validity by confronting it to the Spielberg's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Italian version of the APAIS were determined. The Italian version of the APAIS confirmed the original structure of the questionnaire and its internal consistency; it well correlated with the STAI-Y1, the subscale of the STAI which explore the anxiety "state." An APAIS score of 14 was found as best cutoff to distinguish anxious and non-anxious patients. The Italian translation of the APAIS showed psychometric properties similar to the original version. Its reliability and its efficiency make it a powerful tool even in Italian population to detect anxiety and need for information.

  5. Nearshore circulation revealed by wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall, Aveiro Coast, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Figueiredo da Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphological and climatic conditions of the Atlantic coast of northern Portugal result in a prevailing upwelling circulation over the continental shelf. A submarine outfall releases wastewater into the ocean c. 3 km directly offshore (at ∼16 m water depth from S. Jacinto, 5 km to the north of the inlet to the estuarine coastal lagoon system of the Ria de Aveiro. The buoyant plume has a distinctive reddish brown colour and is clearly visible at the water surface. The transport and dispersion of the plume was monitored by airborne photography and by in situ water sampling. Results revealed the surface currents present and water mass fronts in the nearshore zone of the Aveiro coast. During the spring and summer, the plume was not transported offshore in the manner expected by the upwelling shelf circulation. Instead, it was commonly observed to be transported alongshore with the prevailing southerly circulation or with an onshore component. The transport to the south caused the outfall plume to interact with the circulation associated with the tidal currents generated in the inlet channel to the Ria de Aveiro. The observations suggest that the trophic status of the Ria de Aveiro is unlikely to change because of the operation of the submarine outfall. Furthermore, this study demonstrates how simple observations of wastewater discharge from a submarine outfall can be used to improve understanding of nearshore circulation. Keywords: water circulation, upwelling, ocean outfall, remote sensing, eutrophication, Ria de Aveiro

  6. Experimental Support for Evaluation of the Victoria Class Virtual Submarine (VCVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    comportementales de ce genre . y A P P R O V A L S H E E T Document No. 5283-001 Version 03 Document Name: Experimental Support for Evaluation...encountered that reduced access to HMCS Corner Brook: 11  Cold moves to charge submarine batteries;  Filming events; and,  Slight delays due

  7. Improved recovery from Gulf of Mexico reservoirs. Volume I (of 4): Task 1, conduct research on mud-rich submarine fans. Final report, February 14, 1995--October 13, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimbrell, W.C.; Bassiouni, Z.A.; Bourgoyne, A.T.

    1997-01-13

    The objective for this portion of the research involved conducting field studies and laboratory investigations to develop and refine models for mud-rich submarine fan architectures used by seismic analysis and reservoir engineers. These research aspects have been presented in two papers as follows: (1) Bouma, A.H., {open_quotes}Review of Fine-Grained Submarine Fans and Turbidite Systems{close_quotes}; (2) Kirkova, J.T. and Lorenzo, J.M., {open_quotes}Synthetic Seismic Modeling of Measured Submarine Fans Sections, Case Study of the Tanqua Complex, Karoo, South Africa{close_quotes} The {open_quotes}Review of Fine-Grained Submarine Fans and Turbidite Systems{close_quotes} by Arnold Bouma discusses research targeted toward stimulating an increase in oil and gas recovery by developing new and improved geological understanding. The {open_quotes}Synthetic Seismic Modeling of Measured Submarine Fan Sections, Case Study of the Tanqua Complex, Karoo, South Africa{close_quotes} by J.T. Kirkova and J.M. Lorenso discusses the limitations of verticle resolution and how this affects the interpretation and characterization of submarine fan complexes.

  8. LA LINGUA ITALIANA E LE SCUOLE ITALIANE NEL TERRITORIO ISTRIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara De Battisti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo ricostruisce brevemente, dal punto di vista storico, le vicende della comunità italiana in Istria per contestualizzarne i mutamenti di carattere linguistico e socioculturale che essa ha vissuto, in particolare dal secondo dopoguerra ad oggi. Sulla base di studi e indagini  recenti, vengono prese in esame le lingue e i dialetti parlati dalla comunità italiana, la realtà multilingue e multiculturale dell’Istria attuale,  le istituzioni italiane presenti nel territorio istriano e la loro attività finalizzata alla permanenza della lingua e cultura italiana nella regione. In particolare si ricostruisce la storia della scuola di lingua italiana, le sue origini, il suo declino dopo la cessione dell’Istria alla Yugolaslavia e durante i difficili e drammatici anni dell’esodo di molti italiano dalla regione, la sua rinascita ed evoluzione dal 1980 ad oggi. Delle scuole di lingua italiana, che attualmente operano sia nel territorio istriano che fa parte della Slovenia sia in quello che fa parte della Croazia, si analizza la loro distribuzione nella regione, la loro organizzazione, il ruolo della lingua italiana come materia, come lingua di scolarizzazione e come lingua straniera, i problemi, ancora aperti, della formazione degli insegnanti e dei libri di testo, e si valuta la loro possibilità di evoluzione e di sviluppo.     Italian language and Italian schools in the territory if Istria   This article briefly discusses, from the historical point of view, the Italian community in Istria to contextualize the linguistic and socio cultural changes that have taken place in the region, especially after WWII. Based on recent surveys and studies, languages and dialects spoken in the Italian community, the multilungual and multicultural reality of Istria are examined, as well as the Italian institutions in the Istrian territory and their efforts to conserve Italian language and culture in the area.  In particular, the history of

  9. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Capuano, Nicolina; Tuziak, Bogdan; Mollaioli, Daniele; Limoncin, Erika; Valsecchi, Diana; Carosa, Eleonora; Gravina, Giovanni L.; Gianfrilli, Daniele; Lenzi, Andrea; Jannini, Emmanuele A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Homophobia Scale (HS) is a valid tool to assess homophobia. This test is self‐reporting, composed of 25 items, which assesses a total score and three factors linked to homophobia: behavior/negative affect, affect/behavioral aggression, and negative cognition. Aim: The aim of this study was to validate the HS in the Italian context. Methods: An Italian translation of the HS was carried out by two bilingual people, after which an English native translated the test back i...

  10. Tsunamis caused by submarine slope failures along western Great Bahama Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Jara S D; Eberli, Gregor P; Kirby, James T; Shi, Fengyan; Tehranirad, Babak; Mulder, Thierry; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Hebbeln, Dierk; Wintersteller, Paul

    2016-11-04

    Submarine slope failures are a likely cause for tsunami generation along the East Coast of the United States. Among potential source areas for such tsunamis are submarine landslides and margin collapses of Bahamian platforms. Numerical models of past events, which have been identified using high-resolution multibeam bathymetric data, reveal possible tsunami impact on Bimini, the Florida Keys, and northern Cuba. Tsunamis caused by slope failures with terminal landslide velocity of 20 ms -1 will either dissipate while traveling through the Straits of Florida, or generate a maximum wave of 1.5 m at the Florida coast. Modeling a worst-case scenario with a calculated terminal landslide velocity generates a wave of 4.5 m height. The modeled margin collapse in southwestern Great Bahama Bank potentially has a high impact on northern Cuba, with wave heights between 3.3 to 9.5 m depending on the collapse velocity. The short distance and travel time from the source areas to densely populated coastal areas would make the Florida Keys and Miami vulnerable to such low-probability but high-impact events.

  11. ENIQ-qualified visual examinations by means of a remote controlled submarine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsvetkov, Elenko; Heinsius, Jan [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Remote visual examination is one of the most important methods for non- destructive in-service inspections of primary components in nuclear power plants. It features two main advantages: the short examination duration and the fast interpretation of results. AREVA offers operators of nuclear power plants the ''SUSI 420 HD'' SUbmarine System for Inspections to perform ENIQ-qualified visual examinations during outages without working on the critical path and causing any delay in the time schedule. The system is a remotely operated manipulator equipped with a high definition camera. With a weight of only 25 kg, there is no need for a crane to put the submarine into water. More-over, nor the use of the refueling machine neither the auxiliary bridge is required. In this way the visual examination can be performed in parallel to other activities which are on the critical path. The article takes a closer look at the essential parameters: illumination, examination distance, viewing angle, scanning speed, positioning accuracy and sizing of indications. It describes how the system can fulfill these parameters through some adaptations.

  12. Military service and military vocational training effects on post-service earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Bolin, Phil Warren

    1980-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The influence of military service and military vocational training on post-service earnings was analyzed using the National Longitudinal Survey of young men (14-24 years of age in 1966) . When individuals were classified by their propensity to use training neither military service nor military vocational training was a significant determinant of post-service earnings. A disaggregation of the sample IQ revealed that m...

  13. Logistics of nuclear fuel production for nuclear submarines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  14. PHRASEOLOGY IN PARČIĆ'S CROATIAN – ITALIAN DICTIONARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Pavletić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes and classifies the types of phraseological groups in Parčić's Croatian – Italian Dictionary comparing them with Italian equivalents and the contemporary Croatian phraseology.

  15. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of a New Watchstanding Schedule for U.S. Submariners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Osborn, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    A need exists within the U.S. submarine force to employ an operational schedule that provides more sleep and that is in better alignment with human circadian rhythms, thus improving cognitive effectiveness...

  16. Italian Entrepreneurship: Conjectures and Evidence from a Historical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pier Angelo Toninelli; Michelangelo Vasta

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the first product of an ongoing research on the determinants and the role of entrepreneurship in Italian economic development. Its primary aim is the creation of a data-set of Italian entrepreneurs for the period encompassed between the Unification of the Kingdom (1861) and the end of the XXth century. The main source of the research is a collection of 390 entrepreneurial biographies, prepared for an ongoing Dictionary of Italian Entrepreneurs. The first part of the paper presen...

  17. Software Architecture for Anti-Submarine Warfare Unmanned Surface Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    would ordinarily require the placement of more sonobuoys in the predicted path of the submarine, but if the USVs could sprint ahead just a few hundred...few yards/ meters . Once an agent has accurately resolved their current position on the globe, and identified obstacles to avoid, the task of navigation...Software Engineering with Abstractions. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991. [7] B. Harris, “Hitler’s Lost Sub: 400 Years of Subs (1580-1861),” PBS, 2016

  18. Model of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency for radiation control of the Industrial Complex of of Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins Junior, Amilton de Sousa

    2017-01-01

    Due to the construction, by Brazilian Navy, of a Submarine Construction and Maintenance Ship with Nuclear Propulsion, where, among other activities, the commissioning and exchange of the fuel elements of the reactor in the future Nuclear Submarine, and of a Naval Base where the Nuclear Submarine and the Conventional Submarines, it is necessary the establishment of a Nuclear Security Naval Agency to monitor activities involving ionizing radiation sources and nuclear materials aimed at the radiological protection of exposed occupationally individuals (IOE), the general public and the environment. It should be noted that nuclear and radioactive material will be present only in a part of the yard called Radiological Complex. Therefore, the development of a structure for the control of the Radiological Complex is fundamental, considering that the future licensing process will be unprecedented in Brazil and will face several difficulties. This work presents a model of a structure for the radiological control of the industrial complex for the construction and maintenance of the submarine with nuclear propulsion, as well as the fundamental concepts of the activities, such as inspection, regulations and authorizations, to be carried out by the various component sectors of the Nuclear Security Naval Agency. (author)

  19. Attitudes toward Suicide: Italian and United States Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, George; Perrone, Luisa

    1993-01-01

    Administered Suicide Opinion Questionnaire to 100 Italian and 100 U.S. physicians, comparable in age, gender, and medical field. Found significant difference on seven of eight scales, with Italian physicians showing greater agreement on mental illness, right to die, religion, impulsivity, normality, aggression, and moral evil scales. Found gender…

  20. Bringing the Military Back in: Military Expenditures and Economic Growth 1990 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Kentor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available After the “peace bonus” era, global military expenditures have escalated sharply despite some worldwide declines in military personnel. Theories on the economic impacts of the military institution and escalated military spending greatly differ and include arguments that they either improve domestic economic performance or crowd out growth-inducing processes. Empirical findings on this matter are inconclusive, in part due to a failure to disentangle the various dimensions of military expenditures. We further suggest that modern sociology's relative inattention to such issues has contributed to these shortcomings. We explore a new dimension of military spending that clarifies this issue—military expenditures per soldier —which captures the capital intensiveness of a country’s military organization. Our cross-national panel regression and causal analyses of developed and less developed countries from 1990 to 2003 show that military expenditures per soldier inhibit the growth of per capita GDP, net of control variables, with the most pronounced effects in least developed countries. These expenditures inhibit national development in part by slowing the expansion of the labor force. Labor-intensive militaries may provide a pathway for upward mobility, but comparatively capital-intensive military organizations limit entry opportunities for unskilled and under- or unemployed people. Deep investments in military hardware also reduce the investment capital available for more economically productive opportunities. We also find that arms imports have a positive effect on economic growth, but only in less developed countries.

  1. Coastal submarine hydrothermal activity off northern Baja California: 2. Evolutionary history and isotope geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Victor M. V.; Vidal, Francisco V.; Isaacs, John D.

    1981-10-01

    A geochemical model of the Punta Banda submarine hydrothermal system (PBSHS) and Ensenada quadrangle subaerial hot springs is developed using 18O/16O, D/H, 34S/32S, 3H, water and gas chemistry. The PBSHS water is a primary high temperature, acid, reducing fluid of old seawater origin which has been titrated by cold, alkaline groundwater of meteoric origin. The final exiting solutions represent a 1 : 1 mixture of the two primary mixing components. In contrast, the subaerial hot spring waters are of unmixed meteoric origin. The subaerial hot spring gas is predominantly atmospheric N2, while the PBSHS contains large amounts of CH4 and N2 derived from trapped marine sediments of Cretaceous age; δS34 values of sampled hydrothermal waters are similar to Cretaceous marine sulfate values and suggest that the waters contacted Cretaceous marine sedimentary strata. The presence of the Alisitos and Rosario marine sedimentary formations of Cretaceous age within the Ensenada-Punta Banda quadrangle renders support to the above hypothesis. The data also demonstrate that pyrite mineralization and deposition in submarine hydrothermal environments result from the complexing of ferrous iron with elemental sulfur and sulfide and that submarine hydrothermal activity acts as a major source of silica, Ca2+, and trace metals and as a major sink for seawater Mg2+ and SO42-.

  2. Man-machine interface in a submarine command and weapon control system: features and design experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan H. Aas

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Important man-machine interface (MMI issues concerning a submarine command and weapon control system (CWCS such as crew organization, automation level and decision support are discussed in this paper. Generic submarine CWCS functions and operating conditions are outlined. Detailed, dynamic and real-time prototypes were used to support the MMI design. The prototypes are described and experience with detailed prototyping is discussed. Some of the main interaction principles are summarized and a restricted example of the resulting design is given. Our design experience and current work have been used to outline future perspectives of MMI design in naval CWCSs. The need for both formal and experimental approaches is emphasized.

  3. Analysis Regarding the Growing Presence of Italian Firms in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Valdemarin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2014, the number of firms with an Italian presence in Romania was 39,556, representing 19.33% out of total registered firms and this number is still growing. This article focuses on answering the following question: what kind of Italian firms are investing in Romania and why? Starting from the empirical observation that the number of Italian firms in Romania grew by 6.82% last year, we have used a PESTEL analysis to find the key points characterizing the country, paying attention also to the concept of country brand. From the point of view of Italian firms, we have also analyzed the shifting paradigm of internationalization from a Vertical Foreign Direct Investment model to a Horizontal Foreign Direct Investment model. This paper can be useful for managers and entrepreneurs who are oriented towards investing in Romania following the path of Italian firms.

  4. Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This document discusses problems associated with Italian energy policy; economic and industrial development as it relates to that policy is covered. Specific areas covered are: (1) the basis of Italy's new energy policy; (2) energy demand; (3) five objectives; (4) the electrical power system; (5) proposed action; and (6) energy resources

  5. Italian Validation of Homophobia Scale (HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Ciocca, PsyD, PhD

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The Italian validation of the HS revealed the use of this self‐report test to have good psychometric properties. This study offers a new tool to assess homophobia. In this regard, the HS can be introduced into the clinical praxis and into programs for the prevention of homophobic behavior. Ciocca G, Capuano N, Tuziak B, Mollaioli D, Limoncin E, Valsecchi D, Carosa E, Gravina GL, Gianfrilli D, Lenzi A, and Jannini EA. Italian validation of Homophobia Scale (HS. Sex Med 2015;3:213–218.

  6. Strategic Management Accounting in Universities: The Italian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Arnaboldi, Michela; Azzone, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of management accounting in four major Italian universities, which have been struggling to build their strategy in a context of significant change. Following many OECD countries the Italian government has been changing its higher education system by giving more autonomy to universities. These changes pose a…

  7. exiles/nomads: journeys through language and gender in italian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    how Italian women's (and men's) pulp fiction is written through gender specific ... by Santacroce's heroines to travel beyond the Italian boundaries, is not limited to the ..... The character's perception of his physical environment as silent and.

  8. Assessment of Submarine Slope Stability on the Continental Margin off SW Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Huai-Houh; Dong, Jia-Jyun; Cheng, Win-Bin; Su, Chih-Chieh

    2017-04-01

    The abundant gas hydrate reservoirs are distributed in the southwest (SW) off Taiwan. To explore this new energy, geological methods were systematically used and mainly emphasized on the storage potential evaluation. On the other hand, the correlation between gas hydrate dissociation and submarine slope stability is also an important issue. In this study, three submarine profiles on the active and passive continental margin were selected and assessed their slope stabilities by considering two influence factors (seismic forces and number of sedimentary layers). The gravity corers obtained from these three sites (Xiaoliuqiu, Yuan-An Ridge, and Pointer Ridge) to conduct soil laboratory tests. The physical property tests and isotropically consolidated undrained (CIU) triaxial tests were carried out to establish reference properties and shear strength parameters. Before the stability analysis is performed, it is also necessary to construct the seabed profile. For each submarine profile, data from P-waves and from S-waves generated by P-S conversion on reflection from airgun shots recorded along one line of ocean bottom seismometers were used to construct 2-D velocity sections. The seabed strata could be simplified to be only one sedimentary layer or to be multilayer in accordance with the velocity structure profile. Results show the safety factors (FS) of stability analysis are obviously different in considering the number of sedimentary layers, especially for a very thin layer of sediments on a steep slope. The simplified strata condition which treated all seabed strata as only one sedimentary layer might result in the FS lower than 1 and the slope was in an unstable state. On the contrary, the FS could be higher than 10 in a multilayer condition.

  9. Localizing Submarine Earthquakes by Listening to the Water Reverberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, J.; Zhan, Z.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    Mid-Ocean Ridge (MOR) earthquakes generally occur far from any land based station and are of moderate magnitude, making it complicated to detect and in most cases, locate accurately. This limits our understanding of how MOR normal and transform faults move and the manner in which they slip. Different from continental events, seismic records from earthquakes occurring beneath the ocean floor show complex reverberations caused by P-wave energy trapped in the water column that are highly dependent of the source location and the efficiency to which energy propagated to the near-source surface. These later arrivals are commonly considered to be only a nuisance as they might sometimes interfere with the primary arrivals. However, in this study, we take advantage of the wavefield's high sensitivity to small changes in the seafloor topography and the present-day availability of worldwide multi-beam bathymetry to relocate submarine earthquakes by modeling these water column reverberations in teleseismic signals. Using a three-dimensional hybrid method for modeling body wave arrivals, we demonstrate that an accurate hypocentral location of a submarine earthquake (<5 km) can be achieved if the structural complexities near the source region are appropriately accounted for. This presents a novel way of studying earthquake source properties and will serve as a means to explore the influence of physical fault structure on the seismic behavior of transform faults.

  10. Sixty years of the Military Technical Courier: Origins of the military technical thinking in the military printing of the Kingdom of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan B. Mijatović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article sheds light on the origins of the military technical thinking in the military publishing of the Kingdom of Serbia with a view to marking a jubilee - the sixtieth anniversary of the Military Technical Courier. 'Vojin', the first military review, printed in the middle of 19th century as a private venture, covered a wide scope of military issues, among which a special place was given to 'the science of weapons'. No sooner had this review ceased to exist than The Headquarters of the Army of the Kingdom of Serbia started publishing a new military review, 'Ratnik', which, apart from the art of war and war literature, dealt with the science of weapons in order to inform officers about the latest achievements in military technology and to educate them as well. Serbian military thinking, including its technical aspect, did not fall behind modern trends in its European and world counterparts until 1914. The development of weaponry in Europe and the world was regularly covered on the pages of military reviews.

  11. Submarine Landslides and Mass-Transport Deposition in the Nankai fore-arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, M.; Henry, P.; Kanamatsu, T.; Moe, K.; Moore, G. F.; IODP Expedition 333 Scientists

    2011-12-01

    Multiple lines of evidence exist for a range of sediment mass movement processes within the shallow megasplay fault zone (MSFZ) area and the adjacent slope basin in the outer fore-arc of the Nankai subduction zone, Japan. Diagnostic features observed in 3-D reflection seismic data and in cores from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 316 document a complex mass movement history spanning at least ˜2.87 million years. Various modes and scales of sediment remobilization can be related to the different morphotectonic settings in which they occurred and allow integration of knowledge on the spatial and temporal distribution of submarine landslides into a holistic reconstruction of the tectonostratigraphic evolution. New data from the most-recent Nankai IODP Expedition 333, which drilled and cored a Pleistocene-to-Holocene succession of the slope-basin seaward of the MSFZ, provides unprecedented details on submarine landslide processes occurring over the last Million year. The slope-basin represents the depocentre for downslope sediment transport and is characterized in 3-D reflection seismic data by several mass-transport deposits (MTDs), including an up to 180 m thick MTD. Here we present D/V Chikyu shipboard results and first post cruise results from Site C0018, including litho- bio- magneto- tephra- and stable isotope-stratigraphy, X-ray computed tomography analysis and physical properties data. Six MTDs were identified from visual core description and X-ray CT-scans. The thickest MTD is also the oldest (emplaced between 0.85 and 1.05 Ma) and it coincides with a lithological transition between a sandy turbidite sequence below, and ash-bearing hemipelagites comprising several MTDs above. Deformation styles within the MTD are heterogeneous: intervals of disturbed sediments are interbedded within intervals inferred to retain original, coherent bedding. In three occurrences the base of the MTD is defined by a shear zone within fine-grained sediments

  12. Military and Political Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberyozkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Military-political issues is an important area of research work at MGIMO. The difference in this direction from the classical international specialization is that it is at the intersection of several disciplines: military science, military-technical and military-industrial as well as International Relations. A specialist in military and political issues should not only be an expert in the field of international relations and diplomacy, but also have a deep knowledge of military-technical issues to understand the basic trends in the development of scientific and technological progress and its impact on the balance of forces in the world. Global changes in the balance of power and the nature of the conflict, the emergence of new types of weapons are changing the basic methods and approaches to the art of war, which requires a science-based perspective on problem solving and multi-disciplinary approach in achieving the goals. Military and political studies allow us to understand how the development of military technology and military organization of the state affected by the political situation in the world, the national security of the country and its place in the system of international relations. Military-political research has been developing at MGIMO for a few decades. It laid down the basis for a scientific school of political-military studies. Its founding fathers were such prominent scholars of international affairs, as I.G. Usachyov, A.D. Nikonov, A.G. Arbatov, V.G. Baranovsky, V.M. Kulagin, A.N. Nikitin and other well-known experts. Their work covers a wide range of military and political issues, including the topics of arms control and disarmament, international, and especially European security, military policy, NATO, the Western military-political doctrines and their practical application. Now the lead in the development of this research at MGIMO has taken Center for Military-Political Studies, which became a concentration of relevant

  13. ’The Italian Color’: Race, Crime Iconography and Dubbing Conventions in the Italian-language Versions of Scarface (1932)

    OpenAIRE

    Mereu Keating, Carla

    2016-01-01

    In the early 1930s the crime film Scarface: The Shame of a Nation (1932, USA, dir. Howard Hawks) stirred censorship controversies in the United States because of its gritty portrayal of criminality and violence. Debates over crime, race and immigration proliferated in the North-American press and finally led to Italian-American pressure groups to call out for the film’s boycott because it ‘offended the Italian nation and people’ and vilified immigrant communities. Archival historical ...

  14. Representing distributed cognition in complex systems: how a submarine returns to periscope depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Neville A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) method as a means of modelling distributed cognition in systems. The method comprises three network models (i.e. task, social and information) and their combination. This method was applied to the interactions between the sound room and control room in a submarine, following the activities of returning the submarine to periscope depth. This paper demonstrates three main developments in EAST. First, building the network models directly, without reference to the intervening methods. Second, the application of analysis metrics to all three networks. Third, the combination of the aforementioned networks in different ways to gain a broader understanding of the distributed cognition. Analyses have shown that EAST can be used to gain both qualitative and quantitative insights into distributed cognition. Future research should focus on the analyses of network resilience and modelling alternative versions of a system.

  15. 14 CFR 65.117 - Military riggers or former military riggers: Special certification rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Military riggers or former military riggers: Special certification rule. 65.117 Section 65.117 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Riggers § 65.117 Military riggers or former military riggers: Special certification rule. In place of the...

  16. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...

  17. Earthquake swarms reveal submarine magma unrest induced by distant mega-earthquakes: Andaman Sea region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špičák, Aleš; Vaněk, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, February (2016), s. 155-163 ISSN 1367-9120 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : earthquake swarms * magma migration * submarine volcanic arc Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.335, year: 2016

  18. A review of the Italian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierantoni, F.; Tavoni, R.

    1984-01-01

    This review sums up the Italian situation in the field of the fast reactors on the eve of the fifth five year plan (1985-1989), in which the country undertakes to implement an important activity of research and development in the context of a greater European collaboration. Italian participation in the development of European nuclear power stations together with the completion of the PEC plant which will be used to develop a fuel element with the necessary economic and safety characteristics, remain the two principal goals of the Italian fast reactor programme. In 1983 the sum assigned by ENEA for fast reactors was about 220 billion lire of which 145 billion was for the PEC reactor

  19. Iraqi Military Academies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nodar Z. Mossaki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the system of training of officers in military academies in Iraq – in Zakho, Qalacholan, ar-Rustamiyah and an-Nasiriyah. The author describes the history of creation, process of evolution, challenges and features of training in these colleges. Particular attention paid to military academies in the territory of Iraqi Kurdistan, which actually do not obey the central government of Iraq, however, have the highest level of training. Currently, Iraq's military academies operate on the basis of the NATO standards. Iraqi military academies paid miuch attention to the specifics of the military and political situation in Iraq – counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations, patrolling cities, fighting in an urban environment etc. Significant place in the curriculum take the courses contributing to the formation of pro-Western sentiment.

  20. Healthy migrants but unhealthy offspring? A retrospective cohort study among Italians in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnutzer, Silvan; Bopp, Matthias

    2012-12-22

    In many countries, migrants from Italy form a substantial, well-defined group with distinct lifestyle and dietary habits. There is, however, hardly any information about all-cause mortality patterns among Italian migrants and their offspring. In this paper, we compare Italian migrants, their offspring and Swiss nationals. We compared age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates and hazard ratios (adjusted for education, marital status, language region and period) for Swiss and Italian nationals registered in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC), living in the German- or French-speaking part of Switzerland and falling into the age range 40-89 during the observation period 1990-2008. Overall, 3,175,288 native Swiss (48% male) and 224,372 individuals with an Italian migration background (57% male) accumulated 698,779 deaths and 44,836,189 person-years. Individuals with Italian background were categorized by nationality, country of birth and language. First-generation Italians had lower mortality risks than native Swiss (reference group), but second-generation Italians demonstrated higher mortality risks. Among first-generation Italians, predominantly Italian-speaking men and women had hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.88-0.91) and 0.90 (0.87-0.92), respectively, while men and women having adopted the regional language had HRs of 0.93 (0.88-0.98) and 0.96 (0.88-1.04), respectively. Among second-generation Italians, the respective HRs were 1.16 (1.03-1.31), 1.06 (0.89-1.26), 1.10 (1.05-1.16) and 0.97 (0.89-1.05). The mortality advantage of first-generation Italians decreased with age. The mortality risks of first- and second-generation Italians vary substantially. The healthy migrant effect and health disadvantage among second-generation Italians show characteristic age/sex patterns. Future investigation of health behavior and cause-specific mortality is needed to better understand different mortality risks. Such insights will facilitate adequate prevention and

  1. Healthy migrants but unhealthy offspring? A retrospective cohort study among Italians in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnutzer Silvan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many countries, migrants from Italy form a substantial, well-defined group with distinct lifestyle and dietary habits. There is, however, hardly any information about all-cause mortality patterns among Italian migrants and their offspring. In this paper, we compare Italian migrants, their offspring and Swiss nationals. Methods We compared age-specific and age-standardized mortality rates and hazard ratios (adjusted for education, marital status, language region and period for Swiss and Italian nationals registered in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC, living in the German- or French-speaking part of Switzerland and falling into the age range 40–89 during the observation period 1990–2008. Overall, 3,175,288 native Swiss (48% male and 224,372 individuals with an Italian migration background (57% male accumulated 698,779 deaths and 44,836,189 person-years. Individuals with Italian background were categorized by nationality, country of birth and language. Results First-generation Italians had lower mortality risks than native Swiss (reference group, but second-generation Italians demonstrated higher mortality risks. Among first-generation Italians, predominantly Italian-speaking men and women had hazard ratios (HRs of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.88-0.91 and 0.90 (0.87-0.92, respectively, while men and women having adopted the regional language had HRs of 0.93 (0.88-0.98 and 0.96 (0.88-1.04, respectively. Among second-generation Italians, the respective HRs were 1.16 (1.03-1.31, 1.06 (0.89-1.26, 1.10 (1.05-1.16 and 0.97 (0.89-1.05. The mortality advantage of first-generation Italians decreased with age. Conclusions The mortality risks of first- and second-generation Italians vary substantially. The healthy migrant effect and health disadvantage among second-generation Italians show characteristic age/sex patterns. Future investigation of health behavior and cause-specific mortality is needed to better understand different mortality risks

  2. Haines - Scagway Submarine Cable Intertie Project, Haines to Scagway, Alaska Final Technical and Construction Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See, Alan; Rinehart, Bennie N; Marin, Glen

    1998-11-01

    The Haines to Skagway submarine cable project is located n Taiya Inlet, at the north end of Lynn Canal, in Southeast Alaska. The cable is approximately 15 miles long, with three landings and splice vaults. The cable is 35 kV, 3-Phase, and armored. The cable interconnects the Goat Lake Hydro Project near Skagway with the community of Haines. Both communities are now on 100% hydroelectric power. The Haines to Skagway submarine cable is the result of AP&T's goal of an alternative, economic, and environmentally friendly energy source for the communities served and to eliminate the use of diesel fuel as the primary source of energy. Diesel units will continue to be used as a backup system.

  3. Notulae to the Italian alien vascular flora: 4

    OpenAIRE

    Galasso,Gabriele; Domina,Gianniantonio; Bonari,Gianmaria; Buono,Sergio; Chianese,Giuseppina; Cortesi,Gloria; Cortesi,Gloria; Iamonico,Duilio; Olivieri,Nicola; Peruzzi,Lorenzo; Pierini,Brunello; Roma-Marzio,Francesco; Scoppola,Anna; Soldano,Adriano; Stinca,Adriano

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, new data concerning the Italian distribution of alien vascular flora are presented. It includes new records and exclusions for Italy or for Italian administrative regions of taxa in the genera Cedrus, Cenchrus, Citrus, Cyrtomium, Diospyros, Elaeagnus, Erigeron, Iris, Oenothera, Pavonia, Phytolacca, Styphnolobium, and Verbena. Furthermore, a new combination in the genus Amaranthus is proposed.

  4. What’s Operations Research? and Why Should We (Interagents) Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    OR (from DSB Report on ISR applications) – World War I • Thomas Edison led anti-submarine warfare tactics study/development – World War II • English...Operations – Joint Warfare – Resources/Readiness/Training – Acquisition – Interdisciplinary Advances in OR • Recent Special Meetings – Power and Energy...the scientific method to inform decisions • Early applications were military operations focused – Lanchester equations of combat – Anti-submarine

  5. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Rubina; Marella, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy). The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  6. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Canesi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy. The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  7. Italian decommissioning in the post-referendum era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrazzano, Vincenzo; Scarabotti, Serena

    2012-01-01

    The accident at the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant materially reverberated, with its emotional impact, on the preparation of a new nuclear policy in Italy. Italians, wishing to decide directly on the electric power source for their country, applied for a referendum procedure aimed at abrogating the newly enacted legal framework which would have paved the way for an Italian nuclear renaissance. The referendum on the repeal of nuclear power passed on 12-13 June 2011. In addition to the recent termination of the nuclear programme in Italy, effective by law for five years as a result of this referendum, this aborted renaissance of nuclear energy in Italy requires leaders to make many important decisions including how to set up decommissioning programmes and activities and how to establish a national repository for nuclear waste as envisaged by general European policy on the management of such waste. Leaders must also reach consensus regarding the future of the Italian nuclear safety authority. The purpose of this paper is to explore how the Italian Parliament has reacted to this recent referendum on the future of nuclear energy in Italy by strengthening its focus on the safe management of nuclear waste as part of the decommissioning process. More significantly, this paper will analyse the newly enacted Law No. 27 of 24 March 2012 concerning urgent measures for infrastructure development to enhance the competitiveness of the country. This law derives from a political measure taken by Prime Minister Mario Monti in the context of an economic stimulus programme aimed at improving market competition. Article 24 of this so-called 'Liberalisation Decree' focuses on the need for accelerating the deactivation and decommissioning process of Italian nuclear power plants and research reactors. In light of the newly enacted legal provisions, this paper sets forth a general comment on the legal provisions included in Article 24 of Law No. 27/2012 by indicating their

  8. A new submarine oil-water separation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Bin; Liu, Bo-Hong

    2017-12-01

    In order to solve the oil field losses of environmental problems and economic benefit caused by the separation of lifting production liquid to offshore platforms in the current offshore oil production, from the most basic separation principle, a new oil-water separation system has been processed of adsorption and desorption on related materials, achieving high efficiency and separation of oil and water phases. And the submarine oil-water separation device has been designed. The main structure of the device consists of gas-solid phase separation device, period separating device and adsorption device that completed high efficiency separation of oil, gas and water under the adsorption and desorption principle, and the processing capacity of the device is calculated.

  9. Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taniguchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale evaluations of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD have been made in Saijo, Ehime Prefecture, Shikoku Island, Japan, by using seepage meters for point scale, 222Rn tracer for point and coastal scales, and a numerical groundwater model (SEAWAT for coastal and basin scales. Daily basis temporal changes in SGD are evaluated by continuous seepage meter and 222Rn mooring measurements, and depend on sea level changes. Spatial evaluations of SGD were also made by 222Rn along the coast in July 2010 and November 2011. The area with larger 222Rn concentration during both seasons agreed well with the area with larger SGD calculated by 3D groundwater numerical simulations.

  10. Glycemic index and glycemic load of commercial Italian foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scazzina, F; Dall'Asta, M; Casiraghi, M C; Sieri, S; Del Rio, D; Pellegrini, N; Brighenti, F

    2016-05-01

    The glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are useful parameters in the nutritional classification of carbohydrate foods. Diets characterized by a low GI and/or a low GL have been repeatedly and independently associated with decreased risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases. The aim of this study is to report the GI and GL value of carbohydrate-rich foods available on the Italian market and mostly consumed in Italy. GI values were determined according to FAO/WHO (1997) and ISO (2010). Overall, the 141 commercial foods that were analyzed represent food categories that are the source of >80% carbohydrate intake in Italy. The food items chosen were based mainly on the market share of the brand within each food category and grouped into 13 food categories: 1) beverages: fermented milk drink, juice, smoothie, soft drink; 2) biscuits; 3) breads; 4) bread substitutes; 5) breakfast cereals; 6) cakes and snacks; 7) candy and confectionery; 8) cereals; 9) desserts and ice-creams; 10) marmalade and jam; 11) pasta; 12) pizza; 13) sugar and sweetener. This database of commercial Italian foods partly overcomes the lack of information on GI and GL of local foods, contributing to a better understanding of the association between GI/GL and health and providing a more informed choice to Italian consumers and health practitioners. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dealing with the vulnerability of the Italian banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Montanaro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The major vulnerabilities of the Italian banking system are the overhang of NPLs and low profitability. Differently from the attention given to excesses of NPLs, the profitability problem is normally considered to be a matter to be left to bank management and not an area of explicit direct regulatory action. Although focusing on capital requirements, regulators and supervisors seldom pose the question of where capital comes from. Using a large sample of 410 Italian domestic banking groups and individual banks, we propose an NPL stress test and a viability test that show: that the system’s vulnerability is a widespread phenomenon; that a further recapitalisation of around ten billion euro is necessary; and that, more importantly, limiting interventions to the overhang problem does not put the majority of Italian banks into a viability path due to the inefficiencies coming from their current business models. The analysis of the Italian case strengthens the critique of current regulation and supervision because, not focusing on bank profitability, they do not avoid threats on solvency coming from the accumulation of NPLs. We thus argue that the structural changes necessary to put the Italian banking system into a viable path require new regulatory and supervisory approaches.

  12. Social media marketing in Italian luxury fashion

    OpenAIRE

    Ananda, Artha Sejati; Hernández García, Ángel; Lamberti, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    Industries nowadays have been comfortable with the incorporation of social media to their marketing strategy. Italy has been known as a major center of the European fashion industry, a sector that is also following the social media marketing trends. This paper provides empirical findings on Italian luxury fashion brands? social media marketing activities. We present and analyze two case studies of Italian luxury fashion brands: Gucci and The Bridge (Il Ponte Pelletteria). Gucci is one of worl...

  13. Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-Hazards from Submarine Slides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Ercilla

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The workshop ‘Scientific Ocean Drilling Behind the Assessment of Geo-hazards from Submarine Slides’ was held on 25–27 October 2006 in Barcelona (Spain. Fifty mainly European scientists and industry representatives attended from a wide spectrum of disciplines such as geophysics, stratigraphy, sedimentology, paleoceanography, marinegeotechnology, geotechnical engineering, and tsunami modeling.

  14. Navy Virginia (SSN 774) Class Attack Submarine Procurement: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Implications for U.S. Navy Capabilities—Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke. 45 Stephen J. Hadley and William J. Perry, co...Generally speaking, delays in maintenance periods will impact the overall operational availability of the submarine force,” Lt. Cmdr. Tim Hawkins

  15. European energy policy and Italian national rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    In light of energy market upheavals expected as a result of the up-coming European free trade market, impacts on existing Italian energy legislation, currently hinging on the monopolistic activities of ENEL, (Italian National Electricity Board) are examined. The various aspects dealt with include: legal implications of the integration, under monopolistic and deregulated national energy market scenarios, of new legislation, on the production and distribution of renewable energy sources, with existing energy legislation; the combined effects of strong competition in a new international energy market and energy supply vulnerability due strong dependence on OPEC supplied petroleum; Italian regional economic unbalance due to the possible introduction, in a deregulated European electric power market, of a common carrier system of electric power distribution, that due to Italy's particular geography is expected to be controlled by a firm locatednear the northern border; power pooling legislation and rate structure transparency in a deregulated energy market

  16. Event-driven sediment flux in Hueneme and Mugu submarine canyons, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J. P.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Noble, M.; Li, A.-C.

    2010-01-01

    Vertical sediment fluxes and their dominant controlling processes in Hueneme and Mugu submarine canyons off south-central California were assessed using data from sediment traps and current meters on two moorings that were deployed for 6 months during the winter of 2007. The maxima of total particulate flux, which reached as high as 300+ g/m2/day in Hueneme Canyon, were recorded during winter storm events when high waves and river floods often coincided. During these winter storms, wave-induced resuspension of shelf sediment was a major source for the elevated sediment fluxes. Canyon rim morphology, rather than physical proximity to an adjacent river mouth, appeared to control the magnitude of sediment fluxes in these two submarine canyon systems. Episodic turbidity currents and internal bores enhanced sediment fluxes, particularly in the lower sediment traps positioned 30 m above the canyon floor. Lower excess 210Pb activities measured in the sediment samples collected during periods of peak total particulate flux further substantiate that reworked shelf-, rather than newly introduced river-borne, sediments supply most of the material entering these canyons during storms.

  17. Italian electricity supply contracts optimization: ECO computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoli, G.; Savelli, D.

    1993-01-01

    The ECO (Electrical Contract Optimization) code written in the Microsoft WINDOWS 3.1 language can be handled with a 286 PC and a minimum of RAM. It consists of four modules, one for the calculation of ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) tariffs, one for contractual time-of-use tariffs optimization, a table of tariff coefficients, and a module for monthly power consumption calculations based on annual load diagrams. The optimization code was developed by ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) to help Italian industrial firms comply with new and complex national electricity supply contractual regulations and tariffs. In addition to helping industrial firms determine optimum contractual arrangements, the code also assists them in optimizing their choice of equipment and production cycles

  18. HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEY : MILESTONE OF THE PROTEA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thean

    South Africa is a respected member of the IHO and provides the ..... Dalgleish, whose name appears on many charts of the South ... Second World War and even succeeded in sinking an Italian submarine, the ..... Temperature, density, sound velocity and salinity readings are constantly .... with an environmental objective.

  19. Effects of eradication and restoration treatments on Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Thomas; Keeley, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Low elevation grasslands in California long have been dominated by Mediterranean grasses, but many areas still have large native forb populations. Alien forbs invade these grasslands, displacing both native and other alien species. Italian thistle is a noxious alien herb that has recently invaded these grasslands, including ungrazed blue oak (Quercus douglassii) and interior live oak (Quercus wislizenii) stands in Sequoia National Park. Here, Italian thistle tends to dominate under oaks and has the potential to substantially alter the foothill ecosystem by displacing native plants and acting as a ladder fuel that can carry fires into the oak canopy. We tested the effects of selectively reducing Italian thistle populations alone and in combination with restoration of native species. Two thistle eradication techniques (clipping and the application of clopyralid herbicide) and two restoration techniques (addition of native forb seeds or planting native grass plugs) were used. After two consecutive years of treatment we found: a) clipping was not effective at reducing Italian thistle populations (clipping reduced Italian thistle density in some areas, but not vegetative cover), b) herbicide reduced both Italian thistle density and vegetative cover for the first two growing seasons after application, but cover rebounded in the third growing season, c) native forb cover and species richness were not significantly affected by clipping or spot-treating with herbicide, d) the grass and forb addition treatments by themselves were not effective at reducing Italian thistle during the course of this study and e) sowing annual forb seeds after clipping resulted in greater forb cover and moderately reduced Italian thistle vegetative cover in the short term.

  20. Unconventional Military Advising Mission Conducted by Conventional US Military Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjar, Remi M.

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how and why many contemporary US mainstream military advisors—as compared to Special Forces advisors—often work from a position of disadvantage when conducting unconventional advising missions. Post-9/11 deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan have caused the US military to adapt to myriad complexities, including a renewed need for the widespread execution of the unconventional military advising mission by the Special Forces and conventional units. Although Special Forces ty...

  1. What Military Officers Need to Know About Civil-Military Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    2012, Vol. 65, No. 2 Mackubin Thomas Owens ivil-military relations describe the interactions among the people of a state, the institutions of that...civilians for the unexpect- edly difficult occupation of Iraq,” one close observer—U.S. Army major Isaiah Wilson III, an official historian of the...U.S. Civil- Military Relations. 4. I have addressed these questions in depth in Mackubin Thomas Owens, US Civil-Military Relations after 9/11

  2. Thyroid swellings in the art of the Italian Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpetti, Antonio V; De Toma, Giorgio; De Cesare, Alessandro

    2015-09-01

    Thyroid swellings in the art of the Italian Renaissance are sporadically reported in the medical literature. Six hundred paintings and sculptures from the Italian Renaissance, randomly selected, were analyzed to determine the prevalence of personages with thyroid swellings and its meaning. The prevalence of personages with thyroid swellings in the art of Italian Renaissance is much higher than previously thought. This phenomenon was probably secondary to iodine deficiency. The presence of personages with thyroid swelling was related to specific meanings the artists wanted to show in their works. Even if the function and the role of the thyroid were discovered only after thyroidectomy was started to be performed, at the beginning of the 19th century, artists of the Italian Renaissance had the intuition that thyroid swellings were related to specific psychological conditions. Artistic intuition and sensibility often comes before scientific demonstration, and it should be a guide for science development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Uncovering the Italian Muscle Jew: from Zionist Gymnastics to Fascist Boxing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Levis Sullam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the presence and influence among Italian Jews of Max Nordau’s image of the “muscle Jew” and more broadly of a virile imaginary, intertwined with Zionist and Italian nationalist ideas. I first document the relevance of an early phase of Italian muscular Judaism at the beginning of the twentieth century, at the time of the rise of Zionism in Italy. I then study the development, in the 1920s and 1930s, of a virile imagery among the two trends of Italian revisionist Zionism and of what we may call Italian Jewish Fascism. I end by asking whether there were not inherent contradictions, or at least relevant tensions, in the ideal of the muscle Jew, between radical nationalism and Jewish forms of virility, as developed after the First world war and in connection with the rise and stabilization of Fascism.

  4. Contemporary Seicento: On the Dark Background of the Italian Historical Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Messina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While the historical novel is a product of European Romanticism, the first Italian historical novel expresses the critical awareness of its origin against the dark background of the Seicento. For the historical and political imagination of the Italian Romanticism, the Seicento represents the Middle Age of modernity, namely the obscurity of the contemporary. From the dark background of the Seicento the Italian historical novel draws stories that reflect on the obscurity of its own time. In particular, my essay examines a selection of contemporary texts that show the continued and critical presence of the Seicento in the Italian historical novel.

  5. The timing of sediment transport down Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Thomas; Paull, Charles K.; Ussler, William III; McGann, Mary; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Lundsten, Eve M.

    2013-01-01

    While submarine canyons are the major conduits through which sediments are transported from the continents out into the deep sea, the time it takes for sediment to pass down through a submarine canyon system is poorly constrained. Here we report on the first study to couple optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz sand deposits and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages measured on benthic foraminifera to examine the timing of sediment transport through the axial channel of Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan, offshore California. The OSL ages date the timing of sediment entry into the canyon head while the 14C ages of benthic foraminifera record the deposition of hemipelagic sediments that bound the sand horizons. We use both single-grain and small (∼2 mm area) single-aliquot regeneration approaches on vibracore samples from fining-upward sequences at various water depths to demonstrate relatively rapid, decadal-scale sand transport to at least 1.1 km depth and more variable decadal- to millennial-scale transport to a least 3.5 km depth on the fan. Significant differences between the time sand was last exposed at the canyon head (OSL age) and the timing of deposition of the sand (from 14C ages of benthic foraminifera in bracketing hemipelagic sediments) are interpreted as indicating that the sand does not pass through the entire canyon instantly in large individual events, but rather moves multiple times before emerging onto the fan. The increased spread in single-grain OSL dates with water depth provides evidence of mixing and temporary storage of sediment as it moves through the canyon system. The ages also indicate that the frequency of sediment transport events decreases with distance down the canyon channel system. The amalgamated sands near the canyon head yield OSL ages that are consistent with a sub-decadal recurrence frequency while the fining-upward sand sequences on the fan indicate that the channel is still experiencing events with a 150

  6. Assessing potential impacts of energized submarine power cables on crab harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Clark, Scott; McCrea, Merit; Bull, Ann Scarborough

    2017-12-01

    Offshore renewable energy facilities transmit electricity to shore through submarine power cables. Electromagnetic field emissions (EMFs) are generated from the transmission of electricity through these cables, such as the AC inter-array (between unit) and AC export (to shore) cables often used in offshore energy production. The EMF has both an electric component and a magnetic component. While sheathing can block the direct electric field, the magnetic field is not blocked. A concern raised by fishermen on the Pacific Coast of North America is that commercially important Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister Dana, 1852)) might not cross over an energized submarine power cable to enter a baited crab trap, thus potentially reducing their catch. The presence of operating energized cables off southern California and in Puget Sound (cables that are comparable to those within the arrays of existing offshore wind energy devices) allowed us to conduct experiments on how energized power cables might affect the harvesting of both M. magister and another commercially important crab species, Cancer productus Randall, 1839. In this study we tested the questions: 1) Is the catchability of crabs reduced if these animals must traverse an energized power cable to enter a trap and 2) if crabs preferentially do not cross an energized cable, is it the cable structure or the EMF emitted from that cable that deters crabs from crossing? In field experiments off southern California and in Puget Sound, crabs were given a choice of walking over an energized power cable to a baited trap or walking directly away from that cable to a second baited trap. Based on our research we found no evidence that the EMF emitted by energized submarine power cables influenced the catchability of these two species of commercially important crabs. In addition, there was no difference in the crabs' responses to lightly buried versus unburied cables. We did observe that, regardless of the position of the cable

  7. A three-dimensional stratigraphic model for aggrading submarine channels based on laboratory experiments, numerical modeling, and sediment cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, A. B.; Komatsu, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Paola, C.

    2017-12-01

    Turbidity currents deliver clastic sediment from continental margins to the deep ocean, and are the main driver of landscape and stratigraphic evolution in many low-relief, submarine environments. The sedimentary architecture of turbidites—including the spatial organization of coarse and fine sediments—is closely related to the aggradation, scour, and lateral shifting of channels. Seismic stratigraphy indicates that submarine, meandering channels often aggrade rapidly relative to lateral shifting, and develop channel sand bodies with high vertical connectivity. In comparison, the stratigraphic architecture developed by submarine, braided is relatively uncertain. We present a new stratigraphic model for submarine braided channels that integrates predictions from laboratory experiments and flow modeling with constraints from sediment cores. In the laboratory experiments, a saline density current developed subaqueous channels in plastic sediment. The channels aggraded to form a deposit with a vertical scale of approximately five channel depths. We collected topography data during aggradation to (1) establish relative stratigraphic age, and (2) estimate the sorting patterns of a hypothetical grain size distribution. We applied a numerical flow model to each topographic surface and used modeled flow depth as a proxy for relative grain size. We then conditioned the resulting stratigraphic model to observed grain size distributions using sediment core data from the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan. Using this stratigraphic model, we establish new, quantitative predictions for the two- and three-dimensional connectivity of coarse sediment as a function of fine-sediment fraction. Using this case study as an example, we will highlight outstanding challenges in relating the evolution of low-relief landscapes to the stratigraphic record.

  8. The Military's Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Vedby

    If the military were a business, would you buy shares? Over recent years, Western armed forces, particularly the US, have been costing more yet achieving less. At the same time, austerity measures are reducing defence budgets. This book uses defence data to examine the workings of modern Western...... militaries and explore what kind of strategies can overcome this gap between input and output. Instead of focusing on military strategy, Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen seeks to draw on the ideas of business strategy to assess alternative business cases - reforming military HR to combat instability in the 'Global...... to fit within a nation's overall national security system without ever-increasing budgets....

  9. Taking a Dive for a Friend - The Decision to Transfer Nuclear Submarine Technology to Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brubaker, Gerald L

    1990-01-01

    .... national security bureaucracy: President Reagan had approved the transfer of U.S.-developed nuclear submarine propulsion technology to Canada and would inform Prime Minister Brian Mulroney during his visit to Washington later that month...

  10. The Importance of Military Cultural Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Eric G; Writer, Brian W; Brim, William

    2016-03-01

    Military cultural competence has recently gained national attention. Experts have posited that limited outcomes in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression in the military may be related to limited familiarity with the military. National surveys have indicated low military cultural competence among providers and limited educational efforts on military culture or pertinent military pathology in medical schools and residency training programs. Military families, with their own unique military cultural identity, have been identified as a population with increased risks associated with deployment. In response to these findings, several curricula regarding military culture have been established and widely distributed. Assessments of military cultural competence have also been developed. The clinical impact of enhanced cultural competence in general has thus far been limited. The military, however, with its highly prescribed cultural identity, may be a model culture for further study.

  11. Production logistic for an attack nuclear submarine squadron fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos

    1999-01-01

    The future acquisition of nuclear attack submarines by Brazilian Navy along next century will imply new requirements on Naval Logistic Support System. These needs will impact all the six logistic functions. Among them, fuel supply could be considered as the one which requires the most important capacitating effort, including not only technological development of processes but also the development of a national industrial basis for effective production of nuclear fuel. This paper presents the technical aspects of the processes involved and an annual production dimensioning for an squadron composed by four units. (author)

  12. Impact of Military Lifestyle on Military Spouses' Educational and Career Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Laura E.; Kellley Morgan, Jessica; Akroyd, H. Duane

    2018-01-01

    The military lifestyle imposes unique challenges for military spouses in regards to their education and careers. To help alleviate these challenges, military spouses are encouraged to pursue portable career paths. This causes one to question whether spouses desire these portable careers and what influences spouses place on pursuing specific…

  13. Bayesian Analysis of Demand Elasticity in the Italian Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    D'Errico, Maria; Bollino, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The liberalization of the Italian electricity market is a decade old. Within these last ten years, the supply side has been extensively analyzed, but not the demand side. The aim of this paper is to provide a new method for estimation of the demand elasticity, based on Bayesian methods applied to the Italian electricity market. We used individual demand bids data in the day-ahead market in the Italian Power Exchange (IPEX), for 2011, in order to construct an aggregate demand function at the h...

  14. Deployment of military mothers: supportive and nonsupportive military programs, processes, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Petra; Turner, Annette; Agazio, Janice; Throop, Meryia; Padden, Diane; Greiner, Shawna; Hillier, Shannon L

    2013-07-01

    Military mothers and their children cope with unique issues when mothers are deployed. In this article, we present mothers' perspectives on how military resources affected them, their children, and their caregivers during deployment. Mothers described beneficial features of military programs such as family readiness groups and behavioral health care, processes such as unit support, and policies on length and timing of deployments. Aspects that were not supportive included inflexibility in family care plans, using personal leave time and funds for transporting children, denial of release to resolve caretaker issues, and limited time for reintegration. We offer recommendations for enhanced support to these families that the military could provide. Reprint & Copyright © 2013 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Renewable resource power production: Italian decree CIP No. 34

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Macco, C.

    1991-01-01

    As part of an overall energy conservation campaign, a concrete step, in the form of a more favourable electricity rate structure for auto-producers, is being taken by the Italian Government to encourage medium sized industries to adopt cogeneration systems to meet their heat and power requirements. Within this context, this paper gives a look at the incentives for renewable energy source use which are incorporated in the CIP (Italian Inter-ministerial Commission on Prices) Provision No. 34/90, regulating industrial plant cogeneration systems, and which governs ENEL's (Italian National Electricity Board) rate structure in the case of independent on-site producers ceding power to the national utility's grid

  16. L’insegnamento della lingua e letteratura italiane a Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayerìn Bello Valdés

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Nel suo articolo l’autrice ricostruisce la storia dell’insegnamento delle lingua e della letteratura italiane a Cuba dal Novecento ai giorni nostri, e fornisce una ricca documentazione sui corsi di italiano, sugli studi e  sulle opere più importanti pubblicate a Cuba sulla nostra letteratura e sulle manifestazioni realizzate per la diffusione della cultura italiana nel paese. In particolare riferisce dell’importante ruolo svolto dalla rivista “Cuadernos de italianística cubana” – e dalle istituzioni accademiche e culturali che ad essa fanno riferimento – nel campo della ricerca linguistica, della glottodidattica, dello studio della cultura italiana nelle sue diverse manifestazioni, tra cui la musica e l’opera lirica, e nella diffusione dell’italiano attraverso specifici programmi televisivi.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} In her article the author reconstructs the history of Italian language and literature teaching in Cuba from the Nineteen Hundreds up to the present and provides a wealth of documentation on the Italian courses, studies and the most important works published in Cuba on our literature, as well as on events organized to spread Italian culture throughout the country.  In particular

  17. Norwegian monitoring (1990-2015) of the marine environment around the sunken nuclear submarine Komsomolets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Justin P; Heldal, Hilde Elise; Flo, Janita K; Sværen, Ingrid; Gäfvert, Torbjörn; Haanes, Hallvard; Føyn, Lars; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2018-02-01

    Norway has monitored the marine environment around the sunken Russian nuclear submarine Komsomolets since 1990. This study presents an overview of 25 years of Norwegian monitoring data (1990-2015). Komsomolets sank in 1989 at a depth of 1680 m in the Norwegian Sea while carrying two nuclear torpedoes in its armament. Subsequent Soviet and Russian expeditions to Komsomolets have shown that releases from the reactor have occurred and that the submarine has suffered considerable damage to its hulls. Norwegian monitoring detected 134 Cs in surface sediments around Komsomolets in 1993 and 1994 and elevated activity concentrations of 137 Cs in bottom seawater between 1991 and 1993. Since then and up to 2015, no increased activity concentrations of radionuclides above values typical for the Norwegian Sea have been observed in any environmental sample collected by Norwegian monitoring. In 2013 and 2015, Norwegian monitoring was carried out using an acoustic transponder on the sampling gear that allowed samples to be collected at precise locations, ∼20 m from the hull of Komsomolets. The observed 238 Pu/ 239,240 Pu activity ratios and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu atom ratios in surface sediments sampled close to Komsomolets in 2013 did not indicate any releases of Pu isotopes from reactor or the torpedo warheads. Rather, these values probably reflect the overprinting of global fallout ratios with fluxes of these Pu isotopes from long-range transport of authorised discharges from nuclear reprocessing facilities in Northern Europe. However, due to the depth at which Komsomolets lies, the collection of seawater and sediment samples in the immediate area around the submarine using traditional sampling techniques from surface vessels is not possible, even with the use of acoustic transponders. Further monitoring is required in order to have a clear understanding of the current status of Komsomolets as a potential source of radioactive contamination to the Norwegian marine environment

  18. Nuclear challenges in Asia, an industrial perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiffou, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The author first gives a brief overview of military programmes implemented by India, China, Pakistan and North Korea to develop and manufacture the various vectors of nuclear weapons (submarines, missiles, bombers), the objective being (not always reached) to possess a nuclear triad (intercontinental ground-based missiles, submarines, and bombers). In this respect, the author briefly comments the evolutions of defence budgets, discusses the evolutions of the Chinese defence industry since the end of World War II (strong relationship with USSR, emergence of other various trade relationships, a more independent production but with a search for new technological partnerships). The author then discusses whether China is a threatening military power, more particularly for some Asian countries like Japan and South Korea

  19. Geomorphic Thresholds of Submarine Canyons Along the U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, D. S.; ten Brink, U. S.; Andrews, B. D.; Chaytor, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Vast networks of submarine canyons and associated channels are incised into the U.S. Atlantic continental slope and rise. Submarine canyons form by differential erosion and deposition, primarily from sedimentary turbidity flows. Theoretical and laboratory studies have investigated the initiation of turbidity flows and their capacity to erode and entrain sedimentary material at distances far from the shelf edge. The results have helped understand the nature of turbidite deposits on the continental slope and rise. Nevertheless, few studies have examined the linkages between down-canyon sediment transport and the morphology of canyon/channel networks using mesoscale analyses of swath bathymetry data. We present quantitative analysis of 100-m resolution multibeam bathymetry data spanning ~616,000 km2 of the slope and rise between Georges Banks and the Blake Plateau (New England to North Carolina). Canyons are categorized as shelf-indenting or slope-confined based on spatial scale, vertical relief and connection with terrestrial river systems during sea level low stands. Shelf-indenting canyons usually represent the trunk-canyon of submerged channel networks. On the rise, shelf-indenting canyons have relatively well-developed channel-levees and sharp inner-thalwag incision suggesting much higher frequency and volume of turbidity flows. Because of the similarities between submarine canyon networks and terrestrial river systems, we apply methods originally developed to study fluvial morphology. Along-canyon profiles are extracted from the bathymetry data and the power-law relationship between thalwag gradient and drainage area is examined for more than 180 canyons along an ~1200 km stretch of the US Atlantic margin. We observe distinct thresholds in the power-law relationship between drainage area and gradient. Almost all canyons with heads on the upper slope contain at least two linear segments when plotted in log-log form. The first segment along the upper slope is flat

  20. Sophistication and Performance of Italian Agri‐food Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Carbone

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonprice competition is increasingly important in world food markets. Recently, the expression ‘export sophistication’ has been introduced in the economic literature to refer to a wide set of attributes that increase product value. An index has been proposed to measure sophistication in an indirect way through the per capita GDP of exporting countries (Lall et al., 2006; Haussmann et al., 2007.The paper applies the sophistication measure to the Italian food export sector, moving from an analysis of trends and performance of Italian food exports. An original way to disentangle different components in the temporal variation of the sophistication index is also proposed.Results show that the sophistication index offers original insights on recent trends in world food exports and with respect to Italian core food exports.

  1. Accountability, Italian style: how to reply to government pressure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Mauro, Giovanna TalaricoDepartment of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Magna Græcia University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyAbstract: The current paper addresses the complex issue of accountability by focusing on Italian public hospitals and teaching hospitals; it aims to analyze Italian health care organizations' strategies for responding to the pressure generated by regulations. In particular, in the last few years, Italian hospitals and teaching hospitals have been obliged to implement or improve their accountability instruments in response to a new regulation (known as the Brunetta reform, Legislative Decree number 150/2009. The Legislative Decree aims to measure and assess the results of each public administration unit in terms of efficiency of the human resources, satisfaction level of the final users, and transparency of its action. Despite the initial consensus on the necessity to make the decision process in health care visible and transparent, health care organizations find it difficult to demonstrate accountability. The present paper summarizes the evidence on the degree of compliance to the reform requirements and will allow an in-depth understanding of Italian health organizations' attitudes toward accountability. This study will help policymakers understand the degree of acceptance and application of the new reforms and assess whether the law/regulations may be effective drivers for disseminating a culture of transparency and accountability.Keywords: transparency, Italian health care, law/regulations, compliance

  2. Sociometric approaches for managing military units and predicting of behavior of military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudro, Nataliya M.; Puzikova, Svetlana M.

    2017-09-01

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan military service becomes attractive primarily for that category of people who have no opportunity to acquire high quality vocational or higher education, decent income by the speciality available, or those who have not yet identified themselves professionally and socially. Its a serious problem how to ensure ability of military units to execute their service duties in conditions of more and more increasing requirements for professional competences of military personnel, increased intellectualization of military service when the quality of "human material" often is not corresponding to the required standards. This problem in the national and foreign science is still being developed and has no final solutions accessible for the scientific society. This article presents an effort to offer specialists in the military administration area one of probable tools to forecast successfulness of execution of professional tasks by military units based on results of sociometric studies and algorithms of plotting Bayesian networks. Using these tools a military leader will be able to evaluate effectiveness of his managerial activity, correct mechanisms of individual and mentoring activity with regard to individual servicemen, provide an opportunity to eliminate risks of failing to fulfill professional tasks on time and failing to ensure combat readiness of entrusted military team.

  3. Numerical Modelling of Tsunami Generated by Deformable Submarine Slides: Parameterisation of Slide Dynamics for Coupling to Tsunami Propagation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. C.; Collins, G. S.; Hill, J.; Piggott, M. D.; Mouradian, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical modelling informs risk assessment of tsunami generated by submarine slides; however, for large-scale slides modelling can be complex and computationally challenging. Many previous numerical studies have approximated slides as rigid blocks that moved according to prescribed motion. However, wave characteristics are strongly dependent on the motion of the slide and previous work has recommended that more accurate representation of slide dynamics is needed. We have used the finite-element, adaptive-mesh CFD model Fluidity, to perform multi-material simulations of deformable submarine slide-generated waves at real world scales for a 2D scenario in the Gulf of Mexico. Our high-resolution approach represents slide dynamics with good accuracy, compared to other numerical simulations of this scenario, but precludes tracking of wave propagation over large distances. To enable efficient modelling of further propagation of the waves, we investigate an approach to extract information about the slide evolution from our multi-material simulations in order to drive a single-layer wave propagation model, also using Fluidity, which is much less computationally expensive. The extracted submarine slide geometry and position as a function of time are parameterised using simple polynomial functions. The polynomial functions are used to inform a prescribed velocity boundary condition in a single-layer simulation, mimicking the effect the submarine slide motion has on the water column. The approach is verified by successful comparison of wave generation in the single-layer model with that recorded in the multi-material, multi-layer simulations. We then extend this approach to 3D for further validation of this methodology (using the Gulf of Mexico scenario proposed by Horrillo et al., 2013) and to consider the effect of lateral spreading. This methodology is then used to simulate a series of hypothetical submarine slide events in the Arctic Ocean (based on evidence of historic

  4. Canadian Model of Military Leadership as a Successful Mixture of Civilian and Military Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Malinowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The origins of military leadership are rooted in ancient times and its embodiment are great chieftains and commanders. However, since the moment when in organisation and management sciences the civil theories of leadership started to emerge, the military forces have incorporated their solutions to structure the assumptions of new, coherent and effective models of military leadership. A good example of such solutions is the Canadian model of military leadership, competently merging the civil theories with experience and needs of the military environment. This solution may be a perfect example of effective application of leadership theory to modify the existing national model of military leadership and construct a more efficient one.

  5. The new Italian IVF legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Gianaroli, Luca

    2004-08-01

    Last February, the Italian Parliament gave final approval to a new Law regulating assisted reproduction technology. The new legislation fell short of the expectations of infertile couples and of all specialists in the field. There are three problems with the new Italian law; they involve social issues, human rights and the application of technology. The present paper focuses on the fact that the new rules infringe upon basic human rights and the proper application of IVF technology, because they mandate procedures that are against the best interest of the woman seeking pregnancy. The main point of controversy is the combination of a mandatory limit of three embryos for transfer, and an obligation to reimplant all produced embryos; cryopreservation of excess embryos is prohibited. Obviously, this decreases the chances of most women to achieve pregnancy, while at the same time it increases the number and complexity of procedures they need to undergo and may expose some to an unacceptable increase in the risk of multiple pregnancy. The new law is inspired by the desire to protect every newly produced embryo; this is a commendable aim, although it is in total opposition to a law passed over 25 years ago that liberalized voluntary termination of first trimester pregnancies. This means that today Italy has a law that protects every early, pre-implantation embryo, and another that allows the 'suppression' of every post-implantation one. From a technical point of view, given the low level of human fecundity, the only way to prevent the 'loss' of even one preimplantation embryo is to simply ban IVF altogether, an option that Italian legislators obviously did not have the courage to opt for. The tragedy is that Italian infertile couples are now confronted with new rules that not only severely limit the ability of physicians to correctly apply IVF technology, but are so confused that, depending on the interpretation, anyone may try to nullify the main ideological premise upon

  6. Unpublished texts - Poesie | Cro | Italian Studies in Southern Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tra i suoi ultimi titoli The Noble Savage. Allegory of Freedom, Pirandello and the Baroque, The American Foundations of the Hispanic Utopia. I suoi testi poetici sono apparsi su VIA (Voices in Italian Americana), Gradiva e Canadian Journal of ItalianStudies. Ha pubblicato diversi articoli di critica teatrale e cinematografica su ...

  7. A healthy lesson, Italian-style?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Ricciardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the conclusions of the World Health Organisation’s 2000 report Italy had the second best health system in the world [1] with Italians having one of the highest rates of life expectancy... However, since 2001 the 19 Italian Regions and 2 Autonomous Provinces have exercised their autonomy very differently, with Northern regions being more successful in establishing effective structures of health care delivery, management and monitoring, as compared to regions in the South. This regional variation in health care reflects (and exacerbates differences of contextual, political, economic and cultural, factors as well as differences between regional health systems. A recent survey [2] showed that in 14 of the 21 Regions and Autonomous Provinces, the system is performing fairly well and is well perceived by citizens.

  8. Potential radiological impact assessment related to the visit of nuclear submarines to the port of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose Francisco; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Brazil is signatory of international protocols for receiving the visit of nuclear ships and submarines. Such naval units, during their stays in Brazilian ports, inform that there is no release of radioactive material to the environment. However, there is always the possibility of an accident, leading to environmental release of radioactive material. This work had the objective of assessing the potential radiological environmental impact due to the eventual occurrence of an accident during the permanence of ships and submarines of nuclear propulsion in the port of the city of Rio de Janeiro, in Guanabara Bay. The accident scenarios considered include releases to the marine environment and to the atmosphere. Previous results indicated that, in normal operation conditions, no significant radiological impact is foreseen due to the visits of nuclear submarines to the city, even if small routine radionuclide releases occur. The analysis of the accidental releases, however, indicates that the anchorage points should be located at a minimum distance of 2,5 km of inhabited areas in the contour the Bay. (author)

  9. Selling petroleum to the military

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uscher, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This article examines what petroleum products and services the US military buys, the contracts awarded to Asian and European refiners for supplies outside the USA, and military specifications and test methods including the specifications of JP-8 battlefield fuel and the JP-8+100 additive package for military aircraft. The way in which the military buys petroleum products is described, and details are given of the types of military contracts, the bidding on Defense Energy Support Center (DESC) petroleum contracts, the performance of military petroleum contracts, socio-economic programmes, the Prompt Payment Act requiring contractors to be paid promptly, and procedures for claims and disputes

  10. Estimations of radiation characteristics of spent fuel in reactors of nuclear submarines and the ice-breaker Lenin dumped near Novaya Zemlya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubtsov, P.M.; Ruzhanskij, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of radionuclide composition and radiation characteristics of actinides and fission products for the reactor spent nuclear fuel of the nuclear submarines and the ice-breaker Lenin dumped near Novaya Zemlya are calculated on the basis of the actual data on the regimes of operation of the above reactors. It is determined that the maximum total activity in 1995 in all reactor sections of the nuclear submarines is concentrated in the fuel (M = 261.9 kg, W = 2.75 GW x day) of the left reactor of the nuclear submarine APL-285 and constitutes 51.9 Ci for actinides and 1.68 x 10 4 Ci for fission products. The corresponding values for the dumped fuel (M = 856 kg, W = 14.2 GW x day) of the ice-breaker Lenin are equal to 3.9 x 10 3 and 5.22 x 10 4 Ci

  11. Modern Italian libraries – between tradition and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Adamiak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, lands currently belonging to the Republic of Italy boasted the greatest and the most illustrious libraries in Europe. From the Middle Ages to Renaissance, they developed extensively and were dominant in the Old World. The present article, however, concentrates on modern Italian libraries and provides an extensive review of their functioning today. The following issues are covered in the discussion: types of libraries and their cooperation, legal circumstances, the activity of national libraries, library associations and their initiatives and projects aimed at utilization of state-of-the-art IT infrastructures in librarianship. The article also emphasizes strong and weak points of Italian librarianship and ponders on the following: What is the role of Italian libraries today when they are evidently past their prime times? Can the libraries in question meet the requirements of modern times?

  12. Occupational Gender Stereotypes and Problem-Solving in Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginevra, Maria Cristina; Nota, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The first purpose of the study was to establish how Italian adolescents perceive jobs in the newly emerging economy sectors as well as more traditional jobs from gender-stereotyped and gender-segregated perspectives. The second purpose was to verify the role of problem-solving and gender in gender-role stereotyping. A total of 217 Italian high…

  13. Marine electrical resistivity imaging of submarine groundwater discharge: Sensitivity analysis and application in Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Rory; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Abarca, Elena; Harvey, Charles F.; Karam, Hanan N.; Liu, Lanbo; Lane, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical resistivity imaging has been used in coastal settings to characterize fresh submarine groundwater discharge and the position of the freshwater/salt-water interface because of the relation of bulk electrical conductivity to pore-fluid conductivity, which in turn is a function of salinity. Interpretation of tomograms for hydrologic processes is complicated by inversion artifacts, uncertainty associated with survey geometry limitations, measurement errors, and choice of regularization method. Variation of seawater over tidal cycles poses unique challenges for inversion. The capabilities and limitations of resistivity imaging are presented for characterizing the distribution of freshwater and saltwater beneath a beach. The experimental results provide new insight into fresh submarine groundwater discharge at Waquoit Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, East Falmouth, Massachusetts (USA). Tomograms from the experimental data indicate that fresh submarine groundwater discharge may shut down at high tide, whereas temperature data indicate that the discharge continues throughout the tidal cycle. Sensitivity analysis and synthetic modeling provide insight into resolving power in the presence of a time-varying saline water layer. In general, vertical electrodes and cross-hole measurements improve the inversion results regardless of the tidal level, whereas the resolution of surface arrays is more sensitive to time-varying saline water layer.

  14. The Italian contribution to the CSES satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Livio

    2016-04-01

    We present the Italian contribution to the CSES (China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite) mission. The CSES satellite aims at investigating electromagnetic field, plasma and particles in the near-Earth environment in order to study in particular seismic precursors, particles fluxes (from Van Allen belts, cosmic rays, solar wind, etc.), anthropogenic electromagnetic pollution and more in general the atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling mechanisms that can affect the climate changes. The launch of CSES - the first of a series of several satellite missions - is scheduled by the end of 2016. The CSES satellite has been financed by the CNSA (China National Space Agency) and developed by CEA (China Earthquake Administration) together with several Chinese research institutes and private companies such as the DFH (that has developed the CAST2000 satellite platform). Italy participates to the CSES satellite mission with the LIMADOU project funded by ASI (Italian Space Agency) in collaboration with the Universities of Roma Tor Vergata, Uninettuno, Trento, Bologna and Perugia, as well as the INFN (Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics), INGV (Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology) and INAF-IAPS (Italian National Institute of Astrophysics and Planetology). Many analyses have shown that satellite observations of electromagnetic fields, plasma parameters and particle fluxes in low Earth orbit may be useful in order to study the existence of electromagnetic emissions associated with the occurrence of earthquakes of medium and high magnitude. Although the earthquakes forecasting is not possible today, it is certainly a major challenge - and perhaps even a duty - for science in the near future. The claims that the reported anomalies (of electromagnetic, plasma and particle parameters) are seismic precursors are still intensely debated and analyses for confirming claimed correlations are still lacking. In fact, ionospheric currents, plasma

  15. China's Military Potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wortzel, Larry

    1998-01-01

    The People's Republic of China (PRC) is seen by many as an economic powerhouse with the world's largest standing military that has the potential to translate economic power into the military sphere...

  16. Seasonal pathways of organic matter within the Avilés submarine canyon: Foodweb implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero-Romero, S.; Molina-Ramírez, A.; Höfer, J.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Rumín-Caparrós, A.; Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Canals, M.; Acuña, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The transport and fate of organic matter (OM) sources within the Avilés submarine canyon (Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay) were studied using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. The isotopic composition of settling particles and deep bottom sediments closely resembled that of surface

  17. Recent evolution of italian households’ equity portfolio choices: an empirical investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Gardini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We study Italian households’ portfolio choices, with a special focus on equity investments, by analysing jointly time series and cross-sectional portfolio data. We investigate the temporal evolution of the actual composition of Italian households’ investments in order to explain their portfolio choices and to detect possible determinants of the observed disequilibria phenomena. Moreover, we model the stock market participation choice by using probit regression techniques and we test for parameter stability over time. Instability of participation parameters and a peculiar evolution of Italian households’ portfolios pointed out by our concurrent analysis of cross-sectional and time series data seem to confirm the distance of Italian households’ financial decisions from the rational choice predicted by the Markowitz model. In particular, we find that the housing market bubbles interact strongly with the stock market and financial institutions seem to be unable to advise investors suggesting optimal portfolio choices. The deep reason behind these facts may be the bounded education of investors, in particular the low financial literacy of Italian households.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Local Scour Around Submarine Piggyback Pipeline Under Steady Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Enjin; Shi, Bing; Qu, Ke; Dong, Wenbin; Zhang, Jing

    2018-04-01

    As a new type of submarine pipeline, the piggyback pipeline has been gradually adopted in engineering practice to enhance the performance and safety of submarine pipelines. However, limited simulation work and few experimental studies have been published on the scour around the piggyback pipeline under steady current. This study numerically and experimentally investigates the local scour of the piggyback pipe under steady current. The influence of prominent factors such as pipe diameter, inflow Reynolds number, and gap between the main and small pipes, on the maximum scour depth have been examined and discussed in detail. Furthermore, one formula to predict the maximum scour depth under the piggyback pipeline has been derived based on the theoretical analysis of scour equilibrium. The feasibility of the proposed formula has been effectively calibrated by both experimental data and numerical results. The findings drawn from this study are instructive in the future design and application of the piggyback pipeline.

  19. Scenario e ruoli sociali delle Associazioni teatrali non professionistiche italiane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Toscano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the present scenario of the non-professional theater associations in Italy so as to understand their current form of organization. The study focuses on the changes that have characterized in time the non-professional associations (due also to the improvement of the legislation regulating the no profit sector and the social role in contemporary local communities. The survey was conducted within the two most relevant Italian associations of non-professional theater: the Italian Federation of non-professional Theatre (Federazione Italiana Teatro Amatori and the Italian Union of Free Theatre (Unione Italiana Libero Teatro.

  20. Obesity and the US Military Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Sbrocco, Tracy; Theim, Kelly R.; Cohen, L. Adelyn; Mackey, Eleanor R.; Stice, Eric; Henderson, Jennifer L.; McCreight, Sarah J.; Bryant, Edny J.; Stephens, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the current knowledge and future directions regarding obesity within the US military family (i.e., active-duty servicemembers, as well as military spouses, children, retirees, and veterans). The increasing rates of overweight and obesity within the US military adversely impact military readiness, limit recruitment, and place a significant financial burden on the Department of Defense. Design and Methods The following topics are reviewed: 1) The prevalence of and the financial, physical, and psychological costs associated with overweight in military communities; 2) military weight regulations, and challenges faced by the military family related to overweight and disordered eating; 3) the continued need for rigorous program evaluations and new intervention development. Results Overweight and its associated sequelae impact the entire military family. Military families share many similarities with their civilian counterparts, but they face unique challenges (e.g., stress related to deployments and relocations). Although the military has weight management resources, there is an urgent need for rigorous program evaluation and the development of enhanced obesity prevention programs across the lifespan of the military family–several of which are proposed herein. Conclusions Interdisciplinary and collaborative research efforts and team-based interventions will continue to inform understanding of obesity treatment and prevention within military and civilian populations. PMID:23836452

  1. The Reasons for Living Scale-Military Version: Assessing Protective Factors Against Suicide in a Military Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Anne-Marie; Lande, R Gregory

    2017-07-01

    Military suicide rates have been rising over the past decade and continue to challenge military treatment facilities. Assessing suicide risk and improving treatments are a large part of the mission for clinicians who work with uniformed service members. This study attempts to expand the toolkit of military suicide prevention by focusing on protective factors over risk factors. In 1983, Marsha Linehan published a checklist called the Reasons for Living Scale, which asked subjects to check the reasons they choose to continue living, rather than choosing suicide. The authors of this article hypothesized that military service members may have different or additional reasons to live which may relate to their military service. They created a new version of Linehan's inventory by adding protective factors related to military life. The purpose of these additions was to make the inventory more acceptable and relevant to the military population, as well as to identify whether these items constitute a separate subscale as distinguished from previously identified factors. A commonly used assessment tool, the Reasons for Living Inventory (RFL) designed by Marsha Linehan, was expanded to offer items geared to the military population. The RFL presents users with a list of items which may be reasons to not commit suicide (e.g., "I have a responsibility and commitment to my family"). The authors used focus groups of staff and patients in a military psychiatric partial hospitalization program to identify military-centric reasons to live. This process yielded 20 distinct items which were added to Linehan's original list of 48. This expanded list became the Reasons for Living-Military Version. A sample of 200 patients in the military partial hospitalization program completed the inventory at time of or close to admission. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Walter Reed National Military Center for adhering to ethical principles related to pursuing research

  2. Experimental Insights on Natural Lava-Ice/Snow Interactions and Their Implications for Glaciovolcanic and Submarine Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, B. R.; Karson, J.; Wysocki, R.; Lev, E.; Bindeman, I. N.; Kueppers, U.

    2012-12-01

    Lava-ice-snow interactions have recently gained global attention through the eruptions of ice-covered volcanoes, particularly from Eyjafjallajokull in south-central Iceland, with dramatic effects on local communities and global air travel. However, as with most submarine eruptions, direct observations of lava-ice/snow interactions are rare. Only a few hundred potentially active volcanoes are presently ice-covered, these volcanoes are generally in remote places, and their associated hazards make close observation and measurements dangerous. Here we report the results of the first large-scale experiments designed to provide new constraints on natural interactions between lava and ice/snow. The experiments comprised controlled effusion of tens of kilograms of melted basalt on top of ice/snow, and provide insights about observations from natural lava-ice-snow interactions including new constraints for: 1) rapid lava advance along the ice-lava interface; 2) rapid downwards melting of lava flows through ice; 3) lava flow exploitation of pre-existing discontinuities to travel laterally beneath and within ice; and 4) formation of abundant limu o Pele and non-explosive vapor transport from the base to the top of the lava flow with minor O isotope exchange. The experiments are consistent with observations from eruptions showing that lava is more efficient at melting ice when emplaced on top of the ice as opposed to beneath the ice, as well as the efficacy of tephra cover for slowing melting. The experimental extrusion rates are as within the range of those for submarine eruptions as well, and reproduce some features seen in submarine eruptions including voluminous production of gas rich cavities within initially anhydrous lavas and limu on lava surfaces. Our initial results raise questions about the possibility of secondary ingestion of water by submarine and glaciovolcanic lava flows, and the origins of apparent primary gas cavities in those flows. Basaltic melt moving down

  3. Water-Exit Process Modeling and Added-Mass Calculation of the Submarine-Launched Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the process that the submarine-launched missile exits the water, there is the complex fluid solid coupling phenomenon. Therefore, it is difficult to establish the accurate water-exit dynamic model. In the paper, according to the characteristics of the water-exit motion, based on the traditional method of added mass, considering the added mass changing rate, the water-exit dynamic model is established. And with help of the CFX fluid simulation software, a new calculation method of the added mass that is suit for submarine-launched missile is proposed, which can effectively solve the problem of fluid solid coupling in modeling process. Then by the new calculation method, the change law of the added mass in water-exit process of the missile is obtained. In simulated analysis, for the water-exit process of the missile, by comparing the results of the numerical simulation and the calculation of theoretical model, the effectiveness of the new added mass calculation method and the accuracy of the water-exit dynamic model that considers the added mass changing rate are verified.

  4. Relation of submarine landslide to hydrate occurrences in Baiyun Depression, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunbao; Zhang, Xiaohua; Wu, Shiguo; Wang, Lei; Yang, Shengxiong

    2018-02-01

    Submarine landslides have been observed in the Baiyun Depression of the South China Sea. The occurrence of hydrates below these landslides indicates that these slope instabilities may be closely related to the massive release of methane. In this study, we used a simple Monte-Carlo model to determine the first-order deformation pattern of a gravitationally destabilizing slope. The results show that a stress concentration occurs due to hydrate dissociation on the nearby glide surface and on top of a gas chimney structure. Upon the dissolution of the gas hydrate, slope failure occurs due to the excess pore pressure generated by the dissociation of the gas hydrates. When gas hydrates dissociate at shallow depths, the excess pore pressure generated can be greater than the total stress acting at those points, along with the forces that resist sliding. Initially, the failure occurs at the toe of the slope, then extends to the interior. Although our investigation focused only on the contribution of hydrate decomposition to submarine landslide, this process is also affected by both the slope material properties and topography.

  5. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC and the Development of Narco-Submarines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Jacome Jaramillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC have been one of the world's most consistently formidable violent non-state actors over the last forty years. Unsurprisingly, the group has provided one of the most compelling and concerning examples of the level of technical sophistication attainable by sub-state organizations. Over the last two decades the group has carried out an iterative and innovative process that, in reaction to improved detection capabilities, has brought them from depending on disposable go-fast boats to transport drugs to possessing fully submersible and reusable covert vessels for transportation. The following case study will discuss the development of narco-submarines and the underlying motivations behind the pursuit of this complex engineering task. The case study will outline the different phases of the narco-submarine development and highlight FARC’s determination to overcome the challenges present in each design. This discussion will show how FARC’s systematized acquiring of information and expertise has resulted in the accomplishment of fully submersible vessels, capable of transporting more than 10 tons of illicit product.

  6. Surface and Bottom Boundar Layer Dynamics on a Shallow Submarine Bank: Southern Flank of Georges Bank

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Werner, Sandra

    1999-01-01

    The thesis investigates the circulation at a 75-meter deep study site on the southern flank of Georges Bank, a shallow submarine bank located between the deeper Gulf of Maine and the continental slope...

  7. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  8. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI): linguistic validation of the Italian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filocamo, Maria Teresa; Serati, Maurizio; Li Marzi, Vincenzo; Costantini, Elisabetta; Milanesi, Martina; Pietropaolo, Amelia; Polledro, Patrizio; Gentile, Barbara; Maruccia, Serena; Fornia, Samanta; Lauri, Irene; Alei, Rosanna; Arcangeli, Paola; Sighinolfi, Maria Chiara; Manassero, Francesca; Andretta, Elena; Palazzetti, Anna; Bertelli, Elena; Del Popolo, Giulio; Villari, Donata

    2014-02-01

    Although several new measurements for female sexual dysfunction (FSD) have recently been developed, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) remains the gold standard for screening and one of the most widely used questionnaires. The Italian translation of the FSFI has been used in several studies conducted in Italy, but a linguistic validation of the Italian version does not exist. The aim of this study was to perform a linguistic validation of the Italian version of the FSFI. A multicenter cross-sectional study conducted in 14 urological and gynecological clinics, uniformly distributed over Italian territory. We performed all steps necessary to determine the reliability and the test-retest reliability of the Italian version of the FSFI. The study population was a convenience sample of 409 Italian women. The reliability of the questionnaire was calculated using Cronbach's alpha, which was considered weak, moderate, or high if its value was found less than 0.6, between 0.6 and 0.8, or equal to or greater than 0.8, respectively. The test-retest reliability was assessed for all women in the sample by calculating Pearson's concordance correlation coefficient for each domain and for the total score, both at baseline and after 15 days (r range between -1.00 to +1.00, where +1.00 indicates the strongest positive association). Cronbach's alpha coefficients for total and domain score were sufficiently high, ranging from 0.92 to 0.97 for the total sample. The test-retest procedure revealed that the concordance correlation coefficient was very high both for FSFI-I total score (Pearson's P = 0.93) and for each domain (Pearson's P always >0.92). For the first time in the literature, our study has produced a validated and reliable Italian version of the FSFI questionnaire. Consequently, the Italian FSFI can be used as a reliable tool for preliminary screening for female sexual dysfunction for Italian women. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  9. Mid-sized manufacturing companies the new driver of Italian competitiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Resciniti, Riccardo; Tunisini, Annalisa; Varaldo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The structure of Italian industry is characterized by a predominance of small sized companies and the presence of very few large companies. For a long time a conviction was shared among scholars and practitioners that the strength and safety of Italian industry were based on its industrial districts, that is, the system of interdependent and co-localized small companies which derive their competitive force from an effective and efficient division of labour. This book stresses the idea that a new, vital and promising phenomenon for the competitiveness of Italian industry is focused on mid-sized companies, and the systems of interconnected firms that form a constituent part of their business model. These companies, which originate largely from districts and other local production systems, are a strong entrepreneurial force complementing the districts that have characterized Italy and made Italian industry famous worldwide. A quantitative and qualitative analysis of these firms is provided in this book. Business...

  10. The Journal “Geopolitica” and Formation of the Italian Geopolitical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Al’bertovich Shepelev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the origins, methodological features and the process of institutionalization of Italian geopolitical school, place and role of the journal “Geopolitica” in this process. The article analyzes the characteristics of Italian geopolitical perception of the world and its geostrategic priorities, formulated by the representatives of the Italian geopolitical schools in the period of its formation in 20-40-ies of the XX century (the Mediterranean - Mare nostrum, Euroafrica. The source of the formation of the Italian geopolitical school was the intellectual influence of irredentism un the age of the Risorgimento. The process of its formation was correlated with the formation of the modern national school of geographical science, in which was dominated the perception of geography as “utilitarian science” and developed the direction of “dynamic political geography”. Its specifical features was the “antideterminism” and “geographic humanism”, the recognition that the environment does not have absolute power over society, but political will is a determining factor in anthropogeographical area. The institutionalization of Italian political school promoted the creation of several research centres in the 20-30-ies and publishing from January 1939 to December 1942 magazine “Geopolitica”. The draft edition of this magazine received support from the minister of national education Giuseppe Bottai, it was headed by Professor Giorgio Roletto and his disciple, Ernesto Massi. Italian geopolitics maintained close ties with their German colleagues, but they were theoretically justified differences between “Latin” and “German” geopolitical worldviews. Unlike the German geopolitics, the concept of “living space” was used primarily in the economic sense, but it was not used in a racial-demographic sense. Italian geopolitics acted against the world order enshrined in the Treaty of Versailles, because it was protected

  11. Risk assessment and prevention of malaria among Italian troops in Afghanistan, 2002 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peragallo, Mario S; Sarnicola, Giuseppe; Boccolini, Daniela; Romi, Roberto; Mammana, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Malaria prevention policy is different among coalition troops in Afghanistan, ranging from the combined use of suppressive and terminal chemoprophylaxis to the absence of any prophylactic regimen. The objective of this study was to assess the compliance with malaria prevention measures and the risk of malaria among Italian troops in Afghanistan. Target population was the cohort of 32,500 army soldiers deployed in Afghanistan, 2002 to 2011; eligible subjects were the 21,900 soldiers stationed in endemic areas, who were prescribed mefloquine chemoprophylaxis. Adherence to chemoprophylaxis was assessed by a cross-sectional study in a volunteer sample of 5,773 (26.4%) of eligible subjects. The risk of malaria was assessed by detecting malaria cases in the target population. Mefloquine chemoprophylaxis was administered to 4,123 (71.4%) of the 5,773 enrolled soldiers and 3,575 (86.7%) of these took it regularly; however, compliance dropped from 80.9% (2,592/3,202) in 2002 to 2006 to 59.5% (1,531/2,571) in 2007 to 2011 (p Afghanistan, and one Plasmodium vivax case was reported in Italy, yielding an incidence rate of 3.24 cases per 10,000 person-months of exposure (1/3,091) during the transmission season of 2003. In spite of the decreasing compliance with chemoprophylaxis, suggesting a low perception of the risk of malaria, this study confirmed the good tolerability of mefloquine in the military. The risk of malaria for Italian troops in Afghanistan was very low, and chemoprophylaxis was suspended in 2012. A similar policy may be adopted by the generality of International Security Assistance Force troops, and any chemoprophylaxis may be restricted to soldiers stationing in areas where the risk of malaria is substantial. © 2013 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  12. Respect of standard air quality in major italian towns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valerio, F.

    1995-01-01

    In 1983 air quality standards, related to SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, airborne particulate, lead, O 3 were introduced in italian legislation. Now, SO 2 and lead concentrations are rapidly decreasing everywhere thanks to drastic reductions of sulphur and lead in fuels. The situation is still critic in many urban areas as far as NO 2 and CO are concerned. The increasing number of automobiles circulating in italian urban areas (+43% from 1980 to 1988) is probably reducing the positive effects expected from more efficient and less polluting engines. Electric public transport, aiming at low interference with private traffic, and a different urban organization, aiming at reducing compulsory mobility, could be the proper choices to offer italians both higher standards of urban life and air quality

  13. Yugoslav-Italian Economic relations (1918‒1929: Main aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latinović Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at some aspects of Yugoslav-Italian economic relations from the end of the First World War to the beginning of the Great Depression. Those relations were not always driven by pure economic interests, but they also had political and strategic aims. Although Yugoslav-Italian political and diplomatic relations were well served in both Serbian/Yugoslav and Italian historiography, little has been written about economic relations between the two countries. Therefore, the article is mainly based on the documents from the Central State Archives (Archivio centrale dello Stato and Historical-Diplomatic Archives of Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Archivio storico-diplomatico del Ministero degli Affari Esteri in Rome, as well as from the Archives of Yugoslavia (Arhiv Jugoslavije in Belgrade.

  14. Gender Integration on U.S. Navy Submarines: Views of the First Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Radiological Controls Assistant DACOWITS Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the Services DH Department Head DINQ delinquent DO Division...Previous studies have attempted to build statistical models based on surface fleet data to forecast female sustainability in the submarine fleet, yet 2...their integration? Such questions cannot be answered by collecting the type of quantitative data that can be analyzed using statistical methods. Complex

  15. Military Internal Medicine Resident Decision to Apply to Fellowship and Extend Military Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoumian, Alice E; Hartzell, Joshua D; Bonura, Erin M; Ressner, Roseanne A; Whitman, Timothy J; Yun, Heather C

    2018-02-06

    Nationally, the number of internal medicine physicians practicing in primary care has decreased amidst increasing interest in hospitalist medicine. Current priorities in the Military Health System include access to primary care and retention of trained personnel. Recently, we have conducted a study of military internal medicine residents' decision to enter infectious disease. As part of our larger effort, we saw an opportunity to characterize factors impacting decision making of internal medicine residents' desire to apply for subspecialty training and to extend active duty service obligations. Questions were developed after discussion with various military graduate medical education and internal medicine leaders, underwent external review, and were added to a larger question set. The survey link was distributed electronically to all U.S. military affiliated residencies' graduating internal medicine residents in December 2016-January 2017. Data were analyzed by decision to apply to fellowship and decision to extend military obligation using Fisher's exact test or Pearon's chi-square test. Sixty-eight residents from 10 of 11 military residency programs responded, for a response rate of 51%. The majority (62%) applied to fellowship to start after residency completion. Reasons cited for applying to fellowship included wanting to become a specialist as soon as possible (74%), wishing to avoid being a general internist (57%), and because they are unable to practice as a hospitalist in the military (52%). Fellowship applicants were more likely to plan to extend their military obligation than non-applicants, as did those with longer duration of military commitments. No other factors, including Uniformed Services University attendance or participation in undergraduate military experiences, were found to impact plan to extend active duty service commitment. The majority of graduating internal medicine residents apply for fellowship and report a desire to avoid being a

  16. Thoughts on the Italian National University Council (CUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghetti M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Italian National University Council (CUN is an elected body that represents the Italian academic system and formulates proposal and gives advice to the Minister of University. The opinion is expressed that the professors who are appointed to CUN should go on sabbatical leave from their universities over the period they are part of CUN, as an important condition for carrying out better their institutional job and preventing any potential conflict of interest.

  17. MILITARY CONSTRUCTION: Kaiserslautern Military Community Center Project Continues to Experience Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kutz, Gregory D; Causseaux, Bruce A; Dorn, Terrell G

    2008-01-01

    The Kaiserslautern Military Community Center (KMCC) is one of many projects initiated at Ramstein Air Base to upgrade capabilities of the base as a result of the consolidation of military bases in Europe...

  18. Evaluation of Freshwater Aquatic Resources and Stormwater Management at U.S. Naval Submarine Base, Bangor, Washington

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    May, Christopher

    1997-01-01

    Surface and storm water conditions on the Naval Submarine Base (NSB), Bangor, Washington, are evaluated, and recommendations are made to improve water quality and enhance the ecological integrity of aquatic resources located on the base...

  19. The Italian decommissioning industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adinolfi, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Italy's step out from nuclear activities in 1987 deeply affected an industry that, in the previous years, had managed to grow up in quality and technology levels to meet the nuclear standards. Only a few companies were able to partially retain their skills through activities abroad. The decommissioning program represents a new challenge for the Italian industry at large and will require a consistent effort to properly qualify the potential suppliers. On the other side, a program with such implications in terms of investments and so depending from social aspects cannot be effectively implemented without a significant involvement of the local industry. Essential conditions for the success are a reliable program, as well as a careful supply management scheme, which must facilitate aggregation of skills spread among different subjects. 'Human Resources: Maintaining a Nuclear Culture in Italy' Bruno Panella Politecnico di Torino, Giuseppe Forasassi, Universita di Pisa, Inter-University Consortium for the Nuclear Technological Research (CIRTEN). After a brief history of the nuclear engineering education in Italy within the international and national nuclear energy scenario, the present situation, with reference to the Italian universities, is shown. In order to maintain a nuclear culture in Italy the solution, exploited with different peculiarities in each University, is to carry out high quality research activities in reciprocal collaboration (mostly within the CIRTEN inter university Consortium) as well as with the Industry and research Organisations and to collaborate actively in establishing a stable network and a synergy of teaching activities in Europe in the field of Nuclear Engineering Education. The aim is to maintain at a high level and as updated as possible the Italian educational offer in nuclear engineering and also to attract the best students for the enrolment. (author)

  20. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dulai, H.; Kameník, Jan; Waters, C. A.; Kennedy, J.; Babinec, J.; Jolly, J.; Williamson, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 307, č. 3 (2016), s. 1865-1870 ISSN 0236-5731. [10th International Conference on Methods and Applications of Radioanalytical Chemistry (MARC). Kailua Kona, 12.04.2015-17.04.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : submarine groundwater discharge * long-term SGD monitoring * underwater gammaspectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  1. Military Construction, Military Quality of Life and Veterans Affairs: FY2007 Appropriations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Else, Daniel H; Scott, Christine; Panangala, Sidath V

    2007-01-01

    ... construction, military housing allowances, military installation maintenance and operation, the Department of Veterans Affairs, and other veteran-related agencies, rested in the House Committee...

  2. Italians and Foreign Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Bonifazi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Opinion surveys on attitudes towards immigration are becoming more and more important, owing to the increasing role of political debate on migration issues in Western European countries. CNR has conducted four surveys on this topic, collecting data on the evolution of Italians attitudes towards migration issues. In fact, the ? rst survey was conducted in the second half of the eighties, when foreign immigration was in its early stages. The last survey took place in 2002, when immigration was already well established in Italy. The article focuses on three main issues: the global impact of immigration on Italian society, the immigrants role in the labour market, and immigration policy. In general, the results of the last survey con? rm a trend that appeared already in 1997, of more balanced and realistic opinion that were less of a response to circumstances perceived as special emergencies. Highly educated people, teachers and students continue to be the most open and receptive groups, whereas the less favourably inclined and more worried continue to be old people, those with less education, the unemployed, housewives, and retirees.

  3. Cost Efficiency and Returns to Scope in Italian Investment Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Basili; Fulvio Fontini

    2005-01-01

    This paper estimates cost efficiency and returns to scope of Italian investment firms during the period 1998-2002, following the stochastic frontier function approach. Results indicate a large inefficiency for Italian investment firms (with a high standard deviation across sample) and the absence of significant returns to scope

  4. Outsourcing Small Wars: Expanding the Role of Private Military Companies in U.S. Military Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jorgensen, Brent M

    2005-01-01

    "Outsourcing Small Wars: Expanding the Role of Private Military Companies in U.S. Military Operations" argues that, under current domestic and international laws, and current military regulations and doctrine...

  5. Marine litter in submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Beld, Inge M. J.; Guillaumont, Brigitte; Menot, Lénaïck; Bayle, Christophe; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Bourillet, Jean-François

    2017-11-01

    Marine litter is a matter of increasing concern worldwide, from shallow seas to the open ocean and from beaches to the deep-seafloor. Indeed, the deep sea may be the ultimate repository of a large proportion of litter in the ocean. We used footage acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and a towed camera to investigate the distribution and composition of litter in the submarine canyons of the Bay of Biscay. This bay contains many submarine canyons housing Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VMEs) such as scleractinian coral habitats. VMEs are considered to be important for fish and they increase the local biodiversity. The objectives of the study were to investigate and discuss: (i) litter density, (ii) the principal sources of litter, (iii) the influence of environmental factors on the distribution of litter, and (iv) the impact of litter on benthic communities. Litter was found in all 15 canyons and at three sites on the edge of the continental shelf/canyon, in 25 of 29 dives. The Belle-île and Arcachon Canyons contained the largest amounts of litter, up to 12.6 and 9.5 items per 100 images respectively. Plastic items were the most abundant (42%), followed by fishing-related items (16%). The litter had both a maritime and a terrestrial origin. The main sources could be linked to fishing activities, major shipping lanes and river discharges. Litter appeared to accumulate at water depths of 801-1100 m and 1401-1700 m. In the deeper of these two depth ranges, litter accumulated on a geologically structured area, accounting for its high frequency at this depth. A larger number of images taken in areas of coral in the shallower of these two depth ranges may account for the high frequency of litter detection at this depth. A larger number of litter items, including plastic objects in particular, were observed on geological structures and in coral areas than on areas of bare substratum. The distribution of fishing-related items was similar for the various types of

  6. Intake of vitamin A and carotenoids from the Italian population--results of an Italian total diet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucarini, Massimo; Lanzi, Sabina; D'Evoli, Laura; Aguzzi, Altero; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra

    2006-05-01

    The present study focused on vitamin A and carotenoids (alpha-and beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene) daily intake from the Italian total diet. The input of some food groups (cereals, vegetables, fruits, milk and dairy, meat and meat products, fish) most responsible for major and minor contributions to the daily intake of these molecules was evaluated. Furthermore the contribution to the dietary intake of beta-carotene and lutein of the most consumed vegetables in the market basket of the Italian total diet (beets, brassica vegetables, carrots, chicory, courgette (zucchini), green beans, lettuce, peas, pepper, spinach, tomatoes) was also investigated. Vitamin A daily intake was 855 mg/person/day. The vegetables food group made the greatest contribution (37%), followed by the meat and meat products food group (23%). The Italian total diet provided 14.3 mg/person/day of carotenoids; lycopene was the highest (7.4 mg/day), followed by lutein + zeaxanthin (4 mg/day), beta-carotene (2.6 mg/day), alpha-carotene (0.15 mg/day), and beta-cryptoxanthin (0.17 mg/day). Carrots and tomatoes were the main sources of beta-carotene in the diet, otherwise the daily consumption of leafy vegetables (spinach, beets, lettuce) made the main contribution to lutein + zeaxanthin daily intake.

  7. Design of short Italian sentences to assess near vision performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calossi, Antonio; Boccardo, Laura; Fossetti, Alessandro; Radner, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    To develop and validate 28 short Italian sentences for the construction of the Italian version of the Radner Reading Chart to simultaneously measure near visual acuity and reading speed. 41 sentences were constructed in Italian language, following the procedure defined by Radner, to obtain "sentence optotypes" with comparable structure and with the same lexical and grammatical difficulty. Sentences were statistically selected and used in 211 normal, non-presbyopic, native Italian-speaking persons. The most equally matched sentences in terms of reading speed and number of reading errors were selected. To assess the validity of the reading speed results obtained with the 28 selected short sentences, we compared the reading speed and reading errors with the average obtained by reading two long 4th-grade paragraphs (97 and 90 words) under the same conditions. The overall mean reading speed of the tested persons was 189±26wpm. The 28 sentences more similar in terms of reading times were selected, achieving a coefficient of variation (the relative SD) of 2.2%. The reliability analyses yielded an overall Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.98. The correlation between the short sentences and the long paragraph was high (r=0.85, P<0.0001). The 28 short single Italian sentences optotypes were highly comparable in syntactical structure, number, position, and length of words, lexical difficulty, and reading length. The resulting Italian Radner Reading Chart is precise (high consistency) and practical (short sentences) and therefore useful for research and clinical practice to simultaneously measure near reading acuity and reading speed. Copyright © 2013 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Military capacity building has increasingly become an integral part of Danish defence. Military capacity is a new way of thinking Danish defence and poses a new set of challenges and opportunities for the Danish military and the Political leadership. On the 12th of december, PhD. Candidate Josefine...... Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  9. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait from 2015 (NCEI Accession 0140278)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  10. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait from 2016 (NCEI Accession 0159429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  11. Volume transport data from a submarine cable in the Florida Strait in 2014 (NODC Accession 0125429)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily mean and raw voltage volume transport data of the Florida Current collected with a submarine cable spanning from South Florida to the Grand Bahama Island in...

  12. The Italian Code of Medical Deontology: characterizing features of its 2014 edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Andrea Alberto

    2015-09-14

    The latest edition of the Italian Code of Medical Deontology has been released by the Italian Federation of the Registers of Physicians and Dentists in May 2014 (1). The previous edition of the Italian Code dated back to 2006 (2), and it has been integrated and updated by a multi-professional and inter-disciplinary panel involving, besides physicians, representatives of scientific societies and trade unions, jurisconsults and experts in bioethics....

  13. Students with a foreign background in Italian Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET and the access to Italian as Second Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the results of a 2014–2015 quantitative survey on a sample of 1,840 foreign students and 1,835 Italian students, of which, 41% of the Italians and 35% of those of foreign origins interviewed were female. The overall age was between 14 and 24, and these students attended courses in the Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET system in six Italian Regions: Emilia-Romagna, Lazio, Lombardy, Sicily, Tuscany, and Veneto. Language is the central issue in the survey, both in relation to the construction of multicultural and transcultural identity, and as a bridge to combine localisms with the global dynamics of migration, in its "dialect" edition. Some conclusive reflections on the enhancement of multilingualism in the Initial Vocational Education and Training (IVET system are proposed for the development of national strategies in order to strengthen intercultural teaching and curricula.

  14. Military Dissent: What are the Ethical Implications of Tensions in U.S. Civil-Military Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ethical , and political. 22 Pfaff 1999, 8). The beliefs of egoism and post-modern relativism can be...MILITARY DISSENT: WHAT ARE THE ETHICAL IMPLICATIONS OF TENSIONS IN U.S. CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONS? A thesis presented to the...JUN 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Military Dissent: What are the Ethical Implications of Tensions in U.S. Civil-Military Relations? 5a. CONTRACT

  15. Composition and fluxes of submarine groundwater along the Caribbean coast of the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Kimberly A.; Knee, Karen L.; Crook, Elizabeth D.; de Sieyes, Nicholas R.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Hernández-Terrones, Laura; Paytan, Adina

    2014-04-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the coastal environment along the eastern Yucatan Peninsula, Quintana Roo, Mexico was investigated using a combination of tracer mass balances and analytical solutions. Two distinct submarine groundwater sources including water from the unconfined surficial aquifer discharging at the beach face and water from a deeper aquifer discharging nearshore through submarine springs (ojos) were identified. The groundwater of nearshore ojos was saline and significantly enriched in short-lived radium isotopes (223Ra, 224Ra) relative to the unconfined aquifer beach face groundwater. We estimated SGD from ojos using 223Ra and used a salinity mass balance to estimate the freshwater discharge at the beach face. Analytical calculations were also used to estimate wave set-up and tidally driven saline seepage into the surf zone and were compared to the salinity-based freshwater discharge estimates. Results suggest that average SGD from ojos along the Yucatan Peninsula Caribbean coast is on the order of 308 m3 d-1 m-1 and varies between sampling regions. Higher discharge was observed in the southern regions (568 m3 d-1 m-1) compared to the north (48 m3 d-1 m-1). Discharge at the beach face was in the range of 3.3-8.5 m3 d-1 m-1 for freshwater and 2.7 m3 d-1 m-1 for saline water based on the salinity mass balance and wave- and tidally-driven discharge, respectively. Although discharge from the ojos was larger in volume than discharge from the unconfined aquifer at the beach face, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) was significantly higher in beach groundwater; thus, discharge of this unconfined beach aquifer groundwater contributed significantly to total DIN loading to the coast. DIN fluxes were up to 9.9 mol d-1 m-1 from ojos and 2.1 mol d-1 m-1 from beach discharge and varied regionally along the 500 km coastline sampled. These results demonstrate the importance of considering the beach zone as a significant nutrient source to coastal waters

  16. Titulus Scuola: the new file classification schema for Italian schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Penzo Doria

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the new file classification schema national for Italian schools, produced by the Italian Directorate General of Archives of the Ministry for Cultural Heritage, within the project Titulus Scuola. This classification schema represents the starting point for a standard documental system, aimed at the digital administration.

  17. Mapping submarine sand waves with multiband imaging radar - 2. Experimental results and model comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelzang, J.; Wensink, G.J.; Calkoen, C.J.; Kooij, M.W.A. van der

    1997-01-01

    On August 16, 1989, and on July 12, 1991, experiments were performed to study the mapping of submarine sand waves with the airborne imaging radar, a polarimetric (and, in 1991, interferometric) airborne P, L, and C band synthetic aperture radar system. The experiments took place in an area 30 km off

  18. [The decoration of Italian Renaissance drug jars after engravings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drey, R E

    1994-01-01

    Although Italian drug jar painters generally devised original compositions for the ornamentation of their products, on occasion they derived their subjects from printed sources. Printed sources used by drug jar artists of the Renaissance include wood-engraved Italian tarot cards and wood-engraved illustrations by Hans Sebald Beham and Bernard Salomon in miniature bibles published in the sixteenth century in Frankfurt and in Lyons respectively.

  19. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal... Guard is establishing a safety zone in the navigable waters of Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload operations. This safety zone is established to...

  20. The Role of the Senses in the Early Modern Italian Garden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Karin Esmann

    According to the Italian humanists gardens can be regarded as a third nature (John Dixon Hunt: Greater Perfections 2000, Claudia Lazzaro: The Italian Renaissance Garden 1990). Different from the first nature, wilderness, and the second nature, the cultural landscape (Cicero) gardens are a special...... combination of nature and culture, more sophisticated, more deliberate, more complex in the mixture of culture and nature. In the Italian renaissance garden this third nature reached an artificial and aesthetic level as a pleasure garden which made use of all the senses, and in doing so it played an important...... role in constructing new conceptions of the connection between man and nature. This presentation will examine how the gardens around Italian Renaissance villas in Tuscany and in the surroundings of Rome, with their use of geometrical lay-out, water, sounds, views, plants and buildings not only...

  1. Team performance in the Italian NHS: the role of reflexivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbini, Flavio; Callea, Antonino; Chirumbolo, Antonio; Talamo, Alessandra; Ingusci, Emanuela; Ciavolino, Enrico

    2018-04-09

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the goodness of the input-process-output (IPO) model in order to evaluate work team performance within the Italian National Health Care System (NHS); and second, to test the mediating role of reflexivity as an overarching process factor between input and output. Design/methodology/approach The Italian version of the Aston Team Performance Inventory was administered to 351 employees working in teams in the Italian NHS. Mediation analyses with latent variables were performed via structural equation modeling (SEM); the significance of total, direct, and indirect effect was tested via bootstrapping. Findings Underpinned by the IPO framework, the results of SEM supported mediational hypotheses. First, the application of the IPO model in the Italian NHS showed adequate fit indices, showing that the process mediates the relationship between input and output factors. Second, reflexivity mediated the relationship between input and output, influencing some aspects of team performance. Practical implications The results provide useful information for HRM policies improving process dimensions of the IPO model via the mediating role of reflexivity as a key role in team performance. Originality/value This study is one of a limited number of studies that applied the IPO model in the Italian NHS. Moreover, no study has yet examined the role of reflexivity as a mediator between input and output factors in the IPO model.

  2. Military Personnel Who Seek Health and Mental Health Services Outside the Military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, Howard; Cruz, Mario; Shuey, Bryant; Smithers, Daniel; Muncy, Laura; Noble, Marylou

    2018-05-01

    Although research conducted within the military has assessed the health and mental health problems of military personnel, little information exists about personnel who seek care outside the military. The purpose of this study is to clarify the personal characteristics, mental health diagnoses, and experiences of active duty U.S. military personnel who sought civilian sector services due to unmet needs for care. This prospective, multi-method study included 233 clients, based in the United States, Afghanistan, South Korea, and Germany, who obtained care between 2013 and 2016 from a nationwide network of volunteer civilian practitioners. A hotline organized by faith-based and peace organizations received calls from clients and referred them to the network when the clients described unmet needs for physical or mental health services. Intake and follow-up interviews at 2 wk and 2 mo after intake captured demographic characteristics, mental health diagnoses, and reasons for seeking civilian rather than military care. Non-parametric bootstrap regression analyses identified predictors of psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and absence without leave (AWOL). Qualitative analyses of clients' narratives clarified their experiences and reasons for seeking care. The research protocol has been reviewed and approved annually by the Institutional Review Board at the University of New Mexico. Depression (72%), post-traumatic stress disorder (62%), alcohol use disorder (27%), and panic disorder (25%) were the most common diagnoses. Forty-eight percent of clients reported suicidal ideation. Twenty percent were absence without leave. Combat trauma predicted post-traumatic stress disorder (odds ratio [OR] = 8.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.66, 47.12, p = 0.01) and absence without leave (OR = x3.85, 95% CI 1.14, 12.94, p = 0.03). Non-combat trauma predicted panic disorder (OR = 3.64, 95% CI 1.29, 10.23, p = 0.01). Geographical region was associated with generalized anxiety disorder

  3. MAGIC: conoscere i mari italiani e individuarne i geo-rischi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bosman

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available MAGIC project: Marine Geohazard along the Italian Coasts MAGIC Project is funded by the Italian Civil Protection  Department (DPC to produce a bathymetric database as reference for compiling maps (1:50.000 of marine geo-hazard. During its 5-year life span (2007-2012, MAGIC will allow the acquisition of high-resolution multibeam bathymetry along the Italian continental margins and will involve the entire Italian scientific community currently active in the field of Marine Geology. More than 73.000 nautical miles of multibeam data will be analyzed, allowing comparison of geological features produced by sedimentary and tectonic processes (i.e. volcanic events, submarine landslide, active faulting. The main objective of MAGIC is to furnish the DPC  accurate depiction of superficial geology and relatedgeo-hazard on the most sensitive and hazard-prone areas.

  4. Effects of seasonal vitamin D deficiency and respiratory acidosis on bone metabolism markers in submarine crewmembers during prolonged patrols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holy, Xavier; Collombet, Jean-Marc; Labarthe, Frédéric; Granger-Veyron, Nicolas; Bégot, Laurent

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the seasonal influence of vitamin D status on bone metabolism in French submariners over a 2-mo patrol. Blood samples were collected as follows: prepatrol and patrol days 20, 41, and 58 on crewmembers from both a winter (WP; n = 20) and a summer patrol (SP; n = 20), respectively. Vitamin D status was evaluated for WP and SP. Moreover, extended parameters for acid-base balance (Pco(2), pH, and bicarbonate), bone metabolism (bone alkaline phosphatase and COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen), and mineral homeostasis (parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium and phosphorus) were scrutinized. As expected, SP vitamin D status was higher than WP vitamin D status, regardless of the considered experimental time. A mild chronic respiratory acidosis (CRA) was identified in both SP and WP submariners, up to patrol day 41. Such an occurrence paired up with an altered bone remodeling coupling (decreased bone alkaline phosphatase-to-COOH-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen ratio). At the end of the patrol (day 58), a partial compensation of CRA episode, combined with a recovered normal bone remodeling coupling, was observed in SP, not, however, in WP submariners. The mild CRA episode displayed over the initial 41-day submersion period was mainly induced by a hypercapnia resulting from the submarine-enriched CO(2) level. The correlated impaired bone remodeling may imply a physiological attempt to compensate this acidosis via bone buffering. On patrol day 58, the discrepancy observed in terms of CRA compensation between SP and WP may result from the seasonal influence on vitamin D status.

  5. Authentic Italian food as Mamma used to make it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Ambrosio, Luigi; Madsen, Jan Halberg

    2014-01-01

    Research description and purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to explore how Italian restaurants define authentic Italian culinary experiences and how these experiences are designed and rendered to the restaurants’ guests. Design/Methodology: The purpose of this research is exploratory...... are unique to this case and cannot be expected replicated, nor generalized. Originality/value: This article investigates how the authentic Italian culinary experience is defined and designed by restaurant owners or managers in the specific context of the city of Aalborg, Denmark. The originality...... of this research resides in the contribution to a better understanding of how authentic experiences are defined and designed at the supply side in the restaurant industry. Moreover, this article takes on a critical perspective on Gilmore and Pine’s genres of authenticity. Keywords: Genres of authenticity, culinary...

  6. 3-D seismic characterization of submarine landslides on a Miocene carbonate platform (Luconia Province, Malaysia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampetti, V.; Schlager, W.; van Konijnenburg, J.H; Everts, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    3-D seismic reflection data and a variance cube are used to determine the architecture and investigate the triggering processes of submarine landslides affecting the flanks of a Miocene carbonate platform in the Luconia Province, Malaysia. The slide masses exhibit, in time-slice displays, chaotic,

  7. Near-bottom particulate matter dynamics in the Nazare submarine canyon under calm and stormy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martín, J.; Palanques, A.; Vitorino, J.; Oliveira, A.; de Stigter, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Two mooring lines equipped with near-bottom sediment traps were deployed in the axis of the Nazare submarine canyon at similar to 1600 and similar to 3300 m depth, respectively. We studied time-series of particle flux, composition (biogenic silica, carbonates, organic matter and lithogenic

  8. Italian Literature in Russia. Some Recent Important Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lasorsa Siedina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an updated review of translations of contemporary Italian literature published in two issues of the popular Russian literary magazine “Inostrannaja literatura”. The first issue (2008, 10, entitled Italian Literature in Search of a Form, published translations by poets, prose writers, especially authors of stories, specimens of classic authors of the twentieth century: futurists, expressionists, surrealists, and writers of critical essays. Translation of some precious octaves of Ariosto’s poem Orlando furioso were also included. The second ‘special’ issue (2011, 8, entitled Italy: Seasons, is devoted to contemporary women writers of fiction. Particularly valuable is the Literature heritage section, which contains translations of Vivaldi’s sonnets by M. Amelin and of G.G. Belli’s Roman sonnets by E. Solonovič, both representatives of the excellence of the Russian school of translation. The two issues include a complete index of Italian authors translated into Russian between 1994 and 2011.

  9. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews…

  10. Sun glitter imaging analysis of submarine sand waves in HJ-1A/B satellite CCD images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaguo; He, Xiekai; Yang, Kang; Fu, Bin; Guan, Weibing

    2014-11-01

    Submarine sand waves are a widespread bed-form in tidal environment. Submarine sand waves induce current convergence and divergence that affect sea surface roughness thus become visible in sun glitter images. These sun glitter images have been employed for mapping sand wave topography. However, there are lots of effect factors in sun glitter imaging of the submarine sand waves, such as the imaging geometry and dynamic environment condition. In this paper, several sun glitter images from HJ-1A/B in the Taiwan Banks are selected. These satellite sun glitter images are used to discuss sun glitter imaging characteristics in different sensor parameters and dynamic environment condition. To interpret the imaging characteristics, calculating the sun glitter radiance and analyzing its spatial characteristics of the sand wave in different images is the best way. In this study, a simulated model based on sun glitter radiation transmission is adopted to certify the imaging analysis in further. Some results are drawn based on the study. Firstly, the sun glitter radiation is mainly determined by sensor view angle. Second, the current is another key factor for the sun glitter. The opposite current direction will cause exchanging of bright stripes and dark stripes. Third, brightness reversal would happen at the critical angle. Therefore, when using sun glitter image to obtain depth inversion, one is advised to take advantage of image properties of sand waves and to pay attention to key dynamic environment condition and brightness reversal.

  11. Influence of military sexual assault and other military stressors on substance use disorder and PTS symptomology in female military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Maguen, Shira

    2018-05-01

    Servicewomen exposed to traumatic stressors over the course of their military service are at increased risk of developing symptoms of substance use disorder (SUD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). They are also at risk for exposure to military sexual assault (MSA), which is also associated with SUD and PTS symptomology. Research is unclear about the incremental contributions of different forms of traumatic stressors on co-occurring SUD and PTS symptomology. In this study we examined the independent and combined effects of MSA and other military stressors on SUD and PTS symptomology in a sample of female veterans (N=407). Results indicate that MSA and other military stressors exhibit incremental effects on SUD and PTS symptomology. Results further suggest that women exposed to both MSA and other military stressors are at increased risk for developing co-occurring SUD and PTSD. These findings extend previous research on comorbid SUD and PTSD, highlighting the cumulative effects of traumatic stressors on posttraumatic psychopathology, and have implications for future research and clinical practice with female veterans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Forecasting military expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Böhmelt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To what extent do frequently cited determinants of military spending allow us to predict and forecast future levels of expenditure? The authors draw on the data and specifications of a recent model on military expenditure and assess the predictive power of its variables using in-sample predictions, out-of-sample forecasts and Bayesian model averaging. To this end, this paper provides guidelines for prediction exercises in general using these three techniques. More substantially, however, the findings emphasize that previous levels of military spending as well as a country’s institutional and economic characteristics particularly improve our ability to predict future levels of investment in the military. Variables pertaining to the international security environment also matter, but seem less important. In addition, the results highlight that the updated model, which drops weak predictors, is not only more parsimonious, but also slightly more accurate than the original specification.

  13. First Survey For Submarine Hydrothermal Vents In NE Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConachy, T.; Binns, R.; Permana, H.

    2001-12-01

    The IASSHA-2001 cruise (Indonesia-Australia Survey for Submarine Hydrothermal Activity) was successfully conducted from June 1 to June 29 on board Baruna Jaya VIII. Preliminary results are reported of the first expedition to locate and study submarine hydrothermal activity in north east Sulawesi. Leg A focussed on Tomini Bay, a virtually unexplored Neogene sedimentary basin. Its objective was to test whether modern sediment-hosted hydrothermal activity occurred on the sea floor. The results of new bathymetric mapping, sediment coring and CTD/transmissometer hydrocasts negate the likely presence in central Tomini Bay of large-scale modern analogues of hydrothermal massive sulfide environments involving hydrothermal venting of basinal or magma-derived fluids into reduced sediments. It is possible that the "heat engine" required to drive circulation of basinal and hydrothermal fluids is today too weak. Surveys around Colo volcano indicate that it may be in its final stage of evolution. Leg B studied the arc and behind-arc sectors of the Sangihe volcanic island chain extending northwards from Quaternary volcanoes on the northeastern tip of Sulawesi's North Arm, near Manado. West of the main active chain and extending northwards from Manado there is a subparallel ridge surmounted by a number of high (>2000 m) seamounts of uncertain age. Fifteen relatively high-standing submarine edifices were crossed during this leg, of which nine were tested for hydrothermal activity by hydrocast and dredging. Eight sites were known from previous bathymetric surveys, and seven are new discoveries made by narrow-beam or multibeam echo sounding. Two submarine edifices at least 1000 m high were discovered in the strait immediately north of Awu volcano on Sangihe Island. One, with crest at 206 m, is surrounded by a circular platform 300m deep which we infer to be a foundered fringing reef to a formerly emergent island. The other, lacking such a platform, appears relatively young and may be

  14. Worldwide Military Spending, 1990-1995

    OpenAIRE

    Jerald A Schiff; Benedict J. Clements; Sanjeev Gupta

    1996-01-01

    The decline in military spending that began in the mid-1980s continued through 1995, and this decline was widespread both geographically and by level of development. Cuts in military spending appear to have potentially important implications for nonmilitary spending and fiscal adjustment. In contrast to findings for previous periods, military spending has declined more than proportionately in those countries that have reduced total spending. Countries with Fund programs have reduced military ...

  15. [The Italian version of Nordic Musculoskeletal Standardized Questionnaire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghersi, R; Martinelli, S; Richeldi, A; Clerici, P; Grazioli, P; Gobba, F M

    2007-01-01

    We translated into Italian the Nordic musculoskelethal questionnaire, as completed by Canadian IRSST with Authors' agreement in 2001, according to OMS recommendations. This translation involved the following items: aches and troubles of neck, dorsal region, low back, shoulders, elbows, hands and wrists, hips and thighs, ankles and feet in the last 12 months. The questionnaire was then submitted to reliability and stability tests. The Italian version of the questionnaire, already used in different languages, proved to be suitable and reliable also for self administration.

  16. THE DEMOCRATIC CONTROL OF MILITARY FORCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smail Oštraković

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition requirement for post communism countries, especially the part that is about military forces is to establish those civil-military relation that will have prepared projects for awareness evolving of society and military about necessity of democratic control over military sector of country through development of many different communication forms and shapes. Before everything, it means the entire freedom and independence of media at access to military forces as the topic and subject of its interests and also the organization of public military communication system as integral part of information-communication system in society

  17. Mercury levels in defined Italian population groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingrao, G.; Belloni, P.

    1991-01-01

    Our group conducts its research activity in the Department AMB-BIO (Biological and Sanitary Effect of Toxic Agents) of ENEA (National Committee for Research and Development of Nuclear and Alternative Energy) at the research centre of Casaccia. The food chain is the main pathway leading to humans for most of the trace elements. The research, therefore, has been directed mainly towards the study of the variability of the trace element content in the Italian diet. This programme aims at assessing the adequacy of the essential trace elements ingestion, and to verify that the ingestion of toxic trace elements is below the recommended values. Part of this research was conducted in the frame of the IAEA CRP on ''Human daily Intakes of Nutritionally Important Trace Elements as Measured by Nuclear and Other Techniques''. Studies carried out by the National Institute of Nutrition and FAO have shown that there are some population groups having a fish consumption significantly higher than the average value for the Italian population. These groups are usually found in coastal towns were fishing is one of the main occupation and generally includes fishermen, fish dealers, restaurant workers and their families. A pilot study was conducted in one of these towns, Bagnara Calabra in the South of Italy, where the average fish consumption is 27.1 kg per year, which is more than twice the national average. The results have shown that the mercury concentration in the diet is significantly higher than in other Italian locations, the mercury levels in blood and hair sample in these subjects are also significantly higher than the values reported for subjects of the general Italian population. 6 refs

  18. Emotion socialization practices in Italian and Hong Kong-Chinese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorilli, Caterina; De Stasio, Simona; Di Chicchio, Carlo; Chan, Siu Mui

    2015-01-01

    Parents' emotion socialization practices are their ways of handling their children's emotional experiences in light of cultural expectations surrounding emotions. Such practices are thought to significantly affect children's social adjustment. We compared the parenting practices of Italian and Hong Kong Chinese samples in an ethnological validation study of the maternal responses to children's emotion scale (MRCES). Participants were 71 Italian mothers (M = 39.45) and 71 Hong Kong-Chinese mothers (M = 37.75) with children aged 6-9 years. The results confirmed the two-factor structure identified by the scale's authors, namely coaching/emotion-encouraging and emotion dismissing approaches, respectively. Each of the two factors displayed satisfactory internal consistency. The Chinese mothers obtained higher scores than the Italian mothers on both subscales. Our findings suggested that parents' emotion socialization practices for coping with children's emotions received different degrees of emphasis and were underpinned by different meaning in the Hong Kong and Italian cultural groups. These cultural differences are discussed in relation to their effect on children's socio-emotional development.

  19. Analysis of association between a microsatellite at intron 1 of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 gene and fat deposition, meat production and quality traits in Italian Large White and Italian Duroc pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fontanesi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A few studies have shown that a microsatellite at intron 1 of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 gene is associated with several production traits in a few pig populations. In the current work we evaluated associations between this microsatellite and production traits in Italian Large White and Italian Duroc pigs. Association studies were carried out on a total of 1120 animals using two experimental designs: i a selective genotyping approach based on extreme and divergent Italian Large White pigs for back fat thickness (BFT estimated breeding value (EBV or on extreme and divergent Italian Duroc pigs for visible intermuscular fat (VIF EBV; and ii analysis of unselected pigs (random groups coming from populations of the two breeds. Allele distributions between Italian Large White and Italian Duroc pigs were different (P<0.05 with longer alleles being more frequent in Italian Large White. Results of the association analyses from two different random groups showed that this marker affects average daily gain EBV, lean cut EBV and BFT EBV in Italian Large White and BFT EBV in Italian Duroc (P<0.05. Association analysis carried out with random residuals confirmed, to some extent (P=0.096, the effects on BFT in the same animals. However, this result was not confirmed in the two extreme and divergent Italian Large White groups used in the selective genotyping experiment. These inconsistent results may indicate that the effect of the IGF1 microsatellite is doubtful in the investigated finishing pigs.

  20. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.

    2009-01-01

    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided...

  1. Assessment of Hg Pollution Released from a WWII Submarine Wreck (U-864) by Hg Isotopic Analysis of Sediments and Cancer pagurus Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua-Ibarz, Ana; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Maage, Amund; Frantzen, Sylvia; Valdersnes, Stig; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-10-04

    Hg pollution released from the U-864 submarine sunk during WWII and potential introduction of that Hg into the marine food chain have been studied by a combination of quantitative Hg and MeHg determination and Hg isotopic analysis via cold vapor generation multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (CVG-MC-ICP-MS) in sediment and Cancer pagurus samples. The sediment pollution could be unequivocally linked with the metallic Hg present in the wreck. Crabs were collected at the wreck location and 4 nmi north and south, and their brown and claw meat were analyzed separately. For brown meat, the δ 202 Hg values of the individuals from the wreck location were shifted toward the isotopic signature of the sediment and, thus, the submarine Hg. Such differences were not found for claw meat. The isotope ratio results suggest direct ingestion of metallic Hg by C. pagurus but do not offer any proof for any other introduction of the submarine Hg into the marine food chain.

  2. Italian Society of Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    The abstracts of most of the papers read at the 53 National Congress of the Italian Society of Physics are presented. The Congress developed in ten sessions: high energy and elementary particle physics, physics of nuclei, condensed matter, quantum electronics, cosmic physics, geophysics, general physics, electronics and applied physics, health physics and hystory of physics. An author index is also included

  3. Military Expenditure, Threats, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Glick, Reuven

    2003-01-01

    This paper clarifies one of the puzzling results of the economic growth literature: the impact of military expenditure is frequently found to be non-significant or negative, yet most countries spend a large fraction of their GDP on defense and the military. We start by empirical evaluation of the non- linear interactions between military expenditure, external threats, corruption, and other relevant controls. While growth falls with higher levels of military spending, given the values of the o...

  4. [Research on antiemetics: an Italian model of success].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roila, F

    1998-01-01

    At the beginning of the 80's the Italian Group for Clinical Research (G.O.I.R.C.) identified chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting as one of the most distressing adverse events, and decided to plan and execute clinical trials on antiemetics in order to reduce this negative impact on patients. Therefore, some consecutive double-blind randomized trials were conducted on cisplatin-treated patients. The first was a dose-finding study on four different high-doses of domperidone, followed by a study comparing two different high-doses of metoclopramide, and a study comparing the addition of a corticosteroid to high-dose metoclopramide with respect to metoclopramide alone. Finally, a study demonstrating that a combination of a higher dose of metoclopramide (3 mg/kg x 2) plus dexamethasone and diphenhydramine was significantly superior with respect to a lower dose of metoclopramide (1 mg/kg x 4) combined with methylprednisolone was carried out. With the introduction of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists the interest for antiemetic therapy increased and other Italian gynecological and medical oncology centres became involved in the antiemetic research. The Italian Group for Antiemetic Research was formed in 90's and its first study demonstrated the superiority of a combination of a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist plus dexamethasone with respect to the standard three drug combination of high doses of metoclopramide in the prevention of cisplatin-induced acute emesis. In the following years, the Group contributed to the identification of the best antiemetic prophylaxis for acute emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy, and for delayed emesis induced by cisplatin. Also a drug utilization review on antiemetics in clinical practice has recently been carried out. Today, the interest of the Group is concentrated in studying the optimal antiemetic prophylaxis for delayed emesis induced by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. The rules always followed by the Italian Group for

  5. Italian network for human biomonitoring of metals: preliminary results from two regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Bocca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Italian program for human biomonitoring (HBM of chemical elements, PROgram for Biomonitoring of the Exposure (PROBE, started in 2008 with the aim to provide the knowledge about risk assessment of the Italian population following the environmental exposure to metals. The project is implemented through a HBM campaign for the production of data on 19 metals in the blood and serum of subjects living in different Italian Regions. The metals studied are: antimony, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, iridium, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, palladium, platinum, rhodium, thallium, tin, tungsten, uranium and vanadium. The first phase of the project has included the development and validation of laboratory protocols for the collection of fluids and quantification of metals. The second phase provides the HBM data expressed as the reference values (RVs for the Italian population, i.e., as the level of metals in the general population not occupationally exposed. In this paper, the experimental protocols used for the maintenance of high standards of analysis and the RVs for metals in serum of inhabitants of two Italian Regions (Calabria and Umbria are described.

  6. The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire: reliability and validity of the Italian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calugi, Simona; Milanese, Chiara; Sartirana, Massimiliano; El Ghoch, Marwan; Sartori, Federica; Geccherle, Eleonora; Coppini, Andrea; Franchini, Cecilia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2017-09-01

    To examine the validity and reliability of a new Italian language version of the latest edition of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q 6.0). The sixth edition of the EDE-Q was translated into Italian and administered to 264 Italian-speaking inpatient and outpatient (257 females in their mid-20s) with eating disorder (75.4% anorexia nervosa) and 216 controls (205 females). Internal consistency was high for both the global EDE-Q and all subscale scores. Test-retest reliability was good to excellent (0.66-0.83) for global and subscale scores, and for items assessing key behavioral features of eating disorders (0.55-0.91). Patients with an eating disorder displayed significantly higher EDE-Q scores than controls, demonstrating the good criterion validity of the tool. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a good fit for a modified seven-item three-factor structure. The study showed the good psychometric properties of the new Italian version of the EDE-Q 6.0, and validated its use in Italian eating disorder patients, particularly in young females with anorexia nervosa.

  7. An Unusual Partnership: Brazilian-Italian Forms of Cooperation in the Nuclear Field (1951-1986)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patti, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses the Brazilian-Italian cooperation in the nuclear field between the early 1950s and 1986. Since the late 1930s, Italian or Italian-Brazilian scientists promoted the development of studies in nuclear physics. Immediately after World War II, the Brazilian-Italian collaboration continued. Between the 1950s and the 1970s, Brazilian nuclear scientists studied in Italian institutions. Relying on primary sources from Brazilian archives and oral history interviews with protagonists of the Brazilian nuclear program, this chapter explore the relations between Italy and Brazil from 1951, the year of the establishment of the Brazilian nuclear program, until the 1980s. This study focuses on the bidirectional transfer of knowledge on sensitive technologies, and on the formal and informal cooperation between the two countries.

  8. The near boiling reactor: Conceptual design of a small inherently safe nuclear reactor to extend the operational capability of the Victoria Class submarine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J. P.

    Nuclear power has several unique advantages over other air independent energy sources for nuclear combat submarines. An inherently safe, small nuclear reactor, capable of supply the hotel load of the Victoria Class submarines, has been conceptually developed. The reactor is designed to complement the existing diesel electric power generation plant presently onboard the submarine. The reactor, rated at greater than 1 MW thermal, will supply electricity to the submarine's batteries through an organic Rankine cycle energy conversion plant at 200 kW. This load will increase the operational envelope of the submarine by providing up to 28 continuous days submerged, allowing for an enhanced indiscretion ratio (ratio of time spent on the surface versus time submerged) and a limited under ice capability. The power plant can be fitted into the existing submarine by inserting a 6 m hull plug. With its simplistic design and inherent safety features, the reactor plant will require a minimal addition to the crew. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles for increased safety. The light water coolant remains at atmospheric pressure, exiting the core at 96°C. Burn-up control and limiting excess reactivity is achieved through movable reflector plates. Shut down and regulatory control is achieved through the thirteen hafnium control rods. Inherent safety is achieved through the negative prompt and delayed temperature coefficients, as well as the negative void coefficient. During a transient, the boiling of the moderator results in a sudden drop in reactivity, essentially shutting down the reactor. It is this characteristic after which the reactor has been named. The design of the reactor was achieved through modelling using computer codes such as MCNP5, WIMS-AECL, FEMLAB, and MicroShield5, in addition to specially written software for kinetics, heat transfer and fission product poisoning calculations. The work has covered a broad area of research and has highlighted additional areas

  9. The near boiling reactor : conceptual design of a small inherently safe nuclear reactor to extend the operational capability of the Victoria Class submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear power has several unique advantages over other air independent energy sources for nuclear combat submarines. An inherently safe, small nuclear reactor, capable of supply the hotel load of the 'Victoria' Class submarines, has been conceptually developed. The reactor is designed to complement the existing diesel electric power generation plant presently onboard the submarine. The reactor, rated at greater than 1 MW thermal, will supply electricity to the submarine's batteries through an organic Rankine cycle energy conversion plant at 200 kW. This load will increase the operational envelope of the submarine by providing up to 28 continuous days submerged, allowing for an enhanced indiscretion ratio (ratio of time spent on the surface versus time submerged) and a limited under ice capability. The power plant can be fitted into the existing submarine by inserting a 6 m hull plug. With its simplistic design and inherent safety features, the reactor plant will require a minimal addition to the crew. The reactor employs TRISO fuel particles for increased safety. The light water coolant remains at atmospheric pressure, exiting the core at 96 o C. Burn-up control and limiting excess reactivity is achieved through movable reflector plates. Shut down and regulatory control is achieved through the thirteen hafnium control rods. Inherent safety is achieved through the negative prompt and delayed temperature coefficients, as well as the negative void coefficient. During a transient, the boiling of the moderator results in a sudden drop in reactivity, essentially shutting down the reactor. It is this characteristic after which the reactor has been named. The design of the reactor was achieved through modelling using computer codes such as MCNP5, WIMS-AECL, FEMLAB, and MicroShield5, in addition to specially written software for kinetics, heat transfer and fission product poisoning calculations. The work has covered a broad area of research and has highlighted additional

  10. Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L. are more efficient at removing worker brood artificially infested with the parasitic mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans than are Italian bees or Italian/Africanized hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Jr. José Carlos Vieira

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Africanized honey bees are more tolerant of infestations with the mite Varroa jacobsoni than are honey bees of European origin. The capacity of these bees to detect and react to brood infested with this mite could be one of the factors determining this tolerance. We tested colonies of Africanized bees headed by queens from swarms collected in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State. The Italian colonies had queens imported directly from the USA, or from the Brazilian Island of Fernando de Noronha, where varroa-infested Italian colonies have been maintained, untreated, since 1984. Recently sealed worker brood cells were artificially infested by opening the cell capping, inserting live adult female mites and resealing the cells. Control cells were treated in the same way, but without introducing mites. The ability of the Africanized honey bees to recognize and remove this artificially infested brood was compared with that of first generation Italian/Africanized hybrid bees, and with the two groups of "pure" Italian bees, in three separate experiments. Africanized colonies removed a mean of 51% of the infested brood, while Italian/Africanized hybrid colonies removed 25%. Africanized colonies also removed a significantly greater proportion of infested brood than did Italian colonies, headed by queens from the USA (59 vs. 31%, respectively. Similarly, when Africanized colonies were compared with colonies of Italian bees from Fernando de Noronha, the former were found to be significantly more efficient at removing infested brood (61 vs. 35%, respectively, even though the population of Italian bees on this island has been exposed to and survived varroa infestations (without treatment for more than 12 years. Only the Africanized honey bees removed a significant proportion of varroa-infested brood, when the data was corrected for brood removal from control cells.

  11. Emotional Geographies of the Uncanny: Reinterpreting Italian Transnational Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Marinelli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The 'Emotional Geographies of the Uncanny' section of Cultural Studies Review aims to read transnational spaces constructed and inhabited by Italian migrants and settlers to Australasia as emotional spaces of uncanny perceptions, memories, narratives and identities. Drawing inspiration from the Freudian suggestions about the uncanny (das unheimliche, and later interpretations by Heiddeger, Derrida, Kristeva, Bhabha, Žižek, and Ahmed, we refer to the uncanny as the emotional reaction to something that is, at the same time, familiar and unfamiliar, homely and unhomely. The uncanny then becomes an aesthetic frame through which experiences of migration and colonialism can be read and interpreted. How have Italians experienced the strange un/familiarity of the places to which they have migrated or that they have colonised in Australasia? And, in the process of familiarising the unfamiliar, how have they perceived the strange familiarity of the newly emerged 'Italian' spaces that they have first constructed and then inhabited, outside the boundaries of the Italian Nation, and often within the space of other essentialist Nations? Furthermore, how have they related to the places they have left in Italy: the places to which they have progressively become strangers yet have continued to constitute a central element of their subjectivity?

  12. The economic impact of military expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The author addresses three questions about military spending in developing countries: What are the levels of (and trends in) military spending as a percentage of gross national product? What impact does peacetime military spending have on growth, government spending on social welfare and infrastructure, and other key economic variables? What major factors influence the level of military spending? The author finds that military spending as a share of GNP generally fell in the 1980s, even in th...

  13. The Italian Dementia National Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Di Fiandra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Italian Dementia National Plan was formulated in October 2014 by the Italian Ministry of Health in close cooperation with the regions, the National Institute of Health and the three major national associations of patients and carers. The main purpose of this strategy was to provide directive indications for promoting and improving interventions in the dementia field, not limiting to specialist and therapeutic actions, but particularly focusing on the support of patients and families throughout the pathways of care. Four main objectives are indicated: 1 promote health- and social-care interventions and policies; 2 create/strengthen the integrated network of services for dementia based on an integrated approach; 3 implement strategies for promoting appropriateness and quality of care; and 4 improve the quality of life of persons with dementia and their families by supporting empowerment and stigma reduction. These objectives and the pertaining actions are described in the present paper.

  14. The Italian Tau/charm project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagini Maria Enrica

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A τ/charm Factory, an e + e- collider with very high luminosity at the 2–4.6 GeV center of mass energy, to be built on the Rome University at Tor Vergata campus, was studied by the Consortium Nicola Cabibbo Laboratory and the INFN Frascati Laboratories. This project is the natural evolution of the flagship Italian project SuperB Factory, funded by the Italian Government in 2010 with a budget that turned out to be insufficient to cover the total costs of the project. The study of rare events at the τ/charm energy was already planned as a Phase-II of SuperB [1]. This design keeps all the unique features of SuperB, including the polarization of the electron beam, with the possibility to take data in a larger energy range, with reduced accelerator dimensions and construction and operation costs. A Report on the accelerator design has been published in September 2013 [2].

  15. Military Versus Civilian Murder-Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Christina L; McNally, Matthew R; Fremouw, William J

    2015-07-03

    Previous studies have implicated significant differences between military members and civilians with regard to violent behavior, including suicide, domestic violence, and harm to others, but none have examined military murder-suicide. This study sought to determine whether there were meaningful differences between military and civilian murder-suicide perpetrators. Using data from the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), military (n = 259) and civilian (n = 259) murder-suicide perpetrators were compared on a number of demographic, psychological, and contextual factors using chi-square analyses. Logistic regression was used to determine which variables predicted membership to the military or civilian perpetrator groups. Military murder-suicide perpetrators were more likely to be older, have physical health problems, be currently or formerly married, less likely to abuse substances, and to exhibit significantly different motives than civilian perpetrators. Logistic regression revealed that membership to the military, rather than the civilian, perpetrator group was predicted by age, physical health problems, and declining heath motive-reflecting the significance of a more than 15-year difference in mean age between the two groups. Findings point to the need to tailor suicide risk assessments to include questions specific to murder-suicide, to assess attitudes toward murder-suicide, and to the importance of assessing suicide and violence risk in older adult military populations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Teaching Standard Italian to Dialect Speakers: A Pedagogical Perspective of Linguistic Systems in Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, Marcel

    1974-01-01

    The teaching of standard Italian to speakers of Italian dialects both in Italy and in North America is discussed, specifically through a specialized pedagogical program within the framework of a sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic perspective, and based on a structural analysis of linguistic systems in contact. Italian programs in Toronto are…

  17. Evolution of submarine eruptive activity during the 2011-2012 El Hierro event as documented by hydroacoustic images and remotely operated vehicle observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, L.; González, F. J.; Barker, S. J.; Madureira, P.; Medialdea, T.; de Ignacio, C.; Lourenço, N.; León, R.; Vázquez, J. T.; Palomino, D.

    2017-08-01

    Submarine volcanic eruptions are frequent and important events, yet they are rarely observed. Here we relate bathymetric and hydroacoustic images from the 2011 to 2012 El Hierro eruption with surface observations and deposits imaged and sampled by ROV. As a result of the shallow submarine eruption, a new volcano named Tagoro grew from 375 to 89 m depth. The eruption consisted of two main phases of edifice construction intercalated with collapse events. Hydroacoustic images show that the eruptions ranged from explosive to effusive with variable plume types and resulting deposits, even over short time intervals. At the base of the edifice, ROV observations show large accumulations of lava balloons changing in size and type downslope, coinciding with the area where floating lava balloon fallout was observed. Peaks in eruption intensity during explosive phases generated vigorous bubbling at the surface, extensive ash, vesicular lapilli and formed high-density currents, which together with periods of edifice gravitational collapse, produced extensive deep volcaniclastic aprons. Secondary cones developed in the last stages and show evidence for effusive activity with lava ponds and lava flows that cover deposits of stacked lava balloons. Chaotic masses of heterometric boulders around the summit of the principal cone are related to progressive sealing of the vent with decreasing or variable magma supply. Hornitos represent the final eruptive activity with hydrothermal alteration and bacterial mats at the summit. Our study documents the distinct evolution of a submarine volcano and highlights the range of deposit types that may form and be rapidly destroyed in such eruptions.Plain Language SummaryToday and through most of geological history, the greatest number and volume of volcanic eruptions on Earth have occurred underwater. However, in comparison to subaerial eruption, little is known about submarine eruptive processes as they are dangerous to cruise it over

  18. A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    - The one-man submarine known as DeepWorker 2000 is tested in Atlantic waters near Cape Canaveral, Fla. Nearby are divers; inside the sub is the pilot, Anker Rasmussen. The sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

  19. Experimental submarine with closed cycle diesel engine. Final report. Experimentaltauchboot mit Argon-Kreislaufdieselmotor. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, J.

    1990-08-01

    The Experimental Submarine SEAHORSE-KD is a fully operational autonomous test platform for an air independent propulsion system based on a closed cycle diesel engine. The Argon-Diesel known as MOTARK was a contribution from MAN Technologie AG, Munich, which also included process technology and control. Within the Argon cycle the exhaust gas is cooled down, cleaned from CO{sub 2} in a rotary scrubber and fed into the engine again after addition of oxygen. On surface, the engine can be operated on ambient air. During closed cycle operation, no media are exchanged with the ambient. The process works independently from the depth. Bruker Meerestechnik GmbH had to define the complete vehicle, developed and integrated the subsystems such as the LOX-system, the chemical and condensate plant, the fuel system, the propulsion and the electric system, etc. and carried out extensive workshop tests, shallow water and sea trials. The reliable functioning of the CCD-plant and of the complete Experimental Submarine could be convincingly demonstrated. A certificate has been issued by the Germanischer Lloyd. (orig.) With 90 refs., 15 figs.

  20. Gut Microbiome and Putative Resistome of Inca and Italian Nobility Mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M; Fornaciari, Gino; Luciani, Stefania; Toranzos, Gary A; Marota, Isolina; Giuffra, Valentina; Cano, Raul J

    2017-11-07

    Little is still known about the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut. In the present study, the gut microbiota, genes associated with metabolism, and putative resistome of Inca and Italian nobility mummies were characterized by using high-throughput sequencing. The Italian nobility mummies exhibited a higher bacterial diversity as compared to the Inca mummies when using 16S ribosomal (rRNA) gene amplicon sequencing, but both groups showed bacterial and fungal taxa when using shotgun metagenomic sequencing that may resemble both the thanatomicrobiome and extant human gut microbiomes. Identification of sequences associated with plants, animals, and carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) may provide further insights into the dietary habits of Inca and Italian nobility mummies. Putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca and Italian nobility mummies support a human gut resistome prior to the antibiotic therapy era. The higher proportion of putative antibiotic-resistance genes in the Inca compared to Italian nobility mummies may support the hypotheses that a greater exposure to the environment may result in a greater acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes. The present study adds knowledge of the microbiome resulting from the process of mummification of the human gut, insights of ancient dietary habits, and the preserved putative human gut resistome prior the antibiotic therapy era.

  1. 32 CFR 575.1 - Military Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Military Academy. 575.1 Section 575.1 National... MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.1 Military Academy. (a) Organization and administration. (1) The United States Military Academy is under the general direction and supervision of the Department of the Army. The...

  2. Italian high technology shows its wares at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    Italian industry held an exhibition at CERN on 14-17 November with 26 firms displaying innovative technological developments. In particular it featured categories such as mechanics, high-vacuum technologies, electronics for detectors, and electric and civil engineering. The exhibition was inaugurated in the presence of Guido Possa, vice-minister for education, universities and research. The event was organized by Sandro Centro, INFN researcher and Industrial Liaison Officer at CERN, along with Federico Ferrini, scientific officer for International Organizations of Geneva and the Italian Chamber of Commerce in Switzerland

  3. The Transition to Work for Italian University Graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario

    This study investigates the hazard of first job for Italian graduates. The analysis is in particular focused on the transition from university to work, taking into account the graduates' characteristics and the effects relating to degree subject. It is used a large data set from a survey on job...... opportunities for the 1998 Italian graduates. The paper employs a non parametric discrete-time single risk models to study employment hazard. Alternative mixing distributions have also been used to account for unobserved heterogeneity. The results obtained indicate that there is evidence of positive duration...

  4. Bacterial Diversity in Submarine Groundwater along the Coasts of the Yellow Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Qi; Liu, Jianan; Du, Jinzhou; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Submarine groundwater (SGD) is one of the most significant pathways for the exchange of groundwater and/or source of nutrients, metals and carbon to the ocean, subsequently cause deleterious impacts on the coastal ecosystems. Microorganisms have been recognized as the important participators in the biogeochemical processes in the SGD. In this study, by utilizing 16S rRNA-based Illumina Miseq sequencing technology, we investigated bacterial diversity and distribution in both fresh well water a...

  5. Optical image modulation above the submarine bottom topography: a case study on the Taiwan Banks, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Hu, Jianyu; Li, Jing; Fu, Bin; Ma, Liming

    2003-05-01

    A possible mechanism to explain the correlation between submarine topography and the direct sunlight specially reflected from the sea surface with variable roughness caused by the bottom-current effect was suggested fifteen years ago by Henning et al. in International Journal of Remote Sensing, 9, 45-67, after comparing radar satellite image and Skylab satellite photograph of the North American east coast (Nantucket Shoals) with submarine relief features. A case study is carried out in the famous sand waves field located at the Taiwan banks of Taiwan Strait in August 1998. The TM images, either visible bands (TM1, TM2, TM3) or near infrared bands (TM4, TM5, TM7), shows submarine relief features for sand waves, with wavelength of 300 to 2000 meters, riding on the lager scale sand ridges and channel system. Sea truth data including 660 nm beam attenuation coefficient profiles were conducted in the same period. We compare signals of TM images, attenuation coefficient profiles, and sounding maps of the Taiwan Bands. The subsurface upwelling signals with contributions of the water column and the bottom, either estimated by single or quasi-single-scattering theory or revealed by the TM images after removing the contribution of direct sunlight reflected signals from sea surface, were too weak to distinguish the ridges and troughs of bedforms especially for red and near infrared bands. However, the direct sunlight specially reflected signals from the sea surface, approximately at same level in water-leaving reflectance not only for visible bands (TM1, TM2, TM3) but also for near infrared bands (TM4, TM5, TM7), was the major submarine bottom topography signals especially for those pixels towards the direction of the sun azimuth. Following a physical description for the lee waves appeared on free surface when the current flows round an underwater obstacle, the direct sunlight reflected signals related wave face slope, is dominated by the height and depth of sand waves and

  6. Military Effectiveness: A Reappraisal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernasconi, Jeffrey J

    2007-01-01

    .... Two divergent theories cover the ground of military effectiveness. One looks at the interaction of social structures, whereas the other looks at the effect organization has on military effectiveness...

  7. Military exceptionalism or tobacco exceptionalism: How civilian health leaders' beliefs may impede military tobacco control efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, EA; Malone, RE

    2013-01-01

    Smoking impairs the readiness and performance of military personnel, yet congressional opposition has thwarted military tobacco control initiatives. Involvement of civilian organizations might alter this political dynamic. We interviewed 13 leaders of national civilian public health and tobacco control organizations to explore their perspectives on military tobacco control, inductively analyzing data for themes. Leaders believed that military tobacco use was problematic but lacked specific kn...

  8. Monitoring El Hierro submarine volcanic eruption events with a submarine seismic array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Molino, Erik; Lopez, Carmen

    2013-04-01

    A submarine volcanic eruption took place near the southernmost emerged land of the El Hierro Island (Canary Islands, Spain), from October 2011 to February 2012. The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) seismic stations network evidenced seismic unrest since July 2012 and was a reference also to follow the evolution of the seismic activity associated with the volcanic eruption. From the beginning of the eruption a geophone string was installed less than 2 km away from the new volcano, next to La Restinga village shore, to record seismic activity related to the volcanic activity, continuously and with special interest on high frequency events. The seismic array was endowed with 8, high frequency, 3 component, 250 Hz, geophone cable string with a separation of 6 m between them. The analysis of the dataset using spectral techniques allows the characterization of the different phases of the eruption and the study of its dynamics. The correlation of the data analysis results with the observed sea surface activity (ash and lava emission and degassing) and also with the seismic activity recorded by the IGN field seismic monitoring system, allows the identification of different stages suggesting the existence of different signal sources during the volcanic eruption and also the posteruptive record of the degassing activity. The study shows that the high frequency capability of the geophone array allow the study of important features that cannot be registered by the standard seismic stations. The accumulative spectral amplitude show features related to eruptive changes.

  9. MILITARY LEADERSHIP VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe CALOPĂREANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The actual study is aimed at defining the place and the role of the concepts of authority, management and leadership and their connexions within the recognized military strategic systems. In addition to the above mentioned main objective, the following related aims will be achieved in the present work: - to analyze the command, management and leadership nexus; - to make suggestions for configuring an effective professional framework to address the armed forces leadership challenges and the visionary leader concept. Eventually, the present study will emphasize the need for the military leaders to lead not only the members of the organization but the military organizations themselves.

  10. Gesture and Identity in the Teaching and Learning of Italian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Ilaria Nardotto; McCafferty, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the use of mimetic gestures of identity by foreign language teachers of Italian and their students in college classes as a form of meaning-making. All four of the teachers were found to use a variety of Italian gestures as a regular aspect of their teaching and presentation of self. Students and teachers also were found to…

  11. Precursory diffuse CO2 and H2S emission signatures of the 2011-2012 El Hierro submarine eruption, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Nemesio M.; Padilla, Germán D.; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Nolasco, Dácil; Rodríguez, Fátima; Calvo, David; Hernández, Íñigo

    2012-08-01

    On October 12, 2011, a submarine eruption began 2 km off the coast of La Restinga, south of El Hierro Island. CO2 and H2S soil efflux were continuously measured during the period of volcanic unrest by using the accumulation chamber method at two different geochemical stations, HIE01 and HIE07. Recorded CO2 and H2S effluxes showed precursory signals that preceded the submarine eruption. Beginning in late August, the CO2 efflux time series started increasing at a relatively constant rate over one month, reaching a maximum of 19 gm-2d-1 one week before the onset of the submarine volcanic eruption. The H2S efflux time series at HIE07 showed a pulse in H2S emission just one day before the initiation of the submarine eruption, reaching peak values of 42 mg m-2 d-1, 10 times the average H2S efflux recorded during the observation period. Since CO2 and H2S effluxes are strongly influenced by external factors, we applied a multiple regression analysis to remove their contribution. A statistical analysis showed that the long-term trend of the filtered data is well correlated with the seismic energy. We find that these geochemical stations are important monitoring sites for evaluating the volcanic activity of El Hierro and that they demonstrate the potential of applying continuous monitoring of soil CO2 and H2S efflux to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of future volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro. Continuous diffuse degassing studies would likely prove useful for monitoring other volcanoes during unrest episodes.

  12. Haimormus shimojiensis, a new genus and species of Pseudozeuxidae (Crustacea: Tanaidacea from a submarine limestone cave in Northwestern Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiichi Kakui

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We establish a new pseudozeuxid genus Haimormus gen. nov. based on a new species Haimormus shimojiensis sp. nov. which was collected from a submarine limestone cave with the entrance at 35 m depth, in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. H. shimojiensis differs from the other confamilial members, Pseudozeuxo belizensis Sieg, 1982 and Charbeitanais spongicola Bamber & Bird, 1997, in having the pleonite 1 without the pleopod, the pereopods 2 and 3 propodus with a ventral spiniform seta, and the pereopods 4–6 propodus with one long and two short dorsodistal setae. A key to females of species of Pseudozeuxidae is presented. This is the first tanaidacean report from submarine caves around Japan.

  13. 31 CFR 29.333 - Military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Military service. 29.333 Section 29... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.333 Military service. (a) For employees who entered on duty on or before June 30, 1997, and whose military service was performed prior to that date, credit for military service...

  14. The Ambiguity of Foreign Military Assistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Henrik

    This study tests the argument that Foreign Military Assistance and the consequently professionalizing of the recipient military has a positive effect on the process of democratization in Kenya.......This study tests the argument that Foreign Military Assistance and the consequently professionalizing of the recipient military has a positive effect on the process of democratization in Kenya....

  15. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MilitaryFamily.org © 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  16. Military experience can influence Women's eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Nevedal, Andrea; Dinh, Julie V; Maguen, Shira

    2017-11-01

    Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to identify and understand women's self-reported eating habits before, during, and after military service. Participants reported entering the military with varied eating habits, but little disordered eating. Participants described several ways military environments affected eating habits, for example, by promoting fast, irregular, binge-like eating and disrupting the reward value of food. Participants believed military-related stressors, which were often related to gender, also affected eating habits. Such stressors included military sexual trauma and the need to meet military weight requirements in general and after giving birth. Participants also reported that poor eating habits continued after military service, often because they remained under stress. For some women, military service can result in socialization to poor eating habits, which when combined with exposure to stressors can lead to disordered eating. Additional research is needed, including work to understand possible benefits associated with providing support in relation to military weight requirements and the transition out of military service. Given the unique experiences of women in the military, future work could also focus on health services surrounding pregnancy-related weight change and the stress associated with being a woman in predominantly male military environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. New business with the new military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgar, Mahlon; Keane, John M

    2004-09-01

    A $200 billion market has appeared on your business horizon, but you may not have noticed it. It's the U.S. military--the new U.S. military. Virtually all aspects of the military are changing to ensure it can fight unpredictable threats while sustaining the infrastructure needed to support and train forces. The military is turning to non-traditional business partners to meet a wide range of needs, from health care to housing to information technology. The Defense Department is yielding its monopoly on every aspect of national security and adopting a more businesslike model in which the military's warfighting capabilities are supported through outsourcing and business alliances. Civilians are replacing military personnel in many noncombat roles. Military functions with corporate equivalents are candidates for outsourcing and privatization. Market standards are replacing the heavy customization that has locked many companies out of this marketplace. The authors have participated in the transformation process from different perspectives--one civilian, the other military. Together, they highlight the prospects that transformation is creating for companies outside the traditional defense industry and reveal paths to success in this complex market. They also present six principles for doing business with the military that require persistence, integrity, and a willingness to master the intricacies of a distinctive culture. By understanding the logic of military transformation, executives can identify and create vast new business opportunities. And by mastering the six principles, they can build profitable long-term relationships.

  18. Steady State Modelling of Three-core Wire Armoured Submarine Cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baù, Matteo; Viafora, Nicola; Hansen, Chris Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces Finite Element Method mod-elling techniques applied to wire armoured submarine three-core cables, whose nominal voltages range from 36 to 245 kV. The analysis is focused on the implementation of the net voltage cancellation principle in a 2D environment. The model is utilised...... confirm that the wire armour stranding is not accounted for, but also suggest that the ampacity underrating might be due to other inaccuracies in the IEC modelling indications. Overall, the difference in terms of current rating between the FEM and the IEC approach is found to be voltage dependent and more...

  19. An Italian multicentre validation study of the coma recovery scale-revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estraneo, A; Moretta, P; De Tanti, A; Gatta, G; Giacino, J T; Trojano, L

    2015-10-01

    Rate of misdiagnosis of disorders of consciousness (DoC) can be reduced by employing validated clinical diagnostic tools, such as the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). An Italian version of the CRS-R has been recently developed, but its applicability across different clinical settings, and its concurrent validity and diagnostic sensitivity have not been estimated yet. To perform a multicentre validation study of the Italian version of the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R). Analysis of inter-rater reliability, concurrent validity and diagnostic sensitivity of the scale. One Intensive Care Unit, 8 Post-acute rehabilitation centres and 2 Long-term facilities Twenty-seven professionals (physicians, N.=11; psychologists, N.=5; physiotherapists, N.=3; speech therapists, N.=6; nurses, N.=2) from 11 Italian Centres. CRS-R and Disability Rating Scale (DRS) applied to 122 patients with clinical diagnosis of Vegetative State (VS) or Minimally Conscious State (MCS). CRS-R has good-to-excellent inter-rater reliability for all subscales, particularly for the communication subscale. The Italian version of the CRS-R showed a high sensitivity and specificity in detecting MCS with reference to clinical consensus diagnosis. The CRS-R showed good concurrent validity with the Disability Rating Scale, which had very low specificity with reference to clinical consensus diagnosis. The Italian version of the CRS-R is a valid scale for use from the sub-acute to chronic stages of DoC. It can be administered reliably by all members of the rehabilitation team with different specialties, levels of experience and settings. The present study promote use of the Italian version of the CRS-R to improve diagnosis of DoC patients, and plan tailored rehabilitation treatment.

  20. The sustainability of the Italian public finances: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Salustri, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The Italian international reputation in mainly related to the high level of its public debt. During the Great Recession, this fact, associated to the stagnation of productivity, raised serious doubts on its economic and financial sustainability. The doubts are legitimated also by the fact that Italy is a net borrower of capitals from abroad, as its Net International Investment Position (NIIP) is negative. The statistical analysis of the Italian public finances suggests how the deep causes of ...