WorldWideScience

Sample records for issue medium-range forecasts

  1. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  2. Medium Range Flood Forecasting for Agriculture Damage Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, S. H. M.

    2014-12-01

    Early warning is a key element for disaster risk reduction. In recent decades, major advancements have been made in medium range and seasonal flood forecasting. This progress provides a great opportunity to reduce agriculture damage and improve advisories for early action and planning for flood hazards. This approach can facilitate proactive rather than reactive management of the adverse consequences of floods. In the agricultural sector, for instance, farmers can take a diversity of options such as changing cropping patterns, applying fertilizer, irrigating and changing planting timing. An experimental medium range (1-10 day) flood forecasting model has been developed for Bangladesh and Thailand. It provides 51 sets of discharge ensemble forecasts of 1-10 days with significant persistence and high certainty. This type of forecast could assist farmers and other stakeholders for differential preparedness activities. These ensembles probabilistic flood forecasts have been customized based on user-needs for community-level application focused on agriculture system. The vulnerabilities of agriculture system were calculated based on exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Indicators for risk and vulnerability assessment were conducted through community consultations. The forecast lead time requirement, user-needs, impacts and management options for crops were identified through focus group discussions, informal interviews and community surveys. This paper illustrates potential applications of such ensembles for probabilistic medium range flood forecasts in a way that is not commonly practiced globally today.

  3. Medium Range Forecast (MRF) and Nested Grid Model (NGM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Nested Grid Model (NGM) and Medium Range Forecast (MRF) Archive is historical digital data set DSI-6140, archived at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental...

  4. Medium Range Ensembles Flood Forecasts for Community Level Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, S.; Kawasaki, A.; Babel, M. S.; AIT

    2013-05-01

    Early warning is a key element for disaster risk reduction. In recent decades, there has been a major advancement in medium range and seasonal forecasting. These could provide a great opportunity to improve early warning systems and advisories for early action for strategic and long term planning. This could result in increasing emphasis on proactive rather than reactive management of adverse consequences of flood events. This can be also very helpful for the agricultural sector by providing a diversity of options to farmers (e.g. changing cropping pattern, planting timing, etc.). An experimental medium range (1-10 days) flood forecasting model has been developed for Bangladesh which provides 51 set of discharge ensembles forecasts of one to ten days with significant persistence and high certainty. This could help communities (i.e. farmer) for gain/lost estimation as well as crop savings. This paper describe the application of ensembles probabilistic flood forecast at the community level for differential decision making focused on agriculture. The framework allows users to interactively specify the objectives and criteria that are germane to a particular situation, and obtain the management options that are possible, and the exogenous influences that should be taken into account before planning and decision making. risk and vulnerability assessment was conducted through community consultation. The forecast lead time requirement, users' needs, impact and management options for crops, livestock and fisheries sectors were identified through focus group discussions, informal interviews and questionnaire survey.

  5. Towards a medium-range coastal station fog forecasting system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available -1 29th Annual conference of South African Society for Atmospheric Sciences (SASAS) 2013 http://sasas.ukzn.ac.za/homepage.aspx Towards a Medium-Range Coastal Station Fog Forecasting System Stephanie Landman*1, Estelle Marx1, Willem A. Landman2...

  6. Medium-Range Air Quality Forecast During the Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, J.; Wang, Z.; Luo, L.; Wu, Q.

    2008-12-01

    Prior to the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, air quality was a major concern for many athletes and visitors to the Games. In response to the need for enhanced air quality forecasts, we explored and tested the capability of medium-range air quality forecasting in a multimodel ensemble system. The system consists of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry module (WRF-Chem), the Fifth-Generation NCAR/PennState Mesoscale Model (MM5), and the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP). Both MM5 and NAQPMS have been in operational use to produce short-term air quality forecasts. WRFChem is the major addition to the multimodel system. Forced with the forecast from the NCEP Global Ensemble Forecast System (GENS) at the lateral boundary, the multimodel system makes ensemble air quality forecasts out to 16 days with emission scenarios that reflect measures for the Olympics, including the closing down of factories around the city and beyond, a traffic control program that reduced the number of automobiles around the city by about half and elimination of all construction activities. Analyses of two forecasts are presented in this study. They were made on 5 August 2008 and 8 August 2008, both covering the entire Olympic period. Each forecast consists of three ensemble members that were produced with the same regional model but were forced by the control and two 'extremes' of the GENS forecast. The two extreme members were hand-picked to represent the best and worst case scenarios. The forecasts are evaluated with observations taken during the Olympic Games that include satellite observations, in-situ meteorological stations, LIDAR and air quality observations at the IAP tower site, 1 km away from the 'Bird Nest'. The analyses show good model skill in the first 3 days and generally satisfactory after 96 hours, with a successful forecast of potential pollution episode on 20 August 2008. The challenge

  7. Spatio-temporal behaviour of medium-range ensemble forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipling, Zak; Primo, Cristina; Charlton-Perez, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Using the recently-developed mean-variance of logarithms (MVL) diagram, together with the TIGGE archive of medium-range ensemble forecasts from nine different centres, we present an analysis of the spatio-temporal dynamics of their perturbations, and show how the differences between models and perturbation techniques can explain the shape of their characteristic MVL curves. We also consider the use of the MVL diagram to compare the growth of perturbations within the ensemble with the growth of the forecast error, showing that there is a much closer correspondence for some models than others. We conclude by looking at how the MVL technique might assist in selecting models for inclusion in a multi-model ensemble, and suggest an experiment to test its potential in this context.

  8. Medium range forecasting of Hurricane Harvey flash flooding using ECMWF and social vulnerability data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillosu, F. M.; Jurlina, T.; Baugh, C.; Tsonevsky, I.; Hewson, T.; Prates, F.; Pappenberger, F.; Prudhomme, C.

    2017-12-01

    During hurricane Harvey the greater east Texas area was affected by extensive flash flooding. Their localised nature meant they were too small for conventional large scale flood forecasting systems to capture. We are testing the use of two real time forecast products from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in combination with local vulnerability information to provide flash flood forecasting tools at the medium range (up to 7 days ahead). Meteorological forecasts are the total precipitation extreme forecast index (EFI), a measure of how the ensemble forecast probability distribution differs from the model-climate distribution for the chosen location, time of year and forecast lead time; and the shift of tails (SOT) which complements the EFI by quantifying how extreme an event could potentially be. Both products give the likelihood of flash flood generating precipitation. For hurricane Harvey, 3-day EFI and SOT products for the period 26th - 29th August 2017 were used, generated from the twice daily, 18 km, 51 ensemble member ECMWF Integrated Forecast System. After regridding to 1 km resolution the forecasts were combined with vulnerable area data to produce a flash flood hazard risk area. The vulnerability data were floodplains (EU Joint Research Centre), road networks (Texas Department of Transport) and urban areas (Census Bureau geographic database), together reflecting the susceptibility to flash floods from the landscape. The flash flood hazard risk area forecasts were verified using a traditional approach against observed National Weather Service flash flood reports, a total of 153 reported flash floods have been detected in that period. Forecasts performed best for SOT = 5 (hit ratio = 65%, false alarm ratio = 44%) and EFI = 0.7 (hit ratio = 74%, false alarm ratio = 45%) at 72 h lead time. By including the vulnerable areas data, our verification results improved by 5-15%, demonstrating the value of vulnerability information within

  9. How Hydroclimate Influences the Effectiveness of Particle Filter Data Assimilation of Streamflow in Initializing Short- to Medium-range Streamflow Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E.; Wood, A.; Nijssen, B.; Clark, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    Short- to medium-range (1- to 7-day) streamflow forecasts are important for flood control operations and in issuing potentially life-save flood warnings. In the U.S., the National Weather Service River Forecast Centers (RFCs) issue such forecasts in real time, depending heavily on a manual data assimilation (DA) approach. Forecasters adjust model inputs, states, parameters and outputs based on experience and consideration of a range of supporting real-time information. Achieving high-quality forecasts from new automated, centralized forecast systems will depend critically on the adequacy of automated DA approaches to make analogous corrections to the forecasting system. Such approaches would further enable systematic evaluation of real-time flood forecasting methods and strategies. Toward this goal, we have implemented a real-time Sequential Importance Resampling particle filter (SIR-PF) approach to assimilate observed streamflow into simulated initial hydrologic conditions (states) for initializing ensemble flood forecasts. Assimilating streamflow alone in SIR-PF improves simulated streamflow and soil moisture during the model spin up period prior to a forecast, with consequent benefits for forecasts. Nevertheless, it only consistently limits error in simulated snow water equivalent during the snowmelt season and in basins where precipitation falls primarily as snow. We examine how the simulated initial conditions with and without SIR-PF propagate into 1- to 7-day ensemble streamflow forecasts. Forecasts are evaluated in terms of reliability and skill over a 10-year period from 2005-2015. The focus of this analysis is on how interactions between hydroclimate and SIR-PF performance impact forecast skill. To this end, we examine forecasts for 5 hydroclimatically diverse basins in the western U.S. Some of these basins receive most of their precipitation as snow, others as rain. Some freeze throughout the mid-winter while others experience significant mid-winter melt

  10. Use of medium-range numerical weather prediction model output to produce forecasts of streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.P.; Hay, L.E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines an archive containing over 40 years of 8-day atmospheric forecasts over the contiguous United States from the NCEP reanalysis project to assess the possibilities for using medium-range numerical weather prediction model output for predictions of streamflow. This analysis shows the biases in the NCEP forecasts to be quite extreme. In many regions, systematic precipitation biases exceed 100% of the mean, with temperature biases exceeding 3??C. In some locations, biases are even higher. The accuracy of NCEP precipitation and 2-m maximum temperature forecasts is computed by interpolating the NCEP model output for each forecast day to the location of each station in the NWS cooperative network and computing the correlation with station observations. Results show that the accuracy of the NCEP forecasts is rather low in many areas of the country. Most apparent is the generally low skill in precipitation forecasts (particularly in July) and low skill in temperature forecasts in the western United States, the eastern seaboard, and the southern tier of states. These results outline a clear need for additional processing of the NCEP Medium-Range Forecast Model (MRF) output before it is used for hydrologic predictions. Techniques of model output statistics (MOS) are used in this paper to downscale the NCEP forecasts to station locations. Forecasted atmospheric variables (e.g., total column precipitable water, 2-m air temperature) are used as predictors in a forward screening multiple linear regression model to improve forecasts of precipitation and temperature for stations in the National Weather Service cooperative network. This procedure effectively removes all systematic biases in the raw NCEP precipitation and temperature forecasts. MOS guidance also results in substantial improvements in the accuracy of maximum and minimum temperature forecasts throughout the country. For precipitation, forecast improvements were less impressive. MOS guidance increases

  11. Medium-Range Forecast Skill for Extraordinary Arctic Cyclones in Summer of 2008-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Akio; Matsueda, Mio; Tanaka, Hiroshi L.

    2018-05-01

    Arctic cyclones (ACs) are a severe atmospheric phenomenon that affects the Arctic environment. This study assesses the forecast skill of five leading operational medium-range ensemble forecasts for 10 extraordinary ACs that occurred in summer during 2008-2016. Average existence probability of the predicted ACs was >0.9 at lead times of ≤3.5 days. Average central position error of the predicted ACs was less than half of the mean radius of the 10 ACs (469.1 km) at lead times of 2.5-4.5 days. Average central pressure error of the predicted ACs was 5.5-10.7 hPa at such lead times. Therefore, the operational ensemble prediction systems generally predict the position of ACs within 469.1 km 2.5-4.5 days before they mature. The forecast skill for the extraordinary ACs is lower than that for midlatitude cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere but similar to that in the Southern Hemisphere.

  12. Application of Medium and Seasonal Flood Forecasts for Agriculture Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, Shamsul; Ballio, Francesco; Menoni, Scira

    2015-04-01

    Early warning is a key element for disaster risk reduction. In recent decades, major advancements have been made in medium range and seasonal flood forecasting. This progress provides a great opportunity to reduce agriculture damage and improve advisories for early action and planning for flood hazards. This approach can facilitate proactive rather than reactive management of the adverse consequences of floods. In the agricultural sector, for instance, farmers can take a diversity of options such as changing cropping patterns, applying fertilizer, irrigating and changing planting timing. An experimental medium range (1-10 day) and seasonal (20-25 days) flood forecasting model has been developed for Thailand and Bangladesh. It provides 51 sets of discharge ensemble forecasts of 1-10 days with significant persistence and high certainty and qualitative outlooks for 20-25 days. This type of forecast could assist farmers and other stakeholders for differential preparedness activities. These ensembles probabilistic flood forecasts have been customized based on user-needs for community-level application focused on agriculture system. The vulnerabilities of agriculture system were calculated based on exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Indicators for risk and vulnerability assessment were conducted through community consultations. The forecast lead time requirement, user-needs, impacts and management options for crops were identified through focus group discussions, informal interviews and community surveys. This paper illustrates potential applications of such ensembles for probabilistic medium range and seasonal flood forecasts in a way that is not commonly practiced globally today.

  13. Medium-range reference evapotranspiration forecasts for the contiguous United States based on multi-model numerical weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Hanoi; Tian, Di; Srivastava, Puneet; Pelosi, Anna; Chirico, Giovanni B.

    2018-07-01

    Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) plays a fundamental role in agronomic, forestry, and water resources management. Estimating and forecasting ET0 have long been recognized as a major challenge for researchers and practitioners in these communities. This work explored the potential of multiple leading numerical weather predictions (NWPs) for estimating and forecasting summer ET0 at 101 U.S. Regional Climate Reference Network stations over nine climate regions across the contiguous United States (CONUS). Three leading global NWP model forecasts from THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) dataset were used in this study, including the single model ensemble forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (EC), the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP), and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office forecasts (MO), as well as multi-model ensemble forecasts from the combinations of these NWP models. A regression calibration was employed to bias correct the ET0 forecasts. Impact of individual forecast variables on ET0 forecasts were also evaluated. The results showed that the EC forecasts provided the least error and highest skill and reliability, followed by the MO and NCEP forecasts. The multi-model ensembles constructed from the combination of EC and MO forecasts provided slightly better performance than the single model EC forecasts. The regression process greatly improved ET0 forecast performances, particularly for the regions involving stations near the coast, or with a complex orography. The performance of EC forecasts was only slightly influenced by the size of the ensemble members, particularly at short lead times. Even with less ensemble members, EC still performed better than the other two NWPs. Errors in the radiation forecasts, followed by those in the wind, had the most detrimental effects on the ET0 forecast performances.

  14. Incorporating Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Seasonal Crop Scenarios over the Greater Horn of Africa to Support National/Regional/Local Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) provides seasonal assessments of crop conditions over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and other food insecure regions. These assessments and current livelihood, nutrition, market conditions and conflicts are used to generate food security scenarios that help national, regional and local decision makers target their resources and mitigate socio-economic losses. Among the various tools that FEWS NET uses is the FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI). The WRSI is a simple yet powerful crop assessment model that incorporates current moisture conditions (at the time of the issuance of forecast), precipitation scenarios, potential evapotranspiration and crop parameters to categorize crop conditions into different classes ranging from "failure" to "very good". The WRSI tool has been shown to have a good agreement with local crop yields in the GHA region. At present, the precipitation scenarios used to drive the WRSI are based on either a climatological forecast (that assigns equal chances of occurrence to all possible scenarios and has no skill over the forecast period) or a sea-surface temperature anomaly based scenario (which at best have skill at the seasonal scale). In both cases, the scenarios fail to capture the skill that can be attained by initial atmospheric conditions (i.e., medium-range weather forecasts). During the middle of a cropping season, when a week or two of poor rains can have a devastating effect, two weeks worth of skillful precipitation forecasts could improve the skill of the crop scenarios. With this working hypothesis, we examine the value of incorporating medium-range weather forecasts in improving the skill of crop scenarios in the GHA region. We use the NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast system (GEFS) weather forecasts and examine the skill of crop scenarios generated using the GEFS weather forecasts with respect to the scenarios based solely on the climatological forecast

  15. Medium-term load forecasting and wholesale transaction profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selker, F.K.; Wroblewski, W.R.

    1996-01-01

    The volume of wholesale transactions quoted at firm prices is increasing. The cost, and thus profitability, of serving these contracts strongly depends upon native load during the time of delivery. However, transactions extend beyond load forecasts based on weather information, and long-term resource planning forecasts of load peaks and energy provide inadequate detail. To address this need, Decision Focus Inc. (DFI) and Commonwealth Edison (ComEd) developed a probabilistic, medium-term load forecasting capability. In this paper the authors use a hypothetical utility to explore the impact of uncertain medium-term loads on transaction profitability

  16. Short term and medium term power distribution load forecasting by neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yalcinoz, T.; Eminoglu, U.

    2005-01-01

    Load forecasting is an important subject for power distribution systems and has been studied from different points of view. In general, load forecasts should be performed over a broad spectrum of time intervals, which could be classified into short term, medium term and long term forecasts. Several research groups have proposed various techniques for either short term load forecasting or medium term load forecasting or long term load forecasting. This paper presents a neural network (NN) model for short term peak load forecasting, short term total load forecasting and medium term monthly load forecasting in power distribution systems. The NN is used to learn the relationships among past, current and future temperatures and loads. The neural network was trained to recognize the peak load of the day, total load of the day and monthly electricity consumption. The suitability of the proposed approach is illustrated through an application to real load shapes from the Turkish Electricity Distribution Corporation (TEDAS) in Nigde. The data represents the daily and monthly electricity consumption in Nigde, Turkey

  17. Short-range solar radiation forecasts over Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Landelius

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article the performance for short-range solar radiation forecasts by the global deterministic and ensemble models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF is compared with an ensemble of the regional mesoscale model HARMONIE-AROME used by the national meteorological services in Sweden, Norway and Finland. Note however that only the control members and the ensemble means are included in the comparison. The models resolution differs considerably with 18 km for the ECMWF ensemble, 9 km for the ECMWF deterministic model, and 2.5 km for the HARMONIE-AROME ensemble.The models share the same radiation code. It turns out that they all underestimate systematically the Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI for clear-sky conditions. Except for this shortcoming, the HARMONIE-AROME ensemble model shows the best agreement with the distribution of observed Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI and DNI values. During mid-day the HARMONIE-AROME ensemble mean performs best. The control member of the HARMONIE-AROME ensemble also scores better than the global deterministic ECMWF model. This is an interesting result since mesoscale models have so far not shown good results when compared to the ECMWF models.Three days with clear, mixed and cloudy skies are used to illustrate the possible added value of a probabilistic forecast. It is shown that in these cases the mesoscale ensemble could provide decision support to a grid operator in terms of forecasts of both the amount of solar power and its probabilities.

  18. Ethical issues in forecasting of natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinti, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Natural hazards have by definition a large impact on the society and, therefore, since the beginning of science one of the major aspiration of mankind has been the prediction of natural calamities in the attempt to avoid or to mitigate their effects. In modern societies where science and technology have gained a foundational role, forecasts and predictions have become part of the every-day life and may also influence state policies and economic development. And in parallel with the growing importance of forecasting, even ethical problems for forecasters and for forecasters communities have started to appear. In this work two of the many geo-ethical issues are considered mostly: 1) how to cope with uncertainties that are inherently associated with any forecast statement; 2) how to handle predictions in scientific journals and scientific conferences The former issue is mainly related to the impact of predictions on the general public and on managers and operators in the civil protection field. Forecasters operate in specific contexts that 1) may change from country to country, depending on the local adopted best practices, but also, which is more constraining, on the local legal regulations and laws; 2) may change from discipline to discipline according to the development of the specific knowhow and the range of the forecast (from minutes to centuries) The second issue has to do with the communication of the scientific results on predictions and on prediction methods to the audience mainly composed of scientists, and involves one of the basic elements of science. In principle, scientists should use scientific communication means (papers in scientific journals, conferences, …) to illustrate results that are sound and certain, or the methods by means of which they conduct their research. But scientists involved in predictions have inherently to do with uncertainties, and, since there is no common agreement on how to deal with them, there is the risk that scientific

  19. Issues in midterm analysis and forecasting 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Issues in Midterm Analysis and Forecasting 1998 (Issues) presents a series of nine papers covering topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1998 (AEO98), as well as other significant issues in midterm energy markets. AEO98, DOE/EIA-0383(98), published in December 1997, presents national forecasts of energy production, demand, imports, and prices through the year 2020 for five cases -- a reference case and four additional cases that assume higher and lower economic growth and higher and lower world oil prices than in the reference case. The forecasts were prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), using EIA`s National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The papers included in Issues describe underlying analyses for the projections in AEO98 and the forthcoming Annual Energy Outlook 1999 and for other products of EIA`s Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. Their purpose is to provide public access to analytical work done in preparation for the midterm projections and other unpublished analyses. Specific topics were chosen for their relevance to current energy issues or to highlight modeling activities in NEMS. 59 figs., 44 tabs.

  20. Resources and Long-Range Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Waldo E.

    1973-01-01

    The author argues that forecasts of quick depletion of resources in the environment as a result of overpopulation and increased usage may not be free from error. Ignorance still exists in understanding the recovery mechanisms of nature. Long-range forecasts are likely to be wrong in such situations. (PS)

  1. A preliminary study of the impact of the ERS 1 C band scatterometer wind data on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts global data assimilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ross N.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the impact of the ERS 1 scatterometer wind data on the current European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts analysis and forecast system has been carried out. Although the scatterometer data results in changes to the analyses and forecasts, there is no consistent improvement or degradation. Our results are based on comparing analyses and forecasts from assimilation cycles. The two sets of analyses are very similar except for the low level wind fields over the ocean. Impacts on the analyzed wind fields are greater over the southern ocean, where other data are scarce. For the most part the mass field increments are too small to balance the wind increments. The effect of the nonlinear normal mode initialization on the analysis differences is quite small, but we observe that the differences tend to wash out in the subsequent 6-hour forecast. In the Northern Hemisphere, analysis differences are very small, except directly at the scatterometer locations. Forecast comparisons reveal large differences in the Southern Hemisphere after 72 hours. Notable differences in the Northern Hemisphere do not appear until late in the forecast. Overall, however, the Southern Hemisphere impacts are neutral. The experiments described are preliminary in several respects. We expect these data to ultimately prove useful for global data assimilation.

  2. Evaluating FOMC forecast ranges: an interval data approach

    OpenAIRE

    Henning Fischer; Marta García-Bárzana; Peter Tillmann; Peter Winker

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) of the U.S. Federal Reserve publishes the range of members' forecasts for key macroeconomic variables, but not the distribution of forecasts within this range. To evaluate these projections, previous papers compare the midpoint of the ranges with the realized outcome. This paper proposes a new approach to forecast evaluation that takes account of the interval nature of projections. It is shown that using the conventional Mincer-Zarnowitz approach to ev...

  3. Accurate Medium-Term Wind Power Forecasting in a Censored Classification Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian M.; Croonenbroeck, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We provide a wind power forecasting methodology that exploits many of the actual data's statistical features, in particular both-sided censoring. While other tools ignore many of the important “stylized facts” or provide forecasts for short-term horizons only, our approach focuses on medium......-term forecasts, which are especially necessary for practitioners in the forward electricity markets of many power trading places; for example, NASDAQ OMX Commodities (formerly Nord Pool OMX Commodities) in northern Europe. We show that our model produces turbine-specific forecasts that are significantly more...... accurate in comparison to established benchmark models and present an application that illustrates the financial impact of more accurate forecasts obtained using our methodology....

  4. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.

    2003-01-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparatenational forecasts for long-range dispersion...... emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly intooperational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development.......ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparatenational forecasts for long-range dispersion....... ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidentalatmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making “ENSEMBLE” procedures...

  5. The communicative process of weather forecasts issued in the probabilistic form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Raimondi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of weather forecasting is that of protecting weather-sensitive human activities. Forecasts issued in the probabilistic form have a higher informative content, as opposed to deterministic one, since they bear information that give also a measure of their own uncertainty. However, in order to make an appropriate and effective use of this kind of forecasts in an operational setting, communication becomes significatively relevant.The present paper, after having briefly examined the weather forecasts concerning Hurricane Charley (August 2004, tackles the issue of the communicative process in detail.The bottom line of this study is that for the weather forecast to achieve its best predictive potential, an in-depth analysis of communication issues is necessary.

  6. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine th...

  7. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    OpenAIRE

    F. F. van Ogtrop; R. W. Vervoort; G. Z. Heller; D. M. Stasinopoulos; R. A. Rigby

    2011-01-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a probabilistic statistical model to forecast streamflow 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probabil...

  8. Long-range dependence and sea level forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Ercan, Ali; Abbasov, Rovshan K

    2013-01-01

    This study shows that the Caspian Sea level time series possess long range dependence even after removing linear trends, based on analyses of the Hurst statistic, the sample autocorrelation functions, and the periodogram of the series. Forecasting performance of ARMA, ARIMA, ARFIMA and Trend Line-ARFIMA (TL-ARFIMA) combination models are investigated. The forecast confidence bands and the forecast updating methodology, provided for ARIMA models in the literature, are modified for the ARFIMA models. Sample autocorrelation functions are utilized to estimate the differencing lengths of the ARFIMA

  9. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.; French, S.

    2003-01-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparatenational forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an a...

  10. Early warnings of extreme winds using the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petroliagis, Thomas I.; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The European FP7 SafeWind Project aims at developing research towards a European vision of wind power forecasting, which requires advanced meteorological support concerning extreme wind events. This study is focused mainly on early warnings of extreme winds in the early medium-range. Three synoptic...... regimes. Overall, it becomes clear that the first indications of an extreme wind event might come from the ECMWF deterministic and/or probabilistic components capturing very intense weather systems (possible windstorms) in the medium term. For early warnings, all available EPS Extreme Forecast Index (EFI......) formulations were used, by linking daily maximum wind speeds to EFI values for different forecast horizons. From all possible EFI schemes deployed for issuing early warnings, the highest skill was found for the Gust Factor formulation (EFI-10FGI). Using EFI-10FGI, the corresponding 99% threshold could provide...

  11. A Vertically Flow-Following, Icosahedral Grid Model for Medium-Range and Seasonal Prediction. Part 1: Model Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleck, Rainer; Bao, Jian-Wen; Benjamin, Stanley G.; Brown, John M.; Fiorino, Michael; Henderson, Thomas B.; Lee, Jin-Luen; MacDonald, Alexander E.; Madden, Paul; Middlecoff, Jacques; hide

    2015-01-01

    A hydrostatic global weather prediction model based on an icosahedral horizontal grid and a hybrid terrain following/ isentropic vertical coordinate is described. The model is an extension to three spatial dimensions of a previously developed, icosahedral, shallow-water model featuring user-selectable horizontal resolution and employing indirect addressing techniques. The vertical grid is adaptive to maximize the portion of the atmosphere mapped into the isentropic coordinate subdomain. The model, best described as a stacked shallow-water model, is being tested extensively on real-time medium-range forecasts to ready it for possible inclusion in operational multimodel ensembles for medium-range to seasonal prediction.

  12. Mountain range specific analog weather forecast model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    used to draw weather forecast for that mountain range in operational weather forecasting mode, three days ... various road management activities and for better .... −0.8. 1.5. 0.0. Pir Panjal range (HP). 1989–90 to 2002–03. 14. Snow day. 2.2. −4.1 ..... ed days,. S. = snow day,. N. S. = no-snow day and. P. C. = per cent correct).

  13. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ogtrop, F. F.; Vervoort, R. W.; Heller, G. Z.; Stasinopoulos, D. M.; Rigby, R. A.

    2011-11-01

    Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth) of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  14. Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. van Ogtrop

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-range forecasting of intermittent streamflow in semi-arid Australia poses a number of major challenges. One of the challenges relates to modelling zero, skewed, non-stationary, and non-linear data. To address this, a statistical model to forecast streamflow up to 12 months ahead is applied to five semi-arid catchments in South Western Queensland. The model uses logistic regression through Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS to determine the probability of flow occurring in any of the systems. We then use the same regression framework in combination with a right-skewed distribution, the Box-Cox t distribution, to model the intensity (depth of the non-zero streamflows. Time, seasonality and climate indices, describing the Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures, are tested as covariates in the GAMLSS model to make probabilistic 6 and 12-month forecasts of the occurrence and intensity of streamflow. The output reveals that in the study region the occurrence and variability of flow is driven by sea surface temperatures and therefore forecasts can be made with some skill.

  15. Precipitable water and surface humidity over global oceans from special sensor microwave imager and European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. T.; Tang, Wenqing; Wentz, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Global fields of precipitable water W from the special sensor microwave imager were compared with those from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. They agree over most ocean areas; both data sets capture the two annual cycles examined and the interannual anomalies during an ENSO episode. They show significant differences in the dry air masses over the eastern tropical-subtropical oceans, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. In these regions, comparisons with radiosonde data indicate that overestimation by the ECMWF model accounts for a large part of the differences. As a check on the W differences, surface-level specific humidity Q derived from W, using a statistical relation, was compared with Q from the ECMWF model. The differences in Q were found to be consistent with the differences in W, indirectly validating the Q-W relation. In both W and Q, SSMI was able to discern clearly the equatorial extension of the tongues of dry air in the eastern tropical ocean, while both ECMWF and climatological fields have reduced spatial gradients and weaker intensity.

  16. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, T; Galmarini, S; Bianconi, R; French, S [eds.

    2003-11-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparate national forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidental atmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making 'ENSEMBLE' procedures and Web-based software evaluation and exchange tools have been created for real-time reconciliation and harmonisation of real-time dispersion forecasts from meteorological and emergency centres across Europe during an accident. The new ENSEMBLE software tools is available to participating national emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly into operational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development. (au)

  17. ENSEMBLE methods to reconcile disparate national long range dispersion forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, T.; Galmarini, S.; Bianconi, R.; French, S. (eds.)

    2003-11-01

    ENSEMBLE is a web-based decision support system for real-time exchange and evaluation of national long-range dispersion forecasts of nuclear releases with cross-boundary consequences. The system is developed with the purpose to reconcile among disparate national forecasts for long-range dispersion. ENSEMBLE addresses the problem of achieving a common coherent strategy across European national emergency management when national long-range dispersion forecasts differ from one another during an accidental atmospheric release of radioactive material. A series of new decision-making 'ENSEMBLE' procedures and Web-based software evaluation and exchange tools have been created for real-time reconciliation and harmonisation of real-time dispersion forecasts from meteorological and emergency centres across Europe during an accident. The new ENSEMBLE software tools is available to participating national emergency and meteorological forecasting centres, which may choose to integrate them directly into operational emergency information systems, or possibly use them as a basis for future system development. (au)

  18. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, A.; Romero, R.; Vich, M.; Alonso, S.

    2009-06-01

    The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood - known as the "Montserrat" event - which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5) is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS) based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV) Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields). For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been found useful to reduce the

  19. Anthropogenic range contractions bias species climate change forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faurby, Søren; Araújo, Miguel B.

    2018-03-01

    Forecasts of species range shifts under climate change most often rely on ecological niche models, in which characterizations of climate suitability are highly contingent on the species range data used. If ranges are far from equilibrium under current environmental conditions, for instance owing to local extinctions in otherwise suitable areas, modelled environmental suitability can be truncated, leading to biased estimates of the effects of climate change. Here we examine the impact of such biases on estimated risks from climate change by comparing models of the distribution of North American mammals based on current ranges with ranges accounting for historical information on species ranges. We find that estimated future diversity, almost everywhere, except in coastal Alaska, is drastically underestimated unless the full historical distribution of the species is included in the models. Consequently forecasts of climate change impacts on biodiversity for many clades are unlikely to be reliable without acknowledging anthropogenic influences on contemporary ranges.

  20. The communicative process of weather forecasts issued in the probabilistic form (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Raimondi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main purposes of weather forecasting is that of protecting weather-sensitive human activities. Forecasts issued in the probabilistic form have a higher informative content, as opposed to deterministic one, since they bear information that give also a measure of their own uncertainty. However, in order to make an appropriate and effective use of this kind of forecasts in an operational setting, communication becomes significatively relevant.The present paper, after having briefly examined the weather forecasts concerning Hurricane Charley (August 2004, tackles the issue of the communicative process in detail.The bottom line of this study is that for the weather forecast to achieve its best predictive potential, an in-depth analysis of communication issues is necessary.

  1. Improving forecasting accuracy of medium and long-term runoff using artificial neural network based on EEMD decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-chuan; Chau, Kwok-wing; Qiu, Lin; Chen, Yang-bo

    2015-05-01

    Hydrological time series forecasting is one of the most important applications in modern hydrology, especially for the effective reservoir management. In this research, an artificial neural network (ANN) model coupled with the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is presented for forecasting medium and long-term runoff time series. First, the original runoff time series is decomposed into a finite and often small number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residual series using EEMD technique for attaining deeper insight into the data characteristics. Then all IMF components and residue are predicted, respectively, through appropriate ANN models. Finally, the forecasted results of the modeled IMFs and residual series are summed to formulate an ensemble forecast for the original annual runoff series. Two annual reservoir runoff time series from Biuliuhe and Mopanshan in China, are investigated using the developed model based on four performance evaluation measures (RMSE, MAPE, R and NSEC). The results obtained in this work indicate that EEMD can effectively enhance forecasting accuracy and the proposed EEMD-ANN model can attain significant improvement over ANN approach in medium and long-term runoff time series forecasting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Predictability of the 2012 Great Arctic Cyclone on medium-range timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagami, Akio; Matsueda, Mio; Tanaka, Hiroshi L.

    2018-03-01

    Arctic Cyclones (ACs) can have a significant impact on the Arctic region. Therefore, the accurate prediction of ACs is important in anticipating their associated environmental and societal costs. This study investigates the predictability of the 2012 Great Arctic Cyclone (AC12) that exhibited a minimum central pressure of 964 hPa on 6 August 2012, using five medium-range ensemble forecasts. We show that the development and position of AC12 were better predicted in forecasts initialized on and after 4 August 2012. In addition, the position of AC12 was more predictable than its development. A comparison of ensemble members, classified by the error in predictability of the development and position of AC12, revealed that an accurate prediction of upper-level fields, particularly temperature, was important for the prediction of this event. The predicted position of AC12 was influenced mainly by the prediction of the polar vortex, whereas the predicted development of AC12 was dependent primarily on the prediction of the merging of upper-level warm cores. Consequently, an accurate prediction of the polar vortex position and the development of the warm core through merging resulted in better prediction of AC12.

  3. Combining 2-m temperature nowcasting and short range ensemble forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During recent years, numerical ensemble prediction systems have become an important tool for estimating the uncertainties of dynamical and physical processes as represented in numerical weather models. The latest generation of limited area ensemble prediction systems (LAM-EPSs allows for probabilistic forecasts at high resolution in both space and time. However, these systems still suffer from systematic deficiencies. Especially for nowcasting (0–6 h applications the ensemble spread is smaller than the actual forecast error. This paper tries to generate probabilistic short range 2-m temperature forecasts by combining a state-of-the-art nowcasting method and a limited area ensemble system, and compares the results with statistical methods. The Integrated Nowcasting Through Comprehensive Analysis (INCA system, which has been in operation at the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG since 2006 (Haiden et al., 2011, provides short range deterministic forecasts at high temporal (15 min–60 min and spatial (1 km resolution. An INCA Ensemble (INCA-EPS of 2-m temperature forecasts is constructed by applying a dynamical approach, a statistical approach, and a combined dynamic-statistical method. The dynamical method takes uncertainty information (i.e. ensemble variance from the operational limited area ensemble system ALADIN-LAEF (Aire Limitée Adaptation Dynamique Développement InterNational Limited Area Ensemble Forecasting which is running operationally at ZAMG (Wang et al., 2011. The purely statistical method assumes a well-calibrated spread-skill relation and applies ensemble spread according to the skill of the INCA forecast of the most recent past. The combined dynamic-statistical approach adapts the ensemble variance gained from ALADIN-LAEF with non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR which yields a statistical mbox{correction} of the first and second moment (mean bias and dispersion for Gaussian distributed continuous

  4. Fluctuation microscopy: a probe of medium range order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treacy, M M J; Gibson, J M; Fan, L; Paterson, D J; McNulty, I

    2005-01-01

    Fluctuation microscopy is a hybrid diffraction-imaging technique that detects medium range order in amorphous materials by examining spatial fluctuations in coherent scattering. These fluctuations appear as speckle in images and diffraction patterns. The volume of material contributing to the speckle is determined by the point-spread function (the resolution) of the imaging optics and the sample thickness. The spatial periodicities being probed are related to the diffraction vector. Statistical analysis of the speckle allows the random and non-random (ordered) contributions to be discriminated. The image resolution that gives the maximum speckle contrast, as determined by the normalized variance of the image intensity, is determined by the characteristic length scale of the ordering. Because medium range ordering length scales can extend out to about the tenth coordination shell, fluctuation microscopy tends to be a low image resolution technique. This review presents the kinematical scattering theory underpinning fluctuation microscopy and a description of fluctuation electron microscopy as it has been employed in the transmission electron microscope for studying amorphous materials. Recent results using soft x-rays for studying nanoscale materials are also presented. We summarize outstanding issues and point to possible future directions for fluctuation microscopy as a technique

  5. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-07-01

    We present the application of interactive three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX - North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment) campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts (WCBs) has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and grid spacing of the forecast wind field. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (3 to 7 days before take-off).

  6. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    How much oil will the world consume in 2011? What role will OPEC play in global oil production? Will biofuels become an important part of the oil market? The International Energy Agencys (IEA) Medium-Term Oil Market Report tackles these questions, adopting a perspective that goes beyond the traditional short-term market analysis provided in the IEAs monthly Oil Market Report. Drawing on current futures curves and the investment threshold for upstream projects, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report analyses how global demand and supply balances may develop in the next five years. The forecasts look in detail at product demand and the supply potential from all the firmly planned individual upstream and downstream projects around the world. The results provide invaluable insights on vital issues such as surplus production capacity and product supply. The rapid pace of change in the oil market means that forecasts can become outdated very quickly. This interim update provides the opportunity to rebase the data and forecasts in the annual Medium-Term Oil Market Report and to discuss and analyse new issues affecting the oil industry. Policymakers, market analysts, energy experts and anyone interested in understanding and following trends in the oil market should find this report extremely useful.

  7. The Art and Science of Long-Range Space Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, David H.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Long-range space weather forecasts are akin to seasonal forecasts of terrestrial weather. We don t expect to forecast individual events but we do hope to forecast the underlying level of activity important for satellite operations and mission pl&g. Forecasting space weather conditions years or decades into the future has traditionally been based on empirical models of the solar cycle. Models for the shape of the cycle as a function of its amplitude become reliable once the amplitude is well determined - usually two to three years after minimum. Forecasting the amplitude of a cycle well before that time has been more of an art than a science - usually based on cycle statistics and trends. Recent developments in dynamo theory -the theory explaining the generation of the Sun s magnetic field and the solar activity cycle - have now produced models with predictive capabilities. Testing these models with historical sunspot cycle data indicates that these predictions may be highly reliable one, or even two, cycles into the future.

  8. Issues in Forecasting CMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, V. J.

    2017-12-01

    I will present my view of the current status of space weather forecasting abilities related to CMEs. This talk will address the large-scale aspects, but specifically not energetic particle phenomena. A key point is that all models, whether sophisticated numerical contraptions or quasi-empirical ones, are only as good as the data you feed them. Hence the emphasis will be on observations and analysis methods. First I will review where we stand with regard to the near-Sun quantitative data needed to drive any model, no matter how complex or simple-minded, and I will discuss technological roadblocks that suggest it may be some time before we see any meaningful improvements beyond what we have today. Then I cover issues related to characterizing CME propagation out through the corona and into interplanetary space, as well as to observational limitations in the vicinity of 1 AU. Since none of these observational constraints are likely to be resolved anytime soon, the real challenge is to make more informed use of what is available. Thus, this talk will focus on how we may identify and pursue the most profitable approaches, for both forecast and research applications. The discussion will highlight a number of promising leads, including those related to inclusion of solar backside information, joint magnetograph observations from L5 and Earth, how to use (not just run) ensembles, more rational use of HI observations, and suggestions for using cube-sats for deep space observations of CMEs and MCs.

  9. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts – Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rautenhaus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of interactive three-dimensional (3-D visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX – North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts (WCBs has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and grid spacing of the forecast wind field. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (3 to 7 days before take-off.

  10. Wave ensemble forecast system for tropical cyclones in the Australian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Stefan; Greenslade, Diana; Kepert, Jeffrey D.

    2018-05-01

    Forecasting of waves under extreme conditions such as tropical cyclones is vitally important for many offshore industries, but there remain many challenges. For Northwest Western Australia (NW WA), wave forecasts issued by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology have previously been limited to products from deterministic operational wave models forced by deterministic atmospheric models. The wave models are run over global (resolution 1/4∘) and regional (resolution 1/10∘) domains with forecast ranges of + 7 and + 3 day respectively. Because of this relatively coarse resolution (both in the wave models and in the forcing fields), the accuracy of these products is limited under tropical cyclone conditions. Given this limited accuracy, a new ensemble-based wave forecasting system for the NW WA region has been developed. To achieve this, a new dedicated 8-km resolution grid was nested in the global wave model. Over this grid, the wave model is forced with winds from a bias-corrected European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast atmospheric ensemble that comprises 51 ensemble members to take into account the uncertainties in location, intensity and structure of a tropical cyclone system. A unique technique is used to select restart files for each wave ensemble member. The system is designed to operate in real time during the cyclone season providing + 10-day forecasts. This paper will describe the wave forecast components of this system and present the verification metrics and skill for specific events.

  11. Short-range quantitative precipitation forecasting using Deep Learning approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Asanjan, A.; Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Hsu, K. L.; Sorooshian, S.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting short-range quantitative precipitation is very important for flood forecasting, early flood warning and other hydrometeorological purposes. This study aims to improve the precipitation forecasting skills using a recently developed and advanced machine learning technique named Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). The proposed LSTM learns the changing patterns of clouds from Cloud-Top Brightness Temperature (CTBT) images, retrieved from the infrared channel of Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), using a sophisticated and effective learning method. After learning the dynamics of clouds, the LSTM model predicts the upcoming rainy CTBT events. The proposed model is then merged with a precipitation estimation algorithm termed Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN) to provide precipitation forecasts. The results of merged LSTM with PERSIANN are compared to the results of an Elman-type Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) merged with PERSIANN and Final Analysis of Global Forecast System model over the states of Oklahoma, Florida and Oregon. The performance of each model is investigated during 3 storm events each located over one of the study regions. The results indicate the outperformance of merged LSTM forecasts comparing to the numerical and statistical baselines in terms of Probability of Detection (POD), False Alarm Ratio (FAR), Critical Success Index (CSI), RMSE and correlation coefficient especially in convective systems. The proposed method shows superior capabilities in short-term forecasting over compared methods.

  12. Added value of online satellite data transmission for flood forecasting: warning systems in medium-size catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, C; Stadler, H

    2009-01-01

    The present paper deals with the implementation of online data transferred via LEO satellite communication in a flood forecasting system. Although the project is ongoing, it is already recognised that the information chain: "measurement-transmission-forecast-alert" can be shortened, i.e., the flood danger can be more rapidly communicated to the population at risk. This gain is particularly valuable for medium size catchments where the concentration time (basin time of response to rainfall) is short.

  13. On the reliability of seasonal climate forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisheimer, A.; Palmer, T. N.

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal climate forecasts are being used increasingly across a range of application sectors. A recent UK governmental report asked: how good are seasonal forecasts on a scale of 1–5 (where 5 is very good), and how good can we expect them to be in 30 years time? Seasonal forecasts are made from ensembles of integrations of numerical models of climate. We argue that ‘goodness’ should be assessed first and foremost in terms of the probabilistic reliability of these ensemble-based forecasts; reliable inputs are essential for any forecast-based decision-making. We propose that a ‘5’ should be reserved for systems that are not only reliable overall, but where, in particular, small ensemble spread is a reliable indicator of low ensemble forecast error. We study the reliability of regional temperature and precipitation forecasts of the current operational seasonal forecast system of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, universally regarded as one of the world-leading operational institutes producing seasonal climate forecasts. A wide range of ‘goodness’ rankings, depending on region and variable (with summer forecasts of rainfall over Northern Europe performing exceptionally poorly) is found. Finally, we discuss the prospects of reaching ‘5’ across all regions and variables in 30 years time. PMID:24789559

  14. Medium-range dielectric order in systems with collectivized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismagilov, A.M.; Kopaev, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of formation of a medium-range dielectric order (on a scale much larger than the interatomic one) due to electron-electron correlations and to scattering by an impurity in a system near a phase transition into a long-range order state is solved by a microscopic approach. It is shown that for a weak impurity potential the effect of medium-range order formation is stronger than the effect of long-range order suppression related to scattering by an impurity. The influence of medium-range order on the one-particle excitation spectrum and on the density of states is considered. It is found that since the medium-range order in a system is due to correlations of electron and hole states open-quotes coupledclose quotes by a continuous set of inhomogeneity vectors (in contrast to the long-range order formed on a discrete set of such vectors), the density of states varies on an energy scale determined by the mean absolute value of these vectors. Therefore in a system undergoing phase transition into an inhomogeneous state with the modulus q 0 of inhomogeneity vectors the medium-range order forms in the density of states a pseudogap of scale length v F q 0 (v F is the Fermi velocity). This distinguishes such a system substantially from one, which tends to a phase transition into a homogeneous state (q 0 ≡0), where the medium-range order forms a pseudogap of scale length v F /ξ much-lt v F q 0 (ξ is the correlation length). The possible role of medium dielectric order effects in high-T c superconductors is discussed. 30 refs., 6 figs

  15. Evaluation of official tropical cyclone landfall forecast issued by India ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here an attempt is made to evaluate the TC landfall forecast issued by IMD during. 2003–2013 (11 years) by ... cast performance and the relative performance of individual .... Environmental Prediction (NCEP) GFS and some ensemble means ...

  16. Incorporating spatial autocorrelation into species distribution models alters forecasts of climate-mediated range shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crase, Beth; Liedloff, Adam; Vesk, Peter A; Fukuda, Yusuke; Wintle, Brendan A

    2014-08-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to forecast changes in the spatial distributions of species and communities in response to climate change. However, spatial autocorrelation (SA) is rarely accounted for in these models, despite its ubiquity in broad-scale ecological data. While spatial autocorrelation in model residuals is known to result in biased parameter estimates and the inflation of type I errors, the influence of unmodeled SA on species' range forecasts is poorly understood. Here we quantify how accounting for SA in SDMs influences the magnitude of range shift forecasts produced by SDMs for multiple climate change scenarios. SDMs were fitted to simulated data with a known autocorrelation structure, and to field observations of three mangrove communities from northern Australia displaying strong spatial autocorrelation. Three modeling approaches were implemented: environment-only models (most frequently applied in species' range forecasts), and two approaches that incorporate SA; autologistic models and residuals autocovariate (RAC) models. Differences in forecasts among modeling approaches and climate scenarios were quantified. While all model predictions at the current time closely matched that of the actual current distribution of the mangrove communities, under the climate change scenarios environment-only models forecast substantially greater range shifts than models incorporating SA. Furthermore, the magnitude of these differences intensified with increasing increments of climate change across the scenarios. When models do not account for SA, forecasts of species' range shifts indicate more extreme impacts of climate change, compared to models that explicitly account for SA. Therefore, where biological or population processes induce substantial autocorrelation in the distribution of organisms, and this is not modeled, model predictions will be inaccurate. These results have global importance for conservation efforts as inaccurate

  17. Using subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) extreme rainfall forecasts for extended-range flood prediction in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. J.; Franks, S. W.; McEvoy, D.

    2015-06-01

    Meteorological and hydrological centres around the world are looking at ways to improve their capacity to be able to produce and deliver skilful and reliable forecasts of high-impact extreme rainfall and flooding events on a range of prediction timescales (e.g. sub-daily, daily, multi-week, seasonal). Making improvements to extended-range rainfall and flood forecast models, assessing forecast skill and uncertainty, and exploring how to apply flood forecasts and communicate their benefits to decision-makers are significant challenges facing the forecasting and water resources management communities. This paper presents some of the latest science and initiatives from Australia on the development, application and communication of extreme rainfall and flood forecasts on the extended-range "subseasonal-to-seasonal" (S2S) forecasting timescale, with a focus on risk-based decision-making, increasing flood risk awareness and preparedness, capturing uncertainty, understanding human responses to flood forecasts and warnings, and the growing adoption of "climate services". The paper also demonstrates how forecasts of flood events across a range of prediction timescales could be beneficial to a range of sectors and society, most notably for disaster risk reduction (DRR) activities, emergency management and response, and strengthening community resilience. Extended-range S2S extreme flood forecasts, if presented as easily accessible, timely and relevant information are a valuable resource to help society better prepare for, and subsequently cope with, extreme flood events.

  18. Contrasting growth forecasts across the geographical range of Scots pine due to altitudinal and latitudinal differences in climatic sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías, Luis; Linares, Juan C; Sánchez-Miranda, Ángela; Jump, Alistair S

    2017-10-01

    Ongoing changes in global climate are altering ecological conditions for many species. The consequences of such changes are typically most evident at the edge of a species' geographical distribution, where differences in growth or population dynamics may result in range expansions or contractions. Understanding population responses to different climatic drivers along wide latitudinal and altitudinal gradients is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of plant responses to ongoing increases in global temperature and drought severity. We selected Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) as a model species to explore growth responses to climatic variability (seasonal temperature and precipitation) over the last century through dendrochronological methods. We developed linear models based on age, climate and previous growth to forecast growth trends up to year 2100 using climatic predictions. Populations were located at the treeline across a latitudinal gradient covering the northern, central and southernmost populations and across an altitudinal gradient at the southern edge of the distribution (treeline, medium and lower elevations). Radial growth was maximal at medium altitude and treeline of the southernmost populations. Temperature was the main factor controlling growth variability along the gradients, although the timing and strength of climatic variables affecting growth shifted with latitude and altitude. Predictive models forecast a general increase in Scots pine growth at treeline across the latitudinal distribution, with southern populations increasing growth up to year 2050, when it stabilizes. The highest responsiveness appeared at central latitude, and moderate growth increase is projected at the northern limit. Contrastingly, the model forecasted growth declines at lowland-southern populations, suggesting an upslope range displacement over the coming decades. Our results give insight into the geographical responses of tree species to climate change

  19. Long-range forecast of all India summer monsoon rainfall using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system: skill comparison with CFSv2 model simulation and real-time forecast for the year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, S.; Das, D.; Goswami, S.; Das, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    All India summer monsoon rainfall (AISMR) characteristics play a vital role for the policy planning and national economy of the country. In view of the significant impact of monsoon system on regional as well as global climate systems, accurate prediction of summer monsoon rainfall has become a challenge. The objective of this study is to develop an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for long range forecast of AISMR. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data of temperature, zonal and meridional wind at different pressure levels have been taken to construct the input matrix of ANFIS. The membership of the input parameters for AISMR as high, medium or low is estimated with trapezoidal membership function. The fuzzified standardized input parameters and the de-fuzzified target output are trained with artificial neural network models. The forecast of AISMR with ANFIS is compared with non-hybrid multi-layer perceptron model (MLP), radial basis functions network (RBFN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models. The forecast error analyses of the models reveal that ANFIS provides the best forecast of AISMR with minimum prediction error of 0.076, whereas the errors with MLP, RBFN and MLR models are 0.22, 0.18 and 0.73 respectively. During validation with observations, ANFIS shows its potency over the said comparative models. Performance of the ANFIS model is verified through different statistical skill scores, which also confirms the aptitude of ANFIS in forecasting AISMR. The forecast skill of ANFIS is also observed to be better than Climate Forecast System version 2. The real-time forecast with ANFIS shows possibility of deficit (65-75 cm) AISMR in the year 2015.

  20. Determining the bounds of skilful forecast range for probabilistic prediction of system-wide wind power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Cannon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available State-of-the-art wind power forecasts beyond a few hours ahead rely on global numerical weather prediction models to forecast the future large-scale atmospheric state. Often they provide initial and boundary conditions for nested high resolution simulations. In this paper, both upper and lower bounds on forecast range are identified within which global ensemble forecasts provide skilful information for system-wide wind power applications. An upper bound on forecast range is associated with the limit of predictability, beyond which forecasts have no more skill than predictions based on climatological statistics. A lower bound is defined at the lead time beyond which the resolved uncertainty associated with estimating the future large-scale atmospheric state is larger than the unresolved uncertainty associated with estimating the system-wide wind power response to a given large-scale state.The bounds of skilful ensemble forecast range are quantified for three leading global forecast systems. The power system of Great Britain (GB is used as an example because independent verifying data is available from National Grid. The upper bound defined by forecasts of GB-total wind power generation at a specific point in time is found to be 6–8 days. The lower bound is found to be 1.4–2.4 days. Both bounds depend on the global forecast system and vary seasonally. In addition, forecasts of the probability of an extreme power ramp event were found to possess a shorter limit of predictability (4.5–5.5 days. The upper bound on this forecast range can only be extended by improving the global forecast system (outside the control of most users or by changing the metric used in the probability forecast. Improved downscaling and microscale modelling of the wind farm response may act to decrease the lower bound. The potential gain from such improvements have diminishing returns beyond the short-range (out to around 2 days.

  1. Using subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S extreme rainfall forecasts for extended-range flood prediction in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. White

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Meteorological and hydrological centres around the world are looking at ways to improve their capacity to be able to produce and deliver skilful and reliable forecasts of high-impact extreme rainfall and flooding events on a range of prediction timescales (e.g. sub-daily, daily, multi-week, seasonal. Making improvements to extended-range rainfall and flood forecast models, assessing forecast skill and uncertainty, and exploring how to apply flood forecasts and communicate their benefits to decision-makers are significant challenges facing the forecasting and water resources management communities. This paper presents some of the latest science and initiatives from Australia on the development, application and communication of extreme rainfall and flood forecasts on the extended-range "subseasonal-to-seasonal" (S2S forecasting timescale, with a focus on risk-based decision-making, increasing flood risk awareness and preparedness, capturing uncertainty, understanding human responses to flood forecasts and warnings, and the growing adoption of "climate services". The paper also demonstrates how forecasts of flood events across a range of prediction timescales could be beneficial to a range of sectors and society, most notably for disaster risk reduction (DRR activities, emergency management and response, and strengthening community resilience. Extended-range S2S extreme flood forecasts, if presented as easily accessible, timely and relevant information are a valuable resource to help society better prepare for, and subsequently cope with, extreme flood events.

  2. Extended-range forecasting of Chinese summer surface air temperature and heat waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim

    2018-03-01

    Because of growing demand from agricultural planning, power management and activity scheduling, extended-range (5-30-day lead) forecasting of summer surface air temperature (SAT) and heat waves over China is carried out in the present study via spatial-temporal projection models (STPMs). Based on the training data during 1960-1999, the predictability sources are found to propagate from Europe, Northeast Asia, and the tropical Pacific, to influence the intraseasonal 10-80 day SAT over China. STPMs are therefore constructed using the projection domains, which are determined by these previous predictability sources. For the independent forecast period (2000-2013), the STPMs can reproduce EOF-filtered 30-80 day SAT at all lead times of 5-30 days over most part of China, and observed 30-80 and 10-80 day SAT at 25-30 days over eastern China. Significant pattern correlation coefficients account for more than 50% of total forecasts at all 5-30-day lead times against EOF-filtered and observed 30-80 day SAT, and at a 20-day lead time against observed 10-80 day SAT. The STPMs perform poorly in reproducing 10-30 day SAT. Forecasting for the first two modes of 10-30 day SAT only shows useful skill within a 15-day lead time. Forecasting for the third mode of 10-30 day SAT is useless after a 10-day lead time. The forecasted heat waves over China are determined by the reconstructed SAT which is the summation of the forecasted 10-80 day SAT and the lower frequency (longer than 80-day) climatological SAT. Over a large part of China, the STPMs can forecast more than 30% of heat waves within a 15-day lead time. In general, the STPMs demonstrate the promising skill for extended-range forecasting of Chinese summer SAT and heat waves.

  3. DROUGHT FORECASTING BASED ON MACHINE LEARNING OF REMOTE SENSING AND LONG-RANGE FORECAST DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rhee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of drought impacts may be achieved through sustainable drought management and proactive measures against drought disaster. Accurate and timely provision of drought information is essential. In this study, drought forecasting models to provide high-resolution drought information based on drought indicators for ungauged areas were developed. The developed models predict drought indices of the 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI6 and the 6-month Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI6. An interpolation method based on multiquadric spline interpolation method as well as three machine learning models were tested. Three machine learning models of Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Extremely Randomized Trees were tested to enhance the provision of drought initial conditions based on remote sensing data, since initial conditions is one of the most important factors for drought forecasting. Machine learning-based methods performed better than interpolation methods for both classification and regression, and the methods using climatology data outperformed the methods using long-range forecast. The model based on climatological data and the machine learning method outperformed overall.

  4. Evaluation of medium-range ensemble flood forecasting based on calibration strategies and ensemble methods in Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Gao, Chao; Xuan, Weidong; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-11-01

    Ensemble flood forecasts by hydrological models using numerical weather prediction products as forcing data are becoming more commonly used in operational flood forecasting applications. In this study, a hydrological ensemble flood forecasting system comprised of an automatically calibrated Variable Infiltration Capacity model and quantitative precipitation forecasts from TIGGE dataset is constructed for Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China. The impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on the performance of the system are then evaluated. The hydrological model is optimized by the parallel programmed ε-NSGA II multi-objective algorithm. According to the solutions by ε-NSGA II, two differently parameterized models are determined to simulate daily flows and peak flows at each of the three hydrological stations. Then a simple yet effective modular approach is proposed to combine these daily and peak flows at the same station into one composite series. Five ensemble methods and various evaluation metrics are adopted. The results show that ε-NSGA II can provide an objective determination on parameter estimation, and the parallel program permits a more efficient simulation. It is also demonstrated that the forecasts from ECMWF have more favorable skill scores than other Ensemble Prediction Systems. The multimodel ensembles have advantages over all the single model ensembles and the multimodel methods weighted on members and skill scores outperform other methods. Furthermore, the overall performance at three stations can be satisfactory up to ten days, however the hydrological errors can degrade the skill score by approximately 2 days, and the influence persists until a lead time of 10 days with a weakening trend. With respect to peak flows selected by the Peaks Over Threshold approach, the ensemble means from single models or multimodels are generally underestimated, indicating that the ensemble mean can bring overall improvement in forecasting of flows. For

  5. Using Temperature Forecasts to Improve Seasonal Streamflow Forecasts in the Colorado and Rio Grande Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, F.; Wood, A.; Llewellyn, D.; Blatchford, D. B.; Goodbody, A. G.; Pappenberger, F.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have documented the influence of increasing temperature on streamflow across the American West, including snow-melt driven rivers such as the Colorado or Rio Grande. At the same time, some basins are reporting decreasing skill in seasonal streamflow forecasts, termed water supply forecasts (WSFs), over the recent decade. While the skill in seasonal precipitation forecasts from dynamical models remains low, their skill in predicting seasonal temperature variations could potentially be harvested for WSFs to account for non-stationarity in regional temperatures. Here, we investigate whether WSF skill can be improved by incorporating seasonal temperature forecasts from dynamical forecasting models (from the North American Multi Model Ensemble and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast System 4) into traditional statistical forecast models. We find improved streamflow forecast skill relative to traditional WSF approaches in a majority of headwater locations in the Colorado and Rio Grande basins. Incorporation of temperature into WSFs thus provides a promising avenue to increase the robustness of current forecasting techniques in the face of continued regional warming.

  6. Operational Hydrologic Forecasts in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K. Y.; Curry, J. A.; Webster, P. J.; Toma, V. E.; Jelinek, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) covers an area of ~670,000 km2 and stretches across parts of seven U.S. states and one Canadian province. The basin is subject to a variable climate, and moisture stored in snowpack during the winter is typically released in spring and early summer. These releases contribute to rapid increases in flow. A number of impoundments have been constructed on the Columbia River main stem and its tributaries for the purposes of flood control, navigation, irrigation, recreation, and hydropower. Storage reservoirs allow water managers to adjust natural flow patterns to benefit water and energy demands. In the past decade, the complexity of water resource management issues in the basin has amplified the importance of streamflow forecasting. Medium-range (1-10 day) numerical weather forecasts of precipitation and temperature can be used to drive hydrological models. In this work, probabilistic meteorological variables from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) are used to force the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Soil textures were obtained from FAO data; vegetation types / land cover information from UMD land cover data; stream networks from USGS HYDRO1k; and elevations from CGIAR version 4 SRTM data. The surface energy balance in 0.25° (~25 km) cells is closed through an iterative process operating at a 6 hour timestep. Output fluxes from a number of cells in the basin are combined through one-dimensional flow routing predicated on assumptions of linearity and time invariance. These combinations lead to daily mean streamflow estimates at key locations throughout the basin. This framework is suitable for ingesting daily numerical weather prediction data, and was calibrated using USGS mean daily streamflow data at the Dalles Dam (TDA). Operational streamflow forecasts in the CRB have been active since October 2012. These are 'naturalized' or unregulated forecasts. In 2013, increases of ~2600 m3/s (~48% of

  7. ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index for water vapor transport: A forecast tool for atmospheric rivers and extreme precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, David A.; Pappenberger, Florian; Richardson, David S.; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-11-01

    In winter, heavy precipitation and floods along the west coasts of midlatitude continents are largely caused by intense water vapor transport (integrated vapor transport (IVT)) within the atmospheric river of extratropical cyclones. This study builds on previous findings that showed that forecasts of IVT have higher predictability than precipitation, by applying and evaluating the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Extreme Forecast Index (EFI) for IVT in ensemble forecasts during three winters across Europe. We show that the IVT EFI is more able (than the precipitation EFI) to capture extreme precipitation in forecast week 2 during forecasts initialized in a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phase; conversely, the precipitation EFI is better during the negative NAO phase and at shorter leads. An IVT EFI example for storm Desmond in December 2015 highlights its potential to identify upcoming hydrometeorological extremes, which may prove useful to the user and forecasting communities.

  8. The state of the art of flood forecasting - Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen-Del Pozo, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Salamon, P.; Bogner, K.; Burek, P.; de Roo, A.

    2010-09-01

    Flood forecasting systems form a key part of ‘preparedness' strategies for disastrous floods and provide hydrological services, civil protection authorities and the public with information of upcoming events. Provided the warning leadtime is sufficiently long, adequate preparatory actions can be taken to efficiently reduce the impacts of the flooding. Because of the specific characteristics of each catchment, varying data availability and end-user demands, the design of the best flood forecasting system may differ from catchment to catchment. However, despite the differences in concept and data needs, there is one underlying issue that spans across all systems. There has been an growing awareness and acceptance that uncertainty is a fundamental issue of flood forecasting and needs to be dealt with at the different spatial and temporal scales as well as the different stages of the flood generating processes. Today, operational flood forecasting centres change increasingly from single deterministic forecasts to probabilistic forecasts with various representations of the different contributions of uncertainty. The move towards these so-called Hydrological Ensemble Prediction Systems (HEPS) in flood forecasting represents the state of the art in forecasting science, following on the success of the use of ensembles for weather forecasting (Buizza et al., 2005) and paralleling the move towards ensemble forecasting in other related disciplines such as climate change predictions. The use of HEPS has been internationally fostered by initiatives such as "The Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment" (HEPEX), created with the aim to investigate how best to produce, communicate and use hydrologic ensemble forecasts in hydrological short-, medium- und long term prediction of hydrological processes. The advantages of quantifying the different contributions of uncertainty as well as the overall uncertainty to obtain reliable and useful flood forecasts also for extreme events

  9. Error sensitivity analysis in 10-30-day extended range forecasting by using a nonlinear cross-prediction error model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhiye; Xu, Lisheng; Chen, Hongbin; Wang, Yongqian; Liu, Jinbao; Feng, Wenlan

    2017-06-01

    Extended range forecasting of 10-30 days, which lies between medium-term and climate prediction in terms of timescale, plays a significant role in decision-making processes for the prevention and mitigation of disastrous meteorological events. The sensitivity of initial error, model parameter error, and random error in a nonlinear crossprediction error (NCPE) model, and their stability in the prediction validity period in 10-30-day extended range forecasting, are analyzed quantitatively. The associated sensitivity of precipitable water, temperature, and geopotential height during cases of heavy rain and hurricane is also discussed. The results are summarized as follows. First, the initial error and random error interact. When the ratio of random error to initial error is small (10-6-10-2), minor variation in random error cannot significantly change the dynamic features of a chaotic system, and therefore random error has minimal effect on the prediction. When the ratio is in the range of 10-1-2 (i.e., random error dominates), attention should be paid to the random error instead of only the initial error. When the ratio is around 10-2-10-1, both influences must be considered. Their mutual effects may bring considerable uncertainty to extended range forecasting, and de-noising is therefore necessary. Second, in terms of model parameter error, the embedding dimension m should be determined by the factual nonlinear time series. The dynamic features of a chaotic system cannot be depicted because of the incomplete structure of the attractor when m is small. When m is large, prediction indicators can vanish because of the scarcity of phase points in phase space. A method for overcoming the cut-off effect ( m > 4) is proposed. Third, for heavy rains, precipitable water is more sensitive to the prediction validity period than temperature or geopotential height; however, for hurricanes, geopotential height is most sensitive, followed by precipitable water.

  10. Towards smart energy systems: application of kernel machine regression for medium term electricity load forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Bargiotas, Dimitrios; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H

    2016-01-01

    Integration of energy systems with information technologies has facilitated the realization of smart energy systems that utilize information to optimize system operation. To that end, crucial in optimizing energy system operation is the accurate, ahead-of-time forecasting of load demand. In particular, load forecasting allows planning of system expansion, and decision making for enhancing system safety and reliability. In this paper, the application of two types of kernel machines for medium term load forecasting (MTLF) is presented and their performance is recorded based on a set of historical electricity load demand data. The two kernel machine models and more specifically Gaussian process regression (GPR) and relevance vector regression (RVR) are utilized for making predictions over future load demand. Both models, i.e., GPR and RVR, are equipped with a Gaussian kernel and are tested on daily predictions for a 30-day-ahead horizon taken from the New England Area. Furthermore, their performance is compared to the ARMA(2,2) model with respect to mean average percentage error and squared correlation coefficient. Results demonstrate the superiority of RVR over the other forecasting models in performing MTLF.

  11. Flood forecasting and uncertainty of precipitation forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobold, Mira; Suselj, Kay

    2004-01-01

    The timely and accurate flood forecasting is essential for the reliable flood warning. The effectiveness of flood warning is dependent on the forecast accuracy of certain physical parameters, such as the peak magnitude of the flood, its timing, location and duration. The conceptual rainfall - runoff models enable the estimation of these parameters and lead to useful operational forecasts. The accurate rainfall is the most important input into hydrological models. The input for the rainfall can be real time rain-gauges data, or weather radar data, or meteorological forecasted precipitation. The torrential nature of streams and fast runoff are characteristic for the most of the Slovenian rivers. Extensive damage is caused almost every year- by rainstorms affecting different regions of Slovenia' The lag time between rainfall and runoff is very short for Slovenian territory and on-line data are used only for now casting. Forecasted precipitations are necessary for hydrological forecast for some days ahead. ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) gives general forecast for several days ahead while more detailed precipitation data with limited area ALADIN/Sl model are available for two days ahead. There is a certain degree of uncertainty using such precipitation forecasts based on meteorological models. The variability of precipitation is very high in Slovenia and the uncertainty of ECMWF predicted precipitation is very large for Slovenian territory. ECMWF model can predict precipitation events correctly, but underestimates amount of precipitation in general The average underestimation is about 60% for Slovenian region. The predictions of limited area ALADIN/Si model up to; 48 hours ahead show greater applicability in hydrological forecasting. The hydrological models are sensitive to precipitation input. The deviation of runoff is much bigger than the rainfall deviation. Runoff to rainfall error fraction is about 1.6. If spatial and time distribution

  12. Introduction to time series analysis and forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, Douglas C; Kulahci, Murat

    2008-01-01

    An accessible introduction to the most current thinking in and practicality of forecasting techniques in the context of time-oriented data. Analyzing time-oriented data and forecasting are among the most important problems that analysts face across many fields, ranging from finance and economics to production operations and the natural sciences. As a result, there is a widespread need for large groups of people in a variety of fields to understand the basic concepts of time series analysis and forecasting. Introduction to Time Series Analysis and Forecasting presents the time series analysis branch of applied statistics as the underlying methodology for developing practical forecasts, and it also bridges the gap between theory and practice by equipping readers with the tools needed to analyze time-oriented data and construct useful, short- to medium-term, statistically based forecasts.

  13. Method of forecasting pollutant transfer in an aquifer initial results obtained in a sandy medium (Barp site, Gironde)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madoz-Escande, C.; Peyrus, J.-C.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogeological studies are undertaken in the context of the radiological safety of nuclear plants to forecast consequences of accidental releases of radioactive pollutants into an aquifer (transfer time, concentration at points of emergence). This quantitative forecast is obtained with the aid of a mathematical model with sequential emission. This requires a knowledge of the physical parameters of the aquifer and of the behavior of the pollutant in relation to the water-bearing medium. The physical parameters of a saturated porous medium are presented with the aid of radioactive tracer tests on a model and also in the field. The initial results obtained in a sandy medium are presented. In view of the difficulty of extrapolating to field conditions the conclusions of tests on models, it was necessary to set up a mobile laboratory with which in situ studies could be undertaken. The behavior of the pollutant in relation to the water-bearing medium is the subject of preliminary laboratory research on the laws of adsorption under different pH and temperature conditions. The numerical results obtained call for confirmation in the field. A description is given of a method which should enable the distribution coefficients to be evaluated in situ

  14. On the skill of various ensemble spread estimators for probabilistic short range wind forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, A.

    2012-05-01

    A variety of applications ranging from civil protection associated with severe weather to economical interests are heavily dependent on meteorological information. For example, a precise planning of the energy supply with a high share of renewables requires detailed meteorological information on high temporal and spatial resolution. With respect to wind power, detailed analyses and forecasts of wind speed are of crucial interest for the energy management. Although the applicability and the current skill of state-of-the-art probabilistic short range forecasts has increased during the last years, ensemble systems still show systematic deficiencies which limit its practical use. This paper presents methods to improve the ensemble skill of 10-m wind speed forecasts by combining deterministic information from a nowcasting system on very high horizontal resolution with uncertainty estimates from a limited area ensemble system. It is shown for a one month validation period that a statistical post-processing procedure (a modified non-homogeneous Gaussian regression) adds further skill to the probabilistic forecasts, especially beyond the nowcasting range after +6 h.

  15. Seasonal forecasting of discharge for the Raccoon River, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Louise; Villarini, Gabriele; Bradley, Allen; Vecchi, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The state of Iowa (central United States) is regularly afflicted by severe natural hazards such as the 2008/2013 floods and the 2012 drought. To improve preparedness for these catastrophic events and allow Iowans to make more informed decisions about the most suitable water management strategies, we have developed a framework for medium to long range probabilistic seasonal streamflow forecasting for the Raccoon River at Van Meter, a 8900-km2 catchment located in central-western Iowa. Our flow forecasts use statistical models to predict seasonal discharge for low to high flows, with lead forecasting times ranging from one to ten months. Historical measurements of daily discharge are obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at the Van Meter stream gage, and used to compute quantile time series from minimum to maximum seasonal flow. The model is forced with basin-averaged total seasonal precipitation records from the PRISM Climate Group and annual row crop production acreage from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's National Agricultural Statistics Services database. For the forecasts, we use corn and soybean production from the previous year (persistence forecast) as a proxy for the impacts of agricultural practices on streamflow. The monthly precipitation forecasts are provided by eight Global Climate Models (GCMs) from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME), with lead times ranging from 0.5 to 11.5 months, and a resolution of 1 decimal degree. Additionally, precipitation from the month preceding each season is used to characterize antecedent soil moisture conditions. The accuracy of our modelled (1927-2015) and forecasted (2001-2015) discharge values is assessed by comparison with the observed USGS data. We explore the sensitivity of forecast skill over the full range of lead times, flow quantiles, forecast seasons, and with each GCM. Forecast skill is also examined using different formulations of the statistical models, as well as NMME forecast

  16. Assessment of marine weather forecasts over the Indian sector of Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gera, Anitha; Mahapatra, D. K.; Sharma, Kuldeep; Prakash, Satya; Mitra, A. K.; Iyengar, G. R.; Rajagopal, E. N.; Anilkumar, N.

    2017-09-01

    The Southern Ocean (SO) is one of the important regions where significant processes and feedbacks of the Earth's climate take place. Expeditions to the SO provide useful data for improving global weather/climate simulations and understanding many processes. Some of the uncertainties in these weather/climate models arise during the first few days of simulation/forecast and do not grow much further. NCMRWF issued real-time five day weather forecasts of mean sea level pressure, surface winds, winds at 500 hPa & 850 hPa and rainfall, daily to NCAOR to provide guidance for their expedition to Indian sector of SO during the austral summer of 2014-2015. Evaluation of the skill of these forecasts indicates possible error growth in the atmospheric model at shorter time scales. The error growth is assessed using the model analysis/reanalysis, satellite data and observations made during the expedition. The observed variability of sub-seasonal rainfall associated with mid-latitude systems is seen to exhibit eastward propagations and are well reproduced in the model forecasts. All cyclonic disturbances including the sub-polar lows and tropical cyclones that occurred during this period were well captured in the model forecasts. Overall, this model performs reasonably well over the Indian sector of the SO in medium range time scale.

  17. Operational hydrological forecasting in Bavaria. Part I: Forecast uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, U.; Vogelbacher, A.; Moritz, K.; Laurent, S.; Meyer, I.; Haag, I.

    2009-04-01

    In Bavaria, operational flood forecasting has been established since the disastrous flood of 1999. Nowadays, forecasts based on rainfall information from about 700 raingauges and 600 rivergauges are calculated and issued for nearly 100 rivergauges. With the added experience of the 2002 and 2005 floods, awareness grew that the standard deterministic forecast, neglecting the uncertainty associated with each forecast is misleading, creating a false feeling of unambiguousness. As a consequence, a system to identify, quantify and communicate the sources and magnitude of forecast uncertainty has been developed, which will be presented in part I of this study. In this system, the use of ensemble meteorological forecasts plays a key role which will be presented in part II. Developing the system, several constraints stemming from the range of hydrological regimes and operational requirements had to be met: Firstly, operational time constraints obviate the variation of all components of the modeling chain as would be done in a full Monte Carlo simulation. Therefore, an approach was chosen where only the most relevant sources of uncertainty were dynamically considered while the others were jointly accounted for by static error distributions from offline analysis. Secondly, the dominant sources of uncertainty vary over the wide range of forecasted catchments: In alpine headwater catchments, typically of a few hundred square kilometers in size, rainfall forecast uncertainty is the key factor for forecast uncertainty, with a magnitude dynamically changing with the prevailing predictability of the atmosphere. In lowland catchments encompassing several thousands of square kilometers, forecast uncertainty in the desired range (usually up to two days) is mainly dependent on upstream gauge observation quality, routing and unpredictable human impact such as reservoir operation. The determination of forecast uncertainty comprised the following steps: a) From comparison of gauge

  18. Evaluation of streamflow forecast for the National Water Model of U.S. National Weather Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieeinasab, A.; McCreight, J. L.; Dugger, A. L.; Gochis, D.; Karsten, L. R.; Zhang, Y.; Cosgrove, B.; Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM), an implementation of the community WRF-Hydro modeling system, is an operational hydrologic forecasting model for the contiguous United States. The model forecasts distributed hydrologic states and fluxes, including soil moisture, snowpack, ET, and ponded water. In particular, the NWM provides streamflow forecasts at more than 2.7 million river reaches for three forecast ranges: short (15 hr), medium (10 days), and long (30 days). In this study, we verify short and medium range streamflow forecasts in the context of the verification of their respective quantitative precipitation forecasts/forcing (QPF), the High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) and the Global Forecast System (GFS). The streamflow evaluation is performed for summer of 2016 at more than 6,000 USGS gauges. Both individual forecasts and forecast lead times are examined. Selected case studies of extreme events aim to provide insight into the quality of the NWM streamflow forecasts. A goal of this comparison is to address how much streamflow bias originates from precipitation forcing bias. To this end, precipitation verification is performed over the contributing areas above (and between assimilated) USGS gauge locations. Precipitation verification is based on the aggregated, blended StageIV/StageII data as the "reference truth". We summarize the skill of the streamflow forecasts, their skill relative to the QPF, and make recommendations for improving NWM forecast skill.

  19. Adapting National Water Model Forecast Data to Local Hyper-Resolution H&H Models During Hurricane Irma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhofen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The National Water Model (NWM) is a remarkable undertaking. The foundation of the NWM is a 1 square kilometer grid which is used for near real-time modeling and flood forecasting of most rivers and streams in the contiguous United States. However, the NWM falls short in highly urbanized areas with complex drainage infrastructure. To overcome these shortcomings, the presenter proposes to leverage existing local hyper-resolution H&H models and adapt the NWM forcing data to them. Gridded near real-time rainfall, short range forecasts (18-hour) and medium range forecasts (10-day) during Hurricane Irma are applied to numerous detailed H&H models in highly urbanized areas of the State of Florida. Coastal and inland models are evaluated. Comparisons of near real-time rainfall data are made with observed gaged data and the ability to predict flooding in advance based on forecast data is evaluated. Preliminary findings indicate that the near real-time rainfall data is consistently and significantly lower than observed data. The forecast data is more promising. For example, the medium range forecast data provides 2 - 3 days advanced notice of peak flood conditions to a reasonable level of accuracy in most cases relative to both timing and magnitude. Short range forecast data provides about 12 - 14 hours advanced notice. Since these are hyper-resolution models, flood forecasts can be made at the street level, providing emergency response teams with valuable information for coordinating and dispatching limited resources.

  20. Should we use seasonnal meteorological ensemble forecasts for hydrological forecasting? A case study for nordic watersheds in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Rachel; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Perreault, Luc; Leconte, Robert; Guay, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    Hydro-electricity is a major source of energy for many countries throughout the world, including Canada. Long lead-time streamflow forecasts are all the more valuable as they help decision making and dam management. Different techniques exist for long-term hydrological forecasting. Perhaps the most well-known is 'Extended Streamflow Prediction' (ESP), which considers past meteorological scenarios as possible, often equiprobable, future scenarios. In the ESP framework, those past-observed meteorological scenarios (climatology) are used in turn as the inputs of a chosen hydrological model to produce ensemble forecasts (one member corresponding to each year in the available database). Many hydropower companies, including Hydro-Québec (province of Quebec, Canada) use variants of the above described ESP system operationally for long-term operation planning. The ESP system accounts for the hydrological initial conditions and for the natural variability of the meteorological variables. However, it cannot consider the current initial state of the atmosphere. Climate models can help remedy this drawback. In the context of a changing climate, dynamical forecasts issued from climate models seem to be an interesting avenue to improve upon the ESP method and could help hydropower companies to adapt their management practices to an evolving climate. Long-range forecasts from climate models can also be helpful for water management at locations where records of past meteorological conditions are short or nonexistent. In this study, we compare 7-month hydrological forecasts obtained from climate model outputs to an ESP system. The ESP system mimics the one used operationally at Hydro-Québec. The dynamical climate forecasts are produced by the European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) System4. Forecasts quality is assessed using numerical scores such as the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) and the Ignorance score and also graphical tools such as the

  1. Meta-heuristic CRPS minimization for the calibration of short-range probabilistic forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Seyedeh Atefeh; Rahmani, Morteza; Azadi, Majid

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with the probabilistic short-range temperature forecasts over synoptic meteorological stations across Iran using non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR). NGR creates a Gaussian forecast probability density function (PDF) from the ensemble output. The mean of the normal predictive PDF is a bias-corrected weighted average of the ensemble members and its variance is a linear function of the raw ensemble variance. The coefficients for the mean and variance are estimated by minimizing the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS) during a training period. CRPS is a scoring rule for distributional forecasts. In the paper of Gneiting et al. (Mon Weather Rev 133:1098-1118, 2005), Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) method is used to minimize the CRPS. Since BFGS is a conventional optimization method with its own limitations, we suggest using the particle swarm optimization (PSO), a robust meta-heuristic method, to minimize the CRPS. The ensemble prediction system used in this study consists of nine different configurations of the weather research and forecasting model for 48-h forecasts of temperature during autumn and winter 2011 and 2012. The probabilistic forecasts were evaluated using several common verification scores including Brier score, attribute diagram and rank histogram. Results show that both BFGS and PSO find the optimal solution and show the same evaluation scores, but PSO can do this with a feasible random first guess and much less computational complexity.

  2. Study on The Extended Range Weather Forecast of Low Frequency Signal Based on Period Analysis Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.

    2016-12-01

    Although many studies have explored the MJO and its application for weather forecasting, low-frequency oscillation has been insufficiently studied for the extend range weather forecasting over middle and high latitudes. In China, low-frequency synoptic map is a useful tool for meteorological operation department to forecast extend range weather. It is therefore necessary to develop objective methods to serve the need for finding low-frequency signal, interpretation and application of this signal in the extend range weather forecasting. In this paper, method of Butterworth band pass filter was applied to get low-frequency height field at 500hPa from 1980 to 2014 by using NCEP/NCAR daily grid data. Then period analysis and optimal subset regression methods were used to process the low frequency data of 150 days before the first forecast day and extend the low frequency signal of 500hPa low-frequency high field to future 30 days in the global from June to August during 2011-2014. Finally, the results were test. The main results are as follows: (1) In general, the fitting effect of low frequency signals of 500hPa low-frequency height field by period analysis in the northern hemisphere was better than that in the southern hemisphere, and was better in the low latitudes than that in the high latitudes. The fitting accuracy gradually reduced with the increase of forecast time length, which tended to be stable during the late forecasting period. (2) The fitting effects over the 6 key regions in China showed that except filtering result over Xinjiang area in the first 10 days and 30 days, filtering results over the other 5 key regions throughout the whole period have passed reliability test with level more than 95%. (3) The center and scope of low and high low frequency systems can be fitted well by using the methods mentioned above, which is consist with the corresponding use of the low-frequency synoptic map for the prediction of the extended period. Application of the

  3. Calibration and combination of dynamical seasonal forecasts to enhance the value of predicted probabilities for managing risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, John A.; James, Richard P.; Ross, Jeremy D.

    2013-06-01

    Seasonal probability forecasts produced with numerical dynamics on supercomputers offer great potential value in managing risk and opportunity created by seasonal variability. The skill and reliability of contemporary forecast systems can be increased by calibration methods that use the historical performance of the forecast system to improve the ongoing real-time forecasts. Two calibration methods are applied to seasonal surface temperature forecasts of the US National Weather Service, the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, and to a World Climate Service multi-model ensemble created by combining those two forecasts with Bayesian methods. As expected, the multi-model is somewhat more skillful and more reliable than the original models taken alone. The potential value of the multimodel in decision making is illustrated with the profits achieved in simulated trading of a weather derivative. In addition to examining the seasonal models, the article demonstrates that calibrated probability forecasts of weekly average temperatures for leads of 2-4 weeks are also skillful and reliable. The conversion of ensemble forecasts into probability distributions of impact variables is illustrated with degree days derived from the temperature forecasts. Some issues related to loss of stationarity owing to long-term warming are considered. The main conclusion of the article is that properly calibrated probabilistic forecasts possess sufficient skill and reliability to contribute to effective decisions in government and business activities that are sensitive to intraseasonal and seasonal climate variability.

  4. Universal medium-range order of amorphous metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kengo; Miyazaki, Takehide; Nakamura, Hisao

    2013-10-11

    We propose that the structure of amorphous metal oxides can be regarded as a dual-dense-random-packing structure, which is a superposition of the dense random packing of metal atoms and that of oxygen atoms. Our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the medium-range order of amorphous HfO2, ZrO2, TiO2, In2O3, Ga2O3, Al2O3, and Cu2O is characterized by the pentagonal-bipyramid arrangement of metal atoms and that of oxygen atoms, and prove the validity of our dual-random-sphere-packing model. In other words, we find that the pentagonal medium-range order is universal independent of type of metal oxide.

  5. Ensemble hydrological forecast efficiency evolution over various issue dates and lead-time: case study for the Cheboksary reservoir (Volga River)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfan, Alexander; Moreido, Vsevolod

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble hydrological forecasting allows for describing uncertainty caused by variability of meteorological conditions in the river basin for the forecast lead-time. At the same time, in snowmelt-dependent river basins another significant source of uncertainty relates to variability of initial conditions of the basin (snow water equivalent, soil moisture content, etc.) prior to forecast issue. Accurate long-term hydrological forecast is most crucial for large water management systems, such as the Cheboksary reservoir (the catchment area is 374 000 sq.km) located in the Middle Volga river in Russia. Accurate forecasts of water inflow volume, maximum discharge and other flow characteristics are of great value for this basin, especially before the beginning of the spring freshet season that lasts here from April to June. The semi-distributed hydrological model ECOMAG was used to develop long-term ensemble forecast of daily water inflow into the Cheboksary reservoir. To describe variability of the meteorological conditions and construct ensemble of possible weather scenarios for the lead-time of the forecast, two approaches were applied. The first one utilizes 50 weather scenarios observed in the previous years (similar to the ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) procedure), the second one uses 1000 synthetic scenarios simulated by a stochastic weather generator. We investigated the evolution of forecast uncertainty reduction, expressed as forecast efficiency, over various consequent forecast issue dates and lead time. We analyzed the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of inflow hindcasts for the period 1982 to 2016 starting from 1st of March with 15 days frequency for lead-time of 1 to 6 months. This resulted in the forecast efficiency matrix with issue dates versus lead-time that allows for predictability identification of the basin. The matrix was constructed separately for observed and synthetic weather ensembles.

  6. Is the economic value of hydrological forecasts related to their quality? Case study of the hydropower sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassagnole, Manon; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Thirel, Guillaume; Gailhard, Joël; Garçon, Rémy

    2017-04-01

    The improvement of a forecasting system and the evaluation of the quality of its forecasts are recurrent steps in operational practice. However, the evaluation of forecast value or forecast usefulness for better decision-making is, to our knowledge, less frequent, even if it might be essential in many sectors such as hydropower and flood warning. In the hydropower sector, forecast value can be quantified by the economic gain obtained with the optimization of operations or reservoir management rules. Several hydropower operational systems use medium-range forecasts (up to 7-10 days ahead) and energy price predictions to optimize hydropower production. Hence, the operation of hydropower systems, including the management of water in reservoirs, is impacted by weather, climate and hydrologic variability as well as extreme events. In order to assess how the quality of hydrometeorological forecasts impact operations, it is essential to first understand if and how operations and management rules are sensitive to input predictions of different quality. This study investigates how 7-day ahead deterministic and ensemble streamflow forecasts of different quality might impact the economic gains of energy production. It is based on a research model developed by Irstea and EDF to investigate issues relevant to the links between quality and value of forecasts in the optimisation of energy production at the short range. Based on streamflow forecasts and pre-defined management constraints, the model defines the best hours (i.e., the hours with high energy prices) to produce electricity. To highlight the link between forecasts quality and their economic value, we built several synthetic ensemble forecasts based on observed streamflow time series. These inputs are generated in a controlled environment in order to obtain forecasts of different quality in terms of accuracy and reliability. These forecasts are used to assess the sensitivity of the decision model to forecast quality

  7. The european flood alert system EFAS – Part 2: Statistical skill assessment of probabilistic and deterministic operational forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Bartholmes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2005 the European Flood Alert System (EFAS has been producing probabilistic hydrological forecasts in pre-operational mode at the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission. EFAS aims at increasing preparedness for floods in trans-national European river basins by providing medium-range deterministic and probabilistic flood forecasting information, from 3 to 10 days in advance, to national hydro-meteorological services.

    This paper is Part 2 of a study presenting the development and skill assessment of EFAS. In Part 1, the scientific approach adopted in the development of the system has been presented, as well as its basic principles and forecast products. In the present article, two years of existing operational EFAS forecasts are statistically assessed and the skill of EFAS forecasts is analysed with several skill scores. The analysis is based on the comparison of threshold exceedances between proxy-observed and forecasted discharges. Skill is assessed both with and without taking into account the persistence of the forecasted signal during consecutive forecasts.

    Skill assessment approaches are mostly adopted from meteorology and the analysis also compares probabilistic and deterministic aspects of EFAS. Furthermore, the utility of different skill scores is discussed and their strengths and shortcomings illustrated. The analysis shows the benefit of incorporating past forecasts in the probability analysis, for medium-range forecasts, which effectively increases the skill of the forecasts.

  8. In-medium short-range dynamics of nucleons: Recent theoretical and experimental advances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atti, Claudio Ciofi degli, E-mail: ciofi@pg.infn.it

    2015-08-14

    The investigation of in-medium short-range dynamics of nucleons, usually referred to as the study of short-range correlations (SRCs), is a key issue in nuclear and hadronic physics. As a matter of fact, even in the simplified assumption that the nucleus could be described as a system of protons and neutrons interacting via effective nucleon–nucleon (NN) interactions, several non trivial problems arise concerning the description of in-medium (NN short-range dynamics, namely: (i) the behavior of the NN interaction at short inter-nucleon distances in medium cannot be uniquely constrained by the experimental NN scattering phase shifts due to off-shell effects; (ii) by rigorous renormalization group (RG) techniques entire families of phase equivalent interactions differing in the short-range part can be derived; (iii) the in-medium NN interaction may be, in principle, different from the free one; (iv) when the short inter-nucleon separation is of the order of the nucleon size, the question arises of possible effects from quark and gluon degrees of freedom. For more than fifty years, experimental evidence of SRCs has been searched by means of various kinds of nuclear reactions, without however convincing results, mainly because the effects of SRCs arise from non observable quantities, like, e.g., the momentum distributions, and have been extracted from observable cross sections where short- and long-range effects, effects from nucleonic and non nucleonic degrees of freedom, and effects from final state interaction, could not be unambiguously separated out. Recent years, however, were witness of new progress in the field: from one side, theoretical and computational progress has allowed one to solve ab initio the many-nucleon non relativistic Schrödinger equation in terms of realistic NN interactions, obtaining realistic microscopic wave functions, unless the case of parametrized wave functions used frequently in the past, moreover the development of advanced

  9. 3-D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present the application of interactive 3-D visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and forecast wind field resolution. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (three to seven days before take-off).

  10. Dengue outlook for the World Cup in Brazil: an early warning model framework driven by real-time seasonal climate forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rachel; Barcellos, Christovam; Coelho, Caio A S; Bailey, Trevor C; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Graham, Richard; Jupp, Tim; Ramalho, Walter Massa; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Stephenson, David B; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-07-01

    With more than a million spectators expected to travel among 12 different cities in Brazil during the football World Cup, June 12-July 13, 2014, the risk of the mosquito-transmitted disease dengue fever is a concern. We addressed the potential for a dengue epidemic during the tournament, using a probabilistic forecast of dengue risk for the 553 microregions of Brazil, with risk level warnings for the 12 cities where matches will be played. We obtained real-time seasonal climate forecasts from several international sources (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts [ECMWF], Met Office, Meteo-France and Centro de Previsão de Tempo e Estudos Climáticos [CPTEC]) and the observed dengue epidemiological situation in Brazil at the forecast issue date as provided by the Ministry of Health. Using this information we devised a spatiotemporal hierarchical Bayesian modelling framework that enabled dengue warnings to be made 3 months ahead. By assessing the past performance of the forecasting system using observed dengue incidence rates for June, 2000-2013, we identified optimum trigger alert thresholds for scenarios of medium-risk and high-risk of dengue. Our forecasts for June, 2014, showed that dengue risk was likely to be low in the host cities Brasília, Cuiabá, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, and São Paulo. The risk was medium in Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, and Manaus. High-risk alerts were triggered for the northeastern cities of Recife (p(high)=19%), Fortaleza (p(high)=46%), and Natal (p(high)=48%). For these high-risk areas, particularly Natal, the forecasting system did well for previous years (in June, 2000-13). This timely dengue early warning permits the Ministry of Health and local authorities to implement appropriate, city-specific mitigation and control actions ahead of the World Cup. European Commission's Seventh Framework Research Programme projects DENFREE, EUPORIAS, and SPECS; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnol

  11. Evaluation of precipitation forecasts from 3D-Var and hybrid GSI-based system during Indian summer monsoon 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Prasad, V. S.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a systematic investigation of medium-range rainfall forecasts from two versions of the National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF)-Global Forecast System based on three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) and hybrid analysis system namely, NGFS and HNGFS, respectively, during Indian summer monsoon (June-September) 2015. The NGFS uses gridpoint statistical interpolation (GSI) 3D-Var data assimilation system, whereas HNGFS uses hybrid 3D ensemble-variational scheme. The analysis includes the evaluation of rainfall fields and comparisons of rainfall using statistical score such as mean precipitation, bias, correlation coefficient, root mean square error and forecast improvement factor. In addition to these, categorical scores like Peirce skill score and bias score are also computed to describe particular aspects of forecasts performance. The comparison results of mean precipitation reveal that both the versions of model produced similar large-scale feature of Indian summer monsoon rainfall for day-1 through day-5 forecasts. The inclusion of fully flow-dependent background error covariance significantly improved the wet biases in HNGFS over the Indian Ocean. The forecast improvement factor and Peirce skill score in the HNGFS have also found better than NGFS for day-1 through day-5 forecasts.

  12. Low flows: mechanisms, forecasts and climate change impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    A research on low flows may seem controversial for a “wet” country protected by dykes and barriers. However, low flows in dry summers such as in 1976, 1985 and 2003 indicate that it may happen also in the Rhine basin. Improved medium-range and seasonal low fow forecasts are important as there is an

  13. Skill prediction of local weather forecasts based on the ECMWF ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ziehmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble Prediction has become an essential part of numerical weather forecasting. In this paper we investigate the ability of ensemble forecasts to provide an a priori estimate of the expected forecast skill. Several quantities derived from the local ensemble distribution are investigated for a two year data set of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF temperature and wind speed ensemble forecasts at 30 German stations. The results indicate that the population of the ensemble mode provides useful information for the uncertainty in temperature forecasts. The ensemble entropy is a similar good measure. This is not true for the spread if it is simply calculated as the variance of the ensemble members with respect to the ensemble mean. The number of clusters in the C regions is almost unrelated to the local skill. For wind forecasts, the results are less promising.

  14. Evaluations of Extended-Range tropical Cyclone Forecasts in the Western North Pacific by using the Ensemble Reforecasts: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiao-Chung; Chen, Pang-Cheng; Elsberry, Russell L.

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the predictability of the extended-range forecasts of tropical cyclone (TC) in the western North Pacific using reforecasts from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) during 1996-2015, and from the Climate Forecast System (CFS) during 1999-2010. Tsai and Elsberry have demonstrated that an opportunity exists to support hydrological operations by using the extended-range TC formation and track forecasts in the western North Pacific from the ECMWF 32-day ensemble. To demonstrate this potential for the decision-making processes regarding water resource management and hydrological operation in Taiwan reservoir watershed areas, special attention is given to the skill of the NCEP GEFS and CFS models in predicting the TCs affecting the Taiwan area. The first objective of this study is to analyze the skill of NCEP GEFS and CFS TC forecasts and quantify the forecast uncertainties via verifications of categorical binary forecasts and probabilistic forecasts. The second objective is to investigate the relationships among the large-scale environmental factors [e.g., El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), etc.] and the model forecast errors by using the reforecasts. Preliminary results are indicating that the skill of the TC activity forecasts based on the raw forecasts can be further improved if the model biases are minimized by utilizing these reforecasts.

  15. Gamma-ray astronomy in the medium energy (10-50 MeV) range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniffen, D.A.; Bertsch, D.L.; Palmeira, R.A.R.; Rao, K.R.

    1977-01-01

    Gamma-ray astronomy in the medium energy (10-50 MeV) range can provide unique information with which to study many astrophysical problems. Observations in the 10-50 MeV range provide the cleanest window with which to view the isotropic diffuse component of the radiation and to study the possible cosmological implications of the spectrum. For the study of compact sources, this is the important region between the X-ray sky and the vastly different γ-ray sky seen by SAS-2 and COS-B. To understand the implications of medium energy γ-ray astronomy to the study of the galactic diffuse γ-radiation, the model developed to explain the high energy γ-ray observations of SAS-2 is extended to the medium energy range. This work illustrates the importance of medium energy γ-ray astronomy for studying the electromagnetic component of the galactic cosmic rays. To observe the medium energy component of the intense galactic center γ-ray emission, two balloon flights of a medium energy γ-ray spark chamber telescope were flown in Brazil in 1975. These results indicate the emission is higher than previously thought and above the predictions of the theoretical model

  16. Prediction of kharif rice yield at Kharagpur using disaggregated extended range rainfall forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhekale, B. S.; Nageswararao, M. M.; Nair, Archana; Mohanty, U. C.; Swain, D. K.; Singh, K. K.; Arunbabu, T.

    2017-08-01

    The Extended Range Forecasts System (ERFS) has been generating monthly and seasonal forecasts on real-time basis throughout the year over India since 2009. India is one of the major rice producer and consumer in South Asia; more than 50% of the Indian population depends on rice as staple food. Rice is mainly grown in kharif season, which contributed 84% of the total annual rice production of the country. Rice cultivation in India is rainfed, which depends largely on rains, so reliability of the rainfall forecast plays a crucial role for planning the kharif rice crop. In the present study, an attempt has been made to test the reliability of seasonal and sub-seasonal ERFS summer monsoon rainfall forecasts for kharif rice yield predictions at Kharagpur, West Bengal by using CERES-Rice (DSSATv4.5) model. These ERFS forecasts are produced as monthly and seasonal mean values and are converted into daily sequences with stochastic weather generators for use with crop growth models. The daily sequences are generated from ERFS seasonal (June-September) and sub-seasonal (July-September, August-September, and September) summer monsoon (June to September) rainfall forecasts which are considered as input in CERES-rice crop simulation model for the crop yield prediction for hindcast (1985-2008) and real-time mode (2009-2015). The yield simulated using India Meteorological Department (IMD) observed daily rainfall data is considered as baseline yield for evaluating the performance of predicted yields using the ERFS forecasts. The findings revealed that the stochastic disaggregation can be used to disaggregate the monthly/seasonal ERFS forecasts into daily sequences. The year to year variability in rice yield at Kharagpur is efficiently predicted by using the ERFS forecast products in hindcast as well as real time, and significant enhancement in the prediction skill is noticed with advancement in the season due to incorporation of observed weather data which reduces uncertainty of

  17. Training the next generation of scientists in Weather Forecasting: new approaches with real models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Glenn; Váňa, Filip; Siemen, Stephan; Kertesz, Sandor; Keeley, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    The European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts operationally produce medium range forecasts using what is internationally acknowledged as the world leading global weather forecast model. Future development of this scientifically advanced model relies on a continued availability of experts in the field of meteorological science and with high-level software skills. ECMWF therefore has a vested interest in young scientists and University graduates developing the necessary skills in numerical weather prediction including both scientific and technical aspects. The OpenIFS project at ECMWF maintains a portable version of the ECMWF forecast model (known as IFS) for use in education and research at Universities, National Meteorological Services and other research and education organisations. OpenIFS models can be run on desktop or high performance computers to produce weather forecasts in a similar way to the operational forecasts at ECMWF. ECMWF also provide the Metview desktop application, a modern, graphical, and easy to use tool for analysing and visualising forecasts that is routinely used by scientists and forecasters at ECMWF and other institutions. The combination of Metview with the OpenIFS models has the potential to deliver classroom-friendly tools allowing students to apply their theoretical knowledge to real-world examples using a world-leading weather forecasting model. In this paper we will describe how the OpenIFS model has been used for teaching. We describe the use of Linux based 'virtual machines' pre-packaged on USB sticks that support a technically easy and safe way of providing 'classroom-on-a-stick' learning environments for advanced training in numerical weather prediction. We welcome discussions with interested parties.

  18. A successful forecast of an El Nino winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    This year, for the first time, weather forecasters used signs of a warming in the tropical Pacific as the basis for a long-range prediction of winter weather patterns across the United States. Now forecasters are talking about the next step: stretching the lead time for such forecasts by a year or more. That seems feasible because although this Pacific warming was unmistakable by the time forecasters at the National Weather Service's Climate Analysis Center (CAC) in Camp Springs, Maryland, issued their winter forecast, the El Nino itself had been predicted almost 2 years in advance by a computer model. Next time around, the CAC may well be listening to the modelers and predicting El Nino-related patterns of warmth and flooding seasons in advance

  19. Robust forecast comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Sainan; Corradi, Valentina; Swanson, Norman

    2015-01-01

    Forecast accuracy is typically measured in terms of a given loss function. However, as a consequence of the use of misspecified models in multiple model comparisons, relative forecast rankings are loss function dependent. This paper addresses this issue by using a novel criterion for forecast evaluation which is based on the entire distribution of forecast errors. We introduce the concepts of general-loss (GL) forecast superiority and convex-loss (CL) forecast superiority, and we establish a ...

  20. Modelling self-optimised short term load forecasting for medium voltage loads using tunning fuzzy systems and Artificial Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Thair S.; Habibi, Daryoush; Hassan, Mohammed Y.; Bass, Octavian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel Short Term Medium Voltage (MV) Load Forecasting (STLF) model is presented. • A knowledge-based STLF error control mechanism is implemented. • An Artificial Neural Network (ANN)-based optimum tuning is applied on STLF. • The relationship between load profiles and operational conditions is analysed. - Abstract: This paper presents an intelligent mechanism for Short Term Load Forecasting (STLF) models, which allows self-adaptation with respect to the load operational conditions. Specifically, a knowledge-based FeedBack Tunning Fuzzy System (FBTFS) is proposed to instantaneously correlate the information about the demand profile and its operational conditions to make decisions for controlling the model’s forecasting error rate. To maintain minimum forecasting error under various operational scenarios, the FBTFS adaptation was optimised using a Multi-Layer Perceptron Artificial Neural Network (MLPANN), which was trained using Backpropagation algorithm, based on the information about the amount of error and the operational conditions at time of forecasting. For the sake of comparison and performance testing, this mechanism was added to the conventional forecasting methods, i.e. Nonlinear AutoRegressive eXogenous-Artificial Neural Network (NARXANN), Fuzzy Subtractive Clustering Method-based Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (FSCMANFIS) and Gaussian-kernel Support Vector Machine (GSVM), and the measured forecasting error reduction average in a 12 month simulation period was 7.83%, 8.5% and 8.32% respectively. The 3.5 MW variable load profile of Edith Cowan University (ECU) in Joondalup, Australia, was used in the modelling and simulations of this model, and the data was provided by Western Power, the transmission and distribution company of the state of Western Australia.

  1. Load forecasting for supermarket refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Aalborg Nielsen, Henrik

    This report presents a study of models for forecasting the load for supermarket refrigeration. The data used for building the forecasting models consists of load measurements, local climate measurements and weather forecasts. The load measurements are from a supermarket located in a village...... in Denmark. The load for refrigeration is the sum of all cabinets in the supermarket, both low and medium temperature cabinets, and spans a period of one year. As input to the forecasting models the ambient temperature observed near the supermarket together with weather forecasts are used. Every hour...

  2. Improving weather forecasts for wind energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Merlinde; MacGill, Iain

    2010-08-01

    Weather forecasts play an important role in the energy industry particularly because of the impact of temperature on electrical demand. Power system operation requires that this variable and somewhat unpredictable demand be precisely met at all times and locations from available generation. As wind generation makes up a growing component of electricity supply around the world, it has become increasingly important to be able to provide useful forecasting for this highly variable and uncertain energy resource. Of particular interest are forecasts of weather events that rapidly change wind energy production from one or more wind farms. In this paper we describe work underway to improve the wind forecasts currently available from standard Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) through a bias correction methodology. Our study has used the Australian Bureau of Meteorology MesoLAPS 5 km limited domain model over the Victoria/Tasmania region, providing forecasts for the Woolnorth wind farm, situated in Tasmania, Australia. The accuracy of these forecasts has been investigated, concentrating on the key wind speed ranges 5 - 15 ms-1 and around 25 ms-1. A bias correction methodology was applied to the NWP hourly forecasts to help account for systematic issues such as the NWP grid point not being at the exact location of the wind farm. An additional correction was applied for timing issues by using meteorological data from the wind farm. Results to date show a reduction in spread of forecast error for hour ahead forecasts by as much as half using this double correction methodology - a combination of both bias correction and timing correction.

  3. Improving weather forecasts for wind energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Merlinde; MacGill, Iain

    2010-01-01

    Weather forecasts play an important role in the energy industry particularly because of the impact of temperature on electrical demand. Power system operation requires that this variable and somewhat unpredictable demand be precisely met at all times and locations from available generation. As wind generation makes up a growing component of electricity supply around the world, it has become increasingly important to be able to provide useful forecasting for this highly variable and uncertain energy resource. Of particular interest are forecasts of weather events that rapidly change wind energy production from one or more wind farms. In this paper we describe work underway to improve the wind forecasts currently available from standard Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) through a bias correction methodology. Our study has used the Australian Bureau of Meteorology MesoLAPS 5 km limited domain model over the Victoria/Tasmania region, providing forecasts for the Woolnorth wind farm, situated in Tasmania, Australia. The accuracy of these forecasts has been investigated, concentrating on the key wind speed ranges 5 - 15 ms -1 and around 25 ms -1 . A bias correction methodology was applied to the NWP hourly forecasts to help account for systematic issues such as the NWP grid point not being at the exact location of the wind farm. An additional correction was applied for timing issues by using meteorological data from the wind farm. Results to date show a reduction in spread of forecast error for hour ahead forecasts by as much as half using this double correction methodology - a combination of both bias correction and timing correction.

  4. Operational hydrological forecasting in Bavaria. Part II: Ensemble forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, U.; Vogelbacher, A.; Moritz, K.; Laurent, S.; Meyer, I.; Haag, I.

    2009-04-01

    In part I of this study, the operational flood forecasting system in Bavaria and an approach to identify and quantify forecast uncertainty was introduced. The approach is split into the calculation of an empirical 'overall error' from archived forecasts and the calculation of an empirical 'model error' based on hydrometeorological forecast tests, where rainfall observations were used instead of forecasts. The 'model error' can especially in upstream catchments where forecast uncertainty is strongly dependent on the current predictability of the atrmosphere be superimposed on the spread of a hydrometeorological ensemble forecast. In Bavaria, two meteorological ensemble prediction systems are currently tested for operational use: the 16-member COSMO-LEPS forecast and a poor man's ensemble composed of DWD GME, DWD Cosmo-EU, NCEP GFS, Aladin-Austria, MeteoSwiss Cosmo-7. The determination of the overall forecast uncertainty is dependent on the catchment characteristics: 1. Upstream catchment with high influence of weather forecast a) A hydrological ensemble forecast is calculated using each of the meteorological forecast members as forcing. b) Corresponding to the characteristics of the meteorological ensemble forecast, each resulting forecast hydrograph can be regarded as equally likely. c) The 'model error' distribution, with parameters dependent on hydrological case and lead time, is added to each forecast timestep of each ensemble member d) For each forecast timestep, the overall (i.e. over all 'model error' distribution of each ensemble member) error distribution is calculated e) From this distribution, the uncertainty range on a desired level (here: the 10% and 90% percentile) is extracted and drawn as forecast envelope. f) As the mean or median of an ensemble forecast does not necessarily exhibit meteorologically sound temporal evolution, a single hydrological forecast termed 'lead forecast' is chosen and shown in addition to the uncertainty bounds. This can be

  5. Forecasting urban water demand: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebri, Maamar

    2016-12-01

    Water managers and planners require accurate water demand forecasts over the short-, medium- and long-term for many purposes. These range from assessing water supply needs over spatial and temporal patterns to optimizing future investments and planning future allocations across competing sectors. This study surveys the empirical literature on the urban water demand forecasting using the meta-analytical approach. Specifically, using more than 600 estimates, a meta-regression analysis is conducted to identify explanations of cross-studies variation in accuracy of urban water demand forecasting. Our study finds that accuracy depends significantly on study characteristics, including demand periodicity, modeling method, forecasting horizon, model specification and sample size. The meta-regression results remain robust to different estimators employed as well as to a series of sensitivity checks performed. The importance of these findings lies in the conclusions and implications drawn out for regulators and policymakers and for academics alike. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Dispersion Modeling Using Ensemble Forecasts Compared to ETEX Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straume, Anne Grete; N'dri Koffi, Ernest; Nodop, Katrin

    1998-11-01

    Numerous numerical models are developed to predict long-range transport of hazardous air pollution in connection with accidental releases. When evaluating and improving such a model, it is important to detect uncertainties connected to the meteorological input data. A Lagrangian dispersion model, the Severe Nuclear Accident Program, is used here to investigate the effect of errors in the meteorological input data due to analysis error. An ensemble forecast, produced at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, is then used as model input. The ensemble forecast members are generated by perturbing the initial meteorological fields of the weather forecast. The perturbations are calculated from singular vectors meant to represent possible forecast developments generated by instabilities in the atmospheric flow during the early part of the forecast. The instabilities are generated by errors in the analyzed fields. Puff predictions from the dispersion model, using ensemble forecast input, are compared, and a large spread in the predicted puff evolutions is found. This shows that the quality of the meteorological input data is important for the success of the dispersion model. In order to evaluate the dispersion model, the calculations are compared with measurements from the European Tracer Experiment. The model manages to predict the measured puff evolution concerning shape and time of arrival to a fairly high extent, up to 60 h after the start of the release. The modeled puff is still too narrow in the advection direction.

  7. Verification of ECMWF and ECMWF/MACC's global and direct irradiance forecasts with respect to solar electricity production forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schroedter-Homscheidt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The successful electricity grid integration of solar energy into day-ahead markets requires at least hourly resolved 48 h forecasts. Technologies as photovoltaics and non-concentrating solar thermal technologies make use of global horizontal irradiance (GHI forecasts, while all concentrating technologies both from the photovoltaic and the thermal sector require direct normal irradiances (DNI. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF has recently changed towards providing direct as well as global irradiances. Additionally, the MACC (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition & Climate near-real time services provide daily analysis and forecasts of aerosol properties in preparation of the upcoming European Copernicus programme. The operational ECMWF/IFS (Integrated Forecast System forecast system will in the medium term profit from the Copernicus service aerosol forecasts. Therefore, within the MACC‑II project specific experiment runs were performed allowing for the assessment of the performance gain of these potential future capabilities. Also the potential impact of providing forecasts with hourly output resolution compared to three-hourly resolved forecasts is investigated. The inclusion of the new aerosol climatology in October 2003 improved both the GHI and DNI forecasts remarkably, while the change towards a new radiation scheme in 2007 only had minor and partly even unfavourable impacts on the performance indicators. For GHI, larger RMSE (root mean square error values are found for broken/overcast conditions than for scattered cloud fields. For DNI, the findings are opposite with larger RMSE values for scattered clouds compared to overcast/broken cloud situations. The introduction of direct irradiances as an output parameter in the operational IFS version has not resulted in a general performance improvement with respect to biases and RMSE compared to the widely used Skartveit et al. (1998 global to direct irradiance

  8. International Workshop on Industry Practices for Forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Poggi, Jean-Michel; Brossat, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The chapters in this volume stress the need for advances in theoretical understanding to go hand-in-hand with the widespread practical application of forecasting in industry. Forecasting and time series prediction have enjoyed considerable attention over the last few decades, fostered by impressive advances in observational capabilities and measurement procedures. On June 5-7, 2013, an international Workshop on Industry Practices for FORecasting was held in Paris, France, organized and supported by the OSIRIS Department of Electricité de France Research and Development Division. In keeping with tradition, both theoretical statistical results and practical contributions on this active field of statistical research and on forecasting issues in a rapidly evolving industrial environment are presented. The volume reflects the broad spectrum of the conference, including 16 articles contributed by specialists in various areas. The material compiled is broad in scope and ranges from new findings on forecasting in in...

  9. Forecasting the poleward range expansion of an intertidal species driven by climate alterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Xavier

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate distributional models can be used to reliably predict the response of organisms to climatic changes. Though such models have been extensively applied to terrestrial organisms, they have hardly ever been applied to the marine environment. Recent changes in the distribution of the marine gastropod Patella rustica (L. were previously modelled with Classification and Regression Tree (CART and the results revealed that increases in temperature were the major driver of those changes. However, the accuracy scores during the validation of the model were unsatisfactory, preventing its use for forecasting purposes. To fulfil this objective, in the present study a more robust method, Artificial Neural Network (ANN, was employed to produce a model suited to forecasting changes in the distribution of P. rustica. Results confirmed that the ANN model behaved better than the CART, and that it could be used for forecasting future distributional scenarios. The model forecasts that by the 2020s P. rustica is likely to expand its range at least 1000 km northwards. These results should be interpreted with caution considering the dispersal limitations of this species, but if such an expansion took place, major changes in the colonized ecosystems are expected due to the key role of limpets in intertidal communities.

  10. Improving Short-Range Ensemble Kalman Storm Surge Forecasting Using Robust Adaptive Inflation

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a robust ensemble filtering methodology for storm surge forecasting based on the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter, which has been implemented in the framework of the H∞ filter. By design, an H∞ filter is more robust than the common Kalman filter in the sense that the estimation error in the H∞ filter has, in general, a finite growth rate with respect to the uncertainties in assimilation. The computational hydrodynamical model used in this study is the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) model. The authors assimilate data obtained from Hurricanes Katrina and Ike as test cases. The results clearly show that the H∞-based SEIK filter provides more accurate short-range forecasts of storm surge compared to recently reported data assimilation results resulting from the standard SEIK filter.

  11. Improving Short-Range Ensemble Kalman Storm Surge Forecasting Using Robust Adaptive Inflation

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad; Butler, T.; Luo, X.; Dawson, C.; Mayo, T.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a robust ensemble filtering methodology for storm surge forecasting based on the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter, which has been implemented in the framework of the H∞ filter. By design, an H∞ filter is more robust than the common Kalman filter in the sense that the estimation error in the H∞ filter has, in general, a finite growth rate with respect to the uncertainties in assimilation. The computational hydrodynamical model used in this study is the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) model. The authors assimilate data obtained from Hurricanes Katrina and Ike as test cases. The results clearly show that the H∞-based SEIK filter provides more accurate short-range forecasts of storm surge compared to recently reported data assimilation results resulting from the standard SEIK filter.

  12. European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Global sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies can affect terrestrial precipitation via ocean-atmosphere interaction known as climate teleconnection. Non-stationary...

  13. Stabilizing intermediate-term medium-range earthquake predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossobokov, V.G.; Romashkova, L.L.; Panza, G.F.; Peresan, A.

    2001-12-01

    A new scheme for the application of the intermediate-term medium-range earthquake prediction algorithm M8 is proposed. The scheme accounts for the natural distribution of seismic activity, eliminates the subjectivity in the positioning of the areas of investigation and provides additional stability of the predictions with respect to the original variant. According to the retroactive testing in Italy and adjacent regions, this improvement is achieved without any significant change of the alarm volume in comparison with the results published so far. (author)

  14. Seasonal Drought Forecasting for Latin America Using the ECMWF S4 Forecast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Carrão

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Meaningful seasonal prediction of drought conditions is key information for end-users and water managers, particularly in Latin America where crop and livestock production are key for many regional economies. However, there are still not many studies of the feasibility of such a forecasts at continental level in the region. In this study, precipitation predictions from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather (ECMWF seasonal forecast system S4 are combined with observed precipitation data to generate forecasts of the standardized precipitation index (SPI for Latin America, and their skill is evaluated over the hindcast period 1981–2010. The value-added utility in using the ensemble S4 forecast to predict the SPI is identified by comparing the skill of its forecasts with a baseline skill based solely on their climatological characteristics. As expected, skill of the S4-generated SPI forecasts depends on the season, location, and the specific aggregation period considered (the 3- and 6-month SPI were evaluated. Added skill from the S4 for lead times equaling the SPI accumulation periods is primarily present in regions with high intra-annual precipitation variability, and is found mostly for the months at the end of the dry seasons for 3-month SPI, and half-yearly periods for 6-month SPI. The ECMWF forecast system behaves better than the climatology for clustered grid points in the North of South America, the Northeast of Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil and Mexico. The skillful regions are similar for the SPI3 and -6, but become reduced in extent for the severest SPI categories. Forecasting different magnitudes of meteorological drought intensity on a seasonal time scale still remains a challenge. However, the ECMWF S4 forecasting system does capture the occurrence of drought events for the aforementioned regions and seasons reasonably well. In the near term, the largest advances in the prediction of meteorological drought for Latin

  15. An Overview of Short-term Statistical Forecasting Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Russell J.; Montgomery, Douglas C.; Kulahci, Murat

    2006-01-01

    An overview of statistical forecasting methodology is given, focusing on techniques appropriate to short- and medium-term forecasts. Topics include basic definitions and terminology, smoothing methods, ARIMA models, regression methods, dynamic regression models, and transfer functions. Techniques...... for evaluating and monitoring forecast performance are also summarized....

  16. Pre- and post-processing of hydro-meteorological ensembles for the Norwegian flood forecasting system in 145 basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahr Hegdahl, Trine; Steinsland, Ingelin; Merete Tallaksen, Lena; Engeland, Kolbjørn

    2016-04-01

    Probabilistic flood forecasting has an added value for decision making. The Norwegian flood forecasting service is based on a flood forecasting model that run for 145 basins. Covering all of Norway the basins differ in both size and hydrological regime. Currently the flood forecasting is based on deterministic meteorological forecasts, and an auto-regressive procedure is used to achieve probabilistic forecasts. An alternative approach is to use meteorological and hydrological ensemble forecasts to quantify the uncertainty in forecasted streamflow. The hydrological ensembles are based on forcing a hydrological model with meteorological ensemble forecasts of precipitation and temperature. However, the ensembles of precipitation are often biased and the spread is too small, especially for the shortest lead times, i.e. they are not calibrated. These properties will, to some extent, propagate to hydrological ensembles, that most likely will be uncalibrated as well. Pre- and post-processing methods are commonly used to obtain calibrated meteorological and hydrological ensembles respectively. Quantitative studies showing the effect of the combined processing of the meteorological (pre-processing) and the hydrological (post-processing) ensembles are however few. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of pre- and post-processing on the skill of streamflow predictions, and we will especially investigate if the forecasting skill depends on lead-time, basin size and hydrological regime. This aim is achieved by applying the 51 medium-range ensemble forecast of precipitation and temperature provided by the European Center of Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). These ensembles are used as input to the operational Norwegian flood forecasting model, both raw and pre-processed. Precipitation ensembles are calibrated using a zero-adjusted gamma distribution. Temperature ensembles are calibrated using a Gaussian distribution and altitude corrected by a constant gradient

  17. Forecasting global atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusti-Panareda, A.; Massart, S.; Boussetta, S.; Balsamo, G.; Beljaars, A.; Engelen, R.; Jones, L.; Peuch, V.H.; Chevallier, F.; Ciais, P.; Paris, J.D.; Sherlock, V.

    2014-01-01

    A new global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) real-time forecast is now available as part of the preoperational Monitoring of Atmospheric Composition and Climate - Interim Implementation (MACC-II) service using the infrastructure of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Integrated Forecasting System (IFS). One of the strengths of the CO 2 forecasting system is that the land surface, including vegetation CO 2 fluxes, is modelled online within the IFS. Other CO 2 fluxes are prescribed from inventories and from off-line statistical and physical models. The CO 2 forecast also benefits from the transport modelling from a state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) system initialized daily with a wealth of meteorological observations. This paper describes the capability of the forecast in modelling the variability of CO 2 on different temporal and spatial scales compared to observations. The modulation of the amplitude of the CO 2 diurnal cycle by near-surface winds and boundary layer height is generally well represented in the forecast. The CO 2 forecast also has high skill in simulating day-to-day synoptic variability. In the atmospheric boundary layer, this skill is significantly enhanced by modelling the day-to-day variability of the CO 2 fluxes from vegetation compared to using equivalent monthly mean fluxes with a diurnal cycle. However, biases in the modelled CO 2 fluxes also lead to accumulating errors in the CO 2 forecast. These biases vary with season with an underestimation of the amplitude of the seasonal cycle both for the CO 2 fluxes compared to total optimized fluxes and the atmospheric CO 2 compared to observations. The largest biases in the atmospheric CO 2 forecast are found in spring, corresponding to the onset of the growing season in the Northern Hemisphere. In the future, the forecast will be re-initialized regularly with atmospheric CO 2 analyses based on the assimilation of CO 2 products retrieved from satellite

  18. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 121 Issue 2 April 2012 pp 273-285. Development of multimodel ensemble based district level medium range rainfall forecast system for Indian region .... 123 Issue 7 October 2014 pp 1637-1652. Forecasting of cyclone Viyaru and Phailin by NWP-based cyclone prediction system (CPS) of IMD – an evaluation.

  19. Energy Demand and Supply Analysis and Outlook - Energy Forecast for 2001 and Policy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, In Gang; Ryu, Ji Chul [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2000-12-01

    The energy consumption in Korea has grown at impressive rates during the last 3 decades, along with the economic growth. The global concern about the environment issue and the restructuring in Korea energy industry has an effect on the pattern and trend of energy demand in Korea. Under the situation, this research are focusing on the analysis of energy consumption and forecast of energy demand. First of all, we analyze the trends and major characteristics of energy consumption, beginning with 1970s and up to the third quarter of 2000. In the analysis of energy consumption by energy types, we also perform qualitative analysis on the trends and characteristics of each energy types, including institutional analysis. In model section, we start with the brief description of synopsis and outline the survey on empirical models for energy demand. The econometric model used in KEEI's short-term energy forecast is outlined, followed by the result of estimations. The 2001 energy demand forecast is predicted in detail by sectors and energy types. In the year 2001, weak demand is projected to continue through the First Half, and pick up its pace of growth only in the Second Half. Projected total demand is 201.3 million TOE or 4.4% growth. In the last section, the major policy issues are summarized in three sub-sections: the restructuring in energy industry, the security of energy demand and supply, international energy cooperation including south-north energy cooperation. (author). 86 refs., 43 figs., 73 tabs.

  20. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts – Part 1: The visualization tool Met.3D (version 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rautenhaus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present "Met.3D", a new open-source tool for the interactive three-dimensional (3-D visualization of numerical ensemble weather predictions. The tool has been developed to support weather forecasting during aircraft-based atmospheric field campaigns; however, it is applicable to further forecasting, research and teaching activities. Our work approaches challenging topics related to the visual analysis of numerical atmospheric model output – 3-D visualization, ensemble visualization and how both can be used in a meaningful way suited to weather forecasting. Met.3D builds a bridge from proven 2-D visualization methods commonly used in meteorology to 3-D visualization by combining both visualization types in a 3-D context. We address the issue of spatial perception in the 3-D view and present approaches to using the ensemble to allow the user to assess forecast uncertainty. Interactivity is key to our approach. Met.3D uses modern graphics technology to achieve interactive visualization on standard consumer hardware. The tool supports forecast data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF and can operate directly on ECMWF hybrid sigma-pressure level grids. We describe the employed visualization algorithms, and analyse the impact of the ECMWF grid topology on computing 3-D ensemble statistical quantities. Our techniques are demonstrated with examples from the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX – North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment campaign.

  1. Analysis of industrial markets for low and medium Btu coal gasification. [Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-30

    Low- and medium-Btu gases (LBG and MBG) can be produced from coal with a variety of 13 existing and 25 emerging processes. Historical experience and previous studies indicate a large potential market for LBG and MBG coal gasification in the manufacturing industries for fuel and feedstocks. However, present use in the US is limited, and industry has not been making substantial moves to invest in the technology. Near-term (1979-1985) market activity for LBG and MBG is highly uncertain and is complicated by a myriad of pressures on industry for energy-related investments. To assist in planning its program to accelerate the commercialization of LBG and MBG, the Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Booz, Allen and Hamilton to characterize and forecast the 1985 industrial market for LBG and MBG coal gasification. The study draws five major conclusions: (1) There is a large technically feasible market potential in industry for commercially available equipment - exceeding 3 quadrillion Btu per year. (2) Early adopters will be principally steel, chemical, and brick companies in described areas. (3) With no additional Federal initiatives, industry commitments to LBG and MBG will increase only moderately. (4) The major barriers to further market penetration are lack of economic advantage, absence of significant operating experience in the US, uncertainty on government environmental policy, and limited credible engineering data for retrofitting industrial plants. (5) Within the context of generally accepted energy supply and price forecasts, selected government action can be a principal factor in accelerating market penetration. Each major conclusion is discussed briefly and key implications for DOE planning are identified.

  2. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station: Phase I Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred C.; Merceret, Francis J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the results of the ANU's (Applied Meteorology Unit) Short-Range Statistical Forecasting task for peak winds. The peak wind speeds are an important forecast element for the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle programs. The Keith Weather Squadron and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group indicate that peak winds are challenging to forecast. The Applied Meteorology Unit was tasked to develop tools that aid in short-range forecasts of peak winds at tower sites of operational interest. A 7 year record of wind tower data was used in the analysis. Hourly and directional climatologies by tower and month were developed to determine the seasonal behavior of the average and peak winds. In all climatologies, the average and peak wind speeds were highly variable in time. This indicated that the development of a peak wind forecasting tool would be difficult. Probability density functions (PDF) of peak wind speed were calculated to determine the distribution of peak speed with average speed. These provide forecasters with a means of determining the probability of meeting or exceeding a certain peak wind given an observed or forecast average speed. The climatologies and PDFs provide tools with which to make peak wind forecasts that are critical to safe operations.

  3. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilocca, Antonio [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-21

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ∼10{sup 3} atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their

  4. Cooling rate and size effects on the medium-range structure of multicomponent oxide glasses simulated by molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilocca, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    A set of molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effect of cooling rate and system size on the medium-range structure of melt-derived multicomponent silicate glasses, represented by the quaternary 45S5 Bioglass composition. Given the significant impact of the glass degradation on applications of these materials in biomedicine and nuclear waste disposal, bulk structural features which directly affect the glass dissolution process are of particular interest. Connectivity of the silicate matrix, ion clustering and nanosegregation, distribution of ring and chain structural patterns represent critical features in this context, which can be directly extracted from the models. A key issue is represented by the effect of the computational approach on the corresponding glass models, especially in light of recent indications questioning the suitability of conventional MD approaches (that is, involving melt-and-quench of systems containing ∼10 3 atoms at cooling rates of 5-10 K/ps) when applied to model these glasses. The analysis presented here compares MD models obtained with conventional and nonconventional cooling rates and system sizes, highlighting the trend and range of convergence of specific structural features in the medium range. The present results show that time-consuming computational approaches involving much lower cooling rates and/or significantly larger system sizes are in most cases not necessary in order to obtain a reliable description of the medium-range structure of multicomponent glasses. We identify the convergence range for specific properties and use them to discuss models of several glass compositions for which a possible influence of cooling-rate or size effects had been previously hypothesized. The trends highlighted here represent an important reference to obtain reliable models of multicomponent glasses and extract converged medium-range structural features which affect the glass degradation and thus their application

  5. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Cline, J.; Frank, Helmut Paul

    2016-01-01

    the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD...

  6. A comparison between the ECMWF and COSMO Ensemble Prediction Systems applied to short-term wind power forecasting on real data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrini, S.; Sperati, S.; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    together with a single forecast power value for each future time horizon. A comparison between two different ensemble forecasting models, ECMWF EPS (Ensemble Prediction System in use at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) and COSMO-LEPS (Limited-area Ensemble Prediction System developed...... ahead forecast horizon. A statistical calibration of the ensemble wind speed members based on the use of past wind speed measurements is explained. The two models are compared using common verification indices and diagrams. The higher horizontal resolution model (COSMO-LEPS) shows slightly better...

  7. Forecasting ocean wave energy: A Comparison of the ECMWF wave model with time series methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reikard, Gordon; Pinson, Pierre; Bidlot, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the technology has been developed to make wave farms commercially viable. Since electricity is perishable, utilities will be interested in forecasting ocean wave energy. The horizons involved in short-term management of power grids range from as little as a few hours to as long as several...... days. In selecting a method, the forecaster has a choice between physics-based models and statistical techniques. A further idea is to combine both types of models. This paper analyzes the forecasting properties of a well-known physics-based model, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts...... (ECMWF) Wave Model, and two statistical techniques, time-varying parameter regressions and neural networks. Thirteen data sets at locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Gulf of Mexico are tested. The quantities to be predicted are the significant wave height, the wave period, and the wave...

  8. Assessment of community noise for a medium-range airplane with open-rotor engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiev, V. F.; Shur, M. L.; Travin, A. K.; Belyaev, I. V.; Zamtfort, B. S.; Medvedev, Yu. V.

    2017-11-01

    Community noise of a hypothetical medium-range airplane equipped with open-rotor engines is assessed by numerical modeling of the aeroacoustic characteristics of an isolated open rotor with the simplest blade geometry. Various open-rotor configurations are considered at constant thrust, and the lowest-noise configuration is selected. A two-engine medium-range airplane at known thrust of bypass turbofan engines at different segments of the takeoff-landing trajectory is considered, after the replacement of those engines by the open-rotor engines. It is established that a medium-range airplane with two open-rotor engines meets the requirements of Chapter 4 of the ICAO standard with a significant margin. It is shown that airframe noise makes a significant contribution to the total noise of an airplane with open-rotor engines at landing.

  9. Very-short range forecasting system for 2018 Pyeonchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ji-Eun; Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Minyou; Kim, Changhwan; Joo, Sangwon

    2016-04-01

    The 23rd Olympic Winter and the 13th Paralympic Winter Games will be held in Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea respectively from 9 to 25 February 2018 and from 9 to 18 February 2018. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the National Institute for Meteorological Science (NIMS) have the responsibility to provide weather information for the management of the Games and the safety of the public. NIMS will carry out a Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP) and a Research and Development Project (RDP) which will be called ICE-POP 2018. These projects will focus on intensive observation campaigns to understand severe winter weathers over the Pyeongchang region, and the research results from the RDP will be used to improve the accuracy of nowcasting and very short-range forecast systems during the Games. To support these projects, NIMS developed Very-short range Data Assimilation and Prediction System (VDAPS), which is run in real time with 1 hour cycling interval and up to 12 hour forecasts. The domain is covering Korean Peninsular and surrounding seas with 1.5km horizontal resolution. AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, and radar radial winds are assimilated by 3DVAR on 3km resolution inner domain. The rain rate is converted into latent heat and initialized via nudging. The visibility data are also assimilated with the addition of aerosol control variable. The experiments results show the improvement in rainfall over south sea of Korean peninsula. In order to reduce excessive rainfalls during first 2 hours due to the reduced cycling interval, the data assimilation algorithm is optimized.

  10. Forecast Accuracy Uncertainty and Momentum

    OpenAIRE

    Bing Han; Dong Hong; Mitch Warachka

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that stock price momentum and earnings momentum can result from uncertainty surrounding the accuracy of cash flow forecasts. Our model has multiple information sources issuing cash flow forecasts for a stock. The investor combines these forecasts into an aggregate cash flow estimate that has minimal mean-squared forecast error. This aggregate estimate weights each cash flow forecast by the estimated accuracy of its issuer, which is obtained from their past forecast errors. Mome...

  11. Empirical seasonal forecasts of the NAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchezgomez, E.; Ortizbevia, M.

    2003-04-01

    We present here seasonal forecasts of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) issued from ocean predictors with an empirical procedure. The Singular Values Decomposition (SVD) of the cross-correlation matrix between predictor and predictand fields at the lag used for the forecast lead is at the core of the empirical model. The main predictor field are sea surface temperature anomalies, although sea ice cover anomalies are also used. Forecasts are issued in probabilistic form. The model is an improvement over a previous version (1), where Sea Level Pressure Anomalies were first forecast, and the NAO Index built from this forecast field. Both correlation skill between forecast and observed field, and number of forecasts that hit the correct NAO sign, are used to assess the forecast performance , usually above those values found in the case of forecasts issued assuming persistence. For certain seasons and/or leads, values of the skill are above the .7 usefulness treshold. References (1) SanchezGomez, E. and Ortiz Bevia M., 2002, Estimacion de la evolucion pluviometrica de la Espana Seca atendiendo a diversos pronosticos empiricos de la NAO, in 'El Agua y el Clima', Publicaciones de la AEC, Serie A, N 3, pp 63-73, Palma de Mallorca, Spain

  12. Addressing model error through atmospheric stochastic physical parametrizations: impact on the coupled ECMWF seasonal forecasting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere–ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system—System 4—has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981–2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid

  13. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  14. Forecasting gaming revenues in Clark County, Nevada: Issues and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.K.; Bando, A.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the Western Area Gaming and Economic Response Simulator (WAGERS), a forecasting model that emphasizes the role of the gaming industry in Clark County, Nevada. Is is designed to generate forecasts of gaming revenues in Clark County, whose regional economy is dominated by the gaming industry. The model is meant to forecast Clark County gaming revenues and identifies the exogenous variables that affect gaming revenues. It will provide baseline forecasts of Clark County gaming revenues in order to assess changes in gaming-related economic activity resulting from changes in regional economic activity and tourism.

  15. On Long Memory Origins and Forecast Horizons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vera-Valdés, J. Eduardo

    Most long memory forecasting studies assume that the memory is generated by the fractional difference operator. We argue that the most cited theoretical arguments for the presence of long memory do not imply the fractional difference operator, and assess the performance of the autoregressive...... fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA) model when forecasting series with long memory generated by nonfractional processes. We find that high-order autoregressive (AR) models produce similar or superior forecast performance than ARFIMA models at short horizons. Nonetheless, as the forecast horizon...... increases, the ARFIMA models tend to dominate in forecast performance. Hence, ARFIMA models are well suited for forecasts of long memory processes regardless of the long memory generating mechanism, particularly for medium and long forecast horizons. Additionally, we analyse the forecasting performance...

  16. 25 years of time series forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Hyndman, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    We review the past 25 years of research into time series forecasting. In this silver jubilee issue, we naturally highlight results published in journals managed by the International Institute of Forecasters (Journal of Forecasting 1982-1985 and International Journal of Forecasting 1985-2005). During

  17. Extended-range forecast for the temporal distribution of clustering tropical cyclogenesis over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Tim; Bai, Long; Gao, Jianyun

    2017-11-01

    Based on outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), an index for clustering tropical cyclogenesis (CTC) over the western North Pacific (WNP) was defined. Around 76 % of total CTC events were generated during the active phase of the CTC index, and 38 % of the total active phase was concurrent with CTC events. For its continuous property, the CTC index was used as the representative predictand for extended-range forecasting the temporal distribution of CTC events. The predictability sources for CTC events were detected via correlation analyses of the previous 35-5-day lead atmospheric fields against the CTC index. The results showed that the geopotential height at different levels and the 200 hPa zonal wind over the global tropics possessed large predictability sources, whereas the predictability sources of other variables, e.g., OLR, zonal wind, and relatively vorticity at 850 hPa and relatively humility at 700 hPa, were mainly confined to the tropical Indian Ocean and western Pacific Ocean. Several spatial-temporal projection model (STPM) sets were constructed to carry out the extended-range forecast for the CTC index. By combining the output of STPMs separately conducted for the two dominant modes of intraseasonal variability, e.g., the 10-30 and the 30-80 day mode, useful forecast skill could be achieved for a 30-day lead time. The combined output successfully captured both the 10-30 and 30-80 day mode at least 10 days in advance. With a relatively low rate of false alarm, the STPM achieved hits for 80 % (69 %) of 54 CTC events during 2003-2014 at the 10-day (20-day) lead time, suggesting a practical value of the STPM for real-time forecasting WNP CTC events at an extended range.

  18. The new Met Office strategy for seasonal forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, T. D.

    2012-04-01

    In October 2011 the Met Office began issuing a new-format UK seasonal forecast, called "The 3-month Outlook". Government interest in a UK-relevant product had been heightened by infrastructure issues arising during the severe cold of previous winters. At the same time there was evidence that the Met Office's "GLOSEA4" long range forecasting system exhibited some hindcast skill for the UK, that was comparable to its hindcast skill for the larger (and therefore less useful) 'northern Europe' region. Also, the NAO- and AO- signals prevailing in the previous two winters had been highlighted by the GLOSEA4 model well in advance. This presentation will initially give a brief overview of GLOSEA4, describing key features such as evolving sea-ice, a well-resolved stratosphere, and the perturbation strategy. Skill measures will be shown, along with forecasts for the last 3 winters. The new structure 3-month outlook will then be described and presented. Previously, our seasonal forecasts had been based on a tercile approach. The new format outlook aims to substantially improve upon this by illustrating graphically, and with text, the full range of possible outcomes, and by placing those outcomes in the context of climatology. In one key component the forecast pdfs (probability density functions) are displayed alongside climatological pdfs. To generate the forecast pdf we take the bias-corrected GLOSEA4 output (42 members), and then incorporate, via expert team, all other relevant information. Firstly model forecasts from other centres are examined. Then external 'forcing factors', such as solar, and the state of the land-ocean-ice system, are referenced, assessing how well the models represent their influence, and bringing in statistical relationships where appropriate. The expert team thereby decides upon any changes to the GLOSEA4 data, employing an interactive tool to shift, expand or contract the forecast pdfs accordingly. The full modification process will be illustrated

  19. Verification of different forecasts of Hungarian Meteorological Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feher, B.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper I show the results of the forecasts made by the Hungarian Meteorological Service. I focus on the general short- and medium-range forecasts, which contains cloudiness, precipitation, wind speed and temperature for six regions of Hungary. I would like to show the results of some special forecasts as well, such as precipitation predictions which are made for the catchment area of Danube and Tisza rivers, and daily mean temperature predictions used by Hungarian energy companies. The product received by the user is made by the general forecaster, but these predictions are based on the ALADIN and ECMWF outputs. Because of these, the product of the forecaster and the models were also verified. Method like this is able to show us, which weather elements are more difficult to forecast or which regions have higher errors. During the verification procedure the basic errors (mean error, mean absolute error) are calculated. Precipitation amount is classified into five categories, and scores like POD, TS, PC,…etc. were defined by contingency table determined by these categories. The procedure runs fully automatically, all the things forecasters have to do is to print the daily result each morning. Beside the daily result, verification is also made for longer periods like week, month or year. Analyzing the results of longer periods we can say that the best predictions are made for the first few days, and precipitation forecasts are less good for mountainous areas, even, the scores of the forecasters sometimes are higher than the errors of the models. Since forecaster receive results next day, it can helps him/her to reduce mistakes and learn the weakness of the models. This paper contains the verification scores, their trends, the method by which these scores are calculated, and some case studies on worse forecasts.

  20. Long Range Financial Forecasting for School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael E.

    Public school systems infrequently project their financial outlook beyond the coming year. Yet, financial projections over a multiyear period are necessary if the financial "crises" that frequently occur in public organizations are to be avoided. This paper discusses the importance of financial forecasting and planning, the development of…

  1. Uncovering English-medium instruction glocal issues in higher education

    CERN Document Server

    Drljaca Margic, Branka

    2016-01-01

    This book draws on a range of theoretical and empirical insights to explore the implications of English-medium instruction in higher education and how to capitalize on its strengths and respond to its challenges. It opens up new avenues for research relevant to all educational institutions undergoing change in this field.

  2. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA): an analysis of the mid-range projection, Series C Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, B.; Hillsman, E.

    1979-10-01

    The Department of Energy has hypothesized a number of alternate energy futures as part of its energy planning and analysis programs. How a proposed energy future called the Mid-Range Projection Series C Scenario would affect Federal Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico) is examined in this report. This scenario assumes a medium supply and a medium demand for fuel through 1990, and it incorporates the fuel-switching provisions of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act. The report portrays the major regional environmental, human health and safety, socioeconomic, and institutional effects that might result from the realization of the Series C Scenario. This discussion should serve as a basis for further assessments, as it identifies some issues of major concern for Region VI that must be addressed in more depth.

  3. Retrospective Evaluation of the Long-Term CSEP-Italy Earthquake Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, M. J.; Zechar, J. D.; Marzocchi, W.; Wiemer, S.

    2010-12-01

    On 1 August 2009, the global Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) launched a prospective and comparative earthquake predictability experiment in Italy. The goal of the CSEP-Italy experiment is to test earthquake occurrence hypotheses that have been formalized as probabilistic earthquake forecasts over temporal scales that range from days to years. In the first round of forecast submissions, members of the CSEP-Italy Working Group presented eighteen five-year and ten-year earthquake forecasts to the European CSEP Testing Center at ETH Zurich. We considered the twelve time-independent earthquake forecasts among this set and evaluated them with respect to past seismicity data from two Italian earthquake catalogs. Here, we present the results of tests that measure the consistency of the forecasts with the past observations. Besides being an evaluation of the submitted time-independent forecasts, this exercise provided insight into a number of important issues in predictability experiments with regard to the specification of the forecasts, the performance of the tests, and the trade-off between the robustness of results and experiment duration.

  4. Wind power forecast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Rui [Rede Electrica Nacional (REN), S.A., Lisboa (Portugal). Dept. Systems and Development System Operator; Trancoso, Ana Rosa; Delgado Domingos, Jose [Univ. Tecnica de Lisboa (Portugal). Seccao de Ambiente e Energia

    2012-07-01

    Accurate wind power forecast are needed to reduce integration costs in the electric grid caused by wind inherent variability. Currently, Portugal has a significant wind power penetration level and consequently the need to have reliable wind power forecasts at different temporal scales, including localized events such as ramps. This paper provides an overview of the methodologies used by REN to forecast wind power at national level, based on statistical and probabilistic combinations of NWP and measured data with the aim of improving accuracy of pure NWP. Results show that significant improvement can be achieved with statistical combination with persistence in the short-term and with probabilistic combination in the medium-term. NWP are also able to detect ramp events with 3 day notice to the operational planning. (orig.)

  5. Study on networking issues of medium earth orbit satellite communications systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, Noriyuki; Shinonaga, Hideyuki; Ito, Yasuhiko

    1993-01-01

    Two networking issues of communications systems with medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites, namely network architectures and location determination and registration methods for hand-held terminals, are investigated in this paper. For network architecture, five candidate architectures are considered and evaluated in terms of signaling traffic. For location determination and registration, two methods are discussed and evaluated.

  6. Forecasting multivariate volatility in larger dimensions: some practical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Adam E Clements; Ayesha Scott; Annastiina Silvennoinen

    2012-01-01

    The importance of covariance modelling has long been recognised in the field of portfolio management and large dimensional multivariate problems are increasingly becoming the focus of research. This paper provides a straightforward and commonsense approach toward investigating whether simpler moving average based correlation forecasting methods have equal predictive accuracy as their more complex multivariate GARCH counterparts for large dimensional problems. We find simpler forecasting techn...

  7. Analysing UK real estate market forecast disagreement

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, Patrick; Newell, G.; Matysiak, George

    2005-01-01

    Given the significance of forecasting in real estate investment decisions, this paper investigates forecast uncertainty and disagreement in real estate market forecasts. Using the Investment Property Forum (IPF) quarterly survey amongst UK independent real estate forecasters, these real estate forecasts are compared with actual real estate performance to assess a number of real estate forecasting issues in the UK over 1999-2004, including real estate forecast error, bias and consensus. The re...

  8. Adaptive Blending of Model and Observations for Automated Short-Range Forecasting: Examples from the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Monika E.; Isaac, George A.; Gultepe, Ismail; Heckman, Ivan; Reid, Janti

    2014-01-01

    An automated short-range forecasting system, adaptive blending of observations and model (ABOM), was tested in real time during the 2010 Vancouver Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in British Columbia. Data at 1-min time resolution were available from a newly established, dense network of surface observation stations. Climatological data were not available at these new stations. This, combined with output from new high-resolution numerical models, provided a unique and exciting setting to test nowcasting systems in mountainous terrain during winter weather conditions. The ABOM method blends extrapolations in time of recent local observations with numerical weather predictions (NWP) model predictions to generate short-range point forecasts of surface variables out to 6 h. The relative weights of the model forecast and the observation extrapolation are based on performance over recent history. The average performance of ABOM nowcasts during February and March 2010 was evaluated using standard scores and thresholds important for Olympic events. Significant improvements over the model forecasts alone were obtained for continuous variables such as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The small improvements to forecasts of variables such as visibility and ceiling, subject to discontinuous changes, are attributed to the persistence component of ABOM.

  9. Advances in electric power and energy systems load and price forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive review of state-of-the-art approaches to power systems forecasting from the most respected names in the field, internationally. Advances in Electric Power and Energy Systems is the first book devoted exclusively to a subject of increasing urgency to power systems planning and operations. Written for practicing engineers, researchers, and post-grads concerned with power systems planning and forecasting, this book brings together contributions from many of the world’s foremost names in the field who address a range of critical issues, from forecasting power system load to power system pricing to post-storm service restoration times, river flow forecasting, and more. In a time of ever-increasing energy demands, mounting concerns over the environmental impacts of power generation, and the emergence of new, smart-grid technologies, electricity price forecasting has assumed a prominent role within both the academic and industrial ar nas. Short-run forecasting of electricity prices has become nece...

  10. Medium-Term Oil Market Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    How much oil will the world consume in 2012? What role will OPEC play in global oil production? Will biofuels become an important part of the oil market? How will the refinery sector cope? The International Energy Agency (IEA) Medium-Term Oil Market Report tackles these questions, adopting a perspective that goes beyond the traditional short-term market analysis provided in the IEA Oil Market Report. Drawing on current futures curves and the investment threshold for upstream projects, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report analyses how global demand and supply balances may develop. By assessing all firmly planned upstream and downstream projects worldwide, this report forecasts supply and demand potential for crude and petroleum products over the next five years. The results provide an invaluable insight into vital issues such as surplus production capacity and product supply. An essential report for all policymakers, market analysts, energy experts and anyone interested in understanding and following oil market trends, the Medium-Term Oil Market Report is a further element of the strong commitment of the IEA to improving and expanding the quality, timeliness and accuracy of energy data and analysis.

  11. Major Risks, Uncertain Outcomes: Making Ensemble Forecasts Work for Multiple Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmens, K. A.; Montz, B.; Carr, R. H.; Maxfield, K.; Ahnert, P.; Shedd, R.; Elliott, J.

    2017-12-01

    When extreme river levels are possible in a community, effective communication of weather and hydrologic forecasts is critical to protect life and property. Residents, emergency personnel, and water resource managers need to make timely decisions about how and when to prepare. Uncertainty in forecasting is a critical component of this decision-making, but often poses a confounding factor for public and professional understanding of forecast products. In 2016 and 2017, building on previous research about the use of uncertainty forecast products, and with funding from NOAA's CSTAR program, East Carolina University and Nurture Nature Center (a non-profit organization with a focus on flooding issues, based in Easton, PA) conducted a research project to understand how various audiences use and interpret ensemble forecasts showing a range of hydrologic forecast possibilities. These audiences include community residents, emergency managers and water resource managers. The research team held focus groups in Jefferson County, WV and Frederick County, MD, to test a new suite of products from the National Weather Service's Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System (HEFS). HEFS is an ensemble system that provides short and long-range forecasts, ranging from 6 hours to 1 year, showing uncertainty in hydrologic forecasts. The goal of the study was to assess the utility of the HEFS products, identify the barriers to proper understanding of the products, and suggest modifications to product design that could improve the understandability and accessibility for residential, emergency managers, and water resource managers. The research team worked with the Sterling, VA Weather Forecast Office and the Middle Atlantic River Forecast center to develop a weather scenario as the basis of the focus group discussions, which also included pre and post session surveys. This presentation shares the findings from those focus group discussions and surveys, including recommendations for revisions to

  12. Linear and nonlinear post-processing of numerically forecasted surface temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Casaioli

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test different approaches to the statistical post-processing of gridded numerical surface air temperatures (provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts onto the temperature measured at surface weather stations located in the Italian region of Puglia. We consider simple post-processing techniques, like correction for altitude, linear regression from different input parameters and Kalman filtering, as well as a neural network training procedure, stabilised (i.e. driven into the absolute minimum of the error function over the learning set by means of a Simulated Annealing method. A comparative analysis of the results shows that the performance with neural networks is the best. It is encouraging for systematic use in meteorological forecast-analysis service operations.

  13. Medium-Term Probabilistic Forecasting of Extremely Low Prices in Electricity Markets: Application to the Spanish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant challenges that have arisen in electricity markets during the last few years is the emergence of extremely low prices. Trying to predict these events is crucial for market agents in a competitive environment. This paper proposes a novel methodology to simultaneously accomplish punctual and probabilistic hourly predictions about the appearance of extremely low electricity prices in a medium-term scope. The proposed approach for making real ex ante forecasts consists of a nested compounding of different forecasting techniques, which incorporate Monte Carlo simulation, combined with spatial interpolation techniques. The procedure is based on the statistical identification of the process key drivers. Logistic regression for rare events, decision trees, multilayer perceptrons and a hybrid approach, which combines a market equilibrium model with logistic regression, are used. Moreover, this paper assesses whether periodic models in which parameters switch according to the day of the week can be even more accurate. The proposed techniques are compared to a Markov regime switching model and several naive methods. The proposed methodology empirically demonstrates its effectiveness by achieving promising results on a real case study based on the Spanish electricity market. This approach can provide valuable information for market agents when they face decision making and risk-management processes. Our findings support the additional benefit of using a hybrid approach for deriving more accurate predictions.

  14. Comparison of Statistical Post-Processing Methods for Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Keunhee; Choi, JunTae; Kim, Chansoo

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the statistical post-processing methods that include bias-corrected and probabilistic forecasts of wind speed measured in PyeongChang, which is scheduled to host the 2018 Winter Olympics, are compared and analyzed to provide more accurate weather information. The six post-processing methods used in this study are as follows: mean bias-corrected forecast, mean and variance bias-corrected forecast, decaying averaging forecast, mean absolute bias-corrected forecast, and the alternative implementations of ensemble model output statistics (EMOS) and Bayesian model averaging (BMA) models, which are EMOS and BMA exchangeable models by assuming exchangeable ensemble members and simplified version of EMOS and BMA models. Observations for wind speed were obtained from the 26 stations in PyeongChang and 51 ensemble member forecasts derived from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF Directorate, 2012) that were obtained between 1 May 2013 and 18 March 2016. Prior to applying the post-processing methods, reliability analysis was conducted by using rank histograms to identify the statistical consistency of ensemble forecast and corresponding observations. Based on the results of our study, we found that the prediction skills of probabilistic forecasts of EMOS and BMA models were superior to the biascorrected forecasts in terms of deterministic prediction, whereas in probabilistic prediction, BMA models showed better prediction skill than EMOS. Even though the simplified version of BMA model exhibited best prediction skill among the mentioned six methods, the results showed that the differences of prediction skills between the versions of EMOS and BMA were negligible.

  15. Exploring the interactions between forecast accuracy, risk perception and perceived forecast reliability in reservoir operator's decision to use forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee-Jood, M.; Cai, X.

    2017-12-01

    Advances in streamflow forecasts at different time scales offer a promise for proactive flood management and improved risk management. Despite the huge potential, previous studies have found that water resources managers are often not willing to incorporate streamflow forecasts information in decisions making, particularly in risky situations. While low accuracy of forecasts information is often cited as the main reason, some studies have found that implementation of streamflow forecasts sometimes is impeded by institutional obstacles and behavioral factors (e.g., risk perception). In fact, a seminal study by O'Connor et al. (2005) found that risk perception is the strongest determinant of forecast use while managers' perception about forecast reliability is not significant. In this study, we aim to address this issue again. However, instead of using survey data and regression analysis, we develop a theoretical framework to assess the user-perceived value of streamflow forecasts. The framework includes a novel behavioral component which incorporates both risk perception and perceived forecast reliability. The framework is then used in a hypothetical problem where reservoir operator should react to probabilistic flood forecasts with different reliabilities. The framework will allow us to explore the interactions among risk perception and perceived forecast reliability, and among the behavioral components and information accuracy. The findings will provide insights to improve the usability of flood forecasts information through better communication and education.

  16. GloFAS-Seasonal: Operational Seasonal Ensemble River Flow Forecasts at the Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerton, Rebecca; Zsoter, Ervin; Smith, Paul; Salamon, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal hydrological forecasting has potential benefits for many sectors, including agriculture, water resources management and humanitarian aid. At present, no global scale seasonal hydrological forecasting system exists operationally; although smaller scale systems have begun to emerge around the globe over the past decade, a system providing consistent global scale seasonal forecasts would be of great benefit in regions where no other forecasting system exists, and to organisations operating at the global scale, such as disaster relief. We present here a new operational global ensemble seasonal hydrological forecast, currently under development at ECMWF as part of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The proposed system, which builds upon the current version of GloFAS, takes the long-range forecasts from the ECMWF System4 ensemble seasonal forecast system (which incorporates the HTESSEL land surface scheme) and uses this runoff as input to the Lisflood routing model, producing a seasonal river flow forecast out to 4 months lead time, for the global river network. The seasonal forecasts will be evaluated using the global river discharge reanalysis, and observations where available, to determine the potential value of the forecasts across the globe. The seasonal forecasts will be presented as a new layer in the GloFAS interface, which will provide a global map of river catchments, indicating whether the catchment-averaged discharge forecast is showing abnormally high or low flows during the 4-month lead time. Each catchment will display the corresponding forecast as an ensemble hydrograph of the weekly-averaged discharge forecast out to 4 months, with percentile thresholds shown for comparison with the discharge climatology. The forecast visualisation is based on a combination of the current medium-range GloFAS forecasts and the operational EFAS (European Flood Awareness System) seasonal outlook, and aims to effectively communicate the nature of a seasonal

  17. Evaluation of weather forecast systems for storm surge modeling in the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon, Juan L.; Ferreira, Celso M.; Padilla-Hernandez, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Accurate forecast of sea-level heights in coastal areas depends, among other factors, upon a reliable coupling of a meteorological forecast system to a hydrodynamic and wave system. This study evaluates the predictive skills of the coupled circulation and wind-wave model system (ADCIRC+SWAN) for simulating storm tides in the Chesapeake Bay, forced by six different products: (1) Global Forecast System (GFS), (2) Climate Forecast System (CFS) version 2, (3) North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM), (4) Rapid Refresh (RAP), (5) European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and (6) the Atlantic hurricane database (HURDAT2). This evaluation is based on the hindcasting of four events: Irene (2011), Sandy (2012), Joaquin (2015), and Jonas (2016). By comparing the simulated water levels to observations at 13 monitoring stations, we have found that the ADCIR+SWAN System forced by the following: (1) the HURDAT2-based system exhibited the weakest statistical skills owing to a noteworthy overprediction of the simulated wind speed; (2) the ECMWF, RAP, and NAM products captured the moment of the peak and moderately its magnitude during all storms, with a correlation coefficient ranging between 0.98 and 0.77; (3) the CFS system exhibited the worst averaged root-mean-square difference (excepting HURDAT2); (4) the GFS system (the lowest horizontal resolution product tested) resulted in a clear underprediction of the maximum water elevation. Overall, the simulations forced by NAM and ECMWF systems induced the most accurate results best accuracy to support water level forecasting in the Chesapeake Bay during both tropical and extra-tropical storms.

  18. Summer drought predictability over Europe: empirical versus dynamical forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Ceglar, Andrej; Prodhomme, Chloé; Soret, Albert; Toreti, Andrea; Doblas-Reyes Francisco, J.

    2017-08-01

    Seasonal climate forecasts could be an important planning tool for farmers, government and insurance companies that can lead to better and timely management of seasonal climate risks. However, climate seasonal forecasts are often under-used, because potential users are not well aware of the capabilities and limitations of these products. This study aims at assessing the merits and caveats of a statistical empirical method, the ensemble streamflow prediction system (ESP, an ensemble based on reordering historical data) and an operational dynamical forecast system, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts—System 4 (S4) in predicting summer drought in Europe. Droughts are defined using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for the month of August integrated over 6 months. Both systems show useful and mostly comparable deterministic skill. We argue that this source of predictability is mostly attributable to the observed initial conditions. S4 shows only higher skill in terms of ability to probabilistically identify drought occurrence. Thus, currently, both approaches provide useful information and ESP represents a computationally fast alternative to dynamical prediction applications for drought prediction.

  19. Enhancing Community Based Early Warning Systems in Nepal with Flood Forecasting Using Local and Global Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Smith, Paul; Parajuli, Binod; Khanal, Sonu; Brown, Sarah; Gautam, Dilip; Bhandari, Dinanath; Gurung, Gehendra; Shakya, Puja; Kharbuja, RamGopal; Uprety, Madhab

    2017-04-01

    Operationalising effective Flood Early Warning Systems (EWS) in developing countries like Nepal poses numerous challenges, with complex topography and geology, sparse network of river and rainfall gauging stations and diverse socio-economic conditions. Despite these challenges, simple real-time monitoring based EWSs have been in place for the past decade. A key constraint of these simple systems is the very limited lead time for response - as little as 2-3 hours, especially for rivers originating from steep mountainous catchments. Efforts to increase lead time for early warning are focusing on imbedding forecasts into the existing early warning systems. In 2016, the Nepal Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) piloted an operational Probabilistic Flood Forecasting Model in major river basins across Nepal. This comprised a low data approach to forecast water levels, developed jointly through a research/practitioner partnership with Lancaster University and WaterNumbers (UK) and the International NGO Practical Action. Using Data-Based Mechanistic Modelling (DBM) techniques, the model assimilated rainfall and water levels to generate localised hourly flood predictions, which are presented as probabilistic forecasts, increasing lead times from 2-3 hours to 7-8 hours. The Nepal DHM has simultaneously started utilizing forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GLoFAS) that provides streamflow predictions at the global scale based upon distributed hydrological simulations using numerical ensemble weather forecasts from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The aforementioned global and local models have already affected the approach to early warning in Nepal, being operational during the 2016 monsoon in the West Rapti basin in Western Nepal. On 24 July 2016, GLoFAS hydrological forecasts for the West Rapti indicated a sharp rise in river discharge above 1500 m3/sec (equivalent to the river warning level at 5 meters) with 53

  20. A Wind Forecasting System for Energy Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Jennifer; Lynch, Peter; Sweeney, Conor

    2010-05-01

    Accurate forecasting of available energy is crucial for the efficient management and use of wind power in the national power grid. With energy output critically dependent upon wind strength there is a need to reduce the errors associated wind forecasting. The objective of this research is to get the best possible wind forecasts for the wind energy industry. To achieve this goal, three methods are being applied. First, a mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model called WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) is being used to predict wind values over Ireland. Currently, a gird resolution of 10km is used and higher model resolutions are being evaluated to establish whether they are economically viable given the forecast skill improvement they produce. Second, the WRF model is being used in conjunction with ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ensemble forecasts to produce a probabilistic weather forecasting product. Due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere, a single, deterministic weather forecast can only have limited skill. The ECMWF ensemble methods produce an ensemble of 51 global forecasts, twice a day, by perturbing initial conditions of a 'control' forecast which is the best estimate of the initial state of the atmosphere. This method provides an indication of the reliability of the forecast and a quantitative basis for probabilistic forecasting. The limitation of ensemble forecasting lies in the fact that the perturbed model runs behave differently under different weather patterns and each model run is equally likely to be closest to the observed weather situation. Models have biases, and involve assumptions about physical processes and forcing factors such as underlying topography. Third, Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) is being applied to the output from the ensemble forecasts in order to statistically post-process the results and achieve a better wind forecasting system. BMA is a promising technique that will offer calibrated

  1. Issues in midterm analysis and forecasting, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    This document consists of papers which cover topics in analysis and modeling that underlie the Annual Energy Outlook 1996. Topics include: The Potential Impact of Technological Progress on U.S. Energy Markets; The Outlook for U.S. Import Dependence; Fuel Economy, Vehicle Choice, and Changing Demographics, and Annual Energy Outlook Forecast Evaluation

  2. Robust Approaches to Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Castle; David Hendry; Michael P. Clements

    2014-01-01

    We investigate alternative robust approaches to forecasting, using a new class of robust devices, contrasted with equilibrium correction models. Their forecasting properties are derived facing a range of likely empirical problems at the forecast origin, including measurement errors, implulses, omitted variables, unanticipated location shifts and incorrectly included variables that experience a shift. We derive the resulting forecast biases and error variances, and indicate when the methods ar...

  3. The Discriminant Analysis Flare Forecasting System (DAFFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leka, K. D.; Barnes, Graham; Wagner, Eric; Hill, Frank; Marble, Andrew R.

    2016-05-01

    The Discriminant Analysis Flare Forecasting System (DAFFS) has been developed under NOAA/Small Business Innovative Research funds to quantitatively improve upon the NOAA/SWPC flare prediction. In the Phase-I of this project, it was demonstrated that DAFFS could indeed improve by the requested 25% most of the standard flare prediction data products from NOAA/SWPC. In the Phase-II of this project, a prototype has been developed and is presently running autonomously at NWRA.DAFFS uses near-real-time data from NOAA/GOES, SDO/HMI, and the NSO/GONG network to issue both region- and full-disk forecasts of solar flares, based on multi-variable non-parametric Discriminant Analysis. Presently, DAFFS provides forecasts which match those provided by NOAA/SWPC in terms of thresholds and validity periods (including 1-, 2-, and 3- day forecasts), although issued twice daily. Of particular note regarding DAFFS capabilities are the redundant system design, automatically-generated validation statistics and the large range of customizable options available. As part of this poster, a description of the data used, algorithm, performance and customizable options will be presented, as well as a demonstration of the DAFFS prototype.DAFFS development at NWRA is supported by NOAA/SBIR contracts WC-133R-13-CN-0079 and WC-133R-14-CN-0103, with additional support from NASA contract NNH12CG10C, plus acknowledgment to the SDO/HMI and NSO/GONG facilities and NOAA/SWPC personnel for data products, support, and feedback. DAFFS is presently ready for Phase-III development.

  4. Modeling of spatial dependence in wind power forecast uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaefthymiou, George; Pinson, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    It is recognized today that short-term (up to 2-3 days ahead) probabilistic forecasts of wind power provide forecast users with a paramount information on the uncertainty of expected wind generation. When considering different areas covering a region, they are produced independently, and thus...... neglect the interdependence structure of prediction errors, induced by movement of meteorological fronts, or more generally by inertia of meteorological systems. This issue is addressed here by describing a method that permits to generate interdependent scenarios of wind generation for spatially...... distributed wind power production for specific look-ahead times. The approach is applied to the case of western Denmark split in 5 zones, for a total capacity of more than 2.1 GW. The interest of the methodology for improving the resolution of probabilistic forecasts, for a range of decision-making problems...

  5. Early warnings of extreme winds using the ECMWF Extreme Forecast Index

    OpenAIRE

    Petroliagis, Thomas I.; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The European FP7 SafeWind Project aims at developing research towards a European vision of wind power forecasting, which requires advanced meteorological support concerning extreme wind events. This study is focused mainly on early warnings of extreme winds in the early medium-range. Three synoptic stations (airports) of North Germany (Bremen, Hamburg and Hannover) were considered for the construction of time series of daily maximum wind speeds. All daily wind extremes were found to be linked...

  6. Predictor-weighting strategies for probabilistic wind power forecasting with an analog ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Junk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike deterministic forecasts, probabilistic predictions provide estimates of uncertainty, which is an additional value for decision-making. Previous studies have proposed the analog ensemble (AnEn, which is a technique to generate uncertainty information from a purely deterministic forecast. The objective of this study is to improve the AnEn performance for wind power forecasts by developing static and dynamic weighting strategies, which optimize the predictor combination with a brute-force continuous ranked probability score (CRPS minimization and a principal component analysis (PCA of the predictors. Predictors are taken from the high-resolution deterministic forecasts of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF, including forecasts of wind at several heights, geopotential height, pressure, and temperature, among others. The weighting strategies are compared at five wind farms in Europe and the U.S. situated in regions with different terrain complexity, both on and offshore, and significantly improve the deterministic and probabilistic AnEn forecast performance compared to the AnEn with 10‑m wind speed and direction as predictors and compared to PCA-based approaches. The AnEn methodology also provides reliable estimation of the forecast uncertainty. The optimized predictor combinations are strongly dependent on terrain complexity, local wind regimes, and atmospheric stratification. Since the proposed predictor-weighting strategies can accomplish both the selection of relevant predictors as well as finding their optimal weights, the AnEn performance is improved by up to 20 % at on and offshore sites.

  7. Meteorology and dispersion forecast in nuclear emergency in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunst, Juan J.; Boutet, Luis I.; Jordan, Osvaldo D.; Hernandez, Daniel G.; Guichandut, M.E.; Chiappesoni, H.

    2008-01-01

    The 'Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) (ARN in Spanish)' and the 'National Meteorological Office (NMO) (SMN in Spanish)' of Argentine has been working together on the improvement of both meteorological forecasting and dispersion prediction. In the pre-release phase of a nuclear emergency, it is very important to know the wind direction and the forecast of it, to establish the area, around the installation, where the emergency state is declared and to foresee the modification of this area. Information is also needed about deterministic effects, to begin the evacuation. At this time, meteorological forecast of wind direction and speed, and the real time meteorological information is available in the nuclear power plant (NPP) and in the Nuclear Emergency Control Centre at the ARN headquarters, together with the short-range dose calculation provided by our dispersion code, SEDA. By means of the SEDA code, we can estimate the optimum place to measure the radioactive material concentration in air, needed do to reduce evaluation uncertainties due, among others, to poor knowledge of the source term. The SEDA code allows considering atmospheric condition, and the need to reduced doses of the measuring team in charge of the measurements. For the evaluation in the medium range, we participate in the project IXP, which provides four hours and about 50 kilometres forecast. In the long-range movement of air borne radioactivity, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), whose contact point in Argentina is the SMN, can assist us. We have developed together, with the SMN, a detailed procedure to request assistance from the WMO. In this work, we describe the combined tasks that were carried out with the SMN to define the procedures and the concepts for their application during a real emergency. The results of an application exercise carried out in 2006 are also described. (author)

  8. Verification of Space Weather Forecasts using Terrestrial Weather Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E.; Murray, S.; Pope, E.; Stephenson, D.; Sharpe, M.; Bingham, S.; Jackson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) provides a range of 24/7 operational space weather forecasts, alerts, and warnings, which provide valuable information on space weather that can degrade electricity grids, radio communications, and satellite electronics. Forecasts issued include arrival times of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and probabilistic forecasts for flares, geomagnetic storm indices, and energetic particle fluxes and fluences. These forecasts are produced twice daily using a combination of output from models such as Enlil, near-real-time observations, and forecaster experience. Verification of forecasts is crucial for users, researchers, and forecasters to understand the strengths and limitations of forecasters, and to assess forecaster added value. To this end, the Met Office (in collaboration with Exeter University) has been adapting verification techniques from terrestrial weather, and has been working closely with the International Space Environment Service (ISES) to standardise verification procedures. We will present the results of part of this work, analysing forecast and observed CME arrival times, assessing skill using 2x2 contingency tables. These MOSWOC forecasts can be objectively compared to those produced by the NASA Community Coordinated Modelling Center - a useful benchmark. This approach cannot be taken for the other forecasts, as they are probabilistic and categorical (e.g., geomagnetic storm forecasts give probabilities of exceeding levels from minor to extreme). We will present appropriate verification techniques being developed to address these forecasts, such as rank probability skill score, and comparing forecasts against climatology and persistence benchmarks. As part of this, we will outline the use of discrete time Markov chains to assess and improve the performance of our geomagnetic storm forecasts. We will also discuss work to adapt a terrestrial verification visualisation system to space weather, to help

  9. Forecasting Interest Rates and Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    the best overall for short horizon forecasts of short to medium term yields and inflation. Econometric models with shrinkage perform the best over longer horizons and maturities. Aggregating over a larger set of analysts improves inflation surveys while generally degrading interest rates surveys. We...

  10. Bias correction of satellite precipitation products for flood forecasting application at the Upper Mahanadi River Basin in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beria, H.; Nanda, T., Sr.; Chatterjee, C.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution satellite precipitation products such as Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), etc., offer a promising alternative to flood forecasting in data scarce regions. At the current state-of-art, these products cannot be used in the raw form for flood forecasting, even at smaller lead times. In the current study, these precipitation products are bias corrected using statistical techniques, such as additive and multiplicative bias corrections, and wavelet multi-resolution analysis (MRA) with India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded precipitation product,obtained from gauge-based rainfall estimates. Neural network based rainfall-runoff modeling using these bias corrected products provide encouraging results for flood forecasting upto 48 hours lead time. We will present various statistical and graphical interpretations of catchment response to high rainfall events using both the raw and bias corrected precipitation products at different lead times.

  11. The Use of Principal Components in Long-Range Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jonq-Gong

    Large-scale modes of the global sea surface temperatures and the Northern Hemisphere tropospheric circulation are described by principal component analysis. The first and the second SST components well describe the El Nino episodes, and the El Nino index (ENI), suggested in this study, is consistent with the winter Southern Oscillation index (SOI), where this ENI is a composite component of the weighted first and second SST components. The large-scale interactive modes of the coupling ocean-atmosphere system are identified by cross-correlation analysis The result shows that the first SST component is strongly correlated with the first component of geopotential height in lead time of 6 months. In the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) evolution, the El Nino mode strongly influences the winter tropospheric circulation in the mid -latitudes for up to three leading seasons. The regional long-range variation of climate is investigated with these major components of the SST and the tropospheric circulation. In the mid-latitude, the climate of the central United States shows a weak linkage with these large-scale circulations, and the climate of the western United States appears to be consistently associated with the ENSO modes. These El Nino modes also show a dominant influence on Eastern Asia as evidenced in Taiwan Mei-Yu patterns. Possible regional long-range forecasting schemes, utilizing the complementary characteristics of the winter El Nino mode and SST anomalies, are examined with the Taiwan Mei-Yu.

  12. Using soil moisture forecasts for sub-seasonal summer temperature predictions in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, René; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture exhibits outstanding memory characteristics and plays a key role within the climate system. Especially through its impacts on the evapotranspiration of soils and plants, it may influence the land energy balance and therefore surface temperature. These attributes make soil moisture an important variable in the context of weather and climate forecasting. In this study we investigate the value of (initial) soil moisture information for sub-seasonal temperature forecasts. For this purpose we employ a simple water balance model to infer soil moisture from streamflow observations in 400 catchments across Europe. Running this model with forecasted atmospheric forcing, we derive soil moisture forecasts, which we then translate into temperature forecasts using simple linear relationships. The resulting temperature forecasts show skill beyond climatology up to 2 weeks in most of the considered catchments. Even if forecasting skills are rather small at longer lead times with significant skill only in some catchments at lead times of 3 and 4 weeks, this soil moisture-based approach shows local improvements compared to the monthly European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) temperature forecasts at these lead times. For both products (soil moisture-only forecast and ECMWF forecast), we find comparable or better forecast performance in the case of extreme events, especially at long lead times. Even though a product based on soil moisture information alone is not of practical relevance, our results indicate that soil moisture (memory) is a potentially valuable contributor to temperature forecast skill. Investigating the underlying soil moisture of the ECMWF forecasts we find good agreement with the simple model forecasts, especially at longer lead times. Analyzing the drivers of the temperature forecast skills we find that they are mainly controlled by the strengths of (1) the soil moisture-temperature coupling and (2) the soil moisture memory. We

  13. Analysis of stable components in the extended-range forecast for the coming 10–30 days in winter 2010 and 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kuo; Zeng Yu-Xing; Wang Xu-Jia; Feng Guo-Lin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we try to extract stable components in the extended-range forecast for the coming 10–30 days by using empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, similarity coefficient, and some other methods based on the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis daily data. The comparisons of the coefficient of variance of climatological background field and truth data in winter between 2010 and 2011 are made. The method of extracting stable components and climatological background field can be helpful to increase forecasting skill. The forecasting skill improvement of air temperature is better than geopotential height at 500 hPa. Moreover, this method improves the predictability better in the Pacific Ocean. In China, the forecast in winter in Northeast China is more uncertain than in the other parts. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  14. A Novel Nonlinear Combined Forecasting System for Short-Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengshi Tian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-term load forecasting plays an indispensable role in electric power systems, which is not only an extremely challenging task but also a concerning issue for all society due to complex nonlinearity characteristics. However, most previous combined forecasting models were based on optimizing weight coefficients to develop a linear combined forecasting model, while ignoring that the linear combined model only considers the contribution of the linear terms to improving the model’s performance, which will lead to poor forecasting results because of the significance of the neglected and potential nonlinear terms. In this paper, a novel nonlinear combined forecasting system, which consists of three modules (improved data pre-processing module, forecasting module and the evaluation module is developed for short-term load forecasting. Different from the simple data pre-processing of most previous studies, the improved data pre-processing module based on longitudinal data selection is successfully developed in this system, which further improves the effectiveness of data pre-processing and then enhances the final forecasting performance. Furthermore, the modified support vector machine is developed to integrate all the individual predictors and obtain the final prediction, which successfully overcomes the upper drawbacks of the linear combined model. Moreover, the evaluation module is incorporated to perform a scientific evaluation for the developed system. The half-hourly electrical load data from New South Wales are employed to verify the effectiveness of the developed forecasting system, and the results reveal that the developed nonlinear forecasting system can be employed in the dispatching and planning for smart grids.

  15. Short-Term Solar Forecasting Performance of Popular Machine Learning Algorithms: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florita, Anthony R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgindy, Tarek [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hodge, Brian S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobbs, Alex [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-03

    A framework for assessing the performance of short-term solar forecasting is presented in conjunction with a range of numerical results using global horizontal irradiation (GHI) from the open-source Surface Radiation Budget (SURFRAD) data network. A suite of popular machine learning algorithms is compared according to a set of statistically distinct metrics and benchmarked against the persistence-of-cloudiness forecast and a cloud motion forecast. Results show significant improvement compared to the benchmarks with trade-offs among the machine learning algorithms depending on the desired error metric. Training inputs include time series observations of GHI for a history of years, historical weather and atmospheric measurements, and corresponding date and time stamps such that training sensitivities might be inferred. Prediction outputs are GHI forecasts for 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours ahead of the issue time, and they are made for every month of the year for 7 locations. Photovoltaic power and energy outputs can then be made using the solar forecasts to better understand power system impacts.

  16. Introducing seasonal hydro-meteorological forecasts in local water management. First reflections from the Messara site, Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Grillakis, Manolis; Tsanis, Ioannis

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal prediction is recently at the center of the forecasting research efforts, especially for regions that are projected to be severely affected by global warming. The value of skillful seasonal forecasts can be considerable for many sectors and especially for the agricultural in which water users and managers can benefit to better anticipate against drought conditions. Here we present the first reflections from the user/stakeholder interactions and the design of a tailored drought decision support system in an attempt to bring seasonal predictions into local practice for the Messara valley located in the central-south area of Crete, Greece. Findings from interactions with the users and stakeholders reveal that although long range and seasonal predictions are not used, there is a strong interest for this type of information. The increase in the skill of short range weather predictions is also of great interest. The drought monitoring and prediction tool under development that support local water and agricultural management will include (a) sources of skillful short to medium term forecast information, (b) tailored drought monitoring and forecasting indices for the local groundwater aquifer and rain-fed agriculture, and (c) seasonal inflow forecasts for the local dam through hydrologic simulation to support management of freshwater resources and drought impacts on irrigated agriculture.

  17. Cash Flow Forecasting : Proposal for New Long-Term Cash Flow Forecast in the Case Company

    OpenAIRE

    Pitkänen, Annika

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a cash flow forecast model for the case company. The case company in this thesis was a Finnish building construction company. The group controlling set a target to improve the corporate treasury’s current long-term cash flow forecast because it was inaccurate and it often had outstanding deficiencies between actual and forecasted figures. A project team was set up to investigate on this issue and this research and development project is documented in t...

  18. Forecasting electricity market pricing using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien

    2007-01-01

    Electricity price forecasting is extremely important for all market players, in particular for generating companies: in the short term, they must set up bids for the spot market; in the medium term, they have to define contract policies; and in the long term, they must define their expansion plans. For forecasting long-term electricity market pricing, in order to avoid excessive round-off and prediction errors, this paper proposes a new artificial neural network (ANN) with single output node structure by using direct forecasting approach. The potentials of ANNs are investigated by employing a rolling cross validation scheme. Out of sample performance evaluated with three criteria across five forecasting horizons shows that the proposed ANNs are a more robust multi-step ahead forecasting method than autoregressive error models. Moreover, ANN predictions are quite accurate even when the length of the forecast horizon is relatively short or long

  19. A meteo-hydrological prediction system based on a multi-model approach for precipitation forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Davolio

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation forecasted by a numerical weather prediction model, even at high resolution, suffers from errors which can be considerable at the scales of interest for hydrological purposes. In the present study, a fraction of the uncertainty related to meteorological prediction is taken into account by implementing a multi-model forecasting approach, aimed at providing multiple precipitation scenarios driving the same hydrological model. Therefore, the estimation of that uncertainty associated with the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF, conveyed by the multi-model ensemble, can be exploited by the hydrological model, propagating the error into the hydrological forecast.

    The proposed meteo-hydrological forecasting system is implemented and tested in a real-time configuration for several episodes of intense precipitation affecting the Reno river basin, a medium-sized basin located in northern Italy (Apennines. These episodes are associated with flood events of different intensity and are representative of different meteorological configurations responsible for severe weather affecting northern Apennines.

    The simulation results show that the coupled system is promising in the prediction of discharge peaks (both in terms of amount and timing for warning purposes. The ensemble hydrological forecasts provide a range of possible flood scenarios that proved to be useful for the support of civil protection authorities in their decision.

  20. Rainfall downscaling of weekly ensemble forecasts using self-organising maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Ohba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an application of self-organising maps (SOMs to downscaling medium-range ensemble forecasts and probabilistic prediction of local precipitation in Japan. SOM was applied to analyse and connect the relationship between atmospheric patterns over Japan and local high-resolution precipitation data. Multiple SOM was simultaneously employed on four variables derived from the JRA-55 reanalysis over the area of study (south-western Japan, and a two-dimensional lattice of weather patterns (WPs was obtained. Weekly ensemble forecasts can be downscaled to local precipitation using the obtained multiple SOM. The downscaled precipitation is derived by the five SOM lattices based on the WPs of the global model ensemble forecasts for a particular day in 2009–2011. Because this method effectively handles the stochastic uncertainties from the large number of ensemble members, a probabilistic local precipitation is easily and quickly obtained from the ensemble forecasts. This downscaling of ensemble forecasts provides results better than those from a 20-km global spectral model (i.e. capturing the relatively detailed precipitation distribution over the region. To capture the effect of the detailed pattern differences in each SOM node, a statistical model is additionally concreted for each SOM node. The predictability skill of the ensemble forecasts is significantly improved under the neural network-statistics hybrid-downscaling technique, which then brings a much better skill score than the traditional method. It is expected that the results of this study will provide better guidance to the user community and contribute to the future development of dam-management models.

  1. An experimental system for flood risk forecasting at global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, L.; Dottori, F.; Kalas, M.; Lorini, V.; Bianchi, A.; Hirpa, F. A.; Feyen, L.; Salamon, P.

    2016-12-01

    Global flood forecasting and monitoring systems are nowadays a reality and are being applied by an increasing range of users and practitioners in disaster risk management. Furthermore, there is an increasing demand from users to integrate flood early warning systems with risk based forecasts, combining streamflow estimations with expected inundated areas and flood impacts. To this end, we have developed an experimental procedure for near-real time flood mapping and impact assessment based on the daily forecasts issued by the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The methodology translates GloFAS streamflow forecasts into event-based flood hazard maps based on the predicted flow magnitude and the forecast lead time and a database of flood hazard maps with global coverage. Flood hazard maps are then combined with exposure and vulnerability information to derive flood risk. Impacts of the forecasted flood events are evaluated in terms of flood prone areas, potential economic damage, and affected population, infrastructures and cities. To further increase the reliability of the proposed methodology we integrated model-based estimations with an innovative methodology for social media monitoring, which allows for real-time verification of impact forecasts. The preliminary tests provided good results and showed the potential of the developed real-time operational procedure in helping emergency response and management. In particular, the link with social media is crucial for improving the accuracy of impact predictions.

  2. Visualization of ocean forecast in BYTHOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, E.; Zodiatis, G.; Nikolaidis, A.; Stylianou, S.; Karaolia, A.

    2016-08-01

    The Cyprus Oceanography Center has been constantly searching for new ideas for developing and implementing innovative methods and new developments concerning the use of Information Systems in Oceanography, to suit both the Center's monitoring and forecasting products. Within the frame of this scope two major online managing and visualizing data systems have been developed and utilized, those of CYCOFOS and BYTHOS. The Cyprus Coastal Ocean Forecasting and Observing System - CYCOFOS provides a variety of operational predictions such as ultra high, high and medium resolution ocean forecasts in the Levantine Basin, offshore and coastal sea state forecasts in the Mediterranean and Black Sea, tide forecasting in the Mediterranean, ocean remote sensing in the Eastern Mediterranean and coastal and offshore monitoring. As a rich internet application, BYTHOS enables scientists to search, visualize and download oceanographic data online and in real time. The recent improving of BYTHOS system is the extension with access and visualization of CYCOFOS data and overlay forecast fields and observing data. The CYCOFOS data are stored at OPENDAP Server in netCDF format. To search, process and visualize it the php and python scripts were developed. Data visualization is achieved through Mapserver. The BYTHOS forecast access interface allows to search necessary forecasting field by recognizing type, parameter, region, level and time. Also it provides opportunity to overlay different forecast and observing data that can be used for complex analyze of sea basin aspects.

  3. Improvements in medium range weather forecasting system of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system is based on the latest Grid Statistical Interpolation (GSI) scheme and it has the provision to use most of .... ified Simplified-Arakawa Scheme (SAS) (Han and. Pan 2010). ..... Kim Y-J and Arakawa A 1995 Improvement of orographic gravity wave ... Yang F, Mitchell K, Hou Y-T, Dai Y, Deng X, Wang Z and. Liang X-Z ...

  4. Development of a forecast model for global air traffic emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Martin

    2012-07-01

    The thesis describes the methodology and results of a simulation model that quantifies fuel consumption and emissions of civil air traffic. Besides covering historical emissions, the model aims at forecasting emissions in the medium-term future. For this purpose, simulation models of aircraft and engine types are used in combination with a database of global flight movements and assumptions about traffic growth, fleet rollover and operational aspects. Results from an application of the model include emissions of scheduled air traffic for the years 2000 to 2010 as well as forecasted emissions until the year 2030. In a baseline scenario of the forecast, input assumptions (e.g. traffic growth rates) are in line with predictions by the aircraft industry. Considering the effects of advanced technologies of the short-term and medium-term future, the forecast focusses on fuel consumption and emissions of nitric oxides. Calculations for historical air traffic additionally cover emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and soot. Results are validated against reference data including studies by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) and simulation results from international research projects. (orig.)

  5. Retrospective evaluation of the five-year and ten-year CSEP-Italy earthquake forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Wiemer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available On August 1, 2009, the global Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP launched a prospective and comparative earthquake predictability experiment in Italy. The goal of this CSEP-Italy experiment is to test earthquake occurrence hypotheses that have been formalized as probabilistic earthquake forecasts over temporal scales that range from days to years. In the first round of forecast submissions, members of the CSEP-Italy Working Group presented 18 five-year and ten-year earthquake forecasts to the European CSEP Testing Center at ETH Zurich. We have considered here the twelve time-independent earthquake forecasts among this set, and evaluated them with respect to past seismicity data from two Italian earthquake catalogs. We present the results of the tests that measure the consistencies of the forecasts according to past observations. As well as being an evaluation of the time-independent forecasts submitted, this exercise provides insight into a number of important issues in predictability experiments with regard to the specification of the forecasts, the performance of the tests, and the trade-off between robustness of results and experiment duration. We conclude with suggestions for the design of future earthquake predictability experiments.

  6. Verification of space weather forecasts at the UK Met Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, S.; Sharpe, M.; Jackson, D.; Murray, S.

    2017-12-01

    The UK Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) has produced space weather guidance twice a day since its official opening in 2014. Guidance includes 4-day probabilistic forecasts of X-ray flares, geomagnetic storms, high-energy electron events and high-energy proton events. Evaluation of such forecasts is important to forecasters, stakeholders, model developers and users to understand the performance of these forecasts and also strengths and weaknesses to enable further development. Met Office terrestrial near real-time verification systems have been adapted to provide verification of X-ray flare and geomagnetic storm forecasts. Verification is updated daily to produce Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves and Reliability diagrams, and rolling Ranked Probability Skill Scores (RPSSs) thus providing understanding of forecast performance and skill. Results suggest that the MOSWOC issued X-ray flare forecasts are usually not statistically significantly better than a benchmark climatological forecast (where the climatology is based on observations from the previous few months). By contrast, the issued geomagnetic storm activity forecast typically performs better against this climatological benchmark.

  7. Strategic Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Henrik Johannsen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an overview of the area of strategic forecasting and its research directions and to put forward some ideas for improving management decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This article is conceptual but also informed by the author’s long contact...... and collaboration with various business firms. It starts by presenting an overview of the area and argues that the area is as much a way of thinking as a toolbox of theories and methodologies. It then spells out a number of research directions and ideas for management. Findings: Strategic forecasting is seen...... as a rebirth of long range planning, albeit with new methods and theories. Firms should make the building of strategic forecasting capability a priority. Research limitations/implications: The article subdivides strategic forecasting into three research avenues and suggests avenues for further research efforts...

  8. On the flood forecasting at the Bulgarian part of Struma River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Dobri

    2004-01-01

    Struma is a mountain river flowing from North to South, from Bulgaria through Greece up to the Aegean Sea. It generates flush floods of snow melt - rainfall type mainly in the late spring. Flood forecasting there is needed to improve the flood mitigation measures at the Bulgarian territory of the basin as well as for effective reservoir management downstream Bulgarian border, secure flood handling at Greek territory and generally decrease the flood hazard. The paper summarizes the range of activities in the basin including: - the installation of automatic telemetric hydro meteorological observation network; - review of the results of relevant past projects; - analysis of historical hydro meteorological data; - design and calibration of flood forecasting models; - demonstrating the possibility to issue flood warnings with certain lead time and accuracy; - recent efforts to increase the lead time of the hydrological forecasts, applying forecasts from High Resolution Limited Area meteorological models and other activities in the frame of the EC 5th FP EFFS project.(Author)

  9. Impacts of Amazonia biomass burning aerosols assessed from short-range weather forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolusu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direct radiative impacts of biomass burning aerosols (BBA on meteorology are investigated using short-range forecasts from the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM over South America during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA. The impacts are evaluated using a set of three simulations: (i no aerosols, (ii with monthly mean aerosol climatologies and (iii with prognostic aerosols modelled using the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies In Climate (CLASSIC scheme. Comparison with observations show that the prognostic CLASSIC scheme provides the best representation of BBA. The impacts of BBA are quantified over central and southern Amazonia from the first and second day of 2-day forecasts during 14 September–3 October 2012. On average, during the first day of the forecast, including prognostic BBA reduces the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m−2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiation by 8 ± 1 W m−2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m−2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude: 9.0 ± 1 W m−2 at the surface and 4.0 ± 1 W m−2 at TOA. In this modelling study the BBA therefore exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth–atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation. Due to the reduction of net radiative flux at the surface, the mean 2 m air temperature is reduced by around 0.1 ± 0.02 °C. The BBA also cools the boundary layer (BL but warms air above by around 0.2 °C due to the absorption of shortwave radiation. The overall impact is to reduce the BL depth by around 19 ± 8 m. These differences in heating lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa, with winds changing by around 0.6 m s−1. Inclusion of climatological or prognostic BBA in the MetUM makes a small but significant improvement in forecasts of temperature and relative humidity, but improvements were

  10. Forecasting short-term wind farm production in complex terrain. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, M.

    2005-01-01

    Wind energy forecasting adds financial value to wind farms and may soon become a regulatory requirement. A robust information technology system is essential for addressing industry demands. Various forecasting methodologies for short-term wind production in complex terrain were presented. Numerical weather predictions were discussed with reference to supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system site measurements. Forecasting methods using wind speed, direction, temperature and pressure, as well as issues concerning statistical modelling were presented. Model output statistics and neural networks were reviewed, as well as significant components of error. Results from a Garrad Hassan forecaster with a European wind farm were presented, including wind speed evaluation, and forecast horizon for T + 1 hours, T + 12 hours, and T + 36 hours. It was suggested that buy prices often reflect the cost of under-prediction, and that forecasting has more potential where the spread is greatest. Accurate T + 19 hours to T + 31 hours could enable participation in the day-ahead market, which is less volatile and prices are usually better. Estimates of possible profits per annum through the use of GH forecaster power predictions were presented, calculated over and above spilling power to the grid. It was concluded that accurate forecasts combined with certainty evaluation enables the optimization of wind energy in the market, and is applicable to a wide range of weather regimes and terrain types. It was suggested that site feedback is essential for good forecasts at short horizons, and that the value of forecasting is dependent on the market. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Statistical bias correction modelling for seasonal rainfall forecast for the case of Bali island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lealdi, D.; Nurdiati, S.; Sopaheluwakan, A.

    2018-04-01

    Rainfall is an element of climate which is highly influential to the agricultural sector. Rain pattern and distribution highly determines the sustainability of agricultural activities. Therefore, information on rainfall is very useful for agriculture sector and farmers in anticipating the possibility of extreme events which often cause failures of agricultural production. This research aims to identify the biases from seasonal forecast products from ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) rainfall forecast and to build a transfer function in order to correct the distribution biases as a new prediction model using quantile mapping approach. We apply this approach to the case of Bali Island, and as a result, the use of bias correction methods in correcting systematic biases from the model gives better results. The new prediction model obtained with this approach is better than ever. We found generally that during rainy season, the bias correction approach performs better than in dry season.

  12. Demand Forecasting in the Fashion Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Nenni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting demand is a crucial issue for driving efficient operations management plans. This is especially the case in the fashion industry, where demand uncertainty, lack of historical data and seasonal trends usually coexist. Many approaches to this issue have been proposed in the literature over the past few decades. In this paper, forecasting methods are compared with the aim of linking approaches to the market features.

  13. Medium-term forecast up to 2016 as required by the Renewable Energies Law; Die EEG-Mittelfristprognose bis 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichmuth, Matthias [Leipziger Institut fuer Energie GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Article 3 of the Ordinance on the Implementation of the Ordinance on the Further Development of the Federal Compensation Mechanism obliges transmission system operators to publish not only the following year's reallocation charge pursuant to the Federal Electricity Feed-in Law but also, by the 15 November of each calendar year, a forecast on the probable range of the reallocation charge in the year after next, and further of expected electricity feed-in rates and electricity sales for the following five calendar years. For this purpose they must also determine and publish the progress over time of the average compensation due to plant operators and the amounts of network charges avoided and must do so separately for each of the energy carriers promoted under Renewable Energies Law. The present article shows the results of the current feed-in forecast in compact form.

  14. State Support of Small and Medium Enterprises in Russia: Spatial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Victorovich Aleshchenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is prepared by results of the researches executed at the expense of budgetary funds on the Government task of Financial University, 2014. The paper analyses the spatial asymmetry of the development level of small and medium enterprises (SMEs and its support by the state in Russian regions. Using the integrated assessments of the development level and per capita state support for SMEs the author makes grouping of subjects of the Russian Federation by 5 taxa: «very high development», «high development», «moderate development», «low development» and «very low development». The researcher also composes two-dimensional matrices based on above indicators (SME development and its state support for conditions of 2012 and the forecast to 2015 (under the current trend. The study shows that the asymmetry of the development level will persist over time; and maintaining the existing policy of state support for SMEs will only increase differences in the development level between the Russian territories. Moreover, the stability of matrix of the spatial asymmetry of SMEs does not presuppose stable positive changes. This suggests that the existing mechanism of state support for SMEs does not regulate the processes of spatial development

  15. Inflow forecasting at BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManamon, A. [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    2007-07-01

    The Columbia River Power System operates with consideration for flood control, endangered species, navigation, irrigation, water supply, recreation, other fish and wildlife concerns and power production. The Bonneville Power Association (BPA) located in Portland, Oregon is responsible for 35-40 per cent of the power consumed within the region. This presentation discussed inflow power concerns at BPA. The presentation illustrated elevational relief of projects; annual and daily variability; the hydrologic cycle; national river service weather forecasting service (NRSWFS); components of NRSWFS; and hydrologic forecast locations. Project operations and inventory were included along with a comparison of the 71-year average unregulated flow with regulated flow at the Dalles. Consistency between short-term and long-term forecasts and long-term streamflow forecasts were also illustrated in graphical format. The presentation also discussed the issue of reducing model and parameter uncertainty; reducing initial conditions uncertainty; snow updating; and reducing meteorological uncertainty. tabs., figs.

  16. Dynamics of analyst forecasts and emergence of complexity: Role of information disparity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chansoo Kim

    Full Text Available We report complex phenomena arising among financial analysts, who gather information and generate investment advice, and elucidate them with the help of a theoretical model. Understanding how analysts form their forecasts is important in better understanding the financial market. Carrying out big-data analysis of the analyst forecast data from I/B/E/S for nearly thirty years, we find skew distributions as evidence for emergence of complexity, and show how information asymmetry or disparity affects financial analysts' forming their forecasts. Here regulations, information dissemination throughout a fiscal year, and interactions among financial analysts are regarded as the proxy for a lower level of information disparity. It is found that financial analysts with better access to information display contrasting behaviors: a few analysts become bolder and issue forecasts independent of other forecasts while the majority of analysts issue more accurate forecasts and flock to each other. Main body of our sample of optimistic forecasts fits a log-normal distribution, with the tail displaying a power law. Based on the Yule process, we propose a model for the dynamics of issuing forecasts, incorporating interactions between analysts. Explaining nicely empirical data on analyst forecasts, this provides an appealing instance of understanding social phenomena in the perspective of complex systems.

  17. Medium-term electric power demand forecasting based on economic-electricity transmission model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Bao, Fangmin; Bai, Hongkun; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yongmin; Mao, Yubin; Wang, Jiangbo; Liu, Junhui

    2018-06-01

    Electric demand forecasting is a basic work to ensure the safe operation of power system. Based on the theories of experimental economics and econometrics, this paper introduces Prognoz Platform 7.2 intelligent adaptive modeling platform, and constructs the economic electricity transmission model that considers the economic development scenarios and the dynamic adjustment of industrial structure to predict the region's annual electricity demand, and the accurate prediction of the whole society's electricity consumption is realized. Firstly, based on the theories of experimental economics and econometrics, this dissertation attempts to find the economic indicator variables that drive the most economical growth of electricity consumption and availability, and build an annual regional macroeconomic forecast model that takes into account the dynamic adjustment of industrial structure. Secondly, it innovatively put forward the economic electricity directed conduction theory and constructed the economic power transfer function to realize the group forecast of the primary industry + rural residents living electricity consumption, urban residents living electricity, the second industry electricity consumption, the tertiary industry electricity consumption; By comparing with the actual value of economy and electricity in Henan province in 2016, the validity of EETM model is proved, and the electricity consumption of the whole province from 2017 to 2018 is predicted finally.

  18. Dynamic Critical Rainfall-Based Flash Flood Early Warning and Forecasting for Medium-Small Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Yang, D.; Hu, J.

    2012-04-01

    China is extremely frequent food disasters hit countries, annual flood season flash floods triggered by rainfall, mudslides, landslides have caused heavy casualties and property losses, not only serious threaten the lives of the masses, but the majority of seriously restricting the mountain hill areas of economic and social development and the people become rich, of building a moderately prosperous society goals. In the next few years, China will focus on prevention and control area in the flash flood disasters initially built "for the surveillance, communications, forecasting, early warning and other non-engineering measure based, non-engineering measures and the combinations of engineering measures," the mitigation system. The latest progresses on global torrential flood early warning and forecasting techniques are reviewed in this paper, and then an early warning and forecasting approach is proposed on the basis of a distributed hydrological model according to dynamic critical rainfall index. This approach has been applied in Suichuanjiang River basin in Jiangxi province, which is expected to provide valuable reference for building a national flash flood early warning and forecasting system as well as control of such flooding.

  19. How uncertain are day-ahead wind forecasts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimit, E. [3TIER Environmental Forecast Group, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Recent advances in the combination of weather forecast ensembles with Bayesian statistical techniques have helped to address uncertainties in wind forecasting. Weather forecast ensembles are a collection of numerical weather predictions. The combination of several equally-skilled forecasts typically results in a consensus forecast with greater accuracy. The distribution of forecasts also provides an estimate of forecast inaccuracy. However, weather forecast ensembles tend to be under-dispersive, and not all forecast uncertainties can be taken into account. In order to address these issues, a multi-variate linear regression approach was used to correct the forecast bias for each ensemble member separately. Bayesian model averaging was used to provide a predictive probability density function to allow for multi-modal probability distributions. A test location in eastern Canada was used to demonstrate the approach. Results of the test showed that the method improved wind forecasts and generated reliable prediction intervals. Prediction intervals were much shorter than comparable intervals based on a single forecast or on historical observations alone. It was concluded that the approach will provide economic benefits to both wind energy developers and investors. refs., tabs., figs.

  20. Fluctuations in medium-range structure of Bi-based metallic liquid alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, H; Takeda, S; Kawakita, Y; Ohara, K; Kohara, S; Itou, M; Tahara, S

    2012-01-01

    Liquid structure of Bi 50 Zn 50 , which is situated at around the Bi-rich end of miscibility gap in Bi-Zn system, has been investigated by neutron and x-ray diffraction experiments and following analysis using reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) structural modelling. Among the partial correlations calculated from the structural model obtained by RMC, the Zn-Zn partial has a large temperature variation. It is found that there are medium-range fluctuations in Zn distribution which have a scale of 10 Å.

  1. Teaching ocean wave forecasting using computer-generated visualization and animation—Part 1: sea forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Dennis J.

    2002-05-01

    Ocean waves are the most recognized phenomena in oceanography. Unfortunately, undergraduate study of ocean wave dynamics and forecasting involves mathematics and physics and therefore can pose difficulties with some students because of the subject's interrelated dependence on time and space. Verbal descriptions and two-dimensional illustrations are often insufficient for student comprehension. Computer-generated visualization and animation offer a visually intuitive and pedagogically sound medium to present geoscience, yet there are very few oceanographic examples. A two-part article series is offered to explain ocean wave forecasting using computer-generated visualization and animation. This paper, Part 1, addresses forecasting of sea wave conditions and serves as the basis for the more difficult topic of swell wave forecasting addressed in Part 2. Computer-aided visualization and animation, accompanied by oral explanation, are a welcome pedagogical supplement to more traditional methods of instruction. In this article, several MATLAB ® software programs have been written to visualize and animate development and comparison of wave spectra, wave interference, and forecasting of sea conditions. These programs also set the stage for the more advanced and difficult animation topics in Part 2. The programs are user-friendly, interactive, easy to modify, and developed as instructional tools. By using these software programs, teachers can enhance their instruction of these topics with colorful visualizations and animation without requiring an extensive background in computer programming.

  2. Introduction to time series analysis and forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, Douglas C; Kulahci, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""…[t]he book is great for readers who need to apply the methods and models presented but have little background in mathematics and statistics."" -MAA Reviews Thoroughly updated throughout, Introduction to Time Series Analysis and Forecasting, Second Edition presents the underlying theories of time series analysis that are needed to analyze time-oriented data and construct real-world short- to medium-term statistical forecasts.    Authored by highly-experienced academics and professionals in engineering statistics, the Second Edition features discussions on both

  3. A Hybrid Model for Forecasting Sales in Turkish Paint Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alp Ustundag

    2009-01-01

    Sales forecasting is important for facilitating effective and efficient allocation of scarce resources. However, how to best model and forecast sales has been a long-standing issue. There is no best forecasting method that is applicable in all circumstances. Therefore, confidence in the accuracy of sales forecasts is achieved by corroborating the results using two or more methods. This paper proposes a hybrid forecasting model that uses an artificial intelligence method (AI) w...

  4. Short-term wind power combined forecasting based on error forecast correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Zhengtang; Liang, Jun; Wang, Chengfu; Dong, Xiaoming; Miao, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The correlation relationships of short-term wind power forecast errors are studied. • The correlation analysis method of the multi-step forecast errors is proposed. • A strategy selecting the input variables for the error forecast models is proposed. • Several novel combined models based on error forecast correction are proposed. • The combined models have improved the short-term wind power forecasting accuracy. - Abstract: With the increasing contribution of wind power to electric power grids, accurate forecasting of short-term wind power has become particularly valuable for wind farm operators, utility operators and customers. The aim of this study is to investigate the interdependence structure of errors in short-term wind power forecasting that is crucial for building error forecast models with regression learning algorithms to correct predictions and improve final forecasting accuracy. In this paper, several novel short-term wind power combined forecasting models based on error forecast correction are proposed in the one-step ahead, continuous and discontinuous multi-step ahead forecasting modes. First, the correlation relationships of forecast errors of the autoregressive model, the persistence method and the support vector machine model in various forecasting modes have been investigated to determine whether the error forecast models can be established by regression learning algorithms. Second, according to the results of the correlation analysis, the range of input variables is defined and an efficient strategy for selecting the input variables for the error forecast models is proposed. Finally, several combined forecasting models are proposed, in which the error forecast models are based on support vector machine/extreme learning machine, and correct the short-term wind power forecast values. The data collected from a wind farm in Hebei Province, China, are selected as a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed

  5. Forecasting Global Rainfall for Points Using ECMWF's Global Ensemble and Its Applications in Flood Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillosu, F. M.; Hewson, T.; Mazzetti, C.

    2017-12-01

    Prediction of local extreme rainfall has historically been the remit of nowcasting and high resolution limited area modelling, which represent only limited areas, may not be spatially accurate, give reasonable results only for limited lead times (based statistical post-processing software ("ecPoint-Rainfall, ecPR", operational in 2017) that uses ECMWF Ensemble (ENS) output to deliver global probabilistic rainfall forecasts for points up to day 10. Firstly, ecPR applies a new notion of "remote calibration", which 1) allows us to replicate a multi-centennial training period using only one year of data, and 2) provides forecasts for anywhere in the world. Secondly, the software applies an understanding of how different rainfall generation mechanisms lead to different degrees of sub-grid variability in rainfall totals, and of where biases in the model can be improved upon. A long-term verification has shown that the post-processed rainfall has better reliability and resolution at every lead time if compared with ENS, and for large totals, ecPR outputs have the same skill at day 5 that the raw ENS has at day 1 (ROC area metric). ecPR could be used as input for hydrological models if its probabilistic output is modified accordingly to the inputs requirements for hydrological models. Indeed, ecPR does not provide information on where the highest total is likely to occur inside the gridbox, nor on the spatial distribution of rainfall values nearby. "Scenario forecasts" could be a solution. They are derived from locating the rainfall peak in sensitive positions (e.g. urban areas), and then redistributing the remaining quantities in the gridbox modifying traditional spatial correlation characterization methodologies (e.g. variogram analysis) in order to take account, for instance, of the type of rainfall forecast (stratiform, convective). Such an approach could be a turning point in the field of medium-range global real-time riverine flood forecasts. This presentation will

  6. Operational forecasting of human-biometeorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaros, T. M.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Matzarakis, A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the development of an operational forecasting service focusing on human-biometeorological conditions. The service is based on the coupling of numerical weather prediction models with an advanced human-biometeorological model. Human thermal perception and stress forecasts are issued on a daily basis for Greece, in both point and gridded format. A user-friendly presentation approach is adopted for communicating the forecasts to the public via the worldwide web. The development of the presented service highlights the feasibility of replacing standard meteorological parameters and/or indices used in operational weather forecasting activities for assessing the thermal environment. This is of particular significance for providing effective, human-biometeorology-oriented, warnings for both heat waves and cold outbreaks.

  7. Evolutionary Forecast Engines for Solar Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coimbra, C. F.

    2012-12-01

    variability period from January 1, 2011 to April 30, 2011 identified by "P1"; - a medium variability period from May 1, 2011 to June 30, 2011 identified by "P2"; - a low variability period from July 1, 2011 to August 15, 2011 identified by "P3". Conclusions The application of evolutionary forecasting methods enhances the forecasting skill, with or without exogenous variables. Stochastic learning offers many advantages over purely deterministic models. Stochastic learning methods on their own are competitive in several time horizons of interest, and can be hybridized with exogenous data to provide continuous real-time improvement over physical models at all time scales. The GA/ANN method yields optimal forecasts for different quality levels of telemetry, and is robust over a wide range of time horizons.Forecast Horizon: 1 hour (all values in kW, except for R2) for Non-Exogenous InputsStatistical error metrics for the 1-hour ahead forecasts for several stochastic methodologies, and for different solar variability seasons (P1-P3).

  8. Uncertainty in dispersion forecasts using meteorological ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, H N; Leach, M J

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of dispersion forecasts depends on proper interpretation of results. Understanding the uncertainty in model predictions and the range of possible outcomes is critical for determining the optimal course of action in response to terrorist attacks. One of the objectives for the Modeling and Prediction initiative is creating tools for emergency planning for special events such as the upcoming the Olympics. Meteorological forecasts hours to days in advance are used to estimate the dispersion at the time of the event. However, there is uncertainty in any meteorological forecast, arising from both errors in the data (both initial conditions and boundary conditions) and from errors in the model. We use ensemble forecasts to estimate the uncertainty in the forecasts and the range of possible outcomes

  9. Evaluation of bias-correction methods for ensemble streamflow volume forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hashino

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble prediction systems are used operationally to make probabilistic streamflow forecasts for seasonal time scales. However, hydrological models used for ensemble streamflow prediction often have simulation biases that degrade forecast quality and limit the operational usefulness of the forecasts. This study evaluates three bias-correction methods for ensemble streamflow volume forecasts. All three adjust the ensemble traces using a transformation derived with simulated and observed flows from a historical simulation. The quality of probabilistic forecasts issued when using the three bias-correction methods is evaluated using a distributions-oriented verification approach. Comparisons are made of retrospective forecasts of monthly flow volumes for a north-central United States basin (Des Moines River, Iowa, issued sequentially for each month over a 48-year record. The results show that all three bias-correction methods significantly improve forecast quality by eliminating unconditional biases and enhancing the potential skill. Still, subtle differences in the attributes of the bias-corrected forecasts have important implications for their use in operational decision-making. Diagnostic verification distinguishes these attributes in a context meaningful for decision-making, providing criteria to choose among bias-correction methods with comparable skill.

  10. Distributed HUC-based modeling with SUMMA for ensemble streamflow forecasting over large regional domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharia, M.; Wood, A.; Clark, M. P.; Bennett, A.; Nijssen, B.; Clark, E.; Newman, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Most operational streamflow forecasting systems rely on a forecaster-in-the-loop approach in which some parts of the forecast workflow require an experienced human forecaster. But this approach faces challenges surrounding process reproducibility, hindcasting capability, and extension to large domains. The operational hydrologic community is increasingly moving towards `over-the-loop' (completely automated) large-domain simulations yet recent developments indicate a widespread lack of community knowledge about the strengths and weaknesses of such systems for forecasting. A realistic representation of land surface hydrologic processes is a critical element for improving forecasts, but often comes at the substantial cost of forecast system agility and efficiency. While popular grid-based models support the distributed representation of land surface processes, intermediate-scale Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC)-based modeling could provide a more efficient and process-aligned spatial discretization, reducing the need for tradeoffs between model complexity and critical forecasting requirements such as ensemble methods and comprehensive model calibration. The National Center for Atmospheric Research is collaborating with the University of Washington, the Bureau of Reclamation and the USACE to implement, assess, and demonstrate real-time, over-the-loop distributed streamflow forecasting for several large western US river basins and regions. In this presentation, we present early results from short to medium range hydrologic and streamflow forecasts for the Pacific Northwest (PNW). We employ a real-time 1/16th degree daily ensemble model forcings as well as downscaled Global Ensemble Forecasting System (GEFS) meteorological forecasts. These datasets drive an intermediate-scale configuration of the Structure for Unifying Multiple Modeling Alternatives (SUMMA) model, which represents the PNW using over 11,700 HUCs. The system produces not only streamflow forecasts (using the Mizu

  11. Integration of wind generation forecasts. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, M.; Zavadil, B.; Jones, L.

    2005-01-01

    WindLogics is a company that specializes in atmospheric modelling, visualization and fine-scale forecasting systems for the wind power industry. A background of the organization was presented. The complexities of wind modelling were discussed. Issues concerning location and terrain, shear, diurnal and interannual variability were reviewed. It was suggested that wind power producers should aim to be mainstream, and that variability should be considered as intrinsic to fuel supply. Various utility operating impacts were outlined. Details of an Xcel NSP wind integration study were presented, as well as a studies conducted in New York state and Colorado. It was concluded that regulations and load following impacts with wind energy integration are modest. Overall impacts are dominated by costs incurred to accommodate wind generation variability and uncertainty in the day-ahead time frame. Cost impacts can be reduced with adjustments to operating strategies, improvements in wind forecasting and access to real-time markets. Details of WindLogic's wind energy forecast system were presented, as well as examples of day ahead and hour ahead forecasts and wind speed and power forecasts. Screenshots of control room integration, EMS integration and simulations were presented. Details of a utility-scale wind energy forecasting system funded by Xcel Renewable Development Fund (RDF) were also presented. The goal of the system was to optimize the way that wind forecast information is integrated into the control room environment. Project components were outlined. It was concluded that accurate day-ahead forecasting can lead to significant asset optimization. It was recommended that wind plants share data, and aim to resolve issues concerning grid codes and instrumentation. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Using ensemble forecasting for wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G.; Landberg, L.; Badger, J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Sattler, K.

    2003-07-01

    /or parameterizations. Two of the large ensembles run this way are available from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) in Reading, and from the National Center for Environmental Protection (NCEP) in the US. These are used to calculate the uncertainty of the prediction from the model spread. However, since the model domains are global, it is not certain that this approach will work, due to insufficient spread in Denmark. Additionally, we will try to establish an ensemble of members of DMIs forecasts together with forecasts from the Deutscher Wetterdienst. The project is funded by the Danish PSO funds under the reference no. ORDRE-101295 (FU 2101). (au)

  13. Verification of ECMWF System 4 for seasonal hydrological forecasting in a northern climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazile, Rachel; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Perreault, Luc; Leconte, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Hydropower production requires optimal dam and reservoir management to prevent flooding damage and avoid operation losses. In a northern climate, where spring freshet constitutes the main inflow volume, seasonal forecasts can help to establish a yearly strategy. Long-term hydrological forecasts often rely on past observations of streamflow or meteorological data. Another alternative is to use ensemble meteorological forecasts produced by climate models. In this paper, those produced by the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Forecast) System 4 are examined and bias is characterized. Bias correction, through the linear scaling method, improves the performance of the raw ensemble meteorological forecasts in terms of continuous ranked probability score (CRPS). Then, three seasonal ensemble hydrological forecasting systems are compared: (1) the climatology of simulated streamflow, (2) the ensemble hydrological forecasts based on climatology (ESP) and (3) the hydrological forecasts based on bias-corrected ensemble meteorological forecasts from System 4 (corr-DSP). Simulated streamflow computed using observed meteorological data is used as benchmark. Accounting for initial conditions is valuable even for long-term forecasts. ESP and corr-DSP both outperform the climatology of simulated streamflow for lead times from 1 to 5 months depending on the season and watershed. Integrating information about future meteorological conditions also improves monthly volume forecasts. For the 1-month lead time, a gain exists for almost all watersheds during winter, summer and fall. However, volume forecasts performance for spring varies from one watershed to another. For most of them, the performance is close to the performance of ESP. For longer lead times, the CRPS skill score is mostly in favour of ESP, even if for many watersheds, ESP and corr-DSP have comparable skill. Corr-DSP appears quite reliable but, in some cases, under-dispersion or bias is observed. A more complex bias

  14. Forecasting and Technology Management: Statistical Theory and Methodological Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning

    of directions and targets for a R and D project, monitoring of a given area by a public agency, and evaluation of the future competitive situation for a company. This paper gives a brief introduction to the field of technological forecasting especially in relation to the strategic planning process...

  15. Linking long-range weather forecasts and heat consumption as a determining factor when buying fuel chips for town heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolev, A.-M.

    1991-12-01

    The aim of this study is to test whether long-range weather forecasts from the meteorological services can be used as a determining factor when buying fuel chips. In the study the fuel consumption of heating plants and the factors determining the monthly consumption are mentioned. Degree-day statistics in Denmark for the last 30 years are explained as well as the difficulties in conjunction with the prediction of long-range weather conditions. This study compares degree days in 1989-1990 month by month with the actual and theoretic chip consumption in three different heating plants the same year. The theoretic chip consumption is calculated on the basis of degree days in a ''standard year'' and the annual chip consumption of the heating plant, among other things. Furthermore, on the basis of degree-day statistics the report makes it possible to estimate the monthly chip consumption of a heating plant in a ''standard year'', in an extremely cold year (maximum degree days), and in an extremely warm year (minimum degree days). However, not everything can be predicted, and it is not yet possible to predict reliable weather forecasts for more than 5 days ahead. The study concludes that long-range weather forecasts cannot be used as a determining factor when buying fuel chips for heating plants. When buying fuel chips one must still use statistics and degree days, supplimented by figures based on experience from actual chip consumption in the individual heating plant. These figures take into consideration the different types of heating plants, as well as heat supply, chip-supplier, storing facilities, other fuels, etc. (au)

  16. Gas demand forecasting by a new artificial intelligent algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi. B, Vahid; Khatibi, Elham

    2012-01-01

    Energy demand forecasting is a key issue for consumers and generators in all energy markets in the world. This paper presents a new forecasting algorithm for daily gas demand prediction. This algorithm combines a wavelet transform and forecasting models such as multi-layer perceptron (MLP), linear regression or GARCH. The proposed method is applied to real data from the UK gas markets to evaluate their performance. The results show that the forecasting accuracy is improved significantly by using the proposed method.

  17. Assessing flood forecast uncertainty with fuzzy arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruyn Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Providing forecasts for flow rates and water levels during floods have to be associated with uncertainty estimates. The forecast sources of uncertainty are plural. For hydrological forecasts (rainfall-runoff performed using a deterministic hydrological model with basic physics, two main sources can be identified. The first obvious source is the forcing data: rainfall forecast data are supplied in real time by meteorological forecasting services to the Flood Forecasting Service within a range between a lowest and a highest predicted discharge. These two values define an uncertainty interval for the rainfall variable provided on a given watershed. The second source of uncertainty is related to the complexity of the modeled system (the catchment impacted by the hydro-meteorological phenomenon, the number of variables that may describe the problem and their spatial and time variability. The model simplifies the system by reducing the number of variables to a few parameters. Thus it contains an intrinsic uncertainty. This model uncertainty is assessed by comparing simulated and observed rates for a large number of hydro-meteorological events. We propose a method based on fuzzy arithmetic to estimate the possible range of flow rates (and levels of water making a forecast based on possible rainfalls provided by forcing and uncertainty model. The model uncertainty is here expressed as a range of possible values. Both rainfall and model uncertainties are combined with fuzzy arithmetic. This method allows to evaluate the prediction uncertainty range. The Flood Forecasting Service of Oise and Aisne rivers, in particular, monitors the upstream watershed of the Oise at Hirson. This watershed’s area is 310 km2. Its response time is about 10 hours. Several hydrological models are calibrated for flood forecasting in this watershed and use the rainfall forecast. This method presents the advantage to be easily implemented. Moreover, it permits to be carried out

  18. The generic methodology for verification and validation applied to medium range anti-tank simulation training devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, J.M.; Roza, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Defense (NL-MoD) has recently acquired an update of its medium range anti tank (MRAT) missile system, called the GILL. The update to the SPIKE Long Range (LR) weapon system is accompanied with the acquisition of new simulation training devices (STDs). These devices are bought

  19. Forecasting long-range atmospheric transport episodes of polychlorinated biphenyls using FLEXPART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halse, Anne Karine; Eckhardt, Sabine; Schlabach, Martin; Stohl, Andreas; Breivik, Knut

    2013-06-01

    The analysis of concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in ambient air is costly and can only be done for a limited number of samples. It is thus beneficial to maximize the information content of the samples analyzed via a targeted observation strategy. Using polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as an example, a forecasting system to predict and evaluate long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) episodes of POPs at a remote site in southern Norway has been developed. The system uses the Lagrangian particle transport model FLEXPART, and can be used for triggering extra ("targeted") sampling when LRAT episodes are predicted to occur. The system was evaluated by comparing targeted samples collected over 12-25 h during individual LRAT episodes with monitoring samples regularly collected over one day per week throughout a year. Measured concentrations in all targeted samples were above the 75th percentile of the concentrations obtained from the regular monitoring program and included the highest measured values of all samples. This clearly demonstrates the success of the targeted sampling strategy.

  20. Forecasting exchange rates; Kawase yosoku no riron to jissai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, T. [The Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-11-20

    This paper explains the theory and practice of foreign exchange rate fluctuation. It also explains various factors that constitute the reasons for the difficulty of forecasting the fluctuation in a short to medium period of time as a practical problem, even though forecasting it over a long period of time may be possible theoretically. Export, of which payment received in dollars cannot be used unless exchanged to yen, forms the yen buying demand. Increase in export and trade surplus turns into pressure for the yen appreciation after all. The amounts of exports and imports depend on such fundamentals as productivity and inflation in the country, as well as the cycle of strong business conditions and recession. Staggering of business conditions in Japan and the U.S. causes trade imbalance and fluctuation in foreign exchange rates. Attempts of grabbing the basic tone of the foreign exchange rates upon equalizing the business conditions in both countries is the purchasing power parity theory, which in fact can explain the long-term fluctuations in the past data. However, in the actual scenes where forecasting over a short to medium period is demanded, the forecasting actions are disturbed by such factors lying complexly as exports and imports of capitals, that is the capital circulation in long and short periods, foreign exchange tradings, and difference in interests inside and outside the country. 3 figs.

  1. The importance of the reference populations for coherent mortality forecasting models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Vaupel, James W.

    -population mortality models aiming to find the optimal of the set of countries to use as reference population and analyse the importance of the selection of countries. The two multi-population mortality models used are the Li-Lee model and the Double-Gap life expectancy forecasting model. The reference populations......Coherent forecasting models that take into consideration mortality changes observed in different countries are today among the essential tools for demographers, actuaries and other researchers interested in forecasts. Medium and long term life expectancy forecasts are compared for two multi...... is calculated taking into account all the possible combinations of a set of 20 industrialized countries. The different reference populations possibilities are compared by their forecast performance. The results show that the selection of countries for multi-population mortality models has a significant effect...

  2. Short-Range Prediction of Monsoon Precipitation by NCMRWF Regional Unified Model with Explicit Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamgain, Ashu; Rajagopal, E. N.; Mitra, A. K.; Webster, S.

    2018-03-01

    There are increasing efforts towards the prediction of high-impact weather systems and understanding of related dynamical and physical processes. High-resolution numerical model simulations can be used directly to model the impact at fine-scale details. Improvement in forecast accuracy can help in disaster management planning and execution. National Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) has implemented high-resolution regional unified modeling system with explicit convection embedded within coarser resolution global model with parameterized convection. The models configurations are based on UK Met Office unified seamless modeling system. Recent land use/land cover data (2012-2013) obtained from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) are also used in model simulations. Results based on short-range forecast of both the global and regional models over India for a month indicate that convection-permitting simulations by the high-resolution regional model is able to reduce the dry bias over southern parts of West Coast and monsoon trough zone with more intense rainfall mainly towards northern parts of monsoon trough zone. Regional model with explicit convection has significantly improved the phase of the diurnal cycle of rainfall as compared to the global model. Results from two monsoon depression cases during study period show substantial improvement in details of rainfall pattern. Many categories in rainfall defined for operational forecast purposes by Indian forecasters are also well represented in case of convection-permitting high-resolution simulations. For the statistics of number of days within a range of rain categories between `No-Rain' and `Heavy Rain', the regional model is outperforming the global model in all the ranges. In the very heavy and extremely heavy categories, the regional simulations show overestimation of rainfall days. Global model with parameterized convection have tendency to overestimate the light rainfall days and

  3. An Improved Artificial Colony Algorithm Model for Forecasting Chinese Electricity Consumption and Analyzing Effect Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electricity consumption forecast is perceived to be a growing hot topic in such a situation that China’s economy has entered a period of new normal and the demand of electric power has slowed down. Therefore, exploring Chinese electricity consumption influence mechanism and forecasting electricity consumption are crucial to formulate electrical energy plan scientifically and guarantee the sustainable economic and social development. Research has identified medium and long term electricity consumption forecast as a difficult study influenced by various factors. This paper proposed an improved Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm which combined with multivariate linear regression (MLR for exploring the influencing mechanism of various factors on Chinese electricity consumption and forecasting electricity consumption in the future. The results indicated that the improved ABC algorithm in view of the various factors is superior to traditional models just considering unilateralism in accuracy and persuasion. The overall findings cast light on this model which provides a new scientific and effective way to forecast the medium and long term electricity consumption.

  4. Sales Forecasting for Fashion Retailing Service Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sales forecasting is crucial for many retail operations. It is especially critical for the fashion retailing service industry in which product demand is very volatile and product’s life cycle is short. This paper conducts a comprehensive literature review and selects a set of papers in the literature on fashion retail sales forecasting. The advantages and the drawbacks of different kinds of analytical methods for fashion retail sales forecasting are examined. The evolution of the respective forecasting methods over the past 15 years is revealed. Issues related to real-world applications of the fashion retail sales forecasting models and important future research directions are discussed.

  5. Evaluating the Predictability of South-East Asian Floods Using ECMWF and GloFAS Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillosu, F. M.

    2017-12-01

    Between July and September 2017, the monsoon season caused widespread heavy rainfall and severe floods across countries in South-East Asia, notably in India, Nepal and Bangladesh, with deadly consequences. According to the U.N., in Bangladesh 140 people lost their lives and 700,000 homes were destroyed; in Nepal at least 143 people died, and more than 460,000 people were forced to leave their homes; in India there were 726 victims of flooding and landslides, 3 million people were affected by the monsoon floods and 2000 relief camps were established. Monsoon season happens regularly every year in South Asia, but local authorities reported the last monsoon season as the worst in several years. What made the last monsoon season particularly severe in certain regions? Are these causes clear from the forecasts? Regarding the meteorological characterization of the event, an analysis of forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) for different lead times (from seasonal to short range) will be shown to evaluate how far in advance this event was predicted and start discussion on what were the factors that led to such a severe event. To illustrate hydrological aspects, forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) will be shown. GloFAS is developed at ECMWF in co-operation with the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC) and with the support of national authorities and research institutions such as the University of Reading. It will become operational at the end of 2017 as part of the Copernicus Emergency Management Service. GloFAS couples state-of-the-art weather forecasts with a hydrological model to provide a cross-border system with early flood guidance information to help humanitarian agencies and national hydro-meteorological services to strengthen and improve forecasting capacity, preparedness and mitigation of natural hazards. In this case GloFAS has shown good potential to become a useful tool for better and

  6. Combination of synoptical-analogous and dynamical methods to increase skill score of monthly air temperature forecasts over Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Valentina; Tscepelev, Valery; Vilfand, Roman; Kulikova, Irina; Kruglova, Ekaterina; Tischenko, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Long-range forecasts at monthly-seasonal time scale are in great demand of socio-economic sectors for exploiting climate-related risks and opportunities. At the same time, the quality of long-range forecasts is not fully responding to user application necessities. Different approaches, including combination of different prognostic models, are used in forecast centers to increase the prediction skill for specific regions and globally. In the present study, two forecasting methods are considered which are exploited in operational practice of Hydrometeorological Center of Russia. One of them is synoptical-analogous method of forecasting of surface air temperature at monthly scale. Another one is dynamical system based on the global semi-Lagrangian model SL-AV, developed in collaboration of Institute of Numerical Mathematics and Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia. The seasonal version of this model has been used to issue global and regional forecasts at monthly-seasonal time scales. This study presents results of the evaluation of surface air temperature forecasts generated with using above mentioned synoptical-statistical and dynamical models, and their combination to potentially increase skill score over Northern Eurasia. The test sample of operational forecasts is encompassing period from 2010 through 2015. The seasonal and interannual variability of skill scores of these methods has been discussed. It was noticed that the quality of all forecasts is highly dependent on the inertia of macro-circulation processes. The skill scores of forecasts are decreasing during significant alterations of synoptical fields for both dynamical and empirical schemes. Procedure of combination of forecasts from different methods, in some cases, has demonstrated its effectiveness. For this study the support has been provided by Grant of Russian Science Foundation (№14-37-00053).

  7. Transition, Training, and Assessment of Multispectral Composite Imagery in Support of the NWS Aviation Forecast Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuell, Kevin; Jedlovec, Gary; Leroy, Anita; Schultz, Lori

    2015-01-01

    The NASA/Short-term Prediction, Research, and Transition (SPoRT) Program works closely with NOAA/NWS weather forecasters to transition unique satellite data and capabilities into operations in order to assist with nowcasting and short-term forecasting issues. Several multispectral composite imagery (i.e. RGB) products were introduced to users in the early 2000s to support hydrometeorology and aviation challenges as well as incident support. These activities lead to SPoRT collaboration with the GOES-R Proving Ground efforts where instruments such as MODIS (Aqua, Terra) and S-NPP/VIIRS imagers began to be used as near-realtime proxies to future capabilities of the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI). One of the composite imagery products introduced to users was the Night-time Microphysics RGB, originally developed by EUMETSAT. SPoRT worked to transition this imagery to NWS users, provide region-specific training, and assess the impact of the imagery to aviation forecast needs. This presentation discusses the method used to interact with users to address specific aviation forecast challenges, including training activities undertaken to prepare for a product assessment. Users who assessed the multispectral imagery ranged from southern U.S. inland and coastal NWS weather forecast offices (WFOs), to those in the Rocky Mountain Front Range region and West Coast, as well as highlatitude forecasters of Alaska. These user-based assessments were documented and shared with the satellite community to support product developers and the broad users of new generation satellite data.

  8. Forecast Based Financing for Managing Weather and Climate Risks to Reduce Potential Disaster Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, J.

    2017-12-01

    There is a critical window of time to reduce potential impacts of a disaster after a forecast for heightened risk is issued and before an extreme event occurs. The concept of Forecast-based Financing focuses on this window of opportunity. Through advanced preparation during system set-up, tailored methodologies are used to 1) analyze a range of potential extreme event forecasts, 2) identify emergency preparedness measures that can be taken when factoring in forecast lead time and inherent uncertainty and 3) develop standard operating procedures that are agreed on and tied to guaranteed funding sources to facilitate emergency measures led by the Red Cross or government actors when preparedness measures are triggered. This presentation will focus on a broad overview of the current state of theory and approaches used in developing a forecast-based financing systems - with a specific focus on hydrologic events, case studies of success and challenges in various contexts where this approach is being piloted, as well as what is on the horizon to be further explored and developed from a research perspective as the application of this approach continues to expand.

  9. Real-time drought forecasting system for irrigation managment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Alessandro; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Corbari, Chiara; Masseroni, Daniele; Meucci, Stefania; Pala, Francesca; Salerno, Raffaele; Meazza, Giuseppe; Chiesa, Marco; Mancini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    In recent years frequent periods of water scarcity have enhanced the need to use water more carefully, even in in European areas traditionally rich of water such as the Po Valley. In dry periods, the problem of water shortage can be enhanced by conflictual use of water such as irrigation, industrial and power production (hydroelectric and thermoelectric). Further, over the last decade the social perspective on this issue is increasing due to climate change and global warming scenarios which come out from the last IPCC Report. The increased frequency of dry periods has stimulated the improvement of irrigation and water management. In this study we show the development and implementation of the real-time drought forecasting system Pre.G.I., an Italian acronym that stands for "Hydro-Meteorological forecast for irrigation management". The system is based on ensemble prediction at long range (30 days) with hydrological simulation of water balance to forecast the soil water content in every parcel over the Consorzio Muzza basin. The studied area covers 74,000 ha in the middle of the Po Valley, near the city of Lodi. The hydrological ensemble forecasts are based on 20 meteorological members of the non-hydrostatic WRF model with 30 days as lead-time, provided by Epson Meteo Centre, while the hydrological model used to generate the soil moisture and water table simulations is the rainfall-runoff distributed FEST-WB model, developed at Politecnico di Milano. The hydrological model was validated against measurements of latent heat flux and soil moisture acquired by an eddy-covariance station. Reliability of the forecasting system and its benefits was assessed on some cases-study occurred in the recent years.

  10. Limited Area Forecasting and Statistical Modelling for Wind Energy Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosgaard, Martin Haubjerg

    forecast accuracy for operational wind power scheduling. Numerical weather prediction history and scales of atmospheric motion are summarised, followed by a literature review of limited area wind speed forecasting. Hereafter, the original contribution to research on the topic is outlined. The quality...... control of wind farm data used as forecast reference is described in detail, and a preliminary limited area forecasting study illustrates the aggravation of issues related to numerical orography representation and accurate reference coordinates at ne weather model resolutions. For the o shore and coastal...... sites studied limited area forecasting is found to deteriorate wind speed prediction accuracy, while inland results exhibit a steady forecast performance increase with weather model resolution. Temporal smoothing of wind speed forecasts is shown to improve wind power forecast performance by up to almost...

  11. Combining forecast weights: Why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yip Chee; Kok-Haur, Ng; Hock-Eam, Lim

    2012-09-01

    This paper proposes a procedure called forecast weight averaging which is a specific combination of forecast weights obtained from different methods of constructing forecast weights for the purpose of improving the accuracy of pseudo out of sample forecasting. It is found that under certain specified conditions, forecast weight averaging can lower the mean squared forecast error obtained from model averaging. In addition, we show that in a linear and homoskedastic environment, this superior predictive ability of forecast weight averaging holds true irrespective whether the coefficients are tested by t statistic or z statistic provided the significant level is within the 10% range. By theoretical proofs and simulation study, we have shown that model averaging like, variance model averaging, simple model averaging and standard error model averaging, each produces mean squared forecast error larger than that of forecast weight averaging. Finally, this result also holds true marginally when applied to business and economic empirical data sets, Gross Domestic Product (GDP growth rate), Consumer Price Index (CPI) and Average Lending Rate (ALR) of Malaysia.

  12. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX have used a local data integration system (LDIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LDIS was developed by NASA's Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU; Bauman et ai, 2004) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national- or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features

  13. The potential predictability of fire danger provided by ECMWF forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    The European Forest Fire Information System (EFFIS), is currently being developed in the framework of the Copernicus Emergency Management Services to monitor and forecast fire danger in Europe. The system provides timely information to civil protection authorities in 38 nations across Europe and mostly concentrates on flagging regions which might be at high danger of spontaneous ignition due to persistent drought. The daily predictions of fire danger conditions are based on the US Forest Service National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS), the Canadian forest service Fire Weather Index Rating System (FWI) and the Australian McArthur (MARK-5) rating systems. Weather forcings are provided in real time by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) forecasting system. The global system's potential predictability is assessed using re-analysis fields as weather forcings. The Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED4) provides 11 years of observed burned areas from satellite measurements and is used as a validation dataset. The fire indices implemented are good predictors to highlight dangerous conditions. High values are correlated with observed fire and low values correspond to non observed events. A more quantitative skill evaluation was performed using the Extremal Dependency Index which is a skill score specifically designed for rare events. It revealed that the three indices were more skilful on a global scale than the random forecast to detect large fires. The performance peaks in the boreal forests, in the Mediterranean, the Amazon rain-forests and southeast Asia. The skill-scores were then aggregated at country level to reveal which nations could potentiallty benefit from the system information in aid of decision making and fire control support. Overall we found that fire danger modelling based on weather forecasts, can provide reasonable predictability over large parts of the global landmass.

  14. Forecasting winds over nuclear power plants statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marais, Ch.

    1997-01-01

    In the event of an accident at nuclear power plant, it is essential to forecast the wind velocity at the level where the efflux occurs (about 100 m). At present meteorologists refine the wind forecast from the coarse grid of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. The purpose of this study is to improve the forecasts by developing a statistical adaptation method which corrects the NWP forecasts by using statistical comparisons between wind forecasts and observations. The Multiple Linear Regression method is used here to forecast the 100 m wind at 12 and 24 hours range for three Electricite de France (EDF) sites. It turns out that this approach gives better forecasts than the NWP model alone and is worthy of operational use. (author)

  15. Worldwide satellite market demand forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, J. M.; Frankfort, M.; Steinnagel, K. M.

    1981-01-01

    The forecast is for the years 1981 - 2000 with benchmark years at 1985, 1990 and 2000. Two typs of markets are considered for this study: Hardware (worldwide total) - satellites, earth stations and control facilities (includes replacements and spares); and non-hardware (addressable by U.S. industry) - planning, launch, turnkey systems and operations. These markets were examined for the INTELSAT System (international systems and domestic and regional systems using leased transponders) and domestic and regional systems. Forecasts were determined for six worldwide regions encompassing 185 countries using actual costs for existing equipment and engineering estimates of costs for advanced systems. Most likely (conservative growth rate estimates) and optimistic (mid range growth rate estimates) scenarios were employed for arriving at the forecasts which are presented in constant 1980 U.S. dollars. The worldwide satellite market demand forecast predicts that the market between 181 and 2000 will range from $35 to $50 billion. Approximately one-half of the world market, $16 to $20 billion, will be generated in the United States.

  16. Ensemble forecasting of species distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Miguel B; New, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Concern over implications of climate change for biodiversity has led to the use of bioclimatic models to forecast the range shifts of species under future climate-change scenarios. Recent studies have demonstrated that projections by alternative models can be so variable as to compromise their usefulness for guiding policy decisions. Here, we advocate the use of multiple models within an ensemble forecasting framework and describe alternative approaches to the analysis of bioclimatic ensembles, including bounding box, consensus and probabilistic techniques. We argue that, although improved accuracy can be delivered through the traditional tasks of trying to build better models with improved data, more robust forecasts can also be achieved if ensemble forecasts are produced and analysed appropriately.

  17. Real time flood forecasting in the Upper Danube basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nester Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on experience with developing the flood forecasting model for the Upper Danube basin and its operational use since 2006. The model system consists of hydrological and hydrodynamic components, and involves precipitation forecasts. The model parameters were estimated based on the dominant processes concept. Runoff data are assimilated in real time to update modelled soil moisture. An analysis of the model performance indicates 88% of the snow cover in the basin to be modelled correctly on more than 80% of the days. Runoff forecasting errors decrease with catchment area and increase with forecast lead time. The forecast ensemble spread is shown to be a meaningful indicator of the forecast uncertainty. During the 2013 flood, there was a tendency for the precipitation forecasts to underestimate event precipitation and for the runoff model to overestimate runoff generation which resulted in, overall, rather accurate runoff forecasts. It is suggested that the human forecaster plays an essential role in interpreting the model results and, if needed, adjusting them before issuing the forecasts to the general public.

  18. Evaluation of quantitative precipitation forecasts by TIGGE ensembles for south China during the presummer rainy season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; Luo, Yali

    2017-08-01

    Based on The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment Interactive Grand Global Ensemble (TIGGE) data set, this study evaluates the ability of global ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Korean Meteorological Administration, and China Meteorological Administration (CMA) to predict presummer rainy season (April-June) precipitation in south China. Evaluation of 5 day forecasts in three seasons (2013-2015) demonstrates the higher skill of probability matching forecasts compared to simple ensemble mean forecasts and shows that the deterministic forecast is a close second. The EPSs overestimate light-to-heavy rainfall (0.1 to 30 mm/12 h) and underestimate heavier rainfall (>30 mm/12 h), with JMA being the worst. By analyzing the synoptic situations predicted by the identified more skillful (ECMWF) and less skillful (JMA and CMA) EPSs and the ensemble sensitivity for four representative cases of torrential rainfall, the transport of warm-moist air into south China by the low-level southwesterly flow, upstream of the torrential rainfall regions, is found to be a key synoptic factor that controls the quantitative precipitation forecast. The results also suggest that prediction of locally produced torrential rainfall is more challenging than prediction of more extensively distributed torrential rainfall. A slight improvement in the performance is obtained by shortening the forecast lead time from 30-36 h to 18-24 h to 6-12 h for the cases with large-scale forcing, but not for the locally produced cases.

  19. Space weather: Modeling and forecasting ionospheric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calzadilla Mendez, A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Space weather is the set of phenomena and interactions that take place in the interplanetary medium. It is regulated primarily by the activity originating in the Sun and affects both the artificial satellites that are outside of the protective cover of the Earth's atmosphere as the rest of the planets in the solar system. Among the phenomena that are of great relevance and impact on Earth are the auroras and geomagnetic storms , these are a direct result of irregularities in the flow of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field . Given the high complexity of the physical phenomena involved (magnetic reconnection , particle inlet and ionizing radiation to the atmosphere) one of the great scientific challenges today is to forecast the state of plasmatic means either the interplanetary medium , the magnetosphere and ionosphere , for their importance to the development of various human activities such as radio , global positioning , navigation, etc. . It briefly address some of the international ionospheric modeling methods and contributions and participation that currently has the space group of the Institute of Geophysics Geophysics and Astronomy (IGA) in these activities of modeling and forecasting ionospheric. (author)

  20. Waste Information Management System with Integrated Transportation Forecast Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Shoffner, P.; Lagos, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Waste Information Management System with Integrated Transportation Forecast Data was developed to support the Department of Energy (DOE) mandated accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to site waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedules. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of waste that would be generated by the DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site has historically collected, organized, and displayed site waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. However, waste and shipment information from all sites needed a common application to allow interested parties to understand and view the complete complex-wide picture. The Waste Information Management System with Integrated Transportation Forecast Data allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, has deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  1. Forecasting metal prices: Do forecasters herd?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierdzioch, C.; Rulke, J. C.; Stadtmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze more than 20,000 forecasts of nine metal prices at four different forecast horizons. We document that forecasts are heterogeneous and report that anti-herding appears to be a source of this heterogeneity. Forecaster anti-herding reflects strategic interactions among forecasters...

  2. Validating quantitative precipitation forecast for the Flood ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to issue an accurate warning for flood, a better or appropriate quantitative forecasting of precipitationis required. In view of this, the present study intends to validate the quantitative precipitationforecast (QPF) issued during southwest monsoon season for six river catchments (basin) under theflood meteorological ...

  3. Real-time forecasting of the April 11, 2012 Sumatra tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dailin; Becker, Nathan C.; Walsh, David; Fryer, Gerard J.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; McCreery, Charles S.; ,

    2012-01-01

    The April 11, 2012, magnitude 8.6 earthquake off the northern coast of Sumatra generated a tsunami that was recorded at sea-level stations as far as 4800 km from the epicenter and at four ocean bottom pressure sensors (DARTs) in the Indian Ocean. The governments of India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Maldives issued tsunami warnings for their coastlines. The United States' Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) issued an Indian Ocean-wide Tsunami Watch Bulletin in its role as an Interim Service Provider for the region. Using an experimental real-time tsunami forecast model (RIFT), PTWC produced a series of tsunami forecasts during the event that were based on rapidly derived earthquake parameters, including initial location and Mwp magnitude estimates and the W-phase centroid moment tensor solutions (W-phase CMTs) obtained at PTWC and at the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). We discuss the real-time forecast methodology and how successive, real-time tsunami forecasts using the latest W-phase CMT solutions improved the accuracy of the forecast.

  4. LASSCI2009.2: layered earthquake rupture forecast model for central Italy, submitted to the CSEP project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Visini

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP selected Italy as a testing region for probabilistic earthquake forecast models in October, 2008. The model we have submitted for the two medium-term forecast periods of 5 and 10 years (from 2009 is a time-dependent, geologically based earthquake rupture forecast that is defined for central Italy only (11-15˚ E; 41-45˚ N. The model took into account three separate layers of seismogenic sources: background seismicity; seismotectonic provinces; and individual faults that can produce major earthquakes (seismogenic boxes. For CSEP testing purposes, the background seismicity layer covered a range of magnitudes from 5.0 to 5.3 and the seismicity rates were obtained by truncated Gutenberg-Richter relationships for cells centered on the CSEP grid. Then the seismotectonic provinces layer returned the expected rates of medium-to-large earthquakes following a traditional Cornell-type approach. Finally, for the seismogenic boxes layer, the rates were based on the geometry and kinematics of the faults that different earthquake recurrence models have been assigned to, ranging from pure Gutenberg-Richter behavior to characteristic events, with the intermediate behavior named as the hybrid model. The results for different magnitude ranges highlight the contribution of each of the three layers to the total computation. The expected rates for M >6.0 on April 1, 2009 (thus computed before the L'Aquila, 2009, MW= 6.3 earthquake are of particular interest. They showed local maxima in the two seismogenic-box sources of Paganica and Sulmona, one of which was activated by the L'Aquila earthquake of April 6, 2009. Earthquake rates as of August 1, 2009, (now under test also showed a maximum close to the Sulmona source for MW ~6.5; significant seismicity rates (10-4 to 10-3 in 5 years for destructive events (magnitude up to 7.0 were located in other individual sources identified as being capable of such

  5. Analyses and Forecasting of Smart Grid Technological Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Danilin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: this paper analyzes and forecasts medium- to long-term dynamics of Smart Grid technology developments considering both patent activity and socio-economic (demand-side issues and requirements of economy and power system factors. Methods: for the analysis of Smart Grid patent data (IIP, USPTO, and WIPO patent databases used we apply syntactic semantic analysis of texts in natural languages and logistic curve-based method. We propose Exactus Patent system for intelligent full-text search and analysis of patents (results verified with Thomson Innovation and TotalPatent patent search systems. For interpretation of revealed dynamics and forecasting of future conditions we identify key long-term socio-economic factors drivers for Smart Grid development. Elements of C. Christensen (disruptive innovations and G. Dosi (technological trajectories theories were applied. Results: the study reveals a fast technological transformation within the Smart Grid domain due to the long-term socio-economic factors such as rise of renewables; energy efficiency and energy security issues; environmental constraints and shift of values; requirements for accelerated grid construction (in developing economies and grid modernization (in developed ones; ongoing economy-wide digitalization. Due to the limited economic effects of Smart Grid roll-outs (considering major requirements of economic agents and society and considering progressions of patent dynamics, authors forecasts technology stagnation (in terms of number of patents growth by the end of 2010-s as end of Gartner`s hype development stage. Conclusions and Relevance: a foreseen change in dynamics of Smart Grid technology development is interpreted as a manifestation of sinusoidal fluctuations in technology development for disruptive technologies (supported with OECD data. A longer cycle (in comparison with other disruptive technologies is interpreted as consequence of technology and industry specifics

  6. Online updating procedures for a real-time hydrological forecasting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, B; Nachtnebel, H P

    2008-01-01

    Rainfall-runoff-models can explain major parts of the natural runoff pattern but never simulate the observed hydrograph exactly. Reasons for errors are various sources of uncertainties embedded in the model forecasting system. Errors are due to measurement errors, the selected time period for calibration and validation, the parametric uncertainty and the model imprecision. In on-line forecasting systems forecasted input data is used which additionally generates a major uncertainty for the hydrological forecasting system. Techniques for partially compensating these uncertainties are investigated in the recent study in a medium sized catchment in the Austrian part of the Danube basin. The catchment area is about 1000 km2. The forecasting system consists of a semi-distributed continuous rainfall-runoff model that uses quantitative precipitation and temperature forecasts. To provide adequate system states at the beginning of the forecasting period continuous simulation is required, especially in winter. In this study two online updating methods are used and combined for enhancing the runoff forecasts. The first method is used for updating the system states at the beginning of the forecasting period by changing the precipitation input. The second method is an autoregressive error model, which is used to eliminate systematic errors in the model output. In combination those two methods work together well as each method is more effective in different runoff situations.

  7. Ensemble Flow Forecasts for Risk Based Reservoir Operations of Lake Mendocino in Mendocino County, California: A Framework for Objectively Leveraging Weather and Climate Forecasts in a Decision Support Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, C.; Hartman, R. K.; Mendoza, J.; Whitin, B.

    2017-12-01

    Forecast informed reservoir operations (FIRO) is a methodology that incorporates short to mid-range precipitation and flow forecasts to inform the flood operations of reservoirs. The Ensemble Forecast Operations (EFO) alternative is a probabilistic approach of FIRO that incorporates ensemble streamflow predictions (ESPs) made by NOAA's California-Nevada River Forecast Center (CNRFC). With the EFO approach, release decisions are made to manage forecasted risk of reaching critical operational thresholds. A water management model was developed for Lake Mendocino, a 111,000 acre-foot reservoir located near Ukiah, California, to evaluate the viability of the EFO alternative to improve water supply reliability but not increase downstream flood risk. Lake Mendocino is a dual use reservoir, which is owned and operated for flood control by the United States Army Corps of Engineers and is operated for water supply by the Sonoma County Water Agency. Due to recent changes in the operations of an upstream hydroelectric facility, this reservoir has suffered from water supply reliability issues since 2007. The EFO alternative was simulated using a 26-year (1985-2010) ESP hindcast generated by the CNRFC. The ESP hindcast was developed using Global Ensemble Forecast System version 10 precipitation reforecasts processed with the Hydrologic Ensemble Forecast System to generate daily reforecasts of 61 flow ensemble members for a 15-day forecast horizon. Model simulation results demonstrate that the EFO alternative may improve water supply reliability for Lake Mendocino yet not increase flood risk for downstream areas. The developed operations framework can directly leverage improved skill in the second week of the forecast and is extendable into the S2S time domain given the demonstration of improved skill through a reliable reforecast of adequate historical duration and consistent with operationally available numerical weather predictions.

  8. Objective Lightning Probability Forecasts for East-Central Florida Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winfred C.

    2013-01-01

    The forecasters at the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL, (NWS MLB) identified a need to make more accurate lightning forecasts to help alleviate delays due to thunderstorms in the vicinity of several commercial airports in central Florida at which they are responsible for issuing terminal aerodrome forecasts. Such forecasts would also provide safer ground operations around terminals, and would be of value to Center Weather Service Units serving air traffic controllers in Florida. To improve the forecast, the AMU was tasked to develop an objective lightning probability forecast tool for the airports using data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN). The resulting forecast tool is similar to that developed by the AMU to support space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) for use by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) in previous tasks (Lambert and Wheeler 2005, Lambert 2007). The lightning probability forecasts are valid for the time periods and areas needed by the NWS MLB forecasters in the warm season months, defined in this task as May-September.

  9. Improvement of Surface Temperature Prediction Using SVR with MOGREPS Data for Short and Medium range over South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S. J.; Choi, R. K.; Ahn, K. D.; Ha, J. C.; Cho, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    As the Korea Meteorology Administration (KMA) has operated Met Office Global and Regional Ensemble Prediction System (MOGREPS) with introduction of Unified Model (UM), many attempts have been made to improve predictability in temperature forecast in last years. In this study, post-processing method of MOGREPS for surface temperature prediction is developed with machine learning over 52 locations in South Korea. Past 60-day lag time was used as a training phase of Support Vector Regression (SVR) method for surface temperature forecast model. The selected inputs for SVR are followings: date and surface temperatures from Numerical Weather prediction (NWP), such as GDAPS, individual 24 ensemble members, mean and median of ensemble members for every 3hours for 12 days.To verify the reliability of SVR-based ensemble prediction (SVR-EP), 93 days are used (from March 1 to May 31, 2014). The result yielded improvement of SVR-EP by RMSE value of 16 % throughout entire prediction period against conventional ensemble prediction (EP). In particular, short range predictability of SVR-EP resulted in 18.7% better RMSE for 1~3 day forecast. The mean temperature bias between SVR-EP and EP at all test locations showed around 0.36°C and 1.36°C, respectively. SVR-EP is currently extending for more vigorous sensitivity test, such as increasing training phase and optimizing machine learning model.

  10. Communicating uncertainty in hydrological forecasts: mission impossible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Maria-Helena; Mathevet, Thibault; Thielen, Jutta; Pappenberger, Florian

    2010-05-01

    Cascading uncertainty in meteo-hydrological modelling chains for forecasting and integrated flood risk assessment is an essential step to improve the quality of hydrological forecasts. Although the best methodology to quantify the total predictive uncertainty in hydrology is still debated, there is a common agreement that one must avoid uncertainty misrepresentation and miscommunication, as well as misinterpretation of information by users. Several recent studies point out that uncertainty, when properly explained and defined, is no longer unwelcome among emergence response organizations, users of flood risk information and the general public. However, efficient communication of uncertain hydro-meteorological forecasts is far from being a resolved issue. This study focuses on the interpretation and communication of uncertain hydrological forecasts based on (uncertain) meteorological forecasts and (uncertain) rainfall-runoff modelling approaches to decision-makers such as operational hydrologists and water managers in charge of flood warning and scenario-based reservoir operation. An overview of the typical flow of uncertainties and risk-based decisions in hydrological forecasting systems is presented. The challenges related to the extraction of meaningful information from probabilistic forecasts and the test of its usefulness in assisting operational flood forecasting are illustrated with the help of two case-studies: 1) a study on the use and communication of probabilistic flood forecasting within the European Flood Alert System; 2) a case-study on the use of probabilistic forecasts by operational forecasters from the hydroelectricity company EDF in France. These examples show that attention must be paid to initiatives that promote or reinforce the active participation of expert forecasters in the forecasting chain. The practice of face-to-face forecast briefings, focusing on sharing how forecasters interpret, describe and perceive the model output forecasted

  11. Assimilation and High Resolution Forecasts of Surface and Near Surface Conditions for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Natacha B.; Bélair, Stéphane; Bilodeau, Bernard; Tong, Linying

    2014-01-01

    A dynamical model was experimentally implemented to provide high resolution forecasts at points of interests in the 2010 Vancouver Olympics and Paralympics Region. In a first experiment, GEM-Surf, the near surface and land surface modeling system, is driven by operational atmospheric forecasts and used to refine the surface forecasts according to local surface conditions such as elevation and vegetation type. In this simple form, temperature and snow depth forecasts are improved mainly as a result of the better representation of real elevation. In a second experiment, screen level observations and operational atmospheric forecasts are blended to drive a continuous cycle of near surface and land surface hindcasts. Hindcasts of the previous day conditions are then regarded as today's optimized initial conditions. Hence, in this experiment, given observations are available, observation driven hindcasts continuously ensure that daily forecasts are issued from improved initial conditions. GEM-Surf forecasts obtained from improved short-range hindcasts produced using these better conditions result in improved snow depth forecasts. In a third experiment, assimilation of snow depth data is applied to further optimize GEM-Surf's initial conditions, in addition to the use of blended observations and forecasts for forcing. Results show that snow depth and summer temperature forecasts are further improved by the addition of snow depth data assimilation.

  12. In Brief: Forecasting meningitis threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), in conjunction with a team of health and weather organizations, has launched a project to provide weather forecasts to medical officials in Africa to help reduce outbreaks of meningitis. The forecasts will enable local health care providers to target vaccination programs more effectively. In 2009, meteorologists with the National Center for Atmospheric Research, which is managed by UCAR, will begin issuing 14-day forecasts of atmospheric conditions in Ghana. Later, UCAR plans to work closely with health experts from several African countries to design and test a decision support system to provide health officials with useful meteorological information. ``By targeting forecasts in regions where meningitis is a threat, we may be able to help vulnerable populations. Ultimately, we hope to build on this project and provide information to public health programs battling weather-related diseases in other parts of the world,'' said Rajul Pandya, director of UCAR's Community Building Program. Funding for the project comes from a $900,000 grant from Google.org, the philanthropic arm of the Internet search company.

  13. Long-Range Socio-Economic Forecasting of World Development in the Works by IMEMO RAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suslov D. V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview is given of papers by the Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences (IMEMO RAS on long-term socio-economic forecasting of global development. The forecasting methodology is shown, its capabilities and limitations, as well as the structure, main results and characteristics of the forecasts made by IMEMO RAS since early 2000s. The «Strategic Global Outlook for 2030» has acquired features of an interdisciplinary research, and has been developed based on a system analysis of objective socio-economic indicators, long-term global and regional socio-demographic trends, and expert assessment of the future dynamics of the political situation in individual countries and in intergovernmental relations. This methodology allowed the focus to be placed primarily on the stable trends of development in the world economy and the system of international relations, their actors, structures and institutions

  14. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  15. Hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy systems in forecasting regional electricity loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, Ping-Feng [Department of Information Management, National Chi Nan University, 1 University Road, Puli, Nantou 545, Taiwan (China)

    2006-09-15

    Because of the privatization of electricity in many countries, load forecasting has become one of the most crucial issues in the planning and operations of electric utilities. In addition, accurate regional load forecasting can provide the transmission and distribution operators with more information. The hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system was originally designed to solve control and pattern recognition problems. The main objective of this investigation is to develop a hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy system for time series forecasting (HEFST) and apply the proposed model to forecast regional electricity loads in Taiwan. Additionally, a scaled conjugate gradient learning method is employed in the supervised learning phase of the HEFST model. Subsequently, numerical data taken from the existing literature is used to demonstrate the forecasting performance of the HEFST model. Simulation results reveal that the proposed model has better forecasting performance than the artificial neural network model and the regression model. Thus, the HEFST model is a valid and promising alternative for forecasting regional electricity loads. (author)

  16. Short- and Long-Term Earthquake Forecasts Based on Statistical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Console, Rodolfo; Taroni, Matteo; Murru, Maura; Falcone, Giuseppe; Marzocchi, Warner

    2017-04-01

    The epidemic-type aftershock sequences (ETAS) models have been experimentally used to forecast the space-time earthquake occurrence rate during the sequence that followed the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake and for the 2012 Emilia earthquake sequence. These forecasts represented the two first pioneering attempts to check the feasibility of providing operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) in Italy. After the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake the Italian Department of Civil Protection nominated an International Commission on Earthquake Forecasting (ICEF) for the development of the first official OEF in Italy that was implemented for testing purposes by the newly established "Centro di Pericolosità Sismica" (CPS, the seismic Hazard Center) at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV). According to the ICEF guidelines, the system is open, transparent, reproducible and testable. The scientific information delivered by OEF-Italy is shaped in different formats according to the interested stakeholders, such as scientists, national and regional authorities, and the general public. The communication to people is certainly the most challenging issue, and careful pilot tests are necessary to check the effectiveness of the communication strategy, before opening the information to the public. With regard to long-term time-dependent earthquake forecast, the application of a newly developed simulation algorithm to Calabria region provided typical features in time, space and magnitude behaviour of the seismicity, which can be compared with those of the real observations. These features include long-term pseudo-periodicity and clustering of strong earthquakes, and a realistic earthquake magnitude distribution departing from the Gutenberg-Richter distribution in the moderate and higher magnitude range.

  17. Dynamic SEP event probability forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Ling, A.

    2015-10-01

    The forecasting of solar energetic particle (SEP) event probabilities at Earth has been based primarily on the estimates of magnetic free energy in active regions and on the observations of peak fluxes and fluences of large (≥ M2) solar X-ray flares. These forecasts are typically issued for the next 24 h or with no definite expiration time, which can be deficient for time-critical operations when no SEP event appears following a large X-ray flare. It is therefore important to decrease the event probability forecast with time as a SEP event fails to appear. We use the NOAA listing of major (≥10 pfu) SEP events from 1976 to 2014 to plot the delay times from X-ray peaks to SEP threshold onsets as a function of solar source longitude. An algorithm is derived to decrease the SEP event probabilities with time when no event is observed to reach the 10 pfu threshold. In addition, we use known SEP event size distributions to modify probability forecasts when SEP intensity increases occur below the 10 pfu event threshold. An algorithm to provide a dynamic SEP event forecast, Pd, for both situations of SEP intensities following a large flare is derived.

  18. Towards Energy Efficiency: Forecasting Indoor Temperature via Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pardo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The small medium large system (SMLsystem is a house built at the Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera (CEU-UCH for participation in the Solar Decathlon 2013 competition. Several technologies have been integrated to reduce power consumption. One of these is a forecasting system based on artificial neural networks (ANNs, which is able to predict indoor temperature in the near future using captured data by a complex monitoring system as the input. A study of the impact on forecasting performance of different covariate combinations is presented in this paper. Additionally, a comparison of ANNs with the standard statistical forecasting methods is shown. The research in this paper has been focused on forecasting the indoor temperature of a house, as it is directly related to HVAC—heating, ventilation and air conditioning—system consumption. HVAC systems at the SMLsystem house represent 53:89% of the overall power consumption. The energy used to maintain temperature was measured to be 30%–38:9% of the energy needed to lower it. Hence, these forecasting measures allow the house to adapt itself to future temperature conditions by using home automation in an energy-efficient manner. Experimental results show a high forecasting accuracy and therefore, they might be used to efficiently control an HVAC system.

  19. Forecast communication through the newspaper Part 1: Framing the forecaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew J. L.

    2015-04-01

    This review is split into two parts both of which address issues of forecast communication of an environmental disaster through the newspaper during a period of crisis. The first part explores the process by which information passes from the scientist or forecaster, through the media filter, to the public. As part of this filter preference, omission, selection of data, source, quote and story, as well as placement of the same information within an individual piece or within the newspaper itself, can serve to distort the message. The result is the introduction of bias and slant—that is, the message becomes distorted so as to favor one side of the argument against another as it passes through the filter. Bias can be used to support spin or agenda setting, so that a particular emphasis becomes placed on the story which exerts an influence on the reader's judgment. The net result of the filter components is either a negative (contrary) or positive (supportive) frame. Tabloidization of the news has also resulted in the use of strong, evocative, exaggerated words, headlines and images to support a frame. I illustrate these various elements of the media filter using coverage of the air space closure due to the April 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland). Using the British press coverage of this event it is not difficult to find examples of all media filter elements, application of which resulted in bias against the forecast and forecaster. These actors then became named and blamed. Within this logic, it becomes only too easy for forecasters and scientists to be framed in a negative way through blame culture. The result is that forecast is framed in such a way so as to cause the forecaster to be blamed for all losses associated with the loss-causing event. Within the social amplification of risk framework (SARF), this can amplify a negative impression of the risk, the event and the response. However, actions can be taken to avoid such an outcome. These actions

  20. Forecasting loads and prices in competitive power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides a review of some of the main methodological issues and techniques which have become innovative in addressing the problem of forecasting daily loads and prices in the new competitive power markets. Particular emphasis is placed upon computationally intensive methods, including variable segmentation, multiple modeling, combinations, and neural networks for forecasting the demand side, and strategic simulation using artificial agents for the supply side

  1. Short- and medium-range order in a Zr73Pt27 glass: Experimental and simulation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.Y.; Wang, C.Z.; Li, M.Z.; Huang, L.; Ott, R.T.; Kramer, M.J.; Sordelet, D.J.; Ho, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of a Zr 73 Pt 27 metallic glass, which forms a Zr 5 Pt 3 (Mn 5 Si 3 -type) phase having local atomic clusters with distorted icosahedral coordination during the primary crystallization, has been investigated by means of x-ray diffraction and combining ab initio molecular-dynamics (MD) and reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations. The ab initio MD simulation provides an accurate description of short-range structural and chemical ordering in the glass. A three-dimensional atomistic model of 18?000 atoms for the glass structure has been generated by the RMC method utilizing both the structure factor S(k) from x-ray diffraction experiment and the partial pair-correlation functions from ab initio MD simulation. Honeycutt and Andersen index and Voronoi cell analyses, respectively, were used to characterize the short- and medium-range order in the atomistic structure models generated by ab initio MD and RMC simulations. The ab initio results show that an icosahedral type of short-range order is predominant in the glass state. Furthermore, analysis of the atomic model from the constrained RMC simulations reveals that the icosahedral-like clusters are packed in arrangements having higher-order correlations, thus establishing medium-range topological order up to two or three cluster shells.

  2. A composite stability index for dichotomous forecast of thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Sutapa; Middey, Anirban

    2012-12-01

    Thunderstorms are the perennial feature of Kolkata (22° 32' N, 88° 20' E), India during the premonsoon season (April-May). Precise forecast of these thunderstorms is essential to mitigate the associated catastrophe due to lightning flashes, strong wind gusts, torrential rain, and occasional hail and tornadoes. The present research provides a composite stability index for forecasting thunderstorms. The forecast quality detection parameters are computed with the available indices during the period from 1997 to 2006 to select the most relevant indices with threshold ranges for the prevalence of such thunderstorms. The analyses reveal that the lifted index (LI) within the range of -5 to -12 °C, convective inhibition energy (CIN) within the range of 0-150 J/kg and convective available potential energy (CAPE) within the ranges of 2,000 to 7,000 J/kg are the most pertinent indices for the prevalence thunderstorms over Kolkata during the premonsoon season. A composite stability index, thunderstorm prediction index (TPI) is formulated with LI, CIN, and CAPE. The statistical skill score analyses show that the accuracy in forecasting such thunderstorms with TPI is 99.67 % with lead time less than 12 h during training the index whereas the accuracies are 89.64 % with LI, 60 % with CIN and 49.8 % with CAPE. The performance diagram supports that TPI has better forecast skill than its individual components. The forecast with TPI is validated with the observation of the India Meteorological Department during the period from 2007 to 2009. The real-time forecast of thunderstorms with TPI is provided for the year 2010.

  3. Near-real-time Estimation and Forecast of Total Precipitable Water in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholy, J.; Kern, A.; Barcza, Z.; Pongracz, R.; Ihasz, I.; Kovacs, R.; Ferencz, C.

    2013-12-01

    -called mod06 results (Cloud Product) are assimilated twice a day (at 00 and 12 UTC) by DBCRAS. DBCRAS creates 72 hours long weather forecasts with 48 km horizontal resolution. DBCRAS is operational at the University since 2009 which means that by now sufficient data is available for the verification of the model. In the present study verification results for the DBCRAS total precipitable water forecasts are presented based on analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Numerical indices are calculated to quantify the performance of DBCRAS. During a limited time period DBCRAS was also ran without assimilating MODIS products which means that there is possibility to quantify the effect of assimilating MODIS physical products on the quality of the forecasts. For this limited time period verification indices are compared to decide whether MODIS data improves forecast quality or not.

  4. Medium range production planning of "Tacer" company: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Süer, Burak

    1994-01-01

    Ankara : Department of Management and the Graduate School of Business Administration of Bilkent University, 1994. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1994 Includes bibliographical references. In order to foresee the potential problems related with production, a production plan is undertaken for the year 1994. Product classification is determined according to the annual sales volume of the company "Tacer". A production schedule is prepared in relation with the forecast d...

  5. Fine tuning support vector machines for short-term wind speed forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Junyi; Shi Jing; Li Gong

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A systematic approach to tuning SVM models for wind speed prediction is proposed. → Multiple kernel functions and a wide range of tuning parameters are evaluated, and optimal parameters for each kernel function are obtained. → It is found that the forecasting performance of SVM is closely related to the dynamic characteristics of wind speed. → Under the optimal combination of parameters, different kernels give comparable forecasting accuracy. -- Abstract: Accurate forecasting of wind speed is critical to the effective harvesting of wind energy and the integration of wind power into the existing electric power grid. Least-squares support vector machines (LS-SVM), a powerful technique that is widely applied in a variety of classification and function estimation problems, carries great potential for the application of short-term wind speed forecasting. In this case, tuning the model parameters for optimal forecasting accuracy is a fundamental issue. This paper, for the first time, presents a systematic study on fine tuning of LS-SVM model parameters for one-step ahead wind speed forecasting. Three SVM kernels, namely linear, Gaussian, and polynomial kernels, are implemented. The SVM parameters considered include the training sample size, SVM order, regularization parameter, and kernel parameters. The results show that (1) the performance of LS-SVM is closely related to the dynamic characteristics of wind speed; (2) all parameters investigated greatly affect the performance of LS-SVM models; (3) under the optimal combination of parameters after fine tuning, the three kernels give comparable forecasting accuracy; (4) the performance of linear kernel is worse than the other two kernels when the training sample size or SVM order is small. In addition, LS-SVMs are compared against the persistence approach, and it is found that they can outperform the persistence model in the majority of cases.

  6. Stability of medium range order in Al-based metallic glass compacted by severe plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovács, Zs.; Henits, P. [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös University, P.O.B. 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary); Varga, L.K. [Research Institute for Solid state Physics and Optics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Schafler, E. [Physics of Nanostructured Materials, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Révész, Á., E-mail: reveszadam@ludens.elte.hu [Department of Materials Physics, Eötvös University, P.O.B. 32, H-1518 Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-06-05

    Highlights: ► High pressure torsion has been applied to produce low-porosity bulk Al-based amorphous specimens. ► The compacted disks possess higher hardness than the original glass. ► Mechanical and thermal impacts have only minor effects on the glassy structure. ► Medium range order is an inherent feature of the amorphous state. -- Abstract: High pressure torsion has successfully been applied to produce low-porosity, bulk specimens from Al-based metallic glass ribbons (Al{sub 85}Y{sub 8}Ni{sub 5}Co{sub 2}, Al{sub 85}Ce{sub 8}Ni{sub 5}Co{sub 2} and Al{sub 85}Gd{sub 8}Ni{sub 5}Co{sub 2}). The compacted disks possess higher hardness than the original glass and have substantial glass fraction with nanocrystalline precipitations. Mechanical and thermal impacts have only minor effects on the glassy structure as demonstrated by the stability of the X-ray diffraction halo positions. Unchanged halos reveal that medium range order is a key characteristic of the amorphous state.

  7. Evaluation of operational forecast model of aerosol transportation using ceilometer network measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Lok; Wiegner, Matthias; Flentje, Harald; Mattis, Ina; Wagner, Frank; Gasteiger, Josef; Geiß, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Due to technical improvements of ceilometers in recent years, ceilometer measurements are not only limited to determine cloud base heights but also providing information on the vertical aerosol distribution. Therefore, several national weather services implemented ceilometer networks. These measurements are e.g. valuable for the evaluation of the chemical transport model simulations. In this study, we present comparisons of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast Integrated Forecast System (ECMWF-IFS) model simulation of aerosol backscatter coefficients with ceilometer network measurements operated by the German weather service (DWD) . Five different types of aerosol are available in the model simulations which include two natural aerosols, sea salt and dust. The other three aerosol types, i.e. sulfate, organic carbon and black carbon, have significant anthropogenic contributions. As the model output provides mass mixing ratios of the above mentioned types of aerosol and the ceilometers measure attenuated backscatter (β∗) provided that calibration took place, it is necessary to determine a common physical quantity for the comparison. We have chosen the aerosol backscatter coefficient (β) for this purpose. The β-profiles are calculated from the mass mixing ratios of the model output assuming the inherent aerosol microphysics properties. It shall be emphasized that in the model calculations, all particles are assumed to be spherical. We have examined the sensitivity of the intercomparison on the hygroscopic growth of particles and on the role of particle shape. Our results show that the hygroscopic growth of particle is crucial (up to a factor of 22) in converting the model output to backscatter coefficient profiles whereas the effect of non-sphericity of dust particles is comparably small (˜44%). Furthermore, the calibration of the ceilometer signals can be an issue. The agreements between modeled and retrieved β-profiles show different

  8. Comparison on the forecast model of landfill surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaozhi; Sang Shuxun; Cao Liwen; Ji Xiaoyan

    2010-01-01

    Using four large-scale simulated landfill equipments, indoor parallel simulation landfill experiment was carried out. By monitoring the cumulative settlement of MSW, comparable researches indicate the actual effects of 'empirical model' and 'biodegradation model' on landfill surface settlement forecast, and the optimization measures are proposed on the basis of model defects analysis. Research leaded to following results: To the short-term prediction of MSW settlement, two types of models all have satisfactory predictive validity. When performing medium and long-term prediction, 'empirical model' predicted a significant deviation from the actual, and the forecasting error of 'biodegradation model' is also gradually enlarge with the extending forecast period. For optimizing these two types of model, long-term surface settlement monitoring is fundamental method, and constantly modify the model parameters is the key according to the dynamic monitoring data. (authors)

  9. Financing Small and Medium Enterprises in Bangladesh – Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuad Hasan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Now-a-days, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs have become an important sector that is supposed to play a pivotal role in boosting the economy of Bangladesh. But, SME financing is still facing some remarkable challenges that limit its potential success in contributing to the economy. Lots of thinking has contributed to the initiation and development of SMEs in Bangladesh. Now is the time to identify the challenges and making adjustments to the initial thinking. This paper is, therefore, an attempt to analyze various issues and challenges of financing this particular sector and find some worthy ways out to overcome these challenges. It will also survey various literatures and reports on the concerned field and recommend supporting actions to help this highly prospective industrial sector operate in a fully yielding manner.Keywords: SME, Financing, Development, Bangladesh economy, Industrial sector

  10. Forecasting the 12-14 March 1993 superstorm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uccellini, L.W.; Kocin, P.J.; Schneider, R.S.; Stokols, P.M.; Dorr, R.A. [National Weather Service, Camp Springs, MD (United States)]|[National Weather Service, Bohemia, NY (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper describes the decision-making process used by the forecasters in the National Meteorological Center`s (NMC`s) Meterolological Operations Division and in Weather Forecast Offices of the National Weather Service to provide the successful forecasts of the superstorm of 12-14 March 1993. This review illustrates (1) the difficult decisions forecasters faced when using sometimes conflicting model guidance, (2) the forecasters` success in recognizing the mesoscale aspects of the storm as it began to develop and move along the Gulf and East Coasts of the United States, and (3) their ability to produce one of the most successful heavy snow and blizzard forecasts ever for a major winter storm that affected the eastern third of the United States. The successful aspects of the forecasts include the following. (1) Cyclogenesis was predicted up to 5 days prior to its onset. (2) The unusual intensity of the storm was predicted three days in advance, allowing forecasters, government officials, and the media ample time to prepare the public, marine, and aviation interests to take precautions for the protection of life and property. (3) The excessive amounts and areal distribution of snowfall were prediceted two days in advance of its onset. (4) An extensive number of blizzard watches and warnings were issued throughout the eastern United States with unprecedented lead times. (5) The coordination of forecasts within the National Weather Service and between the National Weather Service, private forecasters, and media meteorologists was perhaps the most extensive in recent history.

  11. Application of SVM methods for mid-term load forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach for the medium-term load forecasting using Support Vector Machines (SVMs. The proposed SVM model was employed to predict the maximum daily load demand for the period of a month. Analyses of available data were performed and the most important features for the construction of SVM model are selected. It was shown that the size and the structure of the training set may significantly affect the accuracy of predictions. The presented model was tested by applying it on real-life load data obtained from distribution company 'ED Jugoistok' for the territory of city Niš and its surroundings. Experimental results show that the proposed approach gives acceptable results for the entire period of prediction, which are in range with other solutions in this area.

  12. An operational wave forecasting system for the east coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, K. G.; Murty, P. L. N.; Deshmukh, Aditya N.; Balakrishnan Nair, T. M.; Shenoi, S. S. C.

    2018-03-01

    Demand for operational ocean state forecasting is increasing, owing to the ever-increasing marine activities in the context of blue economy. In the present study, an operational wave forecasting system for the east coast of India is proposed using unstructured Simulating WAves Nearshore model (UNSWAN). This modelling system uses very high resolution mesh near the Indian east coast and coarse resolution offshore, and thus avoids the necessity of nesting with a global wave model. The model is forced with European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) winds and simulates wave parameters and wave spectra for the next 3 days. The spatial pictures of satellite data overlaid on simulated wave height show that the model is capable of simulating the significant wave heights and their gradients realistically. Spectral validation has been done using the available data to prove the reliability of the model. To further evaluate the model performance, the wave forecast for the entire year 2014 is evaluated against buoy measurements over the region at 4 waverider buoy locations. Seasonal analysis of significant wave height (Hs) at the four locations showed that the correlation between the modelled and observed was the highest (in the range 0.78-0.96) during the post-monsoon season. The variability of Hs was also the highest during this season at all locations. The error statistics showed clear seasonal and geographical location dependence. The root mean square error at Visakhapatnam was the same (0.25) for all seasons, but it was the smallest for pre-monsoon season (0.12 m and 0.17 m) for Puducherry and Gopalpur. The wind sea component showed higher variability compared to the corresponding swell component in all locations and for all seasons. The variability was picked by the model to a reasonable level in most of the cases. The results of statistical analysis show that the modelling system is suitable for use in the operational scenario.

  13. Model-free aftershock forecasts constructed from similar sequences in the past

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Elst, N.; Page, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    The basic premise behind aftershock forecasting is that sequences in the future will be similar to those in the past. Forecast models typically use empirically tuned parametric distributions to approximate past sequences, and project those distributions into the future to make a forecast. While parametric models do a good job of describing average outcomes, they are not explicitly designed to capture the full range of variability between sequences, and can suffer from over-tuning of the parameters. In particular, parametric forecasts may produce a high rate of "surprises" - sequences that land outside the forecast range. Here we present a non-parametric forecast method that cuts out the parametric "middleman" between training data and forecast. The method is based on finding past sequences that are similar to the target sequence, and evaluating their outcomes. We quantify similarity as the Poisson probability that the observed event count in a past sequence reflects the same underlying intensity as the observed event count in the target sequence. Event counts are defined in terms of differential magnitude relative to the mainshock. The forecast is then constructed from the distribution of past sequences outcomes, weighted by their similarity. We compare the similarity forecast with the Reasenberg and Jones (RJ95) method, for a set of 2807 global aftershock sequences of M≥6 mainshocks. We implement a sequence-specific RJ95 forecast using a global average prior and Bayesian updating, but do not propagate epistemic uncertainty. The RJ95 forecast is somewhat more precise than the similarity forecast: 90% of observed sequences fall within a factor of two of the median RJ95 forecast value, whereas the fraction is 85% for the similarity forecast. However, the surprise rate is much higher for the RJ95 forecast; 10% of observed sequences fall in the upper 2.5% of the (Poissonian) forecast range. The surprise rate is less than 3% for the similarity forecast. The similarity

  14. Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed of the day is an important forecast element in the 45th Weather Squadron's (45 WS) daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts. The forecasts are used for ground and space launch operations at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45 WS also issues wind advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect wind gusts to meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated peak wind speeds are challenging to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October - April. In Phase I of this task, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a tool to help the 45 WS forecast non-convective winds at KSC/CCAFS for the 24-hour period of 0800 to 0800 local time. The tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI displayed the forecast of peak wind speed, 5-minute average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, timing of the peak wind and probability the peak speed would meet or exceed 25 kt, 35 kt and 50 kt. For the current task (Phase II ), the 45 WS requested additional observations be used for the creation of the forecast equations by expanding the period of record (POR). Additional parameters were evaluated as predictors, including wind speeds between 500 ft and 3000 ft, static stability classification, Bulk Richardson Number, mixing depth, vertical wind shear, temperature inversion strength and depth and wind direction. Using a verification data set, the AMU compared the performance of the Phase I and II prediction methods. Just as in Phase I, the tool was delivered as a Microsoft Excel GUI. The 45 WS requested the tool also be available in the Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS). The AMU first expanded the POR by two years by adding tower observations, surface observations and CCAFS (XMR) soundings for the cool season months of March 2007 to April 2009. The POR was expanded

  15. Influence of the atomic structure of crystal surfaces on the surface diffusion in medium temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousty, J.P.

    1981-12-01

    In this work, we have studied the influence of atomic structure of crystal surface on surface self-diffusion in the medium temperature range. Two ways are followed. First, we have measured, using a radiotracer method, the self-diffusion coefficient at 820 K (0.6 T melting) on copper surfaces both the structure and the cleanliness of which were stable during the experiment. We have shown that the interaction between mobile surface defects and steps can be studied through measurements of the anisotropy of surface self diffusion. Second, the behavior of an adatom and a surface vacancy is simulated via a molecular dynamics method, on several surfaces of a Lennard Jones crystal. An inventory of possible migration mechanisms of these surface defects has been drawn between 0.35 and 0.45 Tsub(m). The results obtained with both the methods point out the influence of the surface atomic structure in surface self-diffusion in the medium temperature range [fr

  16. Short-range forecast of Shershnevskoie (South Ural) water-storage algal blooms: preliminary results of predictors' choosing and membership functions' construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayazova, Anna; Abdullaev, Sanjar

    2014-05-01

    Short-range forecasting of algal blooms in drinking water reservoirs and other waterbodies is an actual element of water treatment system. Particularly, Shershnevskoie reservoir - the source of drinking water for Chelyabinsk city (South Ural region of Russia) - is exposed to interannual, seasonal and short-range fluctuations of blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and other dominant species abundance, which lead to technological problems and economic costs and adversely affect the water treatment quality. Whereas the composition, intensity and the period of blooms affected not only by meteorological seasonal conditions but also by ecological specificity of waterbody, that's important to develop object-oriented forecasting, particularly, search for an optimal number of predictors for such forecasting. Thereby, firstly fuzzy logic and fuzzy artificial neural network patterns for blue-green alga Microcystis aeruginosa (M. aeruginosa) blooms prediction in nearby undrained Smolino lake were developed. These results subsequently served as the base to derive membership functions for Shernevskoie reservoir forecasting patterns. Time series with the total lenght about 138-159 days of dominant species seasonal abundance, water temperature, cloud cover, wind speed, mineralization, phosphate and nitrate concentrations were obtained through field observations held at Lake Smolino (Chelyabinsk) in the warm season of 2009 and 2011 with time resolution of 2-7 days. The cross-correlation analysis of the data revealed the potential predictors of M. aeruginosa abundance quasi-periodic oscillations: green alga Pediastrum duplex (P. duplex) abundance and mineralization for 2009, P. duplex abundance, water temperature and concentration of nitrates for 2011. According to the results of cross-correlation analysis one membership function "P. duplex abundance" and one rule linking M. aeruginosa and P. duplex abundances were set up for database of 2009. Analogically, for database of 2011

  17. An assessment of the ECMWF tropical cyclone ensemble forecasting system and its use for insurance loss predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aemisegger, F.; Martius, O.; Wüest, M.

    2010-09-01

    Tropical cyclones (TC) are amongst the most impressive and destructive weather systems of Earth's atmosphere. The costs related to such intense natural disasters have been rising in recent years and may potentially continue to increase in the near future due to changes in magnitude, timing, duration or location of tropical storms. This is a challenging situation for numerical weather prediction, which should provide a decision basis for short term protective measures through high quality medium range forecasts on the one hand. On the other hand, the insurance system bears great responsibility in elaborating proactive plans in order to face these extreme events that individuals cannot manage independently. Real-time prediction and early warning systems are needed in the insurance sector in order to face an imminent hazard and minimise losses. Early loss estimates are important in order to allocate capital and to communicate to investors. The ECMWF TC identification algorithm delivers information on the track and intensity of storms based on the ensemble forecasting system. This provides a physically based framework to assess the uncertainty in the forecast of a specific event. The performance of the ECMWF TC ensemble forecasts is evaluated in terms of cyclone intensity and location in this study and the value of such a physically-based quantification of uncertainty in the meteorological forecast for the estimation of insurance losses is assessed. An evaluation of track and intensity forecasts of hurricanes in the North Atlantic during the years 2005 to 2009 is carried out. Various effects are studied like the differences in forecasts over land or sea, as well as links between storm intensity and forecast error statistics. The value of the ECMWF TC forecasting system for the global re-insurer Swiss Re was assessed by performing insurance loss predictions using their in-house loss model for several case studies of particularly devastating events. The generally known

  18. Effects of the uncertainty of energy price and water availability forecasts on the operation of Alpine hydropower reservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, D.; Castelletti, A.; Burlando, P.

    2016-12-01

    European energy markets have experienced dramatic changes in the last years because of the massive introduction of Variable Renewable Sources (VRSs), such as wind and solar power sources, in the generation portfolios in many countries. VRSs i) are intermittent, i.e., their production is highly variable and only partially predictable, ii) are characterized by no correlation between production and demand, iii) have negligible costs of production, and iv) have been largely subsidized. These features result in lower energy prices, but, at the same time, in increased price volatility, and in network stability issues, which pose a threat to traditional power sources because of smaller incomes and higher maintenance costs associated to a more flexible operation of power systems. Storage hydropower systems play an important role in compensating production peaks, both in term of excess and shortage of energy. Traditionally, most of the research effort in hydropower reservoir operation has focused on modeling and forecasting reservoir inflow as well as designing reservoir operation accordingly. Nowadays, price variability may be the largest source of uncertainty in the context of hydropower systems, especially when considering medium-to-large reservoirs, whose storage can easily buffer small inflow fluctuations. In this work, we compare the effects of uncertain inflow and energy price forecasts on hydropower production and profitability. By adding noise to historic inflow and price trajectories, we build a set of synthetic forecasts corresponding to different levels of predictability and assess their impact on reservoir operating policies and performances. The study is conducted on different hydropower systems, including storage systems and pumped-storage systems, with different characteristics, e.g., different inflow-capacity ratios. The analysis focuses on Alpine hydropower systems where the hydrological regime ranges from purely ice and snow-melt dominated to mixed snow

  19. An Electrical Energy Consumption Monitoring and Forecasting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Rojas-Renteria

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electricity consumption is currently an issue of great interest for power companies that need an as much as accurate profile for controlling the installed systems but also for designing future expansions and alterations. Detailed monitoring has proved to be valuable for both power companies and consumers. Further, as smart grid technology is bound to result to increasingly flexible rates, an accurate forecast is bound to prove valuable in the future. In this paper, a monitoring and forecasting system is investigated. The monitoring system was installed in an actual building and the recordings were used to design and evaluate the forecasting system, based on an artificial neural network. Results show that the system can provide detailed monitoring and also an accurate forecast for a building’s consumption.

  20. Regional Precipitation Forecast with Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profile Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, S.-H.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Jedloved, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced technology in hyperspectral sensors such as the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS; Aumann et al. 2003) on NASA's polar orbiting Aqua satellite retrieve higher vertical resolution thermodynamic profiles than their predecessors due to increased spectral resolution. Although these capabilities do not replace the robust vertical resolution provided by radiosondes, they can serve as a complement to radiosondes in both space and time. These retrieved soundings can have a significant impact on weather forecasts if properly assimilated into prediction models. Several recent studies have evaluated the performance of specific operational weather forecast models when AIRS data are included in the assimilation process. LeMarshall et al. (2006) concluded that AIRS radiances significantly improved 500 hPa anomaly correlations in medium-range forecasts of the Global Forecast System (GFS) model. McCarty et al. (2009) demonstrated similar forecast improvement in 0-48 hour forecasts in an offline version of the operational North American Mesoscale (NAM) model when AIRS radiances were assimilated at the regional scale. Reale et al. (2008) showed improvements to Northern Hemisphere 500 hPa height anomaly correlations in NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) global system with the inclusion of partly cloudy AIRS temperature profiles. Singh et al. (2008) assimilated AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional modeling system for a study of a heavy rainfall event during the summer monsoon season in Mumbai, India. This paper describes an approach to assimilate AIRS temperature and moisture profiles into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model using its three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var; Barker et al. 2004). Section 2 describes the AIRS instrument and how the quality indicators are used to intelligently select the highest-quality data for assimilation

  1. Improvement of Lambert-Beer law dynamic range by the use of temporal gates on transmitted light pulse through a scattering medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Hironori; Wada, Kenji; Horinaka, Hiromichi; Cho, Yoshio; Umeda, Tokuo; Osawa, Masahiko.

    1995-01-01

    The Lambert-Beer law holding for pulsed lights transmitted through a scattering medium was examined using a streak camera. The Lambert-Beer law dynamic range is found to be limited by floor levels that are caused by scattered photons and are controllable by the use of a temporal gate on the transmitted pulse. The dynamic range improvement obtained for a scattering medium of 2.8 cm -1 scattering coefficient of a thickness of 80 mm by a temporal gate of 60 ps was as much as 50 dB and the Lambert-Beer law dynamic rang reached to 140 dB. (author)

  2. A Hybrid Model for Forecasting Sales in Turkish Paint Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Ustundag

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales forecasting is important for facilitating effective and efficient allocation of scarce resources. However, how to best model and forecast sales has been a long-standing issue. There is no best forecasting method that is applicable in all circumstances. Therefore, confidence in the accuracy of sales forecasts is achieved by corroborating the results using two or more methods. This paper proposes a hybrid forecasting model that uses an artificial intelligence method (AI with multiple linear regression (MLR to predict product sales for the largest Turkish paint producer. In the hybrid model, three different AI methods, fuzzy rule-based system (FRBS, artificial neural network (ANN and adaptive neuro fuzzy network (ANFIS, are used and compared to each other. The results indicate that FRBS yields better forecasting accuracy in terms of root mean squared error (RMSE and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE.

  3. Prediction of a service demand using combined forecasting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Forecasting facilitates cutting down operational and management costs while ensuring service level for a logistics service provider. Our case study here is to investigate how to forecast short-term logistic demand for a LTL carrier. Combined approach depends on several forecasting methods simultaneously, instead of a single method. It can offset the weakness of a forecasting method with the strength of another, which could improve the precision performance of prediction. Main issues of combined forecast modeling are how to select methods for combination, and how to find out weight coefficients among methods. The principles of method selection include that each method should apply to the problem of forecasting itself, also methods should differ in categorical feature as much as possible. Based on these principles, exponential smoothing, ARIMA and Neural Network are chosen to form the combined approach. Besides, least square technique is employed to settle the optimal weight coefficients among forecasting methods. Simulation results show the advantage of combined approach over the three single methods. The work done in the paper helps manager to select prediction method in practice.

  4. Solid low-level waste forecasting guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, K.J.; Dirks, L.L.

    1995-03-01

    Guidance for forecasting solid low-level waste (LLW) on a site-wide basis is described in this document. Forecasting is defined as an approach for collecting information about future waste receipts. The forecasting approach discussed in this document is based solely on hanford's experience within the last six years. Hanford's forecasting technique is not a statistical forecast based upon past receipts. Due to waste generator mission changes, startup of new facilities, and waste generator uncertainties, statistical methods have proven to be inadequate for the site. It is recommended that an approach similar to Hanford's annual forecasting strategy be implemented at each US Department of Energy (DOE) installation to ensure that forecast data are collected in a consistent manner across the DOE complex. Hanford's forecasting strategy consists of a forecast cycle that can take 12 to 30 months to complete. The duration of the cycle depends on the number of LLW generators and staff experience; however, the duration has been reduced with each new cycle. Several uncertainties are associated with collecting data about future waste receipts. Volume, shipping schedule, and characterization data are often reported as estimates with some level of uncertainty. At Hanford, several methods have been implemented to capture the level of uncertainty. Collection of a maximum and minimum volume range has been implemented as well as questionnaires to assess the relative certainty in the requested data

  5. Leveraging stochastic differential equations for probabilistic forecasting of wind power using a dynamic power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2017-01-01

    Short-term (hours to days) probabilistic forecasts of wind power generation provide useful information about the associated uncertainty of these forecasts. Standard probabilistic forecasts are usually issued on a per-horizon-basis, meaning that they lack information about the development of the u...

  6. Long-Range Lightning Products for Short Term Forecasting of Tropical Cyclogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businger, S.; Pessi, A.; Robinson, T.; Stolz, D.

    2010-12-01

    This paper will describe innovative graphical products derived in real time from long-range lightning data. The products have been designed to aid in short-term forecasting of tropical cyclone development for the Tropical Cyclone Structure Experiment 2010 (TCS10) held over the western Pacific Ocean from 17 August to 17 October 2010 and are available online at http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/cgi-bin/pacnet/tcs10.pl. The long-range lightning data are from Vaisala’s Global Lightning Data 360 (GLD360) network and include time, location, current strength, polarity, and data quality indication. The products currently provided in real time include i. Infrared satellite imagery overlaid with lighting flash locations, with color indication of current strength and polarity (shades of blue for negative to ground and red for positive to ground). ii. A 15x15 degree storm-centered tile of IR imagery overlaid with lightning data as in i). iii. A pseudo reflectivity product showing estimates of radar reflectivity based on lightning rate - rain rate conversion derived from TRMM and PacNet data. iv. A lightning history product that plots each hour of lightning flash locations in a different color for a 12-hour period. v. Graphs of lightning counts within 50 or 300 km radius, respectively, of the storm center vs storm central sea-level pressure. vi. A 2-D graphic showing storm core lightning density along the storm track. The first three products above can be looped to gain a better understanding of the evolution of the lightning and storm structure. Examples of the graphics and their utility will be demonstrated and discussed. Histogram of lightning counts within 50 km of the storm center and graph of storm central pressure as a function of time.

  7. Verification of an ensemble prediction system for storm surge forecast in the Adriatic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel, Riccardo; Lionello, Piero

    2014-12-01

    In the Adriatic Sea, storm surges present a significant threat to Venice and to the flat coastal areas of the northern coast of the basin. Sea level forecast is of paramount importance for the management of daily activities and for operating the movable barriers that are presently being built for the protection of the city. In this paper, an EPS (ensemble prediction system) for operational forecasting of storm surge in the northern Adriatic Sea is presented and applied to a 3-month-long period (October-December 2010). The sea level EPS is based on the HYPSE (hydrostatic Padua Sea elevation) model, which is a standard single-layer nonlinear shallow water model, whose forcings (mean sea level pressure and surface wind fields) are provided by the ensemble members of the ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) EPS. Results are verified against observations at five tide gauges located along the Croatian and Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea. Forecast uncertainty increases with the predicted value of the storm surge and with the forecast lead time. The EMF (ensemble mean forecast) provided by the EPS has a rms (root mean square) error lower than the DF (deterministic forecast), especially for short (up to 3 days) lead times. Uncertainty for short lead times of the forecast and for small storm surges is mainly caused by uncertainty of the initial condition of the hydrodynamical model. Uncertainty for large lead times and large storm surges is mainly caused by uncertainty in the meteorological forcings. The EPS spread increases with the rms error of the forecast. For large lead times the EPS spread and the forecast error substantially coincide. However, the EPS spread in this study, which does not account for uncertainty in the initial condition, underestimates the error during the early part of the forecast and for small storm surge values. On the contrary, it overestimates the rms error for large surge values. The PF (probability forecast) of the EPS

  8. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Peak wind speed is important element in 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS). Forecasts issued for planning operations at KSC/CCAFS. 45 WS wind advisories issued for wind gusts greater than or equal to 25 kt. 35 kt and 50 kt from surface to 300 ft. AMU developed cool-season (Oct - Apr) tool to help 45 WS forecast: daily peak wind speed, 5-minute average speed at time of peak wind, and probability peak speed greater than or equal to 25 kt, 35 kt, 50 kt. AMU tool also forecasts daily average wind speed from 30 ft to 60 ft. Phase I and II tools delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). Phase II tool also delivered as Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) GUI. Phase I and II forecast methods were compared to climatology, 45 WS wind advisories and North American Mesoscale model (MesoNAM) forecasts in a verification data set.

  9. Forecast, observation and modelling of a deep stratospheric intrusion event over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Zanis

    2003-01-01

    1999 from the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts atmospheric model is shown to be in very good agreement with the observations during this case study, which provides the first successful validation of a chemical tracer that is derived operationally from a weather forecast model. This suggests that coupling chemistry and weather forecast models may significantly improve both weather and chemical forecasts in the future.

  10. Short-term electric load forecasting using computational intelligence methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jurado, Sergio; Peralta, J.; Nebot, Àngela; Mugica, Francisco; Cortez, Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Accurate time series forecasting is a key issue to support individual and organizational decision making. In this paper, we introduce several methods for short-term electric load forecasting. All the presented methods stem from computational intelligence techniques: Random Forest, Nonlinear Autoregressive Neural Networks, Evolutionary Support Vector Machines and Fuzzy Inductive Reasoning. The performance of the suggested methods is experimentally justified with several experiments carried out...

  11. Operational foreshock forecasting: Fifteen years after

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We are concerned with operational forecasting of the probability that events are foreshocks of a forthcoming earthquake that is significantly larger (mainshock). Specifically, we define foreshocks as the preshocks substantially smaller than the mainshock by a magnitude gap of 0.5 or larger. The probability gain of foreshock forecast is extremely high compare to long-term forecast by renewal processes or various alarm-based intermediate-term forecasts because of a large event’s low occurrence rate in a short period and a narrow target region. Thus, it is desired to establish operational foreshock probability forecasting as seismologists have done for aftershocks. When a series of earthquakes occurs in a region, we attempt to discriminate foreshocks from a swarm or mainshock-aftershock sequence. Namely, after real time identification of an earthquake cluster using methods such as the single-link algorithm, the probability is calculated by applying statistical features that discriminate foreshocks from other types of clusters, by considering the events' stronger proximity in time and space and tendency towards chronologically increasing magnitudes. These features were modeled for probability forecasting and the coefficients of the model were estimated in Ogata et al. (1996) for the JMA hypocenter data (M≧4, 1926-1993). Currently, fifteen years has passed since the publication of the above-stated work so that we are able to present the performance and validation of the forecasts (1994-2009) by using the same model. Taking isolated events into consideration, the probability of the first events in a potential cluster being a foreshock vary in a range between 0+% and 10+% depending on their locations. This conditional forecasting performs significantly better than the unconditional (average) foreshock probability of 3.7% throughout Japan region. Furthermore, when we have the additional events in a cluster, the forecast probabilities range more widely from nearly 0% to

  12. The rationality of EIA forecasts under symmetric and asymmetric loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2007-01-01

    The United States Energy Information Administration publishes annual forecasts of nationally aggregated energy consumption, production, prices, intensity and GDP. These government issued forecasts often serve as reference cases in the calibration of simulation and econometric models, which climate and energy policy are based on. This study tests for rationality of published EIA forecasts under symmetric and asymmetric loss. We find strong empirical evidence of asymmetric loss for oil, coal and electricity prices as well as natural gas consumption, electricity sales, GDP and energy intensity. (author)

  13. The rationality of EIA forecasts under symmetric and asymmetric loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auffhammer, Maximilian [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, 207 Giannini Hall 3310, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    The United States Energy Information Administration publishes annual forecasts of nationally aggregated energy consumption, production, prices, intensity and GDP. These government issued forecasts often serve as reference cases in the calibration of simulation and econometric models, which climate and energy policy are based on. This study tests for rationality of published EIA forecasts under symmetric and asymmetric loss. We find strong empirical evidence of asymmetric loss for oil, coal and electricity prices as well as natural gas consumption, electricity sales, GDP and energy intensity. (author)

  14. Improving short-range ensemble Kalman storm surge forecasting using robust adaptive inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altaf, M.U.; Butler, T.; Luo, X.; Dawson, C.; Mayo, T.; Hoteit, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a robust ensemble filtering methodology for storm surge forecasting based on the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter, which has been implemented in the framework of the H? filter. By design, an H? filter is more robust than the common Kalman filter in the sense

  15. Development of a sales forecasting model for canopy windows

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Com. (Business Management) Forecasting is an important function used in a wide range of business planning or decision-making situations. The purpose ofthis study was to build a sales forecasting model that would be practical and cost effective, from the various forecasting methods and techniques available. Various forecast models, methods and techniques are outlined in the initial part of this study by the author. The author has outlined some of the fundamentals and limitations that unde...

  16. A system for using the air radioactivity measurements in a long range model to forecast cloud evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galmarini, S.; Graziani, G. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre); Grippa, G.; De Cort, M. (Maind srl, Milan (Italy))

    1993-01-01

    A procedure was developed in the past to reduce uncertainties in long range transport model predictions mainly due to inputing windfield data to atmospheric transport models which are the result of the forecasts of global or regional circulation models. Measurements available in real-time of the air concentrations from national monitoring grids have been used to reduce the uncertainties. The system is based on a long range transport model which can run using a limited amount of meteorological information, and an interpolation routine which generates a new area source from the air measurements, available in real-time, at ground level. The procedure has now been fully automated and is available on a PC, with graphical output, to ease its use in emergency situations. The system requires a connection to the ECMWF network for meteorological input data and to a radiological data bank (ECURIE) or national monitoring networks for monitoring data. (author).

  17. Factor-based forecasting in the presence of outliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Johannes Tang

    2014-01-01

    Macroeconomic forecasting using factor models estimated by principal components has become a popular research topic with many both theoretical and applied contributions in the literature. In this paper we attempt to address an often neglected issue in these models: The problem of outliers...... in the data. Most papers take an ad-hoc approach to this problem and simply screen datasets prior to estimation and remove anomalous observations. We investigate whether forecasting performance can be improved by using the original unscreened dataset and replacing principal components with a robust...... apply the estimator in a simulated real-time forecasting exercise to test its merits. We use a newly compiled dataset of US macroeconomic series spanning the period 1971:2–2012:10. Our findings suggest that the chosen treatment of outliers does affect forecasting performance and that in many cases...

  18. Varenna workshop report. Operational earthquake forecasting and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warner Marzocchi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A workshop on Operational earthquake forecasting and decision making was convened in Varenna, Italy, on June 8-11, 2014, under the sponsorship of the EU FP 7 REAKT (Strategies and tools for Real-time EArthquake risK reducTion project, the Seismic Hazard Center at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV, and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC. The main goal was to survey the interdisciplinary issues of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF, including the problems that OEF raises for decision making and risk communication. The workshop was attended by 64 researchers from universities, research centers, and governmental institutions in 11 countries. Participants and the workshop agenda are listed in the appendix.The workshop comprised six topical sessions structured around three main themes: the science of operational earthquake forecasting, decision making in a low-probability environment, and communicating hazard and risk. Each topic was introduced by a moderator and surveyed by a few invited speakers, who were then empaneled for an open discussion. The presentations were followed by poster sessions. During a wrap-up session on the last day, the reporters for each topical session summarized the main points that they had gleaned from the talks and open discussions. This report attempts to distill this workshop record into a brief overview of the workshop themes and to describe the range of opinions expressed during the discussions.

  19. Poster presentation - a visual medium for academic and scientific meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Nicholas; Ilic, Dragan

    2011-09-01

    Academic poster presentations are used as a medium of knowledge transfer by a wide range of health professional groups. Posters also provide a means of publication for academic and professional contributors. Posters are designed to give a visual representation of an issue that firstly attracts attention, and then conveys an intended message. Whilst the poster medium has become adopted into the publication orthodoxy of the scientific and academic communities, there are acknowledged limitations regarding the depth of knowledge transfer, issues of compilation and production, and the related viewer conception. If treated as a standalone medium, the limitations of a two-dimensional, page limited format may not provide the ideal opportunity to deliver the depth of information required within the academic context. Despite these limitations however, the continued use of posters is justified when supported by author presentation or multi-media resources. This paper aims to provide an overview of the current concept and practicality of academic poster publications. It also outlines by example, some of the wider principles of poster compilation and presentation, for use by those who may utilise the medium at academic and scientific meetings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A Novel Flood Forecasting Method Based on Initial State Variable Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of initial state variables on flood forecasting accuracy by using conceptual hydrological models is analyzed in this paper and a novel flood forecasting method based on correction of initial state variables is proposed. The new method is abbreviated as ISVC (Initial State Variable Correction. The ISVC takes the residual between the measured and forecasted flows during the initial period of the flood event as the objective function, and it uses a particle swarm optimization algorithm to correct the initial state variables, which are then used to drive the flood forecasting model. The historical flood events of 11 watersheds in south China are forecasted and verified, and important issues concerning the ISVC application are then discussed. The study results show that the ISVC is effective and applicable in flood forecasting tasks. It can significantly improve the flood forecasting accuracy in most cases.

  1. Gambling scores for earthquake predictions and forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new method, namely the gambling score, for scoring the performance earthquake forecasts or predictions. Unlike most other scoring procedures that require a regular scheme of forecast and treat each earthquake equally, regardless their magnitude, this new scoring method compensates the risk that the forecaster has taken. Starting with a certain number of reputation points, once a forecaster makes a prediction or forecast, he is assumed to have betted some points of his reputation. The reference model, which plays the role of the house, determines how many reputation points the forecaster can gain if he succeeds, according to a fair rule, and also takes away the reputation points betted by the forecaster if he loses. This method is also extended to the continuous case of point process models, where the reputation points betted by the forecaster become a continuous mass on the space-time-magnitude range of interest. We also calculate the upper bound of the gambling score when the true model is a renewal process, the stress release model or the ETAS model and when the reference model is the Poisson model.

  2. House Price Forecasts, Forecaster Herding, and the Recent Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Ruelke

    2013-01-01

    We used the Wall Street Journal survey data for the period 2006–2012 to analyze whether forecasts of house prices and housing starts provide evidence of (anti-)herding of forecasters. Forecasts are consistent with herding (anti-herding) of forecasters if forecasts are biased towards (away from) t......) the consensus forecast. We found that anti-herding is prevalent among forecasters of house prices. We also report that, following the recent crisis, the prevalence of forecaster anti-herding seems to have changed over time....

  3. Recurrent Neural Network For Forecasting Time Series With Long Memory Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walid; Alamsyah

    2017-04-01

    Recurrent Neural Network as one of the hybrid models are often used to predict and estimate the issues related to electricity, can be used to describe the cause of the swelling of electrical load which experienced by PLN. In this research will be developed RNN forecasting procedures at the time series with long memory patterns. Considering the application is the national electrical load which of course has a different trend with the condition of the electrical load in any country. This research produces the algorithm of time series forecasting which has long memory pattern using E-RNN after this referred to the algorithm of integrated fractional recurrent neural networks (FIRNN).The prediction results of long memory time series using models Fractional Integrated Recurrent Neural Network (FIRNN) showed that the model with the selection of data difference in the range of [-1,1] and the model of Fractional Integrated Recurrent Neural Network (FIRNN) (24,6,1) provides the smallest MSE value, which is 0.00149684.

  4. House Price Forecasts, Forecaster Herding, and the Recent Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pierdzioch

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We used the Wall Street Journal survey data for the period 2006–2012 to analyze whether forecasts of house prices and housing starts provide evidence of (anti-herding of forecasters. Forecasts are consistent with herding (anti-herding of forecasters if forecasts are biased towards (away from the consensus forecast. We found that anti-herding is prevalent among forecasters of house prices. We also report that, following the recent crisis, the prevalence of forecaster anti-herding seems to have changed over time.

  5. Staged decision making based on probabilistic forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booister, Nikéh; Verkade, Jan; Werner, Micha; Cranston, Michael; Cumiskey, Lydia; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Flood forecasting systems reduce, but cannot eliminate uncertainty about the future. Probabilistic forecasts explicitly show that uncertainty remains. However, as - compared to deterministic forecasts - a dimension is added ('probability' or 'likelihood'), with this added dimension decision making is made slightly more complicated. A technique of decision support is the cost-loss approach, which defines whether or not to issue a warning or implement mitigation measures (risk-based method). With the cost-loss method a warning will be issued when the ratio of the response costs to the damage reduction is less than or equal to the probability of the possible flood event. This cost-loss method is not widely used, because it motivates based on only economic values and is a technique that is relatively static (no reasoning, yes/no decision). Nevertheless it has high potential to improve risk-based decision making based on probabilistic flood forecasting because there are no other methods known that deal with probabilities in decision making. The main aim of this research was to explore the ways of making decision making based on probabilities with the cost-loss method better applicable in practice. The exploration began by identifying other situations in which decisions were taken based on uncertain forecasts or predictions. These cases spanned a range of degrees of uncertainty: from known uncertainty to deep uncertainty. Based on the types of uncertainties, concepts of dealing with situations and responses were analysed and possible applicable concepts where chosen. Out of this analysis the concepts of flexibility and robustness appeared to be fitting to the existing method. Instead of taking big decisions with bigger consequences at once, the idea is that actions and decisions are cut-up into smaller pieces and finally the decision to implement is made based on economic costs of decisions and measures and the reduced effect of flooding. The more lead-time there is in

  6. Use and Communication of Probabilistic Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Adrian E

    2016-12-01

    Probabilistic forecasts are becoming more and more available. How should they be used and communicated? What are the obstacles to their use in practice? I review experience with five problems where probabilistic forecasting played an important role. This leads me to identify five types of potential users: Low Stakes Users, who don't need probabilistic forecasts; General Assessors, who need an overall idea of the uncertainty in the forecast; Change Assessors, who need to know if a change is out of line with expectatations; Risk Avoiders, who wish to limit the risk of an adverse outcome; and Decision Theorists, who quantify their loss function and perform the decision-theoretic calculations. This suggests that it is important to interact with users and to consider their goals. The cognitive research tells us that calibration is important for trust in probability forecasts, and that it is important to match the verbal expression with the task. The cognitive load should be minimized, reducing the probabilistic forecast to a single percentile if appropriate. Probabilities of adverse events and percentiles of the predictive distribution of quantities of interest seem often to be the best way to summarize probabilistic forecasts. Formal decision theory has an important role, but in a limited range of applications.

  7. Use and Communication of Probabilistic Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Adrian E.

    2015-01-01

    Probabilistic forecasts are becoming more and more available. How should they be used and communicated? What are the obstacles to their use in practice? I review experience with five problems where probabilistic forecasting played an important role. This leads me to identify five types of potential users: Low Stakes Users, who don’t need probabilistic forecasts; General Assessors, who need an overall idea of the uncertainty in the forecast; Change Assessors, who need to know if a change is out of line with expectatations; Risk Avoiders, who wish to limit the risk of an adverse outcome; and Decision Theorists, who quantify their loss function and perform the decision-theoretic calculations. This suggests that it is important to interact with users and to consider their goals. The cognitive research tells us that calibration is important for trust in probability forecasts, and that it is important to match the verbal expression with the task. The cognitive load should be minimized, reducing the probabilistic forecast to a single percentile if appropriate. Probabilities of adverse events and percentiles of the predictive distribution of quantities of interest seem often to be the best way to summarize probabilistic forecasts. Formal decision theory has an important role, but in a limited range of applications. PMID:28446941

  8. Monthly forecasting of agricultural pests in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Samietz, J.; Calanca, P.; Weigel, A. P.; Fischer, A. M.; Rotach, M. W.

    2012-04-01

    Given the repercussions of pests and diseases on agricultural production, detailed forecasting tools have been developed to simulate the degree of infestation depending on actual weather conditions. The life cycle of pests is most successfully predicted if the micro-climate of the immediate environment (habitat) of the causative organisms can be simulated. Sub-seasonal pest forecasts therefore require weather information for the relevant habitats and the appropriate time scale. The pest forecasting system SOPRA (www.sopra.info) currently in operation in Switzerland relies on such detailed weather information, using hourly weather observations up to the day the forecast is issued, but only a climatology for the forecasting period. Here, we aim at improving the skill of SOPRA forecasts by transforming the weekly information provided by ECMWF monthly forecasts (MOFCs) into hourly weather series as required for the prediction of upcoming life phases of the codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. Due to the probabilistic nature of operational monthly forecasts and the limited spatial and temporal resolution, their information needs to be post-processed for use in a pest model. In this study, we developed a statistical downscaling approach for MOFCs that includes the following steps: (i) application of a stochastic weather generator to generate a large pool of daily weather series consistent with the climate at a specific location, (ii) a subsequent re-sampling of weather series from this pool to optimally represent the evolution of the weekly MOFC anomalies, and (iii) a final extension to hourly weather series suitable for the pest forecasting model. Results show a clear improvement in the forecast skill of occurrences of upcoming codling moth life phases when incorporating MOFCs as compared to the operational pest forecasting system. This is true both in terms of root mean squared errors and of the continuous rank probability scores of the

  9. AN INVESTIGATION INTO MEDIUM-SIZED MULTINATIONAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Schilirò

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an investigation of medium-sized Italian industrial enterprises that have become multinational companies. It concetrates on the set of medium and medium-large enterprises who seem to grow more in foreign markets, either through exports or through foreign direct investment. The work also offers a descriptive empirical picture of the performance of medium-sized Italian multinationals, which is compared with the performance of large corporations. From this analysis, which is based on several data sources, it is possible to outline a profile regarding the medium-size italian multinational enterprises; the aim is to understand the complex strategy towards internationalization of these companies, where the dimension of production is important and, therefore, innovation has a key role. Also the commercial dimension is crucial, because it leads to point to the direct supervision of foreign markets and to look very carefully at the customers, offering them a wide range of services. Finally, the paper highlights some critical issues that the medium sized multinational enterprises have to face for competing: namely, the stagnant productivity, the high taxation, the insufficient institutional support for internationalization, the bureaucracy and its high costs, the lack of skilled human capital available in the labor market due to inadequate policy training.

  10. Structural evolution on medium-range-order during the fragile-strong transition in Ge_1_5Te_8_5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Shuai; Stolpe, Moritz; Gross, Oliver; Hembree, William; Hechler, Simon; Bednarcik, Jozef; Busch, Ralf; Lucas, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Using synchrotron X-ray scattering, we investigate liquid Ge_1_5Te_8_5 spanning a wide temperature range from near T_g to the melt, and demonstrate that the density anomaly and fragile-strong transition are not only related to short-range-order (SRO) structural change (e.g. Peierls-like distortion), but also accompanied by a remarkable development of medium-range-order (MRO). The latter manifests as an emerging pre-peak in total structure factor S(Q) and atomic pair correlations on the length scale of ∼8 Å in the real space G(r) function. The results highlight the role of medium-range structural ordering in the evolution of the configurational entropy which, according to the Adam-Gibbs theory, can be linked to the fragile-strong transition (FS-transition). Based on the relation between structure and liquid dynamics, the FS-transitions at high pressures are examined in terms of experimental data and the Ehrenfest relation. This work identifies the length scale for the atomic correlations in MRO structural evolutions and presents a structural approach to exploring liquid dynamics, which may be useful for investigating relevant phase-change alloys.

  11. Rebuttal of "Polar bear population forecasts: a public-policy forecasting audit"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Caswell, Hal; DeWeaver, Eric; Stirling, Ian; Douglas, David C.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Hunter, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Observed declines in the Arctic sea ice have resulted in a variety of negative effects on polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Projections for additional future declines in sea ice resulted in a proposal to list polar bears as a threatened species under the United States Endangered Species Act. To provide information for the Department of the Interior's listing-decision process, the US Geological Survey (USGS) produced a series of nine research reports evaluating the present and future status of polar bears throughout their range. In response, Armstrong et al. [Armstrong, J. S., K. C. Green, W. Soon. 2008. Polar bear population forecasts: A public-policy forecasting audit. Interfaces 38(5) 382–405], which we will refer to as AGS, performed an audit of two of these nine reports. AGS claimed that the general circulation models upon which the USGS reports relied were not valid forecasting tools, that USGS researchers were not objective or lacked independence from policy decisions, that they did not utilize all available information in constructing their forecasts, and that they violated numerous principles of forecasting espoused by AGS. AGS (p. 382) concluded that the two USGS reports were "unscientific and inconsequential to decision makers." We evaluate the AGS audit and show how AGS are mistaken or misleading on every claim. We provide evidence that general circulation models are useful in forecasting future climate conditions and that corporate and government leaders are relying on these models to do so. We clarify the strict independence of the USGS from the listing decision. We show that the allegations of failure to follow the principles of forecasting espoused by AGS are either incorrect or are based on misconceptions about the Arctic environment, polar bear biology, or statistical and mathematical methods. We conclude by showing that the AGS principles of forecasting are too ambiguous and subjective to be used as a reliable basis for auditing scientific

  12. Issue-handling beats leadership: Issues and Leaders model predicts Clinton will defeat Trump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Graefe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Issues and Leaders model predicts the national popular two-party vote in US presidential elections from people’s perceptions of the candidates’ issue-handling competence and leadership qualities. In previous elections from 1972 to 2012, the model’s Election Eve forecasts missed the actual vote shares by, on average, little more than one percentage point and thus reduced the error of the Gallup pre-election poll by 30%. This research note presents the model’s forecast prior to the 2016 election, when most polls show that voters view Republican candidate Donald Trump as the stronger leader but prefer the Democrat’s nominee Hillary Clinton when it comes to dealing with the issues. A month prior to Election Day, the model predicts that Clinton will win by four points, gaining 52.0% of the two-party vote.

  13. Medium- and long-term electric power demand forecasting based on the big data of smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhanmeng; Li, Xiyuan; Li, Xizhong; Hu, Qinghe; Zhang, Haiyang; Cui, Pengjie

    2017-08-01

    Based on the smart city, this paper proposed a new electric power demand forecasting model, which integrates external data such as meteorological information, geographic information, population information, enterprise information and economic information into the big database, and uses an improved algorithm to analyse the electric power demand and provide decision support for decision makers. The data mining technology is used to synthesize kinds of information, and the information of electric power customers is analysed optimally. The scientific forecasting is made based on the trend of electricity demand, and a smart city in north-eastern China is taken as a sample.

  14. Technical note: Combining quantile forecasts and predictive distributions of streamflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Konrad; Liechti, Katharina; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2017-11-01

    The enhanced availability of many different hydro-meteorological modelling and forecasting systems raises the issue of how to optimally combine this great deal of information. Especially the usage of deterministic and probabilistic forecasts with sometimes widely divergent predicted future streamflow values makes it even more complicated for decision makers to sift out the relevant information. In this study multiple streamflow forecast information will be aggregated based on several different predictive distributions, and quantile forecasts. For this combination the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) approach, the non-homogeneous Gaussian regression (NGR), also known as the ensemble model output statistic (EMOS) techniques, and a novel method called Beta-transformed linear pooling (BLP) will be applied. By the help of the quantile score (QS) and the continuous ranked probability score (CRPS), the combination results for the Sihl River in Switzerland with about 5 years of forecast data will be compared and the differences between the raw and optimally combined forecasts will be highlighted. The results demonstrate the importance of applying proper forecast combination methods for decision makers in the field of flood and water resource management.

  15. Operational flood-forecasting in the Piemonte region – development and verification of a fully distributed physically-oriented hydrological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rabuffetti

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A hydrological model for real time flood forecasting to Civil Protection services requires reliability and rapidity. At present, computational capabilities overcome the rapidity needs even when a fully distributed hydrological model is adopted for a large river catchment as the Upper Po river basin closed at Ponte Becca (nearly 40 000 km2. This approach allows simulating the whole domain and obtaining the responses of large as well as of medium and little sized sub-catchments. The FEST-WB hydrological model (Mancini, 1990; Montaldo et al., 2007; Rabuffetti et al., 2008 is implemented. The calibration and verification activities are based on more than 100 flood events, occurred along the main tributaries of the Po river in the period 2000–2003. More than 300 meteorological stations are used to obtain the forcing fields, 10 cross sections with continuous and reliable discharge time series are used for calibration while verification is performed on about 40 monitored cross sections. Furthermore meteorological forecasting models are used to force the hydrological model with Quantitative Precipitation Forecasts (QPFs for 36 h horizon in "operational setting" experiments. Particular care is devoted to understanding how QPF affects the accuracy of the Quantitative Discharge Forecasts (QDFs and to assessing the QDF uncertainty impact on the warning system reliability. Results are presented either in terms of QDF and of warning issues highlighting the importance of an "operational based" verification approach.

  16. Forecasting space weather: Can new econometric methods improve accuracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikard, Gordon

    2011-06-01

    Space weather forecasts are currently used in areas ranging from navigation and communication to electric power system operations. The relevant forecast horizons can range from as little as 24 h to several days. This paper analyzes the predictability of two major space weather measures using new time series methods, many of them derived from econometrics. The data sets are the A p geomagnetic index and the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm. The methods tested include nonlinear regressions, neural networks, frequency domain algorithms, GARCH models (which utilize the residual variance), state transition models, and models that combine elements of several techniques. While combined models are complex, they can be programmed using modern statistical software. The data frequency is daily, and forecasting experiments are run over horizons ranging from 1 to 7 days. Two major conclusions stand out. First, the frequency domain method forecasts the A p index more accurately than any time domain model, including both regressions and neural networks. This finding is very robust, and holds for all forecast horizons. Combining the frequency domain method with other techniques yields a further small improvement in accuracy. Second, the neural network forecasts the solar flux more accurately than any other method, although at short horizons (2 days or less) the regression and net yield similar results. The neural net does best when it includes measures of the long-term component in the data.

  17. HEPS4Power - Extended-range Hydrometeorological Ensemble Predictions for Improved Hydropower Operations and Revenues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, Konrad; Monhart, Samuel; Liniger, Mark; Spririg, Christoph; Jordan, Fred; Zappa, Massimiliano

    2015-04-01

    In recent years large progresses have been achieved in the operational prediction of floods and hydrological drought with up to ten days lead time. Both the public and the private sectors are currently using probabilistic runoff forecast in order to monitoring water resources and take actions when critical conditions are to be expected. The use of extended-range predictions with lead times exceeding 10 days is not yet established. The hydropower sector in particular might have large benefits from using hydro meteorological forecasts for the next 15 to 60 days in order to optimize the operations and the revenues from their watersheds, dams, captions, turbines and pumps. The new Swiss Competence Centers in Energy Research (SCCER) targets at boosting research related to energy issues in Switzerland. The objective of HEPS4POWER is to demonstrate that operational extended-range hydro meteorological forecasts have the potential to become very valuable tools for fine tuning the production of energy from hydropower systems. The project team covers a specific system-oriented value chain starting from the collection and forecast of meteorological data (MeteoSwiss), leading to the operational application of state-of-the-art hydrological models (WSL) and terminating with the experience in data presentation and power production forecasts for end-users (e-dric.ch). The first task of the HEPS4POWER will be the downscaling and post-processing of ensemble extended-range meteorological forecasts (EPS). The goal is to provide well-tailored forecasts of probabilistic nature that should be reliable in statistical and localized at catchment or even station level. The hydrology related task will consist in feeding the post-processed meteorological forecasts into a HEPS using a multi-model approach by implementing models with different complexity. Also in the case of the hydrological ensemble predictions, post-processing techniques need to be tested in order to improve the quality of the

  18. Overcoming the Range Limitation of Medium-Duty Battery Electric Vehicles through the use of Hydrogen Fuel-Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, E.; Wang, L.; Gonder, J.; Ulsh, M.

    2013-10-01

    Battery electric vehicles possess great potential for decreasing lifecycle costs in medium-duty applications, a market segment currently dominated by internal combustion technology. Characterized by frequent repetition of similar routes and daily return to a central depot, medium-duty vocations are well positioned to leverage the low operating costs of battery electric vehicles. Unfortunately, the range limitation of commercially available battery electric vehicles acts as a barrier to widespread adoption. This paper describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy and industry partners to analyze the use of small hydrogen fuel-cell stacks to extend the range of battery electric vehicles as a means of improving utility, and presumably, increasing market adoption. This analysis employs real-world vocational data and near-term economic assumptions to (1) identify optimal component configurations for minimizing lifecycle costs, (2) benchmark economic performance relative to both battery electric and conventional powertrains, and (3) understand how the optimal design and its competitiveness change with respect to duty cycle and economic climate. It is found that small fuel-cell power units provide extended range at significantly lower capital and lifecycle costs than additional battery capacity alone. And while fuel-cell range-extended vehicles are not deemed economically competitive with conventional vehicles given present-day economic conditions, this paper identifies potential future scenarios where cost equivalency is achieved.

  19. Recent Progress of Solar Weather Forecasting at Naoc

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Han; Wang, Huaning; Du, Zhanle; Zhang, Liyun; Huang, Xin; Yan, Yan; Fan, Yuliang; Zhu, Xiaoshuai; Guo, Xiaobo; Dai, Xinghua

    The history of solar weather forecasting services at National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) can be traced back to 1960s. Nowadays, NAOC is the headquarters of the Regional Warning Center of China (RWC-China), which is one of the members of the International Space Environment Service (ISES). NAOC is responsible for exchanging data, information and space weather forecasts of RWC-China with other RWCs. The solar weather forecasting services at NAOC cover short-term prediction (within two or three days), medium-term prediction (within several weeks), and long-term prediction (in time scale of solar cycle) of solar activities. Most efforts of the short-term prediction research are concentrated on the solar eruptive phenomena, such as flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar proton events, which are the key driving sources of strong space weather disturbances. Based on the high quality observation data of the latest space-based and ground-based solar telescopes and with the help of artificial intelligence techniques, new numerical models with quantitative analyses and physical consideration are being developed for the predictions of solar eruptive events. The 3-D computer simulation technology is being introduced for the operational solar weather service platform to visualize the monitoring of solar activities, the running of the prediction models, as well as the presenting of the forecasting results. A new generation operational solar weather monitoring and forecasting system is expected to be constructed in the near future at NAOC.

  20. Forecasting Canadian nuclear power station construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, C.W.K.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequences of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of future situations. A key consideration in an evaluation is the financial component. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A brief review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A database is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes, an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of 40 years are generated and applications (such as alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts) to uncertainty assessment and/or decision-making are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the first for Canadian NGS constructions. (author)

  1. Sensitivity of monthly streamflow forecasts to the quality of rainfall forcing: When do dynamical climate forecasts outperform the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguy, M.; Prudhomme, C.; Harrigan, S.; Smith, K. A.; Parry, S.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting hydrological extremes is challenging, especially at lead times over 1 month for catchments with limited hydrological memory and variable climates. One simple way to derive monthly or seasonal hydrological forecasts is to use historical climate data to drive hydrological models using the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) method. This gives a range of possible future streamflow given known initial hydrologic conditions alone. The degree of skill of ESP depends highly on the forecast initialisation month and catchment type. Using dynamic rainfall forecasts as driving data instead of historical data could potentially improve streamflow predictions. A lot of effort is being invested within the meteorological community to improve these forecasts. However, while recent progress shows promise (e.g. NAO in winter), the skill of these forecasts at monthly to seasonal timescales is generally still limited, and the extent to which they might lead to improved hydrological forecasts is an area of active research. Additionally, these meteorological forecasts are currently being produced at 1 month or seasonal time-steps in the UK, whereas hydrological models require forcings at daily or sub-daily time-steps. Keeping in mind these limitations of available rainfall forecasts, the objectives of this study are to find out (i) how accurate monthly dynamical rainfall forecasts need to be to outperform ESP, and (ii) how the method used to disaggregate monthly rainfall forecasts into daily rainfall time series affects results. For the first objective, synthetic rainfall time series were created by increasingly degrading observed data (proxy for a `perfect forecast') from 0 % to +/-50 % error. For the second objective, three different methods were used to disaggregate monthly rainfall data into daily time series. These were used to force a simple lumped hydrological model (GR4J) to generate streamflow predictions at a one-month lead time for over 300 catchments

  2. Forecasting optimal solar energy supply in Jiangsu Province (China): a systematic approach using hybrid of weather and energy forecast models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiuli; Asante Antwi, Henry; Yiranbon, Ethel

    2014-01-01

    The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, "least-cost," and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor.

  3. Forecasting Optimal Solar Energy Supply in Jiangsu Province (China: A Systematic Approach Using Hybrid of Weather and Energy Forecast Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of aggregating information is clearly recognizable in the daily lives of all entities whether as individuals or as a group, since time immemorial corporate organizations, governments, and individuals as economic agents aggregate information to formulate decisions. Energy planning represents an investment-decision problem where information needs to be aggregated from credible sources to predict both demand and supply of energy. To do this there are varying methods ranging from the use of portfolio theory to managing risk and maximizing portfolio performance under a variety of unpredictable economic outcomes. The future demand for energy and need to use solar energy in order to avoid future energy crisis in Jiangsu province in China require energy planners in the province to abandon their reliance on traditional, “least-cost,” and stand-alone technology cost estimates and instead evaluate conventional and renewable energy supply on the basis of a hybrid of optimization models in order to ensure effective and reliable supply. Our task in this research is to propose measures towards addressing optimal solar energy forecasting by employing a systematic optimization approach based on a hybrid of weather and energy forecast models. After giving an overview of the sustainable energy issues in China, we have reviewed and classified the various models that existing studies have used to predict the influences of the weather influences and the output of solar energy production units. Further, we evaluate the performance of an exemplary ensemble model which combines the forecast output of two popular statistical prediction methods using a dynamic weighting factor.

  4. How much are you prepared to PAY for a forecast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Louise; Coughlan, Erin; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Pappenberger, Florian; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Bachofen, Carina; van Andel, Schalk Jan

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic hydro-meteorological forecasts are a crucial element of the decision-making chain in the field of flood prevention. The operational use of probabilistic forecasts is increasingly promoted through the development of new novel state-of-the-art forecast methods and numerical skill is continuously increasing. However, the value of such forecasts for flood early-warning systems is a topic of diverging opinions. Indeed, the word value, when applied to flood forecasting, is multifaceted. It refers, not only to the raw cost of acquiring and maintaining a probabilistic forecasting system (in terms of human and financial resources, data volume and computational time), but also and most importantly perhaps, to the use of such products. This game aims at investigating this point. It is a willingness to pay game, embedded in a risk-based decision-making experiment. Based on a ``Red Cross/Red Crescent, Climate Centre'' game, it is a contribution to the international Hydrologic Ensemble Prediction Experiment (HEPEX). A limited number of probabilistic forecasts will be auctioned to the participants; the price of these forecasts being market driven. All participants (irrespective of having bought or not a forecast set) will then be taken through a decision-making process to issue warnings for extreme rainfall. This game will promote discussions around the topic of the value of forecasts for decision-making in the field of flood prevention.

  5. Effect of medium range order on pulsed laser crystallization of amorphous germanium thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, T. T., E-mail: li48@llnl.gov; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Heo, T. W.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Campbell, G. H. [Materials Science Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Santala, M. K. [Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, 204 Rogers Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2016-05-30

    Sputter deposited amorphous Ge thin films had their nanostructure altered by irradiation with high-energy Ar{sup +} ions. The change in the structure resulted in a reduction in medium range order (MRO) characterized using fluctuation electron microscopy. The pulsed laser crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited versus irradiated materials were investigated using the dynamic transmission electron microscope operated in the multi-frame movie mode. The propagation rate of the crystallization front for the irradiated material was lower; the changes were correlated to the MRO difference and formation of a thin liquid layer during crystallization.

  6. Effect of medium range order on pulsed laser crystallization of amorphous germanium thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T. T.; Bayu Aji, L. B.; Heo, T. W.; Kucheyev, S. O.; Campbell, G. H.; Santala, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Sputter deposited amorphous Ge thin films had their nanostructure altered by irradiation with high-energy Ar"+ ions. The change in the structure resulted in a reduction in medium range order (MRO) characterized using fluctuation electron microscopy. The pulsed laser crystallization kinetics of the as-deposited versus irradiated materials were investigated using the dynamic transmission electron microscope operated in the multi-frame movie mode. The propagation rate of the crystallization front for the irradiated material was lower; the changes were correlated to the MRO difference and formation of a thin liquid layer during crystallization.

  7. Six rules for accurate effective forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffo, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The primary goal of forecasting is to identify the full range of possibilities facing a company, society, or the world at large. In this article, Saffo demythologizes the forecasting process to help executives become sophisticated and participative consumers of forecasts, rather than passive absorbers. He illustrates how to use forecasts to at once broaden understanding of possibilities and narrow the decision space within which one must exercise intuition. The events of 9/11, for example, were a much bigger surprise than they should have been. After all, airliners flown into monuments were the stuff of Tom Clancy novels in the 1990s, and everyone knew that terrorists had a very personal antipathy toward the World Trade Center. So why was 9/11 such a surprise? What can executives do to avoid being blind-sided by other such wild cards, be they radical shifts in markets or the seemingly sudden emergence of disruptive technologies? In describing what forecasters are trying to achieve, Saffo outlines six simple, commonsense rules that smart managers should observe as they embark on a voyage of discovery with professional forecasters. Map a cone of uncertainty, he advises, look for the S curve, embrace the things that don't fit, hold strong opinions weakly, look back twice as far as you look forward, and know when not to make a forecast.

  8. The accountability imperative for quantifying the uncertainty of emission forecasts: evidence from Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Daniel; Bakhtiari, Fatemeh; Morales-Napoles, Oswaldo; Landa Rivera, Gissela

    2017-01-01

    Governmental climate change mitigation targets are typically developed with the aid of forecasts of greenhouse-gas emissions. The robustness and credibility of such forecasts depends, among other issues, on the extent to which forecasting approaches can reflect prevailing uncertainties. We apply a transparent and replicable method to quantify the uncertainty associated with projections of gross domestic product growth rates for Mexico, a key driver of greenhouse-gas emissions in the country. We use those projections to produce probabilistic forecasts of greenhouse-gas emissions for Mexico. We contrast our probabilistic forecasts with Mexico's governmental deterministic forecasts. We show that, because they fail to reflect such key uncertainty, deterministic forecasts are ill-suited for use in target-setting processes. We argue that (i) guidelines should be agreed upon, to ensure that governmental forecasts meet certain minimum transparency and quality standards, and (ii) governments should be held accountable for the appropriateness of the forecasting approach applied to prepare governmental forecasts, especially when those forecasts are used to derive climate change mitigation targets. (authors)

  9. Visualizing uncertainty : Towards a better understanding of weather forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toet, A.; Tak, S.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty visualizations are increasingly used in communications to the general public. A well-known example is the weather forecast. Rather than providing an exact temperature value, weather forecasts often show the range in which the temperature will lie. But uncertainty visualizations are also

  10. Coupling meteorological and hydrological models for flood forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholmes

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of analysing the coupling of meteorological meso-scale quantitative precipitation forecasts with distributed rainfall-runoff models to extend the forecasting horizon. Traditionally, semi-distributed rainfall-runoff models have been used for real time flood forecasting. More recently, increased computer capabilities allow the utilisation of distributed hydrological models with mesh sizes from tenths of metres to a few kilometres. On the other hand, meteorological models, providing the quantitative precipitation forecast, tend to produce average values on meshes ranging from slightly less than 10 to 200 kilometres. Therefore, to improve the quality of flood forecasts, the effects of coupling the meteorological and the hydrological models at different scales were analysed. A distributed hydrological model (TOPKAPI was developed and calibrated using a 1x1 km mesh for the case of the river Po closed at Ponte Spessa (catchment area c. 37000 km2. The model was then coupled with several other European meteorological models ranging from the Limited Area Models (provided by DMI and DWD with resolutions from 0.0625° * 0.0625°, to the ECMWF ensemble predictions with a resolution of 1.85° * 1.85°. Interesting results, describing the coupled model behaviour, are available for a meteorological extreme event in Northern Italy (Nov. 1994. The results demonstrate the poor reliability of the quantitative precipitation forecasts produced by meteorological models presently available; this is not resolved using the Ensemble Forecasting technique, when compared with results obtainable with measured rainfall.

  11. Communicating weather forecast uncertainty: Do individual differences matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grounds, Margaret A; Joslyn, Susan L

    2018-03-01

    Research suggests that people make better weather-related decisions when they are given numeric probabilities for critical outcomes (Joslyn & Leclerc, 2012, 2013). However, it is unclear whether all users can take advantage of probabilistic forecasts to the same extent. The research reported here assessed key cognitive and demographic factors to determine their relationship to the use of probabilistic forecasts to improve decision quality. In two studies, participants decided between spending resources to prevent icy conditions on roadways or risk a larger penalty when freezing temperatures occurred. Several forecast formats were tested, including a control condition with the night-time low temperature alone and experimental conditions that also included the probability of freezing and advice based on expected value. All but those with extremely low numeracy scores made better decisions with probabilistic forecasts. Importantly, no groups made worse decisions when probabilities were included. Moreover, numeracy was the best predictor of decision quality, regardless of forecast format, suggesting that the advantage may extend beyond understanding the forecast to general decision strategy issues. This research adds to a growing body of evidence that numerical uncertainty estimates may be an effective way to communicate weather danger to general public end users. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Post-processing of multi-model ensemble river discharge forecasts using censored EMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemri, Stephan; Lisniak, Dmytro; Klein, Bastian

    2014-05-01

    When forecasting water levels and river discharge, ensemble weather forecasts are used as meteorological input to hydrologic process models. As hydrologic models are imperfect and the input ensembles tend to be biased and underdispersed, the output ensemble forecasts for river runoff typically are biased and underdispersed, too. Thus, statistical post-processing is required in order to achieve calibrated and sharp predictions. Standard post-processing methods such as Ensemble Model Output Statistics (EMOS) that have their origins in meteorological forecasting are now increasingly being used in hydrologic applications. Here we consider two sub-catchments of River Rhine, for which the forecasting system of the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG) uses runoff data that are censored below predefined thresholds. To address this methodological challenge, we develop a censored EMOS method that is tailored to such data. The censored EMOS forecast distribution can be understood as a mixture of a point mass at the censoring threshold and a continuous part based on a truncated normal distribution. Parameter estimates of the censored EMOS model are obtained by minimizing the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) over the training dataset. Model fitting on Box-Cox transformed data allows us to take account of the positive skewness of river discharge distributions. In order to achieve realistic forecast scenarios over an entire range of lead-times, there is a need for multivariate extensions. To this end, we smooth the marginal parameter estimates over lead-times. In order to obtain realistic scenarios of discharge evolution over time, the marginal distributions have to be linked with each other. To this end, the multivariate dependence structure can either be adopted from the raw ensemble like in Ensemble Copula Coupling (ECC), or be estimated from observations in a training period. The censored EMOS model has been applied to multi-model ensemble forecasts issued on a

  13. Assessment of the world market for small and medium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csik, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    The market for SMRs until 2015 was assessed by individual countries, taking into account energy demand and supply patterns, growth rates, energy resources, economic and financial resources, electric grids, industrial and technical development, infrastructure availability, environmental and nuclear safety concerns and other policy issues. The market assessment includes all applications of these reactors, that is electricity generation as well as the supply of process head and district heating. It is expected that SMRs will be deployed primarily in countries which have already started nuclear projects, in particular in countries which have developed SMR designs themselves. Thus, projects would be supplied predominantly by domestic sources in the years ahead; later, the export market is expected to attain more importance. It is further expected that over two thirds of the SMR units would be in the medium size range, i.e. from 300 to 700 MW(e), the rest would be smaller. About one third of the SMRs to be implemented are expected to supply heat and/or electricity to integrated seawater desalination plants. More than half of these reactors would be below 300 MW(e) or 1000 MW(th). The overall market is estimated at about 60 to 100 SMR units to be implemented up to the year 2015. It is recognized that forecasts, just like national development plans, tend to err on the optimistic side. Therefore, an overall market estimate of 70 to 80 units seems reasonable. (author)

  14. The role of medium range order on phase transitions in chain silicates upon compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serghiou, G; Chopelas, A; Boehler, R

    2004-01-01

    Raman spectroscopic measurements of the tetrahedrally coordinated crystal MnSiO 3 (rhodonite) in an argon pressure medium show that it becomes amorphous above 33 GPa. This observation consolidates our findings and explanation for the global structural trends exhibited by the extended chain silicate family AA'BO 3 (AA': Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe; B: Si) upon compression. In particular, crystals of this family are made of two types of building blocks coined P and C. Those crystals comprised solely of P blocks transform to dense higher coordinated crystalline phases; those comprised of P and C blocks, such as MnSiO 3 rhodonite, become amorphous; whereas those comprised solely of C blocks show both crystalline and amorphous regions upon compression. The reason that this medium range order length scale (building block scale) classification is correlated with the type of transitions taking place upon compression is due to the instability of C blocks and C-P interfaces with respect to P blocks and P-P interfaces at high pressures

  15. The Henetus wave forecast system in the Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bertotti

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe the Henetus wave forecast system in the Adriatic Sea. Operational since 1996, the system is continuously upgraded, especially through the correction of the input ECMWF wind fields. As these fields are of progressively improved quality with the increasing resolution of the meteorological model, the correction needs to be correspondingly updated. This ensures a practically constant quality of the Henetus results in the Adriatic Sea since 1996. After suitable and extended validation of the quality of the results at different forecast ranges, the operational range has been recently extended to five days. The Henetus results are used also to improve the tidal forecast on the Venetian coasts and the Venice lagoon, particularly during the most severe events. Extensive statistics on the model performance are provided, both as analysis and forecast, by comparing the model results versus both satellite and buoy data.

  16. Multicomponent ensemble models to forecast induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király-Proag, E.; Gischig, V.; Zechar, J. D.; Wiemer, S.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, human-induced seismicity has become a more and more relevant topic due to its economic and social implications. Several models and approaches have been developed to explain underlying physical processes or forecast induced seismicity. They range from simple statistical models to coupled numerical models incorporating complex physics. We advocate the need for forecast testing as currently the best method for ascertaining if models are capable to reasonably accounting for key physical governing processes—or not. Moreover, operational forecast models are of great interest to help on-site decision-making in projects entailing induced earthquakes. We previously introduced a standardized framework following the guidelines of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability, the Induced Seismicity Test Bench, to test, validate, and rank induced seismicity models. In this study, we describe how to construct multicomponent ensemble models based on Bayesian weightings that deliver more accurate forecasts than individual models in the case of Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 enhanced geothermal stimulation projects. For this, we examine five calibrated variants of two significantly different model groups: (1) Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity based on the seismogenic index, simple modified Omori-law-type seismicity decay, and temporally weighted smoothed seismicity; (2) Hydraulics and Seismicity based on numerically modelled pore pressure evolution that triggers seismicity using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. We also demonstrate how the individual and ensemble models would perform as part of an operational Adaptive Traffic Light System. Investigating seismicity forecasts based on a range of potential injection scenarios, we use forecast periods of different durations to compute the occurrence probabilities of seismic events M ≥ 3. We show that in the case of the Basel 2006 geothermal stimulation the models forecast hazardous levels

  17. Verification of the skill of numerical weather prediction models in forecasting rainfall from U.S. landfalling tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Beda; Villarini, Gabriele; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study is the evaluation of the skill of five state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), UK Met Office (UKMO), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), China Meteorological Administration (CMA), and Canadian Meteorological Center (CMC)] in forecasting rainfall from North Atlantic tropical cyclones (TCs). Analyses focus on 15 North Atlantic TCs that made landfall along the U.S. coast over the 2007-2012 period. As reference data we use gridded rainfall provided by the Climate Prediction Center (CPC). We consider forecast lead-times up to five days. To benchmark the skill of these models, we consider rainfall estimates from one radar-based (Stage IV) and four satellite-based [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA, both real-time and research version); Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN); the CPC MORPHing Technique (CMORPH)] rainfall products. Daily and storm total rainfall fields from each of these remote sensing products are compared to the reference data to obtain information about the range of errors we can expect from "observational data." The skill of the NWP models is quantified: (1) by visual examination of the distribution of the errors in storm total rainfall for the different lead-times, and numerical examination of the first three moments of the error distribution; (2) relative to climatology at the daily scale. Considering these skill metrics, we conclude that the NWP models can provide skillful forecasts of TC rainfall with lead-times up to 48 h, without a consistently best or worst NWP model.

  18. Sales Growth Rate Forecasting Using Improved PSO and SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xibin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate forecast of the sales growth rate plays a decisive role in determining the amount of advertising investment. In this study, we present a preclassification and later regression based method optimized by improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO for sales growth rate forecasting. We use support vector machine (SVM as a classification model. The nonlinear relationship in sales growth rate forecasting is efficiently represented by SVM, while IPSO is optimizing the training parameters of SVM. IPSO addresses issues of traditional PSO, such as relapsing into local optimum, slow convergence speed, and low convergence precision in the later evolution. We performed two experiments; firstly, three classic benchmark functions are used to verify the validity of the IPSO algorithm against PSO. Having shown IPSO outperform PSO in convergence speed, precision, and escaping local optima, in our second experiment, we apply IPSO to the proposed model. The sales growth rate forecasting cases are used to testify the forecasting performance of proposed model. According to the requirements and industry knowledge, the sample data was first classified to obtain types of the test samples. Next, the values of the test samples were forecast using the SVM regression algorithm. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model has good forecasting performance.

  19. Forecast of auroral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, A.T.Y.

    2004-01-01

    A new technique is developed to predict auroral activity based on a sample of over 9000 auroral sites identified in global auroral images obtained by an ultraviolet imager on the NASA Polar satellite during a 6-month period. Four attributes of auroral activity sites are utilized in forecasting, namely, the area, the power, and the rates of change in area and power. This new technique is quite accurate, as indicated by the high true skill scores for forecasting three different levels of auroral dissipation during the activity lifetime. The corresponding advanced warning time ranges from 22 to 79 min from low to high dissipation levels

  20. Statistical methods for forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, Bovas

    2009-01-01

    The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists."This book, it must be said, lives up to the words on its advertising cover: ''Bridging the gap between introductory, descriptive approaches and highly advanced theoretical treatises, it provides a practical, intermediate level discussion of a variety of forecasting tools, and explains how they relate to one another, both in theory and practice.'' It does just that!"-Journal of the Royal Statistical Society"A well-written work that deals with statistical methods and models that can be used to produce short-term forecasts, this book has wide-ranging applications. It could be used in the context of a study of regression, forecasting, and time series ...

  1. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europes Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R and D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, CO y SO{sub 2} at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  2. High Resolution Air Quality Forecasts in the Western Mediterranean area within the MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III European projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cansado, A.; Martinez, I.; Morales, T.

    2015-07-01

    The European Earth observation programme Copernicus, formerly known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is establishing a core global and regional environmental atmospheric service as a component of the Europe’s Copernicus/GMES initiative through successive R&D projects led by ECMWF (European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting) and funded by the 6th and 7th European Framework Programme for Research and Horizon 2020 Programme: GEMS, MACC, MACC-II and MACC-III. AEMET (Spanish State Meteorological Agency) has participated in the projects MACC and MACC-II and continues participating in MACC-III (http://atmosphere.copernicus.eu). AEMET has contributed to those projects by generating highresolution (0.05 degrees) daily air-quality forecasts for the Western Mediterranean up to 48 hours aiming to analyse the dependence of the quality of forecasts on resolution. We monitor the evolution of different chemical species such as NO2, O3, CO y SO2 at surface and different vertical levels using the global model MOCAGE and the MACC Regional Ensemble forecasts as chemical boundary conditions. We will show different case-studies, where the considered chemical species present high values and will show a validation of the air-quality by comparing to some of the available air-quality observations (EMEP/GAW, regional -autonomous communities- and local -city councils- air-quality monitoring networks) over the forecast domain. The aim of our participation in these projects is helping to improve the understanding of the processes involved in the air-quality forecast in the Mediterranean where special factors such as highly populated areas together with an intense solar radiation make air-quality forecasting particularly challenging. (Author)

  3. Can we use Earth Observations to improve monthly water level forecasts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, L. J.; Villarini, G.

    2017-12-01

    Dynamical-statistical hydrologic forecasting approaches benefit from different strengths in comparison with traditional hydrologic forecasting systems: they are computationally efficient, can integrate and `learn' from a broad selection of input data (e.g., General Circulation Model (GCM) forecasts, Earth Observation time series, teleconnection patterns), and can take advantage of recent progress in machine learning (e.g. multi-model blending, post-processing and ensembling techniques). Recent efforts to develop a dynamical-statistical ensemble approach for forecasting seasonal streamflow using both GCM forecasts and changing land cover have shown promising results over the U.S. Midwest. Here, we use climate forecasts from several GCMs of the North American Multi Model Ensemble (NMME) alongside 15-minute stage time series from the National River Flow Archive (NRFA) and land cover classes extracted from the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative 300 m annual Global Land Cover time series. With these data, we conduct systematic long-range probabilistic forecasting of monthly water levels in UK catchments over timescales ranging from one to twelve months ahead. We evaluate the improvement in model fit and model forecasting skill that comes from using land cover classes as predictors in the models. This work opens up new possibilities for combining Earth Observation time series with GCM forecasts to predict a variety of hazards from space using data science techniques.

  4. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-06-01

    Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 - 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 - 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to develop integrated policies and measures for waste management over the long term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Forecast Combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Allan G

    2005-01-01

    Forecast combinations have frequently been found in empirical studies to produce better forecasts on average than methods based on the ex-ante best individual forecasting model. Moreover, simple combinations that ignore correlations between forecast errors often dominate more refined combination schemes aimed at estimating the theoretically optimal combination weights. In this paper we analyse theoretically the factors that determine the advantages from combining forecasts (for example, the d...

  6. Communicating Uncertainty in Volcanic Ash Forecasts: Decision-Making and Information Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Kelsey; Black, Alison; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; McCloy, Rachel; Lickiss, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The Robust Assessment and Communication of Environmental Risk (RACER) consortium, an interdisciplinary research team focusing on communication of uncertainty with respect to natural hazards, hosted a Volcanic Ash Workshop to discuss issues related to volcanic ash forecasting, especially forecast uncertainty. Part of the workshop was a decision game in which participants including forecasters, academics, and members of the Aviation Industry were given hypothetical volcanic ash concentration forecasts and asked whether they would approve a given flight path. The uncertainty information was presented in different formats including hazard maps, line graphs, and percent probabilities. Results from the decision game will be presented with a focus on information preferences, understanding of the forecasts, and whether different formats of the same volcanic ash forecast resulted in different flight decisions. Implications of this research will help the design and presentation of volcanic ash plume decision tools and can also help advise design of other natural hazard information.

  7. Medium-range order of magnetic amorphous alloys containing rare earth metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, B.

    1989-01-01

    The influence of nuclear order and surface layers on the magnetic order and the existence of two characteristic lengths (ξ=2π/k∼10 3 A or 10 A) have been established. The principal conclusions of theorists: concerning the abscence of infinite ferromagnetic clusters and the correlated spin glass or ferromagnet with wandering axis models are verified. The published results seem to indicate the existence of a critical temperature. The role of 3d ions in the magnetic ordering has not been extensively studied; it seems that the presence of 3d ions leads smaller correlation lengths. The Lorentzian scattering term correspond not only to spin waves but also to a static order. The origin of the L 3/2 scattering term observed in severals cases is discussed. It would be very useful to carry out measurements at lower q values so as to obtain more detailed informations concerning the nuclear or magnetic medium range order

  8. Forecaster Behaviour and Bias in Macroeconomic Forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Batchelor

    2007-01-01

    This paper documents the presence of systematic bias in the real GDP and inflation forecasts of private sector forecasters in the G7 economies in the years 1990–2005. The data come from the monthly Consensus Economics forecasting service, and bias is measured and tested for significance using parametric fixed effect panel regressions and nonparametric tests on accuracy ranks. We examine patterns across countries and forecasters to establish whether the bias reflects the inefficient use of i...

  9. Wind Energy: Forecasting Challenges for its Operational Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    with the generation of forecasts tailored to the various operational decision problems involved. Indeed, while wind energy may be seen as an environmentally friendly source of energy, full benefits from its usage can only be obtained if one is able to accommodate its variability and limited predictability. Based...... on a short presentation of its physical basics, the importance of considering wind power generation as a stochastic process is motivated. After describing representative operational decision-making problems for both market participants and system operators, it is underlined that forecasts should be issued...

  10. Forecasting and Warning of Tropical Cyclones in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangzhong Wang

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the global economy, the impact of tropical cyclones has become far-reaching. Thus they are a fundamental issue to be addressed both nationally and globally. The socio-economic impact is particularly noticeable in developing countries, especially China. This paper begins with the effects of cyclones on regional and global economies. Then a brief introduction to the past and current situations and progress in cyclones forecasting and warning in China are presented. Finally the paper gives recommendations about improving and perfecting the tropical cyclone forecasting and warning systems.

  11. ECMWF seasonal forecast system 3 and its prediction of sea surface temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockdale, Timothy N.; Anderson, David L.T.; Balmaseda, Magdalena A.; Ferranti, Laura; Mogensen, Kristian; Palmer, Timothy N.; Molteni, Franco; Vitart, Frederic [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Doblas-Reyes, Francisco [ECMWF, Reading (United Kingdom); Institut Catala de Ciencies del Clima (IC3), Barcelona (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    The latest operational version of the ECMWF seasonal forecasting system is described. It shows noticeably improved skill for sea surface temperature (SST) prediction compared with previous versions, particularly with respect to El Nino related variability. Substantial skill is shown for lead times up to 1 year, although at this range the spread in the ensemble forecast implies a loss of predictability large enough to account for most of the forecast error variance, suggesting only moderate scope for improving long range El Nino forecasts. At shorter ranges, particularly 3-6 months, skill is still substantially below the model-estimated predictability limit. SST forecast skill is higher for more recent periods than earlier ones. Analysis shows that although various factors can affect scores in particular periods, the improvement from 1994 onwards seems to be robust, and is most plausibly due to improvements in the observing system made at that time. The improvement in forecast skill is most evident for 3-month forecasts starting in February, where predictions of NINO3.4 SST from 1994 to present have been almost without fault. It is argued that in situations where the impact of model error is small, the value of improved observational data can be seen most clearly. Significant skill is also shown in the equatorial Indian Ocean, although predictive skill in parts of the tropical Atlantic are relatively poor. SST forecast errors can be especially high in the Southern Ocean. (orig.)

  12. Forecast combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Aiolfi, Marco; Capistrán, Carlos; Timmermann, Allan

    2010-01-01

    We consider combinations of subjective survey forecasts and model-based forecasts from linear and non-linear univariate specifications as well as multivariate factor-augmented models. Empirical results suggest that a simple equal-weighted average of survey forecasts outperform the best model-based forecasts for a majority of macroeconomic variables and forecast horizons. Additional improvements can in some cases be gained by using a simple equal-weighted average of survey and model-based fore...

  13. Electricity Load Forecasting Using Support Vector Regression with Memetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electricity load forecasting is an important issue that is widely explored and examined in power systems operation literature and commercial transactions in electricity markets literature as well. Among the existing forecasting models, support vector regression (SVR has gained much attention. Considering the performance of SVR highly depends on its parameters; this study proposed a firefly algorithm (FA based memetic algorithm (FA-MA to appropriately determine the parameters of SVR forecasting model. In the proposed FA-MA algorithm, the FA algorithm is applied to explore the solution space, and the pattern search is used to conduct individual learning and thus enhance the exploitation of FA. Experimental results confirm that the proposed FA-MA based SVR model can not only yield more accurate forecasting results than the other four evolutionary algorithms based SVR models and three well-known forecasting models but also outperform the hybrid algorithms in the related existing literature.

  14. Results from the second year of a collaborative effort to forecast influenza seasons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggerstaff, Matthew; Johansson, Michael; Alper, David; Brooks, Logan C; Chakraborty, Prithwish; Farrow, David C; Hyun, Sangwon; Kandula, Sasikiran; McGowan, Craig; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Rosenfeld, Roni; Shaman, Jeffrey; Tibshirani, Rob; Tibshirani, Ryan J; Vespignani, Alessandro; Yang, Wan; Zhang, Qian; Reed, Carrie

    2018-02-24

    Accurate forecasts could enable more informed public health decisions. Since 2013, CDC has worked with external researchers to improve influenza forecasts by coordinating seasonal challenges for the United States and the 10 Health and Human Service Regions. Forecasted targets for the 2014-15 challenge were the onset week, peak week, and peak intensity of the season and the weekly percent of outpatient visits due to influenza-like illness (ILI) 1-4 weeks in advance. We used a logarithmic scoring rule to score the weekly forecasts, averaged the scores over an evaluation period, and then exponentiated the resulting logarithmic score. Poor forecasts had a score near 0, and perfect forecasts a score of 1. Five teams submitted forecasts from seven different models. At the national level, the team scores for onset week ranged from <0.01 to 0.41, peak week ranged from 0.08 to 0.49, and peak intensity ranged from <0.01 to 0.17. The scores for predictions of ILI 1-4 weeks in advance ranged from 0.02-0.38 and was highest 1 week ahead. Forecast skill varied by HHS region. Forecasts can predict epidemic characteristics that inform public health actions. CDC, state and local health officials, and researchers are working together to improve forecasts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Comparison of the air-kerma standards of the VNIIM and the BIPM in the medium-energy X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.T.; Villevalde, N.D.; Oborin, A.V.; Yurjatin, E.N.

    2001-09-01

    An indirect comparison has been made between the air-kerma standards of the VNIIM and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range. The results show the standards to be in agreement within the stated uncertainty. (authors)

  16. A forecast experiment of earthquake activity in Japan under Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Yokoi, S.; Nanjo, K. Z.; Tsuruoka, H.

    2012-04-01

    One major focus of the current Japanese earthquake prediction research program (2009-2013), which is now integrated with the research program for prediction of volcanic eruptions, is to move toward creating testable earthquake forecast models. For this purpose we started an experiment of forecasting earthquake activity in Japan under the framework of the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) through an international collaboration. We established the CSEP Testing Centre, an infrastructure to encourage researchers to develop testable models for Japan, and to conduct verifiable prospective tests of their model performance. We started the 1st earthquake forecast testing experiment in Japan within the CSEP framework. We use the earthquake catalogue maintained and provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The experiment consists of 12 categories, with 4 testing classes with different time spans (1 day, 3 months, 1 year, and 3 years) and 3 testing regions called "All Japan," "Mainland," and "Kanto." A total of 105 models were submitted, and are currently under the CSEP official suite of tests for evaluating the performance of forecasts. The experiments were completed for 92 rounds for 1-day, 6 rounds for 3-month, and 3 rounds for 1-year classes. For 1-day testing class all models passed all the CSEP's evaluation tests at more than 90% rounds. The results of the 3-month testing class also gave us new knowledge concerning statistical forecasting models. All models showed a good performance for magnitude forecasting. On the other hand, observation is hardly consistent in space distribution with most models when many earthquakes occurred at a spot. Now we prepare the 3-D forecasting experiment with a depth range of 0 to 100 km in Kanto region. The testing center is improving an evaluation system for 1-day class experiment to finish forecasting and testing results within one day. The special issue of 1st part titled Earthquake Forecast

  17. Maximizing Statistical Power When Verifying Probabilistic Forecasts of Hydrometeorological Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChant, C. M.; Moradkhani, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrometeorological events (i.e. floods, droughts, precipitation) are increasingly being forecasted probabilistically, owing to the uncertainties in the underlying causes of the phenomenon. In these forecasts, the probability of the event, over some lead time, is estimated based on some model simulations or predictive indicators. By issuing probabilistic forecasts, agencies may communicate the uncertainty in the event occurring. Assuming that the assigned probability of the event is correct, which is referred to as a reliable forecast, the end user may perform some risk management based on the potential damages resulting from the event. Alternatively, an unreliable forecast may give false impressions of the actual risk, leading to improper decision making when protecting resources from extreme events. Due to this requisite for reliable forecasts to perform effective risk management, this study takes a renewed look at reliability assessment in event forecasts. Illustrative experiments will be presented, showing deficiencies in the commonly available approaches (Brier Score, Reliability Diagram). Overall, it is shown that the conventional reliability assessment techniques do not maximize the ability to distinguish between a reliable and unreliable forecast. In this regard, a theoretical formulation of the probabilistic event forecast verification framework will be presented. From this analysis, hypothesis testing with the Poisson-Binomial distribution is the most exact model available for the verification framework, and therefore maximizes one's ability to distinguish between a reliable and unreliable forecast. Application of this verification system was also examined within a real forecasting case study, highlighting the additional statistical power provided with the use of the Poisson-Binomial distribution.

  18. Does money matter in inflation forecasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binner, J. M.; Tino, P.; Tepper, J.; Anderson, R.; Jones, B.; Kendall, G.

    2010-11-01

    This paper provides the most fully comprehensive evidence to date on whether or not monetary aggregates are valuable for forecasting US inflation in the early to mid 2000s. We explore a wide range of different definitions of money, including different methods of aggregation and different collections of included monetary assets. In our forecasting experiment we use two nonlinear techniques, namely, recurrent neural networks and kernel recursive least squares regression-techniques that are new to macroeconomics. Recurrent neural networks operate with potentially unbounded input memory, while the kernel regression technique is a finite memory predictor. The two methodologies compete to find the best fitting US inflation forecasting models and are then compared to forecasts from a naïve random walk model. The best models were nonlinear autoregressive models based on kernel methods. Our findings do not provide much support for the usefulness of monetary aggregates in forecasting inflation. Beyond its economic findings, our study is in the tradition of physicists’ long-standing interest in the interconnections among statistical mechanics, neural networks, and related nonparametric statistical methods, and suggests potential avenues of extension for such studies.

  19. Using collage art work as a common medium for communication in interprofessional workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brandon

    2002-02-01

    This paper explores the notion that interprofessional working is often hampered by the lack of a common language set and the variety of language sets used across the caring professions. The use of art as a common ground communication tool is presented with particular reference to the medium of magazine picture collage work. The paper describes how the use of this medium can enhance the understanding of individuals in interprofessional study days and workshops, where particular issues can be presented and explored by the participants, resulting in the increased awareness of the different perceptions of shared issues. In this way the use of magazine picture collage is advocated as a communication tool aimed to build bridges across the range of language sets used by different professionals.

  20. Forecasting the Use of Electronic Health Records, An Exp...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The authors of Forecasting the Use of Electronic Health Records, An Expert Opinion Approach, published in Volume 3, Issue 2 of the Medicare and Medicaid Research...

  1. Short-Term fo F2 Forecast: Present Day State of Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, A. V.; Depuev, V. H.; Depueva, A. H.

    An analysis of the F2-layer short-term forecast problem has been done. Both objective and methodological problems prevent us from a deliberate F2-layer forecast issuing at present. An empirical approach based on statistical methods may be recommended for practical use. A forecast method based on a new aeronomic index (a proxy) AI has been proposed and tested over selected 64 severe storm events. The method provides an acceptable prediction accuracy both for strongly disturbed and quiet conditions. The problems with the prediction of the F2-layer quiet-time disturbances as well as some other unsolved problems are discussed

  2. Short term solar radiation forecasting: Island versus continental sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boland, John; David, Mathieu; Lauret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Due its intermittency, the large-scale integration of solar energy into electricity grids is an issue and more specifically in an insular context. Thus, forecasting the output of solar energy is a key feature to efficiently manage the supply-demand balance. In this paper, three short term forecasting procedures are applied to island locations in order to see how they perform in situations that are potentially more volatile than continental locations. Two continental locations, one coastal and one inland are chosen for comparison. At the two time scales studied, ten minute and hourly, the island locations prove to be more difficult to forecast, as shown by larger forecast errors. It is found that the three methods, one purely statistical combining Fourier series plus linear ARMA models, one combining clear sky index models plus neural net models, and a third using a clear sky index plus ARMA, give similar forecasting results. It is also suggested that there is great potential of merging modelling approaches on different horizons. - Highlights: • Solar energy forecasting is more difficult for insular than continental sites. • Fourier series plus linear ARMA models are one forecasting method tested. • Clear sky index models plus neural net models are also tested. • Clear sky index models plus linear ARMA is also an option. • All three approaches have similar skill.

  3. Long-term ensemble forecast of snowmelt inflow into the Cheboksary Reservoir under two different weather scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfan, Alexander; Moreydo, Vsevolod; Motovilov, Yury; Solomatine, Dimitri P.

    2018-04-01

    A long-term forecasting ensemble methodology, applied to water inflows into the Cheboksary Reservoir (Russia), is presented. The methodology is based on a version of the semi-distributed hydrological model ECOMAG (ECOlogical Model for Applied Geophysics) that allows for the calculation of an ensemble of inflow hydrographs using two different sets of weather ensembles for the lead time period: observed weather data, constructed on the basis of the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction methodology (ESP-based forecast), and synthetic weather data, simulated by a multi-site weather generator (WG-based forecast). We have studied the following: (1) whether there is any advantage of the developed ensemble forecasts in comparison with the currently issued operational forecasts of water inflow into the Cheboksary Reservoir, and (2) whether there is any noticeable improvement in probabilistic forecasts when using the WG-simulated ensemble compared to the ESP-based ensemble. We have found that for a 35-year period beginning from the reservoir filling in 1982, both continuous and binary model-based ensemble forecasts (issued in the deterministic form) outperform the operational forecasts of the April-June inflow volume actually used and, additionally, provide acceptable forecasts of additional water regime characteristics besides the inflow volume. We have also demonstrated that the model performance measures (in the verification period) obtained from the WG-based probabilistic forecasts, which are based on a large number of possible weather scenarios, appeared to be more statistically reliable than the corresponding measures calculated from the ESP-based forecasts based on the observed weather scenarios.

  4. Long-term ensemble forecast of snowmelt inflow into the Cheboksary Reservoir under two different weather scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gelfan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A long-term forecasting ensemble methodology, applied to water inflows into the Cheboksary Reservoir (Russia, is presented. The methodology is based on a version of the semi-distributed hydrological model ECOMAG (ECOlogical Model for Applied Geophysics that allows for the calculation of an ensemble of inflow hydrographs using two different sets of weather ensembles for the lead time period: observed weather data, constructed on the basis of the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction methodology (ESP-based forecast, and synthetic weather data, simulated by a multi-site weather generator (WG-based forecast. We have studied the following: (1 whether there is any advantage of the developed ensemble forecasts in comparison with the currently issued operational forecasts of water inflow into the Cheboksary Reservoir, and (2 whether there is any noticeable improvement in probabilistic forecasts when using the WG-simulated ensemble compared to the ESP-based ensemble. We have found that for a 35-year period beginning from the reservoir filling in 1982, both continuous and binary model-based ensemble forecasts (issued in the deterministic form outperform the operational forecasts of the April–June inflow volume actually used and, additionally, provide acceptable forecasts of additional water regime characteristics besides the inflow volume. We have also demonstrated that the model performance measures (in the verification period obtained from the WG-based probabilistic forecasts, which are based on a large number of possible weather scenarios, appeared to be more statistically reliable than the corresponding measures calculated from the ESP-based forecasts based on the observed weather scenarios.

  5. Forecasting the Seasonal Timing of Maine's Lobster Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Mills

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The fishery for American lobster is currently the highest-valued commercial fishery in the United States, worth over US$620 million in dockside value in 2015. During a marine heat wave in 2012, the fishery was disrupted by the early warming of spring ocean temperatures and subsequent influx of lobster landings. This situation resulted in a price collapse, as the supply chain was not prepared for the early and abundant landings of lobsters. Motivated by this series of events, we have developed a forecast of when the Maine (USA lobster fishery will shift into its high volume summer landings period. The forecast uses a regression approach to relate spring ocean temperatures derived from four NERACOOS buoys along the coast of Maine to the start day of the high landings period of the fishery. Tested against conditions in past years, the forecast is able to predict the start day to within 1 week of the actual start, and the forecast can be issued 3–4 months prior to the onset of the high-landings period, providing valuable lead-time for the fishery and its associated supply chain to prepare for the upcoming season. Forecast results are conveyed in a probabilistic manner and are updated weekly over a 6-week forecasting period so that users can assess the certainty and consistency of the forecast and factor the uncertainty into their use of the information in a given year. By focusing on the timing of events, this type of seasonal forecast provides climate-relevant information to users at time scales that are meaningful for operational decisions. As climate change alters seasonal phenology and reduces the reliability of past experience as a guide for future expectations, this type of forecast can enable fishing industry participants to better adjust to and prepare for operating in the context of climate change.

  6. The long-term forecast of Pakistan's electricity supply and demand: An application of long range energy alternatives planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perwez, Usama; Sohail, Ahmed; Hassan, Syed Fahad; Zia, Usman

    2015-01-01

    The long-term forecasting of electricity demand and supply has assumed significant importance in fundamental research to provide sustainable solutions to the electricity issues. In this article, we provide an overview of structure of electric power sector of Pakistan and a summary of historical electricity demand & supply data, current status of divergent set of energy policies as a framework for development and application of a LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternate Planning) model of Pakistan's electric power sector. Pakistan's LEAP model is used to analyze the supply policy selections and demand assumptions for future power generation system on the basis of economics, technicality and implicit environmental implications. Three scenarios are enacted over the study period (2011–2030) which include BAU (Business-As-Usual), NC (New Coal) & GF (Green Future). The results of these scenarios are compared in terms of projected electricity demand & supply, net present cost analysis (discount rate at 4%, 7% and 10%) and GHG (greenhouse gas) emission reductions, along with sensitivity analysis to study the effect of varying parameters on total cost. A concluding section illustrates the policy implications of model for futuristic power generation and environmental policies in Pakistan. - Highlights: • Pakistan-specific electricity demand model is presented. • None of the scenarios exceeded the price of 12 US Cents/kWh. • By 2030, fuel cost is the most dominant factor to influence electricity per unit cost. • By 2030, CO_2 emissions per unit electricity will increase significantly in coal scenario relative to others. • By 2030, the penetration of renewable energy and conservation policies can save 70.6 tWh electricity.

  7. Method for forecasting an earthquake from precursor signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnworth, D.F.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forecasting an earthquake from precursor signals by employing characteristic first electromagnetic signals, second, seismically induced electromagnetic signals, seismically induced mechanical signals, and infrasonic acoustic signals which have been observed to precede an earthquake. From a first electromagnetic signal, a magnitude, depth beneath the surface of the earth, distance, latitude, longitude, and first and second forecasts of the time of occurrence of the impending earthquake may be derived. From a second, seismically induced electromagnetic signal and the mechanical signal, third and fourth forecasts of the time of occurrence of an impending earthquake determined from the analysis above, a magnitude, depth beneath the surface of the earth and fourth and fifth forecasts of the time of occurrence of the impending earthquake may be derived. The forecasts of time available from the above analyses range from up to five weeks to substantially within one hour in advance of the earthquake. (author)

  8. Review of Variable Generation Forecasting in the West: July 2013 - March 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widiss, R. [Exeter Associates Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Porter, K. [Exeter Associates Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This report interviews 13 operating entities (OEs) in the Western Interconnection about their implementation of wind and solar forecasting. The report updates and expands upon one issued by NREL in 2012. As in the 2012 report, the OEs interviewed vary in size and character; the group includes independent system operators, balancing authorities, utilities, and other entities. Respondents' advice for other utilities includes starting sooner rather than later as it can take time to plan, prepare, and train a forecast; setting realistic expectations; using multiple forecasts; and incorporating several performance metrics.

  9. The potential value of seasonal forecasts in a changing climate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Winsemius, HC

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available -range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) seasonal forecasting system. The focus is on the frequency of dry spells as well as the frequency of heat stress conditions expressed in the Temperature Heat Index. In areas where their frequency of occurrence increases...

  10. Fuel cycle forecasting - there are forecasts and there are forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puechl, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    The FORECAST-NUCLEAR computer program described recognizes that forecasts are made to answer a variety of questions and, therefore, that no single forecast is universally appropriate. Also, it recognizes that no two individuals will completely agree as to the input data that are appropriate for obtaining an answer to even a single simple question. Accordingly, the program was written from a utilitarian standpoint: it allows working with multiple projections; data inputting is simple to allow game-playing; computation time is short to minimize the cost of 'what if' assessements; and detail is internally carried to allow meaningful analysis. (author)

  11. Fuel cycle forecasting - there are forecasts and there are forecasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puechl, K H

    1975-12-01

    The FORECAST-NUCLEAR computer program described recognizes that forecasts are made to answer a variety of questions and, therefore, that no single forecast is universally appropriate. Also, it recognizes that no two individuals will completely agree as to the input data that are appropriate for obtaining an answer to even a single simple question. Accordingly, the program was written from a utilitarian standpoint: it allows working with multiple projections; data inputting is simple to allow game-playing; computation time is short to minimize the cost of 'what if' assessements; and detail is internally carried to allow meaningful analysis.

  12. A stochastic HMM-based forecasting model for fuzzy time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Tun; Cheng, Yi-Chung

    2010-10-01

    Recently, fuzzy time series have attracted more academic attention than traditional time series due to their capability of dealing with the uncertainty and vagueness inherent in the data collected. The formulation of fuzzy relations is one of the key issues affecting forecasting results. Most of the present works adopt IF-THEN rules for relationship representation, which leads to higher computational overhead and rule redundancy. Sullivan and Woodall proposed a Markov-based formulation and a forecasting model to reduce computational overhead; however, its applicability is limited to handling one-factor problems. In this paper, we propose a novel forecasting model based on the hidden Markov model by enhancing Sullivan and Woodall's work to allow handling of two-factor forecasting problems. Moreover, in order to make the nature of conjecture and randomness of forecasting more realistic, the Monte Carlo method is adopted to estimate the outcome. To test the effectiveness of the resulting stochastic model, we conduct two experiments and compare the results with those from other models. The first experiment consists of forecasting the daily average temperature and cloud density in Taipei, Taiwan, and the second experiment is based on the Taiwan Weighted Stock Index by forecasting the exchange rate of the New Taiwan dollar against the U.S. dollar. In addition to improving forecasting accuracy, the proposed model adheres to the central limit theorem, and thus, the result statistically approximates to the real mean of the target value being forecast.

  13. Partitioning and mapping uncertainties in ensembles of forecasts of species turnover under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F.; Bini, Luis Mauricio; Rangel, Thiago Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Forecasts of species range shifts under climate change are fraught with uncertainties and ensemble forecasting may provide a framework to deal with such uncertainties. Here, a novel approach to partition the variance among modeled attributes, such as richness or turnover, and map sources of uncer......Forecasts of species range shifts under climate change are fraught with uncertainties and ensemble forecasting may provide a framework to deal with such uncertainties. Here, a novel approach to partition the variance among modeled attributes, such as richness or turnover, and map sources...... of uncertainty in ensembles of forecasts is presented. We model the distributions of 3837 New World birds and project them into 2080. We then quantify and map the relative contribution of different sources of uncertainty from alternative methods for niche modeling, general circulation models (AOGCM......), and emission scenarios. The greatest source of uncertainty in forecasts of species range shifts arises from using alternative methods for niche modeling, followed by AOGCM, and their interaction. Our results concur with previous studies that discovered that projections from alternative models can be extremely...

  14. Relativistic electrons of the outer radiation belt and methods of their forecast (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov A.S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews studies of the dynamics of relativistic electrons in the geosynchronous region. It lists the physical processes that lead to the acceleration of electrons filling the outer radiation belt. As one of the space weather factors, high-energy electron fluxes pose a serious threat to the operation of satellite equipment in one of the most populated orbital regions. Necessity is emphasized for efforts to develop methods for forecasting the situation in this part of the magnetosphere, possible predictors are listed, and their classification is given. An example of a predictive model for forecasting relativistic electron flux with a 1–2-day lead time is proposed. Some questions of practical organization of prediction are discussed; the main objectives of short-term, medium-term, and long-term forecasts are listed.

  15. A Condition Based Maintenance Approach to Forecasting B-1 Aircraft Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Air Force Institute of Technology AFIT Scholar Theses and Dissertations 3-23-2017 A Condition Based Maintenance Approach to Forecasting B-1 Aircraft...component’s life history where reliability forecasts could be stipulated based on a component’s current condition . One of the major issues their report noted...Engine Condition Monitoring System Specification. Contract Number DOT-CG-80513-A. Grand Prairie, TX. Air Force Materiel Command. (2011) Requirements For

  16. Flood Forecasting Based on TIGGE Precipitation Ensemble Forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyin Ye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TIGGE (THORPEX International Grand Global Ensemble was a major part of the THORPEX (Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment. It integrates ensemble precipitation products from all the major forecast centers in the world and provides systematic evaluation on the multimodel ensemble prediction system. Development of meteorologic-hydrologic coupled flood forecasting model and early warning model based on the TIGGE precipitation ensemble forecast can provide flood probability forecast, extend the lead time of the flood forecast, and gain more time for decision-makers to make the right decision. In this study, precipitation ensemble forecast products from ECMWF, NCEP, and CMA are used to drive distributed hydrologic model TOPX. We focus on Yi River catchment and aim to build a flood forecast and early warning system. The results show that the meteorologic-hydrologic coupled model can satisfactorily predict the flow-process of four flood events. The predicted occurrence time of peak discharges is close to the observations. However, the magnitude of the peak discharges is significantly different due to various performances of the ensemble prediction systems. The coupled forecasting model can accurately predict occurrence of the peak time and the corresponding risk probability of peak discharge based on the probability distribution of peak time and flood warning, which can provide users a strong theoretical foundation and valuable information as a promising new approach.

  17. Canadian nuclear power plant construction cost forecast and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keng, C.W.K.

    1985-01-01

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequence of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of the situation to take place in the future. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A data base is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of forty years are generated and applications of alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts to uncertainty assessment are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the very first ever done for Canadian NGS constructions

  18. Estimation and Forecasting in Vector Autoregressive Moving Average Models for Rich Datasets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Kapetanios, George

    We address the issue of modelling and forecasting macroeconomic variables using rich datasets, by adopting the class of Vector Autoregressive Moving Average (VARMA) models. We overcome the estimation issue that arises with this class of models by implementing an iterative ordinary least squares (...

  19. A liquid crystalline medium for measuring residual dipolar couplings over a wide range of temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Hong; Eberstadt, Matthias; Olejniczak, Edward T.; Meadows, Robert P.; Fesik, Stephen W. [Abbott Laboratories (United States)

    1998-10-15

    A mixture of dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) and 3-(cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio-2-hydroxyl-1-propane sulfonate (CHAPSO) in water forms disc shaped bicelles that become ordered at high magnetic fields over a wide range of temperatures. As illustrated for the FK506 binding protein (FKBP), large residual dipolar couplings can be measured for proteins dissolved in low concentrations (5% w/v) of a DLPC/CHAPSO medium at a molar ratio of 4.2:1. This system is especially useful for measuring residual dipolar couplings for molecules that are only stable at low temperatures.

  20. Forecasting electricity consumption in Pakistan: the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Anwar; Rahman, Muhammad; Memon, Junaid Alam

    2016-01-01

    Growing shortfall of electricity in Pakistan affects almost all sectors of its economy. For proper policy formulation, it is imperative to have reliable forecasts of electricity consumption. This paper applies Holt-Winter and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) models on time series secondary data from 1980 to 2011 to forecast total and component wise electricity consumption in Pakistan. Results reveal that Holt-Winter is the appropriate model for forecasting electricity consumption in Pakistan. It also suggests that electricity consumption would continue to increase throughout the projected period and widen the consumption-production gap in case of failure to respond the issue appropriately. It further reveals that demand would be highest in the household sector as compared to all other sectors and the increase in the energy generation would be less than the increase in total electricity consumption throughout the projected period. The study discuss various options to reduce the demand-supply gap and provide reliable electricity to different sectors of the economy. - Highlights: • We forecast total and component wise electricity consumption for Pakistan. • Electricity shortfall in Pakistan will increase in future if same situation exists. • Various options exist to cope with the electricity crisis in the country. • Holt-winter model gives best forecasts for electricity consumption in the country.

  1. From probabilistic forecasts to statistical scenarios of short-term wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Papaefthymiou, George; Klockl, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    on the development of the forecast uncertainty through forecast series. However, this additional information may be paramount for a large class of time-dependent and multistage decision-making problems, e.g. optimal operation of combined wind-storage systems or multiple-market trading with different gate closures......Short-term (up to 2-3 days ahead) probabilistic forecasts of wind power provide forecast users with highly valuable information on the uncertainty of expected wind generation. Whatever the type of these probabilistic forecasts, they are produced on a per horizon basis, and hence do not inform....... This issue is addressed here by describing a method that permits the generation of statistical scenarios of short-term wind generation that accounts for both the interdependence structure of prediction errors and the predictive distributions of wind power production. The method is based on the conversion...

  2. LMDzT-INCA dust forecast model developments and associated validation efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, M; Cozic, A; Szopa, S

    2009-01-01

    The nudged atmosphere global climate model LMDzT-INCA is used to forecast global dust fields. Evaluation is undertaken in retrospective for the forecast results of the year 2006. For this purpose AERONET/Photons sites in Northern Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula are chosen where aerosol optical depth is dominated by dust. Despite its coarse resolution, the model captures 48% of the day to day dust variability near Dakar on the initial day of the forecast. On weekly and monthly scale the model captures respectively 62% and 68% of the variability. Correlation coefficients between daily AOD values observed and modelled at Dakar decrease from 0.69 for the initial forecast day to 0.59 and 0.41 respectively for two days ahead and five days ahead. If one requests that the model should be able to issue a warning for an exceedance of aerosol optical depth of 0.5 and issue no warning in the other cases, then the model was wrong in 29% of the cases for day 0, 32% for day 2 and 35% for day 5. A reanalysis run with archived ECMWF winds is only slightly better (r=0.71) but was in error in 25% of the cases. Both the improved simulation of the monthly versus daily variability and the deterioration of the forecast with time can be explained by model failure to simulate the exact timing of a dust event.

  3. An artificial neural network model for rainfall forecasting in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Q. Hung

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach using an Artificial Neural Network technique to improve rainfall forecast performance. A real world case study was set up in Bangkok; 4 years of hourly data from 75 rain gauge stations in the area were used to develop the ANN model. The developed ANN model is being applied for real time rainfall forecasting and flood management in Bangkok, Thailand. Aimed at providing forecasts in a near real time schedule, different network types were tested with different kinds of input information. Preliminary tests showed that a generalized feedforward ANN model using hyperbolic tangent transfer function achieved the best generalization of rainfall. Especially, the use of a combination of meteorological parameters (relative humidity, air pressure, wet bulb temperature and cloudiness, the rainfall at the point of forecasting and rainfall at the surrounding stations, as an input data, advanced ANN model to apply with continuous data containing rainy and non-rainy period, allowed model to issue forecast at any moment. Additionally, forecasts by ANN model were compared to the convenient approach namely simple persistent method. Results show that ANN forecasts have superiority over the ones obtained by the persistent model. Rainfall forecasts for Bangkok from 1 to 3 h ahead were highly satisfactory. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the most important input parameter besides rainfall itself is the wet bulb temperature in forecasting rainfall.

  4. Forecasting Housing Approvals in Australia: Do Forecasters Herd?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Rülke

    2012-01-01

    Price trends in housing markets may reflect herding of market participants. A natural question is whether such herding, to the extent that it occurred, reflects herding in forecasts of professional forecasters. Using more than 6,000 forecasts of housing approvals for Australia, we did not find...

  5. Application of seasonal rainfall forecasts and satellite rainfall observations to crop yield forecasting for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatrex, H. L.; Grimes, D. I. F.; Wheeler, T. R.

    2009-04-01

    Rain-fed agriculture is of utmost importance in sub-Saharan Africa; the FAO estimates that over 90% of food consumed in the region is grown in rain-fed farming systems. As the climate in sub-Saharan Africa has a high interannual variability, this dependence on rainfall can leave communities extremely vulnerable to food shortages, especially when coupled with a lack of crop management options. The ability to make a regional forecast of crop yield on a timescale of months would be of enormous benefit; it would enable both governmental and non-governmental organisations to be alerted in advance to crop failure and could facilitate national and regional economic planning. Such a system would also enable individual communities to make more informed crop management decisions, increasing their resilience to climate variability and change. It should be noted that the majority of crops in the region are rainfall limited, therefore the ability to create a seasonal crop forecast depends on the ability to forecast rainfall at a monthly or seasonal timescale and to temporally downscale this to a daily time-series of rainfall. The aim of this project is to develop a regional-scale seasonal forecast for sub-Saharan crops, utilising the General Large Area Model for annual crops (GLAM). GLAM would initially be driven using both dynamical and statistical seasonal rainfall forecasts to provide an initial estimate of crop yield. The system would then be continuously updated throughout the season by replacing the seasonal rainfall forecast with daily weather observations. TAMSAT satellite rainfall estimates are used rather than rain-gauge data due to the scarcity of ground based observations. An important feature of the system is the use of the geo-statistical method of sequential simulation to create an ensemble of daily weather inputs from both the statistical seasonal rainfall forecasts and the satellite rainfall estimates. This allows a range of possible yield outputs to be

  6. Analysis and Modeling for Short- to Medium-Term Load Forecasting Using a Hybrid Manifold Learning Principal Component Model and Comparison with Classical Statistical Models (SARIMAX, Exponential Smoothing and Artificial Intelligence Models (ANN, SVM: The Case of Greek Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P. Papaioannou

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work we propose a new hybrid model, a combination of the manifold learning Principal Components (PC technique and the traditional multiple regression (PC-regression, for short and medium-term forecasting of daily, aggregated, day-ahead, electricity system-wide load in the Greek Electricity Market for the period 2004–2014. PC-regression is shown to effectively capture the intraday, intraweek and annual patterns of load. We compare our model with a number of classical statistical approaches (Holt-Winters exponential smoothing of its generalizations Error-Trend-Seasonal, ETS models, the Seasonal Autoregressive Moving Average with exogenous variables, Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with eXogenous (SARIMAX model as well as with the more sophisticated artificial intelligence models, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN and Support Vector Machines (SVM. Using a number of criteria for measuring the quality of the generated in-and out-of-sample forecasts, we have concluded that the forecasts of our hybrid model outperforms the ones generated by the other model, with the SARMAX model being the next best performing approach, giving comparable results. Our approach contributes to studies aimed at providing more accurate and reliable load forecasting, prerequisites for an efficient management of modern power systems.

  7. Comparison of the Tritium permeated from ITER Blanket in normal operation and its short range impact of HT over France, Swiss or Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, P.; Velarde, M.; Ardao, J.; Perlado, J.; Sedano, L.; Xiberta, J.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we assumes the hydrogen isotopes permeation from a liquid metal ITER breeder blanket (assuming normal operation and a LM as DCLL or HCLL blanket) as one of the possible sources of a leak and tritium release,mainly but not only. The paper presents a short range low impact of HT gas activity over France, Swiss or Spain from same cases in 2014 and 2015 releases from ITER. The permeation of hydrogen isotopes is an important experimental issue to take into account into the development of a Tritium Breeder Module for ITER [1]. Tritium cannot be confined -without an uncertainty of 5% in the flux permeation- and therefore HT can be detected (e.g. by ionization chamber) as permeates though the structure of RAFM steel towards the coolant [1]. HT from Pb15.7Li and permeated in Eurofer97 can contaminate the other parts of the system and may be delivered though the normal-vent detritiation system (NVDS). Real time forecast of transport of tritium in air from the fusion reactor towards off-site far downwind though extended tritium clouds into the low levels of the atmosphere is calculated for the short range (up to 24 hours) by the coupling of 2 models the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) [2] model and the FLEXPART lagrangian dispersion model [3] verified with NORMTRI simulation [4] and implemented in many different cases and scenarios [5, 6, 7]. As a function of daily weather conditions the release will affect just France or already can be delivered towards Swiss when cyclonic circulation, or towards the Iberian Peninsula or Balearic Islands (Spain) when high produce anticyclonic circulation of the air over the Mediterranean Sea. (Author)

  8. Forecasting freight flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Trade patterns and transport markets are changing as a result of the growth and globalization of international trade, and forecasting future freight flow has to rely on trade forecasts. Forecasting freight flows is critical for matching infrastructure supply to demand and for assessing investment...... constitute a valuable input to freight models for forecasting future capacity problems.......Trade patterns and transport markets are changing as a result of the growth and globalization of international trade, and forecasting future freight flow has to rely on trade forecasts. Forecasting freight flows is critical for matching infrastructure supply to demand and for assessing investment...

  9. Time series modelling and forecasting of emergency department overcrowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Farid; Harrou, Fouzi; Chaabane, Sondès; Tahon, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Efficient management of patient flow (demand) in emergency departments (EDs) has become an urgent issue for many hospital administrations. Today, more and more attention is being paid to hospital management systems to optimally manage patient flow and to improve management strategies, efficiency and safety in such establishments. To this end, EDs require significant human and material resources, but unfortunately these are limited. Within such a framework, the ability to accurately forecast demand in emergency departments has considerable implications for hospitals to improve resource allocation and strategic planning. The aim of this study was to develop models for forecasting daily attendances at the hospital emergency department in Lille, France. The study demonstrates how time-series analysis can be used to forecast, at least in the short term, demand for emergency services in a hospital emergency department. The forecasts were based on daily patient attendances at the paediatric emergency department in Lille regional hospital centre, France, from January 2012 to December 2012. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) method was applied separately to each of the two GEMSA categories and total patient attendances. Time-series analysis was shown to provide a useful, readily available tool for forecasting emergency department demand.

  10. Net load forecasting for high renewable energy penetration grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Nonnenmacher, Lukas; Coimbra, Carlos F.M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss methods for net load forecasting and their significance for operation and management of power grids with high renewable energy penetration. Net load forecasting is an enabling technology for the integration of microgrid fleets with the macrogrid. Net load represents the load that is traded between the grids (microgrid and utility grid). It is important for resource allocation and electricity market participation at the point of common coupling between the interconnected grids. We compare two inherently different approaches: additive and integrated net load forecast models. The proposed methodologies are validated on a microgrid with 33% annual renewable energy (solar) penetration. A heuristics based solar forecasting technique is proposed, achieving skill of 24.20%. The integrated solar and load forecasting model outperforms the additive model by 10.69% and the uncertainty range for the additive model is larger than the integrated model by 2.2%. Thus, for grid applications an integrated forecast model is recommended. We find that the net load forecast errors and the solar forecasting errors are cointegrated with a common stochastic drift. This is useful for future planning and modeling because the solar energy time-series allows to infer important features of the net load time-series, such as expected variability and uncertainty. - Highlights: • Net load forecasting methods for grids with renewable energy generation are discussed. • Integrated solar and load forecasting outperforms the additive model by 10.69%. • Net load forecasting reduces the uncertainty between the interconnected grids.

  11. Extrapolating from an Inquiry into Curricular Issues Concerning the Adoption of English as Medium of Instruction in a Japanese University Situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toh, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Japanese universities have lately begun to teach academic content in English instead of Japanese. In this article, I examine curricular and ideological issues related to having English as a medium of instruction (EMI) at a Japanese university before examining their links to larger cultural-political forces in Japan, including neoconservative…

  12. Inclusion of routine wind and turbulence forecasts in the Savannah River Plant's emergency response capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, M.M.; Gilhousen, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant's emergency response computer system was improved by the implementation of automatic forecasts of wind and turbulence for periods up to 30 hours. The forecasts include wind direction, wind speed, and horizontal and vertical turbulence intensity at 10, 91, and 243 m above ground for the SRP area, and were obtained by using the Model Output Statistics (MOS) technique. A technique was developed and tested to use the 30-hour MOS forecasts of wind and turbulence issued twice daily from the National Weather Service at Suitland, Maryland, into SRP's emergency response program. The technique for combining MOS forecasts, persistence, and adjusted-MOS forecast is used to generate good forecasts any time of day. Wind speed and turbulence forecasts have been shown to produce smaller root mean square errors (RMSE) than forecasts of persistence for time periods over about two hours. For wind direction, the adjusted-MOS forecasts produce smaller RMSE than persistence for times greater than four hours

  13. AMSR2 all-sky radiance assimilation and its impact on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy with a limited-area data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to assimilate all-sky radiances from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2 was developed within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model's data assimilation (WRFDA system. The four essential elements are: (1 extending the community radiative transform model's (CRTM interface to include hydrometeor profiles; (2 using total water Qt as the moisture control variable; (3 using a warm-rain physics scheme for partitioning the Qt increment into individual increments of water vapour, cloud liquid water and rain; and (4 adopting a symmetric observation error model for all-sky radiance assimilation.Compared to a benchmark experiment with no AMSR2 data, the impact of assimilating clear-sky or all-sky AMSR2 radiances on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy (2012 was assessed through analysis/forecast cycling experiments using WRF and WRFDA's three-dimensional variational (3DVAR data assimilation scheme. With more cloud/precipitation-affected data being assimilated around tropical cyclone (TC core areas in the all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiment, better analyses were obtained in terms of the TC's central sea level pressure (CSLP, warm-core structure and cloud distribution. Substantial (>20 % error reduction in track and CSLP forecasts was achieved from both clear-sky and all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiments, and this improvement was consistent from the analysis time to 72-h forecasts. Moreover, the all-sky assimilation experiment consistently yielded better track and CSLP forecasts than the clear-sky did for all forecast lead times, due to a better analysis in the TC core areas. Positive forecast impact from assimilating AMSR2 radiances is also seen when verified against the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analysis and the Stage IV precipitation analysis, with an overall larger positive impact from the all-sky assimilation experiment.

  14. Regional corrections and checking the reliability of geomagnetic forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'eva, V.I.; Shevnin, A.D.

    1978-01-01

    Regional corrections of the K index mark estimate with respect to the Moskva observatory are reviewed in order to improve the short-range forecast of the geomagnetic activity and to promote it within the aqua area. The forecasts of the storms of all categories and weak perturbations have been verified for the predominant days in the catalogue of the magnetic storms family. It is shown that the adopted methods of forecasts yield considerably good results for weak perturbations as well as for weak and moderate magnetic storms. Strong and very strong storms are less predictable

  15. International Aftershock Forecasting: Lessons from the Gorkha Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, A. J.; Blanpied, M. L.; Brady, S. R.; van der Elst, N.; Hardebeck, J.; Mayberry, G. C.; Page, M. T.; Smoczyk, G. M.; Wein, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Following the M7.8 Gorhka, Nepal, earthquake of April 25, 2015 the USGS issued a series of aftershock forecasts. The initial impetus for these forecasts was a request from the USAID Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance to support their Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) which coordinated US Government disaster response, including search and rescue, with the Government of Nepal. Because of the possible utility of the forecasts to people in the region and other response teams, the USGS released these forecasts publicly through the USGS Earthquake Program web site. The initial forecast used the Reasenberg and Jones (Science, 1989) model with generic parameters developed for active deep continental regions based on the Garcia et al. (BSSA, 2012) tectonic regionalization. These were then updated to reflect a lower productivity and higher decay rate based on the observed aftershocks, although relying on teleseismic observations, with a high magnitude-of-completeness, limited the amount of data. After the 12 May M7.3 aftershock, the forecasts used an Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model to better characterize the multiple sources of earthquake clustering. This model provided better estimates of aftershock uncertainty. These forecast messages were crafted based on lessons learned from the Christchurch earthquake along with input from the U.S. Embassy staff in Kathmandu. Challenges included how to balance simple messaging with forecasts over a variety of time periods (week, month, and year), whether to characterize probabilities with words such as those suggested by the IPCC (IPCC, 2010), how to word the messages in a way that would translate accurately into Nepali and not alarm the public, and how to present the probabilities of unlikely but possible large and potentially damaging aftershocks, such as the M7.3 event, which had an estimated probability of only 1-in-200 for the week in which it occurred.

  16. The Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP). A Public/Private Partnership for Improving Short Term Wind Energy Forecasts and Quantifying the Benefits of Utility Operations -- the Northern Study Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Cathy [WindLogics, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2014-04-30

    This report contains the results from research aimed at improving short-range (0-6 hour) hub-height wind forecasts in the NOAA weather forecast models through additional data assimilation and model physics improvements for use in wind energy forecasting. Additional meteorological observing platforms including wind profilers, sodars, and surface stations were deployed for this study by NOAA and DOE, and additional meteorological data at or near wind turbine hub height were provided by South Dakota State University and WindLogics/NextEra Energy Resources over a large geographical area in the U.S. Northern Plains for assimilation into NOAA research weather forecast models. The resulting improvements in wind energy forecasts based on the research weather forecast models (with the additional data assimilation and model physics improvements) were examined in many different ways and compared with wind energy forecasts based on the current operational weather forecast models to quantify the forecast improvements important to power grid system operators and wind plant owners/operators participating in energy markets. Two operational weather forecast models (OP_RUC, OP_RAP) and two research weather forecast models (ESRL_RAP, HRRR) were used as the base wind forecasts for generating several different wind power forecasts for the NextEra Energy wind plants in the study area. Power forecasts were generated from the wind forecasts in a variety of ways, from very simple to quite sophisticated, as they might be used by a wide range of both general users and commercial wind energy forecast vendors. The error characteristics of each of these types of forecasts were examined and quantified using bulk error statistics for both the local wind plant and the system aggregate forecasts. The wind power forecast accuracy was also evaluated separately for high-impact wind energy ramp events. The overall bulk error statistics calculated over the first six hours of the forecasts at both the

  17. Types of Forecast and Weather-Related Information Used among Tourism Businesses in Coastal North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayscue, Emily P.

    This study profiles the coastal tourism sector, a large and diverse consumer of climate and weather information. It is crucial to provide reliable, accurate and relevant resources for the climate and weather-sensitive portions of this stakeholder group in order to guide them in capitalizing on current climate and weather conditions and to prepare them for potential changes. An online survey of tourism business owners, managers and support specialists was conducted within the eight North Carolina oceanfront counties asking respondents about forecasts they use and for what purposes as well as why certain forecasts are not used. Respondents were also asked about their perceived dependency of their business on climate and weather as well as how valuable different forecasts are to their decision-making. Business types represented include: Agriculture, Outdoor Recreation, Accommodations, Food Services, Parks and Heritage, and Other. Weekly forecasts were the most popular forecasts with Monthly and Seasonal being the least used. MANOVA and ANOVA analyses revealed outdoor-oriented businesses (Agriculture and Outdoor Recreation) as perceiving themselves significantly more dependent on climate and weather than indoor-oriented ones (Food Services and Accommodations). Outdoor businesses also valued short-range forecasts significantly more than indoor businesses. This suggests a positive relationship between perceived climate and weather dependency and forecast value. The low perceived dependency and value of short-range forecasts of indoor businesses presents an opportunity to create climate and weather information resources directed at how they can capitalize on positive climate and weather forecasts and how to counter negative effects with forecasted adverse conditions. The low use of long-range forecasts among all business types can be related to the low value placed on these forecasts. However, these forecasts are still important in that they are used to make more

  18. Long range dependency and forecasting of housing price index and mortgage market rate: evidence of subprime crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadhem Selmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine and forecast the House Price Index (HPI and mortgage market rate in terms of the description of the subprime crisis. We use a semi-parametric local polynomial Whittle estimator proposed by Shimotsu et al. (2005 [Shimotsu, K., & Phillips, P.C.B. (2005, Exact local Whittle estimation of fractional integration. The Annals of Statistics, 33(4, 1890-1933.] in a long memory parameter time series. Empirical investigation of HPI and mortgage market rate shows that these variables are more persistent when the d estimates are found on the Shimotsu method than on the one of Künsch (1987 [Künsch, H.R. (1987. Statistical aspects of self-similar processes. In Y. Prokhorov and V.V. Sazanov (eds., Proceedings of the First World Congress of the Bernoulli Society, VNU Science Press, Utrecht, 67-74.]. The estimating forecast values are more realistic and they strongly reflect the present US economy actuality in the two series as indicated by the forecast evaluation topics.

  19. Objective Identification of Environmental Patterns Related to Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Errors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanabia, Elizabeth R

    2006-01-01

    The increase in skill of numerical model guidance and the use of consensus forecast techniques have led to significant improvements in the accuracy of tropical cyclone track forecasts at ranges beyond 72 hours...

  20. Substitution Structures of Large Molecules and Medium Range Correlations in Quantum Chemistry Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelisti, Luca; Pate, Brooks

    2017-06-01

    A study of the minimally exciting topic of agreement between experimental and measured rotational constants of molecules was performed on a set of large molecules with 16-18 heavy atoms (carbon and oxygen). The molecules are: nootkatone (C_{15}H_{22}O), cedrol (C_{15}H_{26}O), ambroxide (C_{16}H_{28}O), sclareolide (C_{16}H_{22}O_{2}), and dihydroartemisinic acid (C_{15}H_{24}O_{2}). For this set of molecules we obtained 13C-subsitution structures for six molecules (this includes two conformers of nootkatone). A comparison of theoretical structures and experimental substitution structures was performed in the spirit of the recent work of Grimme and Steinmetz.[1] Our analysis focused the center-of-mass distance of the carbon atoms in the molecules. Four different computational methods were studied: standard DFT (B3LYP), dispersion corrected DFT (B3LYP-D3BJ), hybrid DFT with dispersion correction (B2PLYP-D3), and MP2. A significant difference in these theories is how they handle medium range correlation of electrons that produce dispersion forces. For larger molecules, these dispersion forces produce an overall contraction of the molecule around the center-of-mass. DFT poorly treats this effect and produces structures that are too expanded. MP2 calculations overestimate the correction and produce structures that are too compact. Both dispersion corrected DFT methods produce structures in excellent agreement with experiment. The analysis shows that the difference in computational methods can be described by a linear error in the center-of-mass distance. This makes it possible to correct poorer performing calculations with a single scale factor. We also reexamine the issue of the "Costain error" in substitution structures and show that it is significantly larger in these systems than in the smaller molecules used by Costain to establish the error limits. [1] Stefan Grimme and Marc Steinmetz, "Effects of London dispersion correction in density functional theory on

  1. A Diagnostics Tool to detect ensemble forecast system anomaly and guide operational decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G. H.; Srivastava, A.; Shrestha, E.; Thiemann, M.; Day, G. N.; Draijer, S.

    2017-12-01

    The hydrologic community is moving toward using ensemble forecasts to take uncertainty into account during the decision-making process. The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) implements several types of ensemble forecasts in their decision-making process: ensemble products for a statistical model (Hirsch and enhanced Hirsch); the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service (AHPS) forecasts based on the classical Ensemble Streamflow Prediction (ESP) technique; and the new NWS Hydrologic Ensemble Forecasting Service (HEFS) forecasts. To remove structural error and apply the forecasts to additional forecast points, the DEP post processes both the AHPS and the HEFS forecasts. These ensemble forecasts provide mass quantities of complex data, and drawing conclusions from these forecasts is time-consuming and difficult. The complexity of these forecasts also makes it difficult to identify system failures resulting from poor data, missing forecasts, and server breakdowns. To address these issues, we developed a diagnostic tool that summarizes ensemble forecasts and provides additional information such as historical forecast statistics, forecast skill, and model forcing statistics. This additional information highlights the key information that enables operators to evaluate the forecast in real-time, dynamically interact with the data, and review additional statistics, if needed, to make better decisions. We used Bokeh, a Python interactive visualization library, and a multi-database management system to create this interactive tool. This tool compiles and stores data into HTML pages that allows operators to readily analyze the data with built-in user interaction features. This paper will present a brief description of the ensemble forecasts, forecast verification results, and the intended applications for the diagnostic tool.

  2. Forecasting Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    for the third and fourth day precipitation forecasts. A marked improvement was shown for the consensus 24 hour precipitation forecast, and small... Zuckerberg (1980) found a small long term skill increase in forecasts of heavy snow events for nine eastern cities. Other National Weather Service...and maximum temperature) are each awarded marks 2, 1, or 0 according to whether the forecast is correct, 8 - *- -**■*- ———"—- - -■ t0m 1 MM—IB I

  3. Evaluating information in multiple horizon forecasts. The DOE's energy price forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Dwight R.; Manfredo, Mark R.; Boris, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy's (DOE) quarterly price forecasts for energy commodities are examined to determine the incremental information provided at the one-through four-quarter forecast horizons. A direct test for determining information content at alternative forecast horizons, developed by Vuchelen and Gutierrez [Vuchelen, J. and Gutierrez, M.-I. 'A Direct Test of the Information Content of the OECD Growth Forecasts.' International Journal of Forecasting. 21(2005):103-117.], is used. The results suggest that the DOE's price forecasts for crude oil, gasoline, and diesel fuel do indeed provide incremental information out to three-quarters ahead, while natural gas and electricity forecasts are informative out to the four-quarter horizon. In contrast, the DOE's coal price forecasts at two-, three-, and four-quarters ahead provide no incremental information beyond that provided for the one-quarter horizon. Recommendations of how to use these results for making forecast adjustments is also provided. (author)

  4. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lilai; Gao, Peiqing; Cui, Shenghui; Liu, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  5. A hybrid procedure for MSW generation forecasting at multiple time scales in Xiamen City, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lilai, E-mail: llxu@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Gao, Peiqing, E-mail: peiqing15@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China); Cui, Shenghui, E-mail: shcui@iue.ac.cn [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1799 Jimei Road, Xiamen 361021 (China); Xiamen Key Lab of Urban Metabolism, Xiamen 361021 (China); Liu, Chun, E-mail: xmhwlc@yahoo.com.cn [Xiamen City Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Management Office, 51 Hexiangxi Road, Xiamen 361004 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► We propose a hybrid model that combines seasonal SARIMA model and grey system theory. ► The model is robust at multiple time scales with the anticipated accuracy. ► At month-scale, the SARIMA model shows good representation for monthly MSW generation. ► At medium-term time scale, grey relational analysis could yield the MSW generation. ► At long-term time scale, GM (1, 1) provides a basic scenario of MSW generation. - Abstract: Accurate forecasting of municipal solid waste (MSW) generation is crucial and fundamental for the planning, operation and optimization of any MSW management system. Comprehensive information on waste generation for month-scale, medium-term and long-term time scales is especially needed, considering the necessity of MSW management upgrade facing many developing countries. Several existing models are available but of little use in forecasting MSW generation at multiple time scales. The goal of this study is to propose a hybrid model that combines the seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model and grey system theory to forecast MSW generation at multiple time scales without needing to consider other variables such as demographics and socioeconomic factors. To demonstrate its applicability, a case study of Xiamen City, China was performed. Results show that the model is robust enough to fit and forecast seasonal and annual dynamics of MSW generation at month-scale, medium- and long-term time scales with the desired accuracy. In the month-scale, MSW generation in Xiamen City will peak at 132.2 thousand tonnes in July 2015 – 1.5 times the volume in July 2010. In the medium term, annual MSW generation will increase to 1518.1 thousand tonnes by 2015 at an average growth rate of 10%. In the long term, a large volume of MSW will be output annually and will increase to 2486.3 thousand tonnes by 2020 – 2.5 times the value for 2010. The hybrid model proposed in this paper can enable decision makers to

  6. Impact of onsite solar generation on system load demand forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Amanpreet; Pedro, Hugo T.C.; Coimbra, Carlos F.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We showed the impact onsite solar generation on system demand load forecast. • Forecast performance degrades by 9% and 3% for 1 h and 15 min forecast horizons. • Error distribution for onsite case is best characterized as t-distribution. • Relation between error, solar penetration and solar variability is characterized. - Abstract: Net energy metering tariffs have encouraged the growth of solar PV in the distribution grid. The additional variability associated with weather-dependent renewable energy creates new challenges for power system operators that must maintain and operate ancillary services to balance the grid. To deal with these issues power operators mostly rely on demand load forecasts. Electric load forecast has been used in power industry for a long time and there are several well established load forecasting models. But the performance of these models for future scenario of high renewable energy penetration is unclear. In this work, the impact of onsite solar power generation on the demand load forecast is analyzed for a community that meets between 10% and 15% of its annual power demand and 3–54% of its daily power demand from a solar power plant. Short-Term Load Forecasts (STLF) using persistence, machine learning and regression-based forecasting models are presented for two cases: (1) high solar penetration and (2) no penetration. Results show that for 1-h and 15-min forecasts the accuracy of the models drops by 9% and 3% with high solar penetration. Statistical analysis of the forecast errors demonstrate that the error distribution is best characterized as a t-distribution for the high penetration scenario. Analysis of the error distribution as a function of daily solar penetration for different levels of variability revealed that the solar power variability drives the forecast error magnitude whereas increasing penetration level has a much smaller contribution. This work concludes that the demand forecast error distribution

  7. Frost Monitoring and Forecasting Using MODIS Land Surface Temperature Data and a Numerical Weather Prediction Model Forecasts for Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabuchanga, Eric; Flores, Africa; Malaso, Susan; Mungai, John; Sakwa, Vincent; Shaka, Ayub; Limaye, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    Frost is a major challenge across Eastern Africa, severely impacting agricultural farms. Frost damages have wide ranging economic implications on tea and coffee farms, which represent a major economic sector. Early monitoring and forecasting will enable farmers to take preventive actions to minimize the losses. Although clearly important, timely information on when to protect crops from freezing is relatively limited. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data, derived from NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and 72-hr weather forecasts from the Kenya Meteorological Service's operational Weather Research Forecast model are enabling the Regional Center for Mapping of Resources for Development (RCMRD) and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to provide timely information to farmers in the region. This presentation will highlight an ongoing collaboration among the Kenya Meteorological Service, RCMRD, and the Tea Research Foundation of Kenya to identify frost events and provide farmers with potential frost forecasts in Eastern Africa.

  8. Support Vector Regression Model Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition and Auto Regression for Electric Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Juan Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric load forecasting is an important issue for a power utility, associated with the management of daily operations such as energy transfer scheduling, unit commitment, and load dispatch. Inspired by strong non-linear learning capability of support vector regression (SVR, this paper presents a SVR model hybridized with the empirical mode decomposition (EMD method and auto regression (AR for electric load forecasting. The electric load data of the New South Wales (Australia market are employed for comparing the forecasting performances of different forecasting models. The results confirm the validity of the idea that the proposed model can simultaneously provide forecasting with good accuracy and interpretability.

  9. National Forecast Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    code. Press enter or select the go button to submit request Local forecast by "City, St" or Prediction Center on Twitter NCEP Quarterly Newsletter WPC Home Analyses and Forecasts National Forecast to all federal, state, and local government web resources and services. National Forecast Charts

  10. Monthly streamflow forecasting at varying spatial scales in the Rhine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Simon; Rössler, Ole; Weingartner, Rolf

    2018-02-01

    Model output statistics (MOS) methods can be used to empirically relate an environmental variable of interest to predictions from earth system models (ESMs). This variable often belongs to a spatial scale not resolved by the ESM. Here, using the linear model fitted by least squares, we regress monthly mean streamflow of the Rhine River at Lobith and Basel against seasonal predictions of precipitation, surface air temperature, and runoff from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. To address potential effects of a scale mismatch between the ESM's horizontal grid resolution and the hydrological application, the MOS method is further tested with an experiment conducted at the subcatchment scale. This experiment applies the MOS method to 133 additional gauging stations located within the Rhine basin and combines the forecasts from the subcatchments to predict streamflow at Lobith and Basel. In doing so, the MOS method is tested for catchments areas covering 4 orders of magnitude. Using data from the period 1981-2011, the results show that skill, with respect to climatology, is restricted on average to the first month ahead. This result holds for both the predictor combination that mimics the initial conditions and the predictor combinations that additionally include the dynamical seasonal predictions. The latter, however, reduce the mean absolute error of the former in the range of 5 to 12 %, which is consistently reproduced at the subcatchment scale. An additional experiment conducted for 5-day mean streamflow indicates that the dynamical predictions help to reduce uncertainties up to about 20 days ahead, but it also reveals some shortcomings of the present MOS method.

  11. Refined Diebold-Mariano Test Methods for the Evaluation of Wind Power Forecasting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Chen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The scientific evaluation methodology for the forecast accuracy of wind power forecasting models is an important issue in the domain of wind power forecasting. However, traditional forecast evaluation criteria, such as Mean Squared Error (MSE and Mean Absolute Error (MAE, have limitations in application to some degree. In this paper, a modern evaluation criterion, the Diebold-Mariano (DM test, is introduced. The DM test can discriminate the significant differences of forecasting accuracy between different models based on the scheme of quantitative analysis. Furthermore, the augmented DM test with rolling windows approach is proposed to give a more strict forecasting evaluation. By extending the loss function to an asymmetric structure, the asymmetric DM test is proposed. Case study indicates that the evaluation criteria based on DM test can relieve the influence of random sample disturbance. Moreover, the proposed augmented DM test can provide more evidence when the cost of changing models is expensive, and the proposed asymmetric DM test can add in the asymmetric factor, and provide practical evaluation of wind power forecasting models. It is concluded that the two refined DM tests can provide reference to the comprehensive evaluation for wind power forecasting models.

  12. Forecasting telecommunication new service demand by analogy method and combined forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Feng-Jenq

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modeling forecast field, we are usually faced with the more difficult problems of forecasting market demand for a new service or product. A new service or product is defined as that there is absence of historical data in this new market. We hardly use models to execute the forecasting work directly. In the Taiwan telecommunication industry, after liberalization in 1996, there are many new services opened continually. For optimal investment, it is necessary that the operators, who have been granted the concessions and licenses, forecast this new service within their planning process. Though there are some methods to solve or avoid this predicament, in this paper, we will propose one forecasting procedure that integrates the concept of analogy method and the idea of combined forecast to generate new service forecast. In view of the above, the first half of this paper describes the procedure of analogy method and the approach of combined forecast, and the second half provides the case of forecasting low-tier phone demand in Taiwan to illustrate this procedure's feasibility.

  13. Essays in real-time forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Liebermann, Joelle

    2012-01-01

    This thesis contains three essays in the field of real-time econometrics, and more particularlyforecasting.The issue of using data as available in real-time to forecasters, policymakers or financialmarkets is an important one which has only recently been taken on board in the empiricalliterature. Data available and used in real-time are preliminary and differ from ex-postrevised data, and given that data revisions may be quite substantial, the use of latestavailable instead of real-time can s...

  14. Forecasting Social Unrest Using Activity Cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Jose; Korkmaz, Gizem; Kuhlman, Chris J; Marathe, Achla; Ramakrishnan, Naren; Vullikanti, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011) to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen "on the ground." Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  15. Forecasting Social Unrest Using Activity Cascades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Cadena

    Full Text Available Social unrest is endemic in many societies, and recent news has drawn attention to happenings in Latin America, the Middle East, and Eastern Europe. Civilian populations mobilize, sometimes spontaneously and sometimes in an organized manner, to raise awareness of key issues or to demand changes in governing or other organizational structures. It is of key interest to social scientists and policy makers to forecast civil unrest using indicators observed on media such as Twitter, news, and blogs. We present an event forecasting model using a notion of activity cascades in Twitter (proposed by Gonzalez-Bailon et al., 2011 to predict the occurrence of protests in three countries of Latin America: Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. The basic assumption is that the emergence of a suitably detected activity cascade is a precursor or a surrogate to a real protest event that will happen "on the ground." Our model supports the theoretical characterization of large cascades using spectral properties and uses properties of detected cascades to forecast events. Experimental results on many datasets, including the recent June 2013 protests in Brazil, demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  16. Simulation of Flash-Flood-Producing Storm Events in Saudi Arabia Using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Liping

    2015-05-01

    The challenges of monitoring and forecasting flash-flood-producing storm events in data-sparse and arid regions are explored using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model (version 3.5) in conjunction with a range of available satellite, in situ, and reanalysis data. Here, we focus on characterizing the initial synoptic features and examining the impact of model parameterization and resolution on the reproduction of a number of flood-producing rainfall events that occurred over the western Saudi Arabian city of Jeddah. Analysis from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis (ERA-Interim) data suggests that mesoscale convective systems associated with strong moisture convergence ahead of a trough were the major initial features for the occurrence of these intense rain events. The WRF Model was able to simulate the heavy rainfall, with driving convective processes well characterized by a high-resolution cloud-resolving model. The use of higher (1 km vs 5 km) resolution along the Jeddah coastline favors the simulation of local convective systems and adds value to the simulation of heavy rainfall, especially for deep-convection-related extreme values. At the 5-km resolution, corresponding to an intermediate study domain, simulation without a cumulus scheme led to the formation of deeper convective systems and enhanced rainfall around Jeddah, illustrating the need for careful model scheme selection in this transition resolution. In analysis of multiple nested WRF simulations (25, 5, and 1 km), localized volume and intensity of heavy rainfall together with the duration of rainstorms within the Jeddah catchment area were captured reasonably well, although there was evidence of some displacements of rainstorm events.

  17. Insights from a history of seasonal inflow forecasting with a conceptual hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Donald J.

    2001-08-01

    BC Hydro has used a conceptual hydrologic model for forecasting the seasonal inflows to its Mica project, on the Columbia River, for more than 20 years. The model estimates the snowpack on the forecast date using recently observed weather data and then calculates the runoff response to approximately 30 historical weather sequences over the remainder of the year. The ensemble of equally likely seasonal inflows makes up the forecast. Forecasts are issued as of the first of each month from January to August. The same model and modeller have made all of such forecasts for the Mica project. While some may see this as a failure to progress, others may see it as an unique opportunity to learn how well an older hydrologic model has performed, in practice, over the long term. Comments on both perspectives are offered, after the analyses of the forecasts have been presented. The forecasts have been analysed, as of each of the monthly forecast dates, to determine the accuracy of the mean and to establish any differences between ex post and ex ante measures of uncertainty. Results are then compared with those from a regression model that has also been used for forecasting the seasonal inflows to the Mica project over the same period of record.

  18. Review and forecast: Making hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, R.

    1997-01-01

    Oil and natural gas industry prospects for 1997 were reviewed. By way of providing the foundation for a very favorable forecast, a wide range of indicators of a banner year in 1996 were assembled and provided in tabular form. Some 28 tables of statistical data provide insight into the reasons for an optimistic forecast for 1997. Statistics on oil and gas production, industry expenditures, exploratory well completions, costs per barrel of oil, estimates of supply and demand for petroleum products, gas liquid production, petrochemical and fertilizer production, sulfur production, drilling statistics, natural gas sales, gross production revenues and land sales, all attest to a record year in 1996, and provide reasons for a rosy outlook for 1997. 28 tabs

  19. Gulf of Mexico forecasts : the dead sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good Abbott, C.

    1999-01-01

    The future gas supply potential from the offshore Gulf of Mexico region was discussed with particular emphasis on the issue of whether there is enough growth potential to satisfy the anticipated growth in power generation markets. In 1980, a forecasted decrease in gas supply proved to be wrong. In fact, supply actually increased and productivity in the Gulf of Mexico has been relatively stable since 1982. A significant growth has been forecasted for 1997 to 2010. This growth will coincide with a large growth in gas demand in the northeastern U.S. The fact that electric power generation is changing hands adds to the opportunities in the northeast. It was emphasized that Canadian supply must be present to compete. 1 tab., 16 figs

  20. A survey on wind power ramp forecasting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Matias, L.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J. (Decision and Information Sciences); (INESC Porto)

    2011-02-23

    The increasing use of wind power as a source of electricity poses new challenges with regard to both power production and load balance in the electricity grid. This new source of energy is volatile and highly variable. The only way to integrate such power into the grid is to develop reliable and accurate wind power forecasting systems. Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: sub-hourly, hourly, daily, and seasonally. Wind energy, like other electricity sources, must be scheduled. Although wind power forecasting methods are used, the ability to predict wind plant output remains relatively low for short-term operation. Because instantaneous electrical generation and consumption must remain in balance to maintain grid stability, wind power's variability can present substantial challenges when large amounts of wind power are incorporated into a grid system. A critical issue is ramp events, which are sudden and large changes (increases or decreases) in wind power. This report presents an overview of current ramp definitions and state-of-the-art approaches in ramp event forecasting.

  1. Low-energy modes and medium-range correlated motions in Pd79Ge21 alloy glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Kaoru; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenji

    1993-01-01

    It is well known that there are excess modes over the sound wave in low energy region below about 10 meV in glass materials, which do not exist in corresponding crystalline materials. We examined the low energy modes in a Pd 79 Ge 21 alloys glass by means of inelastic neutron scattering. Measurements were performed on the crystal analyzer type time-of-flight spectrometer LAM-40 with PG(002) and Ge(311) analyzer mirror, which is installed at KENS. The dynamic structure factor S(Q,ω) was obtained over the wide momentum range from 0.5 to 5.2A -1 . The measured S(Q,ω)'s have almost same momentum (Q) dependence at each energy (ℎω) in the energy range from 2.0 to 8.0 meV. In the energy region below 3 meV, we found a small shoulder peak at Q = 1.7A -1 in the momentum dependence of S(Q,ω). It corresponds to a prepeak in S(Q). Therefore it is concluded that the low energy modes in Pd 79 Ge 21 alloy glass is mainly contributed from medium-range correlated motions in the cluster consisting of a few chemical short-range structure units of Pd 6 Ge trigonal prism. (author)

  2. Hybridizing DEMD and Quantum PSO with SVR in Electric Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ling Peng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Electric load forecasting is an important issue for a power utility, associated with the management of daily operations such as energy transfer scheduling, unit commitment, and load dispatch. Inspired by strong non-linear learning capability of support vector regression (SVR, this paper presents an SVR model hybridized with the differential empirical mode decomposition (DEMD method and quantum particle swarm optimization algorithm (QPSO for electric load forecasting. The DEMD method is employed to decompose the electric load to several detail parts associated with high frequencies (intrinsic mode function—IMF and an approximate part associated with low frequencies. Hybridized with quantum theory to enhance particle searching performance, the so-called QPSO is used to optimize the parameters of SVR. The electric load data of the New South Wales (Sydney, Australia market and the New York Independent System Operator (NYISO, New York, USA are used for comparing the forecasting performances of different forecasting models. The results illustrate the validity of the idea that the proposed model can simultaneously provide forecasting with good accuracy and interpretability.

  3. Dynamical prediction and pattern mapping in short-term load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguirre, Luis Antonio; Rodrigues, Daniela D.; Lima, Silvio T. [Departamento de Engenharia Eletronica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martinez, Carlos Barreira [Departamento de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos, 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    This work will not put forward yet another scheme for short-term load forecasting but rather will provide evidences that may improve our understanding about fundamental issues which underlay load forecasting problems. In particular, load forecasting will be decomposed into two main problems, namely dynamical prediction and pattern mapping. It is argued that whereas the latter is essentially static and becomes nonlinear when weekly features in the data are taken into account, the former might not be deterministic at all. In such cases there is no determinism (serial correlations) in the data apart from the average cycle and the best a model can do is to perform pattern mapping. Moreover, when there is determinism in addition to the average cycle, the underlying dynamics are sometimes linear, in which case there is no need to resort to nonlinear models to perform dynamical prediction. Such conclusions were confirmed using real load data and surrogate data analysis. In a sense, the paper details and organizes some general beliefs found in the literature on load forecasting. This sheds some light on real model-building and forecasting problems and helps understand some apparently conflicting results reported in the literature. (author)

  4. Forecasting daily patient volumes in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Spencer S; Thomas, Alun; Evans, R Scott; Welch, Shari J; Haug, Peter J; Snow, Gregory L

    2008-02-01

    Shifts in the supply of and demand for emergency department (ED) resources make the efficient allocation of ED resources increasingly important. Forecasting is a vital activity that guides decision-making in many areas of economic, industrial, and scientific planning, but has gained little traction in the health care industry. There are few studies that explore the use of forecasting methods to predict patient volumes in the ED. The goals of this study are to explore and evaluate the use of several statistical forecasting methods to predict daily ED patient volumes at three diverse hospital EDs and to compare the accuracy of these methods to the accuracy of a previously proposed forecasting method. Daily patient arrivals at three hospital EDs were collected for the period January 1, 2005, through March 31, 2007. The authors evaluated the use of seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average, time series regression, exponential smoothing, and artificial neural network models to forecast daily patient volumes at each facility. Forecasts were made for horizons ranging from 1 to 30 days in advance. The forecast accuracy achieved by the various forecasting methods was compared to the forecast accuracy achieved when using a benchmark forecasting method already available in the emergency medicine literature. All time series methods considered in this analysis provided improved in-sample model goodness of fit. However, post-sample analysis revealed that time series regression models that augment linear regression models by accounting for serial autocorrelation offered only small improvements in terms of post-sample forecast accuracy, relative to multiple linear regression models, while seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average, exponential smoothing, and artificial neural network forecasting models did not provide consistently accurate forecasts of daily ED volumes. This study confirms the widely held belief that daily demand for ED services is characterized by

  5. Unsupervised/supervised learning concept for 24-hour load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M [Electrical Engineering Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Babic, B [Electrical Power Industry of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Y -H [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science

    1993-07-01

    An application of artificial neural networks in short-term load forecasting is described. An algorithm using an unsupervised/supervised learning concept and historical relationship between the load and temperature for a given season, day type and hour of the day to forecast hourly electric load with a lead time of 24 hours is proposed. An additional approach using functional link net, temperature variables, average load and last one-hour load of previous day is introduced and compared with the ANN model with one hidden layer load forecast. In spite of limited available weather variables (maximum, minimum and average temperature for the day) quite acceptable results have been achieved. The 24-hour-ahead forecast errors (absolute average) ranged from 2.78% for Saturdays and 3.12% for working days to 3.54% for Sundays. (Author)

  6. Knowing what to expect, forecasting monthly emergency department visits: A time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergs, Jochen; Heerinckx, Philipe; Verelst, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate an automatic forecasting algorithm in order to predict the number of monthly emergency department (ED) visits one year ahead. We collected retrospective data of the number of monthly visiting patients for a 6-year period (2005-2011) from 4 Belgian Hospitals. We used an automated exponential smoothing approach to predict monthly visits during the year 2011 based on the first 5 years of the dataset. Several in- and post-sample forecasting accuracy measures were calculated. The automatic forecasting algorithm was able to predict monthly visits with a mean absolute percentage error ranging from 2.64% to 4.8%, indicating an accurate prediction. The mean absolute scaled error ranged from 0.53 to 0.68 indicating that, on average, the forecast was better compared with in-sample one-step forecast from the naïve method. The applied automated exponential smoothing approach provided useful predictions of the number of monthly visits a year in advance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Verification of high-speed solar wind stream forecasts using operational solar wind models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiss, Martin A.; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid M.

    2016-01-01

    and the background solar wind conditions. We found that both solar wind models are capable of predicting the large-scale features of the observed solar wind speed (root-mean-square error, RMSE ≈100 km/s) but tend to either overestimate (ESWF) or underestimate (WSA) the number of high-speed solar wind streams (threat......High-speed solar wind streams emanating from coronal holes are frequently impinging on the Earth's magnetosphere causing recurrent, medium-level geomagnetic storm activity. Modeling high-speed solar wind streams is thus an essential element of successful space weather forecasting. Here we evaluate...... high-speed stream forecasts made by the empirical solar wind forecast (ESWF) and the semiempirical Wang-Sheeley-Arge (WSA) model based on the in situ plasma measurements from the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft for the years 2011 to 2014. While the ESWF makes use of an empirical relation...

  8. High-resolution simulation and forecasting of Jeddah floods using WRF version 3.5

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Liping

    2013-12-01

    Modeling flash flood events in arid environments is a difficult but important task that has impacts on both water resource related issues and also emergency management and response. The challenge is often related to adequately describing the precursor intense rainfall events that cause these flood responses, as they are generally poorly simulated and forecast. Jeddah, the second largest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has suffered from a number of flash floods over the last decade, following short-intense rainfall events. The research presented here focuses on examining four historic Jeddah flash floods (Nov. 25-26 2009, Dec. 29-30 2010, Jan. 14-15 2011 and Jan. 25-26 2011) and investigates the feasibility of using numerical weather prediction models to achieve a more realistic simulation of these flood-producing rainfall events. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (version 3.5) is used to simulate precipitation and meteorological conditions via a high-resolution inner domain (1-km) around Jeddah. A range of different convective closure and microphysics parameterization, together with high-resolution (4-km) sea surface temperature data are employed. Through examining comparisons between the WRF model output and in-situ, radar and satellite data, the characteristics and mechanism producing the extreme rainfall events are discussed and the capacity of the WRF model to accurately forecast these rainstorms is evaluated.

  9. High-resolution simulation and forecasting of Jeddah floods using WRF version 3.5

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Liping; McCabe, Matthew; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.; Evans, Jason; Kucera, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Modeling flash flood events in arid environments is a difficult but important task that has impacts on both water resource related issues and also emergency management and response. The challenge is often related to adequately describing the precursor intense rainfall events that cause these flood responses, as they are generally poorly simulated and forecast. Jeddah, the second largest city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has suffered from a number of flash floods over the last decade, following short-intense rainfall events. The research presented here focuses on examining four historic Jeddah flash floods (Nov. 25-26 2009, Dec. 29-30 2010, Jan. 14-15 2011 and Jan. 25-26 2011) and investigates the feasibility of using numerical weather prediction models to achieve a more realistic simulation of these flood-producing rainfall events. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model (version 3.5) is used to simulate precipitation and meteorological conditions via a high-resolution inner domain (1-km) around Jeddah. A range of different convective closure and microphysics parameterization, together with high-resolution (4-km) sea surface temperature data are employed. Through examining comparisons between the WRF model output and in-situ, radar and satellite data, the characteristics and mechanism producing the extreme rainfall events are discussed and the capacity of the WRF model to accurately forecast these rainstorms is evaluated.

  10. Maintaining a Local Data Integration System in Support of Weather Forecast Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.; Blottman, Peter F.; Sharp, David W.; Hoeth, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LDIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. Each has benefited from 3-dimensional analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national- or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive and complete understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Recent efforts have been undertaken to update the LDIS through the formal tasking process of NASA's Applied Meteorology Unit. The goals include upgrading LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporating new sources of observational data, and making adjustments to shell scripts written to govern the system. A series of scripts run a complete modeling system consisting of the preprocessing step, the main model integration, and the post-processing step. The preprocessing step prepares the terrain, surface characteristics data sets, and the objective analysis for model initialization. Data ingested through ADAS include (but are not limited to) Level II Weather Surveillance Radar- 1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) data from six Florida radars, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) visible and infrared satellite imagery, surface and upper air observations throughout Florida from NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory/Global Systems Division

  11. Applications of the Chaotic Quantum Genetic Algorithm with Support Vector Regression in Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wen Lee

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate electricity forecasting is still the critical issue in many energy management fields. The applications of hybrid novel algorithms with support vector regression (SVR models to overcome the premature convergence problem and improve forecasting accuracy levels also deserve to be widely explored. This paper applies chaotic function and quantum computing concepts to address the embedded drawbacks including crossover and mutation operations of genetic algorithms. Then, this paper proposes a novel electricity load forecasting model by hybridizing chaotic function and quantum computing with GA in an SVR model (named SVRCQGA to achieve more satisfactory forecasting accuracy levels. Experimental examples demonstrate that the proposed SVRCQGA model is superior to other competitive models.

  12. Telemedicine: licensing and other legal issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Gil

    2011-12-01

    The growth of information technology and telecommunications has created promising opportunities for better, faster, more accessible, barrier-free health care; telemedicine (TM). The feasibility of many TM projects depends on resolving legal issues. Mastering technical issues or providing training remain important benchmarks for implementation of TM, but legal issues constrain progress. This article identifies the key legal issues, maps current legislation, and offers a forecast of necessary steps to expedite the dissemination of TM. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the Effects of Climate Variability on Orange Yield in Florida to Reduce Production Forecast Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha Larrauri, P.

    2015-12-01

    Orange production in Florida has experienced a decline over the past decade. Hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 greatly affected production, almost to the same degree as strong freezes that occurred in the 1980's. The spread of the citrus greening disease after the hurricanes has also contributed to a reduction in orange production in Florida. The occurrence of hurricanes and diseases cannot easily be predicted but the additional effects of climate on orange yield can be studied and incorporated into existing production forecasts that are based on physical surveys, such as the October Citrus forecast issued every year by the USDA. Specific climate variables ocurring before and after the October forecast is issued can have impacts on flowering, orange drop rates, growth, and maturation, and can contribute to the forecast error. Here we present a methodology to incorporate local climate variables to predict the USDA's orange production forecast error, and we study the local effects of climate on yield in different counties in Florida. This information can aid farmers to gain an insight on what is to be expected during the orange production cycle, and can help supply chain managers to better plan their strategy.

  14. Medium-range structural properties of vitreous germania obtained through first-principles analysis of vibrational spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomazzi, Luigi; Umari, P; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2005-08-12

    We analyze the principal vibrational spectra of vitreous GeO(2) and derive therefrom structural properties referring to length scales beyond the basic tetrahedral unit. We generate a model structure that yields a neutron structure factor in accord with experiment. The inelastic-neutron, the infrared, and the Raman spectra, calculated within a density-functional approach, also agree with respective experimental spectra. The accord for the Raman spectrum supports a Ge-O-Ge angle distribution centered at 135 degrees. The Raman feature X(2) is found to result from vibrations in three-membered rings, and therefore constitutes a distinctive characteristic of the medium-range structure.

  15. How accurate are forecasts of costs of energy? A methodological contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddons, Craig; Allan, Grant; McIntyre, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Forecasts of the cost of energy are typically presented as point estimates; however forecasts are seldom accurate, which makes it important to understand the uncertainty around these point estimates. The scale of the differences between forecasts and outturns (i.e. contemporary estimates) of costs may have important implications for government decisions on the appropriate form (and level) of support, modelling energy scenarios or industry investment appraisal. This paper proposes a methodology to assess the accuracy of cost forecasts. We apply this to levelised costs of energy for different generation technologies due to the availability of comparable forecasts and contemporary estimates, however the same methodology could be applied to the components of levelised costs, such as capital costs. The estimated “forecast errors” capture the accuracy of previous forecasts and can provide objective bounds to the range around current forecasts for such costs. The results from applying this method are illustrated using publicly available data for on- and off-shore wind, Nuclear and CCGT technologies, revealing the possible scale of “forecast errors” for these technologies. - Highlights: • A methodology to assess the accuracy of forecasts of costs of energy is outlined. • Method applied to illustrative data for four electricity generation technologies. • Results give an objective basis for sensitivity analysis around point estimates.

  16. A Public-Private-Acadmic Partnership to Advance Solar Power Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haupt, Sue Ellen [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-04-19

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is pleased to have led a partnership to advance the state-of-the-science of solar power forecasting by designing, developing, building, deploying, testing, and assessing the SunCast™ Solar Power Forecasting System. The project has included cutting edge research, testing in several geographically- and climatologically-diverse high penetration solar utilities and Independent System Operators (ISOs), and wide dissemination of the research results to raise the bar on solar power forecasting technology. The partners include three other national laboratories, six universities, and industry partners. This public-private-academic team has worked in concert to perform use-inspired research to advance solar power forecasting through cutting-edge research to advance both the necessary forecasting technologies and the metrics for evaluating them. The project has culminated in a year-long, full-scale demonstration of provide irradiance and power forecasts to utilities and ISOs to use in their operations. The project focused on providing elements of a value chain, beginning with the weather that causes a deviation from clear sky irradiance and progresses through monitoring and observations, modeling, forecasting, dissemination and communication of the forecasts, interpretation of the forecast, and through decision-making, which produces outcomes that have an economic value. The system has been evaluated using metrics developed specifically for this project, which has provided rich information on model and system performance. Research was accomplished on the very short range (0-6 hours) Nowcasting system as well as on the longer term (6-72 hour) forecasting system. The shortest range forecasts are based on observations in the field. The shortest range system, built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and based on Total Sky Imagers (TSIs) is TSICast, which operates on the shortest time scale with a latency of only a few

  17. An Hourly Streamflow Forecasting Model Coupled with an Enforced Learning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Floods, one of the most significant natural hazards, often result in loss of life and property. Accurate hourly streamflow forecasting is always a key issue in hydrology for flood hazard mitigation. To improve the performance of hourly streamflow forecasting, a methodology concerning the development of neural network (NN based models with an enforced learning strategy is proposed in this paper. Firstly, four different NNs, namely back propagation network (BPN, radial basis function network (RBFN, self-organizing map (SOM, and support vector machine (SVM, are used to construct streamflow forecasting models. Through the cross-validation test, NN-based models with superior performance in streamflow forecasting are detected. Then, an enforced learning strategy is developed to further improve the performance of the superior NN-based models, i.e., SOM and SVM in this study. Finally, the proposed flow forecasting model is obtained. Actual applications are conducted to demonstrate the potential of the proposed model. Moreover, comparison between the NN-based models with and without the enforced learning strategy is performed to evaluate the effect of the enforced learning strategy on model performance. The results indicate that the NN-based models with the enforced learning strategy indeed improve the accuracy of hourly streamflow forecasting. Hence, the presented methodology is expected to be helpful for developing improved NN-based streamflow forecasting models.

  18. Accurate Short-Term Power Forecasting of Wind Turbines: The Case of Jeju Island’s Wind Farm

    OpenAIRE

    BeomJun Park; Jin Hur

    2017-01-01

    Short-term wind power forecasting is a technique which tells system operators how much wind power can be expected at a specific time. Due to the increasing penetration of wind generating resources into the power grids, short-term wind power forecasting is becoming an important issue for grid integration analysis. The high reliability of wind power forecasting can contribute to the successful integration of wind generating resources into the power grids. To guarantee the reliability of forecas...

  19. Advancing solar energy forecasting through the underlying physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Ghonima, M. S.; Zhong, X.; Ozge, B.; Kurtz, B.; Wu, E.; Mejia, F. A.; Zamora, M.; Wang, G.; Clemesha, R.; Norris, J. R.; Heus, T.; Kleissl, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    As solar power comprises an increasingly large portion of the energy generation mix, the ability to accurately forecast solar photovoltaic generation becomes increasingly important. Due to the variability of solar power caused by cloud cover, knowledge of both the magnitude and timing of expected solar power production ahead of time facilitates the integration of solar power onto the electric grid by reducing electricity generation from traditional ancillary generators such as gas and oil power plants, as well as decreasing the ramping of all generators, reducing start and shutdown costs, and minimizing solar power curtailment, thereby providing annual economic value. The time scales involved in both the energy markets and solar variability range from intra-hour to several days ahead. This wide range of time horizons led to the development of a multitude of techniques, with each offering unique advantages in specific applications. For example, sky imagery provides site-specific forecasts on the minute-scale. Statistical techniques including machine learning algorithms are commonly used in the intra-day forecast horizon for regional applications, while numerical weather prediction models can provide mesoscale forecasts on both the intra-day and days-ahead time scale. This talk will provide an overview of the challenges unique to each technique and highlight the advances in their ongoing development which come alongside advances in the fundamental physics underneath.

  20. Inflation Forecast Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new type of incentive contract for central bankers: inflation forecast contracts, which make central bankers’ remunerations contingent on the precision of their inflation forecasts. We show that such contracts enable central bankers to influence inflation expectations more effectively, thus facilitating more successful stabilization of current inflation. Inflation forecast contracts improve the accuracy of inflation forecasts, but have adverse consequences for output. On balanc...

  1. Non-seismic tsunamis: filling the forecast gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. W.; Titov, V. V.; Spillane, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquakes are the generation mechanism in over 85% of tsunamis. However, non-seismic tsunamis, including those generated by meteorological events, landslides, volcanoes, and asteroid impacts, can inundate significant area and have a large far-field effect. The current National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tsunami forecast system falls short in detecting these phenomena. This study attempts to classify the range of effects possible from these non-seismic threats, and to investigate detection methods appropriate for use in a forecast system. Typical observation platforms are assessed, including DART bottom pressure recorders and tide gauges. Other detection paths include atmospheric pressure anomaly algorithms for detecting meteotsunamis and the early identification of asteroids large enough to produce a regional hazard. Real-time assessment of observations for forecast use can provide guidance to mitigate the effects of a non-seismic tsunami.

  2. Sea Level Forecasts Aggregated from Established Operational Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Taylor

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A system for providing routine seven-day forecasts of sea level observable at tide gauge locations is described and evaluated. Forecast time series are aggregated from well-established operational systems of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology; although following some adjustments these systems are only quasi-complimentary. Target applications are routine coastal decision processes under non-extreme conditions. The configuration aims to be relatively robust to operational realities such as version upgrades, data gaps and metadata ambiguities. Forecast skill is evaluated against hourly tide gauge observations. Characteristics of the bias correction term are demonstrated to be primarily static in time, with time varying signals showing regional coherence. This simple approach to exploiting existing complex systems can offer valuable levels of skill at a range of Australian locations. The prospect of interpolation between observation sites and exploitation of lagged-ensemble uncertainty estimates could be meaningfully pursued. Skill characteristics define a benchmark against which new operational sea level forecasting systems can be measured. More generally, an aggregation approach may prove to be optimal for routine sea level forecast services given the physically inhomogeneous processes involved and ability to incorporate ongoing improvements and extensions of source systems.

  3. Interval forecasting of cyber-attacks on industrial control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanyo, Y. M.; Krakovsky, Y. M.; Luzgin, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    At present, cyber-security issues of industrial control systems occupy one of the key niches in a state system of planning and management Functional disruption of these systems via cyber-attacks may lead to emergencies related to loss of life, environmental disasters, major financial and economic damage, or disrupted activities of cities and settlements. There is then an urgent need to develop protection methods against cyber-attacks. This paper studied the results of cyber-attack interval forecasting with a pre-set intensity level of cyber-attacks. Interval forecasting is the forecasting of one interval from two predetermined ones in which a future value of the indicator will be obtained. For this, probability estimates of these events were used. For interval forecasting, a probabilistic neural network with a dynamic updating value of the smoothing parameter was used. A dividing bound of these intervals was determined by a calculation method based on statistical characteristics of the indicator. The number of cyber-attacks per hour that were received through a honeypot from March to September 2013 for the group ‘zeppo-norcal’ was selected as the indicator.

  4. Multimodel hydrological ensemble forecasts for the Baskatong catchment in Canada using the TIGGE database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito Arandia Martinez, Fabian

    2014-05-01

    Adequate uncertainty assessment is an important issue in hydrological modelling. An important issue for hydropower producers is to obtain ensemble forecasts which truly grasp the uncertainty linked to upcoming streamflows. If properly assessed, this uncertainty can lead to optimal reservoir management and energy production (ex. [1]). The meteorological inputs to the hydrological model accounts for an important part of the total uncertainty in streamflow forecasting. Since the creation of the THORPEX initiative and the TIGGE database, access to meteorological ensemble forecasts from nine agencies throughout the world have been made available. This allows for hydrological ensemble forecasts based on multiple meteorological ensemble forecasts. Consequently, both the uncertainty linked to the architecture of the meteorological model and the uncertainty linked to the initial condition of the atmosphere can be accounted for. The main objective of this work is to show that a weighted combination of meteorological ensemble forecasts based on different atmospheric models can lead to improved hydrological ensemble forecasts, for horizons from one to ten days. This experiment is performed for the Baskatong watershed, a head subcatchment of the Gatineau watershed in the province of Quebec, in Canada. Baskatong watershed is of great importance for hydro-power production, as it comprises the main reservoir for the Gatineau watershed, on which there are six hydropower plants managed by Hydro-Québec. Since the 70's, they have been using pseudo ensemble forecast based on deterministic meteorological forecasts to which variability derived from past forecasting errors is added. We use a combination of meteorological ensemble forecasts from different models (precipitation and temperature) as the main inputs for hydrological model HSAMI ([2]). The meteorological ensembles from eight of the nine agencies available through TIGGE are weighted according to their individual performance and

  5. Comparison of the air-kerma standards of the PTB and the BIPM in the medium-energy X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.T.; Bueermann, L.; Kramer, H.M.; Lange, B.

    2002-06-01

    An indirect comparison has been made between the air erma standards of the PTB and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range. The results show the standards to be in general agreement at the level of the stated standard uncertainty, although the result for the 100 kV radiation quality differs significantly from that for the other qualities. (authors)

  6. Mathematic simulation of mining company’s power demand forecast (by example of “Neryungri” coal strip mine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenkov, D. V.; Solovev, D. B.

    2017-10-01

    The article covers the aspects of forecasting and consideration of the wholesale market environment in generating the power demand forecast. Major mining companies that operate in conditions of the present day power market have to provide a reliable energy demand request for a certain time period ahead, thus ensuring sufficient reduction of financial losses associated with deviations of the actual power demand from the expected figures. Normally, under the power supply agreement, the consumer is bound to provide a per-month and per-hour request annually. It means that the consumer has to generate one-month-ahead short-term and medium-term hourly forecasts. The authors discovered that empiric distributions of “Yakutugol”, Holding Joint Stock Company, power demand belong to the sustainable rank parameter H-distribution type used for generating forecasts based on extrapolation of such distribution parameters. For this reason they justify the need to apply the mathematic rank analysis in short-term forecasting of the contracted power demand of “Neryungri” coil strip mine being a component of the technocenosis-type system of the mining company “Yakutugol”, Holding JSC.

  7. Prediction of Currency Volume Issued in Taiwan Using a Hybrid Artificial Neural Network and Multiple Regression Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the volume of currency issued by a country always affects its interest rate, price index, income levels, and many other important macroeconomic variables, the prediction of currency volume issued has attracted considerable attention in recent years. In contrast to the typical single-stage forecast model, this study proposes a hybrid forecasting approach to predict the volume of currency issued in Taiwan. The proposed hybrid models consist of artificial neural network (ANN and multiple regression (MR components. The MR component of the hybrid models is established for a selection of fewer explanatory variables, wherein the selected variables are of higher importance. The ANN component is then designed to generate forecasts based on those important explanatory variables. Subsequently, the model is used to analyze a real dataset of Taiwan's currency from 1996 to 2011 and twenty associated explanatory variables. The prediction results reveal that the proposed hybrid scheme exhibits superior forecasting performance for predicting the volume of currency issued in Taiwan.

  8. Development of Hydrometeorological Monitoring and Forecasting as AN Essential Component of the Early Flood Warning System:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukalo, V.

    2012-12-01

    Defining issue The river inundations are the most common and destructive natural hazards in Ukraine. Among non-structural flood management and protection measures a creation of the Early Flood Warning System is extremely important to be able to timely recognize dangerous situations in the flood-prone areas. Hydrometeorological information and forecasts are a core importance in this system. The primary factors affecting reliability and a lead - time of forecasts include: accuracy, speed and reliability with which real - time data are collected. The existing individual conception of monitoring and forecasting resulted in a need in reconsideration of the concept of integrated monitoring and forecasting approach - from "sensors to database and forecasters". Result presentation The Project: "Development of Flood Monitoring and Forecasting in the Ukrainian part of the Dniester River Basin" is presented. The project is developed by the Ukrainian Hydrometeorological Service in a conjunction with the Water Management Agency and the Energy Company "Ukrhydroenergo". The implementation of the Project is funded by the Ukrainian Government and the World Bank. The author is nominated as the responsible person for coordination of activity of organizations involved in the Project. The term of the Project implementation: 2012 - 2014. The principal objectives of the Project are: a) designing integrated automatic hydrometeorological measurement network (including using remote sensing technologies); b) hydrometeorological GIS database construction and coupling with electronic maps for flood risk assessment; c) interface-construction classic numerical database -GIS and with satellite images, and radar data collection; d) providing the real-time data dissemination from observation points to forecasting centers; e) developing hydrometeoroogical forecasting methods; f) providing a flood hazards risk assessment for different temporal and spatial scales; g) providing a dissemination of

  9. Short-term ensemble radar rainfall forecasts for hydrological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codo de Oliveira, M.; Rico-Ramirez, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Flooding is a very common natural disaster around the world, putting local population and economy at risk. Forecasting floods several hours ahead and issuing warnings are of main importance to permit proper response in emergency situations. However, it is important to know the uncertainties related to the rainfall forecasting in order to produce more reliable forecasts. Nowcasting models (short-term rainfall forecasts) are able to produce high spatial and temporal resolution predictions that are useful in hydrological applications. Nonetheless, they are subject to uncertainties mainly due to the nowcasting model used, errors in radar rainfall estimation, temporal development of the velocity field and to the fact that precipitation processes such as growth and decay are not taken into account. In this study an ensemble generation scheme using rain gauge data as a reference to estimate radars errors is used to produce forecasts with up to 3h lead-time. The ensembles try to assess in a realistic way the residual uncertainties that remain even after correction algorithms are applied in the radar data. The ensembles produced are compered to a stochastic ensemble generator. Furthermore, the rainfall forecast output was used as an input in a hydrodynamic sewer network model and also in hydrological model for catchments of different sizes in north England. A comparative analysis was carried of how was carried out to assess how the radar uncertainties propagate into these models. The first named author is grateful to CAPES - Ciencia sem Fronteiras for funding this PhD research.

  10. Measuring the effectiveness of earthquake forecasting in insurance strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignan, A.; Muir-Wood, R.

    2009-04-01

    Given the difficulty of judging whether the skill of a particular methodology of earthquake forecasts is offset by the inevitable false alarms and missed predictions, it is important to find a means to weigh the successes and failures according to a common currency. Rather than judge subjectively the relative costs and benefits of predictions, we develop a simple method to determine if the use of earthquake forecasts can increase the profitability of active financial risk management strategies employed in standard insurance procedures. Three types of risk management transactions are employed: (1) insurance underwriting, (2) reinsurance purchasing and (3) investment in CAT bonds. For each case premiums are collected based on modelled technical risk costs and losses are modelled for the portfolio in force at the time of the earthquake. A set of predetermined actions follow from the announcement of any change in earthquake hazard, so that, for each earthquake forecaster, the financial performance of an active risk management strategy can be compared with the equivalent passive strategy in which no notice is taken of earthquake forecasts. Overall performance can be tracked through time to determine which strategy gives the best long term financial performance. This will be determined by whether the skill in forecasting the location and timing of a significant earthquake (where loss is avoided) is outweighed by false predictions (when no premium is collected). This methodology is to be tested in California, where catastrophe modeling is reasonably mature and where a number of researchers issue earthquake forecasts.

  11. Streamflow Forecasting Using Nuero-Fuzzy Inference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, U. V.; Swain, P. C.

    2005-12-01

    Neuro-Fuzzy model is developed to forecast ten-daily flows into the Hirakud reservoir on River Mahanadi in the state of Orissa in India. Correlation analysis is carried out to find out the most influential variables on the ten daily flow at Hirakud. Based on this analysis, four variables, namely, flow during the previous time period, ql1, rainfall during the previous two time periods, rl1 and rl2, and flow during the same period in previous year, qpy, are identified as the most influential variables to forecast the ten daily flow. Performance measures such as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (CORR) and coefficient of efficiency R2 are computed for training and testing phases of the model to evaluate its performance. The results indicate that the ten-daily forecasting model is efficient in predicting the high and medium flows with reasonable accuracy. The forecast of low flows is associated with less efficiency. REFERENCES Jang, J.S.R. (1993). "ANFIS: Adaptive - network- based fuzzy inference system." IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 23 (3), 665-685. Shamseldin, A.Y. (1997). "Application of a neural network technique to rainfall-runoff modeling." Journal of Hydrology, 199, 272-294. World Meteorological Organization (1975). Intercomparison of conceptual models used in operational hydrological forecasting. World Meteorological Organization, Technical Report No.429, Geneva, Switzerland.

  12. Cost-effective up to 40 Gbit/s transmission performance of 1310 nm directly modulated lasers for short to medium range distances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiszoon, B.; Jonker, R.J.W.; Bennekom, van P.K.; Khoe, G.D.; Waardt, de H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents successful 20 and 40 Gb/s potentially low-cost transmission experiments using 1310 nm directly modulated distributed feedback lasers (DMLs) in the very-short- to medium-range distances. This paper will recommend operating conditions for error-free transmission at these bit rates

  13. The use of real-time off-site observations as a methodology for increasing forecast skill in prediction of large wind power ramps one or more hours ahead of their impact on a wind plant.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Wilde, Principal Investigator

    2012-12-31

    ABSTRACT Application of Real-Time Offsite Measurements in Improved Short-Term Wind Ramp Prediction Skill Improved forecasting performance immediately preceding wind ramp events is of preeminent concern to most wind energy companies, system operators, and balancing authorities. The value of near real-time hub height-level wind data and more general meteorological measurements to short-term wind power forecasting is well understood. For some sites, access to onsite measured wind data - even historical - can reduce forecast error in the short-range to medium-range horizons by as much as 50%. Unfortunately, valuable free-stream wind measurements at tall tower are not typically available at most wind plants, thereby forcing wind forecasters to rely upon wind measurements below hub height and/or turbine nacelle anemometry. Free-stream measurements can be appropriately scaled to hub-height levels, using existing empirically-derived relationships that account for surface roughness and turbulence. But there is large uncertainty in these relationships for a given time of day and state of the boundary layer. Alternatively, forecasts can rely entirely on turbine anemometry measurements, though such measurements are themselves subject to wake effects that are not stationary. The void in free-stream hub-height level measurements of wind can be filled by remote sensing (e.g., sodar, lidar, and radar). However, the expense of such equipment may not be sustainable. There is a growing market for traditional anemometry on tall tower networks, maintained by third parties to the forecasting process (i.e., independent of forecasters and the forecast users). This study examines the value of offsite tall-tower data from the WINDataNOW Technology network for short-horizon wind power predictions at a wind farm in northern Montana. The presentation shall describe successful physical and statistical techniques for its application and the practicality of its application in an operational

  14. Magnetogram Forecast: An All-Clear Space Weather Forecasting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, Nasser; Falconer, David

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the drivers of severe space weather. Forecasting the probability of their occurrence is critical in improving space weather forecasts. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) currently uses the McIntosh active region category system, in which each active region on the disk is assigned to one of 60 categories, and uses the historical flare rates of that category to make an initial forecast that can then be adjusted by the NOAA forecaster. Flares and CMEs are caused by the sudden release of energy from the coronal magnetic field by magnetic reconnection. It is believed that the rate of flare and CME occurrence in an active region is correlated with the free energy of an active region. While the free energy cannot be measured directly with present observations, proxies of the free energy can instead be used to characterize the relative free energy of an active region. The Magnetogram Forecast (MAG4) (output is available at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center) was conceived and designed to be a databased, all-clear forecasting system to support the operational goals of NASA's Space Radiation Analysis Group. The MAG4 system automatically downloads nearreal- time line-of-sight Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) magnetograms on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite, identifies active regions on the solar disk, measures a free-energy proxy, and then applies forecasting curves to convert the free-energy proxy into predicted event rates for X-class flares, M- and X-class flares, CMEs, fast CMEs, and solar energetic particle events (SPEs). The forecast curves themselves are derived from a sample of 40,000 magnetograms from 1,300 active region samples, observed by the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager. Figure 1 is an example of MAG4 visual output

  15. Short-to-Medium-Range Order and Atomic Packing in Zr48Cu36Ag8Al8 Bulk Metallic Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its excellent glass-forming ability (GFA, the Zr48Cu36Al8Ag8 bulk metallic glass (BMG is of great importance in glass transition investigations and new materials development. However, due to the lack of detailed structural information, the local structure and atomic packing of this alloy is still unknown. In this work, synchrotron measurement and reverse Monte Carlo simulation are performed on the atomic configuration of a Zr-based bulk metallic glass. The local structure is characterized in terms of bond pairs and Voronoi tessellation. It is found that there are mainly two types of bond pairs in the configuration, as the body-centered cubic (bcc-type and icosahedral (ico-type bond pairs. On the other hand, the main polyhedra in the configuration are icosahedra and the bcc structure. That is, the bcc-type bond pairs, together with the ico-type bond pairs, form the bcc polyhedra, introducing the distortion in bcc clusters in short range. However, in the medium range, the atoms formed linear or planar structures, other than the tridimensional clusters. That is, the medium-range order in glass is of 1D or 2D structure, suggesting the imperfect ordered packing feature.

  16. The strategy of professional forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2006-01-01

    We develop and compare two theories of professional forecasters’ strategic behavior. The first theory, reputational cheap talk, posits that forecasters endeavor to convince the market that they are well informed. The market evaluates their forecasting talent on the basis of the forecasts...... and the realized state. If the market expects forecasters to report their posterior expectations honestly, then forecasts are shaded toward the prior mean. With correct market expectations, equilibrium forecasts are imprecise but not shaded. The second theory posits that forecasters compete in a forecasting...... contest with pre-specified rules. In a winner-take-all contest, equilibrium forecasts are excessively differentiated...

  17. GMDH-Based Semi-Supervised Feature Selection for Electricity Load Classification Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lintao Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the development of smart power grids, communication network technology and sensor technology, there has been an exponential growth in complex electricity load data. Irregular electricity load fluctuations caused by the weather and holiday factors disrupt the daily operation of the power companies. To deal with these challenges, this paper investigates a day-ahead electricity peak load interval forecasting problem. It transforms the conventional continuous forecasting problem into a novel interval forecasting problem, and then further converts the interval forecasting problem into the classification forecasting problem. In addition, an indicator system influencing the electricity load is established from three dimensions, namely the load series, calendar data, and weather data. A semi-supervised feature selection algorithm is proposed to address an electricity load classification forecasting issue based on the group method of data handling (GMDH technology. The proposed algorithm consists of three main stages: (1 training the basic classifier; (2 selectively marking the most suitable samples from the unclassified label data, and adding them to an initial training set; and (3 training the classification models on the final training set and classifying the test samples. An empirical analysis of electricity load dataset from four Chinese cities is conducted. Results show that the proposed model can address the electricity load classification forecasting problem more efficiently and effectively than the FW-Semi FS (forward semi-supervised feature selection and GMDH-U (GMDH-based semi-supervised feature selection for customer classification models.

  18. Probabilistic electricity price forecasting with variational heteroscedastic Gaussian process and active learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou, Peng; Liang, Deliang; Gao, Lin; Lou, Jianyong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active learning model for the probabilistic electricity price forecasting. • Heteroscedastic Gaussian process that captures the local volatility of the electricity price. • Variational Bayesian learning that avoids over-fitting. • Active learning algorithm that reduces the computational efforts. - Abstract: Electricity price forecasting is essential for the market participants in their decision making. Nevertheless, the accuracy of such forecasting cannot be guaranteed due to the high variability of the price data. For this reason, in many cases, rather than merely point forecasting results, market participants are more interested in the probabilistic price forecasting results, i.e., the prediction intervals of the electricity price. Focusing on this issue, this paper proposes a new model for the probabilistic electricity price forecasting. This model is based on the active learning technique and the variational heteroscedastic Gaussian process (VHGP). It provides the heteroscedastic Gaussian prediction intervals, which effectively quantify the heteroscedastic uncertainties associated with the price data. Because the high computational effort of VHGP hinders its application to the large-scale electricity price forecasting tasks, we design an active learning algorithm to select a most informative training subset from the whole available training set. By constructing the forecasting model on this smaller subset, the computational efforts can be significantly reduced. In this way, the practical applicability of the proposed model is enhanced. The forecasting performance and the computational time of the proposed model are evaluated using the real-world electricity price data, which is obtained from the ANEM, PJM, and New England ISO

  19. Scientific challenges in thermosphere-ionosphere forecasting – conclusions from the October 2014 NASA JPL community workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in forecasting space weather in the thermosphere and ionosphere (T-I led to a community workshop held at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in October, 2014. The workshop focus was “Scientific Challenges in Thermosphere-Ionosphere Forecasting” to emphasize that forecasting presumes a sufficiently advanced state of scientific knowledge, yet one that is still evolving. The purpose of the workshop, and this topical issue that arose from the workshop, was to discuss research frontiers that will lead to improved space weather forecasts. Three areas are discussed in some detail in this paper: (1 the role of lower atmosphere forcing in the response of the T-I to geomagnetic disturbances; (2 the significant deposition of energy at polar latitudes during geomagnetic disturbances; and (3 recent developments in understanding the propagation of coronal mass ejections through the heliosphere and prospects for forecasting the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF using observations at the Lagrangian L5 point. We describe other research presented at the workshop that appears in the topical issue. The possibility of establishing a “positive feedback loop” where improved scientific knowledge leads to improved forecasts is described (Siscoe 2006, Space Weather, 4, S01003; Mannucci 2012, Space Weather, 10, S07003.

  20. Are Forecast Updates Progressive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMacro-economic forecasts typically involve both a model component, which is replicable, as well as intuition, which is non-replicable. Intuition is expert knowledge possessed by a forecaster. If forecast updates are progressive, forecast updates should become more accurate, on average,

  1. Comparison of the air-kerma standards of the ENEA-INMRI and the BIPM in the medium-energy X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.T.; Toni, M.P.; Bovi, M.

    2000-08-01

    An indirect comparison has been made between the air erma standards of the ENEA-INMRI and the BIPM in the medium-energy x-ray range. The results show the standards to be in general agreement within the stated uncertainty, although there is evidence of a trend in the results at different radiation qualities. (authors)

  2. Simultaneous calibration of ensemble river flow predictions over an entire range of lead times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemri, S.; Fundel, F.; Zappa, M.

    2013-10-01

    Probabilistic estimates of future water levels and river discharge are usually simulated with hydrologic models using ensemble weather forecasts as main inputs. As hydrologic models are imperfect and the meteorological ensembles tend to be biased and underdispersed, the ensemble forecasts for river runoff typically are biased and underdispersed, too. Thus, in order to achieve both reliable and sharp predictions statistical postprocessing is required. In this work Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is applied to statistically postprocess ensemble runoff raw forecasts for a catchment in Switzerland, at lead times ranging from 1 to 240 h. The raw forecasts have been obtained using deterministic and ensemble forcing meteorological models with different forecast lead time ranges. First, BMA is applied based on mixtures of univariate normal distributions, subject to the assumption of independence between distinct lead times. Then, the independence assumption is relaxed in order to estimate multivariate runoff forecasts over the entire range of lead times simultaneously, based on a BMA version that uses multivariate normal distributions. Since river runoff is a highly skewed variable, Box-Cox transformations are applied in order to achieve approximate normality. Both univariate and multivariate BMA approaches are able to generate well calibrated probabilistic forecasts that are considerably sharper than climatological forecasts. Additionally, multivariate BMA provides a promising approach for incorporating temporal dependencies into the postprocessed forecasts. Its major advantage against univariate BMA is an increase in reliability when the forecast system is changing due to model availability.

  3. The Application of TAPM for Site Specific Wind Energy Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlinde Kay

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The energy industry uses weather forecasts for determining future electricity demand variations due to the impact of weather, e.g., temperature and precipitation. However, as a greater component of electricity generation comes from intermittent renewable sources such as wind and solar, weather forecasting techniques need to now also focus on predicting renewable energy supply, which means adapting our prediction models to these site specific resources. This work assesses the performance of The Air Pollution Model (TAPM, and demonstrates that significant improvements can be made to only wind speed forecasts from a mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP model. For this study, a wind farm site situated in North-west Tasmania, Australia was investigated. I present an analysis of the accuracy of hourly NWP and bias corrected wind speed forecasts over 12 months spanning 2005. This extensive time frame allows an in-depth analysis of various wind speed regimes of importance for wind-farm operation, as well as extreme weather risk scenarios. A further correction is made to the basic bias correction to improve the forecast accuracy further, that makes use of real-time wind-turbine data and a smoothing function to correct for timing-related issues. With full correction applied, a reduction in the error in the magnitude of the wind speed by as much as 50% for “hour ahead” forecasts specific to the wind-farm site has been obtained.

  4. Lessons of L'Aquila for Operational Earthquake Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, T. H.

    2012-12-01

    The L'Aquila earthquake of 6 Apr 2009 (magnitude 6.3) killed 309 people and left tens of thousands homeless. The mainshock was preceded by a vigorous seismic sequence that prompted informal earthquake predictions and evacuations. In an attempt to calm the population, the Italian Department of Civil Protection (DPC) convened its Commission on the Forecasting and Prevention of Major Risk (MRC) in L'Aquila on 31 March 2009 and issued statements about the hazard that were widely received as an "anti-alarm"; i.e., a deterministic prediction that there would not be a major earthquake. On October 23, 2012, a court in L'Aquila convicted the vice-director of DPC and six scientists and engineers who attended the MRC meeting on charges of criminal manslaughter, and it sentenced each to six years in prison. A few weeks after the L'Aquila disaster, the Italian government convened an International Commission on Earthquake Forecasting for Civil Protection (ICEF) with the mandate to assess the status of short-term forecasting methods and to recommend how they should be used in civil protection. The ICEF, which I chaired, issued its findings and recommendations on 2 Oct 2009 and published its final report, "Operational Earthquake Forecasting: Status of Knowledge and Guidelines for Implementation," in Aug 2011 (www.annalsofgeophysics.eu/index.php/annals/article/view/5350). As defined by the Commission, operational earthquake forecasting (OEF) involves two key activities: the continual updating of authoritative information about the future occurrence of potentially damaging earthquakes, and the officially sanctioned dissemination of this information to enhance earthquake preparedness in threatened communities. Among the main lessons of L'Aquila is the need to separate the role of science advisors, whose job is to provide objective information about natural hazards, from that of civil decision-makers who must weigh the benefits of protective actions against the costs of false alarms

  5. Bayesian quantitative precipitation forecasts in terms of quantiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzien, Sabrina; Friederichs, Petra

    2014-05-01

    Ensemble prediction systems (EPS) for numerical weather predictions on the mesoscale are particularly developed to obtain probabilistic guidance for high impact weather. An EPS not only issues a deterministic future state of the atmosphere but a sample of possible future states. Ensemble postprocessing then translates such a sample of forecasts into probabilistic measures. This study focus on probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasts in terms of quantiles. Quantiles are particular suitable to describe precipitation at various locations, since no assumption is required on the distribution of precipitation. The focus is on the prediction during high-impact events and related to the Volkswagen Stiftung funded project WEX-MOP (Mesoscale Weather Extremes - Theory, Spatial Modeling and Prediction). Quantile forecasts are derived from the raw ensemble and via quantile regression. Neighborhood method and time-lagging are effective tools to inexpensively increase the ensemble spread, which results in more reliable forecasts especially for extreme precipitation events. Since an EPS provides a large amount of potentially informative predictors, a variable selection is required in order to obtain a stable statistical model. A Bayesian formulation of quantile regression allows for inference about the selection of predictive covariates by the use of appropriate prior distributions. Moreover, the implementation of an additional process layer for the regression parameters accounts for spatial variations of the parameters. Bayesian quantile regression and its spatially adaptive extension is illustrated for the German-focused mesoscale weather prediction ensemble COSMO-DE-EPS, which runs (pre)operationally since December 2010 at the German Meteorological Service (DWD). Objective out-of-sample verification uses the quantile score (QS), a weighted absolute error between quantile forecasts and observations. The QS is a proper scoring function and can be decomposed into

  6. Development of a monthly to seasonal forecast framework tailored to inland waterway transport in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meißner, Dennis; Klein, Bastian; Ionita, Monica

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally, navigation-related forecasts in central Europe cover short- to medium-range lead times linked to the travel times of vessels to pass the main waterway bottlenecks leaving the loading ports. Without doubt, this aspect is still essential for navigational users, but in light of the growing political intention to use the free capacity of the inland waterway transport in Europe, additional lead time supporting strategic decisions is more and more in demand. However, no such predictions offering extended lead times of several weeks up to several months currently exist for considerable parts of the European waterway network. This paper describes the set-up of a monthly to seasonal forecasting system for the German stretches of the international waterways of the Rhine, Danube and Elbe rivers. Two competitive forecast approaches have been implemented: the dynamical set-up forces a hydrological model with post-processed outputs from ECMWF general circulation model System 4, whereas the statistical approach is based on the empirical relationship (teleconnection) of global oceanic, climate and regional hydro-meteorological data with river flows. The performance of both forecast methods is evaluated in relation to the climatological forecast (ensemble of historical streamflow) and the well-known ensemble streamflow prediction approach (ESP, ensemble based on historical meteorology) using common performance indicators (correlation coefficient; mean absolute error, skill score; mean squared error, skill score; and continuous ranked probability, skill score) and an impact-based evaluation quantifying the potential economic gain. The following four key findings result from this study: (1) as former studies for other regions of central Europe indicate, the accuracy and/or skill of the meteorological forcing used has a larger effect than the quality of initial hydrological conditions for relevant stations along the German waterways. (2) Despite the predictive

  7. Load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, H.

    1995-01-01

    Slides used in a presentation at The Power of Change Conference in Vancouver, BC in April 1995 about the changing needs for load forecasting were presented. Technological innovations and population increase were said to be the prime driving forces behind the changing needs in load forecasting. Structural changes, market place changes, electricity supply planning changes, and changes in planning objectives were other factors discussed. It was concluded that load forecasting was a form of information gathering, that provided important market intelligence

  8. Relating Tropical Cyclone Track Forecast Error Distributions with Measurements of Forecast Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    CYCLONE TRACK FORECAST ERROR DISTRIBUTIONS WITH MEASUREMENTS OF FORECAST UNCERTAINTY by Nicholas M. Chisler March 2016 Thesis Advisor...March 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE RELATING TROPICAL CYCLONE TRACK FORECAST ERROR DISTRIBUTIONS...WITH MEASUREMENTS OF FORECAST UNCERTAINTY 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Nicholas M. Chisler 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  9. The effects of phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation on forecasts of species range shifts under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Fernando; Matesanz, Silvia; Guilhaumon, François; Araújo, Miguel B; Balaguer, Luis; Benito-Garzón, Marta; Cornwell, Will; Gianoli, Ernesto; van Kleunen, Mark; Naya, Daniel E; Nicotra, Adrienne B; Poorter, Hendrik; Zavala, Miguel A

    2014-11-01

    Species are the unit of analysis in many global change and conservation biology studies; however, species are not uniform entities but are composed of different, sometimes locally adapted, populations differing in plasticity. We examined how intraspecific variation in thermal niches and phenotypic plasticity will affect species distributions in a warming climate. We first developed a conceptual model linking plasticity and niche breadth, providing five alternative intraspecific scenarios that are consistent with existing literature. Secondly, we used ecological niche-modeling techniques to quantify the impact of each intraspecific scenario on the distribution of a virtual species across a geographically realistic setting. Finally, we performed an analogous modeling exercise using real data on the climatic niches of different tree provenances. We show that when population differentiation is accounted for and dispersal is restricted, forecasts of species range shifts under climate change are even more pessimistic than those using the conventional assumption of homogeneously high plasticity across a species' range. Suitable population-level data are not available for most species so identifying general patterns of population differentiation could fill this gap. However, the literature review revealed contrasting patterns among species, urging greater levels of integration among empirical, modeling and theoretical research on intraspecific phenotypic variation. © 2014 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  10. Chaotic particle swarm optimization algorithm in a support vector regression electric load forecasting model

    International Nuclea