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Sample records for iss international space

  1. Payload Operations Center (POC) for the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the International Space Station (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  2. Payload Operations Center (POC) for the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Payload Operations Center (POC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is the world's primary science command post for the International Space Station (ISS), the most ambitious space research facility in human history. The Payload Operations team is responsible for managing all science research experiments aboard the Station. The center is also home for coordination of the mission-plarning work of variety of international sources, all science payload deliveries and retrieval, and payload training and safety programs for the Station crew and all ground personnel. Within the POC, critical payload information from the ISS is displayed on a dedicated workstation, reading both S-band (low data rate) and Ku-band (high data rate) signals from a variety of experiments and procedures operated by the ISS crew and their colleagues on Earth. The POC is the focal point for incorporating research and experiment requirements from all international partners into an integrated ISS payload mission plan. This photograph is an overall view of the MSFC Payload Operations Center displaying the flags of the countries participating the ISS. The flags at the left portray The United States, Canada, France, Switzerland, Netherlands, Japan, Brazil, and Sweden. The flags at the right portray The Russian Federation, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Spain, United Kingdom, Denmark, and Norway.

  3. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on "scientific" dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities.

  4. The International Space Station (ISS) Education Accomplishments and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Blue, Regina; Mayo, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers worldwide and thus stands as an invaluable learning platform for the advancement of proficiency in research and development and education. The presence of humans on board ISS for the past ten years has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines which will lead to an increase in quality of teachers, advancements in research and development, an increase in the global reputation for intellectual achievement, and an expanded ability to pursue unchartered avenues towards a brighter future. Over 41 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related activities since the year 2000. Projects such as the Amateur Radio on International Space Station (ARISS) and Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), among others, have allowed for global student, teacher, and public access to space through radio contacts with crewmembers and student image acquisition respectively. . With planned ISS operations at least until 2020, projects like the aforementioned and their accompanying educational materials will be available to enable increased STEM literacy around the world. Since the launch of the first ISS element, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed by each of the international partner agencies: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). Additionally, a number of non-participating countries, some under commercial agreements, have also participated in Station-related activities. Many of these programs still continue while others are being developed and added to the station crewmembers tasks

  5. Space Environment Data Acquisition with the Kibo Exposed Facility on the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Obara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment (SEDA, which was mounted on the Exposed Facility (EF of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM, also known as "Kibo" on the International Space Station (ISS, was developed to measure the space environment along the orbit of the ISS. This payload module, called the SEDA-Attached Payload (AP, began to measure the space environment in August 2009. This paper reports the mission objectives, instrumentation, and current status of the SEDA-AP.

  6. International Space Station (ISS) SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System Photos: 2013-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) acquired images of the Earth's surface from the International Space Station (ISS). The goal...

  7. International Space Station (ISS) SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System Photos: 2013-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) acquired images of the Earth's surface from the International Space Station (ISS). The goal...

  8. Space Environment Data Acquisition with KIBO Exposed Facility on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Takahiro

    Space Environment Data Acquisition equipment with attached payload (SEDA-AP) which was mounted on the Exposed Facility (EF) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM, also known as “Kibo”) on the International Space Station (ISS) started to measure the space environment along the orbit of ISS from Sept. 2009. This paper reports the mission objectives, instrumentation, and current status of SEDA-AP.

  9. GEROS-ISS: GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Cardellach, Estel; Bandeiras, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    GEROS-ISS stands for GNSS REflectometry, radio occultation, and scatterometry onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It is a scientific experiment, successfully proposed to the European Space Agency in 2011. The experiment as the name indicates will be conducted on the ISS. The main focus...

  10. 76 FR 65752 - International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal and... Relations, (202) 358-0550, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC 20546-0001....

  11. Measurements of the neutron dose and energy spectrum on the International Space Station during expeditions ISS-16 to ISS-21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M B; Akatov, Yu; Andrews, H R; Arkhangelsky, V; Chernykh, I V; Ing, H; Khoshooniy, N; Lewis, B J; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I; Romanenko, R Y; Shurshakov, V; Thirsk, R B; Tomi, L

    2013-01-01

    As part of the international Matroshka-R and Radi-N experiments, bubble detectors have been used on board the ISS in order to characterise the neutron dose and the energy spectrum of neutrons. Experiments using bubble dosemeters inside a tissue-equivalent phantom were performed during the ISS-16, ISS-18 and ISS-19 expeditions. During the ISS-20 and ISS-21 missions, the bubble dosemeters were supplemented by a bubble-detector spectrometer, a set of six detectors that was used to determine the neutron energy spectrum at various locations inside the ISS. The temperature-compensated spectrometer set used is the first to be developed specifically for space applications and its development is described in this paper. Results of the dose measurements indicate that the dose received at two different depths inside the phantom is not significantly different, suggesting that bubble detectors worn by a person provide an accurate reading of the dose received inside the body. The energy spectra measured using the spectrometer are in good agreement with previous measurements and do not show a strong dependence on the precise location inside the station. To aid the understanding of the bubble-detector response to charged particles in the space environment, calculations have been performed using a Monte-Carlo code, together with data collected on the ISS. These calculations indicate that charged particles contribute space.

  12. Matroshka DOSTEL measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrenz Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the absorbed dose and dose equivalent rate measurements achieved with the DOSimetry TElescope (DOSTEL during the two Matroshka (MTR experiment campaigns in 2004/2005 (MTR-1 and 2007/2008 (MTR-2B. The comparison between the inside (MTR-2B and outside (MTR-1 mission has shown that the shielding thickness provided by the International Space Station (ISS spacecraft hull has a minor effect on the radiation exposure caused by Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR. The exposure varies with the solar modulation of the GCR, too. Particles from Earth’s radiation belts are effectively shielded by the spacecraft hull, and thus the contribution to the radiation exposure is lower for the inside measurement during MTR-2B. While the MTR-DOSTEL absorbed dose rate shows a good agreement with passive detectors of the MTR experiment for the MTR-2B mission phase, the MTR-1 absorbed dose rates from MTR-DOSTEL measurements are much lower than those obtained by a nearby passive detector. Observed discrepancies between the MTR-DOSTEL measurements and the passive detectors located nearby could be explained by the additional exposure to an enhanced flux of electrons trapped between L-parameter 2.5 and 3.5 caused by solar storms in July 2004.

  13. International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen High Pressure Storage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John R.; Dake, Jason; Cover, John; Leonard, Dan; Bohannon, Carl

    2004-01-01

    High pressure oxygen onboard the ISS provides support for Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) and contingency metabolic support for the crew. This high pressure 02 is brought to the ISS by the Space Shuttle and is transferred using the Oxygen Recharge Compressor Assembly (ORCA). There are several drivers that must be considered in managing the available high pressure 02 on the ISS. The amount of O2 the Shuttle can fly up is driven by manifest mass limitations, launch slips, and on orbit Shuttle power requirements. The amount of 02 that is used from the ISS high pressure gas tanks (HPGT) is driven by the number of Shuttle docked and undocked EVAs, the type of EVA prebreath protocol that is used and contingency use of O2 for metabolic support. Also, the use of the ORCA must be managed to optimize its life on orbit and assure that it will be available to transfer the planned amount of O2 from the Shuttle. Management of this resource has required long range planning and coordination between Shuttle manifest on orbit plans. To further optimize the situation hardware options have been pursued.

  14. Enhancing International Space Station (ISS) Mission Control Center (MCC) Operations Using Tcl/Tk

    Science.gov (United States)

    OHagan, Brian; Long, Stephen K., Sr.

    2004-01-01

    This paper will discuss the use of Tcl/Tk to enhance the abilities of flight controllers to control the International Space Station (ISS) from the Mission Control Center (MCC) at the Johnson Space Center. We will discuss why existing tools where not able to meet these needs as easily as Tcl/Tk. In addition, we will also discuss how we interfaced with the existing MCC infrastructure to receive ISS telemetry, find servers, register services, and send commands to ISS.

  15. International Space Station (ISS) Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU) Wet Storage Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Michael D.; Rotter, Henry A.; Lee, Jason; Packham, Nigel; Brady, Timothy K.; Kelly, Robert; Ott, C. Mark

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to evaluate the risks posed by the practice of long-term wet storage of ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) regeneration system orbital replacement units (ORUs). The ISS ECLS regeneration system removes water from urine and humidity condensate and converts it into potable water and oxygen. A total of 29 ORUs are in the ECLS system, each designed to be replaced by the ISS crew when necessary. The NESC assembled a team to review the ISS ECLS regeneration system and evaluate the potential for biofouling and corrosion. This document contains the outcome of the evaluation.

  16. Bubble-detector measurements of neutron radiation in the international space station: ISS-34 to ISS-37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M B; Khulapko, S; Andrews, H R; Arkhangelsky, V; Ing, H; Koslowksy, M R; Lewis, B J; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I; Shurshakov, V

    2016-02-01

    Bubble detectors have been used to characterise the neutron dose and energy spectrum in several modules of the International Space Station (ISS) as part of an ongoing radiation survey. A series of experiments was performed during the ISS-34, ISS-35, ISS-36 and ISS-37 missions between December 2012 and October 2013. The Radi-N2 experiment, a repeat of the 2009 Radi-N investigation, included measurements in four modules of the US orbital segment: Columbus, the Japanese experiment module, the US laboratory and Node 2. The Radi-N2 dose and spectral measurements are not significantly different from the Radi-N results collected in the same ISS locations, despite the large difference in solar activity between 2009 and 2013. Parallel experiments using a second set of detectors in the Russian segment of the ISS included the first characterisation of the neutron spectrum inside the tissue-equivalent Matroshka-R phantom. These data suggest that the dose inside the phantom is ∼70% of the dose at its surface, while the spectrum inside the phantom contains a larger fraction of high-energy neutrons than the spectrum outside the phantom. The phantom results are supported by Monte Carlo simulations that provide good agreement with the empirical data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. GEROS-ISS: Ocean Remote Sensing with GNSS Reflectometry from the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Camps, Adriano

    In response to an European Space Agency (ESA) announcement of opportunity for climate change relevant science aboard the ISS, the GEROS-ISS (GEROS hereafter) proposal was submitted in 2011 and accepted by ESA to proceed to Phase A. GEROS-ISS is an innovative experiment primarily focused on exploi......In response to an European Space Agency (ESA) announcement of opportunity for climate change relevant science aboard the ISS, the GEROS-ISS (GEROS hereafter) proposal was submitted in 2011 and accepted by ESA to proceed to Phase A. GEROS-ISS is an innovative experiment primarily focused...... the oceanographic significance of the expected measurements and to demonstrate the usefulness of the GEROS concept. The presentation will give an overview on the current status of the GEROS experiment, review the science activities within the international GARCA study and related ESA-supported science activities....

  18. Evaluating the Medical Kit System for the International Space Station(ISS) - A Paradigm Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Melinda J.; Urbina, Michelle C.; Hughlett, Jessica L.; Gilmore, Stevan; Locke, James; Reyna, Baraquiel; Smith, Gwyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Medical capabilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been packaged to help astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) mitigate both urgent and non-urgent medical issues during their 6-month expeditions. Two ISS crewmembers are designated as CMOs for each 3-crewmember mission and are typically not physicians. In addition, the ISS may have communication gaps of up to 45 minutes during each orbit, necessitating medical equipment that can be reliably operated autonomously during flight. The retirement of the space shuttle combined with ten years of manned ISS expeditions led the Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to reassess the current ISS Medical Kit System. This reassessment led to the system being streamlined to meet future logistical considerations with current Russian space vehicles and future NASA/commercial space vehicle systems. Methods The JSC Space Medicine Division coordinated the development of requirements, fabrication of prototypes, and conducted usability testing for the new ISS Medical Kit System in concert with implementing updated versions of the ISS Medical Check List and associated in-flight software applications. The teams constructed a medical kit system with the flexibility for use on the ISS, and resupply on the Russian Progress space vehicle and future NASA/commercial space vehicles. Results Prototype systems were developed, reviewed, and tested for implementation. Completion of Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews resulted in a streamlined ISS Medical Kit System that is being used for training by ISS crews starting with Expedition 27 (June 2011). Conclusions The team will present the process for designing, developing, , implementing, and training with this new ISS Medical Kit System.

  19. Rapid culture-independent microbial analysis aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Monaco, Lisa; Morris, Heather; Gunter, Daniel; Damon, Michael; Wells, Mark

    2009-10-01

    A new culture-independent system for microbial monitoring, called the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS), was operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). LOCAD-PTS was launched to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle STS-116 on December 9, 2006, and has since been used by ISS crews to monitor endotoxin on cabin surfaces. Quantitative analysis was performed within 15 minutes, and sample return to Earth was not required. Endotoxin (a marker of Gram-negative bacteria) was distributed throughout the ISS, despite previous indications that mostbacteria on ISS surfaces were Gram-positive [corrected].Endotoxin was detected at 24 out of 42 surface areas tested and at every surface site where colony-forming units (cfu) were observed, even at levels of 4-120 bacterial cfu per 100 cm(2), which is below NASA in-flight requirements (3.78 EU per 100 cm(2)). Based upon data collected from the ISS so far, new culture-independent requirements (defined in EU) are suggested, which are verifiable in flight with LOCAD-PTS yet high enough to avoid false alarms. The suggested requirements are intended to supplement current ISS requirements (defined in cfu) and would serve a dual purpose of safeguarding crew health (internal spacecraft surfaces <20 EU per 100 cm(2)) and monitoring forward contamination during Constellation missions (surfaces periodically exposed to the external environment, including the airlock and space suits, <0.24 EU per 100 cm(2)).

  20. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coil, David A; Neches, Russell Y; Lang, Jenna M; Brown, Wendy E; Severance, Mark; Cavalier, Darlene; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS) has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS). Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation). Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  1. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Coil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS. Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation. Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  2. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  3. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The air revitalization system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) provides the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation due to the microgravity environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) media filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Segment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. These filters see a replacement interval, as part of maintenance, of 2-5 years dependent on location in the ISS. In this work, we present particulate removal efficiency, pressure drop, and leak test results for a sample set of 8 BFEs returned from the ISS after filter replacement. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS beyond 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  4. Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of

  5. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS02) experiment on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Behcet ALPAT

    2003-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment is realized in two phases. A precursor flight (STS-91)with a reduced experimental configuration (AMS01) has successfully flown on space shuttle Discovery in June 1998.The final version (AMS02) will be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) as an independent module inearly 2006 for an operational period of three years. The main scientific objectives of AMS02 include the searches forthe antimatter and dark matter in cosmic rays. In this work we will discuss the experimental details as well as the im-proved physics capabilities of AMS02 on ISS.

  6. Video- Demonstration of Seltzer Tablet in Water Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video clip, Pettit demonstrates dropping an Alka Seltzer tablet into a film of water which becomes a floating ball of activity filled water. Watch the video to see the surprising results!

  7. How Do Lessons Learned on the International Space Station (ISS) Help Plan Life Support for Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    How can our experience in developing and operating the International Space Station (ISS) guide the design, development, and operation of life support for the journey to Mars? The Mars deep space Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) must incorporate the knowledge and experience gained in developing ECLSS for low Earth orbit, but it must also meet the challenging new requirements of operation in deep space where there is no possibility of emergency resupply or quick crew return. The understanding gained by developing ISS flight hardware and successfully supporting a crew in orbit for many years is uniquely instructive. Different requirements for Mars life support suggest that different decisions may be made in design, testing, and operations planning, but the lessons learned developing the ECLSS for ISS provide valuable guidance.

  8. International Space Station (ISS) Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) Utilization Plan Assessment Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri; Iannello, Christopher J.; Garrett, Henry B.; Ging, Andrew T.; Katz, Ira; Keith, R. Lloyd; Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Schneider, Todd A.; Whittlesey, Edward J.; Wollack, Edward J.; Wright, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) vehicle undergoes spacecraft charging as it interacts with Earth's ionosphere and magnetic field. The interaction can result in a large potential difference developing between the ISS metal chassis and the local ionosphere plasma environment. If an astronaut conducting extravehicular activities (EVA) is exposed to the potential difference, then a possible electrical shock hazard arises. The control of this hazard was addressed by a number of documents within the ISS Program (ISSP) including Catastrophic Safety Hazard for Astronauts on EVA (ISS-EVA-312-4A_revE). The safety hazard identified the risk for an astronaut to experience an electrical shock in the event an arc was generated on an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) surface. A catastrophic safety hazard, by the ISS requirements, necessitates mitigation by a two-fault tolerant system of hazard controls. Traditionally, the plasma contactor units (PCUs) on the ISS have been used to limit the charging and serve as a "ground strap" between the ISS structure and the surrounding ionospheric plasma. In 2009, a previous NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) team evaluated the PCU utilization plan (NESC Request #07-054-E) with the objective to assess whether leaving PCUs off during non-EVA time periods presented risk to the ISS through assembly completion. For this study, in situ measurements of ISS charging, covering the installation of three of the four photovoltaic arrays, and laboratory testing results provided key data to underpin the assessment. The conclusion stated, "there appears to be no significant risk of damage to critical equipment nor excessive ISS thermal coating damage as a result of eliminating PCU operations during non- EVA times." In 2013, the ISSP was presented with recommendations from Boeing Space Environments for the "Conditional" Marginalization of Plasma Hazard. These recommendations include a plan that would keep the PCUs off during EVAs when the

  9. Rapid Culture-Independent Microbial Analysis Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Jake; Wainwright, Norm; Steele, Andrew; Monaco, Lisa; Morris, Heather; Gunter, Daniel; Damon, Michael; Wells, Mark

    2009-10-01

    A new culture-independent system for microbial monitoring, called the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS), was operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). LOCAD-PTS was launched to the ISS aboard Space Shuttle STS-116 on December 9, 2006, and has since been used by ISS crews to monitor endotoxin on cabin surfaces. Quantitative analysis was performed within 15 minutes, and sample return to Earth was not required. Endotoxin (a marker of Gram-negative bacteria and fungi) was distributed throughout the ISS, despite previous indications that most bacteria on ISS surfaces were Gram-positive. Endotoxin was detected at 24 out of 42 surface areas tested and at every surface site where colony-forming units (cfu) were observed, even at levels of 4-120 bacterial cfu per 100 cm2, which is below NASA in-flight requirements (dining facilities. Endotoxin was absent from airlock surfaces, except the Extravehicular Hatch Handle (>3.78 EU per 100 cm2). Based upon data collected from the ISS so far, new culture-independent requirements (defined in EU) are suggested, which are verifiable in flight with LOCAD-PTS yet high enough to avoid false alarms. The suggested requirements are intended to supplement current ISS requirements (defined in cfu) and would serve a dual purpose of safeguarding crew health (internal spacecraft surfaces <20 EU per 100 cm2) and monitoring forward contamination during Constellation missions (surfaces periodically exposed to the external environment, including the airlock and space suits, <0.24 EU per 100 cm2).

  10. Would Current International Space Station (ISS) Recycling Life Support Systems Save Mass on a Mars Transit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen and water are recycled on the International Space Station (ISS) to save the cost of launching their mass into orbit. Usually recycling systems are justified by showing that their launch mass would be much lower than the mass of the oxygen or water they produce. Short missions such as Apollo or space shuttle directly provide stored oxygen and water, since the needed total mass of oxygen and water is much less than that of there cycling equipment. Ten year or longer missions such as the ISS or a future moon base easily save mass by recycling while short missions of days or weeks do not. Mars transit and long Mars surface missions have an intermediate duration, typically one to one and a half years. Some of the current ISS recycling systems would save mass if used on a Mars transit but others would not.

  11. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T. O.; Pavelitz, S. D.; Coker, C.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The observations included measurements from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and its Optical Transient Detector (OTD) predecessor that acquired global observations of total lightning (i.e., intracloud and cloud-to-ground discharges) spanning a period from May 1995 through April 2015. As an exciting follow-on to these prior missions, a space-qualified LIS built as a flight-spare for TRMM will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) for a 2 year or longer mission, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense (DoD) Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission. The STP-H5 payload containing LIS is scheduled launch from NASA's Kennedy Space Center to the ISS in November 2016, aboard the SpaceX Cargo Resupply Services-10 (SpaceX-10) mission, installed in the unpressurized "trunk" of the Dragon spacecraft. After the Dragon is berth to ISS Node 2, the payload will be removed from the trunk and robotically installed in a nadir-viewing location on the external truss of the ISS. Following installation on the ISS, the LIS Operations Team will work with the STP-H5 and ISS Operations Teams to power-on LIS and begin instrument checkout and commissioning. Following successful activation, LIS orbital operations will commence, managed from the newly established LIS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) located at the National Space Science Technology Center (NSSTC) in Huntsville, AL. The well-established and robust processing, archival, and distribution infrastructure used for TRMM was easily adapted to the ISS mission, assuring that lightning

  12. A Selected Operational History of the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) for International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vipul P.; Winton, Dale; Ibarra, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    The Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) has been developed jointly by Boeing Corporation, Huntsville, Alabama and Honeywell Engines & Systems, Torrance, California to meet the internal thermal control needs for the International Space Station (ISS). The ITCS provides heat removal for the critical life support systems and thermal conditioning for numerous experiment racks. The ITCS will be fitted on a number of modules on the ISS. The first US Element containing the ITCS, Node 1, was launched in December 1998. Since Node 1 does not contain a pump to circulate the fluid it was not filled with ITCS fluid until after the US Laboratory Module was installed. The second US Element module, US Laboratory Module, which contains the pumps and all the major ITCS control hardware, was launched in February 2001. The third US Element containing the ITCS, the US Airlock, was launched in July 2001. The dual loop system of the ITCS is comprised of a lowtemperature loop (LTL) and a moderate-temperature loop (MTL). Each loop has a pump package assembly (PPA), a system flow control assembly (SFCA), a threeway mixing valve (TWMV), several rack flow control assemblies (RFCA), cold plates, pressure sensors, temperature sensors, pump bypass assembly (PBA) and a heat exchanger. In addition, the MTL has an additional TWMV, a payload regeneration heat exchanger (P/RHE) and a manual flow control valve (MFCV). The LTL has a service performance and checkout unit (SPCU) heat exchanger. The two loops are linked via one loop crossover assembly (LCA) providing cross loop capabilities and a single PPA, two-loop functionality. One important parameter monitored by the ground stations and on-orbit is the amount of fluid leakage from the ITCS. ISS fluid leakage is of importance since ITCS fluid is costly to re-supply, may be difficult to clean up in zero-g, and if uncontained could lead to equipment failures and potential hazards. This paper examines the nominal leakage observed over period of a year

  13. Report by the International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation (IMCE) Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. Thomas; Kellogg, Yvonne (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation Task Force (IMCE) was chartered to conduct an independent external review and assessment of the ISS cost, budget, and management. In addition, the Task Force was asked to provide recommendations that could provide maximum benefit to the U.S. taxpayers and the International Partners within the President's budget request. The Task Force has made the following principal findings: (1) The ISS Program's technical achievements to date, as represented by on-orbit capability, are extraordinary; (2) The Existing ISS Program Plan for executing the FY 02-06 budget is not credible; (3) The existing deficiencies in management structure, institutional culture, cost estimating, and program control must be acknowledged and corrected for the Program to move forward in a credible fashion; (4) Additional budget flexibility, from within the Office of Space Flight (OSF) must be provided for a credible core complete program; (5) The research support program is proceeding assuming the budget that was in place before the FY02 budget runout reduction of $1B; (6) There are opportunities to maximize research on the core station program with modest cost impact; (7) The U.S. Core Complete configuration (three person crew) as an end-state will not achieve the unique research potential of the ISS; (8) The cost estimates for the U.S.-funded enhancement options (e.g., permanent seven person crew) are not sufficiently developed to assess credibility. After these findings, the Task Force has formulated several primary recommendations which are published here and include: (1) Major changes must be made in how the ISS program is managed; (2) Additional cost reductions are required within the baseline program; (3) Additional funds must be identified and applied from the Human Space Flight budget; (4) A clearly defined program with a credible end-state, agreed to by all stakeholders, must be developed and implemented.

  14. International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) New Biocide Selection, Qualification and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold E.; Rector, Tony; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) is primarily responsible for the removal of heat loads from payload and system racks. The IATCS is a water based system which works in conjunction with the EATCS (External ATCS), an ammonia based system, which are interfaced through a heat exchanger to facilitate heat transfer. On-orbit issues associated with the aqueous coolant chemistry began to occur with unexpected increases in CO2 levels in the cabin. This caused an increase in total inorganic carbon (TIC), a reduction in coolant pH, increased corrosion, and precipitation of nickel phosphate. These chemical changes were also accompanied by the growth of heterotrophic bacteria that increased risk to the system and could potentially impact crew health and safety. Studies were conducted to select a biocide to control microbial growth in the system based on requirements for disinfection at low chemical concentration (effectiveness), solubility and stability, material compatibility, low toxicity to humans, compatibility with vehicle environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS), ease of application, rapid on-orbit measurement, and removal capability. Based on these requirements, ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), an aromatic dialdehyde compound, was selected for qualification testing. This paper presents the OPA qualification test results, development of hardware and methodology to safely apply OPA to the system, development of a means to remove OPA, development of a rapid colorimetric test for measurement of OPA, and the OPA on-orbit performance for controlling the growth of microorganisms in the ISS IATCS since November 3, 2007.

  15. Establishing a Distance Learning Plan for International Space Station (ISS) Interactive Video Education Events (IVEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Clint

    1999-01-01

    Educational outreach is an integral part of the International Space Station (ISS) mandate. In a few scant years, the International Space Station has already established a tradition of successful, general outreach activities. However, as the number of outreach events increased and began to reach school classrooms, those events came under greater scrutiny by the education community. Some of the ISS electronic field trips, while informative and helpful, did not meet the generally accepted criteria for education events, especially within the context of the classroom. To make classroom outreach events more acceptable to educators, the ISS outreach program must differentiate between communication events (meant to disseminate information to the general public) and education events (designed to facilitate student learning). In contrast to communication events, education events: are directed toward a relatively homogeneous audience who are gathered together for the purpose of learning, have specific performance objectives which the students are expected to master, include a method of assessing student performance, and include a series of structured activities that will help the students to master the desired skill(s). The core of the ISS education events is an interactive videoconference between students and ISS representatives. This interactive videoconference is to be preceded by and followed by classroom activities which help the students aftain the specified learning objectives. Using the interactive videoconference as the centerpiece of the education event lends a special excitement and allows students to ask questions about what they are learning and about the International Space Station and NASA. Whenever possible, the ISS outreach education events should be congruent with national guidelines for student achievement. ISS outreach staff should recognize that there are a number of different groups that will review the events, and that each group has different criteria

  16. International Space Station (ISS) Gas Logistics Planning in the Post Shuttle Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Daniel J.; Cook, Anthony J.; Lehman, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Over its life the International Space Station (ISS) has received gas (nitrogen, oxygen, and air) from various sources. Nitrogen and oxygen are used in the cabin to maintain total pressure and oxygen partial pressures within the cabin. Plumbed nitrogen is also required to support on-board experiments and medical equipment. Additionally, plumbed oxygen is required to support medical equipment as well as emergency masks and most importantly EVA support. Gas are supplied to ISS with various methods and vehicles. Vehicles like the Progress and ATV deliver nitrogen (both as a pure gas and as air) and oxygen via direct releases into the cabin. An additional source of nitrogen and oxygen is via tanks on the ISS Airlock. The Airlock nitrogen and oxygen tanks can deliver to various users via pressurized systems that run throughout the ISS except for the Russian segment. Metabolic oxygen is mainly supplied via cabin release from the Elektron and Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), which are water electrolyzers. As a backup system, oxygen candles (Solid Fuel Oxygen Generators-SFOGs) supply oxygen to the cabin as well. In the past, a major source of nitrogen and oxygen has come from the Shuttle via both direct delivery to the cabin as well as to recharge the ISS Airlock tanks. To replace the Shuttle capability to recharge the ISS Airlock tanks, a new system was developed called Nitrogen/Oxygen Recharge System (NORS). NIORS consists of high pressure (7000 psi) tanks which recharge the ISS Airlock tanks via a blowdown fill for both nitrogen and oxygen. NORS tanks can be brought up on most logistics vehicles such as the HTV, COTS, and ATV. A proper balance must be maintained to insure sufficient gas resources are available on-orbit so that all users have the required gases via the proper delivery method (cabin and/or plumbed).

  17. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking for the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Adam; Willman, Brett M.; Pitts, Lee; Davidson, Suzanne R.; Pohlchuck, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) is an emerging data networking technology designed to abstract the hardware communication layer from the spacecraft/payload computing resources. DTN is specifically designed to operate in environments where link delays and disruptions are common (e.g., space-based networks). The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has demonstrated DTN on several missions, such as the Deep Impact Networking (DINET) experiment, the Earth Observing Mission 1 (EO-1) and the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD). To further the maturation of DTN, NASA is implementing DTN protocols on the International Space Station (ISS). This paper explains the architecture of the ISS DTN network, the operational support for the system, the results from integrated ground testing, and the future work for DTN expansion.

  18. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  19. Progress in Spacecraft Environment Interactions: International Space Station (ISS) Development and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve; Suggs, Robb; Schneider, Todd; Minow, Joe; Alred, John; Cooke, Bill; Mikatarian, Ron; Kramer, Leonard; Boeder, paul; Soares, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    The set of spacecraft interactions with the space flight environment that have produced the largest impacts on the design, verification, and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) Program during the May 2000 to May 2007 time frame are the focus of this paper. In-flight data, flight crew observations, and the results of ground-based test and analysis directly supporting programmatic and operational decision-making are reported as are the analysis and simulation efforts that have led to new knowledge and capabilities supporting current and future space explorations programs. The specific spacecraft-environment interactions that have had the greatest impact on ISS Program activities during the first several years of flight are: 1) spacecraft charging, 2) micrometeoroids and orbital debris effects, 3) ionizing radiation (both total dose to materials and single event effects [SEE] on avionics), 4) hypergolic rocket engine plume impingement effects, 5) venting/dumping of liquids, 6) spacecraft contamination effects, 7) neutral atmosphere and atomic oxygen effects, 8) satellite drag effects, and 9) solar ultraviolet effects. Orbital inclination (51.6deg) and altitude (nominally between 350 km and 460 km) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the performance and reliability of materials and systems on ISS. ISS operates in the F2 region of Earth s ionosphere in well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other ionospheric plasma species, solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays. The micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an important determinant of spacecraft design and operations in any orbital inclination. The induced environment results from ISS interactions with the natural environment as well as environmental factors produced by ISS itself and visiting vehicles. Examples include ram-wake effects, hypergolic thruster plume impingement, materials out-gassing, venting

  20. Russian system of countermeasures on board of the International Space Station (ISS): the first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

    2004-08-01

    The system of countermeasures used by Russian cosmonauts in space flights on board of International Space Station (ISS) was based on the developed and tested in flights on board of Russian space stations. It included as primary components: physical methods aimed to maintain the distribution of fluids at levels close to those experienced on Earth; physical exercises and loading suits aimed to load the musculoskeletal and the cardiovascular systems; measures that prevent the loss of fluids, mainly, water-salt additives which aid to maintain orthostatic tolerance and endurance to gravitational overloads during the return to Earth; well-balanced diet and medications directed to correct possible negative reactions of the body to weightlessness. Fulfillment of countermeasure's protocols inflight was thoroughly controlled. Efficacy of countermeasures used were assessed both in-and postflight. The results of studies showed that degrees of alterations recorded in different physiological systems after ISS space flights in Russian cosmonauts were significantly higher than those recorded after flights on the Russian space stations. This phenomenon was caused by the failure of the ISS crews to execute fully the prescribed countermeasures' protocols which was as a rule excused by technical imperfectness of exercise facilities, treadmill TVIS particularly.

  1. Expansion of Microbial Monitoring Capabilities on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadad, Christina L.; Oubre, Cherie; Castro, Victoria; Flint, Stephanie; Melendez, Orlando; Ott, C. Mark; Roman, Monsi

    2017-01-01

    Microbial monitoring is one of the tools that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) uses on the International Space Station (ISS) to help maintain crew health and safety. In combination with regular housekeeping and disinfection when needed, microbial monitoring provides important information to the crew about the quality of the environment. Rotation of astronauts, equipment, and cargo on the ISS can affect the microbial load in the air, surfaces, and water. The current ISS microbial monitoring methods are focused on culture-based enumeration during flight and require a significant amount of crew time as well as long incubation periods of up to 5 days there by proliferating potential pathogens. In addition, the samples require return to Earth for complete identification of the microorganisms cultivated. Although the current approach assess the quality of the ISS environment, molecular technology offers faster turn-around of information particularly beneficial in an off-nominal situation. In 2011, subject matter experts from industry and academia recommended implementation of molecular-based technologies such as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for evaluation to replace current, culture-based technologies. The RAZOR EX (BioFire Defense, Inc, Salt Lake City, UT) a ruggedized, compact, COTS (commercial off the shelf) qPCR instrument was tested, evaluated and selected in the 2 X 2015 JSC rapid flight hardware demonstration initiative as part of the Water Monitoring Suite. RAZOR EX was launched to ISS on SpaceX-9 in July 2016 to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the hardware by testing various concentrations of DNA in microgravity compared to ground controls. Flight testing was completed between September 2016 and March 2017. Data presented will detail the hardware performance of flight testing results compared to ground controls. Future goals include additional operational ground-based testing and assay development to

  2. Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass for the International Space Station (ISS-CREAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, E. S.; Anderson, T.; Angelaszek, D.; Baek, S. J.; Baylon, J.; Buénerd, M.; Copley, M.; Coutu, S.; Derome, L.; Fields, B.; Gupta, M.; Han, J. H.; Howley, I. J.; Huh, H. G.; Hwang, Y. S.; Hyun, H. J.; Jeong, I. S.; Kah, D. H.; Kang, K. H.; Kim, D. Y.; Kim, H. J.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, M. H.; Kwashnak, K.; Lee, J.; Lee, M. H.; Link, J. T.; Lutz, L.; Malinin, A.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mitchell, J. W.; Nutter, S.; Ofoha, O.; Park, H.; Park, I. H.; Park, J. M.; Patterson, P.; Smith, J. R.; Wu, J.; Yoon, Y. S.

    2014-05-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) instrument is configured with a suite of particle detectors to measure TeV cosmic-ray elemental spectra from protons to iron nuclei over a wide energy range. The goal is to extend direct measurements of cosmic-ray composition to the highest energies practical, and thereby have enough overlap with ground based indirect measurements to answer questions on cosmic-ray origin, acceleration and propagation. The balloon-borne CREAM was flown successfully for about 161 days in six flights over Antarctica to measure elemental spectra of Z = 1-26 nuclei over the energy range 1010 to >1014 eV. Transforming the balloon instrument into ISS-CREAM involves identification and replacement of components that would be at risk in the International Space Station (ISS) environment, in addition to assessing safety and mission assurance concerns. The transformation process includes rigorous testing of components to reduce risks and increase survivability on the launch vehicle and operations on the ISS without negatively impacting the heritage of the successful CREAM design. The project status, including results from the ongoing analysis of existing data and, particularly, plans to increase the exposure factor by another order of magnitude utilizing the International Space Station are presented.

  3. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) on the International Space Station (ISS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Gasbarre, Joseph; Eckman, Richard; Topiwala, Nandkishore; Rodriquez-Alvarez, Otilia; Cheek, Dianne; Hall, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will provide the science community with high-vertical resolution and nearly global observations of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gas species in the stratosphere and upper-troposphere. SAGE III/ISS measurements will extend the long-term Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) and SAGE data record begun in the 1970s. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are considered the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Key objectives of the mission are to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to re-establish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The space station mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. The SAGE III instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring atmospheric constituents with high vertical resolution. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm. Science data is collected in solar occultation mode, lunar occultation mode, and limb scatter measurement mode. A SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle will provide access to space. Mounted in the unpressurized section of the Dragon trunk, SAGE III will be robotically removed from the Dragon and installed on the space station. SAGE III/ISS will be mounted to the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier-4 (ELC-4) location on the starboard side of the station. To facilitate a nadir view from this location, a Nadir Viewing Platform (NVP) payload was developed which mounts between the carrier and the SAGE III Instrument Payload (IP).

  4. International Space Station (ISS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) Beverage Adapter (BA) Redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerly, Rachel; Benoit, Jace; Shindo, David

    2011-01-01

    The Potable Water Dispenser used on the International Space Station (ISS) interfaces with food and drink packages using the Beverage Adapter and Needle. Unexpected leakage has been seen in this interface. The Beverage Adapter used on-orbit was returned to the ground for Test, Teardown, and Evaluation. The results of that investigation prompted a redesign of the Beverage Adapter and Needle. The Beverage Adapter materials will be changed to be more corrosion resistant, and the Needle will be redesigned to preclude leakage. The redesigns have been tested and proven.

  5. Synchronized Position and Hold Reorient Experimental Satellites - International Space Station (SPHERES-ISS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. (PSI) and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory (MIT-SSL) propose an innovative research program entitled SPHERES-ISS that uses their satellite...

  6. International Space Station environmental microbiome - microbial inventories of ISS filter debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Vaishampayan, Parag; Cisneros, Jessica; Pierson, Duane L; Rogers, Scott O; Perry, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Despite an expanding array of molecular approaches for detecting microorganisms in a given sample, rapid and robust means of assessing the differential viability of the microbial cells, as a function of phylogenetic lineage, remain elusive. A propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment coupled with downstream quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and pyrosequencing analyses was carried out to better understand the frequency, diversity, and distribution of viable microorganisms associated with debris collected from the crew quarters of the International Space Station (ISS). The cultured bacterial counts were more in the ISS samples than cultured fungal population. The rapid molecular analyses targeted to estimate viable population exhibited 5-fold increase in bacterial (qPCR-PMA assay) and 25-fold increase in microbial (adenosine triphosphate assay) burden than the cultured bacterial population. The ribosomal nucleic acid-based identification of cultivated strains revealed the presence of only four to eight bacterial species in the ISS samples, however, the viable bacterial diversity detected by the PMA-pyrosequencing method was far more diverse (12 to 23 bacterial taxa) with the majority consisting of members of actinobacterial genera (Propionibacterium, Corynebacterium) and Staphylococcus. Sample fractions not treated with PMA (inclusive of both live and dead cells) yielded a great abundance of highly diverse bacterial (94 to 118 taxa) and fungal lineages (41 taxa). Even though deep sequencing capability of the molecular analysis widened the understanding about the microbial diversity, the cultivation assay also proved to be essential since some of the spore-forming microorganisms were detected only by the culture-based method. Presented here are the findings of the first comprehensive effort to assess the viability of microbial cells associated with ISS surfaces, and correlate differential viability with phylogenetic affiliation.

  7. Evolution of International Space Station GN&C System Across ISS Assembly Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roscoe; Frank, K. D. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) system for the International Space Station is initially implemented by the Functional Cargo Block (FGB) which was built by the Khrunichev Space Center under direct contract to Boeing. This element (Stage 1A/R) was launched on 20 November 1998 and is currently operating on-orbit. The components and capabilities of the FGB Motion Control System (MCS) are described. The next ISS element, which has GN&C functionality will be the Service Module (SM) built by Rocket Space Corporation-Energia. This module is scheduled for launch (Stage 1R) in early 2000. Following activation of the SM GN&C system, the FGB MCS is deactivated and no longer used. The components and capabilities of the SM GN&C system are described. When a Progress vehicle is attached to the ISS it can be used for reboost operations, based on commands provided by the Mission Control Center-Moscow. When a data connection is implemented between the SM and the Progress, the SM can command the Progress thrusters for attitude control and reboosts. On Stage 5A, the U.S. GN&C system will become activated when the U.S. Laboratory is de loyed and installed (launch schedule is currently TBD). The U.S. GN&C system provides non-propulsive control capabilities to support micro-gravity operations and minimize the use of propellant for attitude control, and an independent capability for determining the ISS state vector, attitude, attitude rate. and time.. The components and capabilities of the U.S. GN&C system are described and the interactions between the U.S. and Russian Segment GN&C systems are also described.

  8. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and International Space Station (ISS) Coordination for CubeSat Deployments to Minimize Collision Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, J.; Aviles, J.; Myers, R.; Parris, J.; Corley, B.; Hehn, G.; Pascucci, J.

    2016-09-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe global precipitation, extending the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), which was launched by H-IIA from Tanegashima in Japan on February 28TH, 2014 directly into its 407km operational orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an international human research facility operated jointly by Russia and the USA from NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston Texas. Mission priorities lowered the operating altitude of ISS from 415km to 400km in early 2015, effectively placing both vehicles into the same orbital regime. The ISS has begun a program of deployments of cost effective CubeSats from the ISS that allow testing and validation of new technologies. With a major new asset flying at the same effective altitude as the ISS, CubeSat deployments became a serious threat to GPM and therefore a significant indirect threat to the ISS. This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.

  9. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and International Space Station (ISS) Coordination for CubeSat Deployments to Minimize Collision Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, James H.; Aviles, Jorge; Myers, Ralph; Parris, Joshua; Corley, Bryan; Hehn, Garrett; Pascucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe global precipitation, extending the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), which was launched by H-IIA from Tanegashima in Japan on February 28TH, 2014 directly into its 407km operational orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an international human research facility operated jointly by Russia and the USA from NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston Texas. Mission priorities lowered the operating altitude of ISS from 415km to 400km in early 2105, effectively placing both vehicles into the same orbital regime. The ISS has begun a program of deployments of cost effective CubeSats from the ISS that allow testing and validation of new technologies. With a major new asset flying at the same effective altitude as the ISS, CubeSat deployments became a serious threat to GPM and therefore a significant indirect threat to the ISS. This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.

  10. The SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbow, E.; Rettberg, P.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Horneck, G.

    In the 21 st century, an increasing number of astronauts will visit the International Space Station (ISS) for prolonged times. Therefore it is of utmost importance to provide necessary basic knowledge concerning risks to their health and their ability to work on the station and during extravehicular activities (EVA) in free space. It is the aim of one experiment of the German project TRIPLE-LUX (to be flown on the ISS) to provide an estimation of health risk resulting from exposure of the astronauts to the radiation in space inside the station as well as during extravehicular activities on one hand, and of exposure of astronauts to unavoidable or as yet unknown ISS-environmental genotoxic substances on the other. The project will (i) provide increased knowledge of the biological action of space radiation and enzymatic repair of DNA damage, (ii) uncover cellular mechanisms of synergistic interaction of microgravity and space radiation and (iii) examine the space craft milieu with highly specific biosensors. For these investigations, the bacterial biosensor SOS-LUX-LAC-FLUORO-Toxicity-test will be used, combining the SOS-LUX-Test invented at DLR Germany (Patent) with the commercially available LAC-FLUORO-Test. The SOS-LUX-Test comprises genetically modified bacteria transformed with the pBR322-derived plasmid pPLS-1. This plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as a reporter element under control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element. This system reacts to radiation and other agents that induce DNA damages with a dose dependent measurable emission of bioluminescence of the transformed bacteria. The analogous LAC-FLUORO-Test has been developed for the detection of cellular responses to cytotoxins. It is based on the constitutive expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) mediated by the bacterial protein expression vector pGFPuv (Clontech, Palo Alto, USA). In response to cytotoxic agents, this system

  11. LOBSTER-ISS: an imaging x-ray all-sky monitor for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, George W.; Brunton, Adam N.; Bannister, Nigel P.; Pearson, James F.; Ward, Martin; Stevenson, Tim J.; Watson, D. J.; Warwick, Bob; Whitehead, S.; O'Brian, Paul; White, Nicholas; Jahoda, Keith; Black, Kevin; Hunter, Stanley D.; Deines-Jones, Phil; Priedhorsky, William C.; Brumby, Steven P.; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Vestrand, T.; Fabian, A. C.; Nugent, Keith A.; Peele, Andrew G.; Irving, Thomas H.; Price, Steve; Eckersley, Steve; Renouf, Ian; Smith, Mark; Parmar, Arvind N.; McHardy, I. M.; Uttley, P.; Lawrence, A.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the design of Lobster-ISS, an X-ray imaging all-sky monitor (ASM) to be flown as an attached payload on the International Space Station. Lobster-ISS is the subject of an ESA Phase-A study which will begin in December 2001. With an instantaneous field of view 162 x 22.5 degrees, Lobster-ISS will map almost the complete sky every 90 minute ISS orbit, generating a confusion-limited catalogue of ~250,000 sources every 2 months. Lobster-ISS will use focusing microchannel plate optics and imaging gas proportional micro-well detectors; work is currently underway to improve the MCP optics and to develop proportional counter windows with enhanced transmission and negligible rates of gas leakage, thus improving instrument throughput and reducing mass. Lobster-ISS provides an order of magnitude improvement in the sensitivity of X-ray ASMs, and will, for the first time, provide continuous monitoring of the sky in the soft X-ray region (0.1-3.5 keV). Lobster-ISS provides long term monitoring of all classes of variable X-ray source, and an essential alert facility, with rapid detection of transient X-ray sources such as Gamma-Ray Burst afterglows being relayed to contemporary pointed X-ray observatories. The mission, with a nominal lifetime of 3 years, is scheduled for launch on the Shuttle c.2009.

  12. International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System Overview of Events: 2010-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Gregory J.; Cover, John

    2015-01-01

    Nov 2, 2014 marked the completion of the 14th year of continuous human presence in space on board the International Space Station (ISS). After 42 expedition crews, over 115 assembly & utilization flights, over 180 combined Shuttle/Station, US & Russian Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), the post-Assembly-Complete ISS continues to fly and the engineering teams continue to learn from operating its systems, particularly the life support equipment. Problems with initial launch, assembly and activation of ISS elements have given way to more long term system operating trends. New issues have emerged, some with gestation periods measured in years. Major events and challenges for each U.S. Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) subsystem occurring during calendar years 2010 through 2014 are summarily discussed in this paper, along with look-aheads for what might be coming in the future for each U.S. ECLS subsystem.

  13. Flight model performances of HISUI hyperspectral sensor onboard ISS (International Space Station)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanii, Jun; Kashimura, Osamu; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Akira

    2016-10-01

    Hyperspectral Imager Suite (HISUI) is a next-generation Japanese sensor that will be mounted on Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of ISS (International Space Station) in 2019 as timeframe. HISUI hyperspectral sensor obtains spectral images of 185 bands with the ground sampling distance of 20x31 meter from the visible to shortwave-infrared region. The sensor system is the follow-on mission of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) in the visible to shortwave infrared region. The critical design review of the instrument was accomplished in 2014. Integration and tests of an flight model of HISUI hyperspectral sensor is being carried out. Simultaneously, the development of JEM-External Facility (EF) Payload system for the instrument started. The system includes the structure, the thermal control system, the electrical system and the pointing mechanism. The development status and the performances including some of the tests results of Instrument flight model, such as optical performance, optical distortion and radiometric performance are reported.

  14. Realtime Knowledge Management (RKM): From an International Space Station (ISS) Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter I.; McDermott, William; Alena, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing automated methods to provide realtime access to spacecraft domain knowledge relevant a spacecraft's current operational state. The method is based upon analyzing state-transition signatures in the telemetry stream. A key insight is that documentation relevant to a specific failure mode or operational state is related to the structure and function of spacecraft systems. This means that diagnostic dependency and state models can provide a roadmap for effective documentation navigation and presentation. Diagnostic models consume the telemetry and derive a high-level state description of the spacecraft. Each potential spacecraft state description is matched against the predictions of models that were developed from information found in the pages and sections in the relevant International Space Station (ISS) documentation and reference materials. By annotating each model fragment with the domain knowledge sources from which it was derived we can develop a system that automatically selects those documents representing the domain knowledge encapsulated by the models that compute the current spacecraft state. In this manner, when the spacecraft state changes, the relevant documentation context and presentation will also change.

  15. International Space Station (ISS) S-Band Corona Discharge Anomaly Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichak, Robert A.; Leidecker, Henning; Battel, Steven; Ruitberg, Arthur; Sank, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The Assembly and Contingency Radio Frequency Group (ACRFG) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is used for command and control communications and transmits (45 dBm or 32 watts) and receives at S-band. The system is nominally pressurized with gaseous helium (He) and nitrogen (N2) at 8 pounds per square inch absolute (psia). MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA) was engaged to analyze the operational characteristics of this unit in an effort to determine if the anomalous behavior was a result of a corona event. Based on this analysis, MDA did not recommend continued use of this ACRFG. The NESC was requested to provide expert support in the area of high-voltage corona and multipactoring in an S-Band RF system and to assess the probability of corona occurring in the ACRFG during the planned EVA. The NESC recommended minimal continued use of S/N 002 ACRFG until a replacement unit can be installed. Following replacement, S/N 002 will be subjected to destructive failure analysis in an effort to determine the proximate and root cause(s) of the anomalous behavior.

  16. Lightning Observations from the International Space Station (ISS) for Science Research and Operational Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T.; hide

    2015-01-01

    There exist several core science applications of LIS lightning observations, that range from weather and climate to atmospheric chemistry and lightning physics due to strong quantitative connections that can be made between lightning and other geophysical processes of interest. The space-base vantage point, such as provided by ISS LIS, still remains an ideal location to obtain total lightning observations on a global basis.

  17. GEROS-ISS: Innovative Ocean Remote Sensing using GNSS Reflectometry onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Jens; Andersen, Ole; Beyerle, Georg; Chapron, Bertrand; Cardellach, Estel; Gommenginger, Christine; Hoeg, Per; Jäggi, Adrian; Jakowski, Norbert; Kern, Michael; Lee, Tony; Martin-Neira, Manuel; Pierdicca, Nazzareno; Shum, Ck; Zuffada, Cinzia

    2014-05-01

    In response to an European Space Agency (ESA) announcement of opportunity the GEROS-ISS (GEROS hereafter) proposal was submitted in 2011 and accepted by ESA to proceed to Phase A. GEROS-ISS is an innovative ISS experiment primarily focused on exploiting reflected signals of opportunity from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) at L-band to measure key parameters of ocean surfaces. Secondary mission goals are remote sensing of land/ice surface parameters and global atmosphere and ionosphere observations using the GNSS radio occultation technique. GEROS will pioneer the exploitation of signals from Galileo and possibly other GNSS systems (GLONASS, QZSS, Beidou), for reflectometry and occultation, thereby improving the accuracy as well as the spatio-temporal resolution of the derived geophysical properties. GEROS will contribute to the long-term S.I. traceable observation of the variations of major climate components of the Earth System: Oceans/Hydrosphere, Cryosphere/Snow, Atmosphere/Ionosphere and solid Earth/landcover changes with innovative and complementary aspects compared to current Earth Observation satellite missions. GEROS will mainly provide mid- and low-latitude observations on submesoscale or longer oceanic variability with a focus on the coastal region, surface ocean currents, surface winds, wave heights for a period of at least ten years. These observations will lead to a better understanding of the climate system. GEROS takes advantage of the capacious infrastructure onboard the ISS for the payload setup. GEROS also provides a sensor calibration/validation option for other upcoming satellite missions including ISS-RapidScatt, CYGNSS and FormoSAT-7/COSMIC-II. The definition of the GEROS mission and system requirements was completed end of 2013 and the industrial phase A studies are expected to start in early 2014. We overview the GEROS mission and review the status of the experiment.

  18. Rapid culture-independent microbial analysis aboard the international space station (ISS) stage two: quantifying three microbial biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Heather C; Damon, Michael; Maule, Jake; Monaco, Lisa A; Wainwright, Norm

    2012-09-01

    Abstract A portable, rapid, microbial detection unit, the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS), was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) as a technology demonstration unit in December 2006. Results from the first series of experiments designed to detect Gram-negative bacteria on ISS surfaces by quantifying a single microbial biomarker lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were reported in a previous article. Herein, we report additional technology demonstration experiments expanding the on-orbit capabilities of the LOCAD-PTS to detecting three different microbial biomarkers on ISS surfaces. Six different astronauts on more than 20 occasions participated in these experiments, which were designed to test the new beta-glucan (fungal cell wall molecule) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA; Gram-positive bacterial cell wall component) cartridges individually and in tandem with the existing Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL; Gram-negative bacterial LPS detection) cartridges. Additionally, we conducted the sampling side by side with the standard culture-based detection method currently used on the ISS. Therefore, we present data on the distribution of three microbial biomarkers collected from various surfaces in every module present on the ISS at the time of sampling. In accordance with our previous experiments, we determined that spacecraft surfaces known to be frequently in contact with crew members demonstrated higher values of all three microbial molecules. Key Words: Planetary protection-Spaceflight-Microbiology-Biosensor. Astrobiology 12, 830-840.

  19. LOCAD-PTS: Operation of a New System for Microbial Monitoring Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Danibm N,; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; Monaco, L.

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms within the space stations Salyut, Mir and the International Space Station (ISS), have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growing environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies; and return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. This approach has provided a wealth of useful data and enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach is also limited by the following: i) More than 95% microorganisms in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags occur between onboard sampling and colony visualization (3-5 days) and ground-based analysis (as long as several months); iii) Colonies are often difficult to visualize due to condensation within contact slide media plates; and iv) Techniques involve growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and -1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and fungi, respectively. This technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device. This handheld device and sampling system is known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). A poster will be presented that describes a comparative study between LOCAD-PTS analysis and existing culture-based methods onboard the ISS; together with an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin throughout the ISS. It is concluded that while a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not necessarily be expected, a combinatorial approach can be adopted where both sets of data are used together to generate a more complete story of

  20. International Space Station (ISS) External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM) Jettison Options Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, Daniel G.; Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Powell, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    On December 11, 2013, the International Space Station (ISS) experienced a failure of the External Thermal Control System (ETCS) Loop A Pump Module (PM). To minimize the number of extravehicular activities (EVA) required to replace the PM, jettisoning the faulty pump was evaluated. The objective of this study was to independently evaluate the jettison options considered by the ISS Trajectory Operations Officer (TOPO) and to provide recommendations for safe jettison of the ETCS Loop A PM. The simulation selected to evaluate the TOPO options was the NASA Engineering and Safety Center's (NESC) version of Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) developed to support another NESC assessment. The objective of the jettison analysis was twofold: (1) to independently verify TOPO posigrade and retrograde jettison results, and (2) to determine jettison guidelines based on additional sensitivity, trade study, and Monte Carlo (MC) analysis that would prevent PM recontact. Recontact in this study designates a propagated PM trajectory that comes within 500 m of the ISS propagated trajectory. An additional simulation using Systems Tool Kit (STK) was run for independent verification of the POST2 simulation results. Ultimately, the ISS Program removed the PM jettison option from consideration. However, prior to the Program decision, the retrograde jettison option remained part of the EVA contingency plan. The jettison analysis presented showed that, in addition to separation velocity/direction and the atmosphere conditions, the key variables in determining the time to recontact the ISS is highly dependent on the ballistic number (BN) difference between the object being jettisoned and the ISS.

  1. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Drop Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.; Berger, Gordon M.; Perry, Jay L.

    2017-01-01

    The air quality control equipment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and future deep space exploration vehicles provide the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Seg-ment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. In our previous work, we presented results of efficiency and pressure drop measurements for a sample set of two returned BFEs with a service life of 2.5 years. In this follow-on work, we present similar efficiency, pressure drop, and leak tests results for a larger sample set of six returned BFEs. The results of this work can aid the ISS Program in managing BFE logistics inventory through the stations planned lifetime as well as provide insight for managing filter element logistics for future exploration missions. These results also can provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  2. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Space Environments Engineering and Crew Auroral Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph; Pettit, Donald R.; Hartman, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Today s presentation describes how real time space weather data is used by the International Space Station (ISS) space environments team to obtain data on auroral charging of the ISS vehicle and support ISS crew efforts to obtain auroral images from orbit. Topics covered include: Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), . Auroral charging of ISS, . Real ]time space weather monitoring resources, . Examples of ISS auroral charging captured from space weather events, . ISS crew observations of aurora.

  3. Materials Science Experiment Module Accommodation within the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, D. B.; Jayroe, R. R.; McCarley, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack I (MSRR-1) of the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) is a modular facility designed to accommodate two Experiment Modules (EM) simultaneously on board the International Space Station (ISS). One of these EMs will be the NASA/ESA EM being, developed collaboratively by NASA and the European Space Agency. The other EM position will be occupied by various multi-user EMs that will be exchanged in-orbit to accommodate a variety of materials science investigations. This paper discusses the resources, services, and allocations available to the EMs and briefly describes performance capabilities of the EMs currently planned for flight.

  4. Rapid Monitoring of Bacteria and Fungi aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, D.; Flores, G.; Effinger, M.; Maule, J.; Wainwright, N.; Steele, A.; Damon, M.; Wells, M.; Williams, S.; Morris, H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms within spacecraft have traditionally been monitored with culture-based techniques. These techniques involve growth of environmental samples (cabin water, air or surfaces) on agar-type media for several days, followed by visualization of resulting colonies or return of samples to Earth for ground-based analysis. Data obtained over the past 4 decades have enhanced our understanding of the microbial ecology within space stations. However, the approach has been limited by the following factors: i) Many microorganisms (estimated > 95%) in the environment cannot grow on conventional growth media; ii) Significant time lags (3-5 days for incubation and up to several months to return samples to ground); iii) Condensation in contact slides hinders colony counting by crew; and iv) Growth of potentially harmful microorganisms, which must then be disposed of safely. This report describes the operation of a new culture-independent technique onboard the ISS for rapid analysis (within minutes) of endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan, found in the cell walls of gramnegative bacteria and fungi, respectively. The technique involves analysis of environmental samples with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay in a handheld device, known as the Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development Portable Test System (LOCAD-PTS). LOCADPTS was launched to the ISS in December 2006, and here we present data obtained from Mach 2007 until the present day. These data include a comparative study between LOCADPTS analysis and existing culture-based methods; and an exploratory survey of surface endotoxin and beta-1, 3-glucan throughout the ISS. While a general correlation between LOCAD-PTS and traditional culture-based methods should not be expected, we will suggest new requirements for microbial monitoring based upon culture-independent parameters measured by LOCAD-PTS.

  5. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: long-term dose monitoring onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on Earth, consisting mostly of highly energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on Earth for occupational radiation workers. Since the beginning of the space era, the radiation exposure during space missions has been monitored with various active and passive radiation instruments. Also onboard the International Space Station (ISS, a number of area monitoring devices provide data related to the spatial and temporal variation of the radiation field in and outside the ISS. The aim of the DOSIS (2009–2011 and the DOSIS 3D (2012–ongoing experiments was and is to measure the radiation environment within the European Columbus Laboratory of the ISS. These measurements are, on the one hand, performed with passive radiation detectors mounted at 11 locations within Columbus for the determination of the spatial distribution of the radiation field parameters and, on the other, with two active radiation detectors mounted at a fixed position inside Columbus for the determination of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. Data measured with passive radiation detectors showed that the absorbed dose values inside the Columbus Laboratory follow a pattern, based on the local shielding configuration of the radiation detectors, with minimum dose values observed in the year 2010 of 195–270 μGy/day and maximum values observed in the year 2012 with values ranging from 260 to 360 μGy/day. The absorbed dose is modulated by (a the variation in solar activity and (b the changes in ISS altitude.

  6. DOSIS & DOSIS 3D: long-term dose monitoring onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Przybyla, Bartos; Matthiä, Daniel; Reitz, Günther; Burmeister, Sönke; Labrenz, Johannes; Bilski, Pawel; Horwacik, Tomasz; Twardak, Anna; Hajek, Michael; Fugger, Manfred; Hofstätter, Christina; Sihver, Lembit; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Szabo, Julianna; Stradi, Andrea; Ambrozova, Iva; Kubancak, Jan; Brabcova, Katerina Pachnerova; Vanhavere, Filip; Cauwels, Vanessa; Van Hoey, Olivier; Schoonjans, Werner; Parisi, Alessio; Gaza, Ramona; Semones, Edward; Yukihara, Eduardo G.; Benton, Eric R.; Doull, Brandon A.; Uchihori, Yukio; Kodaira, Satoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Boehme, Matthias

    2016-11-01

    The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on Earth, consisting mostly of highly energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on Earth for occupational radiation workers. Since the beginning of the space era, the radiation exposure during space missions has been monitored with various active and passive radiation instruments. Also onboard the International Space Station (ISS), a number of area monitoring devices provide data related to the spatial and temporal variation of the radiation field in and outside the ISS. The aim of the DOSIS (2009-2011) and the DOSIS 3D (2012-ongoing) experiments was and is to measure the radiation environment within the European Columbus Laboratory of the ISS. These measurements are, on the one hand, performed with passive radiation detectors mounted at 11 locations within Columbus for the determination of the spatial distribution of the radiation field parameters and, on the other, with two active radiation detectors mounted at a fixed position inside Columbus for the determination of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. Data measured with passive radiation detectors showed that the absorbed dose values inside the Columbus Laboratory follow a pattern, based on the local shielding configuration of the radiation detectors, with minimum dose values observed in the year 2010 of 195-270 μGy/day and maximum values observed in the year 2012 with values ranging from 260 to 360 μGy/day. The absorbed dose is modulated by (a) the variation in solar activity and (b) the changes in ISS altitude.

  7. Maximizing Science Return from Future Rodent Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS): Tissue Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Lai, S.; Klotz, R.; Popova, Y.; Chakravarty, K.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how mammals adapt to long duration habitation in space, a system for performing rodent experiments on the ISS is under development; Rodent Research-1 is the first flight and will include validation of both on-orbit animal support and tissue preservation. To evaluate plans for on-orbit sample dissection and preservation, we simulated conditions for euthanasia, tissue dissection, and prolonged sample storage on the ISS, and we also developed methods for post-flight dissection and recovery of high quality RNA from multiple tissues following prolonged storage in situ for future science. Mouse livers and spleens were harvested under conditions that simulated nominal, on-orbit euthanasia and dissection operations including storage at -80 C for 4 months. The RNA recovered was of high quality (RNA Integrity Number, RIN(is) greater than 8) and quantity, and the liver enzyme contents and activities (catalase, glutathione reductase, GAPDH) were similar to positive controls, which were collected under standard laboratory conditions. We also assessed the impact of possible delayed on-orbit dissection scenarios (off-nominal) by dissecting and preserving the spleen (RNAlater) and liver (fast-freezing) at various time points post-euthanasia (from 5 min up to 105 min). The RNA recovered was of high quality (spleen, RIN (is) greater than 8; liver, RIN (is) greater than 6) and liver enzyme activities were similar to positive controls at all time points, although an apparent decline in select enzyme activities was evident at the latest time (105 min). Additionally, various tissues were harvested from either intact or partially dissected, frozen carcasses after storage for approximately 2 months; most of the tissues (brain, heart, kidney, eye, adrenal glands and muscle) were of acceptable RNA quality for science return, whereas some tissues (small intestine, bone marrow and bones) were not. These data demonstrate: 1) The protocols developed for future flight

  8. Aerobic Capacity Following Long Duration International Spaces Station (ISS) Missions: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.; Lee, S.M.C.; Everett, M.E.; Guined, J.R.; Knudsen, P.

    2010-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) is reduced immediately following space flights lasting 6%. WRmax also decreased on R+1/2 compared to preflight (Pre: 245+/-69, R+1/2: 210+/-45 W). On R+10, VO2max was 2.86+/-0.62 L(dot)/min, with 2 subjects still demonstrating a loss of > 6% from preflight. WRmax on R+10 was 240+/-49 W. HRmax did not change from pre to post-flight. Conclusions: These preliminary results, from the first 5 of 12 planned subjects of an ongoing ISS study, suggest that the majority of astronauts will experience a decrease in VO2max after long-duration space-flight. Interestingly, the two astronauts with the highest preflight VO2max had the greatest loss on R+1/2, and the astronaut with the lowest preflight VO2max increased by 13%. Thus, maintenance of VO2max may be more difficult in astronauts who have a high aerobic capacity, perhaps requiring more intense in-flight exercise countermeasure prescriptions.

  9. International Space Station (ISS) Soyuz Vehicle Descent Module Evaluation of Thermal Protection System (TPS) Penetration Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bruce A.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Prior, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The descent module (DM) of the ISS Soyuz vehicle is covered by thermal protection system (TPS) materials that provide protection from heating conditions experienced during reentry. Damage and penetration of these materials by micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts could result in loss of vehicle during return phases of the mission. The descent module heat shield has relatively thick TPS and is protected by the instrument-service module. The TPS materials on the conical sides of the descent module (referred to as backshell in this test plan) are exposed to more MMOD impacts and are relatively thin compared to the heat shield. This test program provides hypervelocity impact (HVI) data on materials similar in composition and density to the Soyuz TPS on the backshell of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz TPS penetration risk assessments. The impact testing was coordinated by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Hypervelocity Impact Technology (HVIT) Group [1] in Houston, Texas. The HVI testing was conducted at the NASA-JSC White Sands Hypervelocity Impact Test Facility (WSTF) at Las Cruces, New Mexico. Figure

  10. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and International Space Station (ISS) Coordination for Cubesat Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, James H.; Aviles, Jorge; Myers, Ralph; Parris, Joshua; Corley, Bryan; Hehn, Garrett; Pascucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.

  11. Organization and Management of the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The Integrated Medical Group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial fourteen long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  12. Passive Thermal Design Approach for the Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Testbed Experiment on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siamidis, John; Yuko, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) Program Office at NASA Headquarters oversees all of NASAs space communications activities. SCaN manages and directs the ground-based facilities and services provided by the Deep Space Network (DSN), Near Earth Network (NEN), and the Space Network (SN). Through the SCaN Program Office, NASA GRC developed a Software Defined Radio (SDR) testbed experiment (SCaN testbed experiment) for use on the International Space Station (ISS). It is comprised of three different SDR radios, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) radio, Harris Corporation radio, and the General Dynamics Corporation radio. The SCaN testbed experiment provides an on-orbit, adaptable, SDR Space Telecommunications Radio System (STRS) - based facility to conduct a suite of experiments to advance the Software Defined Radio, Space Telecommunications Radio Systems (STRS) standards, reduce risk (Technology Readiness Level (TRL) advancement) for candidate Constellation future space flight hardware software, and demonstrate space communication links critical to future NASA exploration missions. The SCaN testbed project provides NASA, industry, other Government agencies, and academic partners the opportunity to develop and field communications, navigation, and networking technologies in the laboratory and space environment based on reconfigurable, software defined radio platforms and the STRS Architecture.The SCaN testbed is resident on the P3 Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) on the exterior truss of the International Space Station (ISS). The SCaN testbed payload launched on the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and was installed on the ISS P3 ELC located on the inboard RAM P3 site. The daily operations and testing are managed out of NASA GRC in the Telescience Support Center (TSC).

  13. Remote Advanced Payload Test Rig (RAPTR) Portable Payload Test System for the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John; Freas, George, II

    2017-01-01

    The RAPTR was developed to test ISS payloads for NASA. RAPTR is a simulation of the Command and Data Handling (C&DH) interfaces of the ISS (MIL-STD 1553B, Ethernet and TAXI) and is designed to facilitate rapid testing and deployment of payload experiments to the ISS. The ISS Program's goal is to reduce the amount of time it takes a payload developer to build, test and fly a payload, including payload software. The RAPTR meets this need with its user oriented, visually rich interface. Additionally, the Analog and Discrete (A&D) signals of the following payload types may be tested with RAPTR: (1) EXPRESS Sub Rack Payloads; (2) ELC payloads; (3) External Columbus payloads; (4) External Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) payloads. The automated payload configuration setup and payload data inspection infrastructure is found nowhere else in ISS payload test systems. Testing can be done with minimal human intervention and setup, as the RAPTR automatically monitors parameters in the data headers that are sent to, and come from the experiment under test.

  14. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the

  15. International Space Station (ISS) 3D Printer Performance and Material Characterization Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Q. A.; Cooper, K. G.; Edmunson, J. E.; Johnston, M. M.; Werkheiser, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    In order for human exploration of the Solar System to be sustainable, manufacturing of necessary items on-demand in space or on planetary surfaces will be a requirement. As a first step towards this goal, the 3D Printing In Zero-G (3D Print) technology demonstration made the first items fabricated in space on the International Space Station. From those items, and comparable prints made on the ground, information about the microgravity effects on the printing process can be determined. Lessons learned from this technology demonstration will be applicable to other in-space manufacturing technologies, and may affect the terrestrial manufacturing industry as well. The flight samples were received at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center on 6 April 2015. These samples will undergo a series of tests designed to not only thoroughly characterize the samples, but to identify microgravity effects manifested during printing by comparing their results to those of samples printed on the ground. Samples will be visually inspected, photographed, scanned with structured light, and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy. Selected samples will be analyzed with computed tomography; some will be assessed using ASTM standard tests. These tests will provide the information required to determine the effects of microgravity on 3D printing in microgravity.

  16. Evaluating ACLS Algorithms for the International Space Station (ISS) - A Paradigm Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Dave; Brandt, Keith; Locke, James; Hurst, Victor, IV; Mack, Michael D.; Pettys, Marianne; Smart, Kieran

    2007-01-01

    The ISS may have communication gaps of up to 45 minutes during each orbit and therefore it is imperative to have medical protocols, including an effective ACLS algorithm, that can be reliably autonomously executed during flight. The aim of this project was to compare the effectiveness of the current ACLS algorithm with an improved algorithm having a new navigation format.

  17. Space Debris in the neighborhood of the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Jarbas; Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Celestino, Claudia C.; Fiorilo de Melo, Cristiano

    2016-07-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a great opportunity to use a research platform in space. An international partnership of space agencies provides the operation of the ISS since 2000. The ISS is in Low Earth Orbits, in the same region of most of the space debris orbiting the planet. In this way, several studies are important to preserve the operability of the space station and operational artificial satellites, considering the increasing number of distinct objects in the space environment offering collision risks. In this work, the orbital dynamics of space debris are studied in the neighborhood of the ISS - International Space Station. The results show that the collision risk of space debris with the ISS is high and purposes to avoid these events are necessary. Solutions for the space debris mitigation are considered.

  18. Rapid Biochemical Analysis on the International Space Station (ISS): Preparing for Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, J.; Morris, Heather; Monaco, L.; Steele, A.; Wainwright, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development - Portable Test System, known as LOCAD-PTS, was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-116) on December 9th,2006. Since that time, it has remained onboard ISS and has been operated by the crew on 10 separate occasions LOCAD-PTS is a handheld device for rapid biochemical analysis; it consists of a spectrophotometer, a series of interchangeable cartridges, a pipette and several clean/sterilized swabbing kits to obtain samples from ISS surfaces. Sampling, quantitative analysis and data retrieval is performed onboard, therefore reducing the need to return samples to Earth. Less than 20 minutes are required from sampling to data, significantly faster than existing culture-based methods on ISS, which require 3-5 days. Different cartridges are available for the detection of different target molecules (simply by changing the formulation within each cartridge), thereby maximizing the benefit and applications addressed by a single instrument. Initial tests on ISS have focused on the detection of the bact.erial macromolecule endotoxin, a component of bacterial cell walls. LOCAD-PTS detects endotoxin with a cartridge that contains a formulation known as Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. LAL is derived from blood of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, and detects enodotoxin with an enzyme cascade that triggers generation Of a yellow colored dye, p-nitroanaline. The more p-nitroanaline product, the more endotoxin is in the original sample. To enable quantitative analysis, the absorbance of this color is measured by LOCAD-PTS through a 395 nm filter and compared with an internal calibration curve, to provide a reading on the LED display that ranges from 0.05 Endotoxin Units (EU)/ml to 5 EU/ml. Several surface sites were analyzed within ISS between March 2007 and February 2008, including multiple locations in the US Laboratory Destiny, Node 1 Unity, AMock, and Service Module Zvezda

  19. Rapid Biochemical Analysis on the International Space Station (ISS): Preparing for Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, J.; Morris, Heather; Monaco, L.; Steele, A.; Wainwright, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development - Portable Test System, known as LOCAD-PTS, was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-116) on December 9th,2006. Since that time, it has remained onboard ISS and has been operated by the crew on 10 separate occasions LOCAD-PTS is a handheld device for rapid biochemical analysis; it consists of a spectrophotometer, a series of interchangeable cartridges, a pipette and several clean/sterilized swabbing kits to obtain samples from ISS surfaces. Sampling, quantitative analysis and data retrieval is performed onboard, therefore reducing the need to return samples to Earth. Less than 20 minutes are required from sampling to data, significantly faster than existing culture-based methods on ISS, which require 3-5 days. Different cartridges are available for the detection of different target molecules (simply by changing the formulation within each cartridge), thereby maximizing the benefit and applications addressed by a single instrument. Initial tests on ISS have focused on the detection of the bact.erial macromolecule endotoxin, a component of bacterial cell walls. LOCAD-PTS detects endotoxin with a cartridge that contains a formulation known as Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. LAL is derived from blood of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, and detects enodotoxin with an enzyme cascade that triggers generation Of a yellow colored dye, p-nitroanaline. The more p-nitroanaline product, the more endotoxin is in the original sample. To enable quantitative analysis, the absorbance of this color is measured by LOCAD-PTS through a 395 nm filter and compared with an internal calibration curve, to provide a reading on the LED display that ranges from 0.05 Endotoxin Units (EU)/ml to 5 EU/ml. Several surface sites were analyzed within ISS between March 2007 and February 2008, including multiple locations in the US Laboratory Destiny, Node 1 Unity, AMock, and Service Module Zvezda

  20. Rapid Biochemical Analysis on the International Space Station (ISS): Preparing for Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, J.; Morris, Heather; Monaco, L.; Steele, A.; Wainwright, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Lab-on-a-Chip Application Development - Portable Test System, known as LOCAD-PTS, was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) aboard Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-116) on December 9th,2006. Since that time, it has remained onboard ISS and has been operated by the crew on 10 separate occasions LOCAD-PTS is a handheld device for rapid biochemical analysis; it consists of a spectrophotometer, a series of interchangeable cartridges, a pipette and several clean/sterilized swabbing kits to obtain samples from ISS surfaces. Sampling, quantitative analysis and data retrieval is performed onboard, therefore reducing the need to return samples to Earth. Less than 20 minutes are required from sampling to data, significantly faster than existing culture-based methods on ISS, which require 3-5 days. Different cartridges are available for the detection of different target molecules (simply by changing the formulation within each cartridge), thereby maximizing the benefit and applications addressed by a single instrument. Initial tests on ISS have focused on the detection of the bact.erial macromolecule endotoxin, a component of bacterial cell walls. LOCAD-PTS detects endotoxin with a cartridge that contains a formulation known as Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL) assay. LAL is derived from blood of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, and detects enodotoxin with an enzyme cascade that triggers generation Of a yellow colored dye, p-nitroanaline. The more p-nitroanaline product, the more endotoxin is in the original sample. To enable quantitative analysis, the absorbance of this color is measured by LOCAD-PTS through a 395 nm filter and compared with an internal calibration curve, to provide a reading on the LED display that ranges from 0.05 Endotoxin Units (EU)/ml to 5 EU/ml. Several surface sites were analyzed within ISS between March 2007 and February 2008, including multiple locations in the US Laboratory Destiny, Node 1 Unity, AMock, and Service Module Zvezda

  1. Development of Sub-optimal Airway Protocols for the International Space Station (ISS) by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James D.; Parazynski, Scott; Kelly, Scott; Hurst, Victor, IV; Doerr, Harold K.

    2007-01-01

    Airway management techniques are necessary to establish and maintain a patent airway while treating a patient undergoing respiratory distress. There are situations where such settings are suboptimal, thus causing the caregiver to adapt to these suboptimal conditions. Such occurrences are no exception aboard the International Space Station (ISS). As a result, the NASA flight surgeon (FS) and NASA astronaut cohorts must be ready to adapt their optimal airway management techniques for suboptimal situations. Based on previous work conducted by the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST) and other investigators, the MOST had members of both the FS and astronaut cohorts evaluate two oral airway insertion techniques for the Intubating Laryngeal Mask Airway (ILMA) to determine whether either technique is sufficient to perform in suboptimal conditions within a microgravity environment. Methods All experiments were conducted in a simulated microgravity environment provided by parabolic flight aboard DC-9 aircraft. Each participant acted as a caregiver and was directed to attempt both suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques following a preflight instruction session on the day of the flight and a demonstration of the technique by an anesthesiologist physician in the simulated microgravity environment aboard the aircraft. Results Fourteen participants conducted 46 trials of the suboptimal ILMA insertion techniques. Overall, 43 of 46 trials (94%) conducted were properly performed based on criteria developed by the MOST and other investigators. Discussion The study demonstrated the use of airway management techniques in suboptimal conditions relating to space flight. Use of these techniques will provide a crew with options for using the ILMA to manage airway issues aboard the ISS. Although it is understood that the optimal method for patient care during space flight is to have both patient and caregiver restrained, these techniques provide a needed backup should conditions not present

  2. GEROS-ISS: Innovative GNSS reflectometry/occultation payload onboard the International Space Station for the Global Geodetic Observing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, J.; Andersen, O. B.; Beyerle, G.; Chapron, B.; Cardellach, E.; D'Addio, S.; Foerste, C.; Gommenginger, C.; Gruber, T.; Helm, A.; Hess, M.; Hoeg, P.; Jaeggi, A.; Jakowski, N.; Kern, M.; Lee, T.; Martin-Neira, M.; Montenbruck, O.; Pierdicca, N.; Rius, A.; Rothacher, M.; Shum, C.; Zuffada, C.

    2013-12-01

    In response to a European Space Agency (ESA) announcement of opportunity, the GEROS-ISS proposal was submitted and accepted by ESA to proceed to Phase A. GEROS-ISS is an innovative ISS experiment primarily focused on exploiting reflected signals of opportunity from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) at L-band to measure key parameters of ocean and land/ice surfaces. Secondary mission goals are global atmosphere and ionosphere observations using the GNSS radio occultation technique complementing other current satellite missions. GEROS-ISS will pioneer the exploitation of signals from Galileo and possibly other GNSS systems, for reflectometry and occultation, thereby improving the accuracy as well as the spatio-temporal resolution of the derived geophysical properties. GEROS-ISS will contribute to the long-term S.I. traceable observation of the variations of major climate components of the Earth System: Oceans/Hydrosphere, Cryosphere/Snow, Atmosphere/Ionosphere and solid Earth/landcover changes with innovative and complementary aspects compared to current Earth Observation satellite missions. Therefore, the data from GEROS-ISS allow for climate change related scientific studies addressing the challenges of ESA's Earth Observation strategy (SP 1304 The Changing Earth: New scientific challenges for ESA's living planet). GEROS-ISS will mainly provide mid- and low-latitude observations on submesoscale or longer oceanic variability with a focus on the coastal region, surface ocean currents, surface winds, wave heights and the vertical atmospheric temperature, water vapour and electron density structure for a period of at least ten years. These observations will lead to a better understanding of the climate system, including Rossby wave large-scale structures, ocean roughness and wind, eddy-current systems, fronts and coastal upwelling. GEROS-ISS takes advantage of the capacious infrastructure onboard the ISS, to potentially derive additional Earth's surface

  3. Improving the Estimates of International Space Station (ISS) Induced K-Factor Failure Rates for On-Orbit Replacement Unit (ORU) Supportability Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Leif F.; Harrington, Sean P.; Omeke, Ojei, II; Schwaab, Douglas G.

    2009-01-01

    This is a case study on revised estimates of induced failure for International Space Station (ISS) on-orbit replacement units (ORUs). We devise a heuristic to leverage operational experience data by aggregating ORU, associated function (vehicle sub -system), and vehicle effective' k-factors using actual failure experience. With this input, we determine a significant failure threshold and minimize the difference between the actual and predicted failure rates. We conclude with a discussion on both qualitative and quantitative improvements the heuristic methods and potential benefits to ISS supportability engineering analysis.

  4. Bone turnover in wild type and pleiotrophin-transgenic mice housed for three months in the International Space Station (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavella, Sara; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Giuliani, Alessandra; Brun, Francesco; Canciani, Barbara; Manescu, Adrian; Marozzi, Katia; Cilli, Michele; Costa, Delfina; Liu, Yi; Piccardi, Federica; Tasso, Roberta; Tromba, Giuliana; Rustichelli, Franco; Cancedda, Ranieri

    2012-01-01

    Bone is a complex dynamic tissue undergoing a continuous remodeling process. Gravity is a physical force playing a role in the remodeling and contributing to the maintenance of bone integrity. This article reports an investigation on the alterations of the bone microarchitecture that occurred in wild type (Wt) and pleiotrophin-transgenic (PTN-Tg) mice exposed to a near-zero gravity on the International Space Station (ISS) during the Mice Drawer System (MDS) mission, to date, the longest mice permanence (91 days) in space. The transgenic mouse strain over-expressing pleiotrophin (PTN) in bone was selected because of the PTN positive effects on bone turnover. Wt and PTN-Tg control animals were maintained on Earth either in a MDS payload or in a standard vivarium cage. This study revealed a bone loss during spaceflight in the weight-bearing bones of both strains. For both Tg and Wt a decrease of the trabecular number as well as an increase of the mean trabecular separation was observed after flight, whereas trabecular thickness did not show any significant change. Non weight-bearing bones were not affected. The PTN-Tg mice exposed to normal gravity presented a poorer trabecular organization than Wt mice, but interestingly, the expression of the PTN transgene during the flight resulted in some protection against microgravity's negative effects. Moreover, osteocytes of the Wt mice, but not of Tg mice, acquired a round shape, thus showing for the first time osteocyte space-related morphological alterations in vivo. The analysis of specific bone formation and resorption marker expression suggested that the microgravity-induced bone loss was due to both an increased bone resorption and a decreased bone deposition. Apparently, the PTN transgene protection was the result of a higher osteoblast activity in the flight mice.

  5. Bone turnover in wild type and pleiotrophin-transgenic mice housed for three months in the International Space Station (ISS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tavella

    Full Text Available Bone is a complex dynamic tissue undergoing a continuous remodeling process. Gravity is a physical force playing a role in the remodeling and contributing to the maintenance of bone integrity. This article reports an investigation on the alterations of the bone microarchitecture that occurred in wild type (Wt and pleiotrophin-transgenic (PTN-Tg mice exposed to a near-zero gravity on the International Space Station (ISS during the Mice Drawer System (MDS mission, to date, the longest mice permanence (91 days in space. The transgenic mouse strain over-expressing pleiotrophin (PTN in bone was selected because of the PTN positive effects on bone turnover. Wt and PTN-Tg control animals were maintained on Earth either in a MDS payload or in a standard vivarium cage. This study revealed a bone loss during spaceflight in the weight-bearing bones of both strains. For both Tg and Wt a decrease of the trabecular number as well as an increase of the mean trabecular separation was observed after flight, whereas trabecular thickness did not show any significant change. Non weight-bearing bones were not affected. The PTN-Tg mice exposed to normal gravity presented a poorer trabecular organization than Wt mice, but interestingly, the expression of the PTN transgene during the flight resulted in some protection against microgravity's negative effects. Moreover, osteocytes of the Wt mice, but not of Tg mice, acquired a round shape, thus showing for the first time osteocyte space-related morphological alterations in vivo. The analysis of specific bone formation and resorption marker expression suggested that the microgravity-induced bone loss was due to both an increased bone resorption and a decreased bone deposition. Apparently, the PTN transgene protection was the result of a higher osteoblast activity in the flight mice.

  6. Multiphase Transport in Porous Media: Gas-Liquid Separation Using Capillary Pressure Gradients International Space Station (ISS) Flight Experiment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.; Holtsnider, John T.; Dahl, Roger W.; Deeks, Dalton; Javanovic, Goran N.; Parker, James M.; Ehlert, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of multiphase flow characteristics under variable gravity conditions will ultimately lead to improved and as of yet unknown process designs for advanced space missions. Such novel processes will be of paramount importance to the success of future manned space exploration as we venture into our solar system and beyond. In addition, because of the ubiquitous nature and vital importance of biological and environmental processes involving airwater mixtures, knowledge gained about fundamental interactions and the governing properties of these mixtures will clearly benefit the quality of life here on our home planet. The techniques addressed in the current research involving multiphase transport in porous media and gas-liquid phase separation using capillary pressure gradients are also a logical candidate for a future International Space Station (ISS) flight experiment. Importantly, the novel and potentially very accurate Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) modeling of multiphase transport in porous media developed in this work offers significantly improved predictions of real world fluid physics phenomena, thereby promoting advanced process designs for both space and terrestrial applications.This 3-year research effort has culminated in the design and testing of a zero-g demonstration prototype. Both the hydrophilic (glass) and hydrophobic (Teflon) media Capillary Pressure Gradient (CPG) cartridges prepared during the second years work were evaluated. Results obtained from ground testing at 1-g were compared to those obtained at reduced gravities spanning Martian (13-g), Lunar (16-g) and zero-g. These comparisons clearly demonstrate the relative strength of the CPG phenomena and the efficacy of its application to meet NASAs unique gas-liquid separation (GLS) requirements in non-terrestrial environments.LB modeling software, developed concurrently with the zero-g test effort, was shown to accurately reproduce observed CPG driven gas-liquid separation

  7. Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) Cell Culture Unit (CCU) and incubator for International Space Station (ISS) cell culture experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandendriesche, Donald; Parrish, Joseph; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Fahlen, Thomas; Larenas, Patricia; Havens, Cindy; Nakamura, Gail; Sun, Liping; Krebs, Chris; de Luis, Javier; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Searby, Nancy D

    2004-03-01

    The CCU and Incubator are habitats under development by SSBRP for gravitational biology research on ISS. They will accommodate multiple specimen types and reside in either Habitat Holding Racks, or the Centrifuge Rotor, which provides selectable gravity levels of up to 2 g. The CCU can support multiple Cell Specimen Chambers, CSCs (18, 9 or 6 CSCs; 3, 10 or 30 mL in volume, respectively). CSCs are temperature controlled from 4-39 degrees C, with heat shock to 45 degrees C. CCU provides automated nutrient supply, magnetic stirring, pH/O2 monitoring, gas supply, specimen lighting, and video microscopy. Sixty sample containers holding up to 2 mL each, stored at 4-39 degrees C, are available for automated cell sampling, subculture, and injection of additives and fixatives. CSCs, sample containers, and fresh/spent media bags are crew-replaceable for long-term experiments. The Incubator provides a 4-45 degrees C controlled environment for life science experiments or storage of experimental reagents. Specimen containers and experiment unique equipment are experimenter-provided. The Specimen Chamber exchanges air with ISS cabin and has 18.8 liters of usable volume that can accommodate six trays and the following instrumentation: five relocatable thermometers, two 60 W power outlets, four analog ports, and one each relative humidity sensor, video port, ethernet port and digital input/output port.

  8. In-Flight Water Quality Monitoring on the International Space Station (ISS): Measuring Biocide Concentrations with Colorimetric Solid Phase Extraction (CSPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazda, Daniel B.; Schultz, John R.; Siperko, Lorraine M.; Porter, Marc D.; Lipert, Robert J.; Flint, Stephanie M.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2011-01-01

    The colorimetric water quality monitoring kit (CWQMK) was delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) on STS-128/17A and was initially deployed in September 2009. The kit was flown as a station development test objective (SDTO) experiment to evaluate the acceptability of colorimetric solid phase extraction (CSPE) technology for routine water quality monitoring on the ISS. During the SDTO experiment, water samples from the U.S. water processor assembly (WPA), the U.S. potable water dispenser (PWD), and the Russian system for dispensing ground-supplied water (SVO-ZV) were collected and analyzed with the CWQMK. Samples from the U.S. segment of the ISS were analyzed for molecular iodine, which is the biocide added to water in the WPA. Samples from the SVOZV system were analyzed for ionic silver, the biocide used on the Russian segment of the ISS. In all, thirteen in-flight analysis sessions were completed as part of the SDTO experiment. This paper provides an overview of the experiment and reports the results obtained with the CWQMK. The forward plan for certifying the CWQMK as operational hardware and expanding the capabilities of the kit are also discussed.

  9. Case Study of Risk Mitigation Based on Hardware/Software Integration (HSI) Testing for the International Space Station (ISS) Node 2 Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James Mike; Clanton, Stephen Edward

    2004-01-01

    Within the pressurized elements of the International Space Station (ISS), requirements exist to ensure a safe, habitable environment for the crew. In order to provide this environment, thermal control components work in conjunction with software controls to provide heat rejection for subsystem avionics equipment, for the environmental control system and for experiment payloads. It is essential to ISS operations, mission success and crew safety that necessary testing incorporates the extreme conditions to ensure proper performance. This paper provides a general description and methodology applied to thermal related Hardware/Software Integration (HSI) tests for the ISS Node 2 module. A detailed test plan was developed and implemented with two objectives: the first was for risk mitigation of the thermal control algorithms and software qualification, and the second was for data collection which will substantiate thermalhydraulic models of the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). Analytical models are utilized to determine on-orbit performance for conditions and scenarios where the simulation of actual on-orbit system performance is limited by test configuration constraints. Node 2 IATCS HSI activities were performed at the Alenia Spazio facility in Torino, Italy with participation from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Alenia Spazio, Jacobs Engineering Sverdrup (JE Sverdrup) and Boeing.

  10. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments Using the International Space Station (ISS) Light Microscopy Module (LMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurk, Michael A. (Andy)

    2015-01-01

    Techshot, Inc., has developed an observation platform for the LMM on the ISS that will enable biomedical and biotechnology experiments. The LMM Dynamic Stage consists of an electronics module and the first two of a planned suite of experiment modules. Specimens and reagent solutions can be injected into a small, hollow microscope slide-the heart of the innovation-via a combination of small reservoirs, pumps, and valves. A life science experiment module allows investigators to load up to two different fluids for on-orbit, real-time image cytometry. Fluids can be changed to initiate a process, fix biological samples, or retrieve suspended cells. A colloid science experiment module conducts microparticle and nanoparticle tests for investigation of colloid self-assembly phenomena. This module includes a hollow glass slide and heating elements for the creation of a thermal gradient from one end of the slide to the other. The electronics module supports both experiment modules and contains a unique illuminator/condenser for bright and dark field and phase contrast illumination, power supplies for two piezoelectric pumps, and controller boards for pumps and valves. This observation platform safely contains internal fluids and will greatly accelerate the research and development (R&D) cycle of numerous experiments, products, and services aboard the ISS.

  11. Examination of Communication Delays on Team Performance: Utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a Test Bed for Analog Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.

    2011-01-01

    Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.

  12. Technical Consultation of the International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Cooling Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentz, Steven J.; Rotter, Hank A.; Easton, Myriam; Lince, Jeffrey; Park, Woonsup; Stewart, Thomas; Speckman, Donna; Dexter, Stephen; Kelly, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) coolant exhibited unexpected chemical changes during the first year of on-orbit operation following the launch and activation in February 2001. The coolant pH dropped from 9.3 to below the minimum specification limit of 9.0, and re-equilibrated between 8.3 and 8.5. This drop in coolant pH was shown to be the result of permeation of CO2 from the cabin into the coolant via Teflon flexible hoses which created carbonic acid in the fluid. This unexpected diffusion was the result of having a cabin CO2 partial pressure higher than the ground partial pressure (average 4.0 mmHg vs. less than 0.2 mmHg). This drop in pH was followed by a concurrent increasing coolant nickel concentration. No other metal ions were observed in the coolant and based on previous tests, the source of nickel ion was thought to be the boron nickel (BNi) braze intermetallics used in the construction of HXs and cold plates. Specifically, BNi2 braze alloy was used for the IATCS IFHX and BNi3 braze alloy was used for the IATCS Airlock Servicing and Performance Checkout Unit (SPCU) HX and cold plates. Given the failure criticality of the HXs, a Corrosion Team was established by the IATCS CWG to determine the impact of the nickel corrosion on hardware performance life.

  13. DAC-3 Pointing Stability Analysis Results for SAGE 3 and Other Users of the International Space Station (ISS) Payload Attachment Sites (PAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Rombado, Gabriel

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide final results of a pointing stability analysis for external payload attachment sites (PAS) on the International Space Station (ISS). As a specific example, the pointing stability requirement of the SAGE III atmospheric science instrument was examined in this paper. The instrument requires 10 arcsec stability over 2 second periods. SAGE 3 will be mounted on the ISS starboard side at the lower, outboard FIAS. In this engineering analysis, an open-loop DAC-3 finite element model of ISS was used by the Microgravity Group at Johnson Space Flight Center to generate transient responses at PAS to a limited number of disturbances. The model included dynamics up to 50 Hz. Disturbance models considered included operation of the solar array rotary joints, thermal radiator rotary joints, and control moment gyros. Responses were filtered to model the anticipated vibration attenuation effects of active control systems on the solar and thermal radiator rotary joints. A pointing stability analysis was conducted by double integrating acceleration transient over a 2 second period. Results of the analysis are tabulated for ISS X, Y, and Z Axis rotations. These results indicate that the largest excursions in rotation during pointing occurred due to rapid slewing of the thermal radiator. Even without attenuation at the rotary joints, the resulting pointing error was limited to less than 1.6 arcsec. With vibration control at the joints, to a maximum 0.5 arcsec over a 2 second period. Based on this current level of model definition, it was concluded that between 0 - 50 Hz, the pointing stability requirement for SAGE 3 will not be exceeded by the disturbances evaluated in this study.

  14. Veggies in Space: Salad Crop Production on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia

    2016-01-01

    NASA is currently testing Veggie, a low mass, low energy, salad crop production system on the International Space Station (ISS). Veggie grows crops with LED lights using ISS cabin air and passive watering that has presented challenges in microgravity. Initial tests included red romaine lettuce and zinnia, with testing of Chinese cabbage, and tomatoes planned. A goal is to add supplemental salad foods to the astronaut diet as we prepare for a future journey to Mars.

  15. Structural Verification of the First Orbital Wonder of the World - The Structural Testing and Analysis of the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipay, John J.; Bernstein, Karen S.; Bruno, Erica E.; Deloo, Phillipe; Patin, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) can be considered one of the structural engineering wonders of the world. On par with the World Trade Center, the Colossus of Rhodes, the Statue of Liberty, the Great Pyramids, the Petronas towers and the Burj Khalifa skyscraper of Dubai, the ambition and scope of the ISS structural design, verification and assembly effort is a truly global success story. With its on-orbit life projected to be from its beginning in 1998 to the year 2020 (and perhaps beyond), all of those who participated in its development can consider themselves part of an historic engineering achievement representing all of humanity. The structural design and verification of the ISS could be the subject of many scholarly papers. Several papers have been written on the structural dynamic characterization of the ISS once it was assembled on-orbit [1], but the ground-based activities required to assure structural integrity and structural life of the individual elements from delivery to orbit through assembly and planned on-orbit operations have never been totally summarized. This paper is intended to give the reader an overview of some of the key decisions made during the structural verification planning for the elements of the U.S. On-Orbit Segment (USOS) as well as to summarize the many structural tests and structural analyses that were performed on its major elements. An effort is made for this paper to be summarily comprehensive, but as with all knowledge capture efforts of this kind, there are bound to be errors of omission. Should the reader discover any of these, please feel free to contact the principal author. The ISS (Figure 1) is composed of pre-integrated truss segments and pressurized elements supplied by NASA, the Russian Federal Space Agency (RSA), the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Each of these elements was delivered to orbit by a launch vehicle and connected to one another either robotically or

  16. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Geomagnetic Storm Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture geomagnetic storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of geomagnetic storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during geomagnetic storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.

  17. Microbial Challenge Testing of Single Liquid Cathode Feed Water Electrolysis Cells for the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Robert J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Diderich, Greg S.; Steele, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) operational performance may be adversely impacted by microbiological growth and biofilm formation over the electrolysis cell membranes. Biofilms could hinder the transport of water from the bulk fluid stream to the membranes and increase the cell concentration overpotential resulting in higher cell voltages and a shorter cell life. A microbial challenge test was performed on duplicate single liquid-cathode feed water electrolysis cells to evaluate operational performance with increasing levels of a mixture of five bacteria isolated from ISS and Space Shuttle potable water systems. Baseline performance of the single water electrolysis cells was determined for approximately one month with deionized water. Monthly performance was also determined following each inoculation of the feed tank with 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 cells/ml of the mixed suspension of test bacteria. Water samples from the feed tank and recirculating water loops for each cell were periodically analyzed for enumeration and speciation of bacteria and total organic carbon. While initially a concern, this test program has demonstrated that the performance of the electrolysis cell is not adversely impacted by feed water containing the five species of bacteria tested at a concentration measured as high as 1,000,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml. This paper presents the methodologies used in the conduct of this test program along with the performance test results at each level of bacteria concentration.

  18. Examination of Surface Residuals Obtained During Re-Lubrication of the International Space Station (ISS) Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. E.; Golden, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The starboard SARJ mechanism on the ISS suffered a premature lubrication failure, resulting in widespread loss of the nitride case layer on its 10.3 meter circumference, 15-5PH steel race ring [1, 2]. To restore functionality, vacuum-stable grease was applied on-orbit, first to the port SARJ mechanism to save it from the damage suffered by the starboard mechanism. After 3 years of greased operation, telemetry indicated that the port mechanism required relubrication, so part of that process included sampling each of the three race ring surfaces to evaluate any wear debris recovered and the state of the originally applied grease. Extensive microscopic examination was conducted, which directed subsequent microanalysis of particulate. Since the SARJ mechanism operates in the vacuum of space, a sampling method and tool had to be developed for use by astronauts while working in the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). The sampling tool developed was a cotton terry-cloth mitt for the EMU glove, with samples taken by swiping each of the three port SARJ race-ring surfaces. The sample mitts for each surface were folded inward after sampling to preserve sample integrity, for return and ground analysis. The sample mitt for what is termed the outer canted surface of the SARJ race-ring is shown in Figure 1. Figure 1 also demonstrates how increasing levels of magnification were used to survey the contamination removed in sampling, specifically looking for signs of wear debris or other features which could be further evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) methods. The most surprising overall result at this point in the analysis was the relatively small amounts of grease recovered during sampling. It is clear that the mechanism was not operating with surplus lubricant. Obviously, evidence of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), a major component in the grease applied, was prevalent in the analysis conducted. But a small amount of mechanism wear debris was observed. Figure 2

  19. ISS-Lobster: A Proposed Wide-Field X-Ray Telescope on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Lobster wide-field imaging telescope combines simultaneous high FOV, high sensitivity and good position resolution. These characteristics can open the field of X-Ray time domain astronomy, which will study many interesting transient sources, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, and high redshift gamma-ray bursts. Also important will be its use for the X-ray follow-up of gravitational wave detections. I will describe our present effort to propose the Lobster concept for deployment on the International Space Station through a NASA Mission of Opportunity this fall.

  20. Long term dose monitoring onboard the European Columbus module of the International Space Station (ISS) in the frame of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas

    The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones present on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station (ISS) is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European Columbus module the experiment “Dose Distribution Inside the ISS” (DOSIS), under the project and science lead of the German Aerospace Center (DLR), was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The DOSIS experiment consists of a combination of “Passive Detector Packages” (PDP) distributed at eleven locations inside Columbus for the measurement of the spatial variation of the radiation field and two active Dosimetry Telescopes (DOSTELs) with a Data and Power Unit (DDPU) in a dedicated nomex pouch mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) for the measurement of the temporal variation of the radiation field parameters. The DOSIS experiment suite measured during the lowest solar minimum conditions in the space age from July 2009 to June 2011. In July 2011 the active hardware was transferred to ground for refurbishment and preparation for the follow up DOSIS 3D experiment. The hardware for DOSIS 3D was launched with Soyuz 30S to the ISS on May 15th 2012. The PDPs are replaced with each even number Soyuz flight starting with Soyuz 30S. Data from the active detectors is transferred to ground via the EPM rack which is activated once a month for this action. The presentation will give an overview of the DOSIS and DOSIS 3D experiment and focus on the results from the passive radiation detectors from the DOSIS 3D experiment

  1. Integrating International Engineering Organizations For Successful ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Elizabeth; Duggan, Matt; Patten, L.; Pieterek, Hhtrud

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a multinational orbiting space laboratory that is built in cooperation with 16 nations. The design and sustaining engineering expertise is spread worldwide. As the number of Partners with orbiting elements on the ISS grows, the challenge NASA is facing as the ISS integrator is to ensure that engineering expertise and data are accessible in a timely fashion to ensure ongoing operations and mission success. Integrating international engineering teams requires definition and agreement on common processes and responsibilities, joint training and the emergence of a unique engineering team culture. ISS engineers face daunting logistical and political challenges regarding data sharing requirements. To assure systematic information sharing and anomaly resolution of integrated anomalies, the ISS Partners are developing multi-lateral engineering interface procedures. Data sharing and individual responsibility are key aspects of this plan. This paper describes several examples of successful multilateral anomaly resolution. These successes were used to form the framework of the Partner to Partner engineering interface procedures, and this paper describes those currently documented multilateral engineering processes. Furthermore, it addresses the challenges experienced to date, and the forward work expected in establishing a successful working relationship with Partners as their hardware is launched.

  2. Orthostatic Intolerance After ISS and Space Shuttle Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C; Feiveson, Alan H; Stein, Sydney; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning apparently progresses with flight duration, resulting in a greater incidence of orthostatic intolerance following long-duration missions. Therefore, we anticipated that the proportion of astronauts who could not complete an orthostatic tilt test (OTT) would be higher on landing day and the number of days to recover greater after International Space Station (ISS) than after Space Shuttle missions. There were 20 ISS and 65 Shuttle astronauts who participated in 10-min 80° head-up tilt tests 10 d before launch, on landing day (R+0), and 3 d after landing (R+3). Fisher's Exact Test was used to compare the ability of ISS and Shuttle astronauts to complete the OTT. Cox regression was used to identify cardiovascular parameters associated with OTT completion and mixed model analysis was used to compare the change and recovery rates between groups. The proportion of astronauts who completed the OTT on R+0 (2 of 6) was less in ISS than in Shuttle astronauts (52 of 65). On R+3, 13 of 15 and 19 of 19 of the ISS and Shuttle astronauts, respectively, completed the OTT. An index comprised of stroke volume and diastolic blood pressure provided a good prediction of OTT completion and was altered by spaceflight similarly for both astronaut groups, but recovery was slower in ISS than in Shuttle astronauts. The proportion of ISS astronauts who could not complete the OTT on R+0 was greater and the recovery rate slower after ISS compared to Shuttle missions. Thus, mission planners and crew surgeons should anticipate the need to tailor scheduled activities and level of medical support to accommodate protracted recovery after long-duration microgravity exposures.

  3. Fifteen years of international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.; Celebi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrated its 15th birthday in October 2013. The ISS is the largest spaceship ever built by humans and very important for research, to understand life and physics. However, the ISS is very expensive to maintain and therefore some people argue that the ISS progr

  4. Fifteen years of international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, B.; Celebi, T.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrated its 15th birthday in October 2013. The ISS is the largest spaceship ever built by humans and very important for research, to understand life and physics. However, the ISS is very expensive to maintain and therefore some people argue that the ISS

  5. ISS Charging Hazards and Low Earth Orbit Space Weather Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph; Parker, L.; Coffey, V.; Wright K.; Koontz, S.; Edwards, D.

    2008-01-01

    Current collection by high voltage solar arrays on the International Space Station (ISS) drives the vehicle to negative floating potentials in the low Earth orbit daytime plasma environment. Pre-flight predictions of ISS floating potentials Phi greater than |-100 V| suggested a risk for degradation of dielectric thermal control coatings on surfaces in the U.S. sector due to arcing and an electrical shock hazard to astronauts during extravehicular activity (EVA). However, hazard studies conducted by the ISS program have demonstrated that the thermal control material degradation risk is effectively mitigated during the lifetime of the ISS vehicle by a sufficiently large ion collection area present on the vehicle to balance current collection by the solar arrays. To date, crew risk during EVA has been mitigated by operating one of two plasma contactors during EVA to control the vehicle potential within Phi less than or equal to |-40 V| with a backup process requiring reorientation of the solar arrays into a configuration which places the current collection surfaces into wake. This operation minimizes current collection by the solar arrays should the plasma contactors fail. This paper presents an analysis of F-region electron density and temperature variations at low and midlatitudes generated by space weather events to determine what range of conditions represent charging threats to ISS. We first use historical ionospheric plasma measurements from spacecraft operating at altitudes relevant to the 51.6 degree inclination ISS orbit to provide an extensive database of F-region plasma conditions over a variety of solar cycle conditions. Then, the statistical results from the historical data are compared to more recent in-situ measurements from the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) operating on ISS in a campaign mode since its installation in August, 2006.

  6. An Amplitude-Based Estimation Method for International Space Station (ISS) Leak Detection and Localization Using Acoustic Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jialin; Madaras, Eric I.

    2009-01-01

    The development of a robust and efficient leak detection and localization system within a space station environment presents a unique challenge. A plausible approach includes the implementation of an acoustic sensor network system that can successfully detect the presence of a leak and determine the location of the leak source. Traditional acoustic detection and localization schemes rely on the phase and amplitude information collected by the sensor array system. Furthermore, the acoustic source signals are assumed to be airborne and far-field. Likewise, there are similar applications in sonar. In solids, there are specialized methods for locating events that are used in geology and in acoustic emission testing that involve sensor arrays and depend on a discernable phase front to the received signal. These methods are ineffective if applied to a sensor detection system within the space station environment. In the case of acoustic signal location, there are significant baffling and structural impediments to the sound path and the source could be in the near-field of a sensor in this particular setting.

  7. Materials Science Standard Rack on Interntional Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Line drawing depicts the location of one of three racks that will make up the Materials Science Research Facility in the U.S. Destiny laboratory module to be attached to the International Space Station (ISS). Other positions will be occupied by a variety of racks supporting research in combustion, fluids, biotechnology, and human physiology, and racks to support lab and station opertions. The Materials Science Research Facility is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  8. ISS External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Steagall, Courtney; Huang, Alvin; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    (1) The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit, (2) Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives, (3) Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle, and (4)The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  9. Growth of In x Ga1-x Sb alloy semiconductor at the International Space Station (ISS) and comparison with terrestrial experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, Y; Sakata, K; Arivanandhan, M; Rajesh, G; Nirmal Kumar, V; Koyama, T; Momose, Y; Ozawa, T; Okano, Y; Hayakawa, Y

    2015-01-01

    In x Ga1-x Sb is an important material that has tunable properties in the infrared (IR) region and is suitable for IR-device applications. Since the quality of crystals relies on growth conditions, the growth process of alloy semiconductors can be examined better under microgravity (μG) conditions where convection is suppressed. To investigate the dissolution and growth process of In x Ga1-x Sb alloy semiconductors via a sandwiched structure of GaSb(seed)/InSb/GaSb(feed) under normal and μG conditions. In x Ga1-x Sb crystals were grown at the International Space Station (ISS) under μG conditions, and a similar experiment was conducted under terrestrial conditions (1G) using the vertical gradient freezing (VGF) method. The grown crystals were cut along the growth direction and its growth properties were studied. The indium composition and growth rate of grown crystals were calculated. The shape of the growth interface was nearly flat under μG, whereas under 1G, it was highly concave with the initial seed interface being nearly flat and having facets at the peripheries. The quality of the μG crystals was better than that of the 1G samples, as the etch pit density was low in the μG sample. The growth rate was higher under μG compared with 1G. Moreover, the growth started at the peripheries under 1G, whereas it started throughout the seed interface under μG. Kinetics played a dominant role under 1G. The suppressed convection under μG affected the dissolution and growth process of the In x Ga1-x Sb alloy semiconductor.

  10. Growth of InxGa1−xSb alloy semiconductor at the International Space Station (ISS) and comparison with terrestrial experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, Y; Sakata, K; Arivanandhan, M; Rajesh, G; Nirmal Kumar, V; Koyama, T; Momose, Y; Ozawa, T; Okano, Y; Hayakawa, Y

    2015-01-01

    Background: InxGa1−xSb is an important material that has tunable properties in the infrared (IR) region and is suitable for IR-device applications. Since the quality of crystals relies on growth conditions, the growth process of alloy semiconductors can be examined better under microgravity (μG) conditions where convection is suppressed. Aims: To investigate the dissolution and growth process of InxGa1−xSb alloy semiconductors via a sandwiched structure of GaSb(seed)/InSb/GaSb(feed) under normal and μG conditions. Methods: InxGa1−xSb crystals were grown at the International Space Station (ISS) under μG conditions, and a similar experiment was conducted under terrestrial conditions (1G) using the vertical gradient freezing (VGF) method. The grown crystals were cut along the growth direction and its growth properties were studied. The indium composition and growth rate of grown crystals were calculated. Results: The shape of the growth interface was nearly flat under μG, whereas under 1G, it was highly concave with the initial seed interface being nearly flat and having facets at the peripheries. The quality of the μG crystals was better than that of the 1G samples, as the etch pit density was low in the μG sample. The growth rate was higher under μG compared with 1G. Moreover, the growth started at the peripheries under 1G, whereas it started throughout the seed interface under μG. Conclusions: Kinetics played a dominant role under 1G. The suppressed convection under μG affected the dissolution and growth process of the InxGa1−xSb alloy semiconductor. PMID:28725715

  11. 77 FR 41203 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The... aboard the International Space Station, including transportation, and crew rotation; and, to assess...

  12. 77 FR 66082 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The... aboard the International Space Station, including transportation, and crew rotation; and, to assess...

  13. 77 FR 2765 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National... Administration announces an open meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The... aboard the International Space Station, including transportation, and crew rotation; and, to assess...

  14. MBO ISS Update 1979 International Shorebird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The central purpose of the ISS, which is jointly sponsored by the Canadian Wildlife Service and MBO, is to identify and document areas of major importance to...

  15. ISS And Space Environment Interactions Without Operating Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Suggs,Rob; McCollum, Matt

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur. The details of interaction effects on spacecraft have not been addressed until driven by design. This was true for ISS. If the structure is allowed to float highly negative impinging ions can sputter exposed conductors which can degrade the primary surface and also generate contamination due to the sputtered material. Arcing has been known to occur on solar arrays that float negative of the ambient plasma. This can also generate electromagnetic interference and voltage transients. Much of the ISS structure and pressure module surfaces exposed to space is anodized aluminum. The anodization

  16. Long term dose monitoring onboard the European Columbus module of the international space station (ISS) in the frame of DOSIS and DOSIS 3D project - results from the active instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Labrenz, Johannes

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) under the lead of DLR has been launched on July 15 (th) 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18 (th) . It consists of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory and two active radiation detectors (Dosimetry Telescopes = DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSTEL Data and Power Unit) in a Nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module rack (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. The active components of the DOSIS experiment were operational from July 18 (th) 2009 to June 16 (th) 2011. After refurbishment the hardware has been reactivated on May 15 (th) 2012 as active part of the DOSIS 3D experiment and provides continuous data since this activation. The presentation will focus on the latest results from the two DOSTEL instruments as absorbed dose, dose equivalent and the related LET spectra gathered within the DOSIS (2009 - 2011) and DOSIS 3D (2012 - 2014) experiment. The CAU contributions to DOSIS and DOSIS 3D are

  17. Space Environment Effects on Materials at Different Positions and Operational Periods of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Miyazaki, Eiji; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Riyo; Suzuki, Mineo

    2009-01-01

    A space materials exposure experiment was condcuted on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Results reveal artificial environment effects such as sample contamination, attitude change effects on AO fluence, and shading effects of UV on ISS. The sample contamination was coming from ISS components. The particles attributed to micrometeoroids and/or debris captured by MPAC might originate from the ISS solar array. Another MPAC&SEED will be aboard the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposure Facility (EF) on ISS. The JEM/MPAC&SEED is attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) and is exposed to space. Actually, SEDA-AP is a payload on EF to be launched by Space Shuttle flight 2J/A. In fact, SEDA-AP has space environment monitors such as a high-energy particle monitor, atomic oxygen monitor, and plasma monitor to measure in-situ natural space environment data during JEM/MPAC&SEED exposure. Some exposure samples for JEM/MPAC&SEED are identical to SM/MPAC&SEED samples. Consequently, effects on identical materials at different positions and operation periods of ISS will be evaluated. This report summarizes results from space environment monitoring samples for atomic oxygen analysis on SM/MPAC&SEED, along with experimental plans for JEM/MPAC&SEED.

  18. 78 FR 49296 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Administration announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The...

  19. 78 FR 77502 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Administration announces a meeting of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Advisory Committee. The...

  20. Space Science Investigation: NASA ISS Stowage Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Gary

    2017-01-01

    During this internship the opportunity was granted to work with the Integrated, Graphics, Operations and Analysis Laboratory (IGOAL) team. The main assignment was to create 12 achievement patches for the Space Station training simulator called the "NASA ISS Stowage Training Game." This project was built using previous IGOAL developed software. To accomplish this task, Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator were used to craft the badges and other elements required. Blender, a 3D modeling software, was used to make the required 3D elements. Blender was a useful tool to make things such as a CTB bag for the "No More Bob" patch which shows a gentleman kicking a CTB bag into the distance. It was also used to pose characters to the positions that was optimal for their patches as in the "Station Sanitation" patch which portrays and astronaut waving on a U.S module on a truck. Adobe Illustrator was the main piece of software for this task. It was used to craft the badges and upload them when they were completed. The style of the badges were flat, meaning that they shouldn't look three dimensional in any way, shape or form. Adobe Photoshop was used when any pictures need brightening and was where the texture for the CTB bag was made. In order for the patches to be ready for the game's next major release, they have to go under some critical reviewing, revising and re-editing to make sure the other artists and the rest of the staff are satisfied with the final products. Many patches were created and revamped to meet the flat setting and incorporate suggestions from the IGOAL team. After the three processes were completed, the badges were implemented into the game (reference fig1 for badges). After a month of designing badges, the finished products were placed into the final game build via the programmers. The art was the final piece in showcasing the latest build to the public for testing. Comments from the testers were often exceptional and the feedback on the badges were

  1. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; hide

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a collection of summaries of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/issscience) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It reflects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a way that will impact humanity like no laboratory on Earth. The ISS Program Science Forum will continue to capture and report on these results in the form of journal publications, conference proceedings, and patents. We anticipate that successful ISS research will

  2. Assembling and supplying the ISS the space shuttle fulfills its mission

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2017-01-01

    The creation and utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is a milestone in space exploration. But without the Space Shuttle, it would have remained an impossible dream. Assembling and Supplying the ISS is the story of how, between 1998 and 2011, the Shuttle became the platform which enabled the construction and continued operation of the primary scientific research facility in Earth orbit. Fulfilling an objective it had been designed to complete decades before, 37 Shuttle missions carried the majority of the hardware needed to build the ISS and then acted as a ferry and supply train for early resident crews to the station. Building upon the decades of development and experience described in the companion volume Linking the Space Shuttle and Space Stations: Early Docking Technologies from Concept to Implementation, this book explores • a purpose-built hardware processing facility • challenging spacewalking objectives • extensive robotic operations • undocking a unmanned orbiter The experie...

  3. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, SAGE III on ISS, An Earth Science Mission on the International Space Station, Schedule Risk Analysis, A Project Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonine, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The presentation provides insight into the schedule risk analysis process used by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station Project. The presentation focuses on the schedule risk analysis process highlighting the methods for identification of risk inputs, the inclusion of generic risks identified outside the traditional continuous risk management process, and the development of tailored analysis products used to improve risk informed decision making.

  4. Alum Astronaut Phones From International Space Station

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    For the second time inside of a year, faculty, staff and some family members at the Naval Postgraduate School were honored to participate in a video-teleconference with a member of the International Space Station (ISS) crew.

  5. Fundamental Space Biology-1: HHR and Incubator for ISS Space Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirven-Brooks, M.; Fahlen, T.; Sato, K.; Reiss-Bubenheim, D.

    The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is developing an Incubator and a Habitat Holding Rack (HHR) to support life science experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The HHR provides for cooling and power needs, and supports data transfer (including telemetry, commanding, video processing, Ethernet), video compression, and data and command storage). The Incubator is a habitat that provides for controlled temperature between +4 C and +45 C and air circulation. It has a set of connector ports for power, analog and digital sensors, and video pass-through to support experiment-unique hardware within the Incubator specimen chamber. The Incubator exchanges air with the ISS cabin. The Fundamental Space Biology-1 (FSB-1) Project will be delivering, the HHR and two Incubators to ISS. The two inaugural experiments to be conducted on ISS using this hardware will investigate the biological effects of the space environment on two model organisms, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae; yeast) and Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans; nematode). The {M}odel {Y}east {C}ultures {o}n {S}tation (MYCOS) experiment will support examination of the effect of microgravity and cosmic radiation on yeast biology. In the second series of experiments during the same increment, the effects of microgravity and space environment radiation on C. elegans will be examined. The {F}undamental Space Biology {I}ncubator {E}xperiment {R}esearch using {C}. {e}legans (FIERCE) study is designed to support a long duration, multi-generational study of nematodes. FIERCE on-orbit science operations will include video monitoring, sub-culturing and periodic fixation and freezing of samples. For both experiments, investigators will be solicited via an International Space Life Sciences Research Announcement. In the near future, the Centrifuge Accommodation Module will be delivered to ISS, which will house the SSBRP 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor. The Incubator can be placed onto the Centrifuge

  6. The International Space Station: A National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    After more than a decade of assembly missions and the end of the space shuttle program, the International Space Station (ISS) has reached assembly completion. With other visiting spacecraft now docking with the ISS on a regular basis, the orbiting outpost now serves as a National Laboratory to scientists back on Earth. The ISS has the ability to strengthen relationships between NASA, other Federal entities, higher educational institutions, and the private sector in the pursuit of national priorities for the advancement of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The ISS National Laboratory also opens new paths for the exploration and economic development of space. In this presentation we will explore the operation of the ISS and the realm of scientific research onboard that includes: (1) Human Research, (2) Biology & Biotechnology, (3) Physical & Material Sciences, (4) Technology, and (5) Earth & Space Science.

  7. The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) Payload Facility on the ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibaldi, Giuseppe; Nasca, Rosario; Neubert, Torsten

    ASIM is a payload facility to be mounted on a Columbus external platform on the International Space Station (ISS). ASIM will study the coupling of thunderstorm processes to the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation belts. ASIM is the most complex Earth Observation payload facility planned...

  8. ISS EarthKam: Taking Photos of the Earth from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Turtle

    2008-01-01

    NASA is involved in a project involving the International Space Station (ISS) and an Earth-focused camera called EarthKam, where schools, and ultimately students, are allowed to remotely program the EarthKAM to take images. Here the author describes how EarthKam was used to help middle school students learn about biomes and develop their…

  9. The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) Payload Facility on the ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibaldi, Giuseppe; Nasca, Rosario; Neubert, Torsten

    ASIM is a payload facility to be mounted on a Columbus external platform on the International Space Station (ISS). ASIM will study the coupling of thunderstorm processes to the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation belts. ASIM is the most complex Earth Observation payload facility planned...

  10. ISS and Space Shuttle Radiation Measurements at Solar Minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaza, Ramona; Welton, Andrew; Dunegan, Audrey; Lee, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    A summary of 2008-2011 ISS and Space Shuttle radiation dosimetry results for inside vehicle radiation monitoring in low-Earth orbit will be presented. Results include new data from ISS Expedition 22-25/20A radiation area monitors (RAM) and Shuttle Missions STS127-STS133 passive radiation dosimeters (PRD). ISS 20A radiation measurement locations included three Node 2 crew quarters locations at NOD2S5_CQ, NOD2P5_CQ and CQ-3 (Deck), as well as ESA Columbus, and JAXA Kibo locations. ISS 20A and STS127-STS133 missions were flown at 51.6 inclination with an altitude range of 330-350 km. The passive radiation results will be presented in terms of measured daily dose obtained using luminescence detectors (i.e., Al2O3:C, LiF:Mg,Ti and CaF2:Tm). In addition, preliminary results from the DOSIS 2 Project, in collaboration with the German Space Agency (DLR) will be presented. SRAG s participation to the DOSIS 2 exposure on ISS (11/16/2009-05/26/2010) involved passive radiation measurements at 10 different shielding locations inside the ESA Columbus Module.

  11. Conveying International Space Station Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goza, Sharon P.

    2017-01-01

    Over 1,000 experiments have been completed, and others are being conducted and planed on the International Space Station (ISS). In order to make the information on these experiments accessible, the IGOAL develops mobile applications to easily access this content and video products to convey high level concepts. This presentation will feature the Space Station Research Explorer as well as several publicly available video examples.

  12. Space-borne imaging observation of the terrestrial upper atmosphere by ISS-IMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akinori; Otsuka, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Yoshikawa, Ichiro; Sakanoi, Takeshi

    ISS-IMAP (Ionosphere, Mesosphere, upper Atmosphere, and Plasmasphere mapping) mission is a space-borne mission on the international space station (ISS) to elucidate the mesoscale structures in the ionosphere, the mesosphere, and the plasmasphere by imaging observations. ISS-IMAP measures the following three parameters: (1) distribution of the atmospheric gravity wave in the mesopause (87km), the ionospheric E-region (95km), and the ionospheric F-region (250km) (2) distribution of the ionized atmosphere in the ionospheric F-region (3) distribution of O+ and He+ ions in the ionosphere and plasmasphere. After the initial check outs, its observation was started in October 2012. ISS-IMAP consists of two imaging instruments on the Exposed Facility of Japanese Experiment Module of the International Space Station, EF of ISS-JEM. Visible-light and infrared spectrum imager (VISI) observes the Mesosphere and the Ionosphere. Extra ultraviolet imager (EUVI) observes the Ionosphere and the Plasmasphere. VISI observes the airglow of 730nm (OH, Alt. 85km), 762nm (O2, Alt. 95km), and 630nm (O, Alt. 250km) in the Nadir direction. The global distributions of the airglow structures whose scale size is 50-500km in the nightside of the Mesosphere and the Ionosphere have been obtained by the VISI observation. EUVI measures the resonant scattering of 30.4nm [He+] and 83.4nm [O+]. Its field- of-view is 15 degrees, and points the limb of the Earth to observe the vertical distribution of the ions. The continuous observation of ISS-IMAP started in October 2012. The coordinated observation between ISS-IMAP and the several ground-based instruments have been carried out to elucidate the coupling process between the lower atmosphere and the upper atmosphere by the wave structures in this scale.

  13. Benefits of International Collaboration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrook, Pete; Robinson, Julie A.; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; De Parolis, Lina; Hatton, Jason; Shirakawa, Masaki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Valentini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station is a valuable platform for research in space, but the benefits are limited if research is only conducted by individual countries. Through the efforts of the ISS Program Science Forum, international science working groups, and interagency cooperation, international collaboration on the ISS has expanded as ISS utilization has matured. Members of science teams benefit from working with counterparts in other countries. Scientists and institutions bring years of experience and specialized expertise to collaborative investigations, leading to new perspectives and approaches to scientific challenges. Combining new ideas and historical results brings synergy and improved peer-reviewed scientific methods and results. World-class research facilities can be expensive and logistically complicated, jeopardizing their full utilization. Experiments that would be prohibitively expensive for a single country can be achieved through contributions of resources from two or more countries, such as crew time, up- and down mass, and experiment hardware. Cooperation also avoids duplication of experiments and hardware among agencies. Biomedical experiments can be completed earlier if astronauts or cosmonauts from multiple agencies participate. Countries responding to natural disasters benefit from ISS imagery assets, even if the country has no space agency of its own. Students around the world participate in ISS educational opportunities, and work with students in other countries, through open curriculum packages and through international competitions. Even experiments conducted by a single country can benefit scientists around the world, through specimen sharing programs and publicly accessible "open data" repositories. For ISS data, these repositories include GeneLab, the Physical Science Informatics System, and different Earth data systems. Scientists can conduct new research using ISS data without having to launch and execute their own experiments

  14. 76 FR 52016 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety... International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. The purpose of this... consideration by NASA for Commercial Resupply Services for the International Space Station (ISS),...

  15. Life science experiments performed in space in the ISS/Kibo facility and future research plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    Over the past several years, current techniques in molecular biology have been used to perform experiments in space, focusing on the nature and effects of space radiation. In the Japanese 'Kibo' facility in the International Space Station (ISS), the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has performed five life science experiments since 2009, and two additional experiments are currently in progress. The first life science experiment in space was the 'Rad Gene' project, which utilized two human cultured lymphoblastoid cell lines containing a mutated P53 : gene (m P53 : ) and a parental wild-type P53 : gene (wt P53 : ) respectively. Four parameters were examined: (i) detecting space radiation-induced DSBs by observing γH2AX foci; (ii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression during space flight; (iii) observing P53 : -dependent gene expression after space flight; and (iv) observing the adaptive response in the two cell lines containing the mutated and wild type P53 : genes after exposure to space radiation. These observations were completed and have been reported, and this paper is a review of these experiments. In addition, recent new information from space-based experiments involving radiation biology is presented here. These experiments involve human cultured cells, silkworm eggs, mouse embryonic stem cells and mouse eggs in various experiments designed by other principal investigators in the ISS/Kibo. The progress of Japanese science groups involved in these space experiments together with JAXA are also discussed here. The Japanese Society for Biological Sciences in Space (JSBSS), the Utilization Committee of Space Environment Science (UCSES) and the Science Council of Japan (ACJ) have supported these new projects and new experimental facilities in ISS/Kibo. Currently, these organizations are proposing new experiments for the ISS through 2024. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and

  16. International Research Results and Accomplishments From the International Space Station - A New Compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, Tara; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Perkins, Nekisha; Cohen, Luchino; Marcil, Isabelle; Heppener, Marc; Hatton, Jason; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Umemura, Sayaka; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Cotronei, Vittorio; Jean, Sabbagh

    2016-01-01

    In 2016, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the first-ever compilation of international ISS research publications resulting from research performed on the ISS through 2011 (Expeditions 0 through 30). International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results. From 2000-2011 is a collection of over 1,200 journal publications that describe ISS research in the areas of biology and biotechnology; Earth and space science; educational activities and outreach; human research; physical sciences; technology development and demonstration; and, results from ISS operations. This paper will summarize the ISS results publications obtained through 2011 on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum that is made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. NASA's ISS Program Science office maintains an online experiment database (www.nasa.gov/iss- science) that tracks and communicates ISS research activities across the entire ISS partnership, and it is continuously updated by cooperation and linking with the results tracking activities of each partner. It captures ISS experiment summaries and results and includes citations to the journals, conference proceedings, and patents as they become available. This content is obtained through extensive and regular journal and patent database searches, and input provided by the ISS international partners ISS scientists themselves. The International Space Station Research Accomplishments: An Analysis of Results From 2000-2011 is a testament to the research that was underway even as the ISS laboratory was being built. It rejects the scientific knowledge gained from ISS research, and how it impact the fields of science in both space and traditional science disciplines on Earth. Now, during a time when utilization is at its busiest, and with extension of the ISS through at least 2024, the ISS partners work together to track the accomplishments and the new knowledge gained in a

  17. International Space Station Configuration Analysis and Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchondo, Rebekah

    2016-01-01

    Ambitious engineering projects, such as NASA's International Space Station (ISS), require dependable modeling, analysis, visualization, and robotics to ensure that complex mission strategies are carried out cost effectively, sustainably, and safely. Learn how Booz Allen Hamilton's Modeling, Analysis, Visualization, and Robotics Integration Center (MAVRIC) team performs engineering analysis of the ISS Configuration based primarily on the use of 3D CAD models. To support mission planning and execution, the team tracks the configuration of ISS and maintains configuration requirements to ensure operational goals are met. The MAVRIC team performs multi-disciplinary integration and trade studies to ensure future configurations meet stakeholder needs.

  18. Risk Management for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, J.; Brezovic, Philip

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an extremely complex system, both technically and programmatically. The Space Station must support a wide range of payloads and missions. It must be launched in numerous launch packages and be safely assembled and operated in the harsh environment of space. It is being designed and manufactured by many organizations, including the prime contractor, Boeing, the NASA institutions, and international partners and their contractors. Finally, the ISS has multiple customers, (e.g., the Administration, Congress, users, public, international partners, etc.) with contrasting needs and constraints. It is the ISS Risk Management Office strategy to proactively and systematically manages risks to help ensure ISS Program success. ISS program follows integrated risk management process (both quantitative and qualitative) and is integrated into ISS project management. The process and tools are simple and seamless and permeate to the lowest levels (at a level where effective management can be realized) and follows the continuous risk management methodology. The risk process assesses continually what could go wrong (risks), determine which risks need to be managed, implement strategies to deal with those risks, and measure effectiveness of the implemented strategies. The process integrates all facets of risk including cost, schedule and technical aspects. Support analysis risk tools like PRA are used to support programatic decisions and assist in analyzing risks.

  19. Performance Assessment in the PILOT Experiment On Board Space Stations Mir and ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Bernd; Salnitski, Vyacheslav; Dudukin, Alexander; Shevchenko, Lev; Bronnikov, Sergey

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this investigation into the performance and reliability of Russian cosmonauts in hand-controlled docking of a spacecraft on a space station (experiment PILOT) was to enhance overall mission safety and crew training efficiency. The preliminary findings on the Mir space station suggested that a break in docking training of about 90 d significantly degraded performance. Intensified experiment schedules on the International Space Station (ISS) have allowed for a monthly experiment using an on-board simulator. Therefore, instead of just three training tasks as on Mir, five training flights per session have been implemented on the ISS. This experiment was run in parallel but independently of the operational docking training the cosmonauts receive. First, performance was compared between the experiments on the two space stations by nonparametric testing. Performance differed significantly between space stations preflight, in flight, and postflight. Second, performance was analyzed by modeling the linear mixed effects of all variances (LME). The fixed factors space station, mission phases, training task numbers, and their interaction were analyzed. Cosmonauts were designated as a random factor. All fixed factors were found to be significant and the interaction between stations and mission phase was also significant. In summary, performance on the ISS was shown to be significantly improved, thus enhancing mission safety. Additional approaches to docking performance assessment and prognosis are presented and discussed.

  20. Survey of International Space Station Charging Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, P. D.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Minow, Joseph I.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Parker, Linda N.

    2009-01-01

    With the negative grounding of the 160V Photovoltaic (PV) arrays, the International Space Station (ISS) can experience varied and interesting charging events. Since August 2006, there has been a multi-probe p ackage, called the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU), availa ble to provide redundant measurements of the floating potential of th e ISS as well as the density and temperature of the local plasma environment. The FPMU has been operated during intermittent data campaigns since August 2006 and has collected over 160 days of information reg arding the charging of the ISS as it has progressed in configuration from one to three PV arrays and with various additional modules such as the European Space Agency?s Columbus laboratory and the Japan Aeros pace Exploration Agency's Kibo laboratory. This paper summarizes the charging of the ISS and the local environmental conditions that contr ibute to those charging events, both as measured by the FPMU.

  1. International Space Station Utilization: Tracking Investigations from Objectives to Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruttley, T. M.; Mayo, Susan; Robinson, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Since the first module was assembled on the International Space Station (ISS), on-orbit investigations have been underway across all scientific disciplines. The facilities dedicated to research on ISS have supported over 1100 investigations from over 900 scientists representing over 60 countries. Relatively few of these investigations are tracked through the traditional NASA grants monitoring process and with ISS National Laboratory use growing, the ISS Program Scientist s Office has been tasked with tracking all ISS investigations from objectives to results. Detailed information regarding each investigation is now collected once, at the first point it is proposed for flight, and is kept in an online database that serves as a single source of information on the core objectives of each investigation. Different fields are used to provide the appropriate level of detail for research planning, astronaut training, and public communications. http://www.nasa.gov/iss-science/. With each successive year, publications of ISS scientific results, which are used to measure success of the research program, have shown steady increases in all scientific research areas on the ISS. Accurately identifying, collecting, and assessing the research results publications is a challenge and a priority for the ISS research program, and we will discuss the approaches that the ISS Program Science Office employs to meet this challenge. We will also address the online resources available to support outreach and communication of ISS research to the public. Keywords: International Space Station, Database, Tracking, Methods

  2. Fluid Physics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corban, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This document is a presentation in viewgraph format which reviews the laboratory facilities and their construction for the International Space Station(ISS). Graphic displays of the ISS are included, with special interest in the facilities available on the US Destiny module and other modules which will be used in the study of fluid physics on the ISS. There are also pictures and descriptions of various components of the Fluids and Combustion Facility.

  3. Physics Research on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting Earth at an altitude of around 400 km. It has been manned since November 2000 and currently has a permanent crew of six. On-board ISS science is done in a wide field of sciences, from fundamental physics to biology and human physiology. Many of the experiments utilize the unique conditions of weightlessness, but also the views of space and the Earth are exploited. ESA’s (European Space Agency) ELIPS (European Programme Life and Physical sciences in Space) manages some 150 on-going and planned experiments for ISS, which is expected to be utilized at least to 2020. This presentation will give a short introduction to ISS, followed by an overview of the science field within ELIPS and some resent results. The emphasis, however, will be on ISS experiments which are close to the research performed at CERN. Silicon strip detectors like ALTEA are measuring the flux of ions inside the station. ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will provide unprecedented global ti...

  4. International Space Station External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit. Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets. This paper addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on returned hardware, and contamination forecasting maps being generated to support external payload topology studies and science utilization.

  5. International Space Station Radiation Shielding Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, G. D.; Wilson, J. W.; Sandridge, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Nealy, J. E.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Hugger, C. P.; Verhage, J.; Anderson, B. M.; Atwell, W.

    2001-01-01

    The projected radiation levels within the International Space Station (ISS) have been criticized by the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel in their report to the NASA Administrator. Methods for optimal reconfiguration and augmentation of the ISS shielding are now being developed. The initial steps are to develop reconfigurable and realistic radiation shield models of the ISS modules, develop computational procedures for the highly anisotropic radiation environment, and implement parametric and organizational optimization procedures. The targets of the redesign process are the crew quarters where the astronauts sleep and determining the effects of ISS shadow shielding of an astronaut in a spacesuit. The ISS model as developed will be reconfigurable to follow the ISS. Swapping internal equipment rack assemblies via location mapping tables will be one option for shield optimization. Lightweight shield augmentation materials will be optimally fit to crew quarter areas using parametric optimization procedures to minimize the augmentation shield mass. The optimization process is being integrated into the Intelligence Synthesis Environment s (ISE s) immersive simulation facility at the Langley Research Center and will rely on High Performance Computing and Communication (HPCC) for rapid evaluation of shield parameter gradients.

  6. Productivity of Mizuna Cultivated in the Space Greenhouse Onboard the Russian Module of the Iss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    As stipulated by the science program of research into the processes of growth, development, metabolism and reproduction of higher plants in microgravity in view of their potential use in advanced life support systems, five experiments on Mizuna plants (Brassica rapa var. nipponisica) were performed using the Lada space greenhouse onboard the ISS Russian Module (RM) during Expeditions ISS-5, 17 and 20-22. One of the goals of the experiments was to evaluate the productivity of Mizuna plants grown at different levels of ISS RM air contamination. Mizuna plants were cultivated for 31 - 36 days when exposed to continuous illumination. The root growing medium was made of Turface enriched with a controlled release fertilizer Osmocote. In the course of the flight experiments major parameters of plant cultivation, total level of ISS RM air contamination and plant microbiological status were measured. The grown plants were returned to Earth as fresh or frozen samples. After the three last vegetation cycles the plants were harvested, packed and frozen at -80 0C in the MELFI freezer on the ISS U.S. Module and later returned to Earth onboard Space Shuttle. It was found that the productivity and morphometric (e.g., plant height and mass, number of leaves) parameters of the plants grown in space did not differ from those seen in ground controls. The T coefficient, which represents the total contamination level of ISS air), was 4 (ISS-5), 22 (ISS-17), 55 (ISS-20), 22 (ISS-21) and 28 (ISS-22) versus the norm of no more than 5. In summary, a significant increase in the total contamination level of the ISS RM air did not reduce the productivity of the leaf vegetable plant used in the flight experiments.

  7. Analyzing an Aging ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ISS External Survey integrates the requirements for photographic and video imagery of the International Space Station (ISS) for the engineering, operations, and science communities. An extensive photographic survey was performed on all Space Shuttle flights to the ISS and continues to be performed daily, though on a level much reduced by the limited available imagery. The acquired video and photo imagery is used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of external deposition and contamination, surface degradation, dynamic events, and MMOD strikes. Many of these assessments provide important information about ISS surfaces and structural integrity as the ISS ages. The imagery is also used to assess and verify the physical configuration of ISS structure, appendages, and components.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Management on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingame, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a manned laboratory operating in orbit around the Earth that was built and is currently operated by several countries across the world. The ISS is a platform for novel scientific research as well as a testbed for technologies that will be required for the next step in space exploration. In order for astronauts to live on ISS for an extended period of time, it is vital that on board systems consistently provide a clean atmosphere. One contaminant that must be removed from the atmosphere is carbon dioxide (CO2). CO2 levels on ISS are higher than those on Earth and can cause crew members to experience symptoms such as headaches, lethargy and mental slowness. A variety of systems exist on ISS to remove carbon dioxide, including adsorbent technologies which can be reused and testbed technologies for future space vehicles.

  9. The Era of International Space Station Utilization Begins: Research Strategy, International Collaboration, and Realized Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Jean, Sabbagh

    2010-01-01

    With the assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) nearing completion and the support of a full-time crew of six, a new era of utilization for research is beginning. For more than 15 years, the ISS international partnership has weathered financial, technical and political challenges proving that nations can work together to complete assembly of the largest space vehicle in history. And while the ISS partners can be proud of having completed one of the most ambitious engineering projects ever conceived, the challenge of successfully using the platform remains. During the ISS assembly phase, the potential benefits of space-based research and development were demonstrated; including the advancement of scientific knowledge based on experiments conducted in space, development and testing of new technologies, and derivation of Earth applications from new understanding. The configurability and human-tended capabilities of the ISS provide a unique platform. The international utilization strategy is based on research ranging from physical sciences, biology, medicine, psychology, to Earth observation, human exploration preparation and technology demonstration. The ability to complete follow-on investigations in a period of months allows researchers to make rapid advances based on new knowledge gained from ISS activities. During the utilization phase, the ISS partners are working together to track the objectives, accomplishments, and the applications of the new knowledge gained. This presentation will summarize the consolidated international results of these tracking activities and approaches. Areas of current research on ISS with strong international cooperation will be highlighted including cardiovascular studies, cell and plant biology studies, radiation, physics of matter, and advanced alloys. Scientific knowledge and new technologies derived from research on the ISS will be realized through improving quality of life on Earth and future spaceflight endeavours

  10. A contribution towards establishing more comfortable space weather to cope with increased human space passengers for ISS shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalu, A.

    Space Weather is a specialized scienctific descipline in Meteorology which has recently emerged from man's continued research efforts to create a familiar spacecraft environment which is physiologically stable and life sustaining for astronauts and human passengers in distant space travels. As the population of human passengers in space shuttles rapidly increases, corresponding research on sustained micro-climate of spacecrafts is considered necessary and timely. This is because existing information is not meant for a large population in spacecrafts. The paper therefore discusses the role of meteorology (specifically micrometeorology) in relation to internal communication, spacecraft instrumentation and physiologic comfort of astronauts and space passengers (the later may not necessarily be trained astronauts, but merely business men or tourist space travellers for business transactions in the International Space Station (ISS)). It is recognized that me eorology which is a fundamental science amongt multidiscplinary sciences has been found to be vital in space travels and communication. Space weather therefore appears in slightly different format where temperature and humidity changes and variability within the spacecraft exert very significant influences on the efficiency of astronauts and the effectiveness of the various delicate instrument gadgets aimed at reducing the frequency of computer failures and malfunction of other instruments on which safety of the spacecraft depends. Apart from the engineering and technological problems which space scientists must have to overcome when human population in space shuttles increases as we now expect, based on evidence from successful missions to ISS, the maint enace of physiologic comfort state of astronauts, which, as far as scientifically possible, should be as near as possible to their Earth-Atmosphere condition. This is one of the most important and also most difficult conditions to attain. It demands a mor e

  11. Back to the future: the role of the ISS and future space stations in planetary exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Christian; Moreau, Didier

    2010-05-01

    Space stations as stepping stones to planets appear already in the1954 Disney-von Braun anticipation TV show but the first study with a specific planetary scientific objective was the ANTEUS project of 1978. This station was an evolution of SPACELAB hardware and was designed to analyse Mars samples with better equipment than the laboratory of the VIKING landers. It would have played the role of the reception facility present in the current studies of Mars sample return, after analysis, the "safe" samples would have been returned to earth by the space shuttle. This study was followed by the flights of SPACELAB and MIR. Finally after 35 years of development, the International Space Station reaches its final configuration in 2010. Recent developments of the international agreement between the space agencies indicate a life extending to 2025, it is already part of the exploration programme as its crews prepare the long cruise flights and missions to the exploration targets. It is now time to envisage also the use of this stable 350 tons spacecraft for planetary and space sciences. Planetary telescopes are an obvious application; the present SOLAR payload on COLUMBUS is an opportunity to use the target pointing capabilities from the ISS. The current exposure facilities are also preparing future planetary protection procedures. Other applications have already been previously considered as experimental collision and impact studies in both space vacuum and microgravity. Future space stations at the Lagrange points could simultaneously combine unique observation platforms with an actual intermediate stepping stone to Mars.

  12. Bioculture System: Expanding ISS Space Bioscience Capabilities for Fundamental Stem Cell Research and Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, Elizabeth; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Almeida, Eduardo; Fitzpatrick, Garret; Ellingson, Lance; Mitchell, Sarah; Yang, Anthony; Kosnik, Cristine; Rayl, Nicole; Cannon, Tom; Austin, Edward; Sato, Kevin

    With the recent call by the 2011 Decadal Report and the 2010 Space Biosciences Roadmap for the International Space Station (ISS) to be used as a National Laboratory for scientific research, there is now a need for new laboratory instruments on ISS to enable such research to occur. The Bioculture System supports the extended culturing of multiple cell types and microbiological specimens. It consists of a docking station that carries ten independent incubation units or ‘Cassettes’. Each Cassette contains a cooling chamber (5(°) C) for temperature sensitive solutions and samples, or long duration fluids and sample storage, as well as an incubation chamber (ambient up to 42(°) C). Each Cassette houses an independent fluidics system comprised of a biochamber, medical-grade fluid tubing, medium warming module, oxygenation module, fluid pump, and sixteen solenoid valves for automated biochamber injections of sampling. The Bioculture System provides the user with the ability to select the incubation temperature, fluid flow rate and automated biochamber sampling or injection events for each separate Cassette. Furthermore, the ISS crew can access the biochamber, media bag, and accessory bags on-orbit using the Microgravity Science Glovebox. The Bioculture System also permits initiation of cultures, subculturing, injection of compounds, and removal of samples for on-orbit processing using ISS facilities. The Bioculture System therefore provides a unique opportunity for the study of stem cells and other cell types in space. The first validation flight of the Bioculture System will be conducted on SpaceX5, consisting of 8 Cassettes and lasting for 30-37 days. During this flight we plan to culture two different mammalian cell types in bioreactors: a mouse osteocytic-like cell line, and human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS)-derived cardiomyocytes. Specifically, the osteocytic line will enable the study of a type of cell that has been flown on the Bioculture System

  13. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  14. Space Technology Game Changing Development Astrobee: ISS Robotic Free Flyer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bualat, Maria Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Astrobee will be a free-flying robot that can be remotely operated by astronauts in space or by mission controllers on the ground. NASA is developing Astrobee to perform a variety of intravehicular activities (IVA), such as operations inside the International Space Station. These IVA tasks include interior environmental surveys (e.g., sound level measurement), inventory and mobile camera work. Astrobee will also serve as a platform for robotics research in microgravity. Here we describe the Astrobee project objectives, concept of operations, development approach, key challenges, and initial design.

  15. Deep Space Habitat Configurations Based On International Space Station Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Russell, Tiffany; Baysinger, Mike; Capizzo, Pete; Fabisinski, Leo; Griffin, Brand; Hornsby, Linda; Maples,Dauphne; Miernik, Janie

    2012-01-01

    A Deep Space Habitat (DSH) is the crew habitation module designed for long duration missions. Although humans have lived in space for many years, there has never been a habitat beyond low-Earth-orbit. As part of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Habitation Project, a study was conducted to develop weightless habitat configurations using systems based on International Space Station (ISS) designs. Two mission sizes are described for a 4-crew 60-day mission, and a 4-crew 500-day mission using standard Node, Lab, and Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) sized elements, and ISS derived habitation systems. These durations were selected to explore the lower and upper bound for the exploration missions under consideration including a range of excursions within the Earth-Moon vicinity, near earth asteroids, and Mars orbit. Current methods for sizing the mass and volume for habitats are based on mathematical models that assume the construction of a new single volume habitat. In contrast to that approach, this study explored the use of ISS designs based on existing hardware where available and construction of new hardware based on ISS designs where appropriate. Findings included a very robust design that could be reused if the DSH were assembled and based at the ISS and a transportation system were provided for its return after each mission. Mass estimates were found to be higher than mathematical models due primarily to the use of multiple ISS modules instead of one new large module, but the maturity of the designs using flight qualified systems have potential for improved cost, schedule, and risk benefits.

  16. NASDA next generation aquatic habitat for space shuttle and ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukawa, M.; Ochiai, T.; Kamigaichi, S.; Ishioka, N.; Uchida, S.; Kono, Y.; Sakimura, T.

    2003-10-01

    The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has more than 20 years of experience developing aquatic animal experiment facilities. We are now studying the next-generation aquatic animal experiment facility or the Aquatic Habitat (AQH) for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station use. A prototype breeding system was designed and tested. Medaka adult fish were able to mate and spawn in this closed circulatory breeding system, and the larvae grewto adult fish and spawned on the 45th day after hatching. The water quality-control system using nitrifying bacteria worked well throughout the medaka breeding test. For amphibians, we also conducted the African clawed toad ( Xenopus laevis) breeding test with the same specimen chambers, although a part of circulation loop was opened to air. Xenopus larvae grew and completed metamorphosis successfully in the small specimen chamber. The first metamorphic climax started on the 30th day and was completed on the 38th day.

  17. International Space Station Acoustics - A Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    It is important to control acoustic noise aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to provide a satisfactory environment for voice communications, crew productivity, alarm audibility, and restful sleep, and to minimize the risk for temporary and permanent hearing loss. Acoustic monitoring is an important part of the noise control process on ISS, providing critical data for trend analysis, noise exposure analysis, validation of acoustic analyses and predictions, and to provide strong evidence for ensuring crew health and safety, thus allowing Flight Certification. To this purpose, sound level meter (SLM) measurements and acoustic noise dosimetry are routinely performed. And since the primary noise sources on ISS include the environmental control and life support system (fans and airflow) and active thermal control system (pumps and water flow), acoustic monitoring will reveal changes in hardware noise emissions that may indicate system degradation or performance issues. This paper provides the current acoustic levels in the ISS modules and sleep stations and is an update to the status presented in 2011. Since this last status report, many payloads (science experiment hardware) have been added and a significant number of quiet ventilation fans have replaced noisier fans in the Russian Segment. Also, noise mitigation efforts are planned to reduce the noise levels of the T2 treadmill and levels in Node 3, in general. As a result, the acoustic levels on the ISS continue to improve.

  18. Nitrogen Oxygen Recharge System for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dick, Brandon; Cook, Tony; Leonard, Dan

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) requires stores of Oxygen (O2) and Nitrogen (N2) to provide for atmosphere replenishment, direct crew member usage, and payload operations. Currently, supplies of N2/O2 are maintained by transfer from the Space Shuttle. Following Space Shuttle is retirement in 2010, an alternate means of resupplying N2/O2 to the ISS is needed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has determined that the optimal method of supplying the ISS with O2/N2 is using tanks of high pressure N2/O2 carried to the station by a cargo vehicle capable of docking with the ISS. This paper will outline the architecture of the system selected by NASA and will discuss some of the design challenges associated with this use of high pressure oxygen and nitrogen in the human spaceflight environment.

  19. International Systems Integration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstenmaier, William H.; Ticker, Ronald L.

    2007-01-01

    Over the next few months, the International Space Station (ISS), and human spaceflight in general, will undergo momentous change. The European Columbus and Japanese Kibo Laboratories will be added to the station joining U.S. and Russian elements already on orbit. Columbus, Jules Vernes Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Kibo Control Centers will soon be joining control centers in the US and Russia in coordinating ISS operations and research. The Canadian Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) will be performing extra vehicular activities that previously only astronauts on EVA could do, but remotely and with increased safety. This paper will address the integration of these international elements and operations into the ISS, both from hardware and human perspectives. Interoperability of on-orbit systems and ground control centers and their human operators from Europe, Japan, Canada, Russia and the U.S. pose significant and unique challenges. Coordination of logistical support and transportation of crews and cargo is also a major challenge. As we venture out into the cosmos and inhabit the Moon and other planets, it's the systems and operational experience and partnership development on ISS, humanity's orbiting outpost that is making these journeys possible.

  20. The Potential for Health Monitoring in Expandable Space Modules: The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Nathan D.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2017-01-01

    Expandable modules for use in space and on the Moon or Mars offer a great opportunity for volume and mass savings in future space exploration missions. This type of module can be compressed into a relatively small shape on the ground, allowing them to fit into space vehicles with a smaller cargo/fairing size than a traditional solid, metallic structure based module would allow. In April 2016, the Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) was berthed to the International Space Station (ISS). BEAM is the first human-rated expandable habitat/module to be deployed and crewed in space. BEAM is a NASA managed ISS payload project in partnership with Bigelow Aerospace. BEAM is intended to stay attached to ISS for an operational period of 2 years to help advance the technology readiness for future expandable modules. BEAM has been instrumented with a suite of space flight certified sensors systems which will help characterize the module's performance for thermal, radiation shielding and impact monitoring against potential Micro Meteoroid/Orbital Debris (MM/OD) providing fundamental information on the BEAM environment for potential health monitoring requirements and capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of how the sensors/instrumentation systems were developed, tested, installed and an overview of the current sensor system operations. It will also discuss how the MM/OD impact detection system referred to as the Distributed Impact Detection System (DIDS) data is being processed and reviewed on the ground by the principle investigators.

  1. KSC ISS Logistics Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellado, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The presentation contains a status of KSC ISS Logistics Operations. It basically presents current top level ISS Logistics tasks being conducted at KSC, current International Partner activities, hardware processing flow focussing on late Stow operations, list of KSC Logistics POC's, and a backup list of Logistics launch site services. This presentation is being given at the annual International Space Station (ISS) Multi-lateral Logistics Maintenance Control Panel meeting to be held in Turin, Italy during the week of May 13-16. The presentatiuon content doesn't contain any potential lessons learned.

  2. Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment -Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) on the ISS -"Kibo" Exposed Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Kimoto, Yugo; Obara, Takahiro; Goka, Tateo

    To support future space activities, it is very important to acquire space environmental data related to space radiation degradation of space parts and materials and spacecraft anomalies. Such data are useful for spacecraft design and manned space activity. On several satellite of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) since the Engineering Test Satellite-V (ETS-V), Technical Data Acquisition Equipment (TEDA) and Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment (SEDA) have been installed for obtaining the data described above. SEDA-Attached Payload (AP) was mounted on Japanese experimental module, "Kibo" , at International Space Station (ISS) to take continuous measurements of the 400 kilometres altitude space station's tra-jectory for a period of around 3 years. SEDA-AP comprises common bus equipment supporting launch, RMS handling, the power/communication interface with JEM-EF, an extendible mast that extends the neutron monitor sensor 1 m separate from the bus structure, and equipment that measures space environment data. SEDA-AP has been fitted with 8 kinds of instruments. It will continuously and simultaneously measure neutrons, heavy ions, plasma, high-energy electrons and protons, atomic oxygen, space debris and dusts, etc. Furthermore, by exposing electronic devices and materials directory to the space environment, it will examine how they are affected by the environment. SEDA-AP was lanced on July 16 in 2009, and attached to EF of "Kibo" on July 25 using the robot arm of "Kibo". Initial checkout was started on Au-gust 4 and successfully ended on September 17. This paper will report the mission objectives, instrumentation, and current status of SEDA-AP.

  3. Selection of an Alternate Biocide for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System Coolant, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark E.; Cole, Harold; Weir, Natalee; Oehler, Bill; Steele, John; Varsik, Jerry; Lukens, Clark

    2004-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) ITCS (Internal Thermal Control System) includes two internal coolant loops that utilize an aqueous based coolant for heat transfer. A silver salt biocide had previously been utilized as an additive in the coolant formulation to control the growth and proliferation of microorganisms within the coolant loops. Ground-based and in-flight testing demonstrated that the silver salt was rapidly depleted, and did not act as an effective long-term biocide. Efforts to select an optimal alternate biocide for the ITCS coolant application have been underway and are now in the final stages. An extensive evaluation of biocides was conducted to down-select to several candidates for test trials and was reported on previously. Criteria for that down-select included: the need for safe, non-intrusive implementation and operation in a functioning system; the ability to control existing planktonic and biofilm residing microorganisms; a negligible impact on system-wetted materials of construction; and a negligible reactivity with existing coolant additives. Candidate testing to provide data for the selection of an optimal alternate biocide is now in the final stages. That testing has included rapid biocide effectiveness screening using Biolog MT2 plates to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (amount that will inhibit visible growth of microorganisms), time kill studies to determine the exposure time required to completely eliminate organism growth, materials compatibility exposure evaluations, coolant compatibility studies, and bench-top simulated coolant testing. This paper reports the current status of the effort to select an alternate biocide for the ISS ITCS coolant. The results of various test results to select the optimal candidate are presented.

  4. Now calling at the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    On 31 July, an unmanned Russian Progress spacecraft was launched from the desert steppe of Kazakhstan. Its destination: the International Space Station (ISS). On board: five Timepix detectors developed by the Medipix2 Collaboration.   With the Timepix on board, Progress 48 was launched 31 July from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Source: RSC Energia. Timepix detectors are small, USB powered particle trackers based on Medipix2 technology. The Timepix chip, which was developed at CERN, is coupled to a silicon sensor and incorporated into a minature readout system - developed at IEAP, Prague - which is about the size of a USB pen drive. These systems have been used across a variety of disciplines: from the study of cosmic rays to biomedical imaging. Now on board the ISS, they are providing highly accurate measurements of space radiation for dosimetry purposes. “There’s nothing else in the world that has quite the capability of Timepix detectors to ...

  5. [Results of measuring neutrons doses and energy spectra inside Russian segment of the International Space Station in experiment "Matryoshka-R" using bubble detectors during the ISS-24-34 missions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khulapko, S V; Liagushin, V I; Arkhangel'skiĭ, V V; Shurshakov, V A; Smith, M; Ing, H; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I V

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of calculating the equivalent dose from and energy spectrum of neutrons in the right-hand crewquarters in module Zvezda of the ISS Russian segment. Dose measurements were made in the period between July, 2010 and November, 2012 (ISS Missions 24-34) by research equipment including the bubble dosimeter as part of experiment "Matryoshka-R". Neutron energy spectra in the crewquarters are in good agreement with what has been calculated for the ISS USOS and, earlier, for the MIR orbital station. The neutron dose rate has been found to amount to 196 +/- 23 microSv/d on Zvezda panel-443 (crewquarters) and 179 +/- 16 microSv/d on the "Shielding shutter" surface in the crewquarters.

  6. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  7. Time Distribution Using SpaceWire in the SCaN Testbed on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, James P.

    2012-01-01

    A paper describes an approach for timekeeping and time transfer among the devices on the CoNNeCT project s SCaN Testbed. It also describes how the clocks may be synchronized with an external time reference; e.g., time tags from the International Space Station (ISS) or RF signals received by a radio (TDRSS time service or GPS). All the units have some sort of counter that is fed by an oscillator at some convenient frequency. The basic problem in timekeeping is relating the counter value to some external time standard such as UTC. With SpaceWire, there are two approaches possible: one is to just use SpaceWire to send a message, and use an external wire for the sync signal. This is much the same as with the RS- 232 messages and l pps line from a GPS receiver. However, SpaceWire has an additional capability that was added to make it easier - it can insert and receive a special "timecode" word in the data stream.

  8. Sampling Indoor Aerosols on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.

    2016-01-01

    In a spacecraft cabin environment, the size range of indoor aerosols is much larger and they persist longer than on Earth because they are not removed by gravitational settling. A previous aerosol experiment in 1991 documented that over 90 of the mass concentration of particles in the NASA Space Shuttle air were between 10 m and 100 m based on measurements with a multi-stage virtual impactor and a nephelometer (Liu et al. 1991). While the now-retired Space Shuttle had short duration missions (less than two weeks), the International Space Station (ISS) has been continually inhabited by astronauts for over a decade. High concentrations of inhalable particles on ISS are potentially responsible for crew complaints of respiratory and eye irritation and comments about 'dusty' air. Air filtration is the current control strategy for airborne particles on the ISS, and filtration modeling, performed for engineering and design validation of the air revitalization system in ISS, predicted that PM requirements would be met. However, aerosol monitoring has never been performed on the ISS to verify PM levels. A flight experiment is in preparation which will provide data on particulate matter in ISS ambient air. Particles will be collected with a thermophoretic sampler as well as with passive samplers which will extend the particle size range of sampling. Samples will be returned to Earth for chemical and microscopic analyses, providing the first aerosol data for ISS ambient air.

  9. International Space Station -- Fluid Physics Rack

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The optical bench for the Fluid Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown in its operational configuration. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  10. Quantitative Risk Modeling of Fire on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Theresa; Haught, Megan

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has worked to prevent fire events and to mitigate their impacts should they occur. Hardware is designed to reduce sources of ignition, oxygen systems are designed to control leaking, flammable materials are prevented from flying to ISS whenever possible, the crew is trained in fire response, and fire response equipment improvements are sought out and funded. Fire prevention and mitigation are a top ISS Program priority - however, programmatic resources are limited; thus, risk trades are made to ensure an adequate level of safety is maintained onboard the ISS. In support of these risk trades, the ISS Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) team has modeled the likelihood of fire occurring in the ISS pressurized cabin, a phenomenological event that has never before been probabilistically modeled in a microgravity environment. This paper will discuss the genesis of the ISS PRA fire model, its enhancement in collaboration with fire experts, and the results which have informed ISS programmatic decisions and will continue to be used throughout the life of the program.

  11. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  12. ISS-based Development of Elements and Operations for Robotic Assembly of A Space Solar Power Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinia, Azita; Moe, Rud; Seery, Bernard D.; Mankins, John C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a concept for an ISS-based optical system assembly demonstration designed to advance technologies related to future large in-space optical facilities deployment, including space solar power collectors and large-aperture astronomy telescopes. The large solar power collector problem is not unlike the large astronomical telescope problem, but at least conceptually it should be easier in principle, given the tolerances involved. We strive in this application to leverage heavily the work done on the NASA Optical Testbed Integration on ISS Experiment (OpTIIX) effort to erect a 1.5 m imaging telescope on the International Space Station (ISS). Specifically, we examine a robotic assembly sequence for constructing a large (meter diameter) slightly aspheric or spherical primary reflector, comprised of hexagonal mirror segments affixed to a lightweight rigidizing backplane structure. This approach, together with a structured robot assembler, will be shown to be scalable to the area and areal densities required for large-scale solar concentrator arrays.

  13. The International Scoring System (ISS) for multiple myeloma remains a robust prognostic tool independently of patients' renal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, M A; Kastritis, E; Michalis, E; Tsatalas, C; Michael, M; Pouli, A; Kartasis, Z; Delimpasi, S; Gika, D; Zomas, A; Roussou, M; Konstantopoulos, K; Parcharidou, A; Zervas, K; Terpos, E

    2012-03-01

    The International Staging System (ISS) is the most widely used staging system for patients with multiple myeloma (MM). However, serum β2-microglobulin increases in renal impairment (RI) and there have been concerns that ISS-3 stage may include 'up-staged' MM patients in whom elevated β2-microglobulin reflects the degree of renal dysfunction rather than tumor load. In order to assess the impact of RI on the prognostic value of ISS, we analyzed 1516 patients with symptomatic MM and the degree of RI was classified according to the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative-Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) criteria. Forty-eight percent patients had stages 3-5 CKD while 29% of patients had ISS-1, 38% had ISS-2 and 33% ISS-3. The frequency and severity of RI were more common in ISS-3 patients. RI was associated with inferior survival in univariate but not in multivariate analysis. When analyzed separately, ISS-1 and ISS-2 patients with RI had inferior survival in univariate but not in multivariate analysis. In ISS-3 MM patients, RI had no prognostic impact either in univariate or multivariate analysis. Results were similar, when we analyzed only patients with Bence-Jones >200 mg/day. ISS remains unaffected by the degree of RI, even in patients with ISS-3, which includes most patients with renal dysfunction.

  14. MISS- Mice on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcetti, G. C.; Schiller, P.

    2005-08-01

    The use of rodents for scientific research to bridge the gap between cellular biology and human physiology is a new challenge within the history of successful developments of biological facilities. The ESA funded MISS Phase A/B study is aimed at developing a design concept for an animal holding facility able to support experimentation with mice on board the International Space Station (ISS).The MISS facility is composed of two main parts:1. The MISS Rack to perform scientific experiments onboard the ISS.2. The MISS Animals Transport Container (ATC) totransport animals from ground to orbit and vice- versa.The MISS facility design takes into account guidelines and recommendations used for mice well-being in ground laboratories. A summary of the MISS Rack and MISS ATC design concept is hereafter provided.

  15. Status: Crewmember Noise Exposures on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limardo-Rodriguez, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.; Danielson, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique environment where crewmembers from the US and our international partners work and live for as long as 6 to 12 consecutive months. During these long-durations ISS missions, noise exposures from onboard equipment are posing concerns for human factors and crewmember health risks, such as possible reductions in hearing sensitivity, disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and voice communications, interference with crew task performance, and reduced alarm audibility. It is crucial to control acoustical noise aboard ISS to acceptable noise exposure levels during the work-time period, and to also provide a restful sleep environment during the sleep-time period. Acoustic dosimeter measurements, obtained when the crewmember wears the dosimeter for 24-hour periods, are conducted onboard ISS every 60 days and compared to ISS flight rules. NASA personnel then assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed, and provide recommendations for hearing protection device usage. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the status of ISS noise exposure monitoring and hearing conservation strategies, as well as to summarize assessments of acoustic dosimeter data collected since the Increment 36 mission (April 2013). A description of the updated noise level constraints flight rule, as well as the Noise Exposure Estimation Tool and the Noise Hazard Inventory implementation for predicting crew noise exposures and recommending to ISS crewmembers when hearing protection devices are required, will be described.

  16. Agile cognitive space radio demo on ISS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro's technology features the use of a FPMA or field programmabe microwave array that is Multi-band and multi-waveform capable. The FPMA can be integrated...

  17. From CERN to the International Space Station and back

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In December I flew on the Space Shuttle Discovery to ISS, the International Space Station. The main objectives were to continue building ISS, deliver consumables, spare parts and experiments and for the exchange of one crew member on ISS. During the 8-day stay at ISS, I participated in three space-walks, but also got the opportunity to perform one experiment, ALTEA, related to radiation in space and light flashes seen by many people in space. I will give a quick personal history, from when I was a Fellow at Cern in 1990 and learned that I could apply to become an ESA astronaut, to when I finally boarded a space craft to launch on Dec. 9th 2006. A 17 minute video will tell the story about the flight itself. The second half of the talk will be about research related to radiation in space that I have been involved in since joining ESA in 1992. In particular, about light flashes that were first reported on Apollo-11 in 1969, and the SilEye detectors flown on Mir and ISS to investigate fluxes of charged particles ...

  18. Automated Miniaturized Instrument for Space Biology Applications and the Monitoring of the Astronauts Health Onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karouia, Fathi; Peyvan, Kia; Danley, David; Ricco, Antonio J.; Santos, Orlando; Pohorille, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Human space travelers experience a unique environment that affects homeostasis and physiologic adaptation. The spacecraft environment subjects the traveler to noise, chemical and microbiological contaminants, increased radiation, and variable gravity forces. As humans prepare for long-duration missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and beyond, effective measures must be developed, verified and implemented to ensure mission success. Limited biomedical quantitative capabilities are currently available onboard the ISS. Therefore, the development of versatile instruments to perform space biological analysis and to monitor astronauts' health is needed. We are developing a fully automated, miniaturized system for measuring gene expression on small spacecraft in order to better understand the influence of the space environment on biological systems. This low-cost, low-power, multi-purpose instrument represents a major scientific and technological advancement by providing data on cellular metabolism and regulation. The current system will support growth of microorganisms, extract and purify the RNA, hybridize it to the array, read the expression levels of a large number of genes by microarray analysis, and transmit the measurements to Earth. The system will help discover how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and how pathogenic bacteria sometimes increase their virulence in space, facilitating the development of adequate countermeasures to decrease risks associated with human spaceflight. The current stand-alone technology could be used as an integrated platform onboard the ISS to perform similar genetic analyses on any biological systems from the tree of life. Additionally, with some modification the system could be implemented to perform real-time in-situ microbial monitoring of the ISS environment (air, surface and water samples) and the astronaut's microbiome using 16SrRNA microarray technology. Furthermore, the current system can be enhanced

  19. ISS National Laboratory Education Project: Enhancing and Innovating the ISS as an Educational Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Leland D.

    2011-01-01

    The vision is to develop the ISS National Laboratory Education Project (ISS NLE) as a national resource for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, utilizing the unique educational venue of the International Space Station per the NASA Congressional Authorization Act of 2005. The ISS NLE will serve as an educational resource which enables educational activities onboard the ISS and in the classroom. The ISS NLE will be accessible to educators and students from kindergarten to post-doctoral studies, at primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities. Additionally, the ISS NLE will provide ISS-related STEM education opportunities and resources for learners of all ages via informal educational institutions and venues Though U.S. Congressional direction emphasized the involvement of U.S. students, many ISS-based educational activities have international student and educator participation Over 31 million students around the world have participated in several ISS-related education activities.

  20. ISS Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO): Application of Space-based Hyperspectral Imagery for the Protection of the Nation’s Coastal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a "global observation and diagnosis station” that offers a unique vantage for observing the Earth's coastal ecosystems. From its position in low-Earth orbit, the station’s optical sensors provide images which help us under...

  1. ISS Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO): Application of Space-based Hyperspectral Imagery for the Protection of the Nation’s Coastal Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a "global observation and diagnosis station” that offers a unique vantage for observing the Earth's coastal ecosystems. From its position in low-Earth orbit, the station’s optical sensors provide images which help us under...

  2. Connecting in Space: Docking with the International Space Station. Educational Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brief discusses the space shuttle and the docking procedures used with the International Space Station (ISS). Using this activity designed for grades 5-12, students demonstrate and identify procedures for determining the best method for completing the docking activity. Students will also study and identify Newton's Laws of Motion. A mockup…

  3. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Schwanbeck, Eugene; North, Tim; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. When deployed, they will be the largest Li-Ion batteries ever utilized for a human-rated spacecraft. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture, the Li-Ion battery design and development, controls to limit potential hazards from the batteries, and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  4. International Space Station Instmments Collect Imagery of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C. A.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2013-01-01

    A new focus for utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is conducting basic and applied research that directly benefits Earth's citizenry. In the Earth Sciences, one such activity is collecting remotely sensed imagery of disaster areas and making those data immediately available through the USGS Hazards Data Distribution System, especially in response to activations of the International Charter for Space and Major Disasters (known informally as the "International Disaster Charter", or IDC). The ISS, together with other NASA orbital sensor assets, responds to IDC activations following notification by the USGS. Most of the activations are due to natural hazard events, including large floods, impacts of tropical systems, major fires, and volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. Through the ISS Program Science Office, we coordinate with ISS instrument teams for image acquisition using several imaging systems. As of 1 August 2013, we have successfully contributed imagery data in support of 14 Disaster Charter Activations, including regions in both Haiti and the east coast of the US impacted by Hurricane Sandy; flooding events in Russia, Mozambique, India, Germany and western Africa; and forest fires in Algeria and Ecuador. ISS-based sensors contributing data include the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), the ISERV (ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System) Pathfinder camera mounted in the US Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), formerly operating from the WORF, and high resolution handheld camera photography collected by crew members (Crew Earth Observations). When orbital parameters and operations support data collection, ISS-based imagery adds to the resources available to disaster response teams and contributes to the publicdomain record of these events for later analyses.

  5. The International Space Station and the Space Debris Environment: 10 Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    For just over a decade the International Space Station (ISS), the most heavily protected vehicle in Earth orbit, has weathered the space debris environment well. Numerous hypervelocity impact features on the surface of ISS caused by small orbital debris and meteoroids have been observed. In addition to typical impacts seen on the large solar arrays, craters have been discovered on windows, hand rails, thermal blankets, radiators, and even a visiting logistics module. None of these impacts have resulted in any degradation of the operation or mission of the ISS. Validating the rate of small particle impacts on the ISS as predicted by space debris environment models is extremely complex. First, the ISS has been an evolving structure, from its original 20 metric tons to nearly 300 metric tons (excluding logistics vehicles) ten years later. Hence, the anticipated space debris impact rate has grown with the increasing size of ISS. Secondly, a comprehensive visual or photographic examination of the complete exterior of ISS has never been accomplished. In fact, most impact features have been discovered serendipitously. Further complications include the estimation of the size of an impacting particle without knowing its mass, velocity, and angle of impact and the effect of shadowing by some ISS components. Inadvertently and deliberately, the ISS has also been the source of space debris. The U.S. Space Surveillance Network officially cataloged 65 debris from ISS from November 1998 to November 2008: from lost cameras, sockets, and tool bags to intentionally discarded equipment and an old space suit. Fortunately, the majority of these objects fall back to Earth quickly with an average orbital lifetime of less than two months and a maximum orbital lifetime of a little more than 15 months. The cumulative total number of debris object-years is almost exactly 10, the equivalent of one piece of debris remaining in orbit for 10 years. An unknown number of debris too small to be

  6. Calibration of the videospectral system for the space experiment "Uragan" onboard the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krot, Yury; Katkovsky, Leonid; Beliaev, Boris; Martenov, Anton

    2015-10-01

    The videospectral system (VSS) intended for ecological space experiment on board of the International Space Station (ISS) has been developed by the Aerospace Researches Department of the Institute of Applied Physical Problems of the Belarusian State University. The VSS is intended for registration of color images and spectra of underlying surface. The system comprises an imaging channel and three CCD-array spectrometers based on diffraction gratings. A CCD-array photodetector of each spectrometer measures the spectral radiation distribution in rows, and the spatial distribution in columns. Astigmatism is a typical aberration of polychromators based on concave spherical gratings - rays in tangential and sagittal planes are focused at different points. This degrades the spectral or spatial resolution along the entrance slit. The proposed method of obtaining high spatial resolution without spectral resolution loss consists in a displacement of the output end of the imaging fiber along the optical axis at a specified distance from the entrance slit. The entrance slit operates as a one-dimensional aperture to obtain high spectral resolution. The image and spectral channel of the VSS were calibrated by wavelengths and spectral sensitivity. A method of the second diffraction order correction has been proposed for spectrometers based on diffraction gratings. Some results of laboratory calibration and the first application are presented.

  7. Toxicological Assessment of ISS Air Quality: SpaceX-2 First Ingress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    One mini-grab sample container (M-GSC) was collected by crew members onboard ISS during first ingress into SpaceX-2 on March 3, 2013, three days after late cargo loading and a pre-launch clean air purge. Recoveries of the three surrogate standards from the m-GSC were: 13C-acetone, 97%; fluorobenzene, 95%; and chlorobenzene, 68%.

  8. Why Deep Space Habitats Should Be Different from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand; Brown, MacAulay

    2016-01-01

    It is tempting to view the International Space Station (ISS) as a model for deep space habitats. This is not a good idea for many reasons. The ISS does not have a habitation module; instead the individual crew quarters are dispersed across several modules, the galley is in the US Laboratory and the waste hygiene compartment is in a Node. This distributed arrangement may be inconvenient but more important differences distinguish a deep space habitat from the ISS. First, the Space Shuttle launch system that shaped, sized, and delivered most ISS elements has been retired. Its replacement, the Space Launch System (SLS), is specifically designed for human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit and is capable of transporting more efficient, large diameter, heavy-lift payloads. Next, because of the Earth's protective geomagnetic field, ISS crews are naturally shielded from lethal radiation. Deep space habitat designs must include either a storm shelter or strategically positioned equipment and stowage for radiation protection. Another important difference is the increased transit time with no opportunity for an ISS-type emergency return. It takes 7 to 10 days to go between Earth and cis-lunar locations and 1000 days for the Mars habitat transit. This long commute calls for greater crew autonomy with habitats designed for the crew to fix their own problems. The ISS rack-enclosed, densely packaged subsystems are a product of the Shuttle era and not maintenance friendly. A solution better suited for deep space habitats spreads systems out allowing direct access to single-layer packaging and providing crew access to each component without having to remove another. Operational readiness is another important discriminator. The ISS required over 100 flights to build, resupply, and transport the crew, whereas SLS offers the capability to launch a fully provisioned habitat that is operational without additional outfitting or resupply flights.

  9. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status: 2014-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2014 and February 2015. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  10. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Previous Year Status for 2013 - 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Gentry, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the past year and the impacts of the international partners' activities on them, covering the period of time between March 2013 and February 2014. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the commercial crew vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life.

  11. International Space Station Bus Regulation With NASA Glenn Research Center Flywheel Energy Storage System Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Peter E.; Kenny, Barbara H.; Dever, Timothy P.; Santiago, Walter; Jansen, Ralph H.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental flywheel energy storage system is described. This system is being used to develop a flywheel based replacement for the batteries on the International Space Station (ISS). Motor control algorithms which allow the flywheel to interface with a simplified model of the ISS power bus, and function similarly to the existing ISS battery system, are described. Results of controller experimental verification on a 300 W-hr flywheel are presented.

  12. Enhanced International Space Station Ku-Band Telemetry Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Andrew J.; Pitts, R. Lee; Welch, Steven J.; Bryan, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration. To fully utilize the ISS and take advantage of the modern protocols and updated Ku-band access, the Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) has designed an approach to extend the Kuband forward link access for payload investigators to their on-orbit payloads. This dramatically increases the ground to ISS communications for those users. This access also enables the ISS flight controllers operating in the Payload Operations and Integration Center to have more direct control over the systems they are responsible for managing and operating. To extend the Ku-band forward link to the payload user community the development of a new command server is necessary. The HOSC subsystems were updated to process the Internet Protocol Encapsulated packets, enable users to use the service based on their approved services, and perform network address translation to insure that the packets are forwarded from the user to the correct payload repeating that process in reverse from ISS to the payload user. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. This will include the integration of COTS hardware and software as well as how the device is incorporated into the operational mission of the ISS. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology can be applicable to payload users of the ISS.

  13. 11th International Symposium on Superconductivity(ISS98); Dai 11 kai kokusai chodendo shinpojiumu (ISS '98)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshitsuka, Naomi

    1999-01-25

    The 11th international symposium on superconductivity(ISS98) was held at Sunpalace hotel in Fukuoka city for 3 days from 17th to 19th in November 1998. As a total impression, it is felt that the high temperature superconductivity started to apply for the SQUID, the microwave filters and the refrigerating machine cryogenic magnets etc. and that the developments of various equipment progressed by using the Bi wires and the bulk materials of Y type. Prof. Yonezawa gave the first basic lecture regarding not only the superconductivity but also the tendency of 21 century for all fields of science and technology. And he said that the superconductivity might be become the important parts in life science, energy, and the revolution of information which would be become the keywords of 21 century. Another two lectures were given regarding a tendency for development of SQUID and its application. In the afternoon of the first day, 5 speakers gave the basic lectures regarding the electronic applications of superconductivity, the new materials, the critical current, the wire materials of the next generation and the SQF devices. (NEDO)

  14. Internal Acoustics of the ISS and Other Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    It is important to control the acoustic environment inside spacecraft and space habitats to protect for astronaut communications, alarm audibility, and habitability, and to reduce astronauts' risk for sleep disturbance, and hear-ing loss. But this is not an easy task, given the various design trade-offs, and it has been difficult, historically, to achieve. Over time it has been found that successful control of spacecraft acoustic levels is achieved by levying firm requirements at the system-level, using a systems engineering approach for design and development, and then validating these requirements with acoustic testing. In the systems engineering method, the system-level requirements must be flowed down to sub-systems and component noise sources, using acoustic analysis and acoustic modelling to develop allocated requirements for the sub-systems and components. Noise controls must also be developed, tested, and implemented so the sub-systems and components can achieve their allocated limits. It is also important to have management support for acoustics efforts to maintain their priority against the various trade-offs, including mass, volume, power, cost, and schedule. In this extended abstract and companion presentation, the requirements, approach, and results for controlling acoustic levels in most US spacecraft since Apollo will be briefly discussed. The approach for controlling acoustic levels in the future US space vehicle, Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), will also be briefly discussed. These discussions will be limited to the control of continuous noise inside the space vehicles. Other types of noise, such as launch, landing, and abort noise, intermittent noise, Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) noise, emergency operations/off-nominal noise, noise exposure, and impulse noise are important, but will not be discussed because of time limitations.

  15. International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle: X-38. Educational Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide the world with an orbiting laboratory that will have long-duration micro-gravity experimentation capability. The crew size for this facility will depend upon the crew return capability. The first crews will consist of three astronauts from Russia and the United States. The crew is limited to three…

  16. Use of international space station for fundamental physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, U.; Lee, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's research plans aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed. Experiments in low temperature physics and atomic physics are planned to commence in late 2005. Experiments in gravitational physics are planned to begin in 2007. A low temperature microgravity physics facility is under development for the low temperature and gravitation experiments.

  17. Expanded benefits for humanity from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amelia; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Buckley, Nicole; Zell, Martin; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, the International Space Station (ISS) (Fig. 1) partnership published the updated International Space Station Benefits for Humanity[1], a compilation of stories about the many benefits being realized in the areas of human health, Earth observations and disaster response, and global education. This compilation has recently been revised to include updated statistics on the impacts of the benefits, and new benefits that have developed since the first publication. Two new sections have also been added to the book, economic development of space and innovative technology. This paper will summarize the updates on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum, made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. The new section on "Economic Development of Space" highlights case studies from public-private partnerships that are leading to a new economy in low earth orbit (LEO). Businesses provide both transportation to the ISS as well as some research facilities and services. These relationships promote a paradigm shift of government-funded, contractor-provided goods and services to commercially-provided goods purchased by government agencies. Other examples include commercial firms spending research and development dollars to conduct investigations on ISS and commercial service providers selling services directly to ISS users. This section provides examples of ISS as a test bed for new business relationships, and illustrates successful partnerships. The second new section, "Innovative Technology," merges technology demonstration and physical science findings that promise to return Earth benefits through continued research. Robotic refueling concepts for life extensions of costly satellites in geo-synchronous orbit have applications to robotics in industry on Earth. Flame behavior experiments reveal insight into how fuel burns in microgravity leading to the possibility of improving engine efficiency on Earth. Nanostructures and smart fluids are

  18. Expanded Benefits for Humanity from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amelia; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Buckley, Nicole; Zell, Martin; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the updated International Space Station Benefits for Humanity, 2nd edition, a compilation of stories about the many benefits being realized in the areas of human health, Earth observations and disaster response, and global education. This compilation has recently been revised to include updated statistics on the impacts of the benefits, and new benefits that have developed since the first publication. Two new sections have also been added to the book, economic development of space and innovative technology. This paper will summarize the updates on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum, made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. The new section on "Economic Development of Space" highlights case studies from public-private partnerships that are leading to a new economy in low earth orbit (LEO). Businesses provide both transportation to the ISS as well as some research facilities and services. These relationships promote a paradigm shift of government-funded, contractor-provided goods and services to commercially-provided goods purchased by government agencies. Other examples include commercial firms spending research and development dollars to conduct investigations on ISS and commercial service providers selling services directly to ISS users. This section provides examples of ISS as a test bed for new business relationships, and illustrates successful partnerships. The second new section, Innovative Technology, merges technology demonstration and physical science findings that promise to return Earth benefits through continued research. Robotic refueling concepts for life extensions of costly satellites in geo-synchronous orbit have applications to robotics in industry on Earth. Flame behavior experiments reveal insight into how fuel burns in microgravity leading to the possibility of improving engine efficiency on Earth. Nanostructures and smart fluids are

  19. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Ting, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer is a precision, large acceptance particle physics detector which was deployed on the International Space Station (ISS) in May 2011. It will be on the ISS for the entire lifetime of the Space Station of about 20 years. To date, the detector has collected over 24 billion cosmic ray events. Among the physics objectives of AMS are the search for an understanding of Dark Matter, Antimatter and the origin of cosmic rays as well as the exploration of new physics phenomena. This report presents an overview of the operations and performance of the AMS experiment on the ISS as well as the progress of the analysis of the data collected over one year of operations in space

  20. Stratified spaces constitute a Fra\\"iss\\'e category

    CERN Document Server

    Mijares, José Gregorio

    2010-01-01

    We prove that stratified spaces and stratified pseudomanifolds satisfy categorical Fra\\"{\\i}ss\\'e properties. This result was presented for the First Meeting of Logic and Algebra in Bogot\\'a, on Sept. 2010. This article has been submitted to the Revista Colombiana de Matem\\'aticas.

  1. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Aspergillus fumigatus Strains, Isolated from the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nitin Kumar; Blachowicz, Adriana; Checinska, Aleksandra; Wang, Clay; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-07-14

    Draft genome sequences of Aspergillus fumigatus strains (ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4), opportunistic pathogens isolated from the International Space Station (ISS), were assembled to facilitate investigations of the nature of the virulence characteristics of the ISS strains to other clinical strains isolated on Earth.

  2. Regenerative water supply for an interplanetary space station: The experience gained on the space stations “Salut”, “Mir”, ISS and development prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, Leonid; Samsonov, Nikoly; Gavrilov, Lev; Novikov, Vladimir; Tomashpolskiy, Mihail; Andreychuk, Peter; Protasov, Nikoly; Synjak, Yury; Skuratov, Vladimir

    2007-06-01

    Based on the experience in operation of Russian space stations Salut, Mir and International space station ISS the station's water balance data, parameters and characteristics of the systems for water recovery have been obtained. Using the data design analysis an integrated water supply system for an interplanetary space station has been performed. A packaged physical/chemical system for water supply is composed of an integrated system for water recovery from humidity condensate, green house condensate, water from carbon dioxide reduction system and condensate from urine system; a system for water reclamation from urine; hygiene water processing system and a water storage system. The take off mass of the packaged water supply system (including expendables, redundancy hardware, equivalent mass of power consumption and of thermal control) is appropriate for Mars missions. The international space station is indispensable for verifying innovative processes and new water recovery systems intended for missions to Mars.

  3. Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment (FBCE) for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Hasan, Mohammad M.; Kharangate, Chirag; O'Neill, Lucas; Konishi, Chris; Nahra, Henry; Hall, Nancy; Balasubramaniam, R.; Mackey, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The proposed research aims to develop an integrated two-phase flow boiling/condensation facility for the International Space Station (ISS) to serve as primary platform for obtaining two-phase flow and heat transfer data in microgravity.

  4. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  5. Use of Aquaporins to Achieve Needed Water Purity On ISS for the EMU Space Suit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terry R.; Taylor, Brandon W.

    2011-01-01

    With the U.S. Space Shuttle fleet retired, the supply of extremely high-quality water 'super-Q' - required for the EMU Space suit cooling on this ISS - will become a significant operational hardware challenge in the very near future. A proposed potential solution is the use of a filtration system consisting of a semi-permeable membrane embedded with aquaporin proteins. Aquaporins are a special class of trans-membrane proteins that facilitate passive transport of water and other substances across a membrane. The specificity of these proteins is such that only water is allowed through the protein structure, and this novel property invites their adaptation for use in water filtration systems, specifically usage on the ISS for the EMU space suit system. These proteins are found in many living systems and have been developed for commercial use today.

  6. Veggie: Space Vegetables for the International Space Station and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.

    2016-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2014. Veggie was designed by ORBITEC to be a compact, low mass, low power vegetable production system for astronaut crews. Veggie consists of a light cap containing red, blue, and green LEDs, an extensible transparent bellows, and a baseplate with a root mat reservoir. Seeds are planted in plant pillows, small growing bags that interface with the reservoir. The Veggie technology validation test, VEG-01, was initiated with the first test crop of 'Outredgeous' red romaine lettuce. Prior to flight, lettuce seeds were sanitized and planted in a substrate of arcillite (baked ceramic) mixed with controlled release fertilizer. Upon initiation, astronauts open the packaged plant pillows, install them in the Veggie hardware, and prime the system with water. Operations include plant thinning, watering, and photography. Plants were grown on the ISS for 33 days, harvested, and returned frozen to Earth for analysis. Ground controls were conducted at Kennedy Space Center in controlled environment chambers reproducing ISS conditions of temperature, relative humidity, and CO2. Returned plant samples were analyzed for microbial food safety and chemistry including elements, antioxidants, anthocyanins and phenolics. In addition the entire plant microbiome was sequenced, and returned plant pillows were analyzed via x-ray tomography. Food safety analyses allowed us to gain approvals for future consumption of lettuce by the flight surgeons and the payload safety office. A second crop of lettuce was grown in 2015, and the crew consumed half the produce, with the remainder frozen for later analysis. This growth test was followed by testing of a new crop in Veggie, zinnias. Zinnias were grown to test a longer duration flowering crop in preparation for tests of tomatoes and other fruiting crops in the future. Zinnias were harvested in February. Samples from the second harvest of lettuce and the

  7. International Space Station lauded, debated at symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Astronauts labored successfully in early December to unfurl solar wings on the International Space Station, which will help make that craft the third-largest object in the night sky as seen from Earth, and help power the station for at least 15 years as a continuous small scientific village in space. While astronauts from the “Endeavor” U.S. space shuttle worked on the solar panels, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and U.S. House of Representatives Science Committee Chair James Sensenbrenner (R-Wis.) praised the International Space Station (ISS), but exchanged shots across the bow during a December 4 symposium in Washington, D.C.Sensenbrenner, a leading congressional watchdog of the project, said that the United States “should be restructuring relations with Russia on the space station” because of that country's recent, and reportedly short-lived threat to violate the international Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). The regime restricts the export of some delivery systems capable of carrying weapons of mass destruction. Sensenbrenner said Russia's recent announcement [of its intention] to break a secret deal not to sell conventional weapons to Iran after January 1, 2001 is a cause for reconsidering the space station working relationship.

  8. Overview of Carbon Dioxide Control Issues During International Space Station/Space Shuttle Joint Docked Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matty, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    Crewed space vehicles have a common requirement to remove the carbon dioxide (CO2) created by the metabolic processes of the crew. The space shuttle [Space Transportation System (STS)] and International Space Station (ISS) each have systems in place that allow control and removal of CO2 from the habitable cabin environment. During periods in which the space shuttle is docked to the ISS, known as "joint docked operations," the space shuttle and ISS share a common atmosphere environment. During this period, an elevated amount of CO2 is produced through the combined metabolic activity of the STS and ISS crews. This elevated CO2 production, together with the large effective atmosphere created by collective volumes of the docked vehicles, creates a unique set of requirements for CO2 removal. This paper will describe individual CO2 control plans implemented by STS and ISS engineering teams, as well as the integrated plans used when both vehicles are docked. The paper will also discuss some of the issues and anomalies experienced by both engineering teams.

  9. Stereo cameras on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Massimo; Visentin, Gianfranco; Collon, Max; Ranebo, Hans; Sunderland, David; Fortezza, Raimondo

    2007-02-01

    Three-dimensional media is a unique and efficient means to virtually visit/observe objects that cannot be easily reached otherwise, like the International Space Station. The advent of auto-stereoscopic displays and stereo projection system is making the stereo media available to larger audiences than the traditional scientists and design engineers communities. It is foreseen that a major demand for 3D content shall come from the entertainment area. Taking advantage of the 6 months long permanence on the International Space Station of a colleague European Astronaut, Thomas Reiter, the Erasmus Centre uploaded to the ISS a newly developed, fully digital stereo camera, the Erasmus Recording Binocular. Testing the camera and its human interfaces in weightlessness, as well as accurately mapping the interior of the ISS are the main objectives of the experiment that has just been completed at the time of writing. The intent of this paper is to share with the readers the design challenges tackled in the development and operation of the ERB camera and highlight some of the future plans the Erasmus Centre team has in the pipeline.

  10. International Space Station Research Benefits for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Fuglesang, Christer; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The ISS partnership has seen a substantial increase in research accomplished, crew efforts devoted to research, and results of ongoing research and technology development. The ISS laboratory is providing a unique environment for research and international collaboration that benefits humankind. Benefits come from the engineering development, the international partnership, and from the research results. Benefits can be of three different types: scientific discovery, applications to life on Earth, and applications to future exploration. Working across all ISS partners, we identified key themes where the activities on the ISS improve the lives of people on Earth -- not only within the partner nations, but also in other nations of the world. Three major themes of benefits to life on earth emerged from our review: benefits to human health, education, and Earth observation and disaster response. Other themes are growing as use of the ISS continues. Benefits to human health range from advancements in surgical technology, improved telemedicine, and new treatments for disease. Earth observations from the ISS provide a wide range of observations that include: marine vessel tracking, disaster monitoring and climate change. The ISS participates in a number of educational activities aimed to inspire students of all ages to learn about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. To date over 63 countries have directly participated in some aspect of ISS research or education. In summarizing these benefits and accomplishments, ISS partners are also identifying ways to further extend the benefits to people in developing countries for the benefits of humankind.

  11. International Space Station Benefits for Humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy L.; Robinson, Julie A.; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Karabadzhak, George; Nakamura, Tai; Sabbagh, Jean; Sorokin, Igor; Zell, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The ISS partnership has seen a substantial increase in research accomplished, crew efforts devoted to research, and results of ongoing research and technology development. The ISS laboratory is providing a unique environment for research and international collaboration that benefits humankind. Benefits come from the engineering development, the international partnership, and from the research results. Benefits can be of three different types: scientific discovery, applications to life on Earth, and applications to future exploration. Working across all ISS partners, we identified key themes where the activities on the ISS improve the lives of people on Earth--not only within the partner nations, but also in other nations of the world. Three major themes of benefits to life on earth emerged from our review: benefits to human health, education, and Earth observation and disaster response. Other themes are growing as use of the ISS continues. Benefits to human health range from advancements in surgical technology, improved telemedicine, and new treatments for disease. Earth observations from the ISS provide a wide range of observations that include: marine vessel tracking, disaster monitoring and climate change. The ISS participates in a number of educational activities aimed to inspire students of all ages to learn about science, technology, engineering and mathematics. To date over 63 countries have directly participated in some aspect of ISS research or education. In summarizing these benefits and accomplishments, ISS partners are also identifying ways to further extend the benefits to people in developing countries for the benefits of humankind.

  12. Dextre: Improving maintenance operations on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleshill, Elliott; Oshinowo, Layi; Rembala, Richard; Bina, Bardia; Rey, Daniel; Sindelar, Shelley

    2009-05-01

    The Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM), known as "Dextre", is currently slated to launch in February 2008 for deployment on the International Space Station (ISS) as the final component of Canada's Mobile Servicing System (MSS). Dextre's primary role on the Space Station is to perform repair and replacement (R&R) maintenance tasks on robotically compatible hardware such as Orbital Replaceable Units (ORUs), thereby eventually easing the burden on the ISS crew. This burden on the on-orbit crew translates practically into crew time being a limited resource on the ISS, and as such, finding ways to assist the crew in performing their tasks or offloading the crew completely when appropriate is a bonus to the ISS program. This is already accomplished very effectively by commanding as many non-critical robotics tasks as possible, such as powering up and free-space maneuvering of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), known as "Canadarm2", from the Ground. Thus, beyond its primary role, and based on an increasing clarity regarding the challenges of external maintenance on the ISS, Dextre is being considered for use in a number of ways with the objective of improving ISS operations while reducing and optimizing the use of crew time through the use of ground control for various tasks, pre-positioning hardware, acting as a temporary storage platform to break an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) day into manageable timelines, and extending the physical reach and range of the Canadarm2. This paper discusses the planned activities and operations for Dextre an rationale for how these will help optimize the use of crew resources on the ISS.

  13. International Space Station Research and Facilities for Life Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Ruttley, Tara M.

    2009-01-01

    Assembly of the International Space Station is nearing completion in fall of 2010. Although assembly has been the primary objective of its first 11 years of operation, early science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. Laboratory facilities outfitting has increased dramatically 2008-2009 with the European Space Agency s Columbus and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency s Kibo scientific laboratories joining NASA s Destiny laboratory in orbit. In May 2009, the ISS Program met a major milestone with an increase in crew size from 3 to 6 crewmembers, thus greatly increasing the time available to perform on-orbit research. NASA will launch its remaining research facilities to occupy all 3 laboratories in fall 2009 and winter 2010. To date, early utilization of the US Operating Segment of the ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting international and US partner research. With a specific focus on life sciences research, this paper will summarize the science accomplishments from early research aboard the ISS- both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. We will also look ahead to the full capabilities for life sciences research when assembly of ISS is complete in 2010.

  14. Omics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an orbiting laboratory whose goals include advancing science and technology research. Completion of ISS assembly ushered a new era focused on utilization, encompassing multiple disciplines such as Biology and Biotechnology, Physical Sciences, Technology Development and Demonstration, Human Research, Earth and Space Sciences, and Educational Activities. The research complement planned for upcoming ISS Expeditions 45&46 includes several investigations in the new field of omics, which aims to collectively characterize sets of biomolecules (e.g., genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic products) that translate into organismic structure and function. For example, Multi-Omics is a JAXA investigation that analyzes human microbial metabolic cross-talk in the space ecosystem by evaluating data from immune dysregulation biomarkers, metabolic profiles, and microbiota composition. The NASA OsteoOmics investigation studies gravitational regulation of osteoblast genomics and metabolism. Tissue Regeneration uses pan-omics approaches with cells cultured in bioreactors to characterize factors involved in mammalian bone tissue regeneration in microgravity. Rodent Research-3 includes an experiment that implements pan-omics to evaluate therapeutically significant molecular circuits, markers, and biomaterials associated with microgravity wound healing and tissue regeneration in bone defective rodents. The JAXA Mouse Epigenetics investigation examines molecular alterations in organ specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight. Lastly, Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), NASA's first foray into human omics research, applies integrated analyses to assess biomolecular responses to physical, physiological, and environmental stressors associated

  15. Epigenetics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a state-of-the orbiting laboratory focused on advancing science and technology research. Experiments being conducted on the ISS include investigations in the emerging field of Epigenetics. Epigenetics refers to stably heritable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype (the transcriptional potential of a cell) resulting from changes in a chromosome without alterations to the underlying DNA nucleotide sequence (the genetic code), which are caused by external or environmental factors, such as spaceflight microgravity. Molecular mechanisms associated with epigenetic alterations regulating gene expression patterns include covalent chemical modifications of DNA (e.g., methylation) or histone proteins (e.g., acetylation, phorphorylation, or ubiquitination). For example, Epigenetics ("Epigenetics in Spaceflown C. elegans") is a recent JAXA investigation examining whether adaptations to microgravity transmit from one cell generation to another without changing the basic DNA of the organism. Mouse Epigenetics ("Transcriptome Analysis and Germ-Cell Development Analysis of Mice in Space") investigates molecular alterations in organ-specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight, as well as assessing changes in offspring DNA. NASA's first foray into human Omics research, the Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), includes investigations evaluating differential epigenetic effects via comprehensive whole genome analysis, the landscape of DNA and RNA methylation, and biomolecular changes by means of longitudinal integrated multi-omics research. And the inaugural Genes in Space student challenge experiment (Genes in Space-1) is aimed at understanding how epigenetics plays a role in immune system dysregulation by assaying DNA methylation in immune cells

  16. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System Status for the Prior Year: 2011 - 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Dake, Jason R.; Gentry, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the U.S. ECLS system activities over the prior year, covering the period of time between March 2011 and February 2012. The ISS continued permanent crew operations including the continuation of six crew members being on ISS. Work continues on the last of the Phase 3 pressurized elements, the commercial cargo resupply vehicles, and work to try and extend ISS service life from 2015 to at least 2028.

  17. Effects of Surfactant Contamination on the Next Generation Gas Trap for the ISS Internal Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuehler, Thomas O.; Lukens, Clark; Reeves, Daniel R.; Holt, James M.

    2004-01-01

    The current dual-membrane gas trap is designed to remove non-condensed gas bubbles from the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS) coolant on board the International Space Station (ISS). To date it has successfully served its purpose of preventing gas bubbles from causing depriming, overspeed, and shutdown of the ITCS pump. However, contamination in the ITCS coolant has adversely affected the gas venting rate and lifetime of the gas trap, warranting a development effort for a next-generation gas trap. Previous testing has shown that a hydrophobic-only design is capable of performing even better than the current dual-membrane design for both steady-state gas removal and gas slug removal in clean deionized water. This paper presents results of testing to evaluate the effects of surfactant contamination on the steady-state performance of the hydrophobic-only design.

  18. Integrating Space Flight Resource Management Skills into Technical Lessons for International Space Station Flight Controller Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Evelyn

    2008-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center s (JSC) International Space Station (ISS) Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training program is designed to teach the team skills required to be an effective flight controller. It was adapted from the SFRM training given to Shuttle flight controllers to fit the needs of a "24 hours a day/365 days a year" flight controller. More recently, the length reduction of technical training flows for ISS flight controllers impacted the number of opportunities for fully integrated team scenario based training, where most SFRM training occurred. Thus, the ISS SFRM training program is evolving yet again, using a new approach of teaching and evaluating SFRM alongside of technical materials. Because there are very few models in other industries that have successfully tied team and technical skills together, challenges are arising. Despite this, the Mission Operations Directorate of NASA s JSC is committed to implementing this integrated training approach because of the anticipated benefits.

  19. Inspiring the Next Generation: The International Space Station Education Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Hasbrook, Pete; Knowles, Carolyn; Chicoine, Ruth Ann; Miyagawa, Yayoi; Koyama, Masato; Savage, Nigel; Zell, Martin; Biryukova, Nataliya; Pinchuk, Vladimir; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has a unique ability to capture the imagination of both students and teachers worldwide. Since 2000, the presence of humans onboard ISS has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over 43 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related educational activities. Projects such as YouTube Space Lab, Sally Ride Earth Knowledge-based Acquired by Middle Schools (EarthKAM), SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) Zero-Robotics, Tomatosphere, and MAI-75 events among others have allowed for global student, teacher and public access to space through student classroom investigations and real-time audio and video contacts with crewmembers. Educational activities are not limited to STEM but encompass all aspects of the human condition. This is well illustrated in the Uchu Renshi project, a chain poem initiated by an astronaut while in space and continued and completed by people on Earth. With ISS operations now extended to 2024, projects like these and their accompanying educational materials are available to more students around the world. From very early on in the program's history, students have been provided with a unique opportunity to get involved and participate in science and engineering projects. Many of these projects support inquiry-based learning that allows students to ask questions, develop hypothesis-derived experiments, obtain supporting evidence and identify solutions or explanations. This approach to learning is well-published as one of the most effective ways to inspire students to pursue careers in scientific and technology fields. Ever since the first space station element was launched, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed, both individually and collaboratively, by all the

  20. Paving the Way for Small Satellite Access to Orbit: Cyclops' Deployment of SpinSat, the Largest Satellite Ever Deployed from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, Matthew P.; Newswander, Daniel R.; Smith, James P.; Lamb, Craig R.; Ballard, Perry G.

    2015-01-01

    The Space Station Integrated Kinetic Launcher for Orbital Payload Systems (SSIKLOPS), known as "Cyclops" to the International Space Station (ISS) community, successfully deployed the largest satellite ever (SpinSat) from the ISS on November 28, 2014. Cyclops, a collaboration between the NASA ISS Program, NASA Johnson Space Center Engineering, and Department of Defense Space Test Program (DoD STP) communities, is a dedicated 10-100 kg class ISS small satellite deployment system. This paper will showcase the successful deployment of SpinSat from the ISS. It will also outline the concept of operations, interfaces, requirements, and processes for satellites to utilize the Cyclops satellite deployment system.

  1. 14 CFR 1266.102 - Cross-waiver of liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for activities related to the International Space Station. 1266.102 Section 1266.102 Aeronautics and... liability for agreements for activities related to the International Space Station. (a) The objective of... exploration, exploitation, and use of outer space through the International Space Station (ISS). The...

  2. ISS Regenerative Life Support: Challenges and Success in the Quest for Long-Term Habitability in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, Jesse A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the International Space Station s (ISS) Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) operations with discussion of the on-orbit lessons learned, specifically regarding the challenges that have been faced as the system has expanded with a growing ISS crew. Over the 10 year history of the ISS, there have been numerous challenges, failures, and triumphs in the quest to keep the crew alive and comfortable. Successful operation of the ECLSS not only requires maintenance of the hardware, but also management of the station resources in case of hardware failure or missed re-supply. This involves effective communication between the primary International Partners (NASA and Roskosmos) and the secondary partners (JAXA and ESA) in order to keep a reserve of the contingency consumables and allow for re-supply of failed hardware. The ISS ECLSS utilizes consumables storage for contingency usage as well as longer-term regenerative systems, which allow for conservation of the expensive resources brought up by re-supply vehicles. This long-term hardware, and the interactions with software, was a challenge for Systems Engineers when they were designed and require multiple operational workarounds in order to function continuously. On a day-to-day basis, the ECLSS provides big challenges to the on console controllers. Main challenges involve the utilization of the resources that have been brought up by the visiting vehicles prior to undocking, balance of contributions between the International Partners for both systems and resources, and maintaining balance between the many interdependent systems, which includes providing the resources they need when they need it. The current biggest challenge for ECLSS is the Regenerative ECLSS system, which continuously recycles urine and condensate water into drinking water and oxygen. These systems were brought to full functionality on STS-126 (ULF-2) mission. Through system failures and recovery

  3. International Space Station Water Balance Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Barry; Garr, John D., II; Erne, Meghan

    2011-01-01

    In November 2008, the Water Regenerative System racks were launched aboard Space Shuttle flight, STS-126 (ULF2) and installed and activated on the International Space Station (ISS). These racks, consisting of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), completed the installation of the Regenerative (Regen) Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS), which includes the Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) that was launched 2 years prior. With the onset of active water management on the US segment of the ISS, a new operational concept was required, that of water balance . In November of 2010, the Sabatier system, which converts H2 and CO2 into water and methane, was brought on line. The Regen ECLSS systems accept condensation from the atmosphere, urine from crew, and processes that fluid via various means into potable water, which is used for crew drinking, building up skip-cycle water inventory, and water for electrolysis to produce oxygen. Specification (spec) rates of crew urine output, condensate output, O2 requirements, toilet flush water, and drinking needs are well documented and used as the best guess planning rates when Regen ECLSS came online. Spec rates are useful in long term planning, however, daily or weekly rates are dependent upon a number of variables. The constantly changing rates created a new challenge for the ECLSS flight controllers, who are responsible for operating the ECLSS systems onboard ISS from Mission Control in Houston. This paper reviews the various inputs to water planning, rate changes, and dynamic events, including but not limited to: crew personnel makeup, Regen ECLSS system operability, vehicle traffic, water storage availability, and Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA), Sabatier, and OGA capability. Along with the inputs that change the various rates, the paper will review the different systems, their constraints, and finally the operational challenges and means by which flight controllers

  4. Cost-Effective ISS Space-Environment Technology Validation of Advanced Roll-Out Solar Array (ROSA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effort proposed is for detailed planning, configuration and hardware definition of a low-cost, but high technology payoff, ISS-based flight experiment that will...

  5. Health Management Applications for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Duncavage, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Traditional mission and vehicle management involves teams of highly trained specialists monitoring vehicle status and crew activities, responding rapidly to any anomalies encountered during operations. These teams work from the Mission Control Center and have access to engineering support teams with specialized expertise in International Space Station (ISS) subsystems. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) applications can significantly augment these capabilities by providing enhanced monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic tools for critical decision support and mission management. The Intelligent Systems Division of NASA Ames Research Center is developing many prototype applications using model-based reasoning, data mining and simulation, working with Mission Control through the ISHM Testbed and Prototypes Project. This paper will briefly describe information technology that supports current mission management practice, and will extend this to a vision for future mission control workflow incorporating new ISHM applications. It will describe ISHM applications currently under development at NASA and will define technical approaches for implementing our vision of future human exploration mission management incorporating artificial intelligence and distributed web service architectures using specific examples. Several prototypes are under development, each highlighting a different computational approach. The ISStrider application allows in-depth analysis of Caution and Warning (C&W) events by correlating real-time telemetry with the logical fault trees used to define off-nominal events. The application uses live telemetry data and the Livingstone diagnostic inference engine to display the specific parameters and fault trees that generated the C&W event, allowing a flight controller to identify the root cause of the event from thousands of possibilities by simply navigating animated fault tree models on their workstation. SimStation models the functional power flow

  6. Levitation Technology in International Space Station Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinart-Ramirez, Y.; Cooley, V. M.; Love, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique multidisciplinary orbiting laboratory for science and technology research, enabling discoveries that benefit life on Earth and exploration of the universe. ISS facilities for containerless sample processing in Materials Science experiments include levitation devices with specimen positioning control while reducing containment vessel contamination. For example, ESA's EML (ElectroMagnetic Levitator), is used for melting and solidification of conductive metals, alloys, or semiconductors in ultra-high vacuum, or in high-purity gaseous atmospheres. Sample heating and positioning are accomplished through electromagnetic fields generated by a coil system. EML applications cover investigation of solidification and microstructural formation, evaluation of thermophysical properties of highly reactive metals (whose properties can be very sensitive to contamination), and examination of undercooled liquid metals to understand metastable phase convection and influence convection on structural changes. MSL utilization includes development of novel light-weight, high-performance materials. Another facility, JAXA's ELF (Electrostatic Levitation Furnace), is used to perform high temperature melting while avoiding chemical reactions with crucibles by levitating a sample through Coulomb force. ELF is capable of measuring density, surface tension, and viscosity of samples at high temperatures. One of the initial ELF investigations, Interfacial Energy-1, is aimed at clarification of interfacial phenomena between molten steels and oxide melts with industrial applications in control processes for liquid mixing. In addition to these Materials Science facilities, other ISS investigations that involve levitation employ it for biological research. For example, NASA's "Magnetic 3D Culturing and Bioprinting" investigation uses magnetic levitation for three-dimensional culturing and positioning of magnetized cells to generate spheroid assemblies

  7. Prospects for Interdisciplinary Science Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    The assembly of the International Space Station was completed in early 2011, and is now embarking on its first year of the coming decade of use as a laboratory. Two key types of physical science research are enabled by ISS: studies of processes that are normally masked by gravity, and instruments that take advantage of its position as a powerful platform in orbit. The absence of buoyancy-driven convection enables experiments in diverse areas such as fluids near the critical point, Marangoni convection, combustion, and coarsening of metal alloys. The positioning of such a powerful platform in orbit with robotic transfer and instrument support also provides a unique alternative platform for astronomy and physics instruments. Some of the operating or planned instruments related to fundamental physics on the International Space Station include MAXI (Monitoring all-sky X-ray Instrument for ISS), the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, CALET (Calorimetric Electron Telescope), and ACES (Atomic Clock Experiment in Space). The presentation will conclude with an overview of pathways for funding different types of experiments from NASA funding to the ISS National Laboratory, and highlights of the streamlining of services to help scientists implement their experiments on ISS.

  8. Strategies to Mitigate Ammonia Release on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) is crucial to its continuous operation. Off-nominal situations can arise from virtually any aspect of ISS operations. One situation of particular concern is the inadvertent release of a chemical into the ISS atmosphere. In sufficient quantities, a chemical release can render the ISS uninhabitable regardless of the chemical s toxicity as a result of its effect on the hardware used to maintain the environment. This is certainly true with system chemicals which are integral components to the function and purpose of the system. Safeguards, such as design for minimum risk, multiple containment, hazard assessments, rigorous safety reviews, and others, are in place to minimize the probability of a chemical release to the ISS environment thereby allowing the benefits of system chemicals to outweigh the risks associated with them. The thermal control system is an example of such a system. Heat generated within the ISS is transferred from the internal thermal control system (ITCS) to the external thermal control system (ETCS) via two, single-barrier interface heat exchangers (IFHX). The ITCS and ETCS are closed-loop systems which utilize water and anhydrous ammonia, respectively, as heat-transfer fluids. There is approximately 1200 lbs. (208 gallons) of anhydrous ammonia in the ETCS circulating through the two heat exchangers, transferring heat from the ITCS water lines. At the amounts present in the ETCS, anhydrous ammonia is one system chemical that can easily overwhelm the station atmosphere scrubbing capabilities and render the ISS uninhabitable in the event of a catastrophic rupture. Although safeguards have certainly minimized the risk of an ammonia release into the Station atmosphere, credible release scenarios and controls to manage these scenarios are examined.

  9. International Space Station as a Base Camp for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael; Hoffman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The idea for using the International Space Station (ISS) as platform for exploration has matured in the past year and the concept continues to gain momentum. ISS provides a robust infrastructure which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. Systems and resources needed for expeditions can be aggregated and thoroughly tested at ISS before departure thus providing wide operational flexibility and the best assurance of mission success. A small part of ISS called an Exploration Platform (ISS-EP) can be placed at Earth-Moon Libration point 1 (EML1) providing immediate benefits and flexibility for future exploration missions. We will show how ISS and the ISS-EP can be used to reduce risk and improve the operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit. Life support systems and other technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the ISS-EP and other exploration spacecraft. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Commercial companies who are introducing transportation and other services will benefit with opportunities to contribute to the mission since ISS will serve as a focal point for the commercialization of low earth orbit services. Finally, we will show how use of ISS provides immediate benefits to the scientific community because its capabilities are available today and certain critical aspects of exploration missions can be simulated.

  10. Worms on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Nate; Kirven-Brooks, Melissa; Conley, Cassie

    2002-01-01

    C. elegans was proposed as a model system for space biology studies in 1991 and has since flown on STS-42, STS-76, and STS-95. Data obtained from these flights have confirmed that C. elegans requires adequate in flight oxygenation and displays an increased rate of mutation, much like other organisms in space. Unlike vertebrates, C. elegans has been observed to successfully complete two continuous full life cycles in space without gross developmental abnormalities. These observations, could with the utility of C. elegans as a terrestrial, fully sequenced, model system make C. elegans a good candidate for long term research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). We are currently working on technology to support biological studies aboard the ISS. A component of this effort is in the development of the Space Station Biological Research Program (SSBRP) Incubator which will be able to house organisms at a constant temperature setpoint ranging from 4deg C to 45deg C. The SSBRP Incubator provides air exchange, power, data and video ports and, when placed in the collaborative NASA/NASDA 2.5M centrifuge rotor, will be capable of providing a lg gravity control. Current plans for validation of the Incubator include video monitoring and periodic sampling of C. elegans in the Incubator onboard the ISS. Once returned to earth, samples will be distributed for analysis via a specimen sharing plan and analyzed for gene expression and other parameters of growth and development in space flight. These data should provide the C. elegans research community with a baseline from which to propose studies for future flights. We have also been developing an appropriate method of culturing C. elegans in liquid media in order to remove the need for the crew to assure that strains are properly fed. Currently, we are growing strains in the chemically defined, axenic, media developed by Dr. Nancy Lu. Wild-type animals complete multiple generations and appear generally healthy after being

  11. The Logistic Path from the International Space Station to the Moon and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J. K.; Dempsey, C. A.; Butina, A. J., Sr.

    2005-01-01

    The period from the loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia in February 2003 to resumption of Space Shuttle flights, planned for May 2005, has presented significant challenges to International Space Station (ISS) maintenance operations. Sharply curtailed upmass capability has forced NASA to revise its support strategy and to undertake maintenance activities that have significantly expanded the envelope of the ISS maintenance concept. This experience has enhanced confidence in the ability to continue to support ISS in the period following the permanent retirement of the Space Shuttle fleet in 2010. Even greater challenges face NASA with the implementation of the Vision for Space Exploration that will introduce extended missions to the Moon beginning in the period of 2015 - 2020 and ultimately see human missions to more distant destinations such as Mars. The experience and capabilities acquired through meeting the maintenance challenges of ISS will serve as the foundation for the maintenance strategy that will be employed in support of these future missions.

  12. Summary of 2006 to 2010 FPMU Measurements of International Space Station Frame Potential Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Wright, Kenneth H., Jr.; Chandler, Michael O.; Coffey, Victoria N.; Craven, Paul D.; Schneider, Todd A.; Parker, Linda N.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Koontz, Steve L.; Alred, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Electric potential variations on the International Space Station (ISS) structure in low Earth orbit are dominated by contributions from interactions of the United States (US) 160 volt solar arrays with the relatively high density, low temperature plasma environment and inductive potentials generated by motion of the large vehicle across the Earth?s magnetic field. The Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) instrument suite comprising two Langmuir probes, a plasma impedance probe, and a floating potential probe was deployed in August 2006 for use in characterizing variations in ISS potential, the state of the ionosphere along the ISS orbit and its effect on ISS charging, evaluating effects of payloads and visiting vehicles, and for supporting ISS plasma hazard assessments. This presentation summarizes observations of ISS frame potential variations obtained from the FPMU from deployment in 2006 through the current time. We first describe ISS potential variations due to current collection by solar arrays in the day time sector of the orbit including eclipse exit and entry charging events, potential variations due to plasma environment variations in the equatorial anomaly, and visiting vehicles docked to the ISS structure. Next, we discuss potential variations due to inductive electric fields generated by motion of the vehicle across the geomagnetic field and the effects of external electric fields in the ionosphere. Examples of night time potential variations at high latitudes and their possible relationship to auroral charging are described and, finally, we demonstrate effects on the ISS potential due to European Space Agency and US plasma contactor devices.

  13. The International Space Station Research Opportunities and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the International Space Station (ISS) construction and assembly was completed to become a world-class scientific research laboratory. We are now in the era of utilization of this unique platform that facilitates ground-breaking research in the microgravity environment. There are opportunities for NASA-funded research; research funded under the auspice of the United States National Laboratory; and research funded by the International Partners - Japan, Europe, Russia and Canada. The ISS facilities offer an opportunity to conduct research in a multitude of disciplines such as biology and biotechnology, physical science, human research, technology demonstration and development; and earth and space science. The ISS is also a unique resource for educational activities that serve to motivate and inspire students to pursue careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. Even though we have just commenced full utilization of the ISS as a science laboratory, early investigations are yielding major results that are leading to such things as vaccine development, improved cancer drug delivery methods and treatment for debilitating diseases, such as Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy. This paper

  14. One year old and growing: a status report of the International Space Station and its partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoe, J. D.; Fortenberry, L.

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS), as the largest international science and engineering program in history, features unprecedented technical, cost, scheduling, managerial, and international complexity. A number of major milestones have been accomplished to date, including the construction of major elements of flight hardware, the development of operations and sustaining engineering centers, astronaut training, and eight Space Shuttle/Mir docking missions. International partner contributions and levels of participation have been baselined, and negotiations and discussions are nearing completion regarding bartering arrangements for services and new hardware. As ISS is successfully executed, it can pave the way for more inspiring cooperative achievements in the future. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. The "SCORPION" experiment onboard the International Space Station. Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, V; Deshevaya, E; Grachov, E; Grigoryan, O; Tchurilo, I; Tsetlin, V

    2003-01-01

    The "SCORPION" program onboard the Russian Segment (RS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is designed to carry out complex research of the effects of the nar-Earth space parameters on the conditions under which various experiments and operations are being conducted. Special attention in this program was paid to the biological objects onboard the orbital station, e.g. it was found that variation in the number of colony forming units (micromicets and bacteria) correlates with the solar activity and the absorbed dose. The "SCORPION" experiment onboard the RS ISS started in January 2002. It was designed to measure the following parameters inside the space absorbed doses in different places inside the RS ISS, the fluxes of energetic charged particles, neutrons and gamma-quanta; the vectors of the magnetic field and low-frequency electromagnetic waves. At the same time the growth of micromicets on the samples of various materials was studied. The description of the "SCORPION" experiment and the preliminary results obtained onboard the RS ISS in 2002 are presented.

  16. Autonomous Payload Operations Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Deitsch, David K.; Cruzen, Craig A.; Haddock, Angie T.

    2007-01-01

    Operating the International Space Station (ISS) involves many complex crew tended, ground operated and combined systems. Over the life of the ISS program, it has become evident that by having automated and autonomous systems on board, more can be accomplished and at the same time reduce the workload of the crew and ground operators. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville Alabama, working in collaboration with The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory have developed an autonomous software system that uses the Timeliner User Interface Language and expert logic to continuously monitor ISS payload systems, issue commands and signal ground operators as required. This paper describes the development history of the system, its concept of operation and components. The paper also discusses the testing process as well as the facilities used to develop the system. The paper concludes with a description of future enhancement plans for use on the ISS as well as potential applications to Lunar and Mars exploration systems.

  17. X-ray crystallography facility for the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDdonald, William T.; Lewis, Johanna L.; Smith, Craig D.; Delucas, Lawrence J.

    1997-01-01

    Directed by NASA's Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT), the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) recently completed a Design Feasibility Study for the X-ray Crystallography Facility (XCF) for the International Space Station (ISS). The XCF is a facility for growing macromolecular protein crystals; harvesting, selecting, and mounting sample crystals, and snap-freezing the samples, if necessary; performing x-ray diffraction; and downlinking the diffraction data to the ground. Knowledge of the structure of protein molecules is essential for the development of pharmaceuticals by structure-based drug design techniques. Currently, x-ray diffraction of high quality protein crystals is the only method of determining the structure of these macromolecules. High quality protein crystals have been grown in microgravity onboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter for more than 10 years, but these crystals always have been returned to Earth for x-ray diffraction. The XCF will allow crystal growth, harvesting, mounting, and x-ray diffraction onboard the ISS, maximizing diffraction data quality and timeliness. This paper presents the XCF design concept, describing key feasibility issues for the ISS application and advanced technologies and operational features which resolve those issues. The conclusion is that the XCF design is feasible and can be operational onboard the ISS by early in 2002.

  18. Chemical Potency and Degradation Products of Medications Stored Over 550 Earth Days at the International Space Station

    OpenAIRE

    Wotring, Virginia E.

    2015-01-01

    Medications degrade over time, and degradation is hastened by extreme storage conditions. Current procedures ensure that medications aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are restocked before their expiration dates, but resupply may not be possible on future long-duration exploration missions. For this reason, medications stored on the ISS were returned to Earth for analysis. This was an opportunistic, observational pilot-scale investigation to test the hypothesis that ISS-aging does n...

  19. Extending the International Space Station Life and Operability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, Andrew J.; Pitts, R. Lee; Sparks, Ray N.; Wickline, Thomas W.; Zoller, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration with final assembly complete. To fully utilize ISS and extend the operational life, it became necessary to upgrade and extend the onboard systems with the Obsolescence Driven Avionics Redesign (ODAR) project. ODAR enabled a joint project between the Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) focused on upgrading the onboard payload and Ku-Band systems, expanding the voice and video capabilities, and including more modern protocols allowing unprecedented access for payload investigators to their on-orbit payloads. The MSFC Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) was tasked with developing a high-rate enhanced Functionally Distributed Processor (eFDP) to handle 300Mbps Return Link data, double the legacy rate, and incorporate a Line Outage Recorder (LOR). The eFDP also provides a 25Mbps uplink transmission rate with a Space Link Extension (SLE) interface. HOSC also updated the Payload Data Services System (PDSS) to incorporate the latest Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) protocols, most notably the use of the Internet Protocol (IP) Encapsulation, in addition to the legacy capabilities. The Central Command Processor was also updated to interact with the new onboard and ground capabilities of Mission Control Center -- Houston (MCC-H) for the uplink functionality. The architecture, implementation, and lessons learned, including integration and incorporation of Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) hardware and software into the operational mission of the ISS, is described herein. The applicability of this new technology provides new benefits to ISS payload users and ensures better utilization of the ISS by the science community

  20. Commercial combustion research aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.

    1999-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is planning a number of combustion experiments to be done on the International Space Station (ISS). These experiments will be conducted in two ISS facilities, the SpaceDRUMS™ Acoustic Levitation Furnace (ALF) and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) portion of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). The experiments are part of ongoing commercial projects involving flame synthesis of ceramic powders, catalytic combustion, water mist fire suppression, glass-ceramics for fiber and other applications and porous ceramics for bone replacements, filters and catalyst supports. Ground- and parabolic aircraft-based experiments are currently underway to verify the scientific bases and to test prototype flight hardware. The projects have strong external support.

  1. Portable Fan Assembly for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Arthur A.; Roman, Monsi C.

    1999-01-01

    NASA/ Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA/MSFC) is responsible for the design and fabrication of a Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) for the International Space Station (ISS). The PFA will be used to enhance ventilation inside the ISS modules as needed for crew comfort and for rack rotation. The PFA consists of the fan on-orbit replaceable unit (ORU) and two noise suppression packages (silencers). The fan ORU will have a mechanical interface with the Seat Track Equipment Anchor Assembly, in addition to the power supply module which includes a DC-DC converter, on/standby switch, speed control, power cable and connector. This paper provides a brief development history, including the criteria used for the fan, and a detailed description of the PFA operational configurations. Space Station requirements as well as fan performance characteristics are also discussed.

  2. ISS Additive Manufacturing Facility for On-Demand Fabrication in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to manufacture on the International Space Station will enable on-demand repair and production capability, as well as essential research for manufacturing...

  3. EVA 2010: Preparing for International Space Station EVA Operations Post-Space Shuttle Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; West, William W.

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the OneEVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more than

  4. Recent Pharmacology Studies on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    The environment on the International Space Station (ISS) includes a variety of potential stressors including the absence of Earth's gravity, elevated exposure to radiation, confined living and working quarters, a heavy workload, and high public visibility. The effects of this extreme environment on pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and even on stored medication doses, are not yet understood. Dr. Wotring will discuss recent analyses of medication doses that experienced long duration storage on the ISS and a recent retrospective examination of medication use during long-duration spaceflights. She will also describe new pharmacology experiments that are scheduled for upcoming ISS missions. Dr. Virginia E. Wotring is a Senior Scientist in the Division of Space Life Sciences in the Universities Space Research Association, and Pharmacology Discipline Lead at NASA's Johnson Space Center, Human Heath and Countermeasures Division. She received her doctorate in Pharmacological and Physiological Science from Saint Louis University after earning a B.S. in Chemistry at Florida State University. She has published multiple studies on ligand gated ion channels in the brain and spinal cord. Her research experience includes drug mechanisms of action, drug receptor structure/function relationships and gene & protein expression. She joined USRA (and spaceflight research) in 2009. In 2012, her book reviewing pharmacology in spaceflight was published by Springer: Space Pharmacology, Space Development Series.

  5. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  6. Chemical Potency and Degradation Products of Medications Stored Over 550 Earth Days at the International Space Station

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wotring, Virginia E

    .... Current procedures ensure that medications aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are restocked before their expiration dates, but resupply may not be possible on future long-duration exploration missions...

  7. Overview of International Space Station orbital environments exposure flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Schmidl, Danny; Finckenor, Miria; Neish, Michael; Imagawa, Kichiro; Dinguirard, Magdeleine; van Eesbeek, Marc; Naumov, S. F.; Krylov, A. N.; Mishina, L. V.; Gerasimov, Y. I.; Sokolova, S. P.; Kurilyonok, A. O.; Alexandrov, N. G.; Smirnova, T. N.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of International Space Station (ISS) on-orbit environments exposure flight experiments. International teams are flying, or preparing to fly, externally mounted materials exposure trays and sensor packages. The samples in these trays are exposed to a combination of induced molecular contamination, ultraviolet radiation, atomic oxygen, ionizing radiation, micrometeoroids and orbital debris. Exposed materials samples are analyzed upon return. Typical analyses performed on these samples include optical property measurements, X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS) depth profiles, scanning electron microscope (SEM) surface morphology and materials properties measurements. The objective of these studies is to characterize the long-term effects of the natural and induced environments on spacecraft materials. Ongoing flight experiments include the U.S. Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) program, the Japanese Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (SM/MPAC&SEED) experiment, the Russian SKK and Kromka experiments from RSC-Energia, and the Komplast flight experiment. Flight experiments being prepared for flight, or in development stage, include the Japanese Space Environment Data Acquisition Attached Payload (SEDA-AP), the Russian BKDO monitoring package from RSC-Energia, and the European Materials Exposure and Degradation Experiment (MEDET). Results from these ISS flight experiments will be crucial to extending the performance and life of long-duration space systems such as Space Station, Space Transportation System, and other missions for Moon and Mars exploration.

  8. Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station's Logistics and Maintenance program has had to develop new technologies and a management approach for both space and ground operations. The ISS will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines - it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally completed in 2006. It has over 6,000 orbital replaceable units (ORU), and spare parts which number into the hundreds of thousands, from 127 major US vendors and 70 major international vendors. From conception to operation, the ISS requires a unique approach in all aspects of development and operations. Today the dream is coming true; hardware is flying and hardware is failing. The system has been put into place to support the Station for both space and ground operations. It started with the basic support concept developed for Department of Defense systems, and then it was tailored for the unique requirements of a manned space vehicle. Space logistics is a new concept that has wide reaching consequences for both space travel and life on Earth. This paper discusses what type of organization has been put into place to support both space and ground operations and discusses each element of that organization. In addition, some of the unique operations approaches this organization has had to develop is discussed.

  9. International Space Station Data Collection for Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Remotely sensed data acquired by orbital sensor systems has emerged as a vital tool to identify the extent of damage resulting from a natural disaster, as well as providing near-real time mapping support to response efforts on the ground and humanitarian aid efforts. The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for acquiring disaster response imagery. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful complement to autonomous sensor systems in higher altitude polar orbits. NASA remote sensing assets on the station began collecting International Disaster Charter (IDC) response data in May 2012. The initial NASA ISS sensor systems responding to IDC activations included the ISS Agricultural Camera (ISSAC), mounted in the Window Observational Research Facility (WORF); the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) Facility, where the crew collects imagery using off-the-shelf handheld digital cameras; and the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO), a visible to near-infrared system mounted externally on the Japan Experiment Module Exposed Facility. The ISSAC completed its primary mission in January 2013. It was replaced by the very high resolution ISS SERVIR Environmental Research and Visualization System (ISERV) Pathfinder, a visible-wavelength digital camera, telescope, and pointing system. Since the start of IDC response in 2012 there have been 108 IDC activations; NASA sensor systems have collected data for thirty-two of these events. Of the successful data collections, eight involved two or more ISS sensor systems responding to the same event. Data has also been collected by International Partners in response to natural disasters, most notably JAXA and

  10. International Space Station Data Collection for Disaster Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A..

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters - including such events as tropical storms, earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires -effect hundreds of millions of people worldwide, and also cause billions of dollars (USD) in damage to the global economy. Remotely sensed data acquired by orbital sensor systems has emerged as a vital tool to identify the extent of damage resulting from a natural disaster, as well as providing near-real time mapping support to response efforts on the ground and humanitarian aid efforts. The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for acquiring disaster response imagery. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful complement to free-flyer based, sun-synchronous sensor systems in higher altitude polar orbits. While several nations have well-developed terrestrial remote sensing programs and assets for data collection, many developing nations do not have ready access to such resources. The International Charter, Space and Major Disasters (also known as the "International Disaster Charter", or IDC; http://www.disasterscharter.org/home) addresses this disparity. It is an agreement between agencies of several countries to provide - on a best-effort basis - remotely sensed data of natural disasters to requesting countries in support of disaster response. The lead US agency for interaction with the IDC is the United States Geological Survey (USGS); when an IDC request or "activation" is received, the USGS notifies the science teams for NASA instruments with targeting information for data collection. In the case of the ISS, the Earth Sciences and Remote Sensing (ESRS) Unit, part of the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science

  11. Aerosol Sampling Experiment on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit E.

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique indoor environment which serves as both home and workplace to the astronaut crew. There is currently no particulate monitoring, although particulate matter requirements exist. An experiment to collect particles in the ISS cabin was conducted recently. Two different aerosol samplers were used for redundancy and to collect particles in two size ranges spanning from 10 nm to hundreds of micrometers. The Active Sampler is a battery operated thermophoretic sampler with an internal pump which draws in air and collects particles directly on a transmission electron microscope grid. This commercial-off-the-shelf device was modified for operation in low gravity. The Passive Sampler has five sampling surfaces which were exposed to air for different durations in order to collect at least one sample with an optimal quantity of particles for microscopy. These samples were returned to Earth for analysis with a variety of techniques to obtain long-term average concentrations and identify particle emission sources. Results are compared with the inventory of ISS aerosols which was created based on sparse data and the literature. The goal of the experiment is to obtain data on indoor aerosols on ISS for future particulate monitor design and development.

  12. Results of microbial research of environment of international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, N.; Poddubko, S.; Deshevaya, E.; Polikarpov, N.; Rakova, N.

    Many years of exploitation of orbital space stations have moved forward ecological problems among which microbial society of the environment plays a most important role. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics of microorganisms in the environment of a space object can change considerably under the influence of conditions of space flight. In the process of exploitation of the International Space Station (ISS) microflora of air, interior surfaces and equipment is monitored on a regular basis to keep continuous assessment of sanitary and microbiological state of the environment. Up to the present time 32 species of microorganisms have been recovered in the ISS, namely 15species f bacteria and 17 species of moldy fungi. In the composition of microbial species mainly nonpathogenic species have been found. However, a number of bacteria discovered on the ISS, particularly some representatives of human microflora, are capable of causing different diseases when human immune system is compromised. Moreover, some bacteria and a considerable number of fungi are known to be potential biodestructors of construction materials, which leads to biodeterioration of construction materials and equipment. Results of our research show that the existing set of life-supporting systems can maintain microbial contamination within regulated levels. Furthermore, constant microbial monitoring of the environment is an integral part, which provides for the safety of space missions.

  13. CO2 on the International Space Station: An Operations Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Jennifer; Alexander, David

    2016-01-01

    PROBLEM STATEMENT: We describe CO2 symptoms that have been reported recently by crewmembers on the International Space Station and our continuing efforts to control CO2 to lower levels than historically accepted. BACKGROUND: Throughout the International Space Station (ISS) program, anecdotal reports have suggested that crewmembers develop CO2-related symptoms at lower CO2 levels than would be expected terrestrially. Since 2010, operational limits have controlled the 24-hour average CO2 to 4.0 mm Hg, or below as driven by crew symptomatology. In recent years, largely due to increasing awareness by crew and ground team, there have been increased reports of crew symptoms. The aim of this presentation is to discuss recent observations and operational impacts to lower CO2 levels on the ISS. CASE PRESENTATION: Crewmembers are routinely asked about CO2 symptoms in their weekly private medical conferences with their crew surgeons. In recent ISS expeditions, crewmembers have noted symptoms attributable to CO2 starting at 2.3 mmHg. Between 2.3 - 2.7 mm Hg, fatigue and full-headedness have been reported. Between 2.7 - 3.0 mm Hg, there have been self-reports of procedure missed steps or procedures going long. Above 3.0 - 3.4 mm Hg, headaches have been reported. A wide range of inter- and intra-individual variability in sensitivity to CO2 have been noted. OPERATIONAL / CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These preliminary data provide semi-quantitative ranges that have been used to inform a new operational limit of 3.0 mmHg as a compromise between systems capabilities and the recognition that there are human health and performance impacts at recent ISS CO2 levels. Current evidence would suggest that an operational limit between 0.5 and 2.0 mm Hg may maintain health and performance. Future work is needed to establish long-term ISS and future vehicle operational limits.

  14. CHeCS: International Space Station Medical Hardware Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this catalog is to provide a detailed description of each piece of hardware in the Crew Health Care System (CHeCS), including subpacks associated with the hardware, and to briefly describe the interfaces between the hardware and the ISS. The primary user of this document is the Space Medicine/Medical Operations ISS Biomedical Flight Controllers (ISS BMEs).

  15. Initial Characterization of the Microgravity Environment of the International Space Station: Increments 2 Through 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jules, K.; McPherson, K.; Hrovat, K.; Kelly, E.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the International Space Station (ISS) is to provide a long-term reduced gravity environment for the conduct of scientific research for a variety of microgravity science disciplines. With the completion of flight of STS-100 (ISS flight 6A), the Microgravity Environment Program at the NASA Glenn Research Center delivered two acceleration measurement systems to the International Space Station. These acceleration measurement systems provide a generic service to microgravity payloads by measuring the quasi-steady and the vibratory acceleration environments on board the station. The Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System measures accelerations in the quasi-steady regime, including the contributions of aerodynamic drag, vehicle rotation, and vehicle venting effects. The Space Acceleration Measurement System-II measures on-board disturbances in the vibratory regime resulting from vehicle systems, crew activity, and experiment hardware. This paper presents to the microgravity scientific community the results of the initial characterization of the microgravity environment of the International Space Station for increments 2 through 4. Also, the role of the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) project is described in terms of ISS acceleration data distribution, processing, achieving, analyzing and characterization of the ISS as well as its interaction with the principal investigator teams. The results discussed in this paper covered both the quasi-steady and the vibratory acceleration environment of the station during its first year of operation. The ISS quasi-steady microgravity environment is described for increments 2 through 4. Results are presented and discussed for the following: Torque Equilibrium Attitude (TEA) and the X Axis Perpendicular to the Orbital Plane (XPOP) ISS attitudes; ISS docking attitudes and their effect on the quasi-steady acceleration environment as well as the impact of STS joint operation with ISS on the

  16. Environmental "Omics" of International Space Station: Insights, Significance, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Space Biology program funded two multi-year studies to catalogue International Space Station (ISS) environmental microbiome. The first Microbial Observatory (MO) experiment will generate a microbial census of the ISS surfaces and atmosphere using advanced molecular microbial community analysis "omics" techniques, supported by traditional culture-based methods and state-of-the art molecular techniques. The second MO experiment will measure presence of viral and select bacterial and fungal pathogens on ISS surfaces and correlate their presence on crew. The "omics" methodologies of the MO experiments will serve as the foundation for an extensive microbial census, offering significant insight into spaceflight-induced changes in the populations of beneficial and potentially harmful microbes. The safety of crewmembers and the maintenance of hardware are the primary goals for monitoring microorganisms in this closed habitat. The statistical analysis of the ISS microbiomes showed that three bacterial phyla dominated both in ISS and Earth cleanrooms, but varied in their abundances. While members of Actinobacteria were predominant on ISS, Proteobacteria dominated the Earth cleanrooms. Alpha diversity estimators indicated a significant drop in viable microbial diversity. To better characterize the shared community composition among samples, beta-diversity metrics analysis were conducted. At the bacterial species level characterization, the microbial community composition is strongly associated with sampling site. Results of the study indicate significant differences between ISS and Earth cleanroom microbiomes in terms of community structure and composition. Bacterial strains isolated from ISS surfaces were also tested for their resistance to nine antibiotics using conventional disc method and Vitek 2 system. Most of the Staphylococcus aureus strains were resistant to penicillin. Five strains were specifically resistant to erythromycin and the ermA gene was also

  17. Mentoring SFRM: A New Approach to International Space Station Flight Control Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huning, Therese; Barshi, Immanuel; Schmidt, Lacey

    2009-01-01

    The Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) of the Johnson Space Center is responsible for providing continuous operations support for the International Space Station (ISS). Operations support requires flight controllers who are skilled in team performance as well as the technical operations of the ISS. Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), a NASA adapted variant of Crew Resource Management (CRM), is the competency model used in the MOD. ISS flight controller certification has evolved to include a balanced focus on development of SFRM and technical expertise. The latest challenge the MOD faces is how to certify an ISS flight controller (Operator) to a basic level of effectiveness in 1 year. SFRM training uses a twopronged approach to expediting operator certification: 1) imbed SFRM skills training into all Operator technical training and 2) use senior flight controllers as mentors. This paper focuses on how the MOD uses senior flight controllers as mentors to train SFRM skills.

  18. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Soybean Growth Aboard ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This is a photo of soybeans growing in the Advanced Astroculture (ADVASC) Experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The ADVASC experiment was one of the several new experiments and science facilities delivered to the ISS by Expedition Five aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor STS-111 mission. An agricultural seed company will grow soybeans in the ADVASC hardware to determine whether soybean plants can produce seeds in a microgravity environment. Secondary objectives include determination of the chemical characteristics of the seed in space and any microgravity impact on the plant growth cycle. Station science will also be conducted by the ever-present ground crew, with a new cadre of controllers for Expedition Five in the ISS Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. Controllers work in three shifts around the clock, 7 days a week, in the POCC, the world's primary science command post for the Space Station. The POCC links Earth-bound researchers around the world with their experiments and crew aboard the Space Station.

  20. The Importance of the International Space Station for Life Sciences Research: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Evans, C. A.; Tate, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrates ten years of operations in 2008. While the station did not support permanent human crews during the first two years of operations, it hosted a few early science experiments months before the first international crew took up residence in November 2000. Since that time, science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. To date, early utilization of the U.S. Operating Segment of ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting U.S. and international partner research. This paper will summarize the life science accomplishments of early research aboard the ISS both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. At the 10-year point, the scientific returns from ISS should increase at a rapid pace. During the 2008 calendar year, the laboratory space and research facilities (both pressurized and external) will be tripled, with multiple scientific modules that support a wide variety of research racks and science and technology experiments conducted by all of the International Partners. A milestone was reached in February 2008 with the launch and commissioning of ESA s Columbus module and in March of 2008 with the first of three components of the Japanese Kibo laboratory. Although challenges lie ahead, the realization of the international scientific partnership provides new opportunities for scientific collaboration and broadens the research disciplines engaged on ISS. As the ISS nears completion of assembly in 2010, we come to full international utilization of the facilities for research. Using the past as an indicator, we are now able to envision the multidisciplinary contributions to improving life on Earth that the ISS can make as a platform for life sciences research.

  1. The Importance of the International Space Station for Life Sciences Research: Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Evans, C. A.; Tate, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) celebrates ten years of operations in 2008. While the station did not support permanent human crews during the first two years of operations, it hosted a few early science experiments months before the first international crew took up residence in November 2000. Since that time, science returns from the ISS have been growing at a steady pace. To date, early utilization of the U.S. Operating Segment of ISS has fielded nearly 200 experiments for hundreds of ground-based investigators supporting U.S. and international partner research. This paper will summarize the life science accomplishments of early research aboard the ISS both applied human research for exploration, and research on the effects of microgravity on life. At the 10-year point, the scientific returns from ISS should increase at a rapid pace. During the 2008 calendar year, the laboratory space and research facilities (both pressurized and external) will be tripled, with multiple scientific modules that support a wide variety of research racks and science and technology experiments conducted by all of the International Partners. A milestone was reached in February 2008 with the launch and commissioning of ESA s Columbus module and in March of 2008 with the first of three components of the Japanese Kibo laboratory. Although challenges lie ahead, the realization of the international scientific partnership provides new opportunities for scientific collaboration and broadens the research disciplines engaged on ISS. As the ISS nears completion of assembly in 2010, we come to full international utilization of the facilities for research. Using the past as an indicator, we are now able to envision the multidisciplinary contributions to improving life on Earth that the ISS can make as a platform for life sciences research.

  2. Managing NASA's International Space Station Logistics and Maintenance program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butina, Anthony J.

    2001-02-01

    The International Space Station will be a permanently manned orbiting vehicle that has no landing gear, no international borders, and no organizational lines-it is one Station that must be supported by one crew, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year. It flies partially assembled for a number of years before it is finally complete in April of 2006. Space logistics is a new concept that will have wide reaching consequences for both space travel and life on Earth. What is it like to do something that no one has done before? What challenges do you face? What kind of organization do you put together to perform this type of task? How do you optimize your resources to procure what you need? How do you change a paradigm within a space agency? How do you coordinate and manage a one of a kind system with approximately 5,700 Orbital Replaceable Units (ORUs)? How do you plan for preventive and corrective maintenance, when you need to procure spare parts which number into the hundreds of thousands, from 127 major US vendors and 70 major international vendors? How do you transport large sections of ISS hardware around the country? These are some of the topics discussed in this paper. From conception to operation, the ISS requires a unique approach in all aspects of development and operation. Today the dream is coming true; hardware is flying and hardware is failing. The system has been put into place to support the Station and only time will tell if we did it right. This paper discusses some of the experiences of the author after working 12 years on the International Space Station's integrated logistics & maintenance program. From his early days as a contractor supportability engineer and manager, to the NASA manager responsible for the entire ISS Logistics and Maintenance program. .

  3. How Space Radiation Risk from Galactic Cosmic Rays at the International Space Station Relates to Nuclear Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zi-Wei; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Space radiation risk to astronauts is a major obstacle for long term human space explorations. Space radiation transport codes have thus been developed to evaluate radiation effects at the International Space Station (ISS) and in missions to the Moon or Mars. We study how nuclear fragmentation processes in such radiation transport affect predictions on the radiation risk from galactic cosmic rays. Taking into account effects of the geomagnetic field on the cosmic ray spectra, we investigate the effects of fragmentation cross sections at different energies on the radiation risk (represented by dose-equivalent) from galactic cosmic rays behind typical spacecraft materials. These results tell us how the radiation risk at the ISS is related to nuclear cross sections at different energies, and consequently how to most efficiently reduce the physical uncertainty in our predictions on the radiation risk at the ISS.

  4. NASA Education Activities on the International Space Station: A National Laboratory for Inspiring, Engaging, Educating and Employing the Next Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severance, Mark T.; Tate-Brown, Judy; McArthur, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) National Lab Education Project has been created as a part of the ISS National Lab effort mandated by the U.S. Congress The project seeks to expand ISS education of activities so that they reach a larger number of students with clear educational metrics of accomplishments. This paper provides an overview of several recent ISS educational payloads and activities. The expected outcomes of the project, consistent with those of the NASA Office of Education, are also described. NASA performs numerous education activities as part of its ISS program. These cover the gamut from formal to informal educational opportunities in grades Kindergarten to grade 12, Higher Education (undergraduate and graduate University) and informal educational venues (museums, science centers, exhibits). Projects within the portfolio consist of experiments performed onboard the ISS using onboard resources which require no upmass, payloads flown to ISS or integrated into ISS cargo vehicles, and ground based activities that follow or complement onboard activities. Examples include ground based control group experiments, flight or experiment following lesson plans, ground based activities involving direct interaction with ISS or ground based activities considering ISS resources in their solution set. These projects range from totally NASA funded to projects which partner with external entities. These external agencies can be: other federal, state or local government agencies, commercial entities, universities, professional organizations or non-profit organizations. This paper will describe the recent ISS education activities and discuss the approach, outcomes and metrics associated with the projects.

  5. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The dev

  6. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The dev

  7. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The

  8. Microbial detection and monitoring in advanced life support systems like the International Space Station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, Sandra P.; Krooneman, Janneke; Raangs, Gerwin C.; Welling, Gjalt W.; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Potentially pathogenic microbes and so-called technophiles may form a serious threat in advanced life support systems, such as the International Space Station (ISS). They not only pose a threat to the health of the crew, but also to the technical equipment and materials of the space station. The

  9. International Space Station -- Fluid Physics Ra;ck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The optical bench for the Fluids Integrated Rack section of the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) is shown extracted for servicing and with the optical bench rotated 90 degrees for access to the rear elements. The FCF will be installed, in phases, in the Destiny, the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS), and will accommodate multiple users for a range of investigations. This is an engineering mockup; the flight hardware is subject to change as designs are refined. The FCF is being developed by the Microgravity Science Division (MSD) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. (Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  10. Flywheel Energy Storage System Designed for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delventhal, Rex A.

    2002-01-01

    Following successful operation of a developmental flywheel energy storage system in fiscal year 2000, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center began developing a flight design of a flywheel system for the International Space Station (ISS). In such an application, a two-flywheel system can replace one of the nickel-hydrogen battery strings in the ISS power system. The development unit, sized at approximately one-eighth the size needed for ISS was run at 60,000 rpm. The design point for the flight unit is a larger composite flywheel, approximately 17 in. long and 13 in. in diameter, running at 53,000 rpm when fully charged. A single flywheel system stores 2.8 kW-hr of useable energy, enough to light a 100-W light bulb for over 24 hr. When housed in an ISS orbital replacement unit, the flywheel would provide energy storage with approximately 3 times the service life of the nickel-hydrogen battery currently in use.

  11. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-Orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Philip M.; Thoresen, Souzan; Granahan, John; Matty, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is an integral part of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The MCA is a mass spectrometer-based instrument designed to provide critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents; nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor. These gases are sampled continuously and automatically in all United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) modules via the Sample Distribution System (SDS). The MCA is the primary tool for management of atmosphere constituents and is therefore critical for ensuring a habitable ISS environment during both nominal ISS operations and campout EVA preparation in the Airlock. The MCA has been in operation in the US Destiny Laboratory Module for over 10 years, and a second MCA has been delivered to the ISS for Node 3 operation. This paper discusses the performance of the MCA over the two past year, with particular attention to lessons learned regarding the operational life of critical components. Recent data have helped drive design upgrades for a new set of orbit-replaceable units (ORUs) currently in production. Several ORU upgrades are expected to increase expected lifetimes and reliability.

  12. Expanding NASA and Roscosmos Scientific Collaboration on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrook, Pete

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a world-class laboratory orbiting in space. NASA and Roscosmos have developed a strong relationship through the ISS Program Partnership, working together and with the other ISS Partners for more than twenty years. Since 2013, based on a framework agreement between the Program Managers, NASA and Roscosmos are building a joint program of collaborative research on ISS. This international collaboration is developed and implemented in phases. Initially, members of the ISS Program Science Forum from NASA and TsNIIMash (representing Roscosmos) identified the first set of NASA experiments that could be implemented in the "near term". The experiments represented the research categories of Technology Demonstration, Microbiology, and Education. Through these experiments, the teams from the "program" and "operations" communities learned to work together to identify collaboration opportunities, establish agreements, and jointly plan and execute the experiments. The first joint scientific activity on ISS occurred in January 2014, and implementation of these joint experiments continues through present ISS operations. NASA and TsNIIMash have proceeded to develop "medium term" collaborations, where scientists join together to improve already-proposed experiments. A major success is the joint One-Year Mission on ISS, with astronaut Scott Kelly and cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko, who returned from ISS in March, 2016. The teams from the NASA Human Research Program and the RAS Institute for Biomedical Problems built on their considerable experience to design joint experiments, learn to work with each other's protocols and processes, and share medical and research data. New collaborations are being developed between American and Russian scientists in complex fluids, robotics, rodent research and space biology, and additional human research. Collaborations are also being developed in Earth Remote Sensing, where scientists will share data from imaging

  13. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28

  14. Unexpected Control Structure Interaction on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Susan F.; Platonov, Valery; Medina, Elizabeth A.; Borisenko, Alexander; Bogachev, Alexey

    2017-01-01

    On June 23, 2011, the International Space Station (ISS) was performing a routine 180 degree yaw maneuver in support of a Russian vehicle docking when the on board Russian Segment (RS) software unexpectedly declared two attitude thrusters failed and switched thruster configurations in response to unanticipated ISS dynamic motion. Flight data analysis after the maneuver indicated that higher than predicted structural loads had been induced at various locations on the United States (U.S.) segment of the ISS. Further analysis revealed that the attitude control system was firing thrusters in response to both structural flex and rigid body rates, which resonated the structure and caused high loads and fatigue cycles. It was later determined that the thruster themselves were healthy. The RS software logic, which was intended to react to thruster failures, had instead been heavily influenced by interaction between the control system and structural flex. This paper will discuss the technical aspects of the control structure interaction problem that led to the RS control system firing thrusters in response to structural flex, the factors that led to insufficient preflight analysis of the thruster firings, and the ramifications the event had on the ISS. An immediate consequence included limiting which thrusters could be used for attitude control. This complicated the planning of on-orbit thruster events and necessitated the use of suboptimal thruster configurations that increased propellant usage and caused thruster lifetime usage concerns. In addition to the technical aspects of the problem, the team dynamics and communication shortcomings that led to such an event happening in an environment where extensive analysis is performed in support of human space flight will also be examined. Finally, the technical solution will be presented, which required a multidisciplinary effort between the U.S. and Russian control system engineers and loads and dynamics structural engineers to

  15. Growth Chambers on the International Space Station for Large Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Morrow, Robert C.; Levine, Howard G.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) now has platforms for conducting research on horticultural plant species under LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lighting, and those capabilities continue to expand. The Veggie vegetable production system was deployed to the ISS as an applied research platform for food production in space. Veggie is capable of growing a wide array of horticultural crops. It was designed for low power usage, low launch mass and stowage volume, and minimal crew time requirements. The Veggie flight hardware consists of a light cap containing red (630 nanometers), blue, (455 nanometers) and green (530 nanometers) LEDs. Interfacing with the light cap is an extendable bellowsbaseplate for enclosing the plant canopy. A second large plant growth chamber, the Advanced Plant Habitat (APH), is will fly to the ISS in 2017. APH will be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. APH will control light (quality, level, and timing), temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing any cabin or plant-derived ethylene and other volatile organic compounds. Additional capabilities include sensing of leaf temperature and root zone moisture, root zone temperature, and oxygen concentration. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs (4100K). There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations. Veggie and APH are available for research proposals.

  16. The Biotechnology Facility for International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Lundquist, Charles; Hurlbert, Katy; Tuxhorn, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The primary mission of the Cellular Biotechnology Program is to advance microgravity as a tool in basic and applied cell biology. The microgravity environment can be used to study fundamental principles of cell biology and to achieve specific applications such as tissue engineering. The Biotechnology Facility (BTF) will provide a state-of-the-art facility to perform cellular biotechnology research onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The BTF will support continuous operation, which will allow performance of long-duration experiments and will significantly increase the on-orbit science throughput. With the BTF, dedicated ground support, and a community of investigators, the goals of the Cellular Biotechnology Program at Johnson Space Center are to: Support approximately 400 typical investigator experiments during the nominal design life of BTF (10 years). Support a steady increase in investigations per year, starting with stationary bioreactor experiments and adding rotating bioreactor experiments at a later date. Support at least 80% of all new cellular biotechnology investigations selected through the NASA Research Announcement (NRA) process. Modular components - to allow sequential and continuous experiment operations without cross-contamination Increased cold storage capability (+4 C, -80 C, -180 C). Storage of frozen cell culture inoculum - to allow sequential investigations. Storage of post-experiment samples - for return of high quality samples. Increased number of cell cultures per investigation, with replicates - to provide sufficient number of samples for data analysis and publication of results in peer-reviewed scientific journals.

  17. The International Space Station: a pathway to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H; Gerstenmaier, William H; Bartoe, John-David F; Mustachio, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Nearly six years after the launch of the first International Space Station element, and four years after its initial occupation, the United States and our 6 international partners have made great strides in operating this impressive Earth orbiting research facility. This past year we have done so in the face of the adversity of operating without the benefit of the Space Shuttle. In his January 14, 2004, speech announcing a new vision for America's space program, President Bush affirmed the United States' commitment to completing construction of the International Space Station by 2010. The President also stated that we would focus our future research aboard the Station on the long-term effects of space travel on human biology. This research will help enable human crews to venture through the vast voids of space for months at a time. In addition, ISS affords a unique opportunity to serve as an engineering test bed for hardware and operations critical to the exploration tasks. NASA looks forward to working with our partners on International Space Station research that will help open up new pathways for future exploration and discovery beyond low Earth orbit. This paper provides an overview of the International Space Station Program focusing on a review of the events of the past year, as well as plans for next year and the future.

  18. Improving Safety on the International Space Station: Transitioning to Electronic Emergency Procedure Books on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Journet, Katrina; Clahoun, Jessica; Morrow, Jason; Duncan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) originally designed the International Space Station (ISS) to operate until 2015, but have extended operations until at least 2020. As part of this very dynamic Program, there is an effort underway to simplify the certification of Commercial ]of ]the ]Shelf (COTS) hardware. This change in paradigm allows the ISS Program to take advantage of technologically savvy and commercially available hardware, such as the iPad. The iPad, a line of tablet computers designed and marketed by Apple Inc., was chosen to support this endeavor. The iPad is functional, portable, and could be easily accessed in an emergency situation. The iPad Electronic Flight Bag (EFB), currently approved for use in flight by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), is a fraction of the cost of a traditional Class 2 EFB. In addition, the iPad fs ability to use electronic aeronautical data in lieu of paper in route charts and approach plates can cut the annual cost of paper data in half for commercial airlines. ISS may be able to benefit from this type of trade since one of the most important factors considered is information management. Emergency procedures onboard the ISS are currently available to the crew in paper form. Updates to the emergency books can either be launched on an upcoming visiting vehicle such as a Russian Soyuz flight or printed using the onboard ISS printer. In both cases, it is costly to update hardcopy procedures. A new operations concept was proposed to allow for the use of a tablet system that would provide a flexible platform to support space station crew operations. The purpose of the system would be to provide the crew the ability to view and maintain operational data, such as emergency procedures while also allowing Mission Control Houston to update the procedures. The ISS Program is currently evaluating the safety risks associated with the use of iPads versus paper. Paper products can contribute to the flammability

  19. On-Orbit Propulsion and Methods of Momentum Management for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Spencer, Victor; Metrocavage, Kevin; Swanson, Robert A.; Krajchovich, Mark; Beisner, Matthew; Kamath, Ulhas P.

    2010-01-01

    Since the first documented design of a space station in 1929, it has been a dream of many to sustain a permanent presence in space. Russia and the US spent several decades competing for a sustained human presence in low Earth orbit. In the 1980 s, Russia and the US began to openly collaborate to achieve this goal. This collaboration lead to the current design of the ISS. Continuous improvement of procedures for controlling the ISS have lead to more efficient propellant management over the years. Improved efficiency combined with the steady use of cargo vehicles has kept ISS propellant levels well above their defined thresholds in all categories. The continuing evolution of propellant and momentum management operational strategies demonstrates the capability and flexibility of the ISS propulsion system. The hard work and cooperation of the international partners and the evolving operational strategies have made the ISS safe and successful. The ISS s proven success is the foundation for the future of international cooperation for sustaining life in space.

  20. Benchmark studies of the effectiveness of structural and internal materials as radiation shielding for the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Heilbronn, L.; Stephens, D.; Wilson, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Accelerator-based measurements and model calculations have been used to study the heavy-ion radiation transport properties of materials in use on the International Space Station (ISS). Samples of the ISS aluminum outer hull were augmented with various configurations of internal wall material and polyethylene. The materials were bombarded with high-energy iron ions characteristic of a significant part of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) heavy-ion spectrum. Transmitted primary ions and charged fragments produced in nuclear collisions in the materials were measured near the beam axis, and a model was used to extrapolate from the data to lower beam energies and to a lighter ion. For the materials and ions studied, at incident particle energies from 1037 MeV/nucleon down to at least 600 MeV/nucleon, nuclear fragmentation reduces the average dose and dose equivalent per incident ion. At energies below 400 MeV/nucleon, the calculation predicts that as material is added, increased ionization energy loss produces increases in some dosimetric quantities. These limited results suggest that the addition of modest amounts of polyethylene or similar material to the interior of the ISS will reduce the dose to ISS crews from space radiation; however, the radiation transport properties of ISS materials should be evaluated with a realistic space radiation field. Copyright 2003 by Radiation Research Society.

  1. Three-dimensional growth of human endothelial cells in an automated cell culture experiment container during the SpaceX CRS-8 ISS space mission - The SPHEROIDS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Jessica; Gass, Samuel; Nebuloni, Stefano; Echegoyen, David; Riwaldt, Stefan; Baake, Christin; Bauer, Johann; Corydon, Thomas J; Egli, Marcel; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    Human endothelial cells (ECs) were sent to the International Space Station (ISS) to determine the impact of microgravity on the formation of three-dimensional structures. For this project, an automatic experiment unit (EU) was designed allowing cell culture in space. In order to enable a safe cell culture, cell nourishment and fixation after a pre-programmed timeframe, the materials used for construction of the EUs were tested in regard to their biocompatibility. These tests revealed a high biocompatibility for all parts of the EUs, which were in contact with the cells or the medium used. Most importantly, we found polyether ether ketones for surrounding the incubation chamber, which kept cellular viability above 80% and allowed the cells to adhere as long as they were exposed to normal gravity. After assembling the EU the ECs were cultured therein, where they showed good cell viability at least for 14 days. In addition, the functionality of the automatic medium exchange, and fixation procedures were confirmed. Two days before launch, the ECs were cultured in the EUs, which were afterwards mounted on the SpaceX CRS-8 rocket. 5 and 12 days after launch the cells were fixed. Subsequent analyses revealed a scaffold-free formation of spheroids in space.

  2. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  3. International Space Station Noise Constraints Flight Rule Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.; Danielson, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    Crewmembers onboard the International Space Station (ISS) live in a unique workplace environment for as long as 6 -12 months. During these long-duration ISS missions, noise exposures from onboard equipment are posing concerns for human factors and crewmember health risks, such as possible reductions in hearing sensitivity, disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and voice communications, interference with crew task performance, and reduced alarm audibility. The purpose of this poster is to describe how a recently-updated noise constraints flight rule is being used to implement a NASA-created Noise Exposure Estimation Tool and Noise Hazard Inventory to predict crew noise exposures and recommend when hearing protection devices are needed.

  4. Sustaining a Mature Risk Management Process: Ensuring the International Space Station for a Vibrant Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael; Carter-Journet, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) risk management methodology is an example of a mature and sustainable process. Risk management is a systematic approach used to proactively identify, analyze, plan, track, control, communicate, and document risks to help management make risk-informed decisions that increase the likelihood of achieving program objectives. The ISS has been operating in space for over 14 years and permanently crewed for over 12 years. It is the longest surviving habitable vehicle in low Earth orbit history. Without a mature and proven risk management plan, it would be increasingly difficult to achieve mission success throughout the life of the ISS Program. A successful risk management process must be able to adapt to a dynamic program. As ISS program-level decision processes have evolved, so too has the ISS risk management process continued to innovate, improve, and adapt. Constant adaptation of risk management tools and an ever-improving process is essential to the continued success of the ISS Program. Above all, sustained support from program management is vital to risk management continued effectiveness. Risk management is valued and stressed as an important process by the ISS Program.

  5. Robonaut 2 on the International Space Station: Status Update and Preparations for IVA Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Thomas D.; Diftler, Myron E.; Berka, Reginald B.; Badger, Julia M.; Yayathi, Sandeep; Curtis, Andrew W.; Joyce, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    Robotics engineers, ground controllers and International Space Station (ISS) crew have been running successful experiments using Robonaut 2 (R2) on-board the ISS for more than a year. This humanoid upper body robot continues to expand its list of achievements and its capabilities to safely demonstrate maintenance and servicing tasks while working alongside human crewmembers. The next phase of the ISS R2 project will transition from a stationary Intra Vehicular Activity (IVA) upper body using a power/data umbilical, to an IVA mobile system with legs for repositioning, a battery backpack power supply, and wireless communications. These upgrades will enable the R2 team to evaluate hardware performance and to develop additional control algorithms and control verification techniques with R2 inside the ISS in preparation for the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) phase of R2 operations. As R2 becomes more capable in assisting with maintenance tasks, with minimal supervision, including repositioning itself to different work sites, the ISS crew will be burdened with fewer maintenance chores, leaving them more time to conduct other activities. R2's developers at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) are preparing the R2 IVA mobility hardware and software upgrades for delivery to the ISS in late 2013. This paper summarizes R2 ISS achievements to date, briefly describes the R2 IVA mobility upgrades, and discusses the R2 IVA mobility objectives and plans.

  6. Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station--overview and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, T; Hajek, M; Summerer, L; Vana, N; Akatov, Y; Shurshakov, V; Arkhangelsky, V

    2004-01-01

    The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities has conducted various space research missions in the last 12 years in cooperation with the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. They dealt with the exact determination of the radiation hazards for cosmonauts and the development of precise measurement devices. Special emphasis will be laid on the last experiment on space station MIR the goal of which was the determination of the depth distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent in a water filled Phantom. The first results from dose measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS) will also be discussed. The spherical Phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems and had 4 channels where dosimeters can be exposed in different depths. The exposure period covered the timeframe from May 1997 to February 1999. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were exposed inside the Phantom, either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. For the evaluation of the linear energy transfer (LET), the high temperature ratio (HTR) method was applied. Based on this method a mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent is calculated according to the Q(LET infinity) relationship proposed in ICRP 26. An increased contribution of neutrons could be detected inside the Phantom. However the total dose equivalent did not increase over the depth of the Phantom. As the first Austrian measurements on the ISS dosimeter packages were exposed for 248 days, starting in February 2001 at six different locations onboard the ISS. The Austrian dosimeter sets for this first exposure on the ISS contained five different kinds of passive thermoluminescent dosimeters. First results showed a position dependent absorbed dose rate at the ISS.

  7. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  8. Sighting the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teets, Donald

    2008-01-01

    This article shows how to use six parameters describing the International Space Station's orbit to predict when and in what part of the sky observers can look for the station as it passes over their location. The method requires only a good background in trigonometry and some familiarity with elementary vector and matrix operations. An included…

  9. Viability of the lichen Xanthoria elegans and its symbionts after 18 months of space exposure and simulated Mars conditions on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Annette; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Onofri, Silvano; Ott, Sieglinde

    2015-07-01

    The lichen Xanthoria elegans has been exposed to space conditions and simulated Mars-analogue conditions in the lichen and fungi experiment (LIFE) on the International Space Station (ISS). After several simulations and short space exposure experiments such as BIOPAN, this was the first long-term exposure of eukaryotic organisms to the hostile space conditions of the low Earth orbit (LEO). The biological samples were integrated in the EXPOSE-E facility and exposed for 1.5 years outside the ISS to the combined impact of insolation, ultraviolet (UV)-irradiation, cosmic radiation, temperatures and vacuum conditions of LEO space. Additionally, a subset of X. elegans samples was exposed to simulated Martian environmental conditions by applying Mars-analogue atmosphere and suitable solar radiation filters. After their return to Earth the viability of the lichen samples was ascertained by viability analysis of LIVE/DEAD staining and confocal laser-scanning microscopy, but also by analyses of chlorophyll a fluorescence. According to the LIVE/DEAD staining results, the lichen photobiont showed an average viability rate of 71%, whereas the even more resistant lichen mycobiont showed a rate of 84%. Post-exposure viability rates did not significantly vary among the applied exposure conditions. This remarkable viability is discussed in the context of particular protective mechanisms of lichens such as anhydrobiosis and UV-screening pigments.

  10. "Smart" Magnetic Fluids Experiment Operated on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Lekan, Jack F.

    2004-01-01

    InSPACE is a microgravity fluid physics experiment that was operated on the International Space Station (ISS) in the Microgravity Science Glovebox from late March 2003 through early July 2003. (InSPACE is an acronym for Investigating the Structure of Paramagnetic Aggregates From Colloidal Emulsions.) The purpose of the experiment is to obtain fundamental data of the complex properties of an exciting class of smart materials termed magnetorheological (MR) fluids. MR fluids are suspensions, or colloids, comprised of small (micrometer-sized) superparamagnetic particles in a nonmagnetic medium. Colloids are suspensions of very small particles suspended in a liquid. (Examples of other colloids are blood, milk, and paint.) These controllable fluids can quickly transition into a nearly solid state when exposed to a magnetic field and return to their original liquid state when the magnetic field is removed. Controlling the strength of the magnetic field can control the relative stiffness of these fluids. MR fluids can be used to improve or develop new seat suspensions, robotics, clutches, airplane landing gear, and vibration damping systems. The principal investigator for InSPACE is Professor Alice P. Gast of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). The InSPACE hardware was developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The InSPACE samples were delivered to the ISS in November 2002, on the Space Shuttle Endeavour, on Space Station Utilization Flight UF-2/STS113. Operations began on March 31, 2003, with the processing of three different particle size samples at multiple test parameters. This investigation focused on determining the structural organization of MR colloidal aggregates when exposed to a pulsing magnetic field. On Earth, the aggregates take the shape of footballs with spiky tips. This characteristic shape may be influenced by the pull of gravity, which causes most particles initially suspended in the fluid to sediment, (i.e., settle and collect at the

  11. The Canadian space program from Black Brant to the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Andrew B

    2017-01-01

    Canada’s space efforts from its origins towards the end of the Second World War through to its participation in the ISS today are revealed in full in this complete and carefully researched history. Employing recently declassified archives and many never previously used sources, author Andrew B. Godefroy explains the history of the program through its policy and many fascinating projects. He assesses its effectiveness as a major partner in both US and international space programs, examines its current national priorities and capabilities, and outlines the country’s plans for the future. Despite being the third nation to launch a satellite into space after the Soviet Union and the United States; being a major partner in the US space shuttle program with the iconic Canadarm; being an international leader in the development of space robotics; and acting as one of the five major partners in the ISS, the Canadian Space Program remains one of the least well-known national efforts of the space age. This book atte...

  12. Life Science on the International Space Station Using the Next Generation of Cargo Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J. A.; Phillion, J. P.; Hart, A. T.; Comella, J.; Edeen, M.; Ruttley, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle and the transition of the International Space Station (ISS) from assembly to full laboratory capabilities, the opportunity to perform life science research in space has increased dramatically, while the operational considerations associated with transportation of the experiments has changed dramatically. US researchers have allocations on the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) Cargo Resupply Services (CRS) contract will provide consumables and payloads to and from the ISS via the unmanned SpaceX (offers launch and return capabilities) and Orbital (offers only launch capabilities) resupply vehicles. Early requirements drove the capabilities of the vehicle providers; however, many other engineering considerations affect the actual design and operations plans. To better enable the use of the International Space Station as a National Laboratory, ground and on-orbit facility development can augment the vehicle capabilities to better support needs for cell biology, animal research, and conditioned sample return. NASA Life scientists with experience launching research on the space shuttle can find the trades between the capabilities of the many different vehicles to be confusing. In this presentation we will summarize vehicle and associated ground processing capabilities as well as key concepts of operations for different types of life sciences research being launched in the cargo vehicles. We will provide the latest status of vehicle capabilities and support hardware and facilities development being made to enable the broadest implementation of life sciences research on the ISS.

  13. ISS-Lobster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, S. D.; Petre, R.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Ptak, A.

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents ISS-Lobster, a wide-field X-ray transient mission proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10^-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving both stellar mass and supermassive black holes. A 3-axis gimbal system will allow fast pointing in response to any independent, multi-wavelength indication of these events. Finally, deployment of this detector on the ISS will realize significant cost savings compared to a free-flying satellite as power, communication, and ISS transport are provided.

  14. Whole metagenome profiles of particulates collected from the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be, Nicholas A; Avila-Herrera, Aram; Allen, Jonathan E; Singh, Nitin; Checinska Sielaff, Aleksandra; Jaing, Crystal; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2017-07-17

    The built environment of the International Space Station (ISS) is a highly specialized space in terms of both physical characteristics and habitation requirements. It is unique with respect to conditions of microgravity, exposure to space radiation, and increased carbon dioxide concentrations. Additionally, astronauts inhabit a large proportion of this environment. The microbial composition of ISS particulates has been reported; however, its functional genomics, which are pertinent due to potential impact of its constituents on human health and operational mission success, are not yet characterized. This study examined the whole metagenome of ISS microbes at both species- and gene-level resolution. Air filter and dust samples from the ISS were analyzed and compared to samples collected in a terrestrial cleanroom environment. Furthermore, metagenome mining was carried out to characterize dominant, virulent, and novel microorganisms. The whole genome sequences of select cultivable strains isolated from these samples were extracted from the metagenome and compared. Species-level composition in the ISS was found to be largely dominated by Corynebacterium ihumii GD7, with overall microbial diversity being lower in the ISS relative to the cleanroom samples. When examining detection of microbial genes relevant to human health such as antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, it was found that a larger number of relevant gene categories were observed in the ISS relative to the cleanroom. Strain-level cross-sample comparisons were made for Corynebacterium, Bacillus, and Aspergillus showing possible distinctions in the dominant strain between samples. Species-level analyses demonstrated distinct differences between the ISS and cleanroom samples, indicating that the cleanroom population is not necessarily reflective of space habitation environments. The overall population of viable microorganisms and the functional diversity inherent to this unique closed environment are

  15. Microbiology and Crew Medical Events on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubre, Cherie; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Kadwa, Biniafer; Taiym, Wafa; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane; Baalen, Mary Van

    2014-01-01

    The closed environment of the International Space Station (ISS) creates an ideal environment for microbial growth. Previous studies have identified the ubiquitous nature of microorganisms throughout the space station environment. To ensure safety of the crew, microbial monitoring of air and surface within ISS began in December 2000 and continues to be monitored on a quarterly basis. Water monitoring began in 2009 when the potable water dispenser was installed on ISS. However, it is unknown if high microbial counts are associated with inflight medical events. The microbial counts are determined for the air, surface, and water samples collected during flight operations and samples are returned to the Microbiology laboratory at the Johnson Space Center for identification. Instances of microbial counts above the established microbial limit requirements were noted and compared inflight medical events (any non-injury event such as illness, rashes, etc.) that were reported during the same calendar-quarter. Data were analyzed using repeated measures logistic regression for the forty-one US astronauts flew on ISS between 2000 and 2012. In that time frame, instances of microbial counts being above established limits were found for 10 times for air samples, 22 times for surface samples and twice for water. Seventy-eight inflight medical events were reported among the astronauts. A three times greater risk of a medical event was found when microbial samples were found to be high (OR = 3.01; p =.007). Engineering controls, crew training, and strict microbial limits have been established to mitigate the crew medical events and environmental risks. Due to the timing issues of sampling and the samples return to earth, identification of particular microorganisms causing a particular inflight medical event is difficult. Further analyses are underway.

  16. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Vijayakumar, R.; Agui, Juan H.

    2014-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High- Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. Over the years, the service life of these filters has been re-evaluated based on limited post-flight tests of returned filters and risk factors. On earth, a well designed and installed HEPA filter will last for several years, e.g. in industrial and research clean room applications. Test methods for evaluating these filters are being developed on the basis of established test protocols used by the industry and the military. This paper will discuss the test methods adopted and test results on prototypes of the ISS filters. The results will assist in establishing whether the service life can be extended for these filters. Results from unused filters that have been in storage will also be presented to ascertain the shelf life and performance deterioration, if any and determine if the shelf life may be extended.

  17. Concept Defined for the International Space Station's Fluids and Combustion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsa, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    The Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) will occupy three powered racks and one stowage rack on the International Space Station (ISS). It will be a permanent modular, multiuser facility to accommodate microgravity science experiments onboard the ISS s U.S. Laboratory Module. FCF will support NASA Human Exploration and Development of Space program objectives requiring sustained, systematic research in the disciplines of fluid physics and combustion science. The two disciplines share racks and mutually necessary hardware within FCF to dramatically reduce costs and effectively use ISS resources. Even with the cost of FCF development included, experimentation using FCF on the space station will cost only half of what it did on the space shuttles.

  18. Enhanced science capability on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felice, Ronald R.; Kienlen, Mike

    2002-12-01

    It is inevitable that the International Space Station (ISS) will play a significant role in the conduct of science in space. However, in order to provide this service to a wide and broad community and to perform it cost effectively, alternative concepts must be considered to complement NASA"s Institutional capability. Currently science payload forward and return data services must compete for higher priority ISS infrastructure support requirements. Furthermore, initial astronaut crews will be limited to a single shift. Much of their time and activities will be required to meet their physical needs (exercise, recreation, etc.), station maintenance, and station operations, leaving precious little time to actively conduct science payload operations. ISS construction plans include the provisioning of several truss mounted, space-hardened pallets, both zenith and nadir facing. The ISS pallets will provide a platform to conduct both earth and space sciences. Additionally, the same pallets can be used for life and material sciences, as astronauts could place and retrieve sealed canisters for long-term micro-gravity exposure. Thus the pallets provide great potential for enhancing ISS science return. This significant addition to ISS payload capacity has the potential to exacerbate priorities and service contention factors within the exiting institution. In order to have it all, i.e., more science and less contention, the pallets must be data smart and operate autonomously so that NASA institutional services are not additionally taxed. Specifically, the "Enhanced Science Capability on the International Space Station" concept involves placing data handling and spread spectrum X-band communications capabilities directly on ISS pallets. Spread spectrum techniques are considered as a means of discriminating between different pallets as well as to eliminate RFI. The data and RF systems, similar to that of "free flyers", include a fully functional command and data handling system

  19. Microbial Anomalies Encountered on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Rebekah J.; Wong, Wing; Pierson, Duane; Castro, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Microorganisms in our living environments are unavoidable. A community of microbes arrived in space with the delivery of the first element of the International Space Station (ISS), attached to hardware and on the bodies of the humans tasked with the initial assembly missions. The risk that microorganisms could cause adverse effects in the health of both the human occupants of the ISS as well as the physical integrity of the station environment and life support systems has been both a driver and a function of engineering and operational controls. Scientists and engineers at NASA have gone to extensive measures to control microbial growth at levels safe for the crewmembers and the spacecraft environment. Many of these measures were initiated with the design of the spacecraft and its systems. Materials used in the ISS were tested for resistance to fungi, such as mold and a paint with a fungus-killing chemical was also used. Controlling the humidity of the air in the Station is also an effective way of discouraging microbe growth. The breathing air is reconditioned by the Environmental Control Life Support System (ECLSS) prior to distribution, utilizing High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filtration. Requirements restricting the accumulation of water condensate in the air handlers and habitable volume of the ISS were other safeguards added. Water for drinking and food rehydration is disinfected or filtered. A robust in-flight housekeeping regimen for the ISS significantly reduces inappropriate growth of microorganisms and includes a regular cleaning of accessible surfaces with disinfectant wipes. Most of these requirements were suggested by microbiologists to mitigate and possibly prevent many microbiological risks. In addition to these controls, before flight monitoring and analyses of the cabin air, exposed surfaces, water and food, consumables, and crew members are conducted to mitigate microbial risk to the crew and spacecraft. Many microbial risks are much

  20. International Space Station as a Platform for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Michael; Woodcock, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has established a new model for the achievement of the most difficult engineering goals in space: international collaboration at the program level with competition at the level of technology. This strategic shift in management approach provides long term program stability while still allowing for the flexible evolution of technology needs and capabilities. Both commercial and government sponsored technology developments are well supported in this management model. ISS also provides a physical platform for development and demonstration of the systems needed for missions beyond low earth orbit. These new systems at the leading edge of technology require operational exercise in the unforgiving environment of space before they can be trusted for long duration missions. Systems and resources needed for expeditions can be aggregated and thoroughly tested at ISS before departure thus providing wide operational flexibility and the best assurance of mission success. We will describe representative mission profiles showing how ISS can support exploration missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. Example missions would include humans to lunar surface and return, and humans to Mars orbit as well as Mars surface and return. ISS benefits include: international access from all major launch sites; an assembly location with crew and tools that could help prepare departing expeditions that involve more than one launch; a parking place for reusable vehicles; and the potential to add a propellant depot.

  1. Operations Data Files, driving force behind International Space Station operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Ferra, Lionel; Markus, Michael; Wolff, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    Almost all tasks performed by the astronauts on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and by ground controllers in Mission Control Centre, from operation and maintenance of station systems to the execution of scientific experiments or high risk visiting vehicles docking manoeuvres, would not be possible without Operations Data Files (ODF). ODFs are the User Manuals of the Space Station and have multiple faces, going from traditional step-by-step procedures, scripts, cue cards, over displays, to software which guides the crew through the execution of certain tasks. Those key operational documents are standardized as they are used on-board the Space Station by an international crew constantly changing every 3 months. Furthermore this harmonization effort is paramount for consistency as the crew moves from one element to another in a matter of seconds, and from one activity to another. On ground, a significant large group of experts from all International Partners drafts, prepares reviews and approves on a daily basis all Operations Data Files, ensuring their timely availability on-board the ISS for all activities. Unavailability of these operational documents will halt the conduct of experiments or cancel milestone events. This paper will give an insight in the ground preparation work for the ODFs (with a focus on ESA ODF processes) and will present an overview on ODF formats and their usage within the ISS environment today and show how vital they are. Furthermore the focus will be on the recently implemented ODF features, which significantly ease the use of this documentation and improve the efficiency of the astronauts performing the tasks. Examples are short video demonstrations, interactive 3D animations, Execute Tailored Procedures (XTP-versions), tablet products, etc.

  2. An Analysis of an Automatic Coolant Bypass in the International Space Station Node 2 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clanton, Stephen E.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A challenging part of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control design is the ability to incorporate design changes into an integrated system without negatively impacting performance. The challenge presents itself in that the typical ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) consists of an integrated hardware/software system that provides active coolant resources to a variety of users. Software algorithms control the IATCS to specific temperatures, flow rates, and pressure differentials in order to meet the user-defined requirements. What may seem to be small design changes imposed on the system may in fact result in system instability or the temporary inability to meet user requirements. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the solution process and analyses used to implement one such design change that required the incorporation of an automatic coolant bypass in the ISS Node 2 element.

  3. Space radiation risks for astronauts on multiple International Space Station missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and morbidity risks from space radiation exposure are an important concern for astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) missions. NASA's radiation limits set a 3% cancer fatality probability as the upper bound of acceptable risk and considers uncertainties in risk predictions using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) of the assessment. In addition to risk limitation, an important question arises as to the likelihood of a causal association between a crew-members' radiation exposure in the past and a diagnosis of cancer. For the first time, we report on predictions of age and sex specific cancer risks, expected years of life-loss for specific diseases, and probability of causation (PC) at different post-mission times for participants in 1-year or multiple ISS missions. Risk projections with uncertainty estimates are within NASA acceptable radiation standards for mission lengths of 1-year or less for likely crew demographics. However, for solar minimum conditions upper 95% CL exceed 3% risk of exposure induced death (REID) by 18 months or 24 months for females and males, respectively. Median PC and upper 95%-confidence intervals are found to exceed 50% for several cancers for participation in two or more ISS missions of 18 months or longer total duration near solar minimum, or for longer ISS missions at other phases of the solar cycle. However, current risk models only consider estimates of quantitative differences between high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation. We also make predictions of risk and uncertainties that would result from an increase in tumor lethality for highly ionizing radiation reported in animal studies, and the additional risks from circulatory diseases. These additional concerns could further reduce the maximum duration of ISS missions within acceptable risk levels, and will require new knowledge to properly evaluate.

  4. Humans on the International Space Station-How Research, Operations, and International Collaboration are Leading to New Understanding of Human Physiology and Performance in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronbinson, Julie A.; Harm, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) nears completion, and full international utilization is achieved, we are at a scientific crossroads. ISS is the premier location for research aimed at understanding the effects of microgravity on the human body. For applications to future human exploration, it is key for validation, quantification, and mitigation of a wide variety of spaceflight risks to health and human performance. Understanding and mitigating these risks is the focus of NASA s Human Research Program. However, NASA s approach to defining human research objectives is only one of many approaches within the ISS international partnership (including Roscosmos, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Each of these agencies selects and implements their own ISS research, with independent but related objectives for human and life sciences research. Because the science itself is also international and collaborative, investigations that are led by one ISS partner also often include cooperative scientists from around the world. The operation of the ISS generates significant additional data that is not directly linked to specific investigations. Such data comes from medical monitoring of crew members, life support and radiation monitoring, and from the systems that have been implemented to protect the health of the crew (such as exercise hardware). We provide examples of these international synergies in human research on ISS and highlight key early accomplishments that derive from these broad interfaces. Taken as a whole, the combination of diverse research objectives, operational data, international sharing of research resources on ISS, and scientific collaboration provide a robust research approach and capability that no one partner could achieve alone.

  5. Humans on the International Space Station-How Research, Operations, and International Collaboration are Leading to New Understanding of Human Physiology and Performance in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronbinson, Julie A.; Harm, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    As the International Space Station (ISS) nears completion, and full international utilization is achieved, we are at a scientific crossroads. ISS is the premier location for research aimed at understanding the effects of microgravity on the human body. For applications to future human exploration, it is key for validation, quantification, and mitigation of a wide variety of spaceflight risks to health and human performance. Understanding and mitigating these risks is the focus of NASA s Human Research Program. However, NASA s approach to defining human research objectives is only one of many approaches within the ISS international partnership (including Roscosmos, the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). Each of these agencies selects and implements their own ISS research, with independent but related objectives for human and life sciences research. Because the science itself is also international and collaborative, investigations that are led by one ISS partner also often include cooperative scientists from around the world. The operation of the ISS generates significant additional data that is not directly linked to specific investigations. Such data comes from medical monitoring of crew members, life support and radiation monitoring, and from the systems that have been implemented to protect the health of the crew (such as exercise hardware). We provide examples of these international synergies in human research on ISS and highlight key early accomplishments that derive from these broad interfaces. Taken as a whole, the combination of diverse research objectives, operational data, international sharing of research resources on ISS, and scientific collaboration provide a robust research approach and capability that no one partner could achieve alone.

  6. International Space Station Major Constituent Analyzer On-orbit Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ben D.; Erwin, Phillip M.; Wiedemann, Rachel; Matty, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) is a mass spectrometer based system that measures the major atmospheric constituents on the International Space Station. A number of limited-life components require periodic change-out, including the ORU 02 analyzer and the ORU 08 Verification Gas Assembly. The most recent ORU 02 and ORU 08 assemblies are operating nominally. For ORU 02, the ion source filaments and ion pump lifetime continue to be key determinants of MCA performance. Additionally, testing is underway to evaluate the capacity of the MCA to analyze ammonia. Finally, plans are being made to bring the second MCA on ISS to an operational configuration.

  7. Constrained Burn Optimization for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aaron J.; Jones, Brandon A.

    2017-01-01

    In long-term trajectory planning for the International Space Station (ISS), translational burns are currently targeted sequentially to meet the immediate trajectory constraints, rather than simultaneously to meet all constraints, do not employ gradient-based search techniques, and are not optimized for a minimum total deltav (v) solution. An analytic formulation of the constraint gradients is developed and used in an optimization solver to overcome these obstacles. Two trajectory examples are explored, highlighting the advantage of the proposed method over the current approach, as well as the potential v and propellant savings in the event of propellant shortages.

  8. Unusual ISS Rate Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    On November 23, 2011 International Space Station Guidance, Navigation, and Control reported unusual pitch rate disturbance. These disturbances were an order of magnitude greater than nominal rates. The Loads and Dynamics team was asked to review and analyze current accelerometer data to investigate this disturbance. This paper will cover the investigation process under taken by the Loads and Dynamics group. It will detail the accelerometers used and analysis performed. The analysis included performing Frequency Fourier Transform of the data to identify the mode of interest. This frequency data is then reviewed with modal analysis of the ISS system model. Once this analysis is complete and the disturbance quantified, a forcing function was produced to replicate the disturbance. This allows the Loads and Dynamics team to report the load limit values for the 100's of interfaces on the ISS.

  9. Impacts of an Ammonia Leak on the Cabin Atmosphere of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Stephanie M.; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey J.; Son, Chang H.; Perry Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic chemical release into the cabin atmosphere is one of the three major emergency scenarios identified on the International Space Station (ISS). The release of anhydrous ammonia, the coolant used in the U.S. On-orbit Segment (USOS) External Active Thermal Control Subsystem (EATCS), into the ISS cabin atmosphere is one of the most serious toxic chemical release cases identified on board ISS. The USOS Thermal Control System (TCS) includes an Internal Thermal Control Subsystem (ITCS) water loop and an EATCS ammonia loop that transfer heat at the interface heat exchanger (IFHX). Failure modes exist that could cause a breach within the IFHX. This breach would result in high pressure ammonia from the EATCS flowing into the lower pressure ITCS water loop. As the pressure builds in the ITCS loop, it is likely that the gas trap, which has the lowest maximum design pressure within the ITCS, would burst and cause ammonia to enter the ISS atmosphere. It is crucial to first characterize the release of ammonia into the ISS atmosphere in order to develop methods to properly mitigate the environmental risk. This paper will document the methods used to characterize an ammonia leak into the ISS cabin atmosphere. A mathematical model of the leak was first developed in order to define the flow of ammonia into the ISS cabin atmosphere based on a series of IFHX rupture cases. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods were then used to model the dispersion of the ammonia throughout the ISS cabin and determine localized effects and ventilation effects on the dispersion of ammonia. Lastly, the capabilities of the current on-orbit systems to remove ammonia were reviewed and scrubbing rates of the ISS systems were defined based on the ammonia release models. With this full characterization of the release of ammonia from the USOS TCS, an appropriate mitigation strategy that includes crew and system emergency response procedures, personal protection equipment use, and atmosphere monitoring

  10. The Demonstration of a Robotic External Leak Locator on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naids, Adam; Rossetti, Dino; Bond, Tim; Johnson, Brien; Huang, Alvin; Deal, Alexandra; Fox, Katie; Heiser, Michael; Hartman, William; Mikatarian, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) and all currently conceivable future manned spacecraft are susceptible to mission impacts due to fluid/gas leaks to the exterior environment. For example, there is a well-known risk of ammonia leaks from the ISS External Thermal Control System loops and currently no method to locate them. It was, therefore, critical to develop a method for detecting and locating leaks to preserve vehicle health. The Robotic External Leak Locator (RELL) was developed and deployed to the ISS to provide this capability. An on-orbit validation and demonstration was successfully completed in December 2016 and leak locating operations occurred in February 2017. This paper discusses the results of those exercises including measurements of the environment around ISS, detection of the small ammonia leak and implementation of leak locating methodologies.

  11. NASA uses Eclipse RCP Applications for Experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Tamar

    2013-01-01

    Eclipse is going to space for the first time in 2013! The International Space Station (ISS) is used as a site for experiments any software developed as part of these experiments has to comply with extensive and strict user interface guidelines. NASA Ames Research Center's Intelligent Robotics Group is doing 2 sets of experiments, both with astronauts using Eclipse RCP applications to remotely control robots. One experiment will control SPHERES with an Android Smartphone on the ISS the other experiment will control a K10 rover on Earth.

  12. The Sileye--Alteino experiment on board the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casolino, M. E-mail: casolino@roma2.infn.it; Bidoli, V.; Furano, G.; Minori, M.; Morselli, A.; Narici, L.; Picozza, P.; Reali, E.; Sparvoli, R.; Fuglesang, C.; Sannita, W.G.; Carlson, P.; Castellini, G.; Tesi, M.; Galper, A.; Korotkov, M.; Popov, A.; Vavilov, N.; Avdeev, S.; Benghin, V.; Salnitskii, V.P.; Shevchenko, O.I.; Petrov, V.P.; Trukhanov, K.A.; Boezio, M.; Bonvicini, W.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Mazzenga, G.; Ricci, M.; Spillantini, P

    2002-12-01

    The experiment Sileye-3/Alteino was placed on board the International Space Station on 27 April 2002. The instrument is constituted by a cosmic ray silicon detector and an electroencephalograph. The main scientific aims include the investigation of the Light Flash phenomenon, the study of astronaut brain activity in space when subject to cosmic rays, the measurement of the radiation environment and the nuclear abundances inside the ISS. The instrument cosmic ray detector was active for 130 hours. In addition 6 astronaut Light Flash observation sessions were held, resulting in the observation of this phenomenon on the ISS.

  13. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.; North, Tim; Bowens, Ebony; Balcer, Sonia

    2017-01-01

    International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery Start-Up.The International Space Station (ISS) primary Electric Power System (EPS) was originally designed to use Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The electricity for the space station is generated by its solar arrays, which charge batteries during insolation for subsequent discharge during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. As the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-Ion ORU and cell life testing project. The first set of 6 Li-ion battery replacements were launched in December 2016 and deployed in January 2017. This paper will discuss the Li-ion battery on-orbit start-up and the status of the Li-Ion cell and ORU life cycle testing.

  14. A multi-purpose tactile vest for astronauts in the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Veen, H.A.H.C. van

    2003-01-01

    During a 10 day taxiflight to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2004, Dutch astronaut André Kuipers is scheduled to test a multi-purpose vibrotactile vest. The main application of the vest is supporting the astronaut's orientation awareness. To this end, we employ an artificial gravity vector

  15. A multi-purpose tactile vest for astronauts in the international space station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Veen, H.A.H.C. van

    2003-01-01

    During a 10 day taxiflight to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2004, Dutch astronaut André Kuipers is scheduled to test a multi-purpose vibrotactile vest. The main application of the vest is supporting the astronaut's orientation awareness. To this end, we employ an artificial gravity vector

  16. International Space Station-Based Electromagnetic Launcher for Space Science Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ross M.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed of lowering the cost of planetary exploration missions by using an electromagnetic propulsion/launcher, rather than a chemical-fueled rocket for propulsion. An electromagnetic launcher (EML) based at the International Space Station (ISS) would be used to launch small science payloads to the Moon and near Earth asteroids (NEAs) for the science and exploration missions. An ISS-based electromagnetic launcher could also inject science payloads into orbits around the Earth and perhaps to Mars. The EML would replace rocket technology for certain missions. The EML is a high-energy system that uses electricity rather than propellant to accelerate payloads to high velocities. The most common type of EML is the rail gun. Other types are possible, e.g., a coil gun, also known as a Gauss gun or mass driver. The EML could also "drop" science payloads into the Earth's upper

  17. Assessment of Ethanol Trends on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay; Carter, Layne; Kayatin, Matthew; Gazda, Daniel; McCoy, Torin; Limero, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) provides a working environment for six crewmembers through atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems. In the last year, elevated ethanol levels have presented a unique challenge for the ISS ECLSS. Ethanol is monitored on the ISS by the Air Quality Monitor (AQM). The source of this increase is currently unknown. This paper documents the credible sources for the increased ethanol concentration, the monitoring provided by the AQM, and the impact on the atmosphere revitalization and water recovery systems.

  18. Development and Execution of Autonomous Procedures Onboard the International Space Station to Support the Next Phase of Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisert, Susan; Rodriggs, Michael; Moreno, Francisco; Korth, David; Gibson, Stephen; Lee, Young H.; Eagles, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Now that major assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) is complete, NASA's focus has turned to using this high fidelity in-space research testbed to not only advance fundamental science research, but also demonstrate and mature technologies and develop operational concepts that will enable future human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The ISS as a Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) project was established to reduce risks for manned missions to exploration destinations by utilizing ISS as a high fidelity micro-g laboratory to demonstrate technologies, operations concepts, and techniques associated with crew autonomous operations. One of these focus areas is the development and execution of ISS Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) autonomous flight crew procedures intended to increase crew autonomy that will be required for long duration human exploration missions. Due to increasing communications delays and reduced logistics resupply, autonomous procedures are expected to help reduce crew reliance on the ground flight control team, increase crew performance, and enable the crew to become more subject-matter experts on both the exploration space vehicle systems and the scientific investigation operations that will be conducted on a long duration human space exploration mission. These tests make use of previous or ongoing projects tested in ground analogs such as Research and Technology Studies (RATS) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO). Since the latter half of 2012, selected non-critical ISS systems crew procedures have been used to develop techniques for building ISTAR autonomous procedures, and ISS flight crews have successfully executed them without flight controller involvement. Although the main focus has been preparing for exploration, the ISS has been a beneficiary of this synergistic effort and is considering modifying additional standard ISS procedures that may increase crew efficiency, reduce operational costs, and

  19. Development and Execution of Autonomous Procedures Onboard the International Space Station to Support the Next Phase of Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisert, Susan; Rodriggs, Michael; Moreno, Francisco; Korth, David; Gibson, Stephen; Lee, Young H.; Eagles, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    Now that major assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) is complete, NASA's focus has turned to using this high fidelity in-space research testbed to not only advance fundamental science research, but also demonstrate and mature technologies and develop operational concepts that will enable future human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The ISS as a Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) project was established to reduce risks for manned missions to exploration destinations by utilizing ISS as a high fidelity micro-g laboratory to demonstrate technologies, operations concepts, and techniques associated with crew autonomous operations. One of these focus areas is the development and execution of ISS Testbed for Analog Research (ISTAR) autonomous flight crew procedures intended to increase crew autonomy that will be required for long duration human exploration missions. Due to increasing communications delays and reduced logistics resupply, autonomous procedures are expected to help reduce crew reliance on the ground flight control team, increase crew performance, and enable the crew to become more subject-matter experts on both the exploration space vehicle systems and the scientific investigation operations that will be conducted on a long duration human space exploration mission. These tests make use of previous or ongoing projects tested in ground analogs such as Research and Technology Studies (RATS) and NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO). Since the latter half of 2012, selected non-critical ISS systems crew procedures have been used to develop techniques for building ISTAR autonomous procedures, and ISS flight crews have successfully executed them without flight controller involvement. Although the main focus has been preparing for exploration, the ISS has been a beneficiary of this synergistic effort and is considering modifying additional standard ISS procedures that may increase crew efficiency, reduce operational costs, and

  20. Docking Offset Between the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station and Resulting Impacts to the Transfer of Attitude Reference and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, W. Jason; Pohlkamp, Kara M.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle does not dock at an exact 90 degrees to the International Space Station (ISS) x-body axis. This offset from 90 degrees, along with error sources within their respective attitude knowledge, causes the two vehicles to never completely agree on their attitude, even though they operate as a single, mated stack while docked. The docking offset can be measured in flight when both vehicles have good attitude reference and is a critical component in calculations to transfer attitude reference from one vehicle to another. This paper will describe how the docking offset and attitude reference errors between both vehicles are measured and how this information would be used to recover Shuttle attitude reference from ISS in the event of multiple failures. During STS-117, ISS on-board Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) computers began having problems and after several continuous restarts, the systems failed. The failure took the ability for ISS to maintain attitude knowledge. This paper will also demonstrate how with knowledge of the docking offset, the contingency procedure to recover Shuttle attitude reference from ISS was reversed in order to provide ISS an attitude reference from Shuttle. Finally, this paper will show how knowledge of the docking offset can be used to speed up attitude control handovers from Shuttle to ISS momentum management. By taking into account the docking offset, Shuttle can be commanded to hold a more precise attitude which better agrees with the ISS commanded attitude such that start up transients with the ISS momentum management controllers are reduced. By reducing start-up transients, attitude control can be transferred from Shuttle to ISS without the use of ISS thrusters saving precious on-board propellant, crew time and minimizing loads placed upon the mated stack.

  1. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for a Regenerative Heat Exchanger in the International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.; Turner, Larry D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the system dynamics was created using Excel. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  2. Comparison of Analytical and Numerical Performance Predictions for an International Space Station Node 3 Internal Active Thermal Control System Regenerative Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Stephen A.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of International Space Station (ISS) systems modeling often necessitates the concurrence of various dissimilar, parallel analysis techniques to validate modeling. This was the case with a feasibility and performance study of the ISS Node 3 Regenerative Heat Exchanger (RHX). A thermo-hydraulic network model was created and analyzed in SINDA/FLUINT. A less complex, closed form solution of the systems dynamics was created using an Excel Spreadsheet. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of the modeling processes utilized, the results and benefits of each to the ISS Node 3 RHX study.

  3. Status of the International Space Station Waste and Hygiene Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Stephanie; Zahner, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC) serves as the primary system for removal and containment of metabolic waste and hygiene activities on board the United States segment of the International Space Station (ISS). The WHC was launched on ULF 2 and is currently in the U.S. Laboratory and is integrated into the Water Recovery System (WRS) where pretreated urine is processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). The waste collection part of the WHC system is derived from the Service Module system and was provided by RSC-Energia along with additional hardware to allow for urine delivery to the UPA. The System has been integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure for use on the U.S. segment of the ISS. The system has experienced several events of interest during the deployment, checkout, and operation of the system during its first year of use and these will be covered in this paper. Design and on-orbit performance will also be discussed.

  4. International Space Station USOS Waste and Hygiene Compartment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Dwight E., Jr.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Gelmis, Karen; Philistine, Cynthia; Balistreri, Steven

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) currently provides human waste collection and hygiene facilities in the Russian Segment Service Module (SM) which supports a three person crew. Additional hardware is planned for the United States Operational Segment (USOS) to support expansion of the crew to six person capability. The additional hardware will be integrated in an ISS standard equipment rack structure that was planned to be installed in the Node 3 element; however, the ISS Program Office recently directed implementation of the rack, or Waste and Hygiene Compartment (WHC), into the U.S. Laboratory element to provide early operational capability. In this configuration, preserved urine from the WHC waste collection system can be processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) in either the U.S. Lab or Node 3 to recover water for crew consumption or oxygen production. The human waste collection hardware is derived from the Service Module system and is provided by RSC-Energia. This paper describes the concepts, design, and integration of the WHC waste collection hardware into the USOS including integration with U.S. Lab and Node 3 systems.

  5. An Advanced SAGE III Instrument on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, M. P.; Zawodny, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    An improved and more capable SAGE III instrument is scheduled to be launched in November 2016 to the International Space Station. It will combine the experience and capabilities of its successful predecessor satellite instruments SAM II, SAGE, SAGE II, and SAGE III-Meteor to measure aerosol, cloud, O3, H2O, and NO2 profiles from the upper troposphere through the stratosphere. In addition to solar and lunar occultation with vertical resolutions of about 1.0 km, SAGE III-ISS will make limb scattering measurements on the solar side of each orbit greatly expanding the measurement coverage per spacecraft orbit, and tying in the very high resolution and precise solar occultation measurements with the limb scattering measurements. The new design incorporates an array detector that enhances its measurement capability and should allow for experimental data products like BrO, and IO, and along with a single photodiode detector the measurement of larger aerosols. The wavelengths covered by SAGE III-ISS range from 280 to 1040 nm with 1 to 2 mm spectral resolution using a grating spectrometer. The single photodiode extends measurements to 1550 nm. This talk will describe the measurement capabilities of SAGE III, its additional modes and increased geographical coverage, its calibration and characterization, and data archival and validation approach. In addition, examples of past data products important to climate, and ozone recovery, will be discussed as will the expanded contributions from SAGE III-ISS.

  6. External Contamination Control of Attached Payloads on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.; Olsen, Randy L.; Huang, Alvin Y.; Steagall, Courtney A.; Schmidl, William D.; Wright, Bruce D.; Koontz, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an on-orbit platform for science utilization in low Earth orbit with multiple sites for external payloads with exposure to the natural and induced environments. Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle. This paper describes the external contamination control requirements and integration process for externally mounted payloads on the ISS. The external contamination control requirements are summarized and a description of the integration and verification process is detailed to guide payload developers in the certification process of attached payloads on the vehicle. A description of the required data certification deliverables covers the characterization of contamination sources. Such characterization includes identification, usage and operational data for each class of contamination source. Classes of external contamination sources covered are vacuum exposed materials, sources of leakage, vacuum venting and thrusters. ISS system level analyses are conducted by the ISS Space Environments Team to certify compliance with external contamination control requirements. This paper also addresses the ISS induced contamination environment at attached payload sites, both at the requirements level as well as measurements made on ISS.

  7. ISS Utilization Potential for 2011-2020 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, R.; Chabrow, J.; Nakagawa, R.

    The US concept for a permanent human presence in space as directed by President Ronald Reagan in 1984 was called Space Station Freedom. This was the precursor to the International Space Station (ISS) that now orbits the earth. The first element of the ISS, Zarya, was launched November 20, 1998. The launch of STS-133 provides the final component of the assembly, the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM). During the assembly the ISS was utilized to the extent possible for the conduct of scientific research and technology development, and for the development of enhancements to the ISS capabilities. These activities have resulted in a significant database of lessons learned regarding operations, both of the ISS platform as well as in the conduct of research. For the coming decade utilization of the ISS will be impacted by how these lessons learned are used to improve operations. Access to the ISS and to its capabilities will determine the types of projects that can use the ISS. Perhaps the most critical limitation is the funds that must be invested by potential users of the ISS. This paper examines the elements that have been identified as impediments to utilization of the ISS by both basic researchers and by the private sector over the past decade and provides an assessment of which of these are likely to be satisfactorily altered and on what time scale.

  8. Translational Cellular Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of Translational Research aims to coalesce interdisciplinary findings from basic science for biomedical applications. To complement spaceflight research using human subjects, translational studies can be designed to address aspects of space-related human health risks and help develop countermeasures to prevent or mitigate them, with therapeutical benefits for analogous conditions experienced on Earth. Translational research with cells and model organisms is being conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in connection with various human systems impacted by spaceflight, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. Examples of recent cell-based translational investigations on the ISS include the following. The JAXA investigation Cell Mechanosensing seeks to identify gravity sensors in skeletal muscle cells to develop muscle atrophy countermeasures by analyzing tension fluctuations in the plasma membrane, which changes the expression of key proteins and genes. Earth applications of this study include therapeutic approaches for some forms of muscular dystrophy, which appear to parallel aspects of muscle wasting in space. Spheroids is an ESA investigation examining the system of endothelial cells lining the inner surface of all blood vessels in terms of vessel formation, cellular proliferation, and programmed cell death, because injury to the endothelium has been implicated as underpinning various cardiovascular and musculoskeletal problems arising during spaceflight. Since endothelial cells are involved in the functional integrity of the vascular wall, this research has applications to Earth diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. The goal of the T-Cell Activation in Aging NASA investigation is to understand human immune system depression in microgravity by identifying gene expression patterns of candidate molecular regulators, which will provide further insight into factors that may play a

  9. Requirements, Resource Planning, and Management for Decrewing/Recrewing Scenarios of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, David A.; Brand, Susan N.; Hasbrook, Peter V.

    2013-01-01

    Following the failure of 44 Progress (44P) on launch in August 2011, and the subsequent grounding of all Russian Soyuz rocket based launches, the International Space Station (ISS) ground teams engaged in an effort to determine how long the ISS could remain crewed, what would be required to safely configure the ISS for decrewing, and what would be required to recrew the ISS upon resumption of Soyuz rocket launches if decrewing became necessary. This White Paper was written to capture the processes and lessons learned from real-time time events and to provide a reference and training document for ISS Program teams in the event decrewing of the ISS is needed. Through coordination meetings and assessments, teams identified six decrewing priorities for ground and crew operations. These priorities were integrated along with preflight priorities through the Increment re-planning process. Additionally, the teams reviewed, updated, and implemented changes to the governing documentation for the configuration of the ISS for a contingency decrewing event. Steps were taken to identify critical items for disposal prior to decrewing, as well as identifying the required items to be strategically staged or flown with the astronauts and cosmonauts who would eventually recrew the ISS. After the successful launches and dockings of both 45P and 28 Soyuz (28S), the decrewing team transitioned to finalizing and publishing the documentation for standardizing the decrewing flight rules. With the continued launching of crews and cargo to the ISS, utilization and science is again a high priority; both Increment pairs 29 and 30, and Increment 31 and 32 reaching the milestone of at least 35 hours per week average utilization.

  10. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, I; Chatzitheodoridis, E; Vadrucci, S; Walther, I; Cojoc, R

    2016-11-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  11. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  12. Fungal Spores Viability on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoiu, I.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Vadrucci, S.; Walther, I.; Cojoc, R.

    2016-11-01

    In this study we investigated the security of a spaceflight experiment from two points of view: spreading of dried fungal spores placed on the different wafers and their viability during short and long term missions on the International Space Station (ISS). Microscopic characteristics of spores from dried spores samples were investigated, as well as the morphology of the colonies obtained from spores that survived during mission. The selected fungal species were: Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium herbarum, Ulocladium chartarum, and Basipetospora halophila. They have been chosen mainly based on their involvement in the biodeterioration of different substrate in the ISS as well as their presence as possible contaminants of the ISS. From biological point of view, three of the selected species are black fungi, with high melanin content and therefore highly resistant to space radiation. The visual inspection and analysis of the images taken before and after the short and the long term experiments have shown that all biocontainers were returned to Earth without damages. Microscope images of the lids of the culture plates revealed that the spores of all species were actually not detached from the surface of the wafers and did not contaminate the lids. From the adhesion point of view all types of wafers can be used in space experiments, with a special comment on the viability in the particular case of iron wafers when used for spores that belong to B. halophila (halophilic strain). This is encouraging in performing experiments with fungi without risking contamination. The spore viability was lower in the experiment for long time to ISS conditions than that of the short experiment. From the observations, it is suggested that the environment of the enclosed biocontainer, as well as the species'specific behaviour have an important effect, reducing the viability in time. Even the spores were not detached from the surface of the wafers, it was observed that spores used in the

  13. CALET docked on the ISS

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 19 August, with a spectacular launch on board the Japanese H2-B rocket operated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) left the Tanegashima Space Center to reach the International Space Station five days later.   After berthing with the ISS, CALET was extracted by a robotic arm from the Japanese HTV-5 transfer vehicle and installed on the Japanese Exposure Facility (right) where it will start its first data-taking. (Image: NASA/JAXA.)   CALET is a space mission led by JAXA with the participation of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and NASA. It is a CERN-recognised experiment and the second high-energy astroparticle experiment to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) after AMS-02, which has been taking data since 2011. Designed to be a space observatory for long-term observations of cosmic radiation aboard the external platform JEM-EF of the Japanese module (KIBO) on the ISS, CALET aims to identify elect...

  14. The International Space Station human life sciences experiment implementation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Haven, C P; McCollum, S G; Lee, A M; Kamman, M R; Baumann, D K; Anderson, M E; Buderer, M C

    2001-01-01

    The selection, definition, and development phases of a Life Sciences flight research experiment has been consistent throughout the past decade. The implementation process, however, has changed significantly within the past two years. This change is driven primarily by the shift from highly integrated, dedicated research missions on platforms with well defined processes to self contained experiments with stand alone operations on platforms which are being concurrently designed. For experiments manifested on the International Space Station (ISS) and/or on short duration missions, the more modular, streamlined, and independent the individual experiment is, the more likely it is to be successfully implemented before the ISS assembly is completed. During the assembly phase of the ISS, science operations are lower in priority than the construction of the station. After the station has been completed, it is expected that more resources will be available to perform research. The complexity of implementing investigations increases with the logistics needed to perform the experiment. Examples of logistics issues include- hardware unique to the experiment; large up and down mass and volume needs; access to crew and hardware during the ascent or descent phases; maintenance of hardware and supplies with a limited shelf life,- baseline data collection schedules with lengthy sessions or sessions close to the launch or landing; onboard stowage availability, particularly cold stowage; and extensive training where highly proficient skills must be maintained. As the ISS processes become better defined, experiment implementation will meet new challenges due to distributed management, on-orbit resource sharing, and adjustments to crew availability pre- and post-increment.

  15. The International Space Station human life sciences experiment implementation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L. J.; Haven, C. P.; McCollum, S. G.; Lee, A. M.; Kamman, M. R.; Baumann, D. K.; Anderson, M. E.; Buderer, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    The selection, definition, and development phases of a Life Sciences flight research experiment has been consistent throughout the past decade. The implementation process, however, has changed significantly within the past two years. This change is driven primarily by the shift from highly integrated, dedicated research missions on platforms with well defined processes to self contained experiments with stand alone operations on platforms which are being concurrently designed. For experiments manifested on the International Space Station (ISS) and/or on short duration missions, the more modular, streamlined, and independent the individual experiment is, the more likely it is to be successfully implemented before the ISS assembly is completed. During the assembly phase of the ISS, science operations are lower in priority than the construction of the station. After the station has been completed, it is expected that more resources will be available to perform research. The complexity of implementing investigations increases with the logistics needed to perform the experiment. Examples of logistics issues include- hardware unique to the experiment; large up and down mass and volume needs; access to crew and hardware during the ascent or descent phases; maintenance of hardware and supplies with a limited shelf life,- baseline data collection schedules with lengthy sessions or sessions close to the launch or landing; onboard stowage availability, particularly cold stowage; and extensive training where highly proficient skills must be maintained. As the ISS processes become better defined, experiment implementation will meet new challenges due to distributed management, on-orbit resource sharing, and adjustments to crew availability pre- and post-increment. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Survey of environmental biocontamination on board the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Natalia; De Boever, Patrick; Poddubko, Svetlana; Deshevaya, Elena; Polikarpov, Nikolai; Rakova, Natalia; Coninx, Ilse; Mergeay, Max

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an orbital living and working environment extending from the original Zarya control module built in 1998. The expected life span of the completed station is around 10 years and during this period it will be constantly manned. It is inevitable that the ISS will also be home to an unknown number of microorganisms. This survey reports on microbiological contamination in potable water, air, and on surfaces inside the ISS. The viable counts in potable water did not exceed 1.0 x 10(2) CFU/ml. Sphingomonas sp. and Methylobacterium sp. were identified as the dominant genera. Molecular analysis demonstrated the presence of nucleic acids belonging to various pathogens, but no viable pathogens were recovered. More than 500 samples were collected at different locations over a period of 6 years to characterize air and surface contamination in the ISS. Concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungi were lower than 7.1 x 10(2) and 4.4 x 10(1) CFU/m3, respectively. Staphylococcus sp. was by far the most dominant airborne bacterial genus, whereas Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. dominated the fungal population. The bacterial concentrations in surface samples fluctuated from 2.5 x 10(1) to 4.3 x 10(4) CFU/100 cm2. Staphylococcus sp. dominated in all of these samples. The number of fungi varied between 2.5 x 10(1) and 3.0 x 10(5) CFU/100 cm2, with Aspergillus sp. and Cladosporium sp. as the most dominant genera. Furthermore, the investigations identified the presence of several (opportunistic) pathogens and strains involved in the biodegradation of structural materials.

  17. The international space station human life sciences experiment implementation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, LadonnaJ.; Haven, CynthiaP.; McCollum, SuzanneG.; Lee, AngeleneM.; Kamman, MichelleR.; Baumann, DavidK.; Anderson, MarkE.; Buderer, MelvinC.

    2001-08-01

    The selection, definition, and development phases of a Life Sciences flight research experiment has been consistent throughout the past decade. The implementation process, however, has changed significantly within the past two years. This change is driven primarily by the shift from highly integrated, dedicated research missions on platforms with well defined processes to self contained experiments with stand alone operations on platforms which are being concurrently designed. For experiments manifested on the International Space Station (ISS) and / or on short duration missions, the more modular, streamlined, and independent the individual experiment is, the more likely it is to be successfully implemented before the ISS assembly is completed. During the assembly phase of the ISS, science operations are lower in priority than the construction of the station. After the station has been completed, it is expected that more resources will be available to perform research. The complexity of implementing investigations increases with the logistics needed to perform the experiment. Examples of logistics issues include: hardware unique to the experiment; large up and down mass and volume needs; access to crew and hardware during the ascent or descent phases; maintenance of hardware and supplies with a limited shelf life; baseline data collection schedules with lengthy sessions or sessions close to the launch or landing; onboard stowage availability, particularly cold stowage; and extensive training where highly proficient skills must be maintained. As the ISS processes become better defined, experiment implementation will meet new challenges due to distributed management, on-orbit resource sharing, and adjustments to crew availability pre- and post-increment.

  18. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document with its sister documents, Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes (CCT-PLN-1120), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), and Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT-STD-1150), and International Space Station (ISS) to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase of the NASA Commercial Crew Program (CCP).

  19. Human Factors Engineering Requirements for the International Space Station - Successes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Blume, J.

    2003-01-01

    Advanced technology coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer human space missions. Indeed, any exploration mission outside of Earth's neighborhood, in other words, beyond the moon, will necessarily be several months or even years. The International Space Station (ISS) serves as an important advancement toward executing a successful human space mission that is longer than a standard trip around the world or to the moon. The ISS, which is a permanently occupied microgravity research facility orbiting the earth, will support missions four to six months in duration. In planning for the ISS, the NASA developed an agency-wide set of human factors standards for the first time in a space exploration program. The Man-Systems Integration Standard (MSIS), NASA-STD-3000, a multi-volume set of guidelines for human-centered design in microgravity, was developed with the cooperation of human factors experts from various NASA centers, industry, academia, and other government agencies. The ISS program formed a human factors team analogous to any major engineering subsystem. This team develops and maintains the human factors requirements regarding end-to-end architecture design and performance, hardware and software design requirements, and test and verification requirements. It is also responsible for providing program integration across all of the larger scale elements, smaller scale hardware, and international partners.

  20. Protein crystal growth and the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLucas, L. J.; Moore, K. M.; Long, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Protein structural information plays a key role in understanding biological structure-function relationships and in the development of new pharmaceuticals for both chronic and infectious diseases. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) has devoted considerable effort studying the fundamental processes involved in macromolecular crystal growth both in a 1-g and microgravity environment. Results from experiments performed on more than 35 U.S. space shuttle flights have clearly indicated that microgravity can provide a beneficial environment for macromolecular crystal growth. This research has led to the development of a new generation of pharmaceuticals that are currently in preclinical or clinical trials for diseases such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, AIDS, influenza, stroke and other cardiovascular complications. The International Space Station (ISS) provides an opportunity to have complete crystallographic capability on orbit, which was previously not possible with the space shuttle orbiter. As envisioned, the x-ray Crystallography Facility (XCF) will be a complete facility for growing protein crystals; selecting, harvesting, and mounting sample crystals for x-ray diffraction; cryo-freezing mounted crystals if necessary; performing x-ray diffraction studies; and downlinking the data for use by crystallographers on the ground. Other advantages of such a facility include crystal characterization so that iterations in the crystal growth conditions can be made, thereby optimizing the final crystals produced in a three month interval on the ISS.

  1. Diagram of the Water Recovery and Management for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This diagram shows the flow of water recovery and management in the International Space Station (ISS). The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center is responsible for the regenerative ECLSS hardware, as well as providing technical support for the rest of the system. The regenerative ECLSS, whose main components are the Water Recovery System (WRS), and the Oxygen Generation System (OGS), reclaims and recycles water oxygen. The ECLSS maintains a pressurized habitation environment, provides water recovery and storage, maintains and provides fire detection/ suppression, and provides breathable air and a comfortable atmosphere in which to live and work within the ISS. The ECLSS hardware will be located in the Node 3 module of the ISS.

  2. Exercise in space: the European Space Agency approach to in-flight exercise countermeasures for long-duration missions on ISS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Nora; Jaekel, Patrick; Rosenberger, Andre; Weber, Tobias; Scott, Jonathan; Castrucci, Filippo; Lambrecht, Gunda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Damann, Volker; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    To counteract microgravity (µG)-induced adaptation, European Space Agency (ESA) astronauts on long-duration missions (LDMs) to the International Space Station (ISS) perform a daily physical exercise countermeasure program. Since the first ESA crewmember completed an LDM in 2006, the ESA countermeasure program has strived to provide efficient protection against decreases in body mass, muscle strength, bone mass, and aerobic capacity within the operational constraints of the ISS environment and the changing availability of on-board exercise devices. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of ESA's individualised approach to in-flight exercise countermeasures and an up-to-date picture of how exercise is used to counteract physiological changes resulting from µG-induced adaptation. Changes in the absolute workload for resistive exercise, treadmill running and cycle ergometry throughout ESA's eight LDMs are also presented, and aspects of pre-flight physical preparation and post-flight reconditioning outlined. With the introduction of the advanced resistive exercise device (ARED) in 2009, the relative contribution of resistance exercise to total in-flight exercise increased (33-46 %), whilst treadmill running (42-33 %) and cycle ergometry (26-20 %) decreased. All eight ESA crewmembers increased their in-flight absolute workload during their LDMs for resistance exercise and treadmill running (running speed and vertical loading through the harness), while cycle ergometer workload was unchanged across missions. Increased or unchanged absolute exercise workloads in-flight would appear contradictory to typical post-flight reductions in muscle mass and strength, and cardiovascular capacity following LDMs. However, increased absolute in-flight workloads are not directly linked to changes in exercise capacity as they likely also reflect the planned, conservative loading early in the mission to allow adaption to µG exercise, including personal comfort issues

  3. Preliminary studies for the ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) Experiment on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Jason; Fresneau, A.; Elsaesser, A.; Chan, J.; Breitenbach, A.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Ricco, A.; Salama, F.; Mattioda, A.; Santos, O.; Cottin, H.; Dartois, E.; d'Hendecourt, L.; Demets, R.; Foing, B.; Martins, Z.; Sephton, M.; Spaans, M.; Quinn, R.

    2013-01-01

    Organic compounds that survive in uncommon space environments are an important astrobiology focus. The ORganics Exposure in Orbit (OREOcube) experiment will investigate, in real time, chemical changes in organic compounds exposed to low Earth orbit radiation conditions on an International Space Station (ISS) external platform. OREOcube is packaged as an identical pair of 10-cm cube instruments, each weighing electronics, microcontroller, and data storage to make each cube an autonomous stand-alone instrument package requiring only a standard power and data interface. We have characterized the influence of mineralogically relevant inorganic materials on the stability, modification, and degradation of the organic molecules under ground laboratory experimental conditions. The results of our laboratory experiments will be used as the basis for the selection of samples for further investigations on the OREOcube ISS experiment. OREOcube is an international collaboration between the European Space Agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and University partners.

  4. Life sciences flight hardware development for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, V. D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bowman, R. N.; Donovan, F. M.; Elland, C.; Fahlen, T. F.; Girten, B.; Kirven-Brooks, M.; Lagel, K.; Meeker, G. B.; Santos, O.

    During the construction phase of the International Space Station (ISS), early flight opportunities have been identified (including designated Utilization Flights, UF) on which early science experiments may be performed. The focus of NASA's and other agencies' biological studies on the early flight opportunities is cell and molecular biology; with UF-1 scheduled to fly in fall 2001, followed by flights 8A and UF-3. Specific hardware is being developed to verify design concepts, e.g., the Avian Development Facility for incubation of small eggs and the Biomass Production System for plant cultivation. Other hardware concepts will utilize those early research opportunities onboard the ISS, e.g., an Incubator for sample cultivation, the European Modular Cultivation System for research with small plant systems, an Insect Habitat for support of insect species. Following the first Utilization Flights, additional equipment will be transported to the ISS to expand research opportunities and capabilities, e.g., a Cell Culture Unit, the Advanced Animal Habitat for rodents, an Aquatic Facility to support small fish and aquatic specimens, a Plant Research Unit for plant cultivation, and a specialized Egg Incubator for developmental biology studies. Host systems (Figure 1A, B), e.g., a 2.5 m Centrifuge Rotor (g-levels from 0.01-g to 2-g) for direct comparisons between μg and selectable g levels, the Life Sciences Glove☐ for contained manipulations, and Habitat Holding Racks (Figure 1B) will provide electrical power, communication links, and cooling to the habitats. Habitats will provide food, water, light, air and waste management as well as humidity and temperature control for a variety of research organisms. Operators on Earth and the crew on the ISS will be able to send commands to the laboratory equipment to monitor and control the environmental and experimental parameters inside specific habitats. Common laboratory equipment such as microscopes, cryo freezers, radiation

  5. Development of Test Protocols for International Space Station Particulate Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, R.; Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.

    2015-01-01

    Air quality control on the International Space Station (ISS) is a vital requirement for maintaining a clean environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of gravitational settling. The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) uses a filtration system that has been in use for over 14 years and has proven to meet this challenge. The heart of this system is a traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter configured to interface with the rest of the life support elements and provide effective cabin filtration. The filter element for this system has a non-standard cross-section with a length-to-width ratio (LW) of 6.6. A filter test setup was designed and built to meet industry testing standards. A CFD analysis was performed to initially determine the optimal duct geometry and flow configuration. Both a screen and flow straighter were added to the test duct design to improve flow uniformity and face velocity profiles were subsequently measured to confirm. Flow quality and aerosol mixing assessments show that the duct flow is satisfactory for the intended leak testing. Preliminary leak testing was performed on two different ISS filters, one with known perforations and one with limited use, and results confirmed that the testing methods and photometer instrument are sensitive enough to detect and locate compromised sections of an ISS BFE.Given the engineering constraints in designing spacecraft life support systems, it is anticipated that non-industry standard filters will be required in future designs. This work is focused on developing test protocols for testing the ISS BFE filters, but the methodology is general enough to be extended to other present and future spacecraft filters. These techniques for characterizing the test duct and perform leak testing

  6. Mold Species in Dust from the International Space Station Identified and Quantified by Mold Specific Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust was collected over a period of several weeks in 2007 from HEPA filters in the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The dust was returned on the Space Shuttle Atlantis, mixed, sieved, and the DNA was extracted. Using a DNA-based method called mol...

  7. Mold Species in Dust from the International Space Station Identified and Quantified by Mold Specific Quantitative PCR - MCEARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust was collected over a period of several weeks in 2007 from HEPA filters in the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The dust was returned on the Space Shuttle Atlantis, mixed, sieved, and the DNA was extracted. Using a DNA-based method called mo...

  8. Mold Species in Dust from the International Space Station Identified and Quantified by Mold Specific Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust was collected over a period of several weeks in 2007 from HEPA filters in the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The dust was returned on the Space Shuttle Atlantis, mixed, sieved, and the DNA was extracted. Using a DNA-based method called mol...

  9. Mold Species in Dust from the International Space Station Identified and Quantified by Mold Specific Quantitative PCR - MCEARD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust was collected over a period of several weeks in 2007 from HEPA filters in the U.S. Laboratory Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The dust was returned on the Space Shuttle Atlantis, mixed, sieved, and the DNA was extracted. Using a DNA-based method called mo...

  10. Astronaut Susan Helms in the ISS Unity Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut Susan Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, is positioned near a large amount of water temporarily stored in the Unity Node aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Helms accompanied the STS-105 crew back to Earth after having spent five months with two crewmates aboard the ISS. The 11th ISS assembly flight, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission was launched on August 10, 2001, and landed on August 22, 2001 at the Kennedy Space Center after the completion of the successful 12-day mission.

  11. Addressing Challenges to the Design & Test of Operational Lighting Environments for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Toni A.

    2014-01-01

    In our day to day lives, the availability of light, with which to see our environment, is often taken for granted. The designers of land based lighting systems use sunlight and artificial light as their toolset. The availability of power, quantity of light sources, and variety of design options are often unlimited. The accessibility of most land based lighting systems makes it easy for the architect and engineer to verify and validate their design ideas. Failures with an implementation, while sometimes costly, can easily be addressed by renovation. Consider now, an architectural facility orbiting in space, 260 miles above the surface of the earth. This human rated architectural facility, the International Space Station (ISS) must maintain operations every day, including life support and appropriate human comforts without fail. The facility must also handle logistics of regular shipments of cargo, including new passengers. The ISS requires accommodations necessary for human control of machine systems. Additionally, the ISS is a research facility and supports investigations performed inside and outside its livable volume. Finally, the facility must support remote operations and observations by ground controllers. All of these architectural needs require a functional, safe, and even an aesthetic lighting environment. At Johnson Space Center, our Habitability and Human Factors team assists our diverse customers with their lighting environment challenges, via physical test and computer based analysis. Because of the complexity of ISS operational environment, our team has learned and developed processes that help ISS operate safely. Because of the dynamic exterior lighting environment, uses computational modeling to predict the lighting environment. The ISS' orbit exposes it to a sunrise every 90 minutes, causing work surfaces to quickly change from direct sunlight to earthshine to total darkness. Proper planning of vehicle approaches, robotics operations, and crewed

  12. Combining fluorescent in situ hybridization data with ISS staging improves risk assessment in myeloma: an International Myeloma Working Group collaborative project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, H; Durie, B G M; Cavo, M; Attal, M; Gutierrez, N; Haessler, J; Goldschmidt, H; Hajek, R; Lee, J H; Sezer, O; Barlogie, B; Crowley, J; Fonseca, R; Testoni, N; Ross, F; Rajkumar, S V; Sonneveld, P; Lahuerta, J; Moreau, P; Morgan, G

    2013-03-01

    The combination of serum β2-microglobulin and albumin levels has been shown to be highly prognostic in myeloma as the International Staging System (ISS). The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of ISS stage and cytogenetic abnormalities in predicting outcomes. A retrospective analysis of international studies looking at both ISS and cytogenetic abnormalities was performed in order to assess the potential role of combining ISS stage and cytogenetics to predict survival. This international effort used the International Myeloma Working Group database of 12 137 patients treated worldwide for myeloma at diagnosis, of whom 2309 had cytogenetic studies and 5387 had analyses by fluorescent in situ hybridization (iFISH). Comprehensive analyses used 2642 patients with sufficient iFISH data available. Using the comprehensive iFISH data, combining both t(4;14) and deletion (17p), along with ISS stage, significantly improved the prognostic assessment in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival. The additional impact of patient age and use of high-dose therapy was also demonstrated. In conclusion, the combination of iFISH data with ISS staging significantly improves risk assessment in myeloma.

  13. Combining fluorescent in situ hybridization data with ISS staging improves risk assessment in myeloma: an International Myeloma Working Group collaborative project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, H; Durie, BGM; Cavo, M; Attal, M; Gutierrez, N; Haessler, J; Goldschmidt, H; Hajek, R; Lee, JH; Sezer, O; Barlogie, B; Crowley, J; Fonseca, R; Testoni, N; Ross, F; Rajkumar, SV; Sonneveld, P; Lahuerta, J; Moreau, P; Morgan, G

    2014-01-01

    The combination of serum β2-microglobulin and albumin levels has been shown to be highly prognostic in myeloma as the International Staging System (ISS). The aim of this study was to assess the independent contributions of ISS stage and cytogenetic abnormalities in predicting outcomes. A retrospective analysis of international studies looking at both ISS and cytogenetic abnormalities was performed in order to assess the potential role of combining ISS stage and cytogenetics to predict survival. This international effort used the International Myeloma Working Group database of 12 137 patients treated worldwide for myeloma at diagnosis, of whom 2309 had cytogenetic studies and 5387 had analyses by fluorescent in situ hybridization (iFISH). Comprehensive analyses used 2642 patients with sufficient iFISH data available. Using the comprehensive iFISH data, combining both t(4;14) and deletion (17p), along with ISS stage, significantly improved the prognostic assessment in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival. The additional impact of patient age and use of high-dose therapy was also demonstrated. In conclusion, the combination of iFISH data with ISS staging significantly improves risk assessment in myeloma. PMID:23032723

  14. Quantum Test of the Equivalence Principle and Space-Time aboard the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jason; Mueller, Holger; Yu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    We describe the Quantum Test of the Equivalence principle and Space Time (QTEST), a concept for an atom interferometry mission on the International Space Station (ISS). The primary science objective of the mission is a test of Einstein's equivalence principle with two rubidium isotope gases at a precision of better than 10$^{-15}$. Distinct from the classical tests is the use of quantum wave packets and their expected large spatial separation in the QTEST experiment. This dual species atom interferometer experiment will also be sensitive to time-dependent equivalence principle violations that would be signatures for ultralight dark-matter particles. In addition, QTEST will be able to perform photon recoil measurements to better than 10$^{-11}$ precision. This improves upon terrestrial experiments by a factor of 100, enabling an accurate test of the standard model of particle physics and contributing to mass measurement, in the proposed new international system of units (SI), with significantly improved precis...

  15. Low-Cost Small Payload Return to Enable High Frequency ISS Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Terminal Velocity Aerospace, LLC (TVA) proposes to improve utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) by providing a system for on-demand return of...

  16. Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) for ISS Flight Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) intended for use by International Space Station (ISS) ground controllers to increase the...

  17. Study of Lateral Misalignment Tolerance of a Symmetric Free-Space Optical Link for Intra International Space Station Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Schoenholz, Bryan; Suddath, Shannon N.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the study of lateral misalignment tolerance of a symmetric high-rate free-space optical link (FSOL) for use between International Space Station (ISS) payload sites and the main cabin. The link will enable gigabit per second (Gbps) transmission of data, which is up to three orders of magnitude greater than the current capabilities. This application includes 10-20 meter links and requires minimum size, weight, and power (SWaP). The optical power must not present an eye hazard and must be easily integrated into the existing ISS infrastructure. On the ISS, rapid thermal changes and astronaut movement will cause flexure of the structure which will potentially misalign the free space transmit and receive optics 9 cm laterally and 0.2 degrees angularly. If this misalignment is not accounted for, a loss of the link or degradation of link performance will occur. Power measurements were collected to better understand the effect of various system design parameters on lateral misalignment. Parameters that were varied include: the type of small form pluggable (SFP) transceivers, type of fiber, and transmitted power level. A potential solution was identified that can reach the lateral misalignment tolerance (decenter span) required to create an FSOL on the ISS by using 105 m core fibers, a duplex SFP, two channels of light, and two fiber amplifiers.

  18. Materials Science Experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    The Performance Goal for NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program reads "Use microgravity to establish and improve quantitative and predictive relationships between the structure, processing and properties of materials." The advent of the International Space Station will open up a new era in Materials Science Research including the ability to perform long term and frequent experiments in microgravity. As indicated the objective is to gain a greater understanding of issues of materials science in an environment in which the force of gravity can be effectively switched off. Thus gravity related issues of convection, buoyancy and hydrostatic forces can be reduced and the science behind the structure/processing/properties relationship can more easily be understood. The specific areas of research covered within the program are (1) the study of Nucleation and Metastable States, (2) Prediction and Control of Microstructure (including pattern formation and morphological stability), (3) Phase Separation and Interfacial Stability, (4) Transport Phenomena (including process modeling and thermophysical properties measurement), and (5) Crystal Growth, and Defect Generation and Control. All classes of materials, including metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, polymers, electronic materials (including organic and inorganic single crystals), aerogels and nanostructures, are included in these areas. The principal experimental equipment available to the materials scientist on the International Space Station (ISS) will be the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). Each of these systems will be accommodated in a single ISS rack, which can operate autonomously, will accommodate telescience operations, and will provide real time data to the ground. Eventual plans call for three MSRF racks, the first of which will be shared with the European Space Agency (ESA). Under international agreements, ESA and other partners will provide some of the equipment, while NASA covers launch

  19. Materials Science Experiments on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    The Performance Goal for NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program reads "Use microgravity to establish and improve quantitative and predictive relationships between the structure, processing and properties of materials." The advent of the International Space Station will open up a new era in Materials Science Research including the ability to perform long term and frequent experiments in microgravity. As indicated the objective is to gain a greater understanding of issues of materials science in an environment in which the force of gravity can be effectively switched off. Thus gravity related issues of convection, buoyancy and hydrostatic forces can be reduced and the science behind the structure/processing/properties relationship can more easily be understood. The specific areas of research covered within the program are (1) the study of Nucleation and Metastable States, (2) Prediction and Control of Microstructure (including pattern formation and morphological stability), (3) Phase Separation and Interfacial Stability, (4) Transport Phenomena (including process modeling and thermophysical properties measurement), and (5) Crystal Growth, and Defect Generation and Control. All classes of materials, including metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, polymers, electronic materials (including organic and inorganic single crystals), aerogels and nanostructures, are included in these areas. The principal experimental equipment available to the materials scientist on the International Space Station (ISS) will be the Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF). Each of these systems will be accommodated in a single ISS rack, which can operate autonomously, will accommodate telescience operations, and will provide real time data to the ground. Eventual plans call for three MSRF racks, the first of which will be shared with the European Space Agency (ESA). Under international agreements, ESA and other partners will provide some of the equipment, while NASA covers launch

  20. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  1. EXPRESS Service to the International Space Station: EXPRESS Pallet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primm, Lowell; Bergmann, Alan

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the ultimate scientific accomplishment in the history of NASA, with its primary objective of providing unique scientific investigation opportunities. This objective is the basis for the creation of the EXPRESS Pallet System (ExPs). The EXPRESS Pallet will provide extremal/unpressurized accommodations for a wide variety of external users. The payload developers represent many science disciplines, including earth observation, communications, solar and deep space viewing, long-term exposure, and many others. The EXPRESS Pallet will provide a mechanism to maximum utilization of the limited ISS unpressurized payload volume, standard physical payload interfaces for users, a standard integration template for users and the capability to changeout payloads on-orbit. The EXPRESS Pallet provides access to Ram, Wake, Starboard, Port, Nadir, Zenith and Earth Limb for exposure and viewing. 'Me ExPs consists of the Pallet structure, payload Adapters, and a subsystem assembly which includes data controller, power distribution and conversion, and Extra Vehicular Robotics/Extra-Vehicular Activity systems.

  2. Impacts of Microbial Growth on the Air Quality of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.; Bruce, Rebekah J.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the various sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) is one facet to ensuring the habitability of crewed spacecraft. Even though the International Space Station (ISS) atmosphere is relatively well characterized in terms of what is in the atmosphere and approximately how much, linking the majority of these trace contaminants detected to their source is virtually impossible. Albeit a few of can be associated to a single source, the majority of these trace contaminants have their origins from multiple sources. On crewed spacecraft such as ISS, trace contaminants are broadly categorized as either coming from equipment, which includes systems and payloads, or from the metabolic processes of the crew members. Such widely encompassing categories clearly illustrate the difficulty in linking air contaminants to their source(s). It is well known that microbial growth in ISS can flourish if left unchecked. Although processes are in place to limit microbial growth, in reality, microbial growth has pervaded the habitable environment of ISS. This is simply a consequence of having crewed spacecraft, as humans are the largest contributor to the bioload. As with crew members, microbes also have metabolic processes which, in many ways, are comparable to human metabolism. As such, it can be expected that microbial growth can lead to the release of volatile organic compounds into the ISS atmosphere. Given a large enough microbial population, the impact to the air quality of ISS can be potentially large. A survey of the microbiology found in ISS will be presented as well as the possible types of volatile organic compounds that can result from such organisms. This will be correlated to the observations provided by ground-based analysis of ISS atmosphere samples

  3. Resilient microorganisms in dust samples of the International Space Station-survival of the adaptation specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maximilian; Perras, Alexandra; Alekhova, Tatiana A; Wink, Lisa; Krause, Robert; Aleksandrova, Alina; Novozhilova, Tatiana; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine

    2016-12-20

    The International Space Station (ISS) represents a unique biotope for the human crew but also for introduced microorganisms. Microbes experience selective pressures such as microgravity, desiccation, poor nutrient-availability due to cleaning, and an increased radiation level. We hypothesized that the microbial community inside the ISS is modified by adapting to these stresses. For this reason, we analyzed 8-12 years old dust samples from Russian ISS modules with major focus on the long-time surviving portion of the microbial community. We consequently assessed the cultivable microbiota of these samples in order to analyze their extremotolerant potential against desiccation, heat-shock, and clinically relevant antibiotics. In addition, we studied the bacterial and archaeal communities from the stored Russian dust samples via molecular methods (next-generation sequencing, NGS) and compared our new data with previously derived information from the US American ISS dust microbiome. We cultivated and identified in total 85 bacterial, non-pathogenic isolates (17 different species) and 1 fungal isolate from the 8-12 year old dust samples collected in the Russian segment of the ISS. Most of these isolates exhibited robust resistance against heat-shock and clinically relevant antibiotics. Microbial 16S rRNA gene and archaeal 16S rRNA gene targeting Next Generation Sequencing showed signatures of human-associated microorganisms (Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, Coprococcus etc.), but also specifically adapted extremotolerant microorganisms. Besides bacteria, the detection of archaeal signatures in higher abundance was striking. Our findings reveal (i) the occurrence of living, hardy microorganisms in archived Russian ISS dust samples, (ii) a profound resistance capacity of ISS microorganisms against environmental stresses, and (iii) the presence of archaeal signatures on board. In addition, we found indications that the microbial community in the Russian segment dust

  4. [Air quality monitoring on the International Space Station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, A A; Mukhamedieva, L N; Mikos, K N

    2006-01-01

    Chemical contamination of air in space cabins occurs mainly due to permanent offgassing of equipment and materials, and leaks. Methods and means of qualitative and quantitative air monitoring on the ISS are powerful enough as for routine so emergency (e.g. local fire, toxic leak) air control. The ISS air quality has suited to the adopted standards and crew safety requirements. Yet, there is a broad field of action toward improvement of the space cabin air monitoring.

  5. Healthy offspring from freeze-dried mouse spermatozoa held on the International Space Station for 9 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayama, Sayaka; Kamada, Yuko; Yamanaka, Kaori; Kohda, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiromi; Shimazu, Toru; Tada, Motoki N; Osada, Ikuko; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Kamimura, Satoshi; Nagatomo, Hiroaki; Mizutani, Eiji; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Yano, Sachiko; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2017-06-06

    If humans ever start to live permanently in space, assisted reproductive technology using preserved spermatozoa will be important for producing offspring; however, radiation on the International Space Station (ISS) is more than 100 times stronger than that on Earth, and irradiation causes DNA damage in cells and gametes. Here we examined the effect of space radiation on freeze-dried mouse spermatozoa held on the ISS for 9 mo at -95 °C, with launch and recovery at room temperature. DNA damage to the spermatozoa and male pronuclei was slightly increased, but the fertilization and birth rates were similar to those of controls. Next-generation sequencing showed only minor genomic differences between offspring derived from space-preserved spermatozoa and controls, and all offspring grew to adulthood and had normal fertility. Thus, we demonstrate that although space radiation can damage sperm DNA, it does not affect the production of viable offspring after at least 9 mo of storage on the ISS.

  6. GNSS-Reflectometry with GEROS-ISS: Overview and recent results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; G., Beyerle;

    2015-01-01

    GEROS-ISS (GEROS hereafter) stands for GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station. It is a scientific experiment, proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2011 for installation aboard the ISS. The main focus of GEROS is the dedicated use ...

  7. Bone Biochemistry on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Heer, Martina; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Bone biochemical measures provide valuable insight into the nature and time course of microgravity effects on bone during space flight, where imaging technology cannot be employed. Increased bone resorption is a hallmark of space flight, while markers of bone formation are typically unchanged or decreased. Recent studies (after the deployment to ISS of the advanced resistive exercise device, ARED), have documented that astronauts with good nutritional intake (e.g., maintenance of body mass), good vitamin D status, and exercise maintained bone mineral density. These data are encouraging, but crewmembers exercising on the ARED do have alterations in bone biochemistry, specifically, bone resorption is still increased above preflight levels, but bone formation is also significantly increased. While this bone remodeling raises questions about the strength of the resulting bone, however documents beneficial effects of nutrition and exercise in counteracting bone loss of space flight.

  8. Second Harmonic Imaging improves Echocardiograph Quality on board the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Hamilton, Douglas; Martin, David; Ebert, Douglas; Melton, Shannon; Dulchavsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) capabilities have been part of the Human Research Facility (HRF) on board the International Space Station (ISS) since 2001. The US equipment on board the ISS includes a first-generation Tissue Harmonic Imaging (THI) option. Harmonic imaging (HI) is the second harmonic response of the tissue to the ultrasound beam and produces robust tissue detail and signal. Since this is a first-generation THI, there are inherent limitations in tissue penetration. As a breakthrough technology, HI extensively advanced the field of ultrasound. In cardiac applications, it drastically improves endocardial border detection and has become a common imaging modality. U.S. images were captured and stored as JPEG stills from the ISS video downlink. US images with and without harmonic imaging option were randomized and provided to volunteers without medical education or US skills for identification of endocardial border. The results were processed and analyzed using applicable statistical calculations. The measurements in US images using HI improved measurement consistency and reproducibility among observers when compared to fundamental imaging. HI has been embraced by the imaging community at large as it improves the quality and data validity of US studies, especially in difficult-to-image cases. Even with the limitations of the first generation THI, HI improved the quality and measurability of many of the downlinked images from the ISS and should be an option utilized with cardiac imaging on board the ISS in all future space missions.

  9. International Space Station Program Phase 3 Integrated Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. L.; Franks, G. D.; Knox, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    Testing of the International Space Station (ISS) U.S. Segment baseline configuration of the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was conducted as part of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design and development program. This testing was designed to answer specific questions regarding the control and performance of the baseline ARS subassemblies in the ISS U.S. Segment configuration. These questions resulted from the continued maturation of the ISS ECLSS configuration and design requirement changes since 1992. The test used pressurized oxygen injection, a mass spectrometric major constituent analyzer, a Four-Bed Molecular Sieve Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly, and a Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly to maintain the atmospheric composition in a sealed chamber at ISS specifications for 30 days. Human metabolic processes for a crew of four were simulated according to projected ISS mission time lines. The performance of a static feed water electrolysis Oxygen Generator Assembly was investigated during the test preparation phases; however, technical difficulties prevented its use during the integrated test. The Integrated ARS Test (IART) program built upon previous closed-door and open-door integrated testing conducted at MSFC between 1987 and 1992. It is the most advanced test of an integrated ARS conducted by NASA to demonstrate its end-to-end control and overall performance. IART test objectives, facility design, pretest analyses, test and control requirements, and test results are presented.

  10. The International Space Station as a Research Laboratory: A View to 2010 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uri, John J.; Sotomayor, Jorge L.

    2007-01-01

    Assembly of International Space Station (ISS) is expected to be complete in 2010, with operations planned to continue through at least 2016. As we move nearer to assembly complete, replanning activities by NASA and ISS International Partners have been completed and the final complement of research facilities on ISS is becoming more certain. This paper will review pans for facilities in the US On-orbit Segment of ISS, including contributions from International Partners, to provide a vision of the research capabilities that will be available starting in 2010. At present, in addition to research capabilities in the Russian segment, the United States Destiny research module houses nine research facilities or racks. These facilities include five multi-purpose EXPRESS racks, two Human Research Facility (HRF) racks, the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), and the Minus Eighty-degree Laboratory Freezer for ISS (MELFI), enabling a wide range of exploration-related applied as well as basic research. In the coming years, additional racks will be launched to augment this robust capability: Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR), Window Observation Rack Facility (WORF), Microgravity Science Research Rack (MSRR), Muscle Atrophy Research Exercise System (MARES), additional EXPRESS racks and possibly a second MELFI. In addition, EXPRESS Logistics Carriers (ELC) will provide attach points for external payloads. The European Space Agency s Columbus module will contain five research racks and provide four external attach sites. The research racks are Biolab, European Physiology Module (EPM), Fluid Science Lab (FSL), European Drawer System (EDS) and European Transport Carrier (ETC). The Japanese Kibo elements will initially support three research racks, Ryutai for fluid science, Saibo for cell science, and Kobairo for materials research, as well as 10 attachment sites for external payloads. As we look ahead to assembly complete, these new facilities represent

  11. Analysis of Noise Exposure Measurements Acquired Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limardo, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique workplace environment for U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts to conduct research and live for a period of six months or more. Noise has been an enduring environmental physical hazard that has been a challenge for the U.S. space program since before the Apollo era. Noise exposure in ISS poses significant risks to the crewmembers, such as; hearing loss (temporary or permanent), possible disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and communication, possible interference with crew task performance, and possible reduction in alarm audibility. Acoustic measurements were made onboard ISS and compared to requirements in order to assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the noise exposure monitoring program as well as an assessment of the acoustic dosimeter data collected to date. The hardware currently being used for monitoring the noise exposure onboard ISS will be discussed. Acoustic data onboard ISS has been collected since the beginning of ISS (Increment 1, November 2001). Noise exposure data analysis will include acoustic dosimetry logged data from crew-worn dosimeters during work and sleep periods and also fixed-location measurements from Increment 1 to present day. Noise exposure levels (8-, 16- and 24-hr), LEQ, will also be provided and discussed in this paper. Future directions and recommendations for the noise exposure monitoring program will be highlighted. This acoustic data is used to ensure a safe and healthy working and living environment for the crewmembers onboard the ISS.

  12. One Year Old and Growing: A Status Report on the International Space Station and Its Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoe, John-David F.; Hall, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    The first elements of the International Space Station have been launched and docked together, and are performing well on-orbit. The Station is currently being operated jointly by NASA and Russian space organizations. In May 1999, the Space Shuttle was the first vehicle to dock to the International, Space Station. A crew of seven U.S. and Russian astronauts delivered 4000 pounds of supplies, made repairs to communications and battery systems, and installed external hardware during an EVA. The next module, the Russian Service Module, is due to join the orbital complex this year. This will initiate a period of rapid growth, with new modules and equipment continually added for the next five to six years, through assembly complete. The first crew is scheduled to begin permanent occupation of the International Space Station early next year. Hardware is being developed by Space Station partners and participants around the world and is largely on schedule for launch. Mission control centers are fully functioning in Houston and Moscow, with operations centers in St. Hubert, Darmstadt, Tsukuba, Turino, and Huntsville going on line as they are required. International crews are selected and in training. Coordination efforts continue with each of the five partners and two participants, involving 16 nations. All of them continue to face their own challenges and have achieved their own successes. This paper will discuss the status of the ISS partners and participants, their contributions and accomplished milestones, and upcoming events. It will also give a status report on the developments of the remainder of the ISS modules and components by each partner and participant. The ISS, the largest and most complicated peacetime project in history, is flying, and, with the help of all the ISS members, will continue to grow.

  13. One Year Old and Growing: A Status Report on the International Space Station and Its Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoe, John-David F.; Hall, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    The first elements of the International Space Station have been launched and docked together, and are performing well on-orbit. The Station is currently being operated jointly by NASA and Russian space organizations. In May 1999, the Space Shuttle was the first vehicle to dock to the International, Space Station. A crew of seven U.S. and Russian astronauts delivered 4000 pounds of supplies, made repairs to communications and battery systems, and installed external hardware during an EVA. The next module, the Russian Service Module, is due to join the orbital complex this year. This will initiate a period of rapid growth, with new modules and equipment continually added for the next five to six years, through assembly complete. The first crew is scheduled to begin permanent occupation of the International Space Station early next year. Hardware is being developed by Space Station partners and participants around the world and is largely on schedule for launch. Mission control centers are fully functioning in Houston and Moscow, with operations centers in St. Hubert, Darmstadt, Tsukuba, Turino, and Huntsville going on line as they are required. International crews are selected and in training. Coordination efforts continue with each of the five partners and two participants, involving 16 nations. All of them continue to face their own challenges and have achieved their own successes. This paper will discuss the status of the ISS partners and participants, their contributions and accomplished milestones, and upcoming events. It will also give a status report on the developments of the remainder of the ISS modules and components by each partner and participant. The ISS, the largest and most complicated peacetime project in history, is flying, and, with the help of all the ISS members, will continue to grow.

  14. Albedo protons and electrons at ISS - an important contribution to astronaut dose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, R. B.; Slaba, T. C.; Badavi, F. F.; Mertens, C. J.; Blattnig, S.

    2015-12-01

    Albedo particles, which are created by cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere and are moving upwards away from the surface of the earth, are often considered a negligible contribution to astronaut radiation exposure on the International Space Station (ISS). Models of astronaut exposure, however, consistently underestimate measurements onboard ISS when these albedo particles are neglected. Recent measurements by instruments on ISS (AMS, PAMELA, and SEDA-AP) hint that there are high energy protons and electrons which are not being modeled and that may contribute to radiation exposure on ISS. Estimates of the contribution of radiation exposure on ISS due to albedo particles, along with open questions, will be discussed.

  15. ISS External Payload Accommodations (EXPRESS pallet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Harvey L.

    1996-01-01

    The 'expedite the process of experiments to Space Station' (EXPRESS) pallet which is attached to the DS3 truss segment of the International Space Station (ISS) via the payload attach structure is illustrated. The EXPRESS pallet constitutes the primary ISS external payload carrier. Each pallet carries six robotically replaceable payload adapters which are capable of containing one or more payloads. The following aspects of the EXPRESS program and pallet are illustrated: the concept drivers; the physical integration; the installation and in-orbit replacement; and the experiments to be implemented. The program status is summarized.

  16. Photography of Coral Reefs from ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the uses of photography from the International Space Station (ISS) in studying Earth's coral reefs. The photographs include reefs in various oceans . The photographs have uses for science in assisting NASA mapping initiatives, distribution worldwide through ReefBase, and by biologist in the field.

  17. Innovative Sea Surface Monitoring with GNSS-Reflectometry aboard ISS: Overview and Recent Results from GEROS-ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Bandeiras, J.;

    GEROS-ISS (GEROS hereafter) stands for GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station. It is a scientific experiment, proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA)in 2011 for installation aboard the ISS. The main focus of GEROS is the dedicated use...... of signals from the currently available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for remote sensing of the System Earth with focus to Climate Change characterisation. The GEROS mission idea and the current status are briefly reviewed....

  18. Use of the International Space Station as an Exercise Physiology Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is now in its prime utilization phase with great opportunity to use the ISS as a lab. With respect to exercise physiology there is considerable research opportunity. Crew members exercise for up to 2 hours per day using a cycle ergometer, treadmill, and advanced resistive exercise device (ARED). There are several ongoing exercise research studies by NASA, ESA and CSA. These include studies related to evaluation of new exercise prescriptions (SPRINT), evaluation of aerobic capacity (VO2max), biomechanics (Treadmill Kinematics), energy expenditure during spaceflight (Energy), evaluation of cartilage (Cartilage), and evaluation of cardiovascular health (Vascular). Examples of how ISS is used for exercise physiology research will be presented.

  19. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; hide

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  20. Astrobee: A New Platform for Free-Flying Robotics on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trey; Barlow, Jonathan; Bualat, Maria; Fong, Terrence; Provencher, Christopher; Sanchez, Hugo; Smith, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    The Astrobees are next-generation free-flying robots that will operate in the interior of the International Space Station (ISS). Their primary purpose is to provide a flexible platform for research on zero-g freeflying robotics, with the ability to carry a wide variety of future research payloads and guest science software. They will also serve utility functions: as free-flying cameras to record video of astronaut activities, and as mobile sensor platforms to conduct surveys of the ISS. The Astrobee system includes two robots, a docking station, and a ground data system (GDS). It is developed by the Human Exploration Telerobotics 2 (HET-2) Project, which began in Oct. 2014, and will deliver the Astrobees for launch to ISS in 2017. This paper covers selected aspects of the Astrobee design, focusing on capabilities relevant to potential users of the platform.

  1. International Space Station United States Orbital Segment Oxygen Generation System On-Orbit Operational Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Robert J.; Howe, John, Jr.; Kulp, Galen W.; VanKeuren, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) United States Orbital Segment (USOS) Oxygen Generation System (OGS) was originally intended to be installed in ISS Node 3. The OGS rack delivery was accelerated, and it was launched to ISS in July of 2006 and installed in the US Laboratory Module. Various modification kits were installed to provide its interfaces, and the OGS was first activated in July of 2007 for 15 hours, In October of 2007 it was again activated for 76 hours with varied production rates and day/night cycling. Operational time in each instance was limited by the quantity of feedwater in a Payload Water Reservoir (PWR) bag. Feedwater will be provided by PWR bag until the USOS Water Recovery System (WRS) is delivered to SS in fall of 2008. This paper will discuss operating experience and characteristics of the OGS, as well as operational issues and their resolution.

  2. International Space Station Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries Approached 3-Year On-Orbit Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Penni J.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station's (ISS) electric power system (EPS) employs nickel-hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries as part of its power system to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged, providing station power, during eclipse. The batteries are designed to operate at a maximum 35-percent depth of discharge during normal operation. Thirty-eight individual pressure vessel Ni-H2 battery cells are series-connected and packaged in an orbital replacement unit (ORU), and two ORUs are series-connected, using a total of 76 cells, to form one battery. When the ISS is in its assembly-complete form, the electrical power system will have a total of 24 batteries (48 ORUs) on-orbit. The ISS is the first application for low-Earth-orbit cycling of this quantity of series-connected cells.

  3. Successful Space Flight of High-Speed InGaAs Photodiode Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Abhay; Prasad, Narasimha; Datta, Shubbashish

    2017-01-01

    Photonic systems are required for several space applications, including satellite communication links and lidar sensors. Although such systems are ubiquitous in terrestrial applications, deployment in space requires the constituent components to withstand extreme environmental conditions, including wide operating temperature range, mechanical shock and vibration, and radiation. These conditions are significantly more stringent than alternative standards, namely Bellcore GR-468 and MIL-STD 883, which may be satisfied by typical, commercially available, photonic components. Furthermore, it is very difficult to simultaneously reproduce several aspects of space environment, including exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR), in a laboratory. Therefore, it is necessary to operate key photonic components in space to achieve a technology readiness level of 7 and beyond. Accordingly, the International Space Station (ISS) provides an invaluable test bed for qualifying such components for space missions. We present a fiber-pigtailed photodiode module, having a -3 dB bandwidth of 16.8 GHz, that survived 18 months on the ISS as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) 7 mission. This module was launched by NASA Langley Research Center on November 16, 2009 on the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-129), as part of their lidar transceiver components. While orbiting on the ISS in a passive experiment container, the photodiode module was exposed to extreme temperature cycling from -157 degrees Celsius to +121 degrees Celsius 16 times a day, proton radiation from the inner Van Allen belt at the South Atlantic Anomaly, and galactic cosmic rays. The module returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle Endeavor (STS-134) on June 1, 2011 for further characterization. The post flight test of the photodiode module, shown in Fig. 1a, demonstrates no change in the module's performance, thus proving its survivability during launch and in space environment.

  4. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  5. In the footsteps of Columbus European missions to the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, John

    2016-01-01

    The European Space Agency has a long history of cooperating with NASA in human spaceflight, having developed the Spacelab module for carrying in the payload bay of the Space Shuttle. This book tells of the development of ESA’s Columbus microgravity science laboratory of the International Space Station and the European astronauts who work in it. From the beginning, ESA has been in close collaboration on the ISS, making a significant contribution to the station hardware. Special focus is given to Columbus and Copula as well as station resupply using the ATV. Each mission is also examined individually, creating a comprehensive picture of ESA's crucial involvement over the years. Extensive use of color photographs from NASA and ESA to depict the experiments carried out, the phases of the ISS construction, and the personal stories of the astronauts in space highlights the crucial European work on human spaceflight.

  6. Electrochemical Disinfection Feasibility Assessment Materials Evaluation for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Branelle; Shindo, David; Montgomery, Eliza

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program recognizes the risk of microbial contamination in their potable and non-potable water sources. The end of the Space Shuttle Program limited the ability to send up shock kits of biocides in the event of an outbreak. Currently, the United States Orbital Segment water system relies primarily on iodine to mitigate contamination concerns, which has been successful in remediating the small cases of contamination documented. However, a secondary method of disinfection is a necessary investment for future space flight. Over the past year, NASA Johnson Space Center has investigated the development of electrochemically generated systems for use on the ISS. These systems include: hydrogen peroxide, ozone, sodium hypochlorite, and peracetic acid. To use these biocides on deployed water systems, NASA must understand of the effect these biocides have on current ISS materials prior to proceeding forward with possible on-orbit applications. This paper will discuss the material testing that was conducted to assess the effects of the biocides on current ISS materials.

  7. Development of a Portable Oxygen Monitoring System for Operations in the International Space Station Airlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John

    2009-01-01

    NASA is currently engaged in an activity to facilitate effective operations on the International Space Station (ISS) after the Space Shuttle retires. Currently, the Space Shuttle delivers crew and cargo to and from ISS. The Space Shuttle provides the only large scale method of hardware return from ISS to the ground. Hardware that needs to be periodically repaired, refurbished, or recalibrated must come back from ISS on the Shuttle. One example of NASA flight hardware that is used on ISS and refurbished on the ground is the Compound Specific Analyzer for Oxygen (CSA-O2). The CSA-O2 is an electrochemical sensor that is used on orbit for about 12 months (depending on Shuttle launch schedules), then returned to the ground for sensor replacement. The shuttle is scheduled to retire in 2010, and the ISS is scheduled to operate until 2016. NASA needs a hand held sensor that measures oxygen in the ISS environment and has a 5-10 year service life. After conducting a survey of oxygen sensor systems, NASA selected a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer (TDLAS) as the method of measurement that best addresses the needs for ISS. These systems are compact, meet ISS accuracy requirements, and because they use spectroscopic techniques, the sensors are not consumed or altered after making a measurement. TDLAS systems have service life ratings of 5-10 years, based on the lifetime of the laser. NASA is engaged in modifying a commercially available sensor, the Vaisala OMT 355, for the ISS application. The Vaisala OMT 355 requires three significant modifications to meet ISS needs. The commercial sensor uses a wall mount power supply, and the ISS sensor needs to use a rechargeable battery as its source of power. The commercial sensor has a pressure correction setpoint: the sensor can be adjusted to operate at reduced pressure conditions, but the sensor does not self correct dynamically and automatically. The ISS sensor needs to operate in the airlock, and make accurate

  8. The International Active Learning Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2015-01-01

    For me, internationalisation is a learning outcome, not just about international mobility. It is about ensuring that students actively participate in a learning experience that prepares them for a world that is more and more internationally and interculturally connected - that both Danish and non......-Danish students receive the basic international and intercultural skills and knowledge they need in current society....

  9. MAXI: all-sky observation from the International Space Station

    CERN Document Server

    Mihara, Tatehiro; Matsuoka, Masaru; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Negoro, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Since 2009 it has been scanning the whole sky in every 92 minutes with ISS rotation. Due to high particle background at high latitude regions the carbon anodes of three GSC cameras were broken. We limit the GSC operation to low-latitude region around equator. GSC is suffering a double high background from Gamma-ray altimeter of Soyuz spacecraft. MAXI issued the 37-month catalog with 500 sources above ~0.6 mCrab in 4-10 keV. MAXI issued 133 to Astronomers Telegram and 44 to Gammaray burst Coordinated Network so far. One GSC camera had a small gas leak by a micrometeorite. Since 2013 June, the 1.4 atm Xe pressure went down to 0.6 atm in 2014 May 23. By gradually reducing the high voltage we keep using the proportional counter. SSC with X-ray CCD has detected diffuse soft X-rays in the all-sky, such as Cygnus super bubble and north polar spur, as well as it found a fast soft X-ray nova MAXI J0158-744. Although we operate C...

  10. Light Microsopy Module, International Space Station Premier Automated Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.; Brown, Daniel F.; O'Toole, Martin A.; Foster, William M.; Motil, Brian J.; Abbot-Hearn, Amber Ashley; Atherton, Arthur Johnson; Beltram, Alexander; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) was launched to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009 and began science operations in 2010. It continues to support Physical and Biological scientific research on ISS. During 2015, if all goes as planned, five experiments will be completed: [1] Advanced Colloids Experiments with a manual sample base -3 (ACE-M-3), [2] the Advanced Colloids Experiment with a Heated Base -1 (ACE-H-1), [3] (ACE-H-2), [4] the Advanced Plant Experiment -03 (APEX-03), and [5] the Microchannel Diffusion Experiment (MDE). Preliminary results, along with an overview of present and future LMM capabilities will be presented; this includes details on the planned data imaging processing and storage system, along with the confocal upgrade to the core microscope. [1] New York University: Paul Chaikin, Andrew Hollingsworth, and Stefano Sacanna, [2] University of Pennsylvania: Arjun Yodh and Matthew Gratale, [3] a consortium of universities from the State of Kentucky working through the Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR): Stuart Williams, Gerold Willing, Hemali Rathnayake, et al., [4] from the University of Florida and CASIS: Anna-Lisa Paul and Rob Ferl, and [5] from the Methodist Hospital Research Institute from CASIS: Alessandro Grattoni and Giancarlo Canavese.

  11. Observed Coupling Between the International Space Station PCU Plasma and a FPMU Langmuir Probe Facilitated by the Geomagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William; Koontz, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical charging of the International Space Station (ISS) is a matter of serious concern resulting from the possibility of vehicle arcing and electrical shock hazard to crew during extravehicular activity (EVA). A Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) was developed and integrated into ISS in order to control the ISS floating potential, thereby, minimize vehicle charging and associated hazards. One of the principle factors affecting ISS electrical charging is the ionosphere plasma state (i.e., electron temperature and density). To support ISS electrical charging studies a Floating Potential Monitoring Unit (FPMU) is also integrated into ISS in order to measure the ionosphere properties using Langmuir probes (LP). The FPMU was located on the Starboard side of ISS. The PCU is located near the center of ISS with its plasma exhaust pointed to port. From its integration on ISS in 2006 through November of 2009, the FPMU data exhibited nominal characteristics during PCU operation. On November 21, 2009 the FPMU was relocated from the Starboard location to a new Port location. After relocation significant enhanced noise was observed in both the LP current-voltage sweeps and the derived electron temperature data. The enhanced noise only occurred when the PCU was in discharge and at unique and repeatable locations of the ISS orbit. The cause of this enhanced noise was investigated. It was found that there is coupling occurring between the PCU plasma and the FPMU LP. In this paper we shall 1) present the on-orbit data and the presence of enhanced noise, 2) demonstrate that the coupling of the PCU plasma and the FPMU measurements is geomagnetically organized, 3) show that coupling of the PCU plasma and the FPMU is primarily due to and driven by particle-wave interaction and 4) show that the ionosphere conditions are adequate for Alfven waves to be generated by the PCU plasma.

  12. Automating Stowage Operations for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Russell; Rabideau, Gregg; Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young

    2013-01-01

    A challenge for any proposed mission is to demonstrate convincingly that the proposed systems will in fact deliver the science promised. Funding agencies and mission design personnel are becoming ever more skeptical of the abstractions that form the basis of the current state of the practice with respect to approximating science return. To address this, we have been using automated planning and scheduling technology to provide actual coverage campaigns that provide better predictive performance with respect to science return for a given mission design and set of mission objectives given implementation uncertainties. Specifically, we have applied an adaptation of ASPEN and SPICE to the Eagle-Eye domain that demonstrates the performance of the mission design with respect to coverage of science imaging targets that address climate change and disaster response. Eagle-Eye is an Earth-imaging telescope that has been proposed to fly aboard the International Space Station (ISS).

  13. The International Space Station on-orbit tester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierotti, Elizabeth; Atodaria, Jitu

    2001-02-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) program has identified specific Orbital Replaceable Units (ORUs) as candidates for on-orbit intermediate level maintenance. Performing intermediate level maintenance on-orbit will allow sparing at the Shop Replaceable Unit (SRU) level rather than the ORU level. This will minimize cost and volume to transport replaceable units to and from orbit, minimize stowage on-orbit, and maximize on-orbit spare availability that will in turn minimize system downtime. To accomplish on-orbit intermediate level maintenance, additional requirements for fault isolation and confidence testing must be implemented. Test equipment used on-ground to perform fault isolation and acceptance testing is large and heavy. Consideration for weight and volume is an important factor for any test equipment that is to be transported, used and stowed on-orbit. This paper summarizes a phased approach to testing electronic hardware on-orbit with minimal additional weight and volume for the test equipment. .

  14. Research on International Space Station - Building a Partnership for the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindl, Heinz; Scheimann, Jens; Shirakawa, Masaki; Suvorov, Vadim; Uri, John J.

    2004-01-01

    As its name implies, the International Space Station is a platform where the research programs of 16 partner nations are conducted. While each partner pursues its own research priorities, cooperation and coordination of the various national and agency research programs occurs at multiple levels, from strategic through tactical planning to experiment operations. Since 2000, a significant number of experiments have been carried out in the Russian ISS utilization program, which consists of the Russian national program of fundamental and applied research in 11 research areas and international cooperative programs and contract activities. The US research program began with simple payloads in 2000 and was significantly expanded with the addition of the US Laboratory module Destiny in 2001, and its outfitting with seven research racks to date. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) have made use of international cooperative arrangements with both the US and Russia to implement a variety of investigations in diverse research areas, and in the case of ESA included the flights of crewmembers to ISS as part of Soyuz Science Missions. In the future, ESA and JAXA will add their own research modules, Columbus and Kibo, respectively, to expand research capabilities both inside and outside ISS. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident and the temporary grounding of the Space Shuttle fleet, all ISS logistics have relied on Russian Progress and Sopz vehicles. The Russian national program has continued as before the Shuttle accident, as have international cooperative programs and contract activities, both during long-duration expeditions and visiting taxi missions. In several instances, Russian international cooperative activities with JAXA and ESA have also involved the use of US facilities and crewmembers in successful truly multilateral efforts. The US research program was rapidly refocused after the

  15. Modeling the Spin Motor Current of the International Space Station's Control Moment Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Miguel A.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) attitude control is provided by two means: The Russian Segment uses thrusters and the U.S. Segment uses double-gimbaled control moment gyroscopes (CMG). CMGs are used as momentum exchange devices, providing non propulsive attitude control for the vehicle. The CMGs are very important for the ISS program because, first, they save propellant - which needs to be transferred to the Station in special cargo vehicles - and, second, they provide the microgravity environment on the Station - which is necessary for scientific experiments planned for the ISS mission. Since 2002, when one of the CMG on the ISS failed, all CMGs are closely monitored. High gimbal rates, vibration spikes, unusual variations of spin motor current and bearing temperatures are of great concern, since these parameters are the CMG health indicators. The telemetry analysis of these and some other CMG parameters is used to determine constrains and make changes to the CMGs operation on board. These CMG limitations, in turn, may limit the ISS attitude control capabilities and may be critical to ISS operation. Therefore, it is important to know whether the CMG parameter is nominal or out of family, and why. The goal of this project is to analyze an important CMG parameter - spin motor current. Some operational decisions are made now based on the spin motor current signatures. The spin motor current depends on gimbal rates, ISS rates, and spin bearing friction. The spin bearing friction in turn depends on the bearing temperatures, wheel rates, normal load - which is a function of gimbal and wheel rates - lubrication, etc. The first task of this project is to create a spin motor current mathematical model based on CMG dynamics model and the current knowledge on bearing friction in microgravity.

  16. Modeling the Spin Motor Current of the International Space Station's Control Moment Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Miguel A.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) attitude control is provided by two means: The Russian Segment uses thrusters and the U.S. Segment uses double-gimbaled control moment gyroscopes (CMG). CMGs are used as momentum exchange devices, providing non propulsive attitude control for the vehicle. The CMGs are very important for the ISS program because, first, they save propellant - which needs to be transferred to the Station in special cargo vehicles - and, second, they provide the microgravity environment on the Station - which is necessary for scientific experiments planned for the ISS mission. Since 2002, when one of the CMG on the ISS failed, all CMGs are closely monitored. High gimbal rates, vibration spikes, unusual variations of spin motor current and bearing temperatures are of great concern, since these parameters are the CMG health indicators. The telemetry analysis of these and some other CMG parameters is used to determine constrains and make changes to the CMGs operation on board. These CMG limitations, in turn, may limit the ISS attitude control capabilities and may be critical to ISS operation. Therefore, it is important to know whether the CMG parameter is nominal or out of family, and why. The goal of this project is to analyze an important CMG parameter - spin motor current. Some operational decisions are made now based on the spin motor current signatures. The spin motor current depends on gimbal rates, ISS rates, and spin bearing friction. The spin bearing friction in turn depends on the bearing temperatures, wheel rates, normal load - which is a function of gimbal and wheel rates - lubrication, etc. The first task of this project is to create a spin motor current mathematical model based on CMG dynamics model and the current knowledge on bearing friction in microgravity.

  17. Nickel-Hydrogen Battery Cell Life Test Program Update for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas B.

    2000-01-01

    NASA and Boeing North America are responsible for constructing the electrical power system for the International Space Station (ISS), which circles the Earth every 90 minutes in a low Earth orbit (LEO). For approximately 55 minutes of this orbit, the ISS is in sunlight, and for the remaining 35 minutes, the ISS is in the Earth s shadow (eclipse). The electrical power system must not only provide power during the sunlight portion by means of the solar arrays, but also store energy for use during the eclipse. Nickel-hydrogen (Ni/H2) battery cells were selected as the energy storage systems for ISS. Each battery Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) comprises 38 individual series-connected Ni/H2 battery cells, and there are 48 battery ORU s on the ISS. On the basis of a limited Ni/H2 LEO data base on life and performance characteristics, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field commenced testing through two test programs: one in-house and one at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, Indiana.

  18. The Deployment of a Commercial RGA to the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowitt, Matt; Hawk, Doug; Rossetti, Dino; Woronowicz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) uses ammonia as a medium for heat transport in its Active Thermal Control System. Over time, there have been intermittent component failures and leaks in the ammonia cooling loop. One specific challenge in dealing with an ammonia leak on the exterior of the ISS is determining the exact location from which ammonia is escaping before addressing the problem. Together, researchers and engineers from Stanford Research Systems (SRS) and NASA's Johnson Space Center and Goddard Space Flight Center have adapted a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) residual gas analyzer (RGA) for repackaging and operation outside the ISS as a core component in the ISS Robotic External Leak Locator, a technology demonstration payload currently scheduled for launch during 2015. The packaging and adaptation of the COTS RGA to the Leak Locator will be discussed. The collaborative process of adapting a commercial instrument for spaceflight will also be reviewed, including the build-­-up of the flight units. Measurements from a full-­-scale thermal vacuum test will also be presented demonstrating the absolute and directional sensitivity of the RGA.

  19. The International Space Station: New Capabilities for Disaster Response and Humanitarian Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has been acquiring Earth imagery since 2000, primarily in the form of astronaut photography using hand-held film and digital cameras. Recent additions of more sophisticated multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems have expanded both the capabilities and relevance of the ISS to basic research, applied Earth science, and development of new sensor technologies. Funding opportunities established within NASA, the US National Laboratories and the international partner organizations have generated instrument proposals that will further enhance these capabilities. With both internal and external sensor location options, and the availability of both automated and human-tended operational environments, the ISS is a unique platform within the constellation of Earth-observing satellites currently in orbit. Current progress and challenges associated with development of ISS terrestrial remote sensing capabilities in the area of disaster response and support of relief efforts will be presented. The ISS orbit allows for imaging of the Earth's surface at varying times of day and night, providing opportunities for data collection over approximately 95% of the populated regions. These opportunities are distinct from--yet augment--the data collection windows for the majority of sensors on polar-orbiting satellites. In addition to this potential for "being in the right place at the right time" to collect critical information on an evolving disaster, the presence of a human crew also allows for immediate recognition of an event from orbit, notification of relevant organizations on the ground, and re-tasking of available remote sensing resources to support humanitarian response and relief efforts. Challenges to establishing an integrated response capability are both technical (coordination of sensor targeting and data collection, rapid downlink and posting of data to a central accessible hub, timely generation and distribution of relevant data

  20. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  1. Dexterous Operations on ISS and Future Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, P. Andrew; Read, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The Mobile Servicing System (MSS) is a complex robotics system used extensively in the assembly, inspection and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Its external components are comprised of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the Mobile Base System (MBS), and the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM or "Dextre"). Dexterous robotic maintenance operations on the ISS are now enabled with the launch and deployment of "Dextre" in March 2008 and the recently completed commissioning to support nominal operations. These operations include allowing for maintenance of the MSS capability to be executed uniquely via robotic means. Examples are detailed inspection and the removal and replacement of On-orbit Replaceable Units (ORUs) located outside the pressurized volume of the ISS, alleviating astronauts from performing numerous risky and time-consuming extra-vehicular activities (EVAs). In light of the proposed extension of the ISS to 2020 and beyond, "Dextre" can also be seen as a resource for the support and conduct of external ISS experiments. "Dextre" can be utilized to move experiments around ISS, as test bed for more elaborate experiments outside the original design intent, and as a unique platform for external experiments. This paper summarizes the status of "Dextre", its planned use, and future potential for dexterous operations on the ISS. Lessons learned from the planning and execution of SPDM commissioning are first introduced, and significant differences between "Dextre" and SSRMS operations are discussed. The use of ground control as the predominant method for operating "Dextre" is highlighted, along with the benefits and challenges that this poses. Finally, the latest plans for dexterous operations on ISS are summarized including visiting vehicle unloading, nominal maintenance, and operations of a more experimental flavor.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of Biosafety Level 2 Opportunistic Pathogens Isolated from the Environmental Surfaces of the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checinska Sielaff, Aleksandra; Singh, Nitin K; Allen, Jonathan E; Thissen, James; Jaing, Crystal; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-12-29

    The draft genome sequences of 20 biosafety level 2 (BSL-2) opportunistic pathogens isolated from the environmental surfaces of the International Space Station (ISS) were presented. These genomic sequences will help in understanding the influence of microgravity on the pathogenicity and virulence of these strains when compared with Earth strains.

  3. Functions and Statistics: International Space Station: Up to Us. NASA Connect: Program 5 in the 2000-2001 Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    This teaching unit is designed to help students in grades 5 to 8 explore the concepts of functions and statistics in the context of the International Space Station (ISS). The units in the series have been developed to enhance and enrich mathematics, science, and technology education and to accommodate different teaching and learning styles. Each…

  4. International Space Station Science Research Accomplishments During the Assembly Years: An Analysis of Results from 2000-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Thumm, Tracy; Crespo-Richey, Jessica; Baumann, David; Rhatigan, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes research accomplishments on the International Space Station (ISS) through the first 15 Expeditions. When research programs for early Expeditions were established, five administrative organizations were executing research on ISS: bioastronautics research, fundamental space biology, physical science, space product development, and space flight. The Vision for Space Exploration led to changes in NASA's administrative structures, so we have grouped experiments topically by scientific themes human research for exploration, physical and biological sciences, technology development, observing the Earth, and educating and inspiring the next generation even when these do not correspond to the administrative structure at the time at which they were completed. The research organizations at the time at which the experiments flew are preserved in the appendix of this document. These investigations on the ISS have laid the groundwork for research planning for Expeditions to come. Humans performing scientific investigations on ISS serve as a model for the goals of future Exploration missions. The success of a wide variety of investigations is an important hallmark of early research on ISS. Of the investigations summarized here, some are completed with results released, some are completed with preliminary results, and some remain ongoing.

  5. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project -2006 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2006-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. This paper presents a status of the coolant stability over the past year as well as results from destructive analyses of hardware removed from the on-orbit system and the current approach to coolant remediation.

  6. Evaluating Bone Loss in ISS Astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D; Spector, Elisabeth R; Johnston, Smith L; Tarver, William J

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the Medical Assessment Test used at the NASA Johnson Space Center to evaluate whether prolonged exposure to spaceflight increases the risk for premature osteoporosis in International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. The DXA scans of crewmembers' BMD during the first decade of the ISS existence showed precipitous declines in BMD for the hip and spine after the typical 6-mo missions. However, a concern exists that skeletal integrity cannot be sufficiently assessed solely by DXA measurement of BMD. Consequently, use of relatively new research technologies is being proposed to NASA for risk surveillance and to enhance long-term management of skeletal health in long-duration astronauts. Sibonga JD, Spector ER, Johnston SL, Tarver WJ. Evaluating bone loss in ISS astronauts.

  7. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Japanese Medaka Sampled Onboard the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Yasuhiko; Yasuda, Takako; Watanabe-Asaka, Tomomi; Oda, Shoji; Mantoku, Akiko; Takeyama, Kazuhiro; Chatani, Masahiro; Kudo, Akira; Uchida, Satoko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Tanigaki, Fumiaki; Shirakawa, Masaki; Fujisawa, Koichi; Hamamoto, Yoshihiko; Terai, Shuji; Mitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS). We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment ("Medaka Osteoclast") was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish) were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4) and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation-reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114), and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation.

  8. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis of Adult Japanese Medaka Sampled Onboard the International Space Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Murata

    Full Text Available To understand how humans adapt to the space environment, many experiments can be conducted on astronauts as they work aboard the Space Shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS. We also need animal experiments that can apply to human models and help prevent or solve the health issues we face in space travel. The Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes is a suitable model fish for studying space adaptation as evidenced by adults of the species having mated successfully in space during 15 days of flight during the second International Microgravity Laboratory mission in 1994. The eggs laid by the fish developed normally and hatched as juveniles in space. In 2012, another space experiment ("Medaka Osteoclast" was conducted. Six-week-old male and female Japanese medaka (Cab strain osteoblast transgenic fish were maintained in the Aquatic Habitat system for two months in the ISS. Fish of the same strain and age were used as the ground controls. Six fish were fixed with paraformaldehyde or kept in RNA stabilization reagent (n = 4 and dissected for tissue sampling after being returned to the ground, so that several principal investigators working on the project could share samples. Histology indicated no significant changes except in the ovary. However, the RNA-seq analysis of 5345 genes from six tissues revealed highly tissue-specific space responsiveness after a two-month stay in the ISS. Similar responsiveness was observed among the brain and eye, ovary and testis, and the liver and intestine. Among these six tissues, the intestine showed the highest space response with 10 genes categorized as oxidation-reduction processes (gene ontogeny term GO:0055114, and the expression levels of choriogenin precursor genes were suppressed in the ovary. Eleven genes including klf9, klf13, odc1, hsp70 and hif3a were upregulated in more than four of the tissues examined, thus suggesting common immunoregulatory and stress responses during space adaptation.

  9. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  10. A ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Network for Continuous Sound and Noise Level Monitoring on the ISS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acoustic survey is now performed using hand-held devices once every two months on the international space station (ISS). It takes quite a lot of precious crew time...

  11. A ZigBee-Based Wireless Sensor Network for Continuous Sound and Noise Level Monitoring on the ISS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Space Station (ISS) needs to keep quiet to maintain a healthy and habitable environment in which crewmembers can perform long-term and...

  12. ISS Additive Manufacturing Facility for On-Demand Fabrication in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Made in Space has completed a preliminary design review of the Additive Manufacturing Facility. During the first half of Phase 1, the design went through conceptual...

  13. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  14. Bubble-detector measurements in the Russian segment of the International Space Station during 2009-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M B; Khulapko, S; Andrews, H R; Arkhangelsky, V; Ing, H; Lewis, B J; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I; Shurshakov, V

    2015-01-01

    Measurements using bubble detectors have been performed in order to characterise the neutron dose and energy spectrum in the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS). Experiments using bubble dosemeters and a bubble-detector spectrometer, a set of six detectors with different energy thresholds that is used to determine the neutron spectrum, were performed during the ISS-22 (2009) to ISS-33 (2012) missions. The spectrometric measurements are in good agreement with earlier data, exhibiting expected features of the neutron energy spectrum in space. Experiments using a hydrogenous radiation shield show that the neutron dose can be reduced by shielding, with a reduction similar to that determined in earlier measurements using bubble detectors. The bubble-detector data are compared with measurements performed on the ISS using other instruments and are correlated with potential influencing factors such as the ISS altitude and the solar activity. Surprisingly, these influences do not seem to have a strong effect on the neutron dose or energy spectrum inside the ISS.

  15. Using MapReduce to Improve the Power Generation of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, William R., II

    The International Space Station (ISS) spends approximately 98% of its time in orbits that experience Earth eclipse. Since the station's solar arrays produce no power when in Earth's shadow, the total power generated decreases substantially, lowering the power budget available to experimental payloads. Therefore, increasing the power output during these eclipsed orbits would be of great benefit to the space station's scientific endeavors. The ISS's current solar array configuration tracks the Sun throughout each orbit, keeping each of its 16 solar panels perpendicular to the Sun at all times. While this is the optimal orientation for solar panels with unobstructed views of the Sun, the space station's solar arrays experience shadowing from the spacecraft's structure as well as from the other solar panels. Deviating from the Sun-tracking scheme at strategic points in certain orbits can provide an increase in power output. The goal of this research was to provide a programmatic solution that increases the power generation capabilities of the ISS in orbits experiencing Earth-eclipse without requiring any physical modifications to the space station's structure. To achieve this goal, a simulator was developed to model the ISS-Earth-Sun environment and calculate the power output of the station's solar arrays based on each panel's orientation and shadowing. Many combinations of array configurations were analyzed, taking into account the physical constraints of the gimbals responsible for rotating the solar panels. The power output of the ISS was improved for the subset of Earth-eclipsed orbits that experience a high degree of shadowing from the station's structure, resulting in an average energy increase of 1.08 kWh per orbit. The power gains were achieved by quickly rotating the solar arrays through the points in each orbit that experienced the highest degree of shadowing.

  16. Battery Resistance Analysis of ISS Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newstadt, Gregory E.

    2004-01-01

    The computer package, SPACE (Systems Power Analysis for Capability Evaluation) was created by the members of LT-9D to perform power analysis and modeling of the electrical power system on the International Space Station (ISS). Written in FORTRAN, SPACE comprises thousands of lines of code and has been used profficiently in analyzing missions to the ISS. LT-9D has also used its expertise recently to investigate the batteries onboard the Hubble telescope. During the summer of 2004, I worked with the members of LT-9D, under the care of Dave McKissock. Solar energy will power the ISS through eight solar arrays when the ISS is completed, although only two arrays are currently connected. During the majority of the periods of sunlight, the solar arrays provide enough energy for the ISS. However, rechargeable Nickel-Hydrogen batteries are used during eclipse periods or at other times when the solar arrays cannot be used (at docking for example, when the arrays are turned so that they will not be damaged by the Shuttle). Thirty-eight battery cells are connected in series, which make up an ORU (Orbital Replacement Unit). An ISS "battery" is composed of two ORUs. a great deal of time into finding the best way to represent them in SPACE. During my internship, I investigated the resistance of the ISS batteries. SPACE constructs plots of battery charge and discharge voltages vs. time using a constant current. To accommodate for a time-varying current, the voltages are adjusted using the formula, DeltaV = DeltaI * Cell Resistance. To enhance our model of the battery resistance, my research concentrated on several topics: investigating the resistance of a qualification unit battery (using data gathered by LORAL), comparing the resistance of the qualification unit to SPACE, looking at the internal resistance and wiring resistance, and examining the impact of possible recommended changes to SPACE. The ISS batteries have been found to be very difficult to model, and LT-9D has

  17. Detection of DNA Damage by Space Radiation in Human Fibroblasts Flown on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Gaza, Ramona; Stoffle, Nicholas; Wang, Huichen; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Stodieck, Louis; hide

    2017-01-01

    Space radiation consists of energetic charged particles of varying charges and energies. Exposure of astronauts to space radiation on future long duration missions to Mars, or missions back to the Moon, is expected to result in deleterious consequences such as cancer and comprised central nervous system (CNS) functions. Space radiation can also cause mutation in microorganisms, and potentially influence the evolution of life in space. Measurement of the space radiation environment has been conducted since the very beginning of the space program. Compared to the quantification of the space radiation environment using physical detectors, reports on the direct measurement of biological consequences of space radiation exposure have been limited, due primarily to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the environment. Most of the biological assays fail to detect the radiation effects at acute doses that are lower than 5 centiSieverts. In a recent study, we flew cultured confluent human fibroblasts in mostly G1 phase of the cell cycle to the International Space Station (ISS). The cells were fixed in space after arriving on the ISS for 3 and 14 days, respectively. The fixed cells were later returned to the ground and subsequently stained with the gamma-H2AX (Histone family, member X) antibody that are commonly used as a marker for DNA damage, particularly DNA double strand breaks, induced by both low-and high-linear energy transfer radiation. In our present study, the gamma-H2AX (Histone family, member X) foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. To confirm that some large track-like foci were from space radiation exposure, we also exposed, on the ground, the same type of cells to both low-and high-linear energy transfer protons, and high-linear energy transfer Fe ions. In addition, we exposed the cells to low dose rate gamma rays, in order to rule out the possibility that the large track-like foci can be induced by chronic low-linear energy transfer

  18. International Space Station as Analog of Interplanetary Transit Vehicle For Biomedical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Astronaut missions lasting up to six months aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have much in common with interplanetary flights, especially the outbound, Earth-to-Mars transit portion of a Mars mission. Utilization of ISS and other appropriate platforms to prepare for crewed expeditions to planetary destinations including Mars has been the work of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) since 2005. HRP is charged specifically to understand and reduced the risks to astronaut health and performance in space exploration missions: everything HRP does and has done is directly related to that responsibility. Two major categories of human research have capitalized on ISS capabilities. The first category centers on the biomedical aspects of long-duration exposure to spaceflight factors, including prolonged weightlessness, radiation exposure, isolation and confinement, and actual risk to life and limb. These studies contribute to astronaut safety, health and efficiency on any long-duration missions, whether in low Earth orbit (LEO) or beyond. Qualitatively, weightlessness is weightlessness, whether in LEO or en route to Mars. The HRP sponsors investigations into losses in muscle and bone integrity, cardiovascular function, sensory-motor capability, immune capacity and psychosocial health, and development and demonstration of appropriate treatments and preventative measures. The second category includes studies that are focused on planetary expeditions beyond LEO. For these, ISS offers a high fidelity analog to investigate the combined effects of spaceflight factors (described above) plus the isolation and autonomy associated with simulated increasing distance from Earth. Investigations address crew cohesion, performance and workload, and mission control performance. The behavioral health and performance and space human factors aspects of planetary missions dominate this category. Work has already begun on a new investigation in this category which will examine the

  19. PREFACE: International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Andreas; Egry, Ivan

    2011-12-01

    ISPS is the major international scientific forum for researchers in physics utilizing the space environment, in particular microgravity. It is intended to inspire and encourage cross-cutting discussions between different scientific communities working in the same environment. Contributions discussing results of experiments carried out on drop towers, parabolic aircraft flights, sounding rockets, unmanned recoverable capsules and, last but not least, the International Space Station ISS, are the backbone of this conference series, complemented by preparatory ground-based work, both experimentally and theoretically. The first International Symposium on Physical Sciences in Space (ISPS) sponsored by the International Microgravity Strategic Planning Group (IMSPG) took place in 2000 in Sorrento, Italy. IMSPG seeks to coordinate the planning of space for research in physical sciences by space agencies worldwide. AEB (Brazil), ASI (Italy), CNES (France), CSA (Canada), DLR (Germany), ESA (Europe), JAXA (Japan), NASA (USA), NSAU (Ukraine) and RSA (Russia) are members, and CNSA (China) and ISRO (India) are also invited to join IMSPG meetings. ISPS-4 was the fourth symposium in that series, following ISPS-2 organized by CSA in 2004 in Toronto, Canada, and ISPS-3 organized in 2007 by JAXA in Nara, Japan. ISPS-4 was jointly organized by ESA and DLR on behalf of the IMSPG and was held in Bonn from 11-15 July 2011. 230 participants from 17 different countries attended ISPS-4. Recent microgravity experiments were presented, analysed, and set in context to results from Earth bound experiments in 16 plenary and 68 topical talks. Lively discussions continued during two dedicated poster sessions and at the exhibition booths of space industry and research centers with new flight hardware on display. The oral presentations at ISPS4 were selected exclusively on the basis of scientific merit, as evidenced through the submitted abstracts. The selection was performed by the International

  20. Infrared Heater Used in Qualification Testing of International Space Station Radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemke, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Two heat rejection radiator systems for the International Space Station (ISS) have undergone thermal vacuum qualification testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Plum Brook Station, Sandusky, Ohio. The testing was performed in the Space Power Facility (SPF), the largest thermal vacuum chamber in the world. The heat rejection system radiator was tested first; it removes heat from the ISS crew living quarters. The second system tested was the photovoltaic radiator (PVR), which rejects heat from the ISS photovoltaic arrays and the electrical power-conditioning equipment. The testing included thermal cycling, hot- and cold-soaked deployments, thermal gradient deployments, verification of the onboard heater controls, and for the PVR, thermal performance tests with ammonia flow. Both radiator systems are orbital replacement units for ease of replacement on the ISS. One key to the success of these tests was the performance of the infrared heater system. It was used in conjunction with a gaseous-nitrogen-cooled cryoshroud in the SPF vacuum chamber to achieve the required thermal vacuum conditions for the qualification tests. The heater, which was designed specifically for these tests, was highly successful and easily met the test requirements. This report discusses the heating requirements, the heater design features, the design approach, and the mathematical basis of the design.

  1. New color images of transient luminous events from dedicated observations on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Yoav; Rubanenko, Lior; Mezuman, Keren; Elhalel, Gal; Pariente, Meidad; Glickman-Pariente, Maya; Ziv, Baruch; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Inoue, Tomohiro

    2013-09-01

    During July-August 2011, Expedition 28/29 JAXA astronaut Satoshi Furukawa conducted TLE observations from the International Space Station in conjunction with the “Cosmic Shore” program produced by NHK. An EMCCD normal video-rate color TV camera was used to conduct directed observations from the Earth-pointing Cupola module. The target selection was based on the methodology developed for the MEIDEX sprite campaign on board the space shuttle Columbia in January 2003 (Ziv et al., 2004). The observation geometry was pre-determined and uploaded daily to the ISS with pointing options to limb, oblique or nadir, based on the predicted location of the storm with regards to the ISS. The pointing angle was rotated in real-time according to visual eyesight by the astronaut. We present results of 10 confirmed TLEs: 8 sprites, 1 sprite halo and 1 gigantic jet, out of displaced form the lightning light and (b) from the oblique view of a sprite halo, enable the calculation of dimensions and volumes occupied by these TLEs. Since time stamping on the ISS images was accurate within 1 s, matching with ELF and WWLLN data for the parent lightning location is limited. Nevertheless, the results prove that the ISS is an ideal platform for lightning and TLE observations, and careful operational procedures greatly enhance the value of observation time.

  2. Space Law and International Claimant Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, D. C.; Trach, N.; Mardon, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The presentation undergoes an exploration of all current frameworks and ideas regarding the distribution of space among humanity. It concludes with the suggestion of a separate international council to amalgamate human effort for sustainable travel.

  3. Lessons Learned in Robotic Support of the Maintenance and Repair of the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, J.; Lucier, L.

    With the completion of International Space Station (ISS) assembly, planning and daily activities are transitioning from construction to maintenance and repair. Previously, the ISS programme has relied heavily on the Space Shuttle programme to aid these tasks due to its ability to deliver equipment on relatively short notice together with crewmembers recently trained on execution of specific tasks. In 2007, a study was performed to identify and develop preliminary removal and replacement (R&R) timelines for those Orbital Replaceable Units (ORUs) that would cause a loss of redundancy to ISS power or life support capability [1]. This study identified 14 such ORUs and the team was challenged to demonstrate that the various Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) tasks required to repair or replace these units could be performed without the support of the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS or Canadarm2) due to potential lack of redundancy in the robotic system due to either the failed ORU or safe-guards put in place for its R&R. This philosophy was recently challenged upon failure of an external cooling loop pump, the repair of which relied heavily on Canadarm2 support. This paper will discuss the challenges associated with the planning and execution of R&R tasks onboard the ISS post Space Shuttle retirement, focusing on robotics support and using the 2010 failure of an external cooling loop pump module as context. A timeline of events from failure to recovery will be laid out, highlighting lessons learned. Specific challenges associated with this activity included developing products to complete three EVAs in two weeks, preparing crewmembers to perform a specific task for which they had not been trained, and the late decision to rely heavily on use of Canadarm2 for its completion. Attention will also be given to the change in philosophy regarding use of the SSRMS as it applies to the continued maintenance and repair of the International Space Station.

  4. Predicting Air Quality at First Ingress into Vehicles Visiting the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romoser, Amelia A; Scully, Robert R; Limero, Thomas F; De Vera, Vanessa; Cheng, Patti F; Hand, Jennifer J; James, John T; Ryder, Valerie E

    2017-02-01

    NASA regularly performs ground-based offgas tests (OGTs), which allow prediction of accumulated volatile pollutant concentrations at first entry on orbit, on whole modules and vehicles scheduled to connect to the International Space Station (ISS). These data guide crew safety operations and allow for estimation of ISS air revitalization systems impact from additional pollutant load. Since volatiles released from vehicle, module, and payload materials can affect crew health and performance, prediction of first ingress air quality is important. To assess whether toxicological risk is typically over or underpredicted, OGT and first ingress samples from 10 vehicles and modules were compared. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The rate of pollutant accumulation was extrapolated over time. Ratios of analytical values and Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations were used to predict total toxicity values (T-values) at first entry. Results were also compared by compound. Frequently overpredicted was 2-butanone (9/10), whereas propanal (6/10) and ethanol (8/10) were typically underpredicted, but T-values were not substantially affected. Ingress sample collection delay (estimated by octafluoropropane introduced from ISS atmosphere) and T-value prediction accuracy correlated well (R2 = 0.9008), highlighting the importance of immediate air sample collection and accounting for ISS air dilution. Importantly, T-value predictions were conservative 70% of the time. Results also suggest that T-values can be normalized to octafluoropropane levels to adjust for ISS air dilution at first ingress. Finally, OGT and ingress sampling has allowed small leaks in vehicle fluid systems to be recognized and addressed.Romoser AA, Scully RR, Limero TF, De Vera V, Cheng PF, Hand JJ, James JT, Ryder VE. Predicting air quality at first ingress into vehicles visiting the International Space Station. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(2):104-113.

  5. Dedicated Slosh Dynamics Experiment on ISS using SPHERES (Advanced Space Operations in CR) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Synchronized Position, Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites – VERTIGO (SPHERES-VERTIGO) developed by the Massachusetts Institute of...

  6. Thermal Design and Analysis of an ISS Science Payload - SAGE III on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin, A. K.; Amundsen, Ruth M.; Davis, Warren T.; Carrillo, Laurie Y.

    2017-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be launched in the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2017 and mounted to an external stowage platform on the International Space Station (ISS) to begin its three-year mission. The SAGE III thermal team at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) worked with ISS thermal engineers to ensure that SAGE III, as an ISS payload, would meet requirements specific to ISS and the Dragon vehicle. This document presents an overview of the SAGE III thermal design and analysis efforts, focusing on aspects that are relevant for future ISS payload developers. This includes development of detailed and reduced Thermal Desktop (TD) models integrated with the ISS and launch vehicle models, definition of analysis cases necessary to verify thermal requirements considering all mission phases from launch through installation and operation on-orbit, and challenges associated with thermal hardware selection including heaters, multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets, and thermal tapes.

  7. Who's Who in Space: The International Space Year Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the reference book "Who's Who in Space: The International Space Year Edition" and provides a lesson plan for grades five and six to teach library media skills. Objectives, instructional roles, activity and procedures, evaluation, and follow-up are described. (EAM)

  8. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, S. E.; Lehman, J. R.; Frazier, N. C.

    2016-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a research facility developed under a cooperative research agreement between NASA and ESA for materials science investigations on the International Space Station (ISS). MSRR was launched on STS-128 in August 2009 and currently resides in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module. Since that time, MSRR has logged more than 1400 hours of operating time. The MSRR accommodates advanced investigations in the microgravity environment on the ISS for basic materials science research in areas such as solidification of metals and alloys. The purpose is to advance the scientific understanding of materials processing as affected by microgravity and to gain insight into the physical behavior of materials processing. MSRR allows for the study of a variety of materials, including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses. Materials science research benefits from the microgravity environment of space, where the researcher can better isolate chemical and thermal properties of materials from the effects of gravity. With this knowledge, reliable predictions can be made about the conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials. MSRR is a highly automated facility with a modular design capable of supporting multiple types of investigations. The NASA-provided Rack Support Subsystem provides services (power, thermal control, vacuum access, and command and data handling) to the ESA-developed Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) that accommodates interchangeable Furnace Inserts (FI). Two ESA-developed FIs are presently available on the ISS: the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) and the Solidification and Quenching Furnace (SQF). Sample Cartridge Assemblies (SCAs), each containing one or more material samples, are installed in the FI by the crew and can be processed at temperatures up to 1400degC. ESA continues to develop samples with 14 planned for launch and processing in the near future. Additionally NASA has begun developing SCAs to

  9. Development of a System to Assess Biofilm Formation in the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Charles, E.; Summers, Silvia M.; Roman, Monserrate C.

    1998-01-01

    The design requirements for the water treatment systems aboard the International Space Station (ISS) include and require recycling as much water as possible and to treat the water for intentional contamination (hygiene, urine distillate, condensate, etc.) and unintentional contamination in the form of biofilm and microorganisms. As part of an effort to address the latter issue, a biofilm system was developed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to simulate the conditions aboard ISS with respect to materials, flow rates, water conditions, water content, and handling. The tubing, connectors, sensors, and fabricated parts included in the system were chosen for specific attributes as applicable to emulate an orbital water treatment system. This paper addresses the design and development process of the system, as well as the configuration, operation, and system procedures for maintenance to assure that the simulation is valid for the representative data as it applies to water degradation and biofilm/microbial growth. Preliminary biofilm/microbial results are also presented.

  10. GNSS-R Altimetry Performance Analysis for the GEROS Experiment on Board the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Adriano; Park, Hyuk; Sekulic, Ivan; Rius, Juan Manuel

    2017-07-06

    The GEROS-ISS (GNSS rEflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard International Space Station) is an innovative experiment for climate research, proposed in 2011 within a call of the European Space Agency (ESA). This proposal was the only one selected for further studies by ESA out of ~25 ones that were submitted. In this work, the instrument performance for the near-nadir altimetry (GNSS-R) mode is assessed, including the effects of multi-path in the ISS structure, the electromagnetic-bias, and the orbital height decay. In the absence of ionospheric scintillations, the altimetry rms error is 20 dB at equatorial regions, mainly after sunset, which will seriously degrade the altimetry and the scatterometry performances of the instrument.

  11. Assessment of lnternational Space Station (ISS) Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Runaway (TR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graika, Jason

    2017-01-01

    This task was developed in the wake of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner lithium-ion battery TR incidents of January 2013 and January 2014. The Electrical Power Technical Discipline Team supported the Dreamliner investigations and has followed up by applying lessons learned to conduct an introspective evaluation of NASA's risk of similar incidents in its own lithium-ion battery deployments. This activity has demonstrated that historically NASA, like Boeing and others in the aerospace industry, has emphasized the prevention of TR in a single cell within the battery (e.g., cell screening) but has not considered TR severity-reducing measures in the event of a single-cell TR event. center dotIn the recent update of the battery safety standard (JSC 20793) to address this paradigm shift, the NASA community included requirements for assessing TR severity and identifying simple, low-cost severity reduction measures. This task will serve as a pathfinder for meeting those requirements and will specifically look at a number of different lithium-ion batteries currently in the design pipeline within the ISS Program batteries that, should they fail in a Dreamliner-like incident, could result in catastrophic consequences. This test is an abuse test to understand the heat transfer properties of the cell and ORU in thermal runaway, with radiant barriers in place in a flight like test in on orbit conditions. This includes studying the heat flow and distribution in the ORU. This data will be used to validate the thermal runaway analysis. This test does not cover the ambient pressure case. center dotThere is no pass/ fail criteria for this test.

  12. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember... SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  13. Microbiological Characterization and Concerns of the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Wieland, Paul O.

    2005-01-01

    Since January 1999, the chemical the International Space Station Thermal Control System (IATCS) and microbial state of (ISS) Internal Active fluid has been monitored by analysis of samples returned to Earth. Key chemical parameters have changed over time, including a drop in pH from the specified 9.5 +/- 0.5 ta = 58.4, an increase in the level of total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and dissolved nickel (Ni) in the fluid, and a decrease in the phosphate (PO,) level. In addition, silver (AS) ion levels in the fluid decreased rapidly as Ag deposited on internal metallic surfaces of the system. The lack of available Ag ions coupled with changes in the fluid chemistry has resulted in a favorable environment for microbial growth. Counts of heterotrophic bacteria have increased from less than 10 colony-forming units (CFUs)/l00 mL to l0(exp 6) to l0(exp 7) CFUs/100 mL. The increase of the microbial population is of concern because uncontrolled microbiological growth in the IATCS can contribute to deterioration in the performance of critical components within the system and potentially impact human health if opportunistic pathogens become established and escape into the cabin atmosphere. Micro-organisms can potentially degrade the coolant chemistry; attach to surfaces and form biofilms; lead to biofouling of filters, tubing, and pumps; decrease flow rates; reduce heat transfer; initiate and accelerate corrosion; and enhance mineral scale formation. The micro- biological data from the ISS IATCS fluid, and approaches to addressing the concerns, are summarized in this paper.

  14. Possible Responsibility of Silicone Materials for Degradation of the CO2 Removal System in the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Mario; Sharma, Hemant; Borrok, David; Ren, Mingua; Pannell, Keith

    2011-01-01

    From data concerning the degradation of the CO2 removal system in the International Space Station (ISS) two important features were apparent: (1) The atmosphere within the International Space Station (ISS) contained many organic compounds including alcohols, halocarbons, aldehydes, esters, and ketones, inter alia. Various cyclosiloxanes Dn, hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3) and its higher homologs (D4) and (D5) are also present presumably due to offgassing. (2) Screens within the zeolite-containing canisters, used for the removal of CO2, exhibited partial clogging due to zeolitic fragments (dust) along with "sticky" residues, that in toto significantly reduced the efficiency of the CO2 removal process. Samples of the ISS fresh zeolite, used zeolite, filter clogging zeolite particles and residual polymeric materials were examined using, inter alia, NMR, EM and HRSEM. These data were compared to equivalent samples obtained prior and subsequent to Dn polymerization experiments performed in our laboratories using the clean ISS zeolite samples as catalyst. Polysiloxane materials produced were essentially equivalent in the two cases and the EM images demonstrate a remarkable similarity between the ISS filter zeolite samples and the post-polymerization zeolite material from our experiments. In this regard even the changes in the Al/Si ratio from the virgin zeolite material to the filter samples and the post-polymerization laboratory samples samples is noteworthy. This research was supported by a contract from the Boeing Company

  15. Characterization of Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Air and Surfaces of the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Benjamin P; Blachowicz, Adriana; Palmer, Jonathan M; Romsdahl, Jillian; Huttenlocher, Anna; Wang, Clay C C; Keller, Nancy P; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2016-01-01

    One mission of the Microbial Observatory Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS) is to examine the traits and diversity of fungal isolates to gain a better understanding of how fungi may adapt to microgravity environments and how this may affect interactions with humans in a closed habitat. Here, we report an initial characterization of two isolates, ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4, of Aspergillus fumigatus collected from the ISS and a comparison to the experimentally established clinical isolates Af293 and CEA10. Whole-genome sequencing of ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 showed 54,960 and 52,129 single nucleotide polymorphisms, respectively, compared to Af293, which is consistent with observed genetic heterogeneity among sequenced A. fumigatus isolates from diverse clinical and environmental sources. Assessment of in vitro growth characteristics, secondary metabolite production, and susceptibility to chemical stresses revealed no outstanding differences between ISS and clinical strains that would suggest special adaptation to life aboard the ISS. Virulence assessment in a neutrophil-deficient larval zebrafish model of invasive aspergillosis revealed that both ISSFT-021 and IF1SW-F4 were significantly more lethal than Af293 and CEA10. Taken together, these genomic, in vitro, and in vivo analyses of two A. fumigatus strains isolated from the ISS provide a benchmark for future investigations of these strains and for continuing research on specific microbial isolates from manned space environments. IMPORTANCE As durations of manned space missions increase, it is imperative to understand the long-term consequence of microbial exposure on human health in a closed human habitat. To date, studies aimed at bacterial and fungal contamination of space vessels have highlighted species compositions biased toward hardy, persistent organisms capable of withstanding harsh conditions. In the current study, we assessed traits of two independent Aspergillus fumigatus strains isolated

  16. Microstructure Analysis of Directionally Solidified Aluminum Alloy Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angart, Samuel Gilbert

    This thesis entails a detailed microstructure analysis of directionally solidified (DS) Al-7Si alloys processed in microgravity aboard the International Space Station and similar duplicate ground based experiments at Cleveland State University. In recent years, the European Space Agency (ESA) has conducted experiments on alloy solidification in microgravity. NASA and ESA have collaborated for three DS experiments with Al- 7 wt. % Si alloy, aboard the International Space Station (ISS) denoted as MICAST6, MICAST7 and MICAST12. The first two experiments were processed on the ISS in 2009 and 2010. MICAST12 was processed aboard the ISS in the spring of 2014; the resulting experimental results of MICAST12 are not discussed in this thesis. The primary goal of the thesis was to understand the effect of convection in primary dendrite arm spacings (PDAS) and radial macrosegregation within DS aluminum alloys. The MICAST experiments were processed with various solidification speeds and thermal gradients to produce alloy with differences in microstructure features. PDAS and radial macrosegregation were measured in the solidified ingot that developed during the transition from one solidification speed to another. To represent PDAS in DS alloy in the presence of no convection, the Hunt-Lu model was used to represent diffusion-controlled growth. By sectioning cross-sections throughout the entire length of solidified samples, PDAS was measured and calculated. The ground-based (1-g) experiments done at Cleveland State University CSU were also analyzed for comparison to the ISS experiments (0-g). During steady state in the microgravity environment, there was a reasonable agreement between the measured and calculated PDAS. In ground-based experiments, transverse sections exhibited obvious radial macrosegregation caused by thermosolutal convection resulting in a non-agreement with the Hunt-Lu model. Using a combination of image processing techniques and Electron Microprobe Analysis

  17. Communication Delays Impact Behavior and Performance Aboard the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintz, Natalie M; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    Long-duration space explorations will involve significant communication delays that will likely impact individual and team outcomes. However, the extent of these impacts and the appropriate countermeasures for their mitigation remain largely unknown. This study examined the feasibility and acceptability of utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a research platform to assess the impacts of communication delays on individual and team behavior and performance. For this study, 3 ISS crewmembers and 18 mission support personnel performed 10 tasks identified by subject matter experts as meeting study criteria, 6 tasks without a delay in communication and 4 tasks with a 50-s one-way delay. Assessments of individual and team performance and behavior were obtained after each task. The completion rate of posttask assessments and postmission interviews with astronauts were used to assess feasibility and acceptability. Posttask assessments were completed in 100% of the instances where a crewmember was assigned to a task and in 83% where mission support personnel were involved. Qualitative analysis of postmission interviews found the study to be important and acceptable to the three astronauts. However, they also reported the study was limited in the number and type of tasks included, limitations in survey questions, and preference for open-ended to scaled items. Although the ISS is considered a high fidelity analog for long-duration space missions, future studies of communication delays on the ISS must take into considerations the constraints imposed by mission operations and subject preferences and priorities. Kintz KM, Palinkas LA. Communication delays impact behavior and performance aboard the International Space Station. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 87(11):940-946.

  18. The International Space Station: A Unique Platform for Remote Sensing of Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, William L.; Evans, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    Assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) was completed in 2012, and the station is now fully operational as a platform for remote sensing instruments tasked with collecting scientific data about the Earth system. Remote sensing systems are mounted inside the ISS, primarily in the U.S. Destiny Module's Window Observational Research Facility (WORF), or are located on the outside of the ISS on any of several attachment points. While NASA and other space agencies have had remote sensing systems orbiting Earth and collecting publicly available data since the early 1970s, these sensors are carried onboard free-flying, unmanned satellites. These satellites are traditionally placed into Sun-synchronous polar orbits that allow imaging of the entire surface of the Earth to be repeated with approximately the same Sun illumination (typically local solar noon) over specific areas, with set revisit times that allow uniform data to be taken over long time periods and enable straightforward analysis of change over time. In contrast, the ISS has an inclined, Sun-asynchronous orbit (the solar illumination for data collections over any location changes as the orbit precesses) that carries it over locations on the Earth between approximately 52degnorth and 52deg south latitudes (figure 1). The ISS is also unique among NASA orbital platforms in that it has a human crew. The presence of a crew provides options not available to robotic sensors and platforms, such as the ability to collect unscheduled data of an unfolding event using handheld digital cameras as part of the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) facility and on-the-fly assessment of environmental conditions, such as cloud cover, to determine whether conditions are favorable for data collection. The crew can also swap out internal sensor systems installed in the WORF as needed. The ISS orbit covers more than 90 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth, allowing the ISS to pass over the same ground locations at

  19. Observation of radiation environment in the International Space Station in 2012–March 2013 by Liulin-5 particle telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semkova Jordanka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since June 2007 the Liulin-5 charged particle telescope, located in the spherical tissue-equivalent phantom of the MATROSHKA-R project onboard the International Space Station (ISS, has been making measurements of the local energetic particle radiation environment. From 27 December 2011 to 09 March 2013 measurements were conducted in and outside the phantom located in the MIM1 module of the ISS. In this paper Liulin-5 dose rates, due to galactic cosmic rays and South Atlantic Anomaly trapped protons, measured during that period are presented. Particularly, dose rates and particle fluxes for the radiation characteristics in the phantom during solar energetic particle (SEP events occurring in March and May 2012 are discussed. Liulin-5 SEP observations are compared with other ISS data, GOES proton fluxes as well as with solar energetic particle measurements obtained onboard the Mir space station during previous solar cycles.

  20. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the One EVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more

  1. Multilateral Biomedical Data Sharing in the One-year Joint US-Russian Mission on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Haven, C.; Johnson-Throop, K.; Van Baalen, M.; McFather, J.

    2014-01-01

    The One Year Mission (1YM) by two astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS), starting in March 2015, offers a unique opportunity to expand multilateral collaboration by sharing data and resources among the partner agencies in preparation for planned space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Agreements and protocols will be established for the collection, distribution, analysis and reporting of both research and clinical data. Data will be shared between the agencies sponsoring the investigators, and between the research and clinical medicine communities where common interests are identified. The assignment of only two astronauts, one Russian and the other American, to the 1YM necessitated creativity in bilateral efforts to maximize the biomedical return from the opportunity. Addition of Canadian, European and Japanese investigations make the effort even more integrative. There will be three types of investigations: joint, cross-participation and data-exchange. The joint investigations have US and Russian coprincipal investigators, and the data acquired will be their common responsibility. The other two types must develop data sharing agreements and processes specific to their needs. A multilateral panel of ISS partner space agencies will develop policies for international exchange of scientific information to meet their science objectives and priorities. They will promote archiving of space flight data and will inform each other and the scientific community at large about the results obtained from space life sciences studies. Integration tasks for the 1YM are based on current experience from the ISS and previous efforts on the Russian space station Mir. Closer coordination between international partners requires more common approaches to remove barriers to multilateral resource utilization on the ISS. Greater integration in implementation should increase utilization efficiency to benefit all participants in spaceflight human research. This

  2. Space-time framework of internal measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuno, Koichiro

    1998-07-01

    Measurement internal to material bodies is ubiquitous. The internal observer has its own local space-time framework that enables the observer to distinguish, even to a slightest degree, those material bodies fallen into that framework. Internal measurement proceeding among the internal observers come to negotiate a construction of more encompassing local framework of space and time. The construction takes place through friction among the internal observers. Emergent phenomena are related to an occurrence of enlarging the local space-time framework through the frictional negotiation among the material participants serving as the internal observers. Unless such a negotiation is obtained, the internal observers would have to move around in the local space-time frameworks of their own that are mutually incommensurable. Enhancement of material organization as demonstrated in biological evolutionary processes manifests an inexhaustible negotiation for enlarging the local space-time framework available to the internal observers. In contrast, Newtonian space-time framework, that remains absolute and all encompassing, is an asymptote at which no further emergent phenomena could be expected. It is thus ironical to expect something to emerge within the framework of Newtonian absolute space and time. Instead of being a complex and organized configuration of interaction to appear within the global space-time framework, emergent phenomena are a consequence of negotiation among the local space-time frameworks available to internal measurement. Most indicative of the negotiation of local space-time frameworks is emergence of a conscious self grounding upon the reflexive nature of perceptions, that is, a self-consciousness in short, that certainly goes beyond the Kantian transcendental subject. Accordingly, a synthetic discourse on securing consciousness upon the ground of self-consciousness can be developed, though linguistic exposition of consciousness upon self

  3. 3D Position and Velocity Vector Computations of Objects Jettisoned from the International Space Station Using Close-Range Photogrammetry Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanyan, Valeri; Oshle, Edward; Adamo, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Measurement of the jettisoned object departure trajectory and velocity vector in the International Space Station (ISS) reference frame is vitally important for prompt evaluation of the object s imminent orbit. We report on the first successful application of photogrammetric analysis of the ISS imagery for the prompt computation of the jettisoned object s position and velocity vectors. As post-EVA analyses examples, we present the Floating Potential Probe (FPP) and the Russian "Orlan" Space Suit jettisons, as well as the near-real-time (provided in several hours after the separation) computations of the Video Stanchion Support Assembly Flight Support Assembly (VSSA-FSA) and Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS) jettisons during the US astronauts space-walk. Standard close-range photogrammetry analysis was used during this EVA to analyze two on-board camera image sequences down-linked from the ISS. In this approach the ISS camera orientations were computed from known coordinates of several reference points on the ISS hardware. Then the position of the jettisoned object for each time-frame was computed from its image in each frame of the video-clips. In another, "quick-look" approach used in near-real time, orientation of the cameras was computed from their position (from the ISS CAD model) and operational data (pan and tilt) then location of the jettisoned object was calculated only for several frames of the two synchronized movies. Keywords: Photogrammetry, International Space Station, jettisons, image analysis.

  4. Detection of DNA damage by space radiation in human fibroblasts flown on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Gaza, Ramona; Stoffle, Nicholas; Wang, Huichen; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2017-02-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation. In this study, cultured human fibroblasts were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells were kept at 37°C in space for 14 days before being fixed for analysis of DNA damage with the γ-H2AX assay. The 3-dimensional γ-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed several foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern only in the Day 14 flight samples. To confirm that the foci data from the flight study was actually induced from space radiation exposure, cultured human fibroblasts were exposed to low dose rate γ rays at 37°C. Cells exposed to chronic γ rays showed similar foci size distribution in comparison to the non-exposed controls. The cells were also exposed to low- and high-LET protons, and high-LET Fe ions on the ground. Our results suggest that in G1 human fibroblasts under the normal culture condition, only a small fraction of large size foci can be attributed to high-LET radiation in space.

  5. Detection of DNA damage by space radiation in human fibroblasts flown on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Gaza, Ramona; Stoffle, Nicholas; Wang, Huichen; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2017-02-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation. In this study, cultured human fibroblasts were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells were kept at 37 °C in space for 14 days before being fixed for analysis of DNA damage with the γ-H2AX assay. The 3-dimensional γ-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed several foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern only in the Day 14 flight samples. To confirm that the foci data from the flight study was actually induced from space radiation exposure, cultured human fibroblasts were exposed to low dose rate γ rays at 37 °C. Cells exposed to chronic γ rays showed similar foci size distribution in comparison to the non-exposed controls. The cells were also exposed to low- and high-LET protons, and high-LET Fe ions on the ground. Our results suggest that in G1 human fibroblasts under the normal culture condition, only a small fraction of large size foci can be attributed to high-LET radiation in space.

  6. Physical Vacuum Properties and Internal Space Dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbatenko, M V

    2004-01-01

    The paper addresses matrix spaces, whose properties and dynamics are determined by Dirac matrices in Riemannian spaces of different dimension and signature. Among all Dirac matrix systems there are such ones, which nontrivial scalar, vector or other tensors cannot be made up from. These Dirac matrix systems are associated with the vacuum state of the matrix space. The simplest vacuum system realization can be ensured using the orthonormal basis in the internal matrix space. This vacuum system realization is not however unique. The case of 7-dimensional Riemannian space of signature 7(-) is considered in detail. In this case two basically different vacuum system realizations are possible: (1) with using the orthonormal basis; (2) with using the oblique-angled basis, whose base vectors coincide with the simple roots of algebra E_{8}. Considerations are presented, from which it follows that the least-dimension space bearing on physics is the Riemannian 11-dimensional space of signature 1(-)& 10(+). The consi...

  7. Concept for a Lunar Transfer Vehicle for Small Satellite Delivery to the Moon from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John; Alkalai, Leon

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has developed as a very capable center for scientific research in Lower Earth Orbit. An additional potential of the ISS that has not thus far been exploited, is the use of this orbiting plat-form for the assembly and launching of vehicles that could be sent to more distant destinations. This paper reports the results of a recent study that looked at an architecture and conceptual flight system design for a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) that could be delivered to the ISS in segments, assembled, loaded with payload and launched from the ISS with the objective of delivering multiple small and micro satellites to lunar orbit. The design of the LTV was optimized for low cost and high payload capability, as well as ease of assembly. The resulting design would use solar electric propulsion (SEP) to carry a total payload mass of 250 kg from the ISS to a 100 km lunar orbit. A preliminary concept of operations was developed considering currently available delivery options and ISS capabili-ties that should prove flexible enough to accommodate a variety of payloads and missions. This paper will present an overview of the study, including key trades, mission and flight system design, and notional operational concept.

  8. MAXI: all-sky observation from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihara, Tatehiro; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Negoro, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamauchi, Makoto

    2014-07-01

    Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) is mounted on the International Space Station (ISS). Since 2009 it has been scanning the whole sky in every 92 minutes with ISS rotation. Due to high particle background at high latitude regions the carbon anodes of three GSC cameras were broken. We limit the GSC operation to low-latitude region around equator. GSC is suffering a double high background from Gamma-ray altimeter of Soyuz spacecraft. MAXI issued the 37-month catalog with 500 sources above ~0.6 mCrab in 4-10 keV. MAXI issued 133 to Astronomers Telegram and 44 to Gammaray burst Coordinated Network so far. One GSC camera had a small gas leak by a micrometeorite. Since 2013 June, the 1.4 atm Xe pressure went down to 0.6 atm in 2014 May 23. By gradually reducing the high voltage we keep using the proportional counter. SSC with X-ray CCD has detected diffuse soft X-rays in the all-sky, such as Cygnus super bubble and north polar spur, as well as it found a fast soft X-ray nova MAXI J0158-744. Although we operate CCD with charge-injection, the energy resolution is degrading. In the 4.5 years of operation MAXI discovered 6 of 12 new black holes. The long-term behaviors of these sources can be classified into two types of the outbursts, 3 Fast Rise Exponential Decay (FRED) and 3 Fast Rise and Flat Top (FRFT). The cause of types is still unknown.

  9. International Space Station USOS Potable Water Dispenser Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Laura A.; Barreda, Jose L.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment currently provides potable water dispensing capability for crewmember food and beverage rehydration. All ISS crewmembers rehydrate Russian and U.S. style food packages from this location. A new United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) is under development. This unit will provide additional potable water dispensing capability to support an onorbit crew of six. The PWD is designed to provide incremental quantities of hot and ambient temperature potable water to U.S. style food packages. It will receive iodinated water from the Fuel Cell Water Bus in the U.S. Laboratory element. The unit will provide potable-quality water, including active removal of biocidal iodine prior to dispensing. A heater assembly contained within the unit will be able to supply up to 2.0 liters of hot water (65 to 93oC) every thirty minutes. This quantity will allow three to four crewmembers to rehydrate their food and beverages from this location during a single meal. The unit is designed to remain functional for up to ten years with replacement of limited life items such as filters. It will be the size of two stacked Shuttle Middeck lockers (approximately the size of two small suitcases) and integrated into a science payload rack in the U.S. Laboratory element. Providing potable-quality water at the proper temperature for food and beverage reconstitution is critical to maintaining crew health and well-being. The numerous engineering challenges as well as human factors and safety considerations during the concept, design, and prototyping are outlined in this paper.

  10. Robonaut 2 - Building a Robot on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diftler, Myron; Badger, Julia; Joyce, Charles; Potter, Elliott; Pike, Leah

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Robonaut Project embarked on a multi-phase mission to perform technology demonstrations on-board the International Space Station (ISS), showcasing state of the art robotics technologies through the use of Robonaut 2 (R2). This phased approach implements a strategy that allows for the use of ISS as a test bed during early development to both demonstrate capability and test technology while still making advancements in the earth based laboratories for future testing and operations in space. While R2 was performing experimental trials onboard the ISS during the first phase, engineers were actively designing for Phase 2, Intra-Vehicular Activity (IVA) Mobility, that utilizes a set of zero-g climbing legs outfitted with grippers to grasp handrails and seat tracks. In addition to affixing the new climbing legs to the existing R2 torso, it became clear that upgrades to the torso to both physically accommodate the climbing legs and to expand processing power and capabilities of the robot were required. In addition to these upgrades, a new safety architecture was also implemented in order to account for the expanded capabilities of the robot. The IVA climbing legs not only needed to attach structurally to the R2 torso on ISS, but also required power and data connections that did not exist in the upper body. The climbing legs were outfitted with a blind mate adapter and coarse alignment guides for easy installation, but the upper body required extensive rewiring to accommodate the power and data connections. This was achieved by mounting a custom adapter plate to the torso and routing the additional wiring through the waist joint to connect to the new set of processors. In addition to the power and data channels, the integrated unit also required updated electronics boards, additional sensors and updated processors to accommodate a new operating system, software platform, and custom control system. In order to perform the unprecedented task of building a robot

  11. SpaceOps 2012 Plus 2: Social Tools to Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Hugh S.; Scott, David W.

    2014-01-01

    A paper written for the SpaceOps 2012 Conference (Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques) identified three innovative concepts for real time flight control communications tools based on social mechanisms: a) Console Log Tool (CoLT) - A log keeping application at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) that provides "anywhere" access, comment and notifications features similar to those found in Social Networking Systems (SNS), b) Cross-Log Communication via Social Techniques - A concept from Johnsson Space Center's (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) that would use microblogging's @tag and #tag protocols to make information/requests visible and/or discoverable in logs owned by @Destination addressees, and c) Communications Dashboard (CommDash) - A MSFC concept for a Facebook-like interface to visually integrate and manage basic console log content, text chat streams analogous to voice loops, text chat streams dedicated to particular conversations, generic and position-specific status displays/streams, and a graphically based hailing display. CoLT was deployed operationally at nearly the same time as SpaceOps 2012, the Cross- Log Communications idea is currently waiting for a champion to carry it forward, and CommDash was approved as a NASA Iinformation Technoloby (IT) Labs project. This paper discusses lessons learned from two years of actual CoLT operations, updates CommDash prototype development status, and discusses potential for using Cross-Log Communications in both MCC-H and/or POIC environments, and considers other ways for synergizing console applcations.

  12. Stability of large DC power systems using switching converters, with application to the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, B.; Gholdston, E. W.; Karimi, K.; Lee, F. C.; Rajagopalan, J.; Panov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    As space direct current (dc) power systems continue to grow in size, switching power converters are playing an ever larger role in power conditioning and control. When designing a large dc system using power converters of this type, special attention must be placed on the electrical stability of the system and of the individual loads on the system. In the design of the electric power system (EPS) of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its contractor team led by Boeing Defense & Space Group has placed a great deal of emphasis on designing for system and load stability. To achieve this goal, the team has expended considerable effort deriving a dear concept on defining system stability in both a general sense and specifically with respect to the space station. The ISS power system presents numerous challenges with respect to system stability, such as high power, complex sources and undefined loads. To complicate these issues, source and load components have been designed in parallel by three major subcontractors (Boeing, Rocketdyne, and McDonnell Douglas) with interfaces to both sources and loads being designed in different countries (Russia, Japan, Canada, Europe, etc.). These issues, coupled with the program goal of limiting costs, have proven a significant challenge to the program. As a result, the program has derived an impedance specification approach for system stability. This approach is based on the significant relationship between source and load impedances and the effect of this relationship on system stability. This approach is limited in its applicability by the theoretical and practical limits on component designs as presented by each system segment. As a result, the overall approach to system stability implemented by the ISS program consists of specific hardware requirements coupled with extensive system analysis and hardware testing. Following this approach, the ISS program plans to begin

  13. Simulation of the Interaction Between Flywheel Energy Storage and Battery Energy Storage on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouong, Long V.; Wolff, Frederic J.; Dravid, Narayan V.; Li, Ponlee

    2000-01-01

    Replacement of one module of the battery charge discharge unit (BCDU) of the International Space Station (ISS) by a flywheel energy storage unit (FESU) is under consideration. Integration of these two dissimilar systems is likely to surface difficulties in areas of system stability and fault protection. Other issues that need to be addressed include flywheel charge and discharge profiles and their effect on the ISS power system as well as filter sizing for power Ability purposes. This paper describes a SABER based simulation to study these issues.

  14. The FCF Combustion Integrated Rack: Microgravity Combustion Science Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMalley, Terence F.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2002-01-01

    The Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) is one of three facility payload racks being developed for the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF). Most microgravity combustion experiments will be performed onboard the Space Station in the Combustion Integrated Rack. Experiment-specific equipment will be installed on orbit in the CIR to customize it to perform many different scientific experiments during the ten or more years that it will operat