Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.
Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji
2016-07-13
Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.
Interbasis expansions for isotropic harmonic oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Shi-Hai, E-mail: dongsh2@yahoo.com [Departamento de Física, Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo López Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07738 (Mexico)
2012-03-12
The exact solutions of the isotropic harmonic oscillator are reviewed in Cartesian, cylindrical polar and spherical coordinates. The problem of interbasis expansions of the eigenfunctions is solved completely. The explicit expansion coefficients of the basis for given coordinates in terms of other two coordinates are presented for lower excited states. Such a property is occurred only for those degenerated states for given principal quantum number n. -- Highlights: ► Exact solutions of harmonic oscillator are reviewed in three coordinates. ► Interbasis expansions of the eigenfunctions is solved completely. ► This is occurred only for those degenerated states for given quantum number n.
Isotropic cosmic expansion and the Rubin-Ford effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fall, S.M.; Jones, B.J.T.
1976-01-01
It is shown that the Rubin-Ford data (Astrophys. J. Lett. 183:L111 (1973)), often taken as evidence for large scale anisotropic cosmic expansion, probably only reflect the inhomogeneous distribution of galaxies in the region of the sample. The data presented are consistent with isotropic expansion, an unperturbed galaxy velocity field, and hence a low density Universe. (author)
Higher gradient expansion for linear isotropic peridynamic materials
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šilhavý, Miroslav
2017-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 6 (2017), s. 1483-1493 ISSN 1081-2865 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : peridynamics * higher-grade theories * non-local elastic-material model * representation theorems for isotropic functions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1081286516637235
Higher gradient expansion for linear isotropic peridynamic materials
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šilhavý, Miroslav
2017-01-01
Roč. 22, č. 6 (2017), s. 1483-1493 ISSN 1081-2865 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : peridynamics * higher-grade theories * non-local elastic-material model * representation theorems for isotropic functions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 2.953, year: 2016 http:// journals .sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1081286516637235
Isotropic oscillator in the space of constant positive curvature. Interbasis expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akopyan, E.M.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Vinitskij, S.I.
1997-01-01
The Schroedinger equation is thoroughly analysed for the isotropic oscillator in the three-dimensional space of constant positive curvature in the spherical and cylindrical systems of coordinates. The expansion coefficients between the spherical and cylindrical bases of the oscillator are calculated. It is shown that the relevant coefficients are expressed through the generalised hypergeometric functions 4 F 3 of the unit argument or 6j Racah symbols extended over their indices to the region of real values. Limiting transitions to a free motion and flat space are considered in detail. Elliptic bases of the oscillator are constructed in the form of expansion over the spherical and cylindrical bases. The corresponding expansion coefficients are shown to obey the three-term recurrence relations expansion coefficients are shown to obey the three-term recurrence relations
Isotropic vs. anisotropic components of BAO data: a tool for model selection
Haridasu, Balakrishna S.; Luković, Vladimir V.; Vittorio, Nicola
2018-05-01
We conduct a selective analysis of the isotropic (DV) and anisotropic (AP) components of the most recent Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) data. We find that these components provide significantly different constraints and could provide strong diagnostics for model selection, also in view of more precise data to arrive. For instance, in the ΛCDM model we find a mild tension of ~ 2 σ for the Ωm estimates obtained using DV and AP separately. Considering both Ωk and w as free parameters, we find that the concordance model is in tension with the best-fit values provided by the BAO data alone at 2.2σ. We complemented the BAO data with the Supernovae Ia (SNIa) and Observational Hubble datasets to perform a joint analysis on the ΛCDM model and its standard extensions. By assuming ΛCDM scenario, we find that these data provide H0 = 69.4 ± 1.7 km/s Mpc‑1 as the best-fit value for the present expansion rate. In the kΛCDM scenario we find that the evidence for acceleration using the BAO data alone is more than ~ 5.8σ, which increases to 8.4 σ in our joint analysis.
Nazarenko, Lidiya; Khoroshun, Leonid; Müller, Wolfgang H.; Wille, Ralf
2009-02-01
In the present paper, we will illustrate the application of the method of conditional moments by constructing the algorithm for determination of the effective elastic properties of composites from the given elastic constants of the components and geometrical parameters of inclusions. A special case of two-component matrix composite with randomly distributed unidirectional spheroidal inclusions is considered. To this end it is assumed that the components of the composite show transversally isotropic symmetry of thermoelastic properties and that the axes of symmetry of the thermoelastic properties of the matrix and inclusions coincide with the coordinate axis x 3. As a numerical example a composite based on carbon inclusions and epoxide matrix is investigated. The dependencies of Young’s moduli, Poisson’s ratios and shear modulus from the concentration of inclusions and for certain values which characterize the shape of inclusions are analyzed. The results are compared and discussed in context with other theoretical predictions and experimental data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, R.D.M.
1984-01-01
A new technique for generating the isotropic and linearly anisotropic componets of elastic and discrete inelastic transfer matrices is proposed. The technique allows certain angular integrals to be expressed in terms of functions that can be computed by recursion relations or series expansions alternatively to the use of numerical quadratures. (Author) [pt
Ti-doped isotropic graphite: A promising armour material for plasma-facing components
García-Rosales, C.; López-Galilea, I.; Ordás, N.; Adelhelm, C.; Balden, M.; Pintsuk, G.; Grattarola, M.; Gualco, C.
2009-04-01
Finely dispersed Ti-doped isotropic graphites with 4 at.% Ti have been manufactured using synthetic mesophase pitch 'AR' as raw material. These new materials show a thermal conductivity at room temperature of ˜200 W/mK and flexural strength close to 100 MPa. Measurement of the total erosion yield by deuterium bombardment at ion energies and sample temperatures for which pure carbon shows maximum values, resulted in a reduction of at least a factor of 4, mainly due to dopant enrichment at the surface caused by preferential erosion of carbon. In addition, ITER relevant thermal shock loads were applied with an energetic electron beam at the JUDITH facility. The results demonstrated a significantly improved performance of Ti-doped graphite compared to pure graphite. Finally, Ti-doped graphite was successfully brazed to a CuCrZr block using a Mo interlayer. These results let assume that Ti-doped graphite can be a promising armour material for divertor plasma-facing components.
Ti-doped isotropic graphite: A promising armour material for plasma-facing components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia-Rosales, C. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo de Manuel Lardizabal, 15, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain)], E-mail: cgrosales@ceit.es; Lopez-Galilea, I.; Ordas, N. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Paseo de Manuel Lardizabal, 15, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Adelhelm, C.; Balden, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Pintsuk, G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Grattarola, M.; Gualco, C. [Ansaldo Ricerche S.p.A., I-16152 Genoa (Italy)
2009-04-30
Finely dispersed Ti-doped isotropic graphites with 4 at.% Ti have been manufactured using synthetic mesophase pitch 'AR' as raw material. These new materials show a thermal conductivity at room temperature of {approx}200 W/mK and flexural strength close to 100 MPa. Measurement of the total erosion yield by deuterium bombardment at ion energies and sample temperatures for which pure carbon shows maximum values, resulted in a reduction of at least a factor of 4, mainly due to dopant enrichment at the surface caused by preferential erosion of carbon. In addition, ITER relevant thermal shock loads were applied with an energetic electron beam at the JUDITH facility. The results demonstrated a significantly improved performance of Ti-doped graphite compared to pure graphite. Finally, Ti-doped graphite was successfully brazed to a CuCrZr block using a Mo interlayer. These results let assume that Ti-doped graphite can be a promising armour material for divertor plasma-facing components.
Ti-doped isotropic graphite: A promising armour material for plasma-facing components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Rosales, C.; Lopez-Galilea, I.; Ordas, N.; Adelhelm, C.; Balden, M.; Pintsuk, G.; Grattarola, M.; Gualco, C.
2009-01-01
Finely dispersed Ti-doped isotropic graphites with 4 at.% Ti have been manufactured using synthetic mesophase pitch 'AR' as raw material. These new materials show a thermal conductivity at room temperature of ∼200 W/mK and flexural strength close to 100 MPa. Measurement of the total erosion yield by deuterium bombardment at ion energies and sample temperatures for which pure carbon shows maximum values, resulted in a reduction of at least a factor of 4, mainly due to dopant enrichment at the surface caused by preferential erosion of carbon. In addition, ITER relevant thermal shock loads were applied with an energetic electron beam at the JUDITH facility. The results demonstrated a significantly improved performance of Ti-doped graphite compared to pure graphite. Finally, Ti-doped graphite was successfully brazed to a CuCrZr block using a Mo interlayer. These results let assume that Ti-doped graphite can be a promising armour material for divertor plasma-facing components.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiran L.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Thick-walled tubes made from isotropic and anisotropic materials are subjected to an internal pressure while the semi-analytical method is employed to investigate their elastic deformations. The contribution and novelty of this method is that it works universally for different loads, different boundary conditions, and different geometry of analyzed structures. Moreover, even when composite material is considered, the method requires no simplistic assumptions. The method uses a curvilinear tensor calculus and it works with the analytical expression of the total potential energy while the unknown displacement functions are approximated by using appropriate series expansion. Fourier and Taylor series expansion are involved into analysis in which they are tested and compared. The main potential of the proposed method is in analyses of wound composite structures when a simple description of the geometry is made in a curvilinear coordinate system while material properties are described in their inherent Cartesian coordinate system. Validations of the introduced semi-analytical method are performed by comparing results with those obtained from three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA. Calculations with Fourier series expansion show noticeable disagreement with results from the finite element model because Fourier series expansion is not able to capture the course of radial deformation. Therefore, it can be used only for rough estimations of a shape after deformation. On the other hand, the semi-analytical method with Fourier Taylor series expansion works very well for both types of material. Its predictions of deformations are reliable and widely exploitable.
Evaluations of the criterion for lateral expansion of steels for nuclear components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Susukida, H.; Satoh, M.; Fukuhara, A.
1980-01-01
The Charpy V notch impact tests were performed on Japanese made ferritic steels for nuclear components and their lateral expansions were investigated. The correlations of lateral expansion and absorbed energy with yield strength, and the correlation between lateral expansion and fracture toughness were also studied. The correlation at each lateral expansion level between absorbed energy and yield strength almost agreed with that published by the US PVRC. It was confirmed that lateral expansion could be used as a criterion for the toughness of the steels corresponding to changes in their yield strength, and that the lateral expansion criterion adopted in the ASME Code Section III was appropriate. Further, the correlation between fracture toughness and lateral expansion and that between fracture toughness and absorbed energy, were evaluated, and respective equations of correlation were proposed. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Korzeniowski Waldemar
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The basic type of rock mass reinforcement method for both preparatory and operational workings in underground metal ore mines, both in Poland and in different countries across the world, is the expansion shell or adhesive-bonded rock bolt. The article discusses results of static loading test of the expansion shell rock bolts equipped with originally developed deformable component. This component consists of two profiled rock bolt washers, two disk springs, and three guide bars. The disk spring and disk washer material differs in stiffness. The construction materials ensure that at first the springs under loading are partially compressed, and then the rock bolt washer is plastically deformed. The rock bolts tested were installed in blocks simulating a rock mass with rock compressive strength of 80 MPa. The rock bolt was loaded statically until its ultimate loading capacity was exceeded. The study presents the results obtained under laboratory conditions in the test rig allowing testing of the rock bolts at their natural size, as used in underground metal ore mines. The stress-strain/displacement characteristics of the expansion shell rock bolt with the deformable component were determined experimentally. The relationships between the geometric parameters and specific strains or displacements of the bolt rod were described, and the percentage contribution of those values in total displacements, resulting from the deformation of rock bolt support components (washer, thread and the expansion shell head displacements, were estimated. The stiffness of the yielded and stiff bolts was empirically determined, including stiffness parameters of every individual part (deformable component, steel rod. There were two phases of displacement observed during the static tension of the rock bolt which differed in their intensity.
Djebbi, Ramzi
2014-08-05
Multi-parameter inversion in anisotropic media suffers from the inherent trade-off between the anisotropic parameters, even under the acoustic assumption. Multi-component data, often acquired nowadays in ocean bottom acquisition and land data, provide additional information capable of resolving anisotropic parameters under the acoustic approximation assumption. Based on Born scattering approximation, we develop formulas capable of characterizing the radiation patterns for the acoustic pseudo-pure mode P-waves. Though commonly reserved for the elastic fields, we use displacement fields to constrain the acoustic vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) representation of the medium. Using the asymptotic Green\\'s functions and a horizontal reflector we derive the radiation patterns for perturbations in the anisotropic media. The radiation pattern for the anellipticity parameter η is identically zero for the horizontal displacement. This allows us to dedicate this component to invert for velocity and δ. Computing the traveltime sensitivity kernels based on the unwrapped phase confirms the radiation patterns observations, and provide the model wavenumber behavior of the update.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raine, D.J.
1981-01-01
This introduction to contemporary ideas in cosmology differs from other books on the 'expanding Universe' in its emphasis on physical cosmology and on the physical basis of the general theory of relativity. It is considered that the remarkable degree of isotropy, rather than the expansion, can be regarded as the central observational feature of the Universe. The various theories and ideas in 'big-bang' cosmology are discussed, providing an insight into current problems. Chapter headings are: quality of matter; expanding Universe; quality of radiation; quantity of matter; general theory of relativity; cosmological models; cosmological tests; matter and radiation; limits of isotropy; why is the Universe isotropic; singularities; evolution of structure. (U.K.)
Thermalization vs. isotropization and azimuthal fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mrowczynski, Stanislaw
2005-01-01
Hydrodynamic description requires a local thermodynamic equilibrium of the system under study but an approximate hydrodynamic behaviour is already manifested when a momentum distribution of liquid components is not of equilibrium form but merely isotropic. While the process of equilibration is relatively slow, the parton system becomes isotropic rather fast due to the plasma instabilities. Azimuthal fluctuations observed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are argued to distinguish between a fully equilibrated and only isotropic parton system produced in the collision early stage
The isotropic radio background revisited
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I–10125 Torino (Italy); Lineros, Roberto A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular – CSIC/U. Valencia, Parc Científic, calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); Taoso, Marco, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: taoso@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cédex (France)
2014-04-01
We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.
The isotropic radio background revisited
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco
2014-01-01
We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky
Ellipsoidal basis for isotropic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kallies, W.; Lukac, I.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.
1994-01-01
The solutions of the Schroedinger equation are derived for the isotropic oscillator potential in the ellipsoidal coordinate system. The explicit expression is obtained for the ellipsoidal integrals of motion through the components of the orbital moment and Demkov's tensor. The explicit form of the ellipsoidal basis is given for the lowest quantum numbers. 10 refs.; 1 tab. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gerea, C.V.
2001-06-01
Complementary to the recording of compressional (P-) waves, the observation of P-S converted waves has recently been receiving specific attention. This is mainly due to their tremendous potential as a tool for fracture and lithology characterization, imaging sediments in gas saturated rocks, and imaging shallow sediments with higher resolution than conventional P-P data. In a conventional marine seismic survey, we cannot record P-to-S converted-wave energy since the fluids cannot support shear-wave strain. Thus, to capture the converted-wave energy, we need to record it at the water-bottom casing an ocean-bottom cable (OBC). The S-waves recorded at the seabed are mainly converted from P to S (i.e., PS-waves or C-waves) at the subsurface reflectors. The most accurate way to image seismic data is pre-stack depth migration. In this thesis, I develop a numerically efficient 2.5-D true-amplitude elastic Kirchhoff pre-stack migration algorithm designed to handle OBC data gathered along a single line. All the kinematic and dynamic elastic Green's functions required in the computation of true-amplitude weight term of Kirchhoff summation, are based on the non-hyperbolic explicit approximations of P- and SV-wave travel-times in layered transversely isotropic (VTI) media. Hence, this elastic imaging algorithm is very well-suited for migration-based velocity analysis techniques, for which fast, robust and iterative pre-stack migration is desired. In this thesis, I approach also the topic of anisotropic velocity model building for elastic pre-stack time-imaging. and propose an original methodology for joint PP-PS migration-based velocity analysis (MVA) in layered VTI anisotropic media. Tests on elastic synthetic and real OBC seismic data ascertain the validity of the pre-stack migration algorithm and velocity analysis methodology. (author)
How Isotropic is the Universe?
Saadeh, Daniela; Feeney, Stephen M; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V; McEwen, Jason D
2016-09-23
A fundamental assumption in the standard model of cosmology is that the Universe is isotropic on large scales. Breaking this assumption leads to a set of solutions to Einstein's field equations, known as Bianchi cosmologies, only a subset of which have ever been tested against data. For the first time, we consider all degrees of freedom in these solutions to conduct a general test of isotropy using cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization data from Planck. For the vector mode (associated with vorticity), we obtain a limit on the anisotropic expansion of (σ_{V}/H)_{0}Universe is strongly disfavored, with odds of 121 000:1 against.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vorm, T; Bay, Niels; Wanheim, Tarras
1974-01-01
of a superimposed hydrostatic pressure on the critical surface expansion during a forging process. The critical surface expansion appears to decrease with increasing hydrostatic pressure. This may be due to the fact that the close contact between the materials necessary to obtain bonding is created by a micro...
Components of Cigarette Smoke Inhibit Expansion of Oocyte-Cumulus Comlexes from Porcine Follicles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vršanská, S.; Nagyová, Eva; Mlynarčíková, A.; Ficková, M.; Kolena, J.
2003-01-01
Roč. 52, č. 3 (2003), s. 383-387 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5045102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : porcine ovary * cigarette alkaloids * cumulus expansion Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003
Djebbi, Ramzi; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2014-01-01
Multi-parameter inversion in anisotropic media suffers from the inherent trade-off between the anisotropic parameters, even under the acoustic assumption. Multi-component data, often acquired nowadays in ocean bottom acquisition and land data
Induced piezoelectricity in isotropic biomaterial.
Zimmerman, R L
1976-01-01
Isotropic material can be made to exhibit piezoelectric effects by the application of a constant electric field. For insulators, the piezoelectric strain constant is proportional to the applied electric field and for semiconductors, an additional out-of-phase component of piezoelectricity is proportional to the electric current density in the sample. The two induced coefficients are proportional to the strain-dependent dielectric constant (depsilon/dS + epsilon) and resistivity (drho/dS - rho), respectively. The latter is more important at frequencies such that rhoepsilonomega less than 1, often the case in biopolymers.Signals from induced piezoelectricity in nature may be larger than those from true piezoelectricity. PMID:990389
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rising, M. E.; Prinja, A. K. [Univ. of New Mexico, Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)
2012-07-01
A critical neutron transport problem with random material properties is introduced. The total cross section and the average neutron multiplicity are assumed to be uncertain, characterized by the mean and variance with a log-normal distribution. The average neutron multiplicity and the total cross section are assumed to be uncorrected and the material properties for differing materials are also assumed to be uncorrected. The principal component analysis method is used to decompose the covariance matrix into eigenvalues and eigenvectors and then 'realizations' of the material properties can be computed. A simple Monte Carlo brute force sampling of the decomposed covariance matrix is employed to obtain a benchmark result for each test problem. In order to save computational time and to characterize the moments and probability density function of the multiplication factor the polynomial chaos expansion method is employed along with the stochastic collocation method. A Gauss-Hermite quadrature set is convolved into a multidimensional tensor product quadrature set and is successfully used to compute the polynomial chaos expansion coefficients of the multiplication factor. Finally, for a particular critical fuel pin assembly the appropriate number of random variables and polynomial expansion order are investigated. (authors)
Jankowska, Marzena; Kupka, Teobald; Stobiński, Leszek; Faber, Rasmus; Lacerda, Evanildo G; Sauer, Stephan P A
2016-02-05
Hartree-Fock and density functional theory with the hybrid B3LYP and general gradient KT2 exchange-correlation functionals were used for nonrelativistic and relativistic nuclear magnetic shielding calculations of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon dimers and free atoms. Relativistic corrections were calculated with the scalar and spin-orbit zeroth-order regular approximation Hamiltonian in combination with the large Slater-type basis set QZ4P as well as with the four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian using Dyall's acv4z basis sets. The relativistic corrections to the nuclear magnetic shieldings and chemical shifts are combined with nonrelativistic coupled cluster singles and doubles with noniterative triple excitations [CCSD(T)] calculations using the very large polarization-consistent basis sets aug-pcSseg-4 for He, Ne and Ar, aug-pcSseg-3 for Kr, and the AQZP basis set for Xe. For the dimers also, zero-point vibrational (ZPV) corrections are obtained at the CCSD(T) level with the same basis sets were added. Best estimates of the dimer chemical shifts are generated from these nuclear magnetic shieldings and the relative importance of electron correlation, ZPV, and relativistic corrections for the shieldings and chemical shifts is analyzed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Process for the preparation of isotropic petroleum coke
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kegler, W.H.; Huyser, M.E.
1975-01-01
A description is given of a process for preparing isotropic coke from oil residue charge. It includes blowing air into the residue until it reaches a softening temperature of around 49 to 116 deg C, the deferred coking of the residue having undergone blowing at a temperature of around 247 to 640 deg C, at a pressure between around 1.38x10 5 and 1.72x10 6 Pa, and the recovery of isotropic coke with a thermal expansion coefficient ratio under 1.5 approximately. The isotropic coke is used for preparing hexagonal graphite bars for nuclear reactor moderators [fr
Isotropic stars in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mak, M.K.; Harko, T.
2013-01-01
We present a general solution of the Einstein gravitational field equations for the static spherically symmetric gravitational interior space-time of an isotropic fluid sphere. The solution is obtained by transforming the pressure isotropy condition, a second order ordinary differential equation, into a Riccati type first order differential equation, and using a general integrability condition for the Riccati equation. This allows us to obtain an exact non-singular solution of the interior field equations for a fluid sphere, expressed in the form of infinite power series. The physical features of the solution are studied in detail numerically by cutting the infinite series expansions, and restricting our numerical analysis by taking into account only n=21 terms in the power series representations of the relevant astrophysical parameters. In the present model all physical quantities (density, pressure, speed of sound etc.) are finite at the center of the sphere. The physical behavior of the solution essentially depends on the equation of state of the dense matter at the center of the star. The stability properties of the model are also analyzed in detail for a number of central equations of state, and it is shown that it is stable with respect to the radial adiabatic perturbations. The astrophysical analysis indicates that this solution can be used as a realistic model for static general relativistic high density objects, like neutron stars. (orig.)
Isotropic oscillator: spheroidal wave functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mardoyan, L.G.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Ter-Antonyan, V.M.; Sisakyan, A.N.
1985-01-01
Solutions of the Schroedinger equation are found for an isotropic oscillator (10) in prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates. It is shown that the obtained solutions turn into spherical and cylindrical bases of the isotropic oscillator at R→0 and R→ infinity (R is the dimensional parameter entering into the definition of prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates). The explicit form is given for both prolate and oblate basis of the isotropic oscillator for the lowest quantum states
Low-temperature thermal expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collings, E.W.
1986-01-01
This chapter discusses the thermal expansion of insulators and metals. Harmonicity and anharmonicity in thermal expansion are examined. The electronic, magnetic, an other contributions to low temperature thermal expansion are analyzed. The thermodynamics of the Debye isotropic continuum, the lattice-dynamical approach, and the thermal expansion of metals are discussed. Relative linear expansion at low temperatures is reviewed and further calculations of the electronic thermal expansion coefficient are given. Thermal expansions are given for Cu, Al and Ti. Phenomenologic thermodynamic relationships are also discussed
A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation
Stovas, A.
2012-05-09
The relation between vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI) requires solving a quartic polynomial equation, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of the perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for a small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Winai Wangpimool
2016-12-01
Full Text Available At present, Para rubber is an economical crop which provides a high priced product and is in demand by global markets. Consequently, the government of Thailand is promoting the expansion of Para rubber plantations throughout the country. Traditionally, Para rubber was planted and grown only in the southern areas of the country. However, due to the Government’s support and promotion as well as economic reasons, the expansion of Para rubber plantations in the northeast has increased rapidly. This support has occurred without accounting for suitable cultivation of Para rubber conditions, particularly in areas with steep slopes and other factors which have significant impacts on hydrology and water quality. This study presents the impacts of Para rubber expansion by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT hydrological model on the hydrology and water balance of the Nam Loei River Basin, Loei Province. The results showed that the displacement of original local field crops and disturbed forest land by Para rubber production resulted in an overall increase of evapotranspiration (ET of roughly 3%. The major factors are the rubber canopy and precipitation. Moreover, the water balance results showed an annual reduction of about 3% in the basin average water yield, especially during the dry season.
On isotropic cylindrically symmetric stellar models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nolan, Brien C; Nolan, Louise V
2004-01-01
We attempt to match the most general cylindrically symmetric vacuum spacetime with a Robertson-Walker interior. The matching conditions show that the interior must be dust filled and that the boundary must be comoving. Further, we show that the vacuum region must be polarized. Imposing the condition that there are no trapped cylinders on an initial time slice, we can apply a result of Thorne's and show that trapped cylinders never evolve. This results in a simplified line element which we prove to be incompatible with the dust interior. This result demonstrates the impossibility of the existence of an isotropic cylindrically symmetric star (or even a star which has a cylindrically symmetric portion). We investigate the problem from a different perspective by looking at the expansion scalars of invariant null geodesic congruences and, applying to the cylindrical case, the result that the product of the signs of the expansion scalars must be continuous across the boundary. The result may also be understood in relation to recent results about the impossibility of the static axially symmetric analogue of the Einstein-Straus model
Design of materials with extreme thermal expansion using a three-phase topology optimization method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sigmund, Ole; Torquato, S.
1997-01-01
Composites with extremal or unusual thermal expansion coefficients are designed using a three-phase topology optimization method. The composites are made of two different material phases and a void phase. The topology optimization method consists in finding the distribution of material phases...... materials having maximum directional thermal expansion (thermal actuators), zero isotropic thermal expansion, and negative isotropic thermal expansion. It is shown that materials with effective negative thermal expansion coefficients can be obtained by mixing two phases with positive thermal expansion...
Seeing is believing : communication performance under isotropic teleconferencing conditions
Werkhoven, P.J.; Schraagen, J.M.C.; Punte, P.A.J.
2001-01-01
The visual component of conversational media such as videoconferencing systems communicates important non-verbal information such as facial expressions, gestures, posture and gaze. Unlike the other cues, selective gaze depends critically on the configuration of cameras and monitors. Under isotropic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Людмила Даценко
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The article considers the necessity to make changes in the university curriculum in accordance with the requirements of today. Modern cartography is integrated with GIS and remote sensing and in this context we see the prospect of training experts at universities. GIS education has some specific features that distinguish it from other types of training such as the interdisciplinary nature, a wide range of highly informative software applications, a combination of geographical and engineering knowledge. GIS specialists must have system knowledge and skills in the design, operation and development in this field. Only intensive use of mapping, GIS, geodetic, and photogrammetric knowledge and methods in scientific research and their effective use in the practice of modern production allow the international community to achieve high results. The main directions of educational programs at the Department of Geodesy and Cartography are preservation and further development of the rich heritage of scientific and pedagogical achievements of higher cartographical education in Ukraine; the study and involvement in the educational process of the best achievements of foreign higher education; preparation and updating of scientific and methodological support of educational process; modernization of material and technical basis for the learning process and field training practices; involvement of new professional teaching staff; training of the faculty staff. The demand on mapping courses and related workshops at the Department of Geodesy and Cartography Geography Department is determined by certain factors: the growth of interdisciplinary research involving extensive mapping component; growing of demand for mapping and GIS products from scientific, practical, commercial, and educational institutions; the need to increase productivity in the field of cartography, geoinformatics and adjacent to their fields of study and practice; issues of general improvement of
Macroscopic simulation of isotropic permanent magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruckner, Florian; Abert, Claas; Vogler, Christoph; Heinrichs, Frank; Satz, Armin; Ausserlechner, Udo; Binder, Gernot; Koeck, Helmut; Suess, Dieter
2016-01-01
Accurate simulations of isotropic permanent magnets require to take the magnetization process into account and consider the anisotropic, nonlinear, and hysteretic material behaviour near the saturation configuration. An efficient method for the solution of the magnetostatic Maxwell equations including the description of isotropic permanent magnets is presented. The algorithm can easily be implemented on top of existing finite element methods and does not require a full characterization of the hysteresis of the magnetic material. Strayfield measurements of an isotropic permanent magnet and simulation results are in good agreement and highlight the importance of a proper description of the isotropic material. - Highlights: • Simulations of isotropic permanent magnets. • Accurate calculation of remanence magnetization and strayfield. • Comparison with strayfield measurements and anisotropic magnet simulations. • Efficient 3D FEM–BEM coupling for solution of Maxwell equations.
Empirical isotropic chemical shift surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czinki, Eszter; Csaszar, Attila G.
2007-01-01
A list of proteins is given for which spatial structures, with a resolution better than 2.5 A, are known from entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and isotropic chemical shift (ICS) values are known from the RefDB database related to the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank (BMRB) database. The structures chosen provide, with unknown uncertainties, dihedral angles φ and ψ characterizing the backbone structure of the residues. The joint use of experimental ICSs of the same residues within the proteins, again with mostly unknown uncertainties, and ab initio ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces obtained for the model peptides For-(l-Ala) n -NH 2 , with n = 1, 3, and 5, resulted in so-called empirical ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces for all major nuclei of the 20 naturally occurring α-amino acids. Out of the many empirical surfaces determined, it is the 13C α ICS(φ,ψ) surface which seems to be most promising for identifying major secondary structure types, α-helix, β-strand, left-handed helix (α D ), and polyproline-II. Detailed tests suggest that Ala is a good model for many naturally occurring α-amino acids. Two-dimensional empirical 13C α - 1 H α ICS(φ,ψ) correlation plots, obtained so far only from computations on small peptide models, suggest the utility of the experimental information contained therein and thus they should provide useful constraints for structure determinations of proteins
Scanning anisotropy parameters in horizontal transversely isotropic media
Masmoudi, Nabil
2016-10-12
The horizontal transversely isotropic model, with arbitrary symmetry axis orientation, is the simplest effective representative that explains the azimuthal behaviour of seismic data. Estimating the anisotropy parameters of this model is important in reservoir characterisation, specifically in terms of fracture delineation. We propose a travel-time-based approach to estimate the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ of a horizontal transversely isotropic medium, given an inhomogeneous elliptic background model (which might be obtained from velocity analysis and well velocities). This is accomplished through a Taylor\\'s series expansion of the travel-time solution (of the eikonal equation) as a function of parameter η and azimuth angle ϕ. The accuracy of the travel time expansion is enhanced by the use of Shanks transform. This results in an accurate approximation of the solution of the non-linear eikonal equation and provides a mechanism to scan simultaneously for the best fitting effective parameters η and ϕ, without the need for repetitive modelling of travel times. The analysis of the travel time sensitivity to parameters η and ϕ reveals that travel times are more sensitive to η than to the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ. Thus, η is better constrained from travel times than the azimuth. Moreover, the two-parameter scan in the homogeneous case shows that errors in the background model affect the estimation of η and ϕ differently. While a gradual increase in errors in the background model leads to increasing errors in η, inaccuracies in ϕ, on the other hand, depend on the background model errors. We also propose a layer-stripping method valid for a stack of arbitrary oriented symmetry axis horizontal transversely isotropic layers to convert the effective parameters to the interval layer values.
Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?
Giovannini, Massimo
2005-01-01
We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behaviour is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.
Oda, Hitoshi
2005-02-01
We present a way to calculate free oscillation spectra for an aspherical earth model, which is constructed by adding isotropic and anisotropic velocity perturbations to the seismic velocity parameters of a reference earth model, and examine the effect of the velocity perturbations on the free oscillation spectrum. Lateral variations of the velocity perturbations are parametrized as an expansion in generalized spherical harmonics. We assume weak hexagonal anisotropy for the seismic wave anisotropy in the upper mantle, where the hexagonal symmetry axes are horizontally distributed. The synthetic spectra show that the velocity perturbations cause not only strong self-coupling among singlets of a multiplet but also mixed coupling between toroidal and spheroidal multiplets. Both the couplings give rise to an amplitude anomaly on the vertical component spectrum. In this study, we identify the amplitude anomaly resulting from the mixed coupling as quasi-toroidal mode. Excitation of the quasi-toroidal mode by a vertical strike-slip fault is largest on nodal lines of the Rayleigh wave, decreases with increasing azimuth angle and becomes smallest on loop lines. This azimuthal dependence of the spectral amplitude is quite similar to the Love wave radiation pattern. In addition, the amplitude spectrum of the quasi-toroidal mode is more sensitive to the anisotropic velocity perturbation than to the isotropic velocity perturbation. This means that the mode spectrum allowing for the mixed-coupling effect may provide constraints on the anisotropic lateral structure as well as the isotropic lateral structure. An inversion method, called mixed-coupling spectral inversion, is devised to retrieve the isotropic and anisotropic velocity perturbations from the free oscillation spectra incorporating the quasi-toroidal mode. We confirm that the spectral inversion method correctly recovers the isotropic and anisotropic lateral structure. Moreover introducing the mixed-coupling effect in the
Investigating source processes of isotropic events
Chiang, Andrea
explosion. In contrast, recovering the announced explosive yield using seismic moment estimates from moment tensor inversion remains challenging but we can begin to put error bounds on our moment estimates using the NSS technique. The estimation of seismic source parameters is dependent upon having a well-calibrated velocity model to compute the Green's functions for the inverse problem. Ideally, seismic velocity models are calibrated through broadband waveform modeling, however in regions of low seismicity velocity models derived from body or surface wave tomography may be employed. Whether a velocity model is 1D or 3D, or based on broadband seismic waveform modeling or the various tomographic techniques, the uncertainty in the velocity model can be the greatest source of error in moment tensor inversion. These errors have not been fully investigated for the nuclear discrimination problem. To study the effects of unmodeled structures on the moment tensor inversion, we set up a synthetic experiment where we produce synthetic seismograms for a 3D model (Moschetti et al., 2010) and invert these data using Green's functions computed with a 1D velocity mode (Song et al., 1996) to evaluate the recoverability of input solutions, paying particular attention to biases in the isotropic component. The synthetic experiment results indicate that the 1D model assumption is valid for moment tensor inversions at periods as short as 10 seconds for the 1D western U.S. model (Song et al., 1996). The correct earthquake mechanisms and source depth are recovered with statistically insignificant isotropic components as determined by the F-test. Shallow explosions are biased by the theoretical ISO-CLVD tradeoff but the tectonic release component remains low, and the tradeoff can be eliminated with constraints from P wave first motion. Path-calibration to the 1D model can reduce non-double-couple components in earthquakes, non-isotropic components in explosions and composite sources and improve
Nishino, Ko; Lombardi, Stephen
2011-01-01
We introduce a novel parametric bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model that can accurately encode a wide variety of real-world isotropic BRDFs with a small number of parameters. The key observation we make is that a BRDF may be viewed as a statistical distribution on a unit hemisphere. We derive a novel directional statistics distribution, which we refer to as the hemispherical exponential power distribution, and model real-world isotropic BRDFs as mixtures of it. We derive a canonical probabilistic method for estimating the parameters, including the number of components, of this novel directional statistics BRDF model. We show that the model captures the full spectrum of real-world isotropic BRDFs with high accuracy, but a small footprint. We also demonstrate the advantages of the novel BRDF model by showing its use for reflection component separation and for exploring the space of isotropic BRDFs.
Traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with an inhomogeneous background
Alkhalifah, Tariq
2011-05-01
A transversely isotropic (TI) model with a tilted symmetry axis is regarded as one of the most effective approximations to the Earth subsurface, especially for imaging purposes. However, we commonly utilize this model by setting the axis of symmetry normal to the reflector. This assumption may be accurate in many places, but deviations from this assumption will cause errors in the wavefield description. Using perturbation theory and Taylor\\'s series, I expand the solutions of the eikonal equation for 2D TI media with respect to the independent parameter θ, the angle the tilt of the axis of symmetry makes with the vertical, in a generally inhomogeneous TI background with a vertical axis of symmetry. I do an additional expansion in terms of the independent (anellipticity) parameter in a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. These new TI traveltime solutions are given by expansions in and θ with coefficients extracted from solving linear first-order partial differential equations. Pade approximations are used to enhance the accuracy of the representation by predicting the behavior of the higher-order terms of the expansion. A simplification of the expansion for homogenous media provides nonhyperbolic moveout descriptions of the traveltime for TI models that are more accurate than other recently derived approximations. In addition, for 3D media, I develop traveltime approximations using Taylor\\'s series type of expansions in the azimuth of the axis of symmetry. The coefficients of all these expansions can also provide us with the medium sensitivity gradients (Jacobian) for nonlinear tomographic-based inversion for the tilt in the symmetry axis. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with an inhomogeneous background
Alkhalifah, Tariq
2011-01-01
A transversely isotropic (TI) model with a tilted symmetry axis is regarded as one of the most effective approximations to the Earth subsurface, especially for imaging purposes. However, we commonly utilize this model by setting the axis of symmetry normal to the reflector. This assumption may be accurate in many places, but deviations from this assumption will cause errors in the wavefield description. Using perturbation theory and Taylor's series, I expand the solutions of the eikonal equation for 2D TI media with respect to the independent parameter θ, the angle the tilt of the axis of symmetry makes with the vertical, in a generally inhomogeneous TI background with a vertical axis of symmetry. I do an additional expansion in terms of the independent (anellipticity) parameter in a generally inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium. These new TI traveltime solutions are given by expansions in and θ with coefficients extracted from solving linear first-order partial differential equations. Pade approximations are used to enhance the accuracy of the representation by predicting the behavior of the higher-order terms of the expansion. A simplification of the expansion for homogenous media provides nonhyperbolic moveout descriptions of the traveltime for TI models that are more accurate than other recently derived approximations. In addition, for 3D media, I develop traveltime approximations using Taylor's series type of expansions in the azimuth of the axis of symmetry. The coefficients of all these expansions can also provide us with the medium sensitivity gradients (Jacobian) for nonlinear tomographic-based inversion for the tilt in the symmetry axis. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Isotropic Growth of Graphene toward Smoothing Stitching.
Zeng, Mengqi; Tan, Lifang; Wang, Lingxiang; Mendes, Rafael G; Qin, Zhihui; Huang, Yaxin; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Liwen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Yue, Shuanglin; Rümmeli, Mark H; Peng, Lianmao; Liu, Zhongfan; Chen, Shengli; Fu, Lei
2016-07-26
The quality of graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition still has very great disparity with its theoretical property due to the inevitable formation of grain boundaries. The design of single-crystal substrate with an anisotropic twofold symmetry for the unidirectional alignment of graphene seeds would be a promising way for eliminating the grain boundaries at the wafer scale. However, such a delicate process will be easily terminated by the obstruction of defects or impurities. Here we investigated the isotropic growth behavior of graphene single crystals via melting the growth substrate to obtain an amorphous isotropic surface, which will not offer any specific grain orientation induction or preponderant growth rate toward a certain direction in the graphene growth process. The as-obtained graphene grains are isotropically round with mixed edges that exhibit high activity. The orientation of adjacent grains can be easily self-adjusted to smoothly match each other over a liquid catalyst with facile atom delocalization due to the low rotation steric hindrance of the isotropic grains, thus achieving the smoothing stitching of the adjacent graphene. Therefore, the adverse effects of grain boundaries will be eliminated and the excellent transport performance of graphene will be more guaranteed. What is more, such an isotropic growth mode can be extended to other types of layered nanomaterials such as hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal chalcogenides for obtaining large-size intrinsic film with low defect.
Pant, S; Laliberte, J; Martinez, M.J.; Rocha, B.
2016-01-01
In this paper, a one-sided, in situ method based on the time of flight measurement of ultrasonic waves was described. The primary application of this technique was to non-destructively measure the stiffness properties of isotropic and transversely isotropic materials. The method consists of
A spatially homogeneous and isotropic Einstein-Dirac cosmology
Finster, Felix; Hainzl, Christian
2011-04-01
We consider a spatially homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model where Dirac spinors are coupled to classical gravity. For the Dirac spinors we choose a Hartree-Fock ansatz where all one-particle wave functions are coherent and have the same momentum. If the scale function is large, the universe behaves like the classical Friedmann dust solution. If however the scale function is small, quantum effects lead to oscillations of the energy-momentum tensor. It is shown numerically and proven analytically that these quantum oscillations can prevent the formation of a big bang or big crunch singularity. The energy conditions are analyzed. We prove the existence of time-periodic solutions which go through an infinite number of expansion and contraction cycles.
Texture of low temperature isotropic pyrocarbons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pelissier, Joseph; Lombard, Louis.
1976-01-01
Isotropic pyrocarbon deposited on fuel particles was studied by transmission electron microscopy in order to determine its texture. The material consists of an agglomerate of spherical growth features similar to those of carbon black. The spherical growth features are formed from the cristallites of turbostratic carbon and the distribution gives an isotropic structure. Neutron irradiation modifies the morphology of the pyrocarbon. The spherical growth features are deformed and the coating becomes strongly anisotropic. The transformation leads to the rupture of the coating caused by strong irradiation doses [fr
Interactively variable isotropic resolution in computed tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapp, Robert M; Kyriakou, Yiannis; Kachelriess, Marc; Wilharm, Sylvia; Kalender, Willi A
2008-01-01
An individual balancing between spatial resolution and image noise is necessary to fulfil the diagnostic requirements in medical CT imaging. In order to change influencing parameters, such as reconstruction kernel or effective slice thickness, additional raw-data-dependent image reconstructions have to be performed. Therefore, the noise versus resolution trade-off is time consuming and not interactively applicable. Furthermore, isotropic resolution, expressed by an equivalent point spread function (PSF) in every spatial direction, is important for the undistorted visualization and quantitative evaluation of small structures independent of the viewing plane. Theoretically, isotropic resolution can be obtained by matching the in-plane and through-plane resolution with the aforementioned parameters. Practically, however, the user is not assisted in doing so by current reconstruction systems and therefore isotropic resolution is not commonly achieved, in particular not at the desired resolution level. In this paper, an integrated approach is presented for equalizing the in-plane and through-plane spatial resolution by image filtering. The required filter kernels are calculated from previously measured PSFs in x/y- and z-direction. The concepts derived are combined with a variable resolution filtering technique. Both approaches are independent of CT raw data and operate only on reconstructed images which allows for their application in real time. Thereby, the aim of interactively variable, isotropic resolution is achieved. Results were evaluated quantitatively by measuring PSFs and image noise, and qualitatively by comparing the images to direct reconstructions regarded as the gold standard. Filtered images matched direct reconstructions with arbitrary reconstruction kernels with standard deviations in difference images of typically between 1 and 17 HU. Isotropic resolution was achieved within 5% of the selected resolution level. Processing times of 20-100 ms per frame
Mapping of moveout in tilted transversely isotropic media
Stovas, A.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-01-01
The computation of traveltimes in a transverse isotropic medium with a tilted symmetry axis tilted transversely isotropic is very important both for modelling and inversion. We develop a simple analytical procedure to map the traveltime function from a transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (vertical transversely isotropic) to a tilted transversely isotropic medium by applying point-by-point mapping of the traveltime function. This approach can be used for kinematic modelling and inversion in layered tilted transversely isotropic media. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Mapping of moveout in tilted transversely isotropic media
Stovas, A.
2013-09-09
The computation of traveltimes in a transverse isotropic medium with a tilted symmetry axis tilted transversely isotropic is very important both for modelling and inversion. We develop a simple analytical procedure to map the traveltime function from a transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (vertical transversely isotropic) to a tilted transversely isotropic medium by applying point-by-point mapping of the traveltime function. This approach can be used for kinematic modelling and inversion in layered tilted transversely isotropic media. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yun, Y.
2015-01-01
Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)
Computations of Quasiconvex Hulls of Isotropic Sets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Heinz, S.; Kružík, Martin
2017-01-01
Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 477-492 ISSN 0944-6532 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15264S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : quasiconvexity * isotropic compact sets * matrices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.496, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/kruzik-0474874.pdf
Depression of nonlinearity in decaying isotropic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraichnan, R.H.; Panda, R.
1988-01-01
Simulations of decaying isotropic Navier--Stokes turbulence exhibit depression of the normalized mean-square nonlinear term to 57% of the value for a Gaussianly distributed velocity field with the same instantaneous velocity spectrum. Similar depression is found for dynamical models with random coupling coefficients (modified Betchov models). This suggests that the depression is dynamically generic rather than specifically driven by alignment of velocity and vorticity
New criteria for isotropic and textured metals
Cazacu, Oana
2018-05-01
In this paper a isotropic criterion expressed in terms of both invariants of the stress deviator, J2 and J3 is proposed. This criterion involves a unique parameter, α, which depends only on the ratio between the yield stresses in uniaxial tension and pure shear. If this parameter is zero, the von Mises yield criterion is recovered; if a is positive the yield surface is interior to the von Mises yield surface whereas when a is negative, the new yield surface is exterior to it. Comparison with polycrystalline calculations using Taylor-Bishop-Hill model [1] for randomly oriented face-centered (FCC) polycrystalline metallic materials show that this new criterion captures well the numerical yield points. Furthermore, the criterion reproduces well yielding under combined tension-shear loadings for a variety of isotropic materials. An extension of this isotropic yield criterion such as to account for orthotropy in yielding is developed using the generalized invariants approach of Cazacu and Barlat [2]. This new orthotropic criterion is general and applicable to three-dimensional stress states. The procedure for the identification of the material parameters is outlined. Illustration of the predictive capabilities of the new orthotropic is demonstrated through comparison between the model predictions and data on aluminum sheet samples.
Large Deformation Constitutive Laws for Isotropic Thermoelastic Materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plohr, Bradley J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Plohr, Jeeyeon N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2012-07-25
We examine the approximations made in using Hooke's law as a constitutive relation for an isotropic thermoelastic material subjected to large deformation by calculating the stress evolution equation from the free energy. For a general thermoelastic material, we employ the volume-preserving part of the deformation gradient to facilitate volumetric/shear strain decompositions of the free energy, its first derivatives (the Cauchy stress and entropy), and its second derivatives (the specific heat, Grueneisen tensor, and elasticity tensor). Specializing to isotropic materials, we calculate these constitutive quantities more explicitly. For deformations with limited shear strain, but possibly large changes in volume, we show that the differential equations for the stress components involve new terms in addition to the traditional Hooke's law terms. These new terms are of the same order in the shear strain as the objective derivative terms needed for frame indifference; unless the latter terms are negligible, the former cannot be neglected. We also demonstrate that accounting for the new terms requires that the deformation gradient be included as a field variable
REDUCED ISOTROPIC CRYSTAL MODEL WITH RESPECT TO THE FOURTH-ORDER ELASTIC MODULI
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Burlayenko
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Using a reduced isotropic crystal model the relationship between the fourth-order elastic moduli of an isotropic medium and the independent components of the fourth-order elastic moduli tensor of real crystals of various crystal systems is found. To calculate the coefficients of these relations, computer algebra systems Redberry and Mathematica for working with high order tensors in the symbolic and explicit form were used, in light of the overly complex computation. In an isotropic medium, there are four independent fourth order elastic moduli. This is due to the presence of four invariants for an eighth-rank tensor in the three-dimensional space, that has symmetries over the pairs of indices. As an example, the moduli of elasticity of an isotropic medium corresponding to certain crystals of cubic system are given (LiF, NaCl, MgO, CaF2. From the obtained results it can be seen that the reduced isotropic crystal model can be most effectively applied to high-symmetry crystal systems.
Isotropic Broadband E-Field Probe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Béla Szentpáli
2008-01-01
Full Text Available An E-field probe has been developed for EMC immunity tests performed in closed space. The leads are flexible resistive transmission lines. Their influence on the field distribution is negligible. The probe has an isotropic reception from 100 MHz to 18 GHz; the sensitivity is in the 3 V/m–10 V/m range. The device is an accessory of the EMC test chamber. The readout of the field magnitude is carried out by personal computer, which fulfils also the required corrections of the raw data.
Gravitational instability in isotropic MHD plasma waves
Cherkos, Alemayehu Mengesha
2018-04-01
The effect of compressive viscosity, thermal conductivity and radiative heat-loss functions on the gravitational instability of infinitely extended homogeneous MHD plasma has been investigated. By taking in account these parameters we developed the six-order dispersion relation for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves propagating in a homogeneous and isotropic plasma. The general dispersion relation has been developed from set of linearized basic equations and solved analytically to analyse the conditions of instability and instability of self-gravitating plasma embedded in a constant magnetic field. Our result shows that the presence of viscosity and thermal conductivity in a strong magnetic field substantially modifies the fundamental Jeans criterion of gravitational instability.
Active isotropic slabs: conditions for amplified reflection
Perez, Liliana I.; Matteo, Claudia L.; Etcheverry, Javier; Duplaá, María Celeste
2012-12-01
We analyse in detail the necessary conditions to obtain amplified reflection (AR) in isotropic interfaces when a plane wave propagates from a transparent medium towards an active one. First, we demonstrate analytically that AR is not possible if a single interface is involved. Then, we study the conditions for AR in a very simple configuration: normal incidence on an active slab immersed in transparent media. Finally, we develop an analysis in the complex plane in order to establish a geometrical method that not only describes the behaviour of active slabs but also helps to simplify the calculus.
Active isotropic slabs: conditions for amplified reflection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez, Liliana I; Duplaá, María Celeste; Matteo, Claudia L; Etcheverry, Javier
2012-01-01
We analyse in detail the necessary conditions to obtain amplified reflection (AR) in isotropic interfaces when a plane wave propagates from a transparent medium towards an active one. First, we demonstrate analytically that AR is not possible if a single interface is involved. Then, we study the conditions for AR in a very simple configuration: normal incidence on an active slab immersed in transparent media. Finally, we develop an analysis in the complex plane in order to establish a geometrical method that not only describes the behaviour of active slabs but also helps to simplify the calculus. (paper)
Acoustic reflection log in transversely isotropic formations
Ronquillo Jarillo, G.; Markova, I.; Markov, M.
2018-01-01
We have calculated the waveforms of sonic reflection logging for a fluid-filled borehole located in a transversely isotropic rock. Calculations have been performed for an acoustic impulse source with the characteristic frequency of tens of kilohertz that is considerably less than the frequencies of acoustic borehole imaging tools. It is assumed that the borehole axis coincides with the axis of symmetry of the transversely isotropic rock. It was shown that the reflected wave was excited most efficiently at resonant frequencies. These frequencies are close to the frequencies of oscillations of a fluid column located in an absolutely rigid hollow cylinder. We have shown that the acoustic reverberation is controlled by the acoustic impedance of the rock Z = Vphρs for fixed parameters of the borehole fluid, where Vph is the velocity of horizontally propagating P-wave; ρs is the rock density. The methods of waveform processing to determine the parameters characterizing the reflected wave have been discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, J.
1985-10-01
A quantum dynamical model is suggested which describes the expansion and disassembly phase of highly excited compounds formed in energetic heavy-ion collisions. First applications in two space and one time dimensional model world are discussed and qualitatively compared to standard freeze-out concepts. (orig.)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of a system under investigation is to model the system in terms of some ... The organization of the paper is as follows: In §2, a brief account of the (G /G)- expansion ...... It is interesting to note that from the general results, one can easily recover.
Lu, San; Artemyev, A. V.; Angelopoulos, V.
2017-11-01
Magnetotail current sheet thinning is a distinctive feature of substorm growth phase, during which magnetic energy is stored in the magnetospheric lobes. Investigation of charged particle dynamics in such thinning current sheets is believed to be important for understanding the substorm energy storage and the current sheet destabilization responsible for substorm expansion phase onset. We use Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) B and C observations in 2008 and 2009 at 18 - 25 RE to show that during magnetotail current sheet thinning, the electron temperature decreases (cooling), and the parallel temperature decreases faster than the perpendicular temperature, leading to a decrease of the initially strong electron temperature anisotropy (isotropization). This isotropization cannot be explained by pure adiabatic cooling or by pitch angle scattering. We use test particle simulations to explore the mechanism responsible for the cooling and isotropization. We find that during the thinning, a fast decrease of a parallel electric field (directed toward the Earth) can speed up the electron parallel cooling, causing it to exceed the rate of perpendicular cooling, and thus lead to isotropization, consistent with observation. If the parallel electric field is too small or does not change fast enough, the electron parallel cooling is slower than the perpendicular cooling, so the parallel electron anisotropy grows, contrary to observation. The same isotropization can also be accomplished by an increasing parallel electric field directed toward the equatorial plane. Our study reveals the existence of a large-scale parallel electric field, which plays an important role in magnetotail particle dynamics during the current sheet thinning process.
THE ISOTROPIC DIFFUSION SOURCE APPROXIMATION FOR SUPERNOVA NEUTRINO TRANSPORT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liebendoerfer, M.; Whitehouse, S. C.; Fischer, T.
2009-01-01
Astrophysical observations originate from matter that interacts with radiation or transported particles. We develop a pragmatic approximation in order to enable multidimensional simulations with basic spectral radiative transfer when the available computational resources are not sufficient to solve the complete Boltzmann transport equation. The distribution function of the transported particles is decomposed into a trapped particle component and a streaming particle component. Their separate evolution equations are coupled by a source term that converts trapped particles into streaming particles. We determine this source term by requiring the correct diffusion limit for the evolution of the trapped particle component. For a smooth transition to the free streaming regime, this 'diffusion source' is limited by the matter emissivity. The resulting streaming particle emission rates are integrated over space to obtain the streaming particle flux. Finally, a geometric estimate of the flux factor is used to convert the particle flux to the streaming particle density, which enters the evaluation of streaming particle-matter interactions. The efficiency of the scheme results from the freedom to use different approximations for each particle component. In supernovae, for example, reactions with trapped particles on fast timescales establish equilibria that reduce the number of primitive variables required to evolve the trapped particle component. On the other hand, a stationary-state approximation considerably facilitates the treatment of the streaming particle component. Different approximations may apply in applications to stellar atmospheres, star formation, or cosmological radiative transfer. We compare the isotropic diffusion source approximation with Boltzmann neutrino transport of electron flavor neutrinos in spherically symmetric supernova models and find good agreement. An extension of the scheme to the multidimensional case is also discussed.
Linearized holographic isotropization at finite coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atashi, Mahdi; Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir [Shahrood University of Technology, Physics Department (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Ghadir [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-06-15
We study holographic isotropization of an anisotropic homogeneous non-Abelian strongly coupled plasma in the presence of Gauss-Bonnet corrections. It was verified before that one can linearize Einstein's equations around the final black hole background and simplify the complicated setup. Using this approach, we study the expectation value of the boundary stress tensor. Although we consider small values of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant, it is found that finite coupling leads to significant increasing of the thermalization time. By including higher order corrections in linearization, we extend the results to study the effect of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling on the entropy production on the event horizon. (orig.)
Effective elastic properties of damaged isotropic solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, U Sik
1998-01-01
In continuum damage mechanics, damaged solids have been represented by the effective elastic stiffness into which local damage is smoothly smeared. Similarly, damaged solids may be represented in terms of effective elastic compliances. By virtue of the effective elastic compliance representation, it may become easier to derive the effective engineering constants of damaged solids from the effective elastic compliances, all in closed form. Thus, in this paper, by using a continuum modeling approach based on both the principle of strain energy equivalence and the equivalent elliptical micro-crack representation of local damage, the effective elastic compliance and effective engineering constants are derived in terms of the undamaged (virgin) elastic properties and a scalar damage variable for both damaged two-and three-dimensional isotropic solids
New bounds on isotropic Lorentz violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carone, Christopher D.; Sher, Marc; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
2006-01-01
Violations of Lorentz invariance that appear via operators of dimension four or less are completely parametrized in the Standard Model Extension (SME). In the pure photonic sector of the SME, there are 19 dimensionless, Lorentz-violating parameters. Eighteen of these have experimental upper bounds ranging between 10 -11 and 10 -32 ; the remaining parameter, k-tilde tr , is isotropic and has a much weaker bound of order 10 -4 . In this Brief Report, we point out that k-tilde tr gives a significant contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron and find a new upper bound of order 10 -8 . With reasonable assumptions, we further show that this bound may be improved to 10 -14 by considering the renormalization of other Lorentz-violating parameters that are more tightly constrained. Using similar renormalization arguments, we also estimate bounds on Lorentz-violating parameters in the pure gluonic sector of QCD
Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McManus, T M; Spada, L La; Hao, Y
2016-01-01
In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques. (paper)
Isotropic and anisotropic surface wave cloaking techniques
McManus, T. M.; La Spada, L.; Hao, Y.
2016-04-01
In this paper we compare two different approaches for surface waves cloaking. The first technique is a unique application of Fermat’s principle and requires isotropic material properties, but owing to its derivation is limited in its applicability. The second technique utilises a geometrical optics approximation for dealing with rays bound to a two dimensional surface and requires anisotropic material properties, though it can be used to cloak any smooth surface. We analytically derive the surface wave scattering behaviour for both cloak techniques when applied to a rotationally symmetric surface deformation. Furthermore, we simulate both using a commercially available full-wave electromagnetic solver and demonstrate a good level of agreement with their analytically derived solutions. Our analytical solutions and simulations provide a complete and concise overview of two different surface wave cloaking techniques.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.
1980-01-01
This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of the development reviewed. Large Na (sodium)-heat transfer systems require a lot of valuable space if the component lay-out does not include compensation devices. So, in order to condense the spatial requirement as much as possible, expansion joints must be integrated into the pipe system. There are two basic types to suit the purpose: axial expansion joints and angular expansion joints. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows. Expansion joints must be designed and mounted in a manner to completely withstand seismic forces. The design must exclude any damage to the bellows during intermittent operations, that is, when sodium is drained the bellows' folds must be completely empty; otherwise residual solidified sodium could destroy the bellows when restarting. The expansion joints must be engineered on the basis of the following design data for the secondary system of the SNR project: working pressure: 16 bar; failure mode pressure: 5 events; failure mode: 5 sec., 28.5 bar, 520 deg. C; working temperature: 520 deg. C; temperature transients: 30 deg. C/sec.; service life: 200,000 h; number of load cycles: 10 4 ; material: 1.4948 or 1.4919; layer thickness of folds: 0.5 mm; angular deflection (DN 800): +3 deg. C or; axial expansion absorption (DN 600): ±80 mm; calculation: ASME class. The bellows' development work is not handled within this scope. The bellows are supplied by leading manufacturers, and warrant highest quality. Multiple bellows were selected on the basis of maximum elasticity - a property
An efficient Helmholtz solver for acoustic transversely isotropic media
Wu, Zedong
2017-11-11
The acoustic approximation, even for anisotropic media, is widely used in current industry imaging and inversion algorithms mainly because P-waves constitute the majority of the energy recorded in seismic exploration. The resulting acoustic formulas tend to be simpler, resulting in more efficient implementations, and depend on less medium parameters. However, conventional solutions of the acoustic wave equation with higher-order derivatives suffer from S-wave artifacts. Thus, we propose to separate the quasi-P wave propagation in anisotropic media into the elliptic anisotropic operator (free of the artifacts) and the non-elliptic-anisotropic components, which form a pseudo-differential operator. We, then, develop a separable approximation of the dispersion relation of non-elliptic-anisotropic components, specifically for transversely isotropic (TI) media. Finally, we iteratively solve the simpler lower-order elliptical wave equation for a modified source function that includes the non-elliptical terms represented in the Fourier domain. A frequency domain Helmholtz formulation of the approach renders the iterative implementation efficient as the cost is dominated by the Lower-Upper (LU) decomposition of the impedance matrix for the simpler elliptical anisotropic model. Also, the resulting wavefield is free of S-wave artifacts and has balanced amplitude. Numerical examples show that the method is reasonably accurate and efficient.
An efficient Helmholtz solver for acoustic transversely isotropic media
Wu, Zedong; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2017-01-01
The acoustic approximation, even for anisotropic media, is widely used in current industry imaging and inversion algorithms mainly because P-waves constitute the majority of the energy recorded in seismic exploration. The resulting acoustic formulas tend to be simpler, resulting in more efficient implementations, and depend on less medium parameters. However, conventional solutions of the acoustic wave equation with higher-order derivatives suffer from S-wave artifacts. Thus, we propose to separate the quasi-P wave propagation in anisotropic media into the elliptic anisotropic operator (free of the artifacts) and the non-elliptic-anisotropic components, which form a pseudo-differential operator. We, then, develop a separable approximation of the dispersion relation of non-elliptic-anisotropic components, specifically for transversely isotropic (TI) media. Finally, we iteratively solve the simpler lower-order elliptical wave equation for a modified source function that includes the non-elliptical terms represented in the Fourier domain. A frequency domain Helmholtz formulation of the approach renders the iterative implementation efficient as the cost is dominated by the Lower-Upper (LU) decomposition of the impedance matrix for the simpler elliptical anisotropic model. Also, the resulting wavefield is free of S-wave artifacts and has balanced amplitude. Numerical examples show that the method is reasonably accurate and efficient.
On the decay of homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Skrbek, L.; Stalp, Steven R.
2000-08-01
Decaying homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is investigated using a phenomenological model based on the three-dimensional turbulent energy spectra. We generalize the approach first used by Comte-Bellot and Corrsin [J. Fluid Mech. 25, 657 (1966)] and revised by Saffman [J. Fluid Mech. 27, 581 (1967); Phys. Fluids 10, 1349 (1967)]. At small wave numbers we assume the spectral energy is proportional to the wave number to an arbitrary power. The specific case of power 2, which follows from the Saffman invariant, is discussed in detail and is later shown to best describe experimental data. For the spectral energy density in the inertial range we apply both the Kolmogorov -5/3 law, E(k)=Cɛ2/3k-5/3, and the refined Kolmogorov law by taking into account intermittency. We show that intermittency affects the energy decay mainly by shifting the position of the virtual origin rather than altering the power law of the energy decay. Additionally, the spectrum is naturally truncated due to the size of the wind tunnel test section, as eddies larger than the physical size of the system cannot exist. We discuss effects associated with the energy-containing length scale saturating at the size of the test section and predict a change in the power law decay of both energy and vorticity. To incorporate viscous corrections to the model, we truncate the spectrum at an effective Kolmogorov wave number kη=γ(ɛ/v3)1/4, where γ is a dimensionless parameter of order unity. We show that as the turbulence decays, viscous corrections gradually become more important and a simple power law can no longer describe the decay. We discuss the final period of decay within the framework of our model, and show that care must be taken to distinguish between the final period of decay and the change of the character of decay due to the saturation of the energy containing length scale. The model is applied to a number of experiments on decaying turbulence. These include the downstream decay of turbulence in
Isotropic compression of cohesive-frictional particles with rolling resistance
Luding, Stefan; Benz, Thomas; Nordal, Steinar
2010-01-01
Cohesive-frictional and rough powders are the subject of this study. The behavior under isotropic compression is examined for different material properties involving Coulomb friction, rolling-resistance and contact-adhesion. Under isotropic compression, the density continuously increases according
The revised geometric measure of entanglement for isotropic state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao Ya
2011-01-01
Based on the revised geometric measure of entanglement (RGME), we obtain the analytical expression of isotropic state and generalize to n-particle and d-dimension mixed state case. Meantime, we obtain the relation about isotropic state E-tilde sin 2 (ρ) ≤ E re (ρ). The results indicate RGME is an appropriate measure of entanglement. (authors)
Contact mechanics and friction for transversely isotropic viscoelastic materials
Mokhtari, Milad; Schipper, Dirk J.; Vleugels, N.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Yoshimoto, S.; Hashimoto, H.
2015-01-01
Transversely isotropic materials are an unique group of materials whose properties are the same along two of the principal axes of a Cartesian coordinate system. Various natural and artificial materials behave effectively as transversely isotropic elastic solids. Several materials can be classified
Pan, E.; Chen, J.Y.; Bevis, M.; Bordoni, Andrea; Barletta, Valentina Roberta; Tabrizi, A. Molavi
2015-01-01
We present an analytical solution for the elastic deformation of an elastic, transversely isotropic, layered and self-gravitating Earth by surface loads. We first introduce the vector spherical harmonics to express the physical quantities in the layered Earth. This reduces the governing equations to a linear system of equations for the expansion coefficients. We then solve for the expansion coefficients analytically under the assumption (i.e. approximation) that in the mantle, the density in ...
On the dynamics of non-stationary binary stellar system with non-isotropic mass flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bekov, A.A.; Bejsekov, A.N.; Aldibaeva, L.T.
2006-01-01
The motion of test body in the external gravitational field of the binary stellar systems with slowly variable some physical parameters of radiating components is considered on the base of restricted nonstationary photo-gravitational three and two bodies problem with non-isotropic mass flow. The family of polar and coplanar solutions are obtained. The solutions give the possibility of the dynamical and structure interpretation of binary young evolving stars and galaxies. (author)
How isotropic can the UHECR flux be?
di Matteo, Armando; Tinyakov, Peter
2018-05-01
Modern observatories of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) have collected over 104 events with energies above 10 EeV, whose arrival directions appear to be nearly isotropically distributed. On the other hand, the distribution of matter in the nearby Universe - and therefore presumably also that of UHECR sources - is not homogeneous. This is expected to leave an imprint on the angular distribution of UHECR arrival directions, though deflections by cosmic magnetic fields can confound the picture. In this work, we investigate quantitatively this apparent inconsistency. To this end we study observables sensitive to UHECR source inhomogeneities but robust to uncertainties on magnetic fields and the UHECR mass composition. We show, in a rather model-independent way, that if the source distribution tracks the overall matter distribution, the arrival directions at energies above 30 EeV should exhibit a sizeable dipole and quadrupole anisotropy, detectable by UHECR observatories in the very near future. Were it not the case, one would have to seriously reconsider the present understanding of cosmic magnetic fields and/or the UHECR composition. Also, we show that the lack of a strong quadrupole moment above 10 EeV in the current data already disfavours a pure proton composition, and that in the very near future measurements of the dipole and quadrupole moment above 60 EeV will be able to provide evidence about the UHECR mass composition at those energies.
Lagrangian statistics in compressible isotropic homogeneous turbulence
Yang, Yantao; Wang, Jianchun; Shi, Yipeng; Chen, Shiyi
2011-11-01
In this work we conducted the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a forced compressible isotropic homogeneous turbulence and investigated the flow statistics from the Lagrangian point of view, namely the statistics is computed following the passive tracers trajectories. The numerical method combined the Eulerian field solver which was developed by Wang et al. (2010, J. Comp. Phys., 229, 5257-5279), and a Lagrangian module for tracking the tracers and recording the data. The Lagrangian probability density functions (p.d.f.'s) have then been calculated for both kinetic and thermodynamic quantities. In order to isolate the shearing part from the compressing part of the flow, we employed the Helmholtz decomposition to decompose the flow field (mainly the velocity field) into the solenoidal and compressive parts. The solenoidal part was compared with the incompressible case, while the compressibility effect showed up in the compressive part. The Lagrangian structure functions and cross-correlation between various quantities will also be discussed. This work was supported in part by the China's Turbulence Program under Grant No.2009CB724101.
Nonlinear elastic inclusions in isotropic solids
Yavari, A.
2013-10-16
We introduce a geometric framework to calculate the residual stress fields and deformations of nonlinear solids with inclusions and eigenstrains. Inclusions are regions in a body with different reference configurations from the body itself and can be described by distributed eigenstrains. Geometrically, the eigenstrains define a Riemannian 3-manifold in which the body is stress-free by construction. The problem of residual stress calculation is then reduced to finding a mapping from the Riemannian material manifold to the ambient Euclidean space. Using this construction, we find the residual stress fields of three model systems with spherical and cylindrical symmetries in both incompressible and compressible isotropic elastic solids. In particular, we consider a finite spherical ball with a spherical inclusion with uniform pure dilatational eigenstrain and we show that the stress in the inclusion is uniform and hydrostatic. We also show how singularities in the stress distribution emerge as a consequence of a mismatch between radial and circumferential eigenstrains at the centre of a sphere or the axis of a cylinder.
Radiation statistics in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Da Silva, C B; Coelho, P J; Malico, I
2009-01-01
An analysis of turbulence-radiation interaction (TRI) in statistically stationary (forced) homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is presented. A direct numerical simulation code was used to generate instantaneous turbulent scalar fields, and the radiative transfer equation (RTE) was solved to provide statistical data relevant in TRI. The radiation intensity is non-Gaussian and is not spatially correlated with any of the other turbulence or radiation quantities. Its power spectrum exhibits a power-law region with a slope steeper than the classical -5/3 law. The moments of the radiation intensity, Planck-mean and incident-mean absorption coefficients, and emission and absorption TRI correlations are calculated. The influence of the optical thickness of the medium, mean and variance of the temperature and variance of the molar fraction of the absorbing species is studied. Predictions obtained from the time-averaged RTE are also included. It was found that while turbulence yields an increase of the mean blackbody radiation intensity, it causes a decrease of the time-averaged Planck-mean absorption coefficient. The absorption coefficient self-correlation is small in comparison with the temperature self-correlation, and the role of TRI in radiative emission is more important than in radiative absorption. The absorption coefficient-radiation intensity correlation is small, which supports the optically thin fluctuation approximation, and justifies the good predictions often achieved using the time-averaged RTE.
Radiation statistics in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Da Silva, C B; Coelho, P J [Mechanical Engineering Department, IDMEC/LAETA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Malico, I [Physics Department, University of Evora, Rua Romao Ramalho, 59, 7000-671 Evora (Portugal)], E-mail: carlos.silva@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: imbm@uevora.pt, E-mail: pedro.coelho@ist.utl.pt
2009-09-15
An analysis of turbulence-radiation interaction (TRI) in statistically stationary (forced) homogeneous and isotropic turbulence is presented. A direct numerical simulation code was used to generate instantaneous turbulent scalar fields, and the radiative transfer equation (RTE) was solved to provide statistical data relevant in TRI. The radiation intensity is non-Gaussian and is not spatially correlated with any of the other turbulence or radiation quantities. Its power spectrum exhibits a power-law region with a slope steeper than the classical -5/3 law. The moments of the radiation intensity, Planck-mean and incident-mean absorption coefficients, and emission and absorption TRI correlations are calculated. The influence of the optical thickness of the medium, mean and variance of the temperature and variance of the molar fraction of the absorbing species is studied. Predictions obtained from the time-averaged RTE are also included. It was found that while turbulence yields an increase of the mean blackbody radiation intensity, it causes a decrease of the time-averaged Planck-mean absorption coefficient. The absorption coefficient self-correlation is small in comparison with the temperature self-correlation, and the role of TRI in radiative emission is more important than in radiative absorption. The absorption coefficient-radiation intensity correlation is small, which supports the optically thin fluctuation approximation, and justifies the good predictions often achieved using the time-averaged RTE.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chirde, V.R.; Shekh, S.H.
2016-01-01
The modified theories of gravity have engrossed much attention in the last decade, especially f(R) gravity. In this contextual exploration, we investigate interaction between barotropic fluid and dark energy with zero-mass scalar field for the spatially homogeneous and isotropic flat FRW universe. In this universe, the field equations correspond to the particular choice of f(R) = R+bR m . The exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by applying volumetric power law and exponential law of expansion. In power and exponential law of expansion, the universe shows both matter dominated and DE era for b ≤ 0 and b ≥ 0 and remain present in dark era respectively, but power law model is fully occupying with real matter for b > 0 and for b < 0 exponential model expands with negative pressure and remain present in matter dominated phase respectively. The physical behavior of the universe has been discussed by using some physical quantities
Bose Operator Expansions of Tensor Operators in the Theory of Magnetism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kowalska, A.; Lindgård, Per-Anker
1977-01-01
A new Bose operator expansion is discussed for tensor operators in the spin systems with isotropic exchange interaction plus anisotropy. Spin wave theory for a system with planar anisotropy shows that the Goldstone theorem is fulfilled. The new expansion replaces the off diagonal single ion...
Zero thermal expansion in NaZn13-type La(Fe,Si)13 compounds.
Wang, Wei; Huang, Rongjin; Li, Wen; Tan, Jie; Zhao, Yuqiang; Li, Shaopeng; Huang, Chuanjun; Li, Laifeng
2015-01-28
A zero thermal expansion material in a pure form of NaZn13-type La(Fe,Si)13 was fabricated. Through optimizing the chemical composition, an isotropic zero thermal expansion material is achieved. The obtained materials exhibit a low expansion of |α| linear thermal expansion) over a broad temperature range (15-150 K). The present study indicates that the thermal expansion behavior of the NaZn13-type La(Fe,Si)13 compounds depends mainly on the content of Si element. This new material is desirable in many fields of industry as a reliable and low-cost zero thermal expansion material.
Thermal expansion of quaternary nitride coatings
Tasnádi, Ferenc; Wang, Fei; Odén, Magnus; Abrikosov, Igor A.
2018-04-01
The thermal expansion coefficient of technologically relevant multicomponent cubic nitride alloys are predicted using the Debye model with ab initio elastic constants calculated at 0 K and an isotropic approximation for the Grüneisen parameter. Our method is benchmarked against measured thermal expansion of TiN and Ti(1-x)Al x N as well as against results of molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the thermal expansion coefficients of Ti(1-x-y)X y Al x N (X = Zr, Hf, Nb, V, Ta) solid solutions monotonously increase with the amount of alloying element X at all temperatures except for Zr and Hf, for which they instead decrease for y≳ 0.5 .
On a generalized oscillator system: interbasis expansions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kibler, M [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Mardoyan, L G; Pogosyan, G S [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics
1997-12-31
This article deals with a nonrelativistic quantum mechanical study of a dynamical system which generalizes the isotropic harmonic oscillator system in three dimensions. The Schroedinger equation for this generalized oscillator system is separable in spherical, cylindrical, and spheroidal (prolate and oblate) coordinates. The quantum mechanical spectrum of this system is worked out in some details. The problem of interbasis expansions of the wave functions is completely solved. The coefficients for the expansion of the cylindrical basis in terms of the spherical basis, and vice-versa, are found to be analytic continuations (to real values of their arguments) of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). The interbasis expansion coefficients for the prolate and oblate spheroidal bases in terms of the spherical or the cylindrical bases are shown to satisfy three-term recursion relations. Finally, a connection between the generalized oscillator system (projected on the z-line) and the Morse system (in one dimension) are discussed. 41 refs.,.
On a generalized oscillator system: interbasis expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kibler, M.; Mardoyan, L.G.; Pogosyan, G.S.
1996-01-01
This article deals with a nonrelativistic quantum mechanical study of a dynamical system which generalizes the isotropic harmonic oscillator system in three dimensions. The Schroedinger equation for this generalized oscillator system is separable in spherical, cylindrical, and spheroidal (prolate and oblate) coordinates. The quantum mechanical spectrum of this system is worked out in some details. The problem of interbasis expansions of the wave functions is completely solved. The coefficients for the expansion of the cylindrical basis in terms of the spherical basis, and vice-versa, are found to be analytic continuations (to real values of their arguments) of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). The interbasis expansion coefficients for the prolate and oblate spheroidal bases in terms of the spherical or the cylindrical bases are shown to satisfy three-term recursion relations. Finally, a connection between the generalized oscillator system (projected on the z-line) and the Morse system (in one dimension) are discussed. 41 refs.,
Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez-Hernandez, R C; Gleason-Villagran, R; Cheang-Wong, J C; Crespo-Sosa, A; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L; Lopez-Suarez, A; Oliver, A; Reyes-Esqueda, J A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. 04510 (Mexico); Torres-Torres, C [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESIME-Zacatenco, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D. F. 07338 (Mexico); Rangel-Rojo, R, E-mail: reyes@fisica.unam.mx [CICESE/Depto. de Optica, A.P. 360, Ensenada, B. C. 22860 (Mexico)
2011-01-01
In this work, we studied the nonlinear absorption and refraction of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites, which consist of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in matrices of SiO{sub 2}. We performed this study at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique in the picosecond regime. The wavelengths were selected accordingly to the absorption spectra of the nanocomposites, choosing wavelengths into the inter- and intra-band transitions regions, including the surface plasmon (SP) resonance, as well as in the transparent region. For the anisotropic nanocomposites, the polarization and the incident angle were varied in order to evaluate the different components of the third order susceptibility tensor, {chi}{sup (3)}. We observed dramatic changes of sign for both, nonlinear refraction and absorption, when passing from Au to Ag and/or varying the wave length. The results accentuate the importance of the hot-electrons contribution to the nonlinear optical response at this temporal regime, when compared to inter-band and intra-band transitions contributions.
Nonlinear optical spectroscopy of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez-Hernandez, R C; Gleason-Villagran, R; Cheang-Wong, J C; Crespo-Sosa, A; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L; Lopez-Suarez, A; Oliver, A; Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Torres-Torres, C; Rangel-Rojo, R
2011-01-01
In this work, we studied the nonlinear absorption and refraction of isotropic and anisotropic metallic nanocomposites, which consist of Au and Ag nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in matrices of SiO 2 . We performed this study at different wavelengths using the Z-scan technique in the picosecond regime. The wavelengths were selected accordingly to the absorption spectra of the nanocomposites, choosing wavelengths into the inter- and intra-band transitions regions, including the surface plasmon (SP) resonance, as well as in the transparent region. For the anisotropic nanocomposites, the polarization and the incident angle were varied in order to evaluate the different components of the third order susceptibility tensor, χ (3) . We observed dramatic changes of sign for both, nonlinear refraction and absorption, when passing from Au to Ag and/or varying the wave length. The results accentuate the importance of the hot-electrons contribution to the nonlinear optical response at this temporal regime, when compared to inter-band and intra-band transitions contributions.
Isotropic nuclear graphites; the effect of neutron irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lore, J.; Buscaillon, A.; Mottet, P.; Micaud, G.
1977-01-01
Several isotropic graphites have been manufactured using different forming processes and fillers such as needle coke, regular coke, or pitch coke. Their properties are described in this paper. Specimens of these products have been irradiated in the fast reactor Rapsodie between 400 to 1400 0 C, at fluences up to 1,7.10 21 n.cm -2 PHI.FG. The results show an isotropic behavior under neutron irradiation, but the induced dimensional changes are higher than those of isotropic coke graphites although they are lower than those of conventional extruded graphites made with the same coke
Sudden Relaminarization and Lifetimes in Forced Isotropic Turbulence.
Linkmann, Moritz F; Morozov, Alexander
2015-09-25
We demonstrate an unexpected connection between isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows. We perform direct numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence forced at large scales at moderate Reynolds numbers and observe sudden transitions from a chaotic dynamics to a spatially simple flow, analogous to the laminar state in wall bounded shear flows. We find that the survival probabilities of turbulence are exponential and the typical lifetimes increase superexponentially with the Reynolds number. Our results suggest that both isotropic turbulence and wall-bounded shear flows qualitatively share the same phase-space dynamics.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Joubert, S
2006-05-01
Full Text Available and Manufacturing TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC CYLINDER - 1 φ φ r z a x y Ω P P O u v w z ( )1 1 1 2 1 1 rrr rz rr zr r zrz zz rz u r r z r v r r z r w r r z r ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ ϕ ϕ σσ σ σ σ ρ ϕ σσ σ σ ρ ϕ σσ σ σ ρ ϕ... ∂ ∂ ∂ + + + − = ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂∂ ∂ + + + = ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂∂ ∂ + + + = ∂ ∂ ∂ && && && 6 CSIR Material Science and Manufacturing TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC CYLINDER - 2 ( )1 1 1 2 1 1 rrr rz rr zr r zrz zz rz u r r z r v r r z r w r r z r ϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ ϕϕ ϕ ϕ σσ σ σ σ ρ ϕ σσ σ σ ρ ϕ σσ σ σ ρ ϕ...
Raman study of pressure effects on frequencies and isotropic line shapes in liquid acetone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schindler, W.; Sharko, P.T.; Jonas, J.
1982-01-01
The Raman line shape of the symmetric C = O stretching band at 1710 cm -1 has been measured in liquid acetone as a function of pressure from 1 bar to 4 kbar over the temperature range from -25 to 50 0 C. The experimental data obtained show several unusual features. First, there is a frequency difference of about 7 cm -1 between the polarized and depolarized components. Sceond, the isotropic linewidth GAMMA/sub iso/ decreases with increasing density, in contrast to the opposite trend usually found in other liquids. Third, the second moment M 2 (V) of the isotropic band appears to decrease with increasing density. The consideration of the experimental linewidth and frequency data leads to a conclusion that intermolecular dipole--dipole coupling between polar acetone molecules are responsible for the observed unusual behavior of , GAMMA/sub iso/, and M 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mota, R D; Granados, V D; Queijeiro, A; Garcia, J; Guzman, L
2003-01-01
We show that the supersymmetric radial ladder operators of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator are contained in the spherical components of the creation and annihilation operators of the system. Also, we show that the constants of motion of the problem, written in terms of these spherical components, lead us to second-order radial operators. Further, we show that these operators change the orbital angular momentum quantum number by two units and are equal to those obtained by the Infeld-Hull factorization method
Weak convergence to isotropic complex [Formula: see text] random measure.
Wang, Jun; Li, Yunmeng; Sang, Liheng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we prove that an isotropic complex symmetric α -stable random measure ([Formula: see text]) can be approximated by a complex process constructed by integrals based on the Poisson process with random intensity.
Metrical relationships in a standard triangle in an isotropic plane
Kolar-Šuper, R.; Kolar-Begović, Z.; Volenec, V.; Beban-Brkić, J.
2005-01-01
Each allowable triangle of an isotropic plane can be set in a standard position, in which it is possible to prove geometric properties analytically in a simplified and easier way by means of the algebraic theory developed in this paper.
Efficient anisotropic wavefield extrapolation using effective isotropic models
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Ma, X.; Waheed, Umair bin; Zuberi, Mohammad
2013-01-01
Isotropic wavefield extrapolation is more efficient than anisotropic extrapolation, and this is especially true when the anisotropy of the medium is tilted (from the vertical). We use the kinematics of the wavefield, appropriately represented
Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control
Pellenard, Bertrand; Alliez, Pierre; Morvan, Jean-Marie
2011-01-01
We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse
Scanning anisotropy parameters in horizontal transversely isotropic media
Masmoudi, Nabil; Stovas, Alexey; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-01-01
in reservoir characterisation, specifically in terms of fracture delineation. We propose a travel-time-based approach to estimate the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ of a horizontal transversely isotropic medium, given an inhomogeneous
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pan, E.; Chen, J.Y.; Bevis, M.
2015-01-01
to a linear system of equations for the expansion coefficients. We then solve for the expansion coefficients analytically under the assumption (i.e. approximation) that in the mantle, the density in each layer varies as 1/r (where r is the radial coordinate) while the gravity is constant and that in the core...... the gravity in each layer varies linearly in r with constant density. These approximations dramatically simplify the subsequent mathematical analysis and render closed-form expressions for the expansion coefficients. We implement our solution in a MATLAB code and perform a benchmark which shows both...... the correctness of our solution and the implementation. We also calculate the load Love numbers (LLNs) of the PREM Earth for different degrees of the Legendre function for both isotropic and transversely isotropic, layered mantles with different core models, demonstrating for the first time the effect of Earth...
Load regulating expansion fixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.
1998-01-01
A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located there between. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig
Crack Tip Creep Deformation Behavior in Transversely Isotropic Materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Young Wha; Yoon, Kee Bong
2009-01-01
Theoretical mechanics analysis and finite element simulation were performed to investigate creep deformation behavior at the crack tip of transversely isotropic materials under small scale creep (SCC) conditions. Mechanical behavior of material was assumed as an elastic-2 nd creep, which elastic modulus ( E ), Poisson's ratio (v ) and creep stress exponent ( n ) were isotropic and creep coefficient was only transversely isotropic. Based on the mechanics analysis for material behavior, a constitutive equation for transversely isotropic creep behavior was formulated and an equivalent creep coefficient was proposed under plain strain conditions. Creep deformation behavior at the crack tip was investigated through the finite element analysis. The results of the finite element analysis showed that creep deformation in transversely isotropic materials is dominant at the rear of the crack-tip. This result was more obvious when a load was applied to principal axis of anisotropy. Based on the results of the mechanics analysis and the finite element simulation, a corrected estimation scheme of the creep zone size was proposed in order to evaluate the creep deformation behavior at the crack tip of transversely isotropic creeping materials
Waheed, Umair bin; Psencik, Ivan; Cerveny, Vlastislav; Iversen, Einar; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2013-01-01
On several simple models of isotropic and anisotropic media, we have studied the accuracy of the two-point paraxial traveltime formula designed for the approximate calculation of the traveltime between points S' and R' located in the vicinity of points S and R on a reference ray. The reference ray may be situated in a 3D inhomogeneous isotropic or anisotropic medium with or without smooth curved interfaces. The twopoint paraxial traveltime formula has the form of the Taylor expansion of the two-point traveltime with respect to spatial Cartesian coordinates up to quadratic terms at points S and R on the reference ray. The constant term and the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined from quantities obtained from ray tracing and linear dynamic ray tracing along the reference ray. The use of linear dynamic ray tracing allows the evaluation of the quadratic terms in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media and, as shown by examples, it extends the region of accurate results around the reference ray between S and R (and even outside this interval) obtained with the linear terms only. Although the formula may be used for very general 3D models, we concentrated on simple 2D models of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic (~8% and ~20% anisotropy) media only. On tests, in which we estimated twopoint traveltimes between a shifted source and a system of shifted receivers, we found that the formula may yield more accurate results than the numerical solution of an eikonal-based differential equation. The tests also indicated that the accuracy of the formula depends primarily on the length and the curvature of the reference ray and only weakly depends on anisotropy. The greater is the curvature of the reference ray, the narrower its vicinity, in which the formula yields accurate results.
Waheed, Umair bin
2013-09-01
On several simple models of isotropic and anisotropic media, we have studied the accuracy of the two-point paraxial traveltime formula designed for the approximate calculation of the traveltime between points S\\' and R\\' located in the vicinity of points S and R on a reference ray. The reference ray may be situated in a 3D inhomogeneous isotropic or anisotropic medium with or without smooth curved interfaces. The twopoint paraxial traveltime formula has the form of the Taylor expansion of the two-point traveltime with respect to spatial Cartesian coordinates up to quadratic terms at points S and R on the reference ray. The constant term and the coefficients of the linear and quadratic terms are determined from quantities obtained from ray tracing and linear dynamic ray tracing along the reference ray. The use of linear dynamic ray tracing allows the evaluation of the quadratic terms in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media and, as shown by examples, it extends the region of accurate results around the reference ray between S and R (and even outside this interval) obtained with the linear terms only. Although the formula may be used for very general 3D models, we concentrated on simple 2D models of smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and anisotropic (~8% and ~20% anisotropy) media only. On tests, in which we estimated twopoint traveltimes between a shifted source and a system of shifted receivers, we found that the formula may yield more accurate results than the numerical solution of an eikonal-based differential equation. The tests also indicated that the accuracy of the formula depends primarily on the length and the curvature of the reference ray and only weakly depends on anisotropy. The greater is the curvature of the reference ray, the narrower its vicinity, in which the formula yields accurate results.
Quasi-Rayleigh waves in transversely isotropic half-space with inclined axis of symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yanovskaya, T.B.; Savina, L.S.
2003-09-01
A method for determination of characteristics of quasi-Rayleigh (qR) wave in a transversely isotropic homogeneous half-space with inclined axis of symmetry is outlined. The solution is obtained as a superposition of qP, qSV and qSH waves, and surface wave velocity is determined from the boundary conditions at the free surface and at infinity, as in the case of Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Though the theory is simple enough, a numerical procedure for the calculation of surface wave velocity presents some difficulties. The difficulty is conditioned by necessity to calculate complex roots of a non-linear equation, which in turn contains functions determined as roots of nonlinear equations with complex coefficients. Numerical analysis shows that roots of the equation corresponding to the boundary conditions do not exist in the whole domain of azimuths and inclinations of the symmetry axis. The domain of existence of qR wave depends on the ratio of the elastic parameters: for some strongly anisotropic models the wave cannot exist at all. For some angles of inclination qR wave velocities deviate from those calculated on the basis of the perturbation method valid for weak anisotropy, though they have the same tendency of variation with azimuth. The phase of qR wave varies with depth unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space. Unlike Rayleigh wave in isotropic half-space, qR wave has three components - vertical, radial and transverse. Particle motion in horizontal plane is elliptic. Direction of the major axis of the ellipsis coincide with the direction of propagation only in azimuths 0 deg. (180 deg.) and 90 deg. (270 deg.). (author)
Modeling the subfilter scalar variance for large eddy simulation in forced isotropic turbulence
Cheminet, Adam; Blanquart, Guillaume
2011-11-01
Static and dynamic model for the subfilter scalar variance in homogeneous isotropic turbulence are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a lineary forced passive scalar field. First, we introduce a new scalar forcing technique conditioned only on the scalar field which allows the fluctuating scalar field to reach a statistically stationary state. Statistical properties, including 2nd and 3rd statistical moments, spectra, and probability density functions of the scalar field have been analyzed. Using this technique, we performed constant density and variable density DNS of scalar mixing in isotropic turbulence. The results are used in an a-priori study of scalar variance models. Emphasis is placed on further studying the dynamic model introduced by G. Balarac, H. Pitsch and V. Raman [Phys. Fluids 20, (2008)]. Scalar variance models based on Bedford and Yeo's expansion are accurate for small filter width but errors arise in the inertial subrange. Results suggest that a constant coefficient computed from an assumed Kolmogorov spectrum is often sufficient to predict the subfilter scalar variance.
Decoupled equations for reverse time migration in tilted transversely isotropic media
Zhan, Ge; Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.
2012-01-01
Conventional modeling and migration for tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media may suffer from numerical instabilities and shear wave artifacts due to the coupling of the P-wave and SV-wave modes in the TTI coupled equations. Starting with the separated P- and SV-phase velocity expressions for vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media, we extend these decoupled equations for modeling and reverse time migration (RTM) in acoustic TTI media. Compared with the TTI coupled equations published in the geophysical literature, the new TTI decoupled equations provide a more stable solution due to the complete separation of the P-wave and SV-wave modes. The pseudospectral method is the most convenient method to implement these equations due to the form of wavenumber expressions and has the added benefit of being highly accurate and thus avoiding numerical dispersion. The rapid expansion method (REM) in time is employed to produce a broad band numerically stable time evolution of the wavefields. Synthetic results validate the proposed TTI decoupled equations and show that modeling and RTM in TTI media with the decoupled equations remain numerically stable even for models with strong anisotropy and sharp contrasts. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Decoupled equations for reverse time migration in tilted transversely isotropic media
Zhan, Ge
2012-03-01
Conventional modeling and migration for tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media may suffer from numerical instabilities and shear wave artifacts due to the coupling of the P-wave and SV-wave modes in the TTI coupled equations. Starting with the separated P- and SV-phase velocity expressions for vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media, we extend these decoupled equations for modeling and reverse time migration (RTM) in acoustic TTI media. Compared with the TTI coupled equations published in the geophysical literature, the new TTI decoupled equations provide a more stable solution due to the complete separation of the P-wave and SV-wave modes. The pseudospectral method is the most convenient method to implement these equations due to the form of wavenumber expressions and has the added benefit of being highly accurate and thus avoiding numerical dispersion. The rapid expansion method (REM) in time is employed to produce a broad band numerically stable time evolution of the wavefields. Synthetic results validate the proposed TTI decoupled equations and show that modeling and RTM in TTI media with the decoupled equations remain numerically stable even for models with strong anisotropy and sharp contrasts. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Rong Mei; Zan, Li Rong; Jiao, Li Guang; Ho, Yew Kam
2017-01-01
Spatially confined atoms have been extensively investigated to model atomic systems in extreme pressures. For the simplest hydrogen-like atoms and isotropic harmonic oscillators, numerous physical quantities have been established with very high accuracy. However, the expectation value of which is of practical importance in many applications has significant discrepancies among calculations by different methods. In this work we employed the basis expansion method with cut-off Slater-type orbitals to investigate these two confined systems. Accurate values for several low-lying bound states were obtained by carefully examining the convergence with respect to the size of basis. A scaling law for was derived and it is used to verify the accuracy of numerical results. Comparison with other calculations show that the present results establish benchmark values for this quantity, which may be useful in future studies. (author)
Visualization and computer graphics on isotropically emissive volumetric displays.
Mora, Benjamin; Maciejewski, Ross; Chen, Min; Ebert, David S
2009-01-01
The availability of commodity volumetric displays provides ordinary users with a new means of visualizing 3D data. Many of these displays are in the class of isotropically emissive light devices, which are designed to directly illuminate voxels in a 3D frame buffer, producing X-ray-like visualizations. While this technology can offer intuitive insight into a 3D object, the visualizations are perceptually different from what a computer graphics or visualization system would render on a 2D screen. This paper formalizes rendering on isotropically emissive displays and introduces a novel technique that emulates traditional rendering effects on isotropically emissive volumetric displays, delivering results that are much closer to what is traditionally rendered on regular 2D screens. Such a technique can significantly broaden the capability and usage of isotropically emissive volumetric displays. Our method takes a 3D dataset or object as the input, creates an intermediate light field, and outputs a special 3D volume dataset called a lumi-volume. This lumi-volume encodes approximated rendering effects in a form suitable for display with accumulative integrals along unobtrusive rays. When a lumi-volume is fed directly into an isotropically emissive volumetric display, it creates a 3D visualization with surface shading effects that are familiar to the users. The key to this technique is an algorithm for creating a 3D lumi-volume from a 4D light field. In this paper, we discuss a number of technical issues, including transparency effects due to the dimension reduction and sampling rates for light fields and lumi-volumes. We show the effectiveness and usability of this technique with a selection of experimental results captured from an isotropically emissive volumetric display, and we demonstrate its potential capability and scalability with computer-simulated high-resolution results.
Thermal expansion of doped lanthanum gallates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Administrator
Since the components are in intimate mechanical contact, any stress generated due to their thermal expansion mis- match during thermal cycling could lead to catastrophic failure of the cell. The functional materials must have similar thermal expansions to avoid mechanical stresses. Hence it is useful to study the thermal ...
Isotropic quantum walks on lattices and the Weyl equation
D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Erba, Marco; Perinotti, Paolo
2017-12-01
We present a thorough classification of the isotropic quantum walks on lattices of dimension d =1 ,2 ,3 with a coin system of dimension s =2 . For d =3 there exist two isotropic walks, namely, the Weyl quantum walks presented in the work of D'Ariano and Perinotti [G. M. D'Ariano and P. Perinotti, Phys. Rev. A 90, 062106 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.90.062106], resulting in the derivation of the Weyl equation from informational principles. The present analysis, via a crucial use of isotropy, is significantly shorter and avoids a superfluous technical assumption, making the result completely general.
3D geometrically isotropic metamaterial for telecom wavelengths
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Malureanu, Radu; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2009-01-01
of the unit cell is not infinitely small, certain geometrical constraints have to be fulfilled to obtain an isotropic response of the material [3]. These conditions and the metal behaviour close to the plasma frequency increase the design complexity. Our unit cell is composed of two main parts. The first part...... is obtained in a certain bandwidth. The proposed unit cell has the cubic point group of symmetry and being repeatedly placed in space can effectively reveal isotropic optical properties. We use the CST commercial software to characterise the “cube-in-cage” structure. Reflection and transmission spectra...
Isotropic and anisotropic pinning in TFA-grown YBa2Cu3O7−x films with BaZrO3 nanoparticles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palau, A; Llordés, A; Puig, T; Obradors, X; Bartolomé, E
2011-01-01
YBCO films grown by the trifluoroacetate (TFA) method with increasing number of BaZrO 3 (BZO) nanoparticles have been measured by in-field angular transport measurements to investigate changes in the pinning landscape. The isotropic and anisotropic contributions to the critical current density, J c (H), with the magnetic field applied in H||c and H||ab orientation have been determined, allowing us to characterize the population of isotropic and correlated defects along the c axis and ab planes. First, the influence of the YBCO oxygenation process on the formation of different sorts of anisotropic defects in standard films is demonstrated. Next, we show that the addition of non-coherent BZO nanoparticles to the YBCO matrix produces an expansion of the single-vortex pinning regime toward higher fields, due to the presence of isotropic pinning centers. Moreover, by increasing the amount of isotropic defects in the BZO nanocomposites it is possible to extend the region dominated by strong isotropic pinning centers to large magnetic fields and thus enhance the irreversibility line.
Lagrangian statistics of particle pairs in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
Biferale, L.; Boffeta, G.; Celani, A.; Devenish, B.J.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.
2005-01-01
We present a detailed investigation of the particle pair separation process in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. We use data from direct numerical simulations up to R????280 following the evolution of about two million passive tracers advected by the flow over a time span of about three decades. We
Reconstruction of atomic effective potentials from isotropic scattering factors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romera, E.; Angulo, J.C.; Torres, J.J.
2002-01-01
We present a method for the approximate determination of one-electron effective potentials of many-electron systems from a finite number of values of the isotropic scattering factor. The method is based on the minimum cross-entropy technique. An application to some neutral ground-state atomic systems has been done within a Hartree-Fock framework
Geometry of the isotropic oscillator driven by the conformal mode
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galajinsky, Anton [Tomsk Polytechnic University, School of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)
2018-01-15
Geometrization of a Lagrangian conservative system typically amounts to reformulating its equations of motion as the geodesic equations in a properly chosen curved spacetime. The conventional methods include the Jacobi metric and the Eisenhart lift. In this work, a modification of the Eisenhart lift is proposed which describes the isotropic oscillator in arbitrary dimension driven by the one-dimensional conformal mode. (orig.)
A simple mechanical model for the isotropic harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nita, Gelu M
2010-01-01
A constrained elastic pendulum is proposed as a simple mechanical model for the isotropic harmonic oscillator. The conceptual and mathematical simplicity of this model recommends it as an effective pedagogical tool in teaching basic physics concepts at advanced high school and introductory undergraduate course levels.
Homogenization and isotropization of an inflationary cosmological model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, J.D.; Groen, Oe.; Oslo Univ.
1986-01-01
A member of the class of anisotropic and inhomogeneous cosmological models constructed by Wainwright and Goode is investigated. It is shown to describe a universe containing a scalar field which is minimally coupled to gravitation and a positive cosmological constant. It is shown that this cosmological model evolves exponentially rapidly towards the homogeneous and isotropic de Sitter universe model. (orig.)
Isotropic gates in large gamma detector arrays versus angular distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iacob, V.E.; Duchene, G.
1997-01-01
The quality of the angular distribution information extracted from high-fold gamma-gamma coincidence events is analyzed. It is shown that a correct quasi-isotropic gate setting, available at the modern large gamma-ray detector arrays, essentially preserves the quality of the angular information. (orig.)
direct method of analysis of an isotropic rectangular plate direct
African Journals Online (AJOL)
eobe
This work evaluates the static analysis of an isotropic rectangular plate with various the static analysis ... method according to Ritz is used to obtain the total potential energy of the plate by employing the used to ..... for rectangular plates analysis, as the behavior of the ... results obtained by previous research work that used.
Transformation optics, isotropic chiral media and non-Riemannian geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horsley, S A R
2011-01-01
The geometrical interpretation of electromagnetism in transparent media (transformation optics) is extended to include chiral media that are isotropic but inhomogeneous. It was found that such media may be described through introducing the non-Riemannian geometrical property of torsion into the Maxwell equations, and it is shown how such an interpretation may be applied to the design of optical devices.
Thermal expansion model for multiphase electronic packaging materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Allred, B.E.; Warren, W.E.
1991-01-01
Control of thermal expansion is often necessary in the design and selection of electronic packages. In some instances, it is desirable to have a coefficient of thermal expansion intermediate between values readily attainable with single or two phase materials. The addition of a third phase in the form of fillers, whiskers, or fibers can be used to attain intermediate expansions. To help design the thermal expansion of multiphase materials for specific applications, a closed form model has been developed that accurately predicts the effective elastic properties of isotropic filled materials and transversely isotropic lamina. Properties of filled matrix materials are used as inputs to the lamina model to obtain the composite elastic properties as a function of the volume fraction of each phase. Hybrid composites with two or more fiber types are easily handled with this model. This paper reports that results for glass, quartz, and Kevlar fibers with beta-eucryptite filled polymer matrices show good agreement with experimental results for X, Y, and Z thermal expansion coefficients
Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward
2017-09-12
Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.
Negative thermal expansion near two structural quantum phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Occhialini, Connor A.; Handunkanda, Sahan U.; Said, Ayman; Trivedi, Sudhir; Guzmán-Verri, G. G.; Hancock, Jason N.
2017-12-01
Recent experimental work has revealed that the unusually strong, isotropic structural negative thermal expansion in cubic perovskite ionic insulator ScF3 occurs in excited states above a ground state tuned very near a structural quantum phase transition, posing a question of fundamental interest as to whether this special circumstance is related to the anomalous behavior. To test this hypothesis, we report an elastic and inelastic x-ray scattering study of a second system Hg2I2 also tuned near a structural quantum phase transition while retaining stoichiometric composition and high crystallinity. We find similar behavior and significant negative thermal expansion below 100 K for dimensions along the body-centered-tetragonal c axis, bolstering the connection between negative thermal expansion and zero-temperature structural transitions.We identify the common traits between these systems and propose a set of materials design principles that can guide discovery of newmaterials exhibiting negative thermal expansion
Pan, E.; Chen, J. Y.; Bevis, M.; Bordoni, A.; Barletta, V. R.; Molavi Tabrizi, A.
2015-12-01
We present an analytical solution for the elastic deformation of an elastic, transversely isotropic, layered and self-gravitating Earth by surface loads. We first introduce the vector spherical harmonics to express the physical quantities in the layered Earth. This reduces the governing equations to a linear system of equations for the expansion coefficients. We then solve for the expansion coefficients analytically under the assumption (i.e. approximation) that in the mantle, the density in each layer varies as 1/r (where r is the radial coordinate) while the gravity is constant and that in the core the gravity in each layer varies linearly in r with constant density. These approximations dramatically simplify the subsequent mathematical analysis and render closed-form expressions for the expansion coefficients. We implement our solution in a MATLAB code and perform a benchmark which shows both the correctness of our solution and the implementation. We also calculate the load Love numbers (LLNs) of the PREM Earth for different degrees of the Legendre function for both isotropic and transversely isotropic, layered mantles with different core models, demonstrating for the first time the effect of Earth anisotropy on the LLNs.
Numerical implementation of a transverse-isotropic inelastic, work-hardening constitutive model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baladi, G.Y.
1977-01-01
This paper documents the numerical implementation of a model, specifically a transverse-isotropic, inelastic, work-hardening constitutive model. A brief overview of the mathematical formulation of the model is presented to facilitate the understanding of its numerical implementation. The model is based on incremental flow theories for materials which have time- and temperature-independent properties and which are capable of undergoing small plastic as well as small elastic strain at each loading increment. In addition, the model is written in terms of 'pseudo' stress invariants so that the incremental anisotropic stress-strain relationship can be readily incorporated into existing finite-difference or finite-element computer codes. The isotropic version of the model is retrieved without any changes in the mathematical formulation or in the numerical implementation (algorithm) of the model. Various methods exist for incorporating inelastic constitutive models into computer programs. The method presented in this paper is appropriate for both finite-difference and finite-element codes, and is applicable for solving static as wall as dynamic problems. This method expresses the material constitutive properties as a matrix of coefficients, C (generalized tangent moduli), which relates incremental stresses to incremental strains. It possesses desirable convergence properties. In either finite-difference or finite-element applications the input quantities are the initial stress components, obtained at the end of the previous strain increment, and the new strain increments. The output quantities are the new values of the stress components
Isotropic Optical Mouse Placement for Mobile Robot Velocity Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sungbok Kim
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the isotropic placement of multiple optical mice for the velocity estimation of a mobile robot. It is assumed that there can be positional restriction on the installation of optical mice at the bottom of a mobile robot. First, the velocity kinematics of a mobile robot with an array of optical mice is obtained and the resulting Jacobian matrix is analysed symbolically. Second, the isotropic, anisotropic and singular optical mouse placements are identified, along with the corresponding characteristic lengths. Third, the least squares mobile robot velocity estimation from the noisy optical mouse velocity measurements is discussed. Finally, simulation results for several different placements of three optical mice are given.
Study of open systems with molecules in isotropic liquids
Kondo, Yasushi; Matsuzaki, Masayuki
2018-05-01
We are interested in dynamics of a system in an environment, or an open system. Such phenomena as crossover from Markovian to non-Markovian relaxation and thermal equilibration are of our interest. Open systems have experimentally been studied with ultra cold atoms, ions in traps, optics, and cold electric circuits because well-isolated systems can be prepared here and thus the effects of environments can be controlled. We point out that some molecules solved in isotropic liquid are well isolated and thus they can also be employed for studying open systems in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) experiments. First, we provide a short review on related phenomena of open systems that helps readers to understand our motivation. We, then, present two experiments as examples of our approach with molecules in isotropic liquids. Crossover from Markovian to non-Markovian relaxation was realized in one NMR experiment, while relaxation-like phenomena were observed in approximately isolated systems in the other.
Self-confinement of finite dust clusters in isotropic plasmas.
Miloshevsky, G V; Hassanein, A
2012-05-01
Finite two-dimensional dust clusters are systems of a small number of charged grains. The self-confinement of dust clusters in isotropic plasmas is studied using the particle-in-cell method. The energetically favorable configurations of grains in plasma are found that are due to the kinetic effects of plasma ions and electrons. The self-confinement phenomenon is attributed to the change in the plasma composition within a dust cluster resulting in grain attraction mediated by plasma ions. This is a self-consistent state of a dust cluster in which grain's repulsion is compensated by the reduced charge and floating potential on grains, overlapped ion clouds, and depleted electrons within a cluster. The common potential well is formed trapping dust clusters in the confined state. These results provide both valuable insights and a different perspective to the classical view on the formation of boundary-free dust clusters in isotropic plasmas.
Geometrical considerations in analyzing isotropic or anisotropic surface reflections.
Simonot, Lionel; Obein, Gael
2007-05-10
The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) represents the evolution of the reflectance with the directions of incidence and observation. Today BRDF measurements are increasingly applied and have become important to the study of the appearance of surfaces. The representation and the analysis of BRDF data are discussed, and the distortions caused by the traditional representation of the BRDF in a Fourier plane are pointed out and illustrated for two theoretical cases: an isotropic surface and a brushed surface. These considerations will help characterize either the specular peak width of an isotropic rough surface or the main directions of the light scattered by an anisotropic rough surface without misinterpretations. Finally, what is believed to be a new space is suggested for the representation of the BRDF, which avoids the geometrical deformations and in numerous cases is more convenient for BRDF analysis.
Isotropic gates and large gamma detector arrays versus angular distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iacob, V.E.; Duchene, G.
1997-01-01
Angular information extracted from in-beam γ ray measurements are of great importance for γ ray multipolarity and nuclear spin assignments. In our days large Ge detector arrays became available allowing the measurements of extremely weak γ rays in almost 4π sr solid angle (e.g., EUROGAM detector array). Given the high detector efficiency it is common for the mean suppressed coincidence multiplicity to reach values as high as 4 to 6. Thus, it is possible to gate on particular γ rays in order to enhance the relative statistics of a definite reaction channel and/or a definite decaying path in the level scheme of the selected residual nucleus. As compared to angular correlations, the conditioned angular distribution spectra exhibit larger statistics because in the latter the gate-setting γ ray may be observed by all the detectors in the array, relaxing somehow the geometrical restrictions of the angular correlations. Since the in-beam γ ray emission is anisotropic one could inquire that gate setting as mentioned above, based on anisotropic γ ray which would perturb the angular distributions in the unfolded events. As our work proved, there is no reason to worry about this if the energy gate runs over the whole solid angle in an ideal 4π sr detector, i.e., if the gate is isotropic. In real quasi 4π sr detector arrays the corresponding quasi isotropic gate preserves the angular properties of the unfolded data, too. However extraction of precise angular distribution coefficient especially a 4 , requires the consideration of the deviation of the quasi isotropic gate relative to the (ideal) isotropic gate
Electromagnetic illusion with isotropic and homogeneous materials through scattering manipulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang, Fan; Mei, Zhong Lei; Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun
2015-01-01
A new isotropic and homogeneous illusion device for electromagnetic waves is proposed. This single-shelled device can change the fingerprint of the covered object into another one by manipulating the scattering of the composite structure. We show that an electrically small sphere can be disguised as another small one with different electromagnetic parameters. The device can even make a dielectric sphere (electrically small) behave like a conducting one. Full-wave simulations confirm the performance of proposed illusion device. (paper)
Liquid crystalline states of surfactant solutions of isotropic micelles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagdassarian, C.; Gelbart, W.M.; Ben-Shaul, A.
1988-01-01
We consider micellar solutions whose surfactant molecules prefer strongly to form small, globular aggregates in the absence of intermicellar interactions. At sufficiently high volume fraction of surfactant, the isotropic phase of essentially spherical micelles is shown to be unstable with respect to an orientationally ordered (nematic) state of rodlike aggregates. This behavior is relevant to the phase diagrams reported for important classes of aqueous amphiphilic solutions
Monopole-fermion systems in the complex isotropic tetrad formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gal'tsov, D.V.; Ershov, A.A.
1988-01-01
The interaction of fermions of arbitrary isospin with regular magnetic monopoles and dyons of the group SU(2) and also with point gravitating monopoles and dyons of the Wu-Yang type described by the Reissner-Nordstrom metric are studied using the Newman-Penrose complex isotropic tetrad formalism. Formulas for the bound-state spectrum and explicit expressions for the zero modes are obtained and the Rubakov-Callan effect for black holes is discussed
Negative thermal expansion materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, J.S.O.
1997-01-01
The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2 O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2 (MO 4 ) 3 . Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed. (orig.)
The Isotropic Radio Background and Annihilating Dark Matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Belikov, Alexander V. [Institut d' Astrophysique (France); Jeltema, Tesla E. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Linden, Tim [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Profumo, Stefano [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)
2012-11-01
Observations by ARCADE-2 and other telescopes sensitive to low frequency radiation have revealed the presence of an isotropic radio background with a hard spectral index. The intensity of this observed background is found to exceed the flux predicted from astrophysical sources by a factor of approximately 5-6. In this article, we consider the possibility that annihilating dark matter particles provide the primary contribution to the observed isotropic radio background through the emission of synchrotron radiation from electron and positron annihilation products. For reasonable estimates of the magnetic fields present in clusters and galaxies, we find that dark matter could potentially account for the observed radio excess, but only if it annihilates mostly to electrons and/or muons, and only if it possesses a mass in the range of approximately 5-50 GeV. For such models, the annihilation cross section required to normalize the synchrotron signal to the observed excess is sigma v ~ (0.4-30) x 10^-26 cm^3/s, similar to the value predicted for a simple thermal relic (sigma v ~ 3 x 10^-26 cm^3/s). We find that in any scenario in which dark matter annihilations are responsible for the observed excess radio emission, a significant fraction of the isotropic gamma ray background observed by Fermi must result from dark matter as well.
Superfluid H3e in globally isotropic random media
Ikeda, Ryusuke; Aoyama, Kazushi
2009-02-01
Recent theoretical and experimental studies of superfluid H3e in aerogels with a global anisotropy created, e.g., by an external stress have definitely shown that the A -like phase with an equal-spin pairing in such aerogel samples is in the Anderson-Brinkman-Morel (ABM) (or axial) pairing state. In this paper, the A -like phase of superfluid H3e in globally isotropic aerogel is studied in detail by assuming a weakly disordered system in which singular topological defects are absent. Through calculation of the free energy, a disordered ABM state is found to be the best candidate of the pairing state of the globally isotropic A -like phase. Further, it is found through a one-loop renormalization-group calculation that the coreless continuous vortices (or vortex-Skyrmions) are irrelevant to the long-distance behavior of disorder-induced textures, and that the superfluidity is maintained in spite of lack of the conventional superfluid long-range order. Therefore, the globally isotropic A -like phase at weak disorder is, like in the case with a globally stretched anisotropy, a glass phase with the ABM pairing and shows superfluidity.
Isotropic transmission of magnon spin information without a magnetic field.
Haldar, Arabinda; Tian, Chang; Adeyeye, Adekunle Olusola
2017-07-01
Spin-wave devices (SWD), which use collective excitations of electronic spins as a carrier of information, are rapidly emerging as potential candidates for post-semiconductor non-charge-based technology. Isotropic in-plane propagating coherent spin waves (magnons), which require magnetization to be out of plane, is desirable in an SWD. However, because of lack of availability of low-damping perpendicular magnetic material, a usually well-known in-plane ferrimagnet yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is used with a large out-of-plane bias magnetic field, which tends to hinder the benefits of isotropic spin waves. We experimentally demonstrate an SWD that eliminates the requirement of external magnetic field to obtain perpendicular magnetization in an otherwise in-plane ferromagnet, Ni 80 Fe 20 or permalloy (Py), a typical choice for spin-wave microconduits. Perpendicular anisotropy in Py, as established by magnetic hysteresis measurements, was induced by the exchange-coupled Co/Pd multilayer. Isotropic propagation of magnon spin information has been experimentally shown in microconduits with three channels patterned at arbitrary angles.
Depth migration in transversely isotropic media with explicit operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uzcategui, Omar [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)
1994-12-01
The author presents and analyzes three approaches to calculating explicit two-dimensional (2D) depth-extrapolation filters for all propagation modes (P, SV, and SH) in transversely isotropic media with vertical and tilted axis of symmetry. These extrapolation filters are used to do 2D poststack depth migration, and also, just as for isotropic media, these 2D filters are used in the McClellan transformation to do poststack 3D depth migration. Furthermore, the same explicit filters can also be used to do depth-extrapolation of prestack data. The explicit filters are derived by generalizations of three different approaches: the modified Taylor series, least-squares, and minimax methods initially developed for isotropic media. The examples here show that the least-squares and minimax methods produce filters with accurate extrapolation (measured in the ability to position steep reflectors) for a wider range of propagation angles than that obtained using the modified Taylor series method. However, for low propagation angles, the modified Taylor series method has smaller amplitude and phase errors than those produced by the least-squares and minimax methods. These results suggest that to get accurate amplitude estimation, modified Taylor series filters would be somewhat preferred in areas with low dips. In areas with larger dips, the least-squares and minimax methods would give a distinctly better delineation of the subsurface structures.
Lattice Boltzmann model for three-dimensional decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Hui; Tao Wenquan; Zhang Yan
2009-01-01
We implement a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence based on an analogous Galerkin filter and focus on the fundamental statistical isotropic property. This regularized method is constructed based on orthogonal Hermite polynomial space. For decaying homogeneous isotropic turbulence, this regularized method can simulate the isotropic property very well. Numerical studies demonstrate that the novel regularized LBM is a promising approximation of turbulent fluid flows, which paves the way for coupling various turbulent models with LBM
Expansion of passive safety function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inai, Nobuhiko; Nei, Hiromichi; Kumada, Toshiaki.
1995-01-01
Expansion of the use of passive safety functions is proposed. Two notions are presented. One is that, in the design of passive safety nuclear reactors where aversion of active components is stressed, some active components are purposely introduced, by which a system is built in such a way that it behaves in an apparently passive manner. The second notion is that, instead of using a passive safety function alone, a passive safety function is combined with some active components, relating the passivity in the safety function with enhanced controllability in normal operation. The nondormant system which the authors propose is one example of the first notion. This is a system in which a standby safety system is a portion of the normal operation system. An interpretation of the nondormant system via synergetics is made. As an example of the second notion, a PIUS density lock aided with active components is proposed and is discussed
The Galactic Isotropic γ-ray Background and Implications for Dark Matter
Campbell, Sheldon S.; Kwa, Anna; Kaplinghat, Manoj
2018-06-01
We present an analysis of the radial angular profile of the galacto-isotropic (GI) γ-ray flux-the statistically uniform flux in angular annuli centred on the Galactic centre. Two different approaches are used to measure the GI flux profile in 85 months of Fermi-LAT data: the BDS statistical method which identifies spatial correlations, and a new Poisson ordered-pixel method which identifies non-Poisson contributions. Both methods produce similar GI flux profiles. The GI flux profile is well-described by an existing model of bremsstrahlung, π0 production, inverse Compton scattering, and the isotropic background. Discrepancies with data in our full-sky model are not present in the GI component, and are therefore due to mis-modelling of the non-GI emission. Dark matter annihilation constraints based solely on the observed GI profile are close to the thermal WIMP cross section below 100 GeV, for fixed models of the dark matter density profile and astrophysical γ-ray foregrounds. Refined measurements of the GI profile are expected to improve these constraints by a factor of a few.
Parametric study of the deformation of transversely isotropic discs under diametral compression
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christos F. Markides
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The displacement field in a circular disc made of a transversely isotropic material is explored in a parametric manner. The disc is assumed to be loaded by a parabolic distribution of compressive radial stresses along two finite arcs of its periphery in the absence of any tangential (frictional stresses. Advantage is here taken of a recently introduced closed-form analytic solution for the displacement field developed in an orthotropic disc under diametral compression which was achieved adopting the complex potentials technique for rectilinear anisotropic materials as it was formulated in the pioneering work of S.G. Lekhnitskii. The analytic nature of this solution permits thorough, indepth exploration of the influence of some crucial parameters on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the deformation of transversely isotropic circular discs compressed between the jaws of the devise suggested by the International Society for Rock Mechanics for the standardized implementation of the Brazilian-disc test. The parameters considered include the anisotropy ratio (i.e., the ratio of the two elastic moduli characterizing the disc material, the angle between the loading axis and the planes of transverse isotropy and the length of the loaded arcs. Strongly non-linear relationships between these parameters and the components of the displacement field are revealed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bammann, Douglas J.; Johnson, G. C. (University of California, Berkeley, CA); Marin, Esteban B.; Regueiro, Richard A. (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO)
2006-01-01
In this report we present the formulation of the physically-based Evolving Microstructural Model of Inelasticity (EMMI) . The specific version of the model treated here describes the plasticity and isotropic damage of metals as being currently applied to model the ductile failure process in structural components of the W80 program . The formulation of the EMMI constitutive equations is framed in the context of the large deformation kinematics of solids and the thermodynamics of internal state variables . This formulation is focused first on developing the plasticity equations in both the relaxed (unloaded) and current configurations. The equations in the current configuration, expressed in non-dimensional form, are used to devise the identification procedure for the plasticity parameters. The model is then extended to include a porosity-based isotropic damage state variable to describe the progressive deterioration of the strength and mechanical properties of metals induced by deformation . The numerical treatment of these coupled plasticity-damage constitutive equations is explained in detail. A number of examples are solved to validate the numerical implementation of the model.
Rocking Rotation of a Rigid Disk Embedded in a Transversely Isotropic Half-Space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed Ahmadi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The asymmetric problem of rocking rotation of a circular rigid disk embedded in a finite depth of a transversely isotropic half-space is analytically addressed. The rigid disk is assumed to be in frictionless contact with the elastic half-space. By virtue of appropriate Green's functions, the mixed boundary value problem is written as a dual integral equation. Employing further mathematical techniques, the integral equation is reduced to a well-known Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. The results related to the contact stress distribution across the disk region and the equivalent rocking stiffness of the system are expressed in terms of the solution of the obtained Fredholm integral equation. When the rigid disk is located on the surface or at the remote boundary, the exact closed-form solutions are presented. For verification purposes, the limiting case of an isotropic half-space is considered and the results are verified with those available in the literature. The jump behavior in the results at the edge of the rigid disk for the case of an infinitesimal embedment is highlighted analytically for the first time. Selected numerical results are depicted for the contact stress distribution across the disk region, rocking stiffness of the system, normal stress, and displacement components along the radial axis. Moreover, effects of anisotropy on the rocking stiffness factor are discussed in detail.
Perruisseau-Carrier, A; Bahlouli, N; Bierry, G; Vernet, P; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P
2017-12-01
Augmented reality could help the identification of nerve structures in brachial plexus surgery. The goal of this study was to determine which law of mechanical behavior was more adapted by comparing the results of Hooke's isotropic linear elastic law to those of Ogden's isotropic hyperelastic law, applied to a biomechanical model of the brachial plexus. A model of finite elements was created using the ABAQUS ® from a 3D model of the brachial plexus acquired by segmentation and meshing of MRI images at 0°, 45° and 135° of shoulder abduction of a healthy subject. The offset between the reconstructed model and the deformed model was evaluated quantitatively by the Hausdorff distance and qualitatively by the identification of 3 anatomical landmarks. In every case the Hausdorff distance was shorter with Ogden's law compared to Hooke's law. On a qualitative aspect, the model deformed by Ogden's law followed the concavity of the reconstructed model whereas the model deformed by Hooke's law remained convex. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that the behavior of Ogden's isotropic hyperelastic mechanical model was more adapted to the modeling of the deformations of the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Di Bernardo, G; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gaggero, D; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hughes, R E; Itoh, R; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sellerholm, A; Sgrò, C; Shaw, M S; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M
2010-03-12
We report on the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) measurements of the so-called "extragalactic" diffuse gamma-ray emission (EGB). This component of the diffuse gamma-ray emission is generally considered to have an isotropic or nearly isotropic distribution on the sky with diverse contributions discussed in the literature. The derivation of the EGB is based on detailed modeling of the bright foreground diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission, the detected LAT sources, and the solar gamma-ray emission. We find the spectrum of the EGB is consistent with a power law with a differential spectral index gamma = 2.41 +/- 0.05 and intensity I(>100 MeV) = (1.03 +/- 0.17) x 10(-5) cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1), where the error is systematics dominated. Our EGB spectrum is featureless, less intense, and softer than that derived from EGRET data.
Intra-connected three-dimensionally isotropic bulk negative index photonic metamaterial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guney, Durdu; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas
2010-01-01
Isotropic negative index metamaterials (NIMs) are highly desired, particularly for the realization of ultra-high resolution lenses. However, existing isotropic NIMs function only two-dimensionally and cannot be miniaturized beyond microwaves. Direct laser writing processes can be a paradigm shift toward the fabrication of three-dimensionally (3D) isotropic bulk optical metamaterials, but only at the expense of an additional design constraint, namely connectivity. Here, we demonstrate with a proof-of-principle design that the requirement connectivity does not preclude fully isotropic left-handed behavior. This is an important step towards the realization of bulk 3D isotropic NIMs at optical wavelengths.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dzenus, M.; Hundhausen, W.; Jansing, W.
1979-10-15
This discourse recounts efforts put into the SNR-2 project; specifically the development of compensation devices. The various prototypes of these compensation devices are described and the state of development reviewed. The expansion joints were developed on the basis of specific design criteria whereby differentiation is made between expansion joints of small and large nominal diameter. Expansion joints for installation in the sodium-filled primary piping are equipped with safety bellows in addition to the actual working bellows.
Atom-partitioned multipole expansions for electrostatic potential boundary conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, M., E-mail: michael.s.lee131.civ@mail.mil [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Leiter, K. [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Eisner, C. [Secure Mission Solutions, a Parsons Company (United States); Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Knap, J. [Simulation Sciences Branch, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States)
2017-01-01
Applications such as grid-based real-space density functional theory (DFT) use the Poisson equation to compute electrostatics. However, the expected long tail of the electrostatic potential requires either the use of a large and costly outer domain or Dirichlet boundary conditions estimated via multipole expansion. We find that the oft-used single-center spherical multipole expansion is only appropriate for isotropic mesh domains such as spheres and cubes. In this work, we introduce a method suitable for high aspect ratio meshes whereby the charge density is partitioned into atomic domains and multipoles are computed for each domain. While this approach is moderately more expensive than a single-center expansion, it is numerically stable and still a small fraction of the overall cost of a DFT calculation. The net result is that when high aspect ratio systems are being studied, form-fitted meshes can now be used in lieu of cubic meshes to gain computational speedup.
Cosmic growth history and expansion history
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linder, Eric V.
2005-01-01
The cosmic expansion history tests the dynamics of the global evolution of the universe and its energy density contents, while the cosmic growth history tests the evolution of the inhomogeneous part of the energy density. Precision comparison of the two histories can distinguish the nature of the physics responsible for the accelerating cosmic expansion: an additional smooth component--dark energy--or a modification of the gravitational field equations. With the aid of a new fitting formula for linear perturbation growth accurate to 0.05%-0.2%, we separate out the growth dependence on the expansion history and introduce a new growth index parameter γ that quantifies the gravitational modification
On a hierarchical construction of the anisotropic LTSN solution from the isotropic LTSN solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foletto, Taline; Segatto, Cynthia F.; Bodmann, Bardo E.; Vilhena, Marco T.
2015-01-01
In this work, we present a recursive scheme targeting the hierarchical construction of anisotropic LTS N solution from the isotropic LTS N solution. The main idea relies in the decomposition of the associated LTS N anisotropic matrix as a sum of two matrices in which one matrix contains the isotropic and the other anisotropic part of the problem. The matrix containing the anisotropic part is considered as the source of the isotropic problem. The solution of this problem is made by the decomposition of the angular flux as a truncated series of intermediate functions and replace in the isotropic equation. After the replacement of these into the split isotropic equation, we construct a set of isotropic recursive problems, that are readily solved by the classic LTS N isotropic method. We apply this methodology to solve problems considering homogeneous and heterogeneous anisotropic regions. Numerical results are presented and compared with the classical LTS N anisotropic solution. (author)
2D XXZ model ground state properties using an analytic Lanczos expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witte, N.S.; Hollenberg, L.C.L.; Weihong Zheng
1997-01-01
A formalism was developed for calculating arbitrary expectation values for any extensive lattice Hamiltonian system using a new analytic Lanczos expansion, or plaquette expansion, and a recently proved exact theorem for ground state energies. The ground state energy, staggered magnetisation and the excited state gap of the 2D anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Model are then calculated using this expansion for a range of anisotropy parameters and compared to other moment based techniques, such as the t-expansion, and spin-wave theory and series expansion methods. It was found that far from the isotropic point all moment methods give essentially very similar results, but near the isotopic point the plaquette expansion is generally better than the others. 20 refs., 6 tabs
Effects of isotropic alpha populations on tokamak ballooning stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spong, D.A.; Sigmar, D.J.; Tsang, K.T.; Ramos, J.J.; Hastings, D.E.; Cooper, W.A.
1986-12-01
Fusion product alpha populations can significantly influence tokamak stability due to coupling between the trapped alpha precessional drift and the kinetic ballooning mode frequency. Careful, quantitative evaluations of these effects are necessary in burning plasma devices such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and the Joint European Torus, and we have continued systematic development of such a kinetic stability model. In this model we have considered a range of different forms for the alpha distribution function and the tokamak equilibrium. Both Maxwellian and slowing-down models have been used for the alpha energy dependence while deeply trapped and, more recently, isotropic pitch angle dependences have been examined
Anisotropy in "isotropic diffusion" measurements due to nongaussian diffusion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jespersen, Sune Nørhøj; Olesen, Jonas Lynge; Ianuş, Andrada
2017-01-01
Designing novel diffusion-weighted NMR and MRI pulse sequences aiming to probe tissue microstructure with techniques extending beyond the conventional Stejskal-Tanner family is currently of broad interest. One such technique, multidimensional diffusion MRI, has been recently proposed to afford...... model-free decomposition of diffusion signal kurtosis into terms originating from either ensemble variance of isotropic diffusivity or microscopic diffusion anisotropy. This ability rests on the assumption that diffusion can be described as a sum of multiple Gaussian compartments, but this is often...
Isotropic 2D quadrangle meshing with size and orientation control
Pellenard, Bertrand
2011-12-01
We propose an approach for automatically generating isotropic 2D quadrangle meshes from arbitrary domains with a fine control over sizing and orientation of the elements. At the heart of our algorithm is an optimization procedure that, from a coarse initial tiling of the 2D domain, enforces each of the desirable mesh quality criteria (size, shape, orientation, degree, regularity) one at a time, in an order designed not to undo previous enhancements. Our experiments demonstrate how well our resulting quadrangle meshes conform to a wide range of input sizing and orientation fields.
Observation of transverse patterns in an isotropic microchip laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Y.F.; Lan, Y.P.
2003-01-01
An isotropic microchip laser is used to study the characteristics of high-order wave functions in a two-dimensional (2D) quantum harmonic oscillator based on the identical functional forms. With a doughnut pump profile, the spontaneous transverse modes are found to, generally, be elliptic and hyperbolic transverse modes. Theoretical analyses reveal that the elliptic transverse modes are analogous to the coherent states of a 2D harmonic oscillator; the formation of hyperbolic transverse modes is a spontaneous mode locking between two identical Hermite-Gaussian modes
Homogenous isotropic invisible cloak based on geometrical optics.
Sun, Jingbo; Zhou, Ji; Kang, Lei
2008-10-27
Invisible cloak derived from the coordinate transformation requires its constitutive material to be anisotropic. In this work, we present a cloak of graded-index isotropic material based on the geometrical optics theory. The cloak is realized by concentric multilayered structure with designed refractive index to achieve the low-scattering and smooth power-flow. Full-wave simulations on such a design of a cylindrical cloak are performed to demonstrate the cloaking ability to incident wave of any polarization. Using normal nature material with isotropy and low absorption, the cloak shows light on a practical path to stealth technology, especially that in the optical range.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Jun
2015-01-01
Full Text Available To determine fracture parameters of interfacial cracks in transverse isotropic magnetoelectroelastic composites, a displacement extrapolation formula was derived. The matrix-form formula can be applicable for both material components with arbitrary poling directions. The corresponding explicit expression of this formula was obtained for each poling direction normal to the crack plane. This displacement extrapolation formula is only related to the boundary quantities of the extended crack opening displacements across crack faces, which is convenient for numerical applications, especially for BEM. Meantime, an alternative extrapolation formula based on the path-independent J-integral and displacement ratios was presented which may be more adaptable for any domain-based numerical techniques like FEM. A numerical example was presented to show the correctness of these formulae.
Response to defects in multipartite and bipartite entanglement of isotropic quantum spin networks
Roy, Sudipto Singha; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Rakshit, Debraj; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal
2018-05-01
Quantum networks are an integral component in performing efficient computation and communication tasks that are not accessible using classical systems. A key aspect in designing an effective and scalable quantum network is generating entanglement between its nodes, which is robust against defects in the network. We consider an isotropic quantum network of spin-1/2 particles with a finite fraction of defects, where the corresponding wave function of the network is rotationally invariant under the action of local unitaries. By using quantum information-theoretic concepts like strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy and approximate quantum telecloning, we prove analytically that in the presence of defects, caused by loss of a finite fraction of spins, the network, composed of a fixed numbers of lattice sites, sustains genuine multisite entanglement and at the same time may exhibit finite moderate-range bipartite entanglement, in contrast to the network with no defects.
Convergence of mayer expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brydges, D.C.
1986-01-01
The tree graph bound of Battle and Federbush is extended and used to provide a simple criterion for the convergence of (iterated) Mayer expansions. As an application estimates on the radius of convergence of the Mayer expansion for the two-dimensional Yukawa gas (nonstable interaction) are obtained
Geometric Models for Isotropic Random Porous Media: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helmut Hermann
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Models for random porous media are considered. The models are isotropic both from the local and the macroscopic point of view; that is, the pores have spherical shape or their surface shows piecewise spherical curvature, and there is no macroscopic gradient of any geometrical feature. Both closed-pore and open-pore systems are discussed. The Poisson grain model, the model of hard spheres packing, and the penetrable sphere model are used; variable size distribution of the pores is included. A parameter is introduced which controls the degree of open-porosity. Besides systems built up by a single solid phase, models for porous media with the internal surface coated by a second phase are treated. Volume fraction, surface area, and correlation functions are given explicitly where applicable; otherwise numerical methods for determination are described. Effective medium theory is applied to calculate physical properties for the models such as isotropic elastic moduli, thermal and electrical conductivity, and static dielectric constant. The methods presented are exemplified by applications: small-angle scattering of systems showing fractal-like behavior in limited ranges of linear dimension, optimization of nanoporous insulating materials, and improvement of properties of open-pore systems by atomic layer deposition of a second phase on the internal surface.
Isotropic extensions of the vacuum solutions in general relativity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Molina, C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Martin-Moruno, Prado [Victoria University of Wellington (New Zealand); Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (Spain)
2012-07-01
Full text: Spacetimes described by spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations are of paramount importance both in astrophysical applications and theoretical considerations. And among those, black holes are highlighted. In vacuum, Birkhoff's theorem and its generalizations to non-asymptotically flat cases uniquely fix the metric as the Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild-de Sitter or Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter geometries, the vacuum solutions of the usual general relativity with zero, positive or negative values for the cosmological constant, respectively. In this work we are mainly interested in black holes in a cosmological environment. Of the two main assumptions of the cosmological principle, homogeneity is lost when compact objects are considered. Nevertheless isotropy is still possible, and we enforce this condition. Within this context, we investigate spatially isotropic solutions close - continuously deformable - to the usual vacuum solutions. We obtain isotropic extensions of the usual spherically symmetric vacuum geometries in general relativity. Exact and perturbative solutions are derived. Maximal extensions are constructed and their causal structures are discussed. The classes of geometries obtained include black holes in compact and non-compact universes, wormholes in the interior region of cosmological horizons, and anti-de Sitter geometries with excess/deficit solid angle. The tools developed here are applicable in more general contexts, with extensions subjected to other constraints. (author)
ISOTROPIC LUMINOSITY INDICATORS IN A COMPLETE AGN SAMPLE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Rieke, George H.; Rigby, Jane R.
2009-01-01
The [O IV] λ25.89 μm line has been shown to be an accurate indicator of active galactic nucleus (AGN) intrinsic luminosity in that it correlates well with hard (10-200 keV) X-ray emission. We present measurements of [O IV] for 89 Seyfert galaxies from the unbiased revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) sample. The [O IV] luminosity distributions of obscured and unobscured Seyferts are indistinguishable, indicating that their intrinsic AGN luminosities are quite similar and that the RSA sample is well suited for tests of the unified model. In addition, we analyze several commonly used proxies for AGN luminosity, including [O III] λ5007 A, 6 cm radio, and 2-10 keV X-ray emission. We find that the radio luminosity distributions of obscured and unobscured AGNs show no significant difference, indicating that radio luminosity is a useful isotropic luminosity indicator. However, the observed [O III] and 2-10 keV luminosities are systematically smaller for obscured Seyferts, indicating that they are not emitted isotropically.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abazajian, Kevork N.; Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kilic, Can, E-mail: kev@umd.edu, E-mail: apr@umd.edu, E-mail: zchacko@umd.edu, E-mail: kilic@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)
2010-11-01
We examine the constraints on final state radiation from Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates annihilating into various standard model final states, as imposed by the measurement of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The expected isotropic diffuse signal from dark matter annihilation has contributions from the local Milky Way (MW) as well as from extragalactic dark matter. The signal from the MW is very insensitive to the adopted dark matter profile of the halos, and dominates the signal from extragalactic halos, which is sensitive to the low mass cut-off of the halo mass function. We adopt a conservative model for both the low halo mass survival cut-off and the substructure boost factor of the Galactic and extragalactic components, and only consider the primary final state radiation. This provides robust constraints which reach the thermal production cross-section for low mass WIMPs annihilating into hadronic modes. We also reanalyze limits from HESS observations of the Galactic Ridge region using a conservative model for the dark matter halo profile. When combined with the HESS constraint, the isotropic diffuse spectrum rules out all interpretations of the PAMELA positron excess based on dark matter annihilation into two lepton final states. Annihilation into four leptons through new intermediate states, although constrained by the data, is not excluded.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abazajian, Kevork N.; Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Kilic, Can
2010-01-01
We examine the constraints on final state radiation from Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates annihilating into various standard model final states, as imposed by the measurement of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The expected isotropic diffuse signal from dark matter annihilation has contributions from the local Milky Way (MW) as well as from extragalactic dark matter. The signal from the MW is very insensitive to the adopted dark matter profile of the halos, and dominates the signal from extragalactic halos, which is sensitive to the low mass cut-off of the halo mass function. We adopt a conservative model for both the low halo mass survival cut-off and the substructure boost factor of the Galactic and extragalactic components, and only consider the primary final state radiation. This provides robust constraints which reach the thermal production cross-section for low mass WIMPs annihilating into hadronic modes. We also reanalyze limits from HESS observations of the Galactic Ridge region using a conservative model for the dark matter halo profile. When combined with the HESS constraint, the isotropic diffuse spectrum rules out all interpretations of the PAMELA positron excess based on dark matter annihilation into two lepton final states. Annihilation into four leptons through new intermediate states, although constrained by the data, is not excluded
Asymptotic expansion and statistical description of turbulent systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hagan, W.K. III.
1986-01-01
A new approach to studying turbulent systems is presented in which an asymptotic expansion of the general dynamical equations is performed prior to the application of statistical methods for describing the evolution of the system. This approach has been applied to two specific systems: anomalous drift wave turbulence in plasmas and homogeneous, isotropic turbulence in fluids. For the plasma case, the time and length scales of the turbulent state result in the asymptotic expansion of the Vlasov/Poisson equations taking the form of nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. Questions regarding this theory and modern Hamiltonian perturbation methods are discussed and resolved. A new alternative Hamiltonian method is described. The Eulerian Direct Interaction Approximation (EDIA) is slightly reformulated and applied to the equations of nonlinear gyrokinetic theory. Using a similarity transformation technique, expressions for the thermal diffusivity are derived from the EDIA equations for various geometries, including a tokamak. In particular, the unique result for generalized geometry may be of use in evaluating fusion reactor designs and theories of anomalous thermal transport in tokamaks. Finally, a new and useful property of the EDIA is pointed out. For the fluid case, an asymptotic expansion is applied to the Navier-Stokes equation and the results lead to the speculation that such an approach may resolve the problem of predicting the Kolmogorov inertial range energy spectrum for homogeneous, isotropic turbulence. 45 refs., 3 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregor A. Zickler
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Nanoanalytical TEM characterization in combination with finite element micromagnetic modelling clarifies the impact of the grain misalignment and grain boundary nanocomposition on the coercive field and gives guidelines how to improve coercivity in Nd-Fe-B based magnets. The nanoprobe electron energy loss spectroscopy measurements obtained an asymmetric composition profile of the Fe-content across the grain boundary phase in isotropically oriented melt-spun magnets and showed an enrichment of iron up to 60 at% in the Nd-containing grain boundaries close to Nd2Fe14B grain surfaces parallel to the c-axis and a reduced iron content up to 35% close to grain surfaces perpendicular to the c-axis. The numerical micromagnetic simulations on isotropically oriented magnets using realistic model structures from the TEM results reveal a complex magnetization reversal starting at the grain boundary phase and show that the coercive field increases compared to directly coupled grains with no grain boundary phase independently of the grain boundary thickness. This behaviour is contrary to the one in aligned anisotropic magnets, where the coercive field decreases compared to directly coupled grains with an increasing grain boundary thickness, if Js value is > 0.2 T, and the magnetization reversal and expansion of reversed magnetic domains primarily start as Bloch domain wall at grain boundaries at the prismatic planes parallel to the c-axis and secondly as Néel domain wall at the basal planes perpendicular to the c-axis. In summary our study shows an increase of coercive field in isotropically oriented Nd-Fe-B magnets for GB layer thickness > 5 nm and an average Js value of the GB layer < 0.8 T compared to the magnet with perfectly aligned grains.
Singh, Ram Chandra; Ram, Jokhan
2011-11-01
The effects of quadrupole moments on the isotropic-nematic (IN) phase transitions are studied using the density-functional theory (DFT) for a Gay-Berne (GB) fluid for a range of length-to-breadth parameters ? in the reduced temperature range ? . The pair-correlation functions of the isotropic phase, which enter into the DFT as input parameters are found by solving the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory. The method used involves an expansion of angle-dependent functions appearing in the integral equations in terms of spherical harmonics and the harmonic coefficients are obtained by an iterative algorithm. All the terms of harmonic coefficients which involve l indices up to less than or equal to 6 are considered. The numerical accuracy of the results depends on the number of spherical harmonic coefficients considered for each orientation-dependent function. As the length-to-breadth ratio of quadrupolar GB molecules is increased, the IN transition is seen to move to lower density (and pressure) at a given temperature. It has been observed that the DFT is good to study the IN transitions in such fluids. The theoretical results have also been compared with the computer simulation results wherever they are available.
On a generalized oscillator: invariance algebra and interbasis expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hakopyan, E.M.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Kibler, M.
1998-01-01
This article deals with a quantum-mechanical system which generalizes the ordinary isotropic harmonic oscillator system. We give the coefficients connecting the polar and Cartesian bases for D=2 and the coefficients connecting the Cartesian and cylindrical bases as well as the cylindrical and spherical bases for D=3. These interbasis expansion coefficients are found to be analytic continuations to real values of their arguments of the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients for the group SU(2). For D=2, the super integrable character for the generalized oscillator system is investigated from the point of view of a quadratic invariance algebra
Controlled Thermal Expansion Alloys
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There has always been a need for controlled thermal expansion alloys suitable for mounting optics and detectors in spacecraft applications. These alloys help...
Fuel Thermal Expansion (FTHEXP)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reymann, G.A.
1978-07-01
A model is presented which deals with dimensional changes in LWR fuel pellets caused by changes in temperature. It is capable of dealing with any combination of UO 2 and PuO 2 in solid, liquid or mixed phase states, and includes expansion due to the solid-liquid phase change. The function FTHEXP models fuel thermal expansion as a function of temperature, fraction of PuO 2 , and the fraction of fuel which is molten
A finite-density calculation of the surface tension of isotropic-nematic interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moore, B.G.; McMullen, W.E.
1992-01-01
The surface tension of the isotropic-nematic interface in a fluid of intermediate-sized hard particles is studied and calculated. The transition from isotropic to nematic is fixed to occur in a continuous fashion by varying the biaxiality of the model particles. A reversal in the preferred orientation of the bulk nematic relative to the isotropic-nematic interface suggests an oblique orientation of the bulk nematic. 32 refs., 8 figs
Charged Particle Diffusion in Isotropic Random Magnetic Fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Subedi, P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P.; Parashar, T. N.; Chhiber, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Sonsrettee, W. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Panyapiwat Institute of Management, Nonthaburi 11120 (Thailand); Blasi, P. [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5—I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ruffolo, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Montgomery, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Dmitruk, P. [Departamento de Física Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wan, M. [Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China)
2017-03-10
The investigation of the diffusive transport of charged particles in a turbulent magnetic field remains a subject of considerable interest. Research has most frequently concentrated on determining the diffusion coefficient in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Here we consider the diffusion of charged particles in fully three-dimensional isotropic turbulent magnetic fields with no mean field, which may be pertinent to many astrophysical situations. We identify different ranges of particle energy depending upon the ratio of Larmor radius to the characteristic outer length scale of turbulence. Two different theoretical models are proposed to calculate the diffusion coefficient, each applicable to a distinct range of particle energies. The theoretical results are compared to those from computer simulations, showing good agreement.
Isotropic Surface Remeshing without Large and Small Angles
Wang, Yiqun; Yan, Dong-Ming; Liu, Xiaohan; Tang, Chengcheng; Guo, Jianwei; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Wonka, Peter
2018-01-01
We introduce a novel algorithm for isotropic surface remeshing which progressively eliminates obtuse triangles and improves small angles. The main novelty of the proposed approach is a simple vertex insertion scheme that facilitates the removal of large angles, and a vertex removal operation that improves the distribution of small angles. In combination with other standard local mesh operators, e.g., connectivity optimization and local tangential smoothing, our algorithm is able to remesh efficiently a low-quality mesh surface. Our approach can be applied directly or used as a post-processing step following other remeshing approaches. Our method has a similar computational efficiency to the fastest approach available, i.e., real-time adaptive remeshing [1]. In comparison with state-of-the-art approaches, our method consistently generates better results based on evaluations using different metrics.
Circular random motion in diatom gliding under isotropic conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutiérrez-Medina, Braulio; Maldonado, Ana Iris Peña; Guerra, Andrés Jiménez; Rubio, Yadiralia Covarrubias; Meza, Jessica Viridiana García
2014-01-01
How cells migrate has been investigated primarily for the case of trajectories composed by joined straight segments. In contrast, little is known when cellular motion follows intrinsically curved paths. Here, we use time-lapse optical microscopy and automated trajectory tracking to investigate how individual cells of the diatom Nitzschia communis glide across surfaces under isotropic environmental conditions. We find a distinct kind of random motion, where trajectories are formed by circular arcs traveled at constant speed, alternated with random stoppages, direction reversals and changes in the orientation of the arcs. Analysis of experimental and computer-simulated trajectories show that the circular random motion of diatom gliding is not optimized for long-distance travel but rather for recurrent coverage of limited surface area. These results suggest that one main biological role for this type of diatom motility is to efficiently build the foundation of algal biofilms. (paper)
Redshift and lateshift from homogeneous and isotropic modified dispersion relations
Pfeifer, Christian
2018-05-01
Observables which would indicate a modified vacuum dispersion relations, possibly caused by quantum gravity effects, are a four momentum dependence of the cosmological redshift and the existence of a so called lateshift effect for massless or very light particles. Existence or non-existence of the latter is currently analyzed on the basis of the available observational data from gamma-ray bursts and compared to predictions of specific modified dispersion relation models. We consider the most general perturbation of the general relativistic dispersion relation of freely falling particles on homogeneous and isotropic spacetimes and derive the red- and lateshift to first order in the perturbation. Our result generalizes the existing formulae in the literature and we find that there exist modified dispersion relations causing both, one or none of the two effects to first order.
Isotropic covariance functions on graphs and their edges
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anderes, E.; Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl
We develop parametric classes of covariance functions on linear networks and their extension to graphs with Euclidean edges, i.e., graphs with edges viewed as line segments or more general sets with a coordinate system allowing us to consider points on the graph which are vertices or points...... on an edge. Our covariance functions are defined on the vertices and edge points of these graphs and are isotropic in the sense that they depend only on the geodesic distance or on a new metric called the resistance metric (which extends the classical resistance metric developed in electrical network theory...... functions in the spatial statistics literature (the power exponential, Matérn, generalized Cauchy, and Dagum classes) are shown to be valid with respect to the resistance metric for any graph with Euclidean edges, whilst they are only valid with respect to the geodesic metric in more special cases....
Uhlmann's geometric phase in presence of isotropic decoherence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tidstroem, Jonas; Sjoeqvist, Erik
2003-01-01
Uhlmann's mixed state geometric phase [Rep. Math. Phys. 24, 229 (1986)] is analyzed in the case of a qubit affected by isotropic decoherence treated in the Markovian approximation. It is demonstrated that this phase decreases rapidly with increasing decoherence rate and that it is most fragile to weak decoherence for pure or nearly pure initial states. In the unitary case, we compare Uhlmann's geometric phase for mixed states with that occurring in standard Mach-Zehnder interferometry [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2845 (2000)] and show that the latter is more robust to reduction in the length of the Bloch vector. We also describe how Uhlmann's geometric phase in the present case could in principle be realized experimentally
Isotropic radio background from quark nugget dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R., E-mail: arz@physics.ubc.ca
2013-07-09
Recent measurements by the ARCADE2 experiment unambiguously show an excess in the isotropic radio background at frequencies below the GHz scale. We argue that this excess may be a natural consequence of the interaction of visible and dark matter in the early universe if the dark matter consists of heavy nuggets of quark matter. Explanation of the observed radio band excess requires the introduction of no new parameters, rather we exploit the same dark matter model and identical normalization parameters to those previously used to explain other excesses of diffuse emission from the centre of our galaxy. These previously observed excesses include the WMAP Haze of GHz radiation, keV X-ray emission and MeV gamma-ray radiation.
Third-harmonic generation in isotropic media by focused pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tasgal, Richard S.; Band, Y.B.
2004-01-01
For focused pulses of light in isotropic nonlinear media, third-harmonic generation can be strongly affected by group-velocity mismatch between the fundamental and third-harmonic. There is a characteristic time determined by the group-velocity mismatch and the Rayleigh range of the focused pulse. The dynamics depend on two dimensionless quantities, namely the ratio of the characteristic time to the pulse duration and the phase-velocity mismatch times the Rayleigh range. Pulses shorter than the characteristic time have physics described by simple analytic formulas. Pulses near the characteristic time have an intermediate behavior given by an explicit but more complicated formula. Pulses longer than the characteristic time tend to the continuous-wave case
X-ray and Moessbauer investigations of isotropic barium ferrites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirichok, P.P.; Pashchenko, V.A.; Dem'yaniv, T.O.; Ryabova, G.N.; Lisovskij, A.M.
1984-01-01
Using the methods of X-ray and γ-resonance spectroscopy the crystal chemical and magnetic structure of isotropic barium hexaferrites is studied. compacting pressure the lattice parameter c of ferrite of the BaOx5.7Fe 2 O 3 is decreased and the diffraction line width on its X-ray p attern is increased. Due to increasing the isoststical compacting pressure quadrupole splitting of the γ-resonance absorption spectrum of 57 Fe nuclei in tetrahedral positions 4f 1 and in positions 2a decreases. The sintering temperature growth leads to increasing the lattice parameter c and diffraction line widths and decreasing the effeutive field values and isomeric s hifts on 57 Fe nuclei. Isostatical compacting pressure does not affect the electron configuration of iron ions
Negative refraction of inhomogeneous waves in lossy isotropic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fedorov, V Yu; Nakajima, T
2014-01-01
We theoretically study negative refraction of inhomogeneous waves at the interface of lossy isotropic media. We obtain explicit (up to the sign) expressions for the parameters of a wave transmitted through the interface between two lossy media characterized by complex permittivity and permeability. We show that the criterion of negative refraction that requires negative permittivity and permeability can be used only in the case of a homogeneous incident wave at the interface between a lossless and lossy media. In a more general situation, when the incident wave is inhomogeneous, or both media are lossy, the criterion of negative refraction becomes dependent on an incidence angle. Most interestingly, we show that negative refraction can be realized in conventional lossy materials (such as metals) if their interfaces are properly oriented. (paper)
Deriving the equations of motion of porous isotropic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pride, S.R.; Gangi, A.F.; Morgan, F.D.
1992-01-01
The equations of motion and stress/strain relations for the linear dynamics of a two-phase, fluid/solid, isotropic, porous material have been derived by a direct volume averaging of the equations of motion and stress-strain relations known to apply in each phase. The equations thus obtained are shown to be consistent with Biot's equations of motion and stress/strain relations; however, the effective fluid density in the equation of relative flow has an unambiguous definition in terms of the tractions acting on the pore walls. The stress/strain relations of the theory correspond to 'quasistatic' stressing (i.e., inertial effects are ignored). It is demonstrated that using such quasistatic stress/strain relations in the equations of motion is justified whenever the wavelengths are greater than a length characteristic of the averaging volume size. 37 refs., 2 figs
Waterlike glass polyamorphism in a monoatomic isotropic Jagla model.
Xu, Limei; Giovambattista, Nicolas; Buldyrev, Sergey V; Debenedetti, Pablo G; Stanley, H Eugene
2011-02-14
We perform discrete-event molecular dynamics simulations of a system of particles interacting with a spherically-symmetric (isotropic) two-scale Jagla pair potential characterized by a hard inner core, a linear repulsion at intermediate separations, and a weak attractive interaction at larger separations. This model system has been extensively studied due to its ability to reproduce many thermodynamic, dynamic, and structural anomalies of liquid water. The model is also interesting because: (i) it is very simple, being composed of isotropically interacting particles, (ii) it exhibits polyamorphism in the liquid phase, and (iii) its slow crystallization kinetics facilitate the study of glassy states. There is interest in the degree to which the known polyamorphism in glassy water may have parallels in liquid water. Motivated by parallels between the properties of the Jagla potential and those of water in the liquid state, we study the metastable phase diagram in the glass state. Specifically, we perform the computational analog of the protocols followed in the experimental studies of glassy water. We find that the Jagla potential calculations reproduce three key experimental features of glassy water: (i) the crystal-to-high-density amorphous solid (HDA) transformation upon isothermal compression, (ii) the low-density amorphous solid (LDA)-to-HDA transformation upon isothermal compression, and (iii) the HDA-to-very-high-density amorphous solid (VHDA) transformation upon isobaric annealing at high pressure. In addition, the HDA-to-LDA transformation upon isobaric heating, observed in water experiments, can only be reproduced in the Jagla model if a free surface is introduced in the simulation box. The HDA configurations obtained in cases (i) and (ii) are structurally indistinguishable, suggesting that both processes result in the same glass. With the present parametrization, the evolution of density with pressure or temperature is remarkably similar to the
Elastic field of approaching dislocation loop in isotropic bimaterial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Wenwang; Xu, Shucai; Zhang, Jinhuan; Xia, Re; Qian, Guian
2015-01-01
A semi-analytical solution is developed for calculating interface traction stress (ITS) fields due to elastic modulus mismatch across the interface plane of isotropic perfectly bounded bimaterial system. Based on the semi-analytical approaches developed, ITS is used to correct the bulk elastic field of dislocation loop within infinite homogenous medium, and to produce continuous displacement and stress fields across the perfectly-bounded interface. Firstly, calculation examples of dislocation loops in Al–Cu bimaterial system are performed to demonstrate the efficiency of the developed semi-analytical approach; Then, the elastic fields of dislocation loops in twinning Cu and Cu–Nb bimaterial are analyzed; Finally, the effect of modulus mismatch across interface plane on the elastic field of bimaterial system is investigated, it is found that modulus mismatch has a drastic impact on the elastic fields of dislocation loops within bimaterial system. (paper)
Isotropic radio background from quark nugget dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.
2013-01-01
Recent measurements by the ARCADE2 experiment unambiguously show an excess in the isotropic radio background at frequencies below the GHz scale. We argue that this excess may be a natural consequence of the interaction of visible and dark matter in the early universe if the dark matter consists of heavy nuggets of quark matter. Explanation of the observed radio band excess requires the introduction of no new parameters, rather we exploit the same dark matter model and identical normalization parameters to those previously used to explain other excesses of diffuse emission from the centre of our galaxy. These previously observed excesses include the WMAP Haze of GHz radiation, keV X-ray emission and MeV gamma-ray radiation
Isotropic Surface Remeshing without Large and Small Angles
Wang, Yiqun
2018-05-18
We introduce a novel algorithm for isotropic surface remeshing which progressively eliminates obtuse triangles and improves small angles. The main novelty of the proposed approach is a simple vertex insertion scheme that facilitates the removal of large angles, and a vertex removal operation that improves the distribution of small angles. In combination with other standard local mesh operators, e.g., connectivity optimization and local tangential smoothing, our algorithm is able to remesh efficiently a low-quality mesh surface. Our approach can be applied directly or used as a post-processing step following other remeshing approaches. Our method has a similar computational efficiency to the fastest approach available, i.e., real-time adaptive remeshing [1]. In comparison with state-of-the-art approaches, our method consistently generates better results based on evaluations using different metrics.
Temperature Dependence of the Viscosity of Isotropic Liquids
Jadzyn, J.; Czechowski, G.; Lech, T.
1999-04-01
Temperature dependence of the shear viscosity measured for isotropic liquids belonging to the three homologous series: 4-(trans-4'-n-alkylcyclohexyl) isothiocyanatobenzenes (Cn H2n+1 CyHx Ph NCS; nCHBT, n=0-12), n-alkylcyanobiphenyls (CnH2n+1 Ph Ph CN; nCB, n=2-12) and 1,n-alkanediols (HO(CH2)nOH; 1,nAD, n=2-10) were analysed with the use of Arrhenius equation and its two modifications: Vogel--Fulcher and proposed in this paper. The extrapolation of the isothermal viscosity of 1,n-alkanediols (n=2-10) to n=1 leads to an interesting conclusion concerning the expected viscosity of methanediol, HOCH2OH, the compound strongly unstable in a pure state.
Anisotropic to Isotropic Phase Transitions in the Early Universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ajaib M. A.
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We attempt to develop a minimal formalism to describe an anisotropic to isotropic tran- sition in the early Universe. Assuming an underlying theory that violates Lorentz in- variance, we start with a Dirac like equation, involving four massless fields, and which does not exhibit Lorentz invariance. We then perform transformations that restore it to its covariant form along with a mass term for the fermion field. It is proposed that these transformations can be visualized as waves traveling in an anisotropic media. The trans- formation it = ℏ ! is then utilized to transit to a statistical thermodynamics system and the partition function then gives a better insight into the character of this transition. The statistical system hence realized is a two level system with each state doubly degenerate. We propose that modeling the transition this way can help explain the matter antimatter asymmetry of the Universe.
Mechanical metamaterials at the theoretical limit of isotropic elastic stiffness
Berger, J. B.; Wadley, H. N. G.; McMeeking, R. M.
2017-02-01
A wide variety of high-performance applications require materials for which shape control is maintained under substantial stress, and that have minimal density. Bio-inspired hexagonal and square honeycomb structures and lattice materials based on repeating unit cells composed of webs or trusses, when made from materials of high elastic stiffness and low density, represent some of the lightest, stiffest and strongest materials available today. Recent advances in 3D printing and automated assembly have enabled such complicated material geometries to be fabricated at low (and declining) cost. These mechanical metamaterials have properties that are a function of their mesoscale geometry as well as their constituents, leading to combinations of properties that are unobtainable in solid materials; however, a material geometry that achieves the theoretical upper bounds for isotropic elasticity and strain energy storage (the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bounds) has yet to be identified. Here we evaluate the manner in which strain energy distributes under load in a representative selection of material geometries, to identify the morphological features associated with high elastic performance. Using finite-element models, supported by analytical methods, and a heuristic optimization scheme, we identify a material geometry that achieves the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bounds on isotropic elastic stiffness. Previous work has focused on truss networks and anisotropic honeycombs, neither of which can achieve this theoretical limit. We find that stiff but well distributed networks of plates are required to transfer loads efficiently between neighbouring members. The resulting low-density mechanical metamaterials have many advantageous properties: their mesoscale geometry can facilitate large crushing strains with high energy absorption, optical bandgaps and mechanically tunable acoustic bandgaps, high thermal insulation, buoyancy, and fluid storage and transport. Our relatively simple
The Spectrum of Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission Between 100 Mev and 820 Gev
Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Brandt, T. J.; Hays, E.;
2014-01-01
The gamma-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission, and a longer data accumulation of 50 months, allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature, and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 plus or minus 0.02 and a break energy of (279 plus or minus 52) GeV using our baseline diffuse Galactic emission model. The total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 plus or minus 0.6) x 10(exp -6) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) sr(exp -1) above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/-30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borsoi, L.; Buland, P.; Labbe, P.
1987-01-01
Stops with gaps are currently used to support components and piping: it is simple, low cost, efficient and permits free thermal expansion. In order to keep the nonlinear nature of stops, such design is often modeled by beam elements (for the component) and nonlinear springs (for the stops). This paper deals with the validity and the limits of these models through the comparison of computational and experimental results. The experimental results come from impact laboratory tests on a simplified mockup. (orig.)
Nested structures approach in designing an isotropic negative-index material for infrared
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2009-01-01
We propose a new generic approach for designing isotropic metamaterial with nested cubic structures. As an example, a three-dimensional isotropic unit cell design "Split Cube in Cage" (SCiC) is shown to exhibit an effective negative refractive index on infrared wavelengths. We report on the refra......We propose a new generic approach for designing isotropic metamaterial with nested cubic structures. As an example, a three-dimensional isotropic unit cell design "Split Cube in Cage" (SCiC) is shown to exhibit an effective negative refractive index on infrared wavelengths. We report...
Reverse-time Migration in Tilted Transversely Isotropic Media with Decoupled Equations
Zhan, Ge
2012-12-01
Conventional modeling and migration for tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media may suffer from numerical instabilities and shear wave artifacts due to the coupling of the P-wave and SV-wave modes in the TTI coupled equations. Starting with the separated P- and SV-phase velocity expressions for vertical transversely isotropic (VTI) media, I extend these decoupled equations for modeling and reverse-time migration (RTM) in acoustic TTI media. Compared with the TTI coupled equations published in the geophysical literature, the new TTI decoupled equations provide a more stable solution due to the complete separation of the P-wave and SV-wave modes. The pseudospectral (PS) method is the most convenient method to implement these equations due to the form of wavenumber expressions and has the added benefit of being highly accurate and thus avoiding numerical dispersion. The rapid expansion method (REM) in time is employed to produce a broad band numerically stable time evolution of the wavefields. Synthetic results validate the proposed TTI decoupled equations and show that modeling and RTM in TTI media with the decoupled P-wave equation remain numerically stable even for models with strong anisotropy and sharp contrasts. The most desirable feature of the TTI decoupled P-wave equation is that it is absolutely free of shear-wave artifacts and the consequent alleviation of numerical instabilities generally suffered by some systems of coupled equations. However, due to several forward-backward Fourier transforms in wavefield extrapolation at each time step, the computational cost is also high, and thereby hampers its prevalence. I hereby propose to use a hybrid pseudospectral and finite-difference (FD) scheme to solve the TTI decoupled P-wave equation. In the hybrid solution, most of the cost-consuming wavenumber terms in the equation are replaced by inexpensive FD operators, which in turn accelerates the computation and reduces the computational cost. To demonstrate the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, W.H.; Kennedy, C.R.; Eatherly, W.P.
1975-01-01
The characterization of property changes in various grades of near-isotropic, ''binderless'' grades of graphite as functions of fluence accumulated at 715 0 C from 0 to 42 x 10 21 neutrons/cm 2 (E greater than 50 keV) was made. Generally, the average coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) from 20 to 600 0 C and the room-temperature values for strengths, fracture strains, Young's moduli, shear moduli, and calculated figures of merit (FOM) for resistance to thermal shock all ultimately decreased with fluence. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lind, P.
1993-02-01
The completeness properties of the discrete set of bound state, virtual states and resonances characterizing the system of a single nonrelativistic particle moving in a central cutoff potential is investigated. From a completeness relation in terms of these discrete states and complex scattering states one can derive several Resonant State Expansions (RSE). It is interesting to obtain purely discrete expansion which, if valid, would significantly simplify the treatment of the continuum. Such expansions can be derived using Mittag-Leffler (ML) theory for a cutoff potential and it would be nice to see if one can obtain the same expansions starting from an eigenfunction theory that is not restricted to a finite sphere. The RSE of Greens functions is especially important, e.g. in the continuum RPA (CRPA) method of treating giant resonances in nuclear physics. The convergence of RSE is studied in simple cases using square well wavefunctions in order to achieve high numerical accuracy. Several expansions can be derived from each other by using the theory of analytic functions and one can the see how to obtain a natural discretization of the continuum. Since the resonance wavefunctions are oscillating with an exponentially increasing amplitude, and therefore have to be interpreted through some regularization procedure, every statement made about quantities involving such states is checked by numerical calculations.Realistic nuclear wavefunctions, generated by a Wood-Saxon potential, are used to test also the usefulness of RSE in a realistic nuclear calculation. There are some fundamental differences between different symmetries of the integral contour that defines the continuum in RSE. One kind of symmetry is necessary to have an expansion of the unity operator that is idempotent. Another symmetry must be used if we want purely discrete expansions. These are found to be of the same form as given by ML. (29 refs.)
Stakeholder Support for School Food Policy Expansions
Pettigrew, Simone; Pescud, Melanie; Donovan, Robert J.
2012-01-01
The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which parents and school-based stakeholders (principals, teachers, canteen managers and Parents & Citizen Committee presidents) are supportive of potential expansions to a new school food policy. Eight additional policy components elicited in preliminary focus groups with parents and 19 additional…
Initial experience with 3D isotropic high-resolution 3 T MR arthrography of the wrist.
Sutherland, John K; Nozaki, Taiki; Kaneko, Yasuhito; J Yu, Hon; Rafijah, Gregory; Hitt, David; Yoshioka, Hiroshi
2016-01-16
obliquity to follow the components of ulnar side wrist structures including triangular fibrocartilage complex. Additionally, isotropic imaging provides thinner slice thickness with less partial volume averaging allowing for identification of subtle injuries.
Accelerating the loop expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ingermanson, R.
1986-01-01
This thesis introduces a new non-perturbative technique into quantum field theory. To illustrate the method, I analyze the much-studied phi 4 theory in two dimensions. As a prelude, I first show that the Hartree approximation is easy to obtain from the calculation of the one-loop effective potential by a simple modification of the propagator that does not affect the perturbative renormalization procedure. A further modification then susggests itself, which has the same nice property, and which automatically yields a convex effective potential. I then show that both of these modifications extend naturally to higher orders in the derivative expansion of the effective action and to higher orders in the loop-expansion. The net effect is to re-sum the perturbation series for the effective action as a systematic ''accelerated'' non-perturbative expansion. Each term in the accelerated expansion corresponds to an infinite number of terms in the original series. Each term can be computed explicitly, albeit numerically. Many numerical graphs of the various approximations to the first two terms in the derivative expansion are given. I discuss the reliability of the results and the problem of spontaneous symmetry-breaking, as well as some potential applications to more interesting field theories. 40 refs
Tate, Stephen James
2013-10-01
In the 1960s, the technique of using cluster expansion bounds in order to achieve bounds on the virial expansion was developed by Lebowitz and Penrose (J. Math. Phys. 5:841, 1964) and Ruelle (Statistical Mechanics: Rigorous Results. Benjamin, Elmsford, 1969). This technique is generalised to more recent cluster expansion bounds by Poghosyan and Ueltschi (J. Math. Phys. 50:053509, 2009), which are related to the work of Procacci (J. Stat. Phys. 129:171, 2007) and the tree-graph identity, detailed by Brydges (Phénomènes Critiques, Systèmes Aléatoires, Théories de Jauge. Les Houches 1984, pp. 129-183, 1986). The bounds achieved by Lebowitz and Penrose can also be sharpened by doing the actual optimisation and achieving expressions in terms of the Lambert W-function. The different bound from the cluster expansion shows some improvements for bounds on the convergence of the virial expansion in the case of positive potentials, which are allowed to have a hard core.
Conformal expansions and renormalons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rathsman, J.
2000-02-07
The coefficients in perturbative expansions in gauge theories are factorially increasing, predominantly due to renormalons. This type of factorial increase is not expected in conformal theories. In QCD conformal relations between observables can be defined in the presence of a perturbative infrared fixed-point. Using the Banks-Zaks expansion the authors study the effect of the large-order behavior of the perturbative series on the conformal coefficients. The authors find that in general these coefficients become factorially increasing. However, when the factorial behavior genuinely originates in a renormalon integral, as implied by a postulated skeleton expansion, it does not affect the conformal coefficients. As a consequence, the conformal coefficients will indeed be free of renormalon divergence, in accordance with previous observations concerning the smallness of these coefficients for specific observables. The authors further show that the correspondence of the BLM method with the skeleton expansion implies a unique scale-setting procedure. The BLM coefficients can be interpreted as the conformal coefficients in the series relating the fixed-point value of the observable with that of the skeleton effective charge. Through the skeleton expansion the relevance of renormalon-free conformal coefficients extends to real-world QCD.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, G.; Marsden, B.J.; Fok, A.; Smart, J.
2002-01-01
In the 1960s, J.H.W. Simmons derived a theoretical relationship between the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and dimensional changes in irradiated graphite. At low irradiation dose, the theory was shown to be consistent with experimental observations. However, at higher doses the results diverge. Despite this, modified versions of this theory have been used as the basis of the design and life prediction calculations for graphite-moderated reactors. This paper revisits Simmons's theory, summarising the assumptions made in its derivation. The paper then modifies and applies the theory to the dimensional change and CTE change behaviour in isotropic nuclear graphite, making use of trends in irradiated behaviour recently derived using finite element analyses. The importance of these issues to present HTR technology is that the life of HTR graphite components is related to their irradiated dimensional change behaviour. A more in depth understanding of this behaviour will allow suitable graphite material to be selected or new graphite types to be developed. (author)
Linked cluster expansions for open quantum systems on a lattice
Biella, Alberto; Jin, Jiasen; Viyuela, Oscar; Ciuti, Cristiano; Fazio, Rosario; Rossini, Davide
2018-01-01
We propose a generalization of the linked-cluster expansions to study driven-dissipative quantum lattice models, directly accessing the thermodynamic limit of the system. Our method leads to the evaluation of the desired extensive property onto small connected clusters of a given size and topology. We first test this approach on the isotropic spin-1/2 Hamiltonian in two dimensions, where each spin is coupled to an independent environment that induces incoherent spin flips. Then we apply it to the study of an anisotropic model displaying a dissipative phase transition from a magnetically ordered to a disordered phase. By means of a Padé analysis on the series expansions for the average magnetization, we provide a viable route to locate the phase transition and to extrapolate the critical exponent for the magnetic susceptibility.
Dolomite addition effects on the thermal expansion of ceramic tiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marino, Luis Fernando Bruno; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega
1997-01-01
The thermal expansion of ceramic tiles is of greater importance in engineering applications because the ceramics are relatively brittle and cannot tolerate large internal strain imposed by thermal expansion. When ceramic bodies are produced for glazed ties the compatibility of this property of the components should be considered to avoid damage in the final products. Carbonates are an important constituent of ceramic wall-title bodies and its presence in formulations and the reactions that occur between them and other components modify body properties. The influence in expansivity by additions of calcium magnesium carbonate in a composition of wall tile bodies has been investigated. The relative content of mineralogical components was determined by X-ray diffraction and thermal expansion by dilatometric measurements. The results was indicated that with the effect of calcium-magnesium phases and porosity on thermal expansion of wall tile bodies. (author)
Expansion Under Climate Change: The Genetic Consequences.
Garnier, Jimmy; Lewis, Mark A
2016-11-01
Range expansion and range shifts are crucial population responses to climate change. Genetic consequences are not well understood but are clearly coupled to ecological dynamics that, in turn, are driven by shifting climate conditions. We model a population with a deterministic reaction-diffusion model coupled to a heterogeneous environment that develops in time due to climate change. We decompose the resulting travelling wave solution into neutral genetic components to analyse the spatio-temporal dynamics of its genetic structure. Our analysis shows that range expansions and range shifts under slow climate change preserve genetic diversity. This is because slow climate change creates range boundaries that promote spatial mixing of genetic components. Mathematically, the mixing leads to so-called pushed travelling wave solutions. This mixing phenomenon is not seen in spatially homogeneous environments, where range expansion reduces genetic diversity through gene surfing arising from pulled travelling wave solutions. However, the preservation of diversity is diminished when climate change occurs too quickly. Using diversity indices, we show that fast expansions and range shifts erode genetic diversity more than slow range expansions and range shifts. Our study provides analytical insight into the dynamics of travelling wave solutions in heterogeneous environments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, D.
1984-01-01
This paper gives regression data for a modified second order polynomial fitted to the expansion data of, and percentage expansions for dioxides with (a) the fluorite and antifluorite structure: AmO 2 , BkO 2 , CeO 2 , CmO 2 , HfO 2 , Li 2 O, NpO 2 , PrO 2 , PuO 2 , ThO 2 , UO 2 , ZrO 2 , and (b) the rutile structure: CrO 2 , GeO 2 , IrO 2 , MnO 2 , NbO 2 , PbO 2 , SiO 2 , SnO 2 , TeO 2 , TiO 2 and VO 2 . Reduced expansion curves for the dioxides showed only partial grouping into iso-electronic series for the fluorite structures and showed that the 'law of corresponding states' did not apply to the rutile structures. (author)
2010-11-01
Bridges that utilize expansion joints have an overall higher maintenance cost due to leakage at the expansion joint leading to deterioration of the joint, as well as structural components beneath the joint including the superstructure and substructur...
Han, Quan-Fu; Liu, Yue-Lin; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Fang; Lu, Guang-Hong
2018-04-01
The solubility and bubble formation of hydrogen (H) in tungsten (W) are crucial factors for the application of W as a plasma-facing component under a fusion environment, but the data and mechanism are presently scattered, indicating some important factors might be neglected. High-energy neutron-irradiated W inevitably causes a local strain, which may change the solubility of H in W. Here, we performed first-principles calculations to predict the H solution behaviors under isotropic strain combined with temperature effect in W and found that the H solubility in interstitial lattice can be promoted/impeded by isotropic tensile/compressive strain over the temperature range 300-1800 K. The calculated H solubility presents good agreement with the experiment. Together, our previous results of anisotropic strain, except for isotropic compression, both isotropic tension and anisotropic tension/compression enhance H solution so as to reveal an important physical implication for H accumulation and bubble formation in W: strain can enhance H solubility, resulting in the preliminary nucleation of H bubble that further causes the local strain of W lattice around H bubble, which in turn improves the H solubility at the strained region that promotes continuous growth of the H bubble via a chain-reaction effect in W. This result can also interpret the H bubble formation even if no radiation damage is produced in W exposed to low-energy H plasma.
Giovannini, Massimo
2015-01-01
Cosmological singularities are often discussed by means of a gradient expansion that can also describe, during a quasi-de Sitter phase, the progressive suppression of curvature inhomogeneities. While the inflationary event horizon is being formed the two mentioned regimes coexist and a uniform expansion can be conceived and applied to the evolution of spatial gradients across the protoinflationary boundary. It is argued that conventional arguments addressing the preinflationary initial conditions are necessary but generally not sufficient to guarantee a homogeneous onset of the conventional inflationary stage.
Modification of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence by solid particles
Hwang, Wontae
2005-12-01
Particle-laden flows are prevalent in natural and industrial environments. Dilute loadings of small, heavy particles have been observed to attenuate the turbulence levels of the carrier-phase flow, up to 80% in some cases. We attempt to increase the physical understanding of this complex phenomenon by studying the interaction of solid particles with the most fundamental type of turbulence, which is homogeneous and isotropic with no mean flow. A flow facility was developed that could create air turbulence in a nearly-spherical chamber by means of synthetic jet actuators mounted on the corners. Loudspeakers were used as the actuators. Stationary turbulence and natural decaying turbulence were investigated using two-dimensional particle image velocimetry for the base flow qualification. Results indicated that the turbulence was fairly homogeneous throughout the measurement domain and very isotropic, with small mean flow. The particle-laden flow experiments were conducted in two different environments, the lab and in micro-gravity, to examine the effects of particle wakes and flow structure distortion caused by settling particles. The laboratory experiments showed that glass particles with diameters on the order of the turbulence Kolmogorov length scale attenuated the fluid turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and dissipation rate with increasing particle mass loadings. The main source of fluid TKE production in the chamber was the speakers, but the loss of potential energy of the settling particles also resulted in a significant amount of production of extra TKE. The sink of TKE in the chamber was due to the ordinary fluid viscous dissipation and extra dissipation caused by particles. This extra dissipation could be divided into "unresolved" dissipation caused by local velocity disturbances in the vicinity of the small particles and dissipation caused by large-scale flow distortions from particle wakes and particle clusters. The micro-gravity experiments in NASA's KC-135
An Isotropic Light Sensor for Measurements of Visible Actinic Flux in Clouds
Hage, J.C.H. van der; Roode, S.R. de
1999-01-01
A low-cost isotropic light sensor is described consisting of a spherical diffuser connected to a single photodiode by a light conductor. The directional response to light is isotropic to a high degree. The small, lightweight, and rugged construction makes this instrument suitable not only for
Magnetic hysteresis measurements of thin films under isotropic stress.
Holland, Patrick; Dubey, Archana; Geerts, Wilhelmus
2000-10-01
Nowadays, ferromagnetic thin films are widely applied in devices for information technology (credit cards, video recorder tapes, floppies, hard disks) and sensors (air bags, anti-breaking systems, navigation systems). Thus, with the increase in the use of magnetic media continued investigation of magnetic properties of materials is necessary to help in determining the useful properties of materials for new or improved applications. We are currently interested in studying the effect of applied external stress on Kerr hysteresis curves of thin magnetic films. The Ni and NiFe films were grown using DC magnetron sputtering with Ar as the sputter gas (pAr=4 mTorr; Tsub=55-190 C). Seed and cap layers of Ti were used on all films for adhesion and oxidation protection, respectively. A brass membrane pressure cell was designed to apply in-plane isotropic stress to thin films. In this pressure cell, gas pressure is used to deform a flexible substrate onto which a thin magnetic film has been sputtered. The curvature of the samples could be controlled by changing the gas pressure to the cell. Magneto-Optical in-plane hysteresis curves at different values of strain were measured. The results obtained show that the stress sensitivity is dependent on the film thickness. For the 500nm NiFe films, the coercivity strongly decreased as a function of the applied stress.
Scalar Statistics along Inertial Particle Trajectory in Isotropic Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ya-Ming, Liu; Zhao-Hui, Liu; Hai-Feng, Han; Jing, Li; Han-Feng, Wang; Chu-Guang, Zheng
2009-01-01
The statistics of a passive scalar along inertial particle trajectory in homogeneous isotropic turbulence with a mean scalar gradient is investigated by using direct numerical simulation. We are interested in the influence of particle inertia on such statistics, which is crucial for further understanding and development of models in non-isothermal gas-particle flows. The results show that the scalar variance along particle trajectory decreases with the increasing particle inertia firstly; when the particle's Stokes number S t is less than 1.0, it reaches the minimal value when S t is around 1.0, then it increases if S t increases further. However, the scalar dissipation rate along the particle trajectory shows completely contrasting behavior in comparison with the scalar variance. The mechanical-to-thermal time scale ratios averaged along particle, p , are approximately two times smaller than that computed in the Eulerian frame r, and stay at nearly 1.77 with a weak dependence on particle inertia. In addition, the correlations between scalar dissipation and now structure characteristics along particle trajectories, such as strain and vorticity, are also computed, and they reach their maximum and minimum, 0.31 and 0.25, respectively, when S t is around 1.0. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))
Three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium with isotropic pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.
1995-05-01
In the absence of the toroidal flux, two coupled quasi two-dimensional elliptic equilibrium equations have been derived to describe self-consistent three-dimensional static magnetospheric equilibria with isotropic pressure in an optimal (Ψ,α,χ) flux coordinate system, where Ψ is the magnetic flux function, χ is a generalized poloidal angle, α is the toroidal angle, α = φ - δ(Ψ,φ,χ) is the toroidal angle, δ(Ψ,φ,χ) is periodic in φ, and the magnetic field is represented as rvec B = ∇Ψ x ∇α. A three-dimensional magnetospheric equilibrium code, the MAG-3D code, has been developed by employing an iterative metric method. The main difference between the three-dimensional and the two-dimensional axisymmetric solutions is that the field-aligned current and the toroidal magnetic field are finite for the three-dimensional case, but vanish for the two-dimensional axisymmetric case. With the same boundary flux surface shape, the two-dimensional axisymmetric results are similar to the three-dimensional magnetosphere at each local time cross section
Random isotropic one-dimensional XY-model
Gonçalves, L. L.; Vieira, A. P.
1998-01-01
The 1D isotropic s = ½XY-model ( N sites), with random exchange interaction in a transverse random field is considered. The random variables satisfy bimodal quenched distributions. The solution is obtained by using the Jordan-Wigner fermionization and a canonical transformation, reducing the problem to diagonalizing an N × N matrix, corresponding to a system of N noninteracting fermions. The calculations are performed numerically for N = 1000, and the field-induced magnetization at T = 0 is obtained by averaging the results for the different samples. For the dilute case, in the uniform field limit, the magnetization exhibits various discontinuities, which are the consequence of the existence of disconnected finite clusters distributed along the chain. Also in this limit, for finite exchange constants J A and J B, as the probability of J A varies from one to zero, the saturation field is seen to vary from Γ A to Γ B, where Γ A(Γ B) is the value of the saturation field for the pure case with exchange constant equal to J A(J B) .
Stochastic isotropic hyperelastic materials: constitutive calibration and model selection
Mihai, L. Angela; Woolley, Thomas E.; Goriely, Alain
2018-03-01
Biological and synthetic materials often exhibit intrinsic variability in their elastic responses under large strains, owing to microstructural inhomogeneity or when elastic data are extracted from viscoelastic mechanical tests. For these materials, although hyperelastic models calibrated to mean data are useful, stochastic representations accounting also for data dispersion carry extra information about the variability of material properties found in practical applications. We combine finite elasticity and information theories to construct homogeneous isotropic hyperelastic models with random field parameters calibrated to discrete mean values and standard deviations of either the stress-strain function or the nonlinear shear modulus, which is a function of the deformation, estimated from experimental tests. These quantities can take on different values, corresponding to possible outcomes of the experiments. As multiple models can be derived that adequately represent the observed phenomena, we apply Occam's razor by providing an explicit criterion for model selection based on Bayesian statistics. We then employ this criterion to select a model among competing models calibrated to experimental data for rubber and brain tissue under single or multiaxial loads.
Line-scanning tomographic optical microscope with isotropic transfer function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gajdátsy, Gábor; Dudás, László; Erdélyi, Miklós; Szabó, Gábor
2010-01-01
An imaging method and optical system, referred to as a line-scanning tomographic optical microscope (LSTOM) using a combination of line-scanning technique and CT reconstruction principle, is proposed and studied theoretically and experimentally. In our implementation a narrow focus line is scanned over the sample and the reflected light is measured in a confocal arrangement. One such scan is equivalent to a transverse projection in tomography. Repeating the scanning procedure in several directions, a number of transverse projections are recorded from which the image can be obtained using conventional CT reconstruction algorithms. The resolution of the image is independent of the spatial dimensions and structure of the applied detector; furthermore, the transfer function of the system is isotropic. The imaging performance of the implemented confocal LSTOM was compared with a point-scanning confocal microscope, based on recorded images. These images demonstrate that the resolution of the confocal LSTOM exceeds (by 15%) the resolution limit of a point-scanning confocal microscope
Bolthausen, Erwin; Van Der Hofstad, Remco; Kozma, Gady
2018-01-01
We show Green's function asymptotic upper bound for the two-point function of weakly self-Avoiding walk in d >4, revisiting a classic problem. Our proof relies on Banach algebras to analyse the lace-expansion fixed point equation and is simpler than previous approaches in that it avoids Fourier
OPEC future capacity expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandrea, I.
2005-01-01
This conference presentation examined OPEC future capacity expansions including highlights from 2000-2004 from the supply perspective and actions by OPEC; OPEC spare capacity in 2005/2006; medium-term capacity expansion and investments; long-term scenarios, challenges and opportunities; and upstream policies in member countries. Highlights from the supply perspective included worst than expected non-OPEC supply response; non-OPEC supply affected by a number of accidents and strikes; geopolitical tensions; and higher than expected demand for OPEC crude. OPEC's actions included closer relationship with other producers and consumers; capacity expansions in 2004 and 2005/2006; and OPEC kept the market well supplied with crude in 2004. The presentation also provided data using graphical charts on OPEC net capacity additions until 2005/2006; OPEC production versus spare capacity from 2003 to 2005; OPEC production and capacity to 2010; and change in required OPEC production from 2005-2020. Medium term expansion to 2010 includes over 60 projects. Medium-term risks such as project execution, financing, costs, demand, reserves, depletion, integration of Iraq, and geopolitical tensions were also discussed. The presentation concluded that in the long term, large uncertainties remain; the peak of world supply is not imminent; and continued and enhanced cooperation is essential to market stability. tabs., figs
Physics suggests that the interplay of momentum, continuity, and geometry in outward radial flow must produce density and concomitant pressure reductions. In other words, this flow is intrinsically auto-expansive. It has been proposed that this process is the key to understanding...
High thermal expansion, sealing glass
Brow, R.K.; Kovacic, L.
1993-11-16
A glass composition is described for hermetically sealing to high thermal expansion materials such as aluminum alloys, stainless steels, copper, and copper/beryllium alloys, which includes between about 10 and about 25 mole percent Na[sub 2]O, between about 10 and about 25 mole percent K[sub 2]O, between about 5 and about 15 mole percent Al[sub 2]O[sub 3], between about 35 and about 50 mole percent P[sub 2]O[sub 5] and between about 5 and about 15 mole percent of one of PbO, BaO, and mixtures thereof. The composition, which may also include between 0 and about 5 mole percent Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] and between 0 and about 10 mole percent B[sub 2]O[sub 3], has a thermal expansion coefficient in a range of between about 160 and 210[times]10[sup [minus]7]/C and a dissolution rate in a range of between about 2[times]10[sup [minus]7] and 2[times]10[sup [minus]9]g/cm[sup 2]-min. This composition is suitable to hermetically seal to metallic electrical components which will be subjected to humid environments over an extended period of time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez G, J.
2015-09-01
The solution of the so-called Canonical problems of neutron transport theory has been given by Case, who developed a method akin to the classical eigenfunction expansion procedure, extended to admit singular eigenfunctions. The solution is given as a set consisting of a Fredholm integral equation coupled with a transcendental equation, which has to be solved for the expansion coefficients by iteration. CASE's method make extensive use of the results of the theory of functions of a complex variable and many successful approaches to solve in an approximate form the above mentioned set have been reported in the literature. We present here an entirely different approach which deals with the canonical problems in a more direct and elementary manner. As far as we know, the original idea for the latter method is due to Carlvik who devised the escape probability approximation to the solution of the neutron transport equation in its integral form. In essence, the procedure consists in assuming a sectionally constant form of the neutron density that in turn yields a set of linear algebraic equations obeyed by the assumed constant values of the density. Very well established techniques of numerical analysis for the solution of integral equations consist in independent approaches that generalize the sectionally constant approach by assuming a sectionally low degree polynomial for the unknown function. This procedure also known as the arbitrary quadratures method is especially suited to deal with cases where the kernel of the integral equation is singular. The author wishes to present the results obtained with the arbitrary quadratures method for the numerical calculation of the monoenergetic neutron density in a critical, homogeneous sphere of finite radius with isotropic scattering. The singular integral equation obeyed by the neutron density in the critical sphere is introduced, an outline of the method's main features is given, and tables and graphs of the density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanchez G, J., E-mail: julian.sanchez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2015-09-15
The solution of the so-called Canonical problems of neutron transport theory has been given by Case, who developed a method akin to the classical eigenfunction expansion procedure, extended to admit singular eigenfunctions. The solution is given as a set consisting of a Fredholm integral equation coupled with a transcendental equation, which has to be solved for the expansion coefficients by iteration. CASE's method make extensive use of the results of the theory of functions of a complex variable and many successful approaches to solve in an approximate form the above mentioned set have been reported in the literature. We present here an entirely different approach which deals with the canonical problems in a more direct and elementary manner. As far as we know, the original idea for the latter method is due to Carlvik who devised the escape probability approximation to the solution of the neutron transport equation in its integral form. In essence, the procedure consists in assuming a sectionally constant form of the neutron density that in turn yields a set of linear algebraic equations obeyed by the assumed constant values of the density. Very well established techniques of numerical analysis for the solution of integral equations consist in independent approaches that generalize the sectionally constant approach by assuming a sectionally low degree polynomial for the unknown function. This procedure also known as the arbitrary quadratures method is especially suited to deal with cases where the kernel of the integral equation is singular. The author wishes to present the results obtained with the arbitrary quadratures method for the numerical calculation of the monoenergetic neutron density in a critical, homogeneous sphere of finite radius with isotropic scattering. The singular integral equation obeyed by the neutron density in the critical sphere is introduced, an outline of the method's main features is given, and tables and graphs of the density
Bose Operator Expansions of Tensor Operators in the Theory of Magnetism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Kowalska, A.
1976-01-01
For pt.I see ibid., vol.7, p.1523 (1974). The matching of matrix element method is used to find a new self-consistent Bose operator expansion for tensor operators in spin systems with isotropic exchange interaction plus anisotropy. Tables are given for all tensor operators relevant for cubic...... and hexagonal symmetry. A discussion of renormalized spin-wave theory for a system with planar anisotropy shows that the Goldstone theorem is rigorously fulfilled to the considered order of perturbation. It is finally shown that the new expansion introduces wavevector-dependent terms from the single...
Direct numerical simulation of droplet-laden isotropic turbulence
Dodd, Michael S.
Interaction of liquid droplets with turbulence is important in numerous applications ranging from rain formation to oil spills to spray combustion. The physical mechanisms of droplet-turbulence interaction are largely unknown, especially when compared to that of solid particles. Compared to solid particles, droplets can deform, break up, coalesce and have internal fluid circulation. The main goal of this work is to investigate using direct numerical simulation (DNS) the physical mechanisms of droplet-turbulence interaction, both for non-evaporating and evaporating droplets. To achieve this objective, we develop and couple a new pressure-correction method with the volume-of-fluid (VoF) method for simulating incompressible two-fluid flows. The method's main advantage is that the variable coefficient Poisson equation that arises in solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for two-fluid flows is reduced to a constant coefficient equation. This equation can then be solved directly using, e.g., the FFT-based parallel Poisson solver. For a 10243 mesh, our new pressure-correction method using a fast Poisson solver is ten to forty times faster than the standard pressure-correction method using multigrid. Using the coupled pressure-correction and VoF method, we perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) of 3130 finite-size, non-evaporating droplets of diameter approximately equal to the Taylor lengthscale and with 5% droplet volume fraction in decaying isotropic turbulence at initial Taylor-scale Reynolds number Relambda = 83. In the droplet-laden cases, we vary one of the following three parameters: the droplet Weber number based on the r.m.s. velocity of turbulence (0.1 ≤ Werms ≤ 5), the droplet- to carrier-fluid density ratio (1 ≤ rhod/rho c ≤ 100) or the droplet- to carrier-fluid viscosity ratio (1 ≤ mud/muc ≤ 100). We derive the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) equations for the two-fluid, carrier-fluid and droplet-fluid flow. These equations allow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kornreich, D.E.; Ganapol, B.D.
1997-01-01
The linear Boltzmann equation for the transport of neutral particles is investigated with the objective of generating benchmark-quality evaluations of solutions for homogeneous infinite media. In all cases, the problems are stationary, of one energy group, and the scattering is isotropic. The solutions are generally obtained through the use of Fourier transform methods with the numerical inversions constructed from standard numerical techniques such as Gauss-Legendre quadrature, summation of infinite series, and convergence acceleration. Consideration of the suite of benchmarks in infinite homogeneous media begins with the standard one-dimensional problems: an isotropic point source, an isotropic planar source, and an isotropic infinite line source. The physical and mathematical relationships between these source configurations are investigated. The progression of complexity then leads to multidimensional problems with source configurations that also emit particles isotropically: the finite line source, the disk source, and the rectangular source. The scalar flux from the finite isotropic line and disk sources will have a two-dimensional spatial variation, whereas a finite rectangular source will have a three-dimensional variation in the scalar flux. Next, sources emitting particles anisotropically are considered. The most basic such source is the point beam giving rise to the Green's function, which is physically the most fundamental transport problem, yet may be constructed from the isotropic point source solution. Finally, the anisotropic plane and anisotropically emitting infinite line sources are considered. Thus, a firm theoretical and numerical base is established for the most fundamental neutral particle benchmarks in infinite homogeneous media
Hu, Ting; Han, Yang; Dong, Jinming
2014-11-14
The mechanical and electronic properties of both the monolayer and bilayer phosphorenes under either isotropic or uniaxial strain have been systematically investigated using first-principles calculations. It is interesting to find that: 1) Under a large enough isotropic tensile strain, the monolayer phosphorene would lose its pucker structure and transform into a flat hexagonal plane, while two inner sublayers of the bilayer phosphorene could be bonded due to its interlayer distance contraction. 2) Under the uniaxial tensile strain along a zigzag direction, the pucker distance of each layer in the bilayer phosphorene can exhibit a specific negative Poisson's ratio. 3) The electronic properties of both the monolayer and bilayer phosphorenes are sensitive to the magnitude and direction of the applied strains. Their band gaps decrease more rapidly under isotropic compressive strain than under uniaxial strain. Also, their direct-indirect band gap transitions happen at the larger isotropic tensile strains compared with that under uniaxial strain. 4) Under the isotropic compressive strain, the bilayer phosphorene exhibits a transition from a direct-gap semiconductor to a metal. In contrast, the monolayer phosphorene initially has the direct-indirect transition and then transitions to a metal. However, under isotropic tensile strain, both the bilayer and monolayer phosphorene show the direct-indirect transition and, finally, the transition to a metal. Our numerical results may open new potential applications of phosphorene in nanoelectronics and nanomechanical devices by external isotropic strain or uniaxial strain along different directions.
Cosmological simulations of isotropic conduction in galaxy clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Britton; O'Shea, Brian W.; Voit, G. Mark; Ventimiglia, David; Skillman, Samuel W.
2013-01-01
Simulations of galaxy clusters have a difficult time reproducing the radial gas-property gradients and red central galaxies observed to exist in the cores of galaxy clusters. Thermal conduction has been suggested as a mechanism that can help bring simulations of cluster cores into better alignment with observations by stabilizing the feedback processes that regulate gas cooling, but this idea has not yet been well tested with cosmological numerical simulations. Here we present cosmological simulations of 10 galaxy clusters performed with five different levels of isotropic Spitzer conduction, which alters both the cores and outskirts of clusters, though not dramatically. In the cores, conduction flattens central temperature gradients, making them nearly isothermal and slightly lowering the central density, but failing to prevent a cooling catastrophe there. Conduction has little effect on temperature gradients outside of cluster cores because outward conductive heat flow tends to inflate the outer parts of the intracluster medium (ICM), instead of raising its temperature. In general, conduction tends reduce temperature inhomogeneity in the ICM, but our simulations indicate that those homogenizing effects would be extremely difficult to observe in ∼5 keV clusters. Outside the virial radius, our conduction implementation lowers the gas densities and temperatures because it reduces the Mach numbers of accretion shocks. We conclude that, despite the numerous small ways in which conduction alters the structure of galaxy clusters, none of these effects are significant enough to make the efficiency of conduction easily measurable, unless its effects are more pronounced in clusters hotter than those we have simulated.
Giant Thermal Expansion in 2D and 3D Cellular Materials.
Zhu, Hanxing; Fan, Tongxiang; Peng, Qing; Zhang, Di
2018-03-25
When temperature increases, the volume of an object changes. This property was quantified as the coefficient of thermal expansion only a few hundred years ago. Part of the reason is that the change of volume due to the variation of temperature is in general extremely small and imperceptible. Here, abnormal giant linear thermal expansions in different types of two-ingredient microstructured hierarchical and self-similar cellular materials are reported. The cellular materials can be 2D or 3D, and isotropic or anisotropic, with a positive or negative thermal expansion due to the convex or/and concave shape in their representative volume elements respectively. The magnitude of the thermal expansion coefficient can be several times larger than the highest value reported in the literature. This study suggests an innovative approach to develop temperature-sensitive functional materials and devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Average expansion rate and light propagation in a cosmological Tardis spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Szybka, Sebastian J., E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi, E-mail: sebastian.szybka@uj.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, Jagellonian University, Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland)
2013-12-01
We construct the first exact statistically homogeneous and isotropic cosmological solution in which inhomogeneity has a significant effect on the expansion rate. The universe is modelled as a Swiss Cheese, with dust FRW background and inhomogeneous holes. We show that if the holes are described by the quasispherical Szekeres solution, their average expansion rate is close to the background under certain rather general conditions. We specialise to spherically symmetric holes and violate one of these conditions. As a result, the average expansion rate at late times grows relative to the background, \\ie backreaction is significant. The holes fit smoothly into the background, but are larger on the inside than a corresponding background domain: we call them Tardis regions. We study light propagation, find the effective equations of state and consider the relation of the spatially averaged expansion rate to the redshift and the angular diameter distance.
Isotropization and hydrodynamization in weakly coupled heavy-ion collisions
Kurkela, Aleksi
2015-01-01
We numerically solve 2+1D effective kinetic theory of weak coupling QCD under longitudinal expansion relevant for early stages of heavy-ion collisions. We find agreement with viscous hydrodynamics and classical Yang-Mills simulations in the regimes where they are applicable. By choosing initial conditions that are motivated by color-glass-condensate framework we find that for Q=2GeV and $\\alpha_s$=0.3 the system is approximately described by viscous hydrodynamics well before $\\tau \\lesssim 1.0$ fm/c.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, C.
1997-01-01
The Olympic Dam orebody is the 6th largest copper and the single largest uranium orebody in the world. Mine production commenced in June 1988, at an annual production rate of around 45,000 tonnes of copper and 1,000 tonnes of uranium. Western Mining Corporation announced in 1996 a proposed $1.25 billion expansion of the Olympic Dam operation to raise the annual production capacity of the mine to 200,000 tonnes of copper, approximately 3,700 tonnes of uranium, 75,000 ounces of gold and 950,000 ounces of silver by 2001. Further optimisation work has identified a faster track expansion route, with an increase in the capital cost to $1.487 billion but improved investment outcome, a new target completion date of end 1999, and a new uranium output of 4,600 tonnes per annum from that date
Financing electricity expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hyman, L.S.
1994-01-01
Expansion of electricity supply is associated with economic development. The installation and enlargement of power systems in developing countries entails a huge financial burden, however. Energy consumers in such countries must pay not only for supplies but for the cost of raising the capital for expansion on the international markets. Estimates are presented for the capital expenditure for electricity supply over the period 1990 to 2020 for the major world regions, using approximations for the cost of plant and capital and for the returns earned. These data lead to the conclusion that the five regions with the lowest per capita incomes are those which will need the major part of the capital expenditure and the highest percentage of external finance. (6 tables) (UK)
Bigravity from gradient expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamashita, Yasuho; Tanaka, Takahiro
2016-01-01
We discuss how the ghost-free bigravity coupled with a single scalar field can be derived from a braneworld setup. We consider DGP two-brane model without radion stabilization. The bulk configuration is solved for given boundary metrics, and it is substituted back into the action to obtain the effective four-dimensional action. In order to obtain the ghost-free bigravity, we consider the gradient expansion in which the brane separation is supposed to be sufficiently small so that two boundary metrics are almost identical. The obtained effective theory is shown to be ghost free as expected, however, the interaction between two gravitons takes the Fierz-Pauli form at the leading order of the gradient expansion, even though we do not use the approximation of linear perturbation. We also find that the radion remains as a scalar field in the four-dimensional effective theory, but its coupling to the metrics is non-trivial.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suess, S.T.
1987-01-01
Magnetic clouds are a carefully defined subclass of all interplanetary signatures of coronal mass ejections whose geometry is thought to be that of a cylinder embedded in a plane. It has been found that the total magnetic pressure inside the clouds is higher than the ion pressure outside, and that the clouds are expanding at 1 AU at about half the local Alfven speed. The geometry of the clouds is such that even though the magnetic pressure inside is larger than the total pressure outside, expansion will not occur because the pressure is balanced by magnetic tension - the pinch effect. The evidence for expansion of clouds at 1 AU is nevertheless quite strong so another reason for its existence must be found. It is demonstrated that the observations can be reproduced by taking into account the effects of geometrical distortion of the low plasma beta clouds as they move away from the Sun
IKEA's International Expansion
Harapiak, Clayton
2013-01-01
This case concerns a global retailing firm that is dealing with strategic management and marketing issues. Applying a scenario of international expansion, this case provides a thorough analysis of the current business environment for IKEA. Utilizing a variety of methods (e.g. SWOT, PESTLE, McKinsey Matrix) the overall objective is to provide students with the opportunity to apply their research skills and knowledge regarding a highly competitive industry to develop strategic marketing strateg...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuki, Takayuki
1976-01-01
Symmetric eikonal expansion for the scattering amplitude is formulated for nonrelativistic and relativistic potential scatterings and also for the quantum field theory. The first approximations coincide with those of Levy and Sucher. The obtained scattering amplitudes are time reversal invariant for all cases and are crossing symmetric for the quantum field theory in each order of approximation. The improved eikonal phase introduced by Levy and Sucher is also derived from the different approximation scheme from the above. (auth.)
Series expansions without diagrams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhanot, G.; Creutz, M.; Horvath, I.; Lacki, J.; Weckel, J.
1994-01-01
We discuss the use of recursive enumeration schemes to obtain low- and high-temperature series expansions for discrete statistical systems. Using linear combinations of generalized helical lattices, the method is competitive with diagrammatic approaches and is easily generalizable. We illustrate the approach using Ising and Potts models. We present low-temperature series results in up to five dimensions and high-temperature series in three dimensions. The method is general and can be applied to any discrete model
Thin foil expansion into a vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mora, P.
2005-01-01
Plasma expansion into a vacuum is an old problem which has been renewed recently in various contexts: expansion of ultra-cold plasmas, cluster expansion, of dust grains, expansion of thin foils. In this presentation I will first discuss the physics of the expansion of a thin foil irradiated by an ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulse. The expansion results in the formation of high energy ions. For an infinitely steep plasma-vacuum interface the fastest ions are located in the outer part of the expansion and their velocity is given by ν m ax∼ 2 C s (In ω p it) where c s (Zk B T e /m i )''1/2 is the ion-acoustic velocity ω p i=(n e 0Ze''2/m i e 0 )''1/2 is the ion plasma frequency, n e 0 is the electron density in the unperturbed plasma, Z is the ion charge number. In the above expression, t is either the pulse duration or the effective acceleration time (in particular t∼L/2c s , where L is the width of the foil, when the electron cooling is taken into account). A salient characteristic of the expansion is the occurrence of a double layer structure and a peak of the accelerating electric field at the ion front. I will explain the origin of the peak and predict its temporal behavior. This peak has been diagnosed in recent experiments. I will also discuss the effect of a 2-temperatures electron distribution function on the expansion, showing the dominant role of the hot electron component. Finally I will discuss the occurrence of ion spikes in the expansion when the initial density profile is smooth. The ion spike is due to a wave breaking which cannot be handled in a satisfactory way by a fluid code and requires a kinetic description. A. simple collisionless particle code has been used to treat the evolution of the spike after the wave breaking and the results will be shown. (Author)
Tape cast isotropic, fine-grained tungsten for thermo-cyclic loading applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sommerer, Mathias, E-mail: Mathias.Sommerer@tum.de [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Li, Muyuan [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasma Physik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Werner, Ewald [Lehrstuhl für Werkstoffkunde und Werkstoffmechanik, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching (Germany); Dewitz, Hubertus von; Walter, Steffen; Lampenscherf, Stefan [Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81730 München (Germany); Arnold, Thomas [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Henkestr. 127, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)
2016-04-15
Highlights: • The tape casting process for tungsten is described. • A set-up of a HHF test facility for standing anodes is presented. • The thermo-cyclic behavior of tape cast tungsten and a reference is investigated. • The evolution of crack patterns is described in dependency of HHF-loadings. • The surface roughness of X-ray anodes is related to the microstructural evolution. - Abstract: This paper introduces tape casting as a new route for the production of isotropic and fine-grained tungsten components. Microstructural and thermal properties of tape cast tungsten samples are determined. Thermal shock behavior according to the thermo-cyclic loading of standing X-ray anodes is investigated and compared to the behavior of a rolled tungsten grade. The development of surface roughness during the thermal shock loading is discussed in relation to the development of the grain structure and crack pattern. The fine-grained and stable microstructure of the tape cast material exhibits less roughening under such test conditions.
Conversion of isotropic fluorescence into a long-range non-diverging beam
Zhang, Douguo; Zhu, Liangfu; Chen, Junxue; Wang, Ruxue; Wang, Pei; Ming, Hai; Badugu, Ramachandram; Rosenfeld, Mary; Zhan, Qiwen; Kuang, Cuifang; Liu, Xu; Lakowicz, Joseph R.
2018-04-01
Fluorescent samples typically emit isotropically in all directions. Large lenses and other optical components are needed to capture a significant fraction of the emission, and complex confocal microscopes are required for high resolution focal-plane imaging. It is known that Bessel beams have remarkable properties of being able to travel over long distances, over 1000 times the wavelength, without diverging, and hence are called non-diffracting beams. In previous reports the Bessel beams were formed by an incident light source, typically with plane-wave illumination on a circular aperture. It was not known if Bessel beams could form from fluorescent light sources. We demonstrate transformation of the emission from fluorescent polystyrene spheres (FPS) into non-diverging beams which propagate up to 130 mm (13 cm) along the optical axis with a constant diameter. This is accomplished using a planar metal film, with no nanoscale features in the X-Y plane, using surface plasmon-coupled emission. Using samples which contain many FPS in the field-of-view, we demonstrate that an independent Bessel beam can be generated from any location on the metal film. The extremely long non-diffracted propagation distances, and self-healing properties of Bessel beams, offer new opportunities in fluorescence sensing and imaging.
Chu, Chunlei
2012-01-01
Discrete earth models are commonly represented by uniform structured grids. In order to ensure accurate numerical description of all wave components propagating through these uniform grids, the grid size must be determined by the slowest velocity of the entire model. Consequently, high velocity areas are always oversampled, which inevitably increases the computational cost. A practical solution to this problem is to use nonuniform grids. We propose a nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method which utilizes nonuniform grids to obtain high efficiency and relies on implicit operators to achieve high accuracy. We present a simple way of deriving implicit finite difference operators of arbitrary stencil widths on general nonuniform grids for the first and second derivatives and, as a demonstration example, apply these operators to the pseudo-acoustic wave equation in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. We propose an efficient gridding algorithm that can be used to convert uniformly sampled models onto vertically nonuniform grids. We use a 2D TTI salt model to demonstrate its effectiveness and show that the nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method can produce highly accurate seismic modeling results with enhanced efficiency, compared to uniform grid explicit finite difference implementations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Compactibility of Al/Al2O3 Isotropic Composite with Variation of Holding Time Sintering.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eddy S Siradj
2008-11-01
Full Text Available The requirement of component with structural ability, light weight and also strength is increasing base on Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs by aluminum as matrix (AMCs. A structural ability is connected to composites compactibility which is depend on quality of interfacial bounding. Powder metallurgy is one of method to produce composite with powder mixing, compacting and sintering. Volume fractions reinforced and sintering time can influence composites compactibility. Volume fractions reinforced variable can produce different reinforcement effect. Beside that, on sintering enables the formation of new phase during sintering time. In this research, Al/Al2O3 isotropic composites are made with aluminum as matrix and alumina (Al2O3 as reinforced. Volume fraction reinforced used 10%. 20%. 30% and 40%. Sintering temperature and compaction pressure are each 600oC and 15 kN. The tests that applied are compression and metallographic test. The result that obtained is optimum compactibility of Al/Al2O3 composite reached at holding time 2 hour. During sintering, new phase can occur that is aluminum oxides (alumina, with unstable properties. The best volume fraction reinforced and holding time sintering are 40% and 2 hours.
Sharifi, Zohreh; Atlasbaf, Zahra
2016-10-01
A new design procedure for near perfect triangular carpet cloaks, fabricated based on only isotropic homogeneous materials, is proposed. This procedure enables us to fabricate a cloak with simple metamaterials or even without employing metamaterials. The proposed procedure together with an invasive weed optimization algorithm is used to design carpet cloaks based on quasi-isotropic metamaterial structures, Teflon and AN-73. According to the simulation results, the proposed cloaks have good invisibility properties against radar, especially monostatic radar. The procedure is a new method to derive isotropic and homogeneous parameters from transformation optics formulas so we do not need to use complicated structures to fabricate the carpet cloaks.
Isotropic harmonic oscillator plus inverse quadratic potential in N-dimensional spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oyewumi, K.A.; Bangudu, E.A.
2003-01-01
Some aspects of the N-dimensional isotropic harmonic plus inverse quadratic potential were discussed. The hyperradial equation for isotropic harmonic oscillator plus inverse quadratic potential is solved by transformation into the confluent hypergeometric equation to obtain the normalized hyperradial solution. Together with the hyperangular solutions (hyperspherical harmonics), these form the complete energy eigenfunctions of the N-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator plus inverse quadratic potential and the energy eigenvalues are also obtained. These are dimensionally dependent. The dependence of radial solution on the dimensions or potential strength and the degeneracy of the energy levels are discussed. (author)
Hole expansion test of third generation steels
Agirre, Julen; Mendiguren, Joseba; Galdos, Lander; de Argandoña, Eneko Sáenz
2017-10-01
The trend towards the implementation of new materials in the chassis of the automobiles is considerably making more complex the manufacturing of the components that built it up. In this scenario materials with higher strengths and lower formabilities are daily faced by tool makers and component producers what reduces the process windows and makes the forming processes to be in the limits of the materials. One of the concerns that tool makers must face during the definition of the tools is the expansion ratios that the holes in the sheet may reach before producing a breakage due to the stretching of the material (also known as edge cracks). For the characterization of such limits, a standard test, the hole expansion test, can be applied so that the limits of the material are known. At the present study, hole expansion tests of a third generation steel, Fortiform1050 with a thickness of 1.2 millimeters have been carried out and compared them to a mild steel, DX54D with a thickness of 0.6 millimeters. A comparison for each material in terms of technology used to punch the hole, mechanical punching vs laser cutting has also been conducted. In addition, the measurement technique (online measurement vs offline measurement) followed in the Hole Expansion Ratio (HER) identification has also been analyzed. Finally, differences between both materials and techniques are presented.
The Effect of Shear Flow on the Isotropic-Nematic Transition in Liquid Crystals.
Olmsted, Peter David
1991-08-01
In this thesis I will discuss the effects of shear flow on the Isotropic-Nematic phase transition in liquid crystals. Shear flow has dramatic orienting effects on the rod-like constituents of nematic liquid crystals, with the general effects of (1) inducing order in the high-temperature isotropic phase, and (2) dictating a direction of alignment for the low-temperature nematic phase. Shear flow also imposes a biaxial symmetry on both the high and low temperature phases, thereby changing the nature of the symmetry-breaking at the transition. We develop coupled deterministic dynamical equations for the 5-component nematic order parameter and the fluid velocity, which may be considered generalizations of the Leslie-Ericksen and Navier-Stokes equations, respectively. We examine the stable stationary solutions to these equations to determine the nature of the non-equilibrium phases, and discuss the analogies and differences between this system and equilibrium systems. From homogeneous solutions we obtain a state diagram analogous to that of a Van der Waals fluid, including a two-state region and a discontinuous transition which terminates at a critical point. To resolve the question of the analog of the Maxwell construction to distinguish locally stable states, we construct stable inhomogeneous interfacial states. From an analysis of these states we determine a coexistence line and find exponents characterizing the shape of the coexistence curve and the interface thickness as the critical point is approached. We find mean-field critical behavior, and comment on the possibility of the analogs of spinodal decomposition and nucleation. Finally, we develop a formalism for describing light scattering from biaxial steady state, and investigate the Gaussian level fluctuations about these states. In the vicinity of the critical point we find singular behavior analogous to critical opalescence of a simple fluid at its critical point. We also find anisotropic correlations at the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivers, D.
1979-10-01
Some aspects of a simple strategy for testing the validity of QCD perturbation theory are examined. The importance of explicit evaluation of higher-order contributions is illustrated by considering Z 0 decays. The recent progress toward understanding exclusive processes in QCD is discussed and some simple examples are given of how to isolate and test the separate components of the perturbation expansion in a hypothetical series of jet experiments
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2016-12-17
The leading component of the high-frequency asymptotic description of the wavefield, given by the travel time, is governed by the eikonal equation. In anisotropic media, traveltime measurements from seismic experiments conducted along one surface cannot constrain the long-wavelength attribute of the medium along the orthogonal-to-the-surface direction, as anisotropy introduces an independent parameter controlling wave propagation in the orthogonal direction. Since travel times measured on the Earth\\'s surface in transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis are mainly insensitive to the absolute value of the anisotropic parameter responsible for relating these observations to depth δ, the travel time was perturbed laterally to investigate the traveltime sensitivity to lateral variations in δ. This formulation can be used to develop inversion strategies for lateral variations in δ in acoustic transversely isotropic media, as the surface-recorded data are sensitive to it even if the model is described by the normal moveout velocity and horizontal velocity, or the anellipticity parameter η. Numerical tests demonstrate the enhanced sensitivity of our data when the model is parameterised with a lateral change in δ.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morteza Eskandari-Ghadi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with investigation of vertical impedance function of a surface rigid circular foundation resting on a semi-infinite transversely isotropic alluvium. To this end, the equations of motion in cylindrical coordinate system, which because of axissymmetry are two coupled equations, are converted into one partial differential equation using a method of potential function. The governing partial differential equation for the potential function is solved via implementing Hankel integral transforms in radial direction. The vertical and radial components of displacement vector are determined with the use of transformed displacement-potential function relationships. The mixed boundary conditions at the surface are satisfied by specifying the traction between the rigid foundation and the underneath alluvium in a special function space introduced in this paper, where the vertical displacements are forced to satisfy the rigid boundary condition. Through exercising these restraints, the normal traction and then the vertical impedance function are obtained. The results are then compared with the existing results in the literature for the simpler case of isotropic half-space, which shows an excellent agreement. Eventually, the impedance functions are presented in terms of dimensionless frequency for different materials. The method presented here may be used to obtain the impedance function in any other direction as well as in buried footing in layered media.
Polyhomogeneous expansions from time symmetric initial data
Gasperín, E.; Valiente Kroon, J. A.
2017-10-01
We make use of Friedrich’s construction of the cylinder at spatial infinity to relate the logarithmic terms appearing in asymptotic expansions of components of the Weyl tensor to the freely specifiable parts of time symmetric initial data sets for the Einstein field equations. Our analysis is based on the assumption that a particular type of formal expansions near the cylinder at spatial infinity corresponds to the leading terms of actual solutions to the Einstein field equations. In particular, we show that if the Bach tensor of the initial conformal metric does not vanish at the point at infinity then the most singular component of the Weyl tensor decays near null infinity as O(\\tilde{r}-3\\ln \\tilde{r}) so that spacetime will not peel. We also provide necessary conditions on the initial data which should lead to a peeling spacetime. Finally, we show how to construct global spacetimes which are candidates for non-peeling (polyhomogeneous) asymptotics.
Expansions for Coulomb wave functions
Boersma, J.
1969-01-01
In this paper we derive a number of expansions for Whittaker functions, regular and irregular Coulomb wave functions. The main result consists of a new expansion for the irregular Coulomb wave functions of orders zero and one in terms of regular Coulomb wave functions. The latter expansions are
Reduction Expansion Synthesis for Magnetic Alloy Powders
2015-12-01
in Figure 1, the Army was able to address its need for printable plastic components, thus enabling a reduction in the total quantity of spare...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited REDUCTION EXPANSION SYNTHESIS FOR...Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202–4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Avazpour
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Density functional approach was used to study the isotropic- nematic (I-N transition and calculate the values of freezing parameters of the Gay- Berne liquid crystal model. New direct and pair correlation functions of a molecular fluid with Gay- Berne pair potential were used. These new functions were used in density functional theory as input to calculate the isotropic- nematic transition densities for elongation at various reduced temperatures. It was observed that the isotropic- nematic transition densities increase as the temperature increases. It was found that the new direct correlation function is suitable to study the isotropic- nematic transition of Gay- Berne liquids. Comparison to other works showed qualitative agreement
Classification of integrable Volterra-type lattices on the sphere: isotropic case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adler, V E
2008-01-01
The symmetry approach is used for classification of integrable isotropic vector Volterra lattices on the sphere. The list of integrable lattices consists mainly of new equations. Their symplectic structure and associated PDE of vector NLS type are discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caetano Neto, E.S.
1976-01-01
A stationary Green function is calculated for the Schroedinger Hamiltonian of the multidimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator and for physical systems, which may, somehow, have their Hamiltonian reduced to one in the form of a harmonic oscillator, for any dimension [pt
Isotropic blackbody cosmic microwave background radiation as evidence for a homogeneous universe.
Clifton, Timothy; Clarkson, Chris; Bull, Philip
2012-08-03
The question of whether the Universe is spatially homogeneous and isotropic on the largest scales is of fundamental importance to cosmology but has not yet been answered decisively. Surprisingly, neither an isotropic primary cosmic microwave background (CMB) nor combined observations of luminosity distances and galaxy number counts are sufficient to establish such a result. The inclusion of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in CMB observations, however, dramatically improves this situation. We show that even a solitary observer who sees an isotropic blackbody CMB can conclude that the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic in their causal past when the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect is present. Critically, however, the CMB must either be viewed for an extended period of time, or CMB photons that have scattered more than once must be detected. This result provides a theoretical underpinning for testing the cosmological principle with observations of the CMB alone.
Supersymmetry and the constants of motion of the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres del Castillo, G.F.; Tepper G, T.
2002-01-01
It is shown that the constants of motion of the two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator not related to the rotational invariance of the Hamiltonian can be derived using the ideas of supersymmetric quantum mechanics. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, P.K.
1989-01-01
This paper reports on a study to obtain the creep compliance, the relaxation modulus and the complex compliance derived from the concept of mechanical resistance for the constitutive equation of a class of linear viscoelastic, homogeneous, isotropic materials
A Dual Band Additively Manufactured 3D Antenna on Package with Near-Isotropic Radiation Pattern
Su, Zhen; Klionovski, Kirill; Bilal, Rana Muhammad; Shamim, Atif
2018-01-01
presents a novel 3D dual band near-isotropic wideband GSM antenna to fulfill these requirements. The antenna has been realized on the package of electronics through additive manufacturing to ensure efficient utilization of available space and lower cost
Wave propagation in isotropic- or composite-material piping conveying swirling liquid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, T.L.C.; Bert, C.W.
1977-01-01
An analysis is presented for the propagation of free harmonic waves in a thin-walled, circular cylindrical shell of orthotropic or isotropic material conveying a swirling flow. The shell motion is modeled by using the dynamic orthotropic version of the Sanders improved first-approximation linear shell theory and the fluid forces are described by using inviscid incompressible flow theory. Frequency spectra are presented for pipes made of isotropic material and composite materials of current engineering interest. (Auth.)
Radial expansion and multifragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelique, J.C.; Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Buta, A.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Meslin, C.; Nakagawa, T.; Patry, J.P.; Peter, J.; Popescu, R.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.
1998-01-01
The light systems 36 Ar + 27 Al and 64 Zn + nat Ti were measured at several bombarding energies between ∼ 35 and 95 MeV/nucleon. It was found that the predominant part of the cross section is due to binary collisions. In this paper the focus is placed on the properties of the quasi-projectile nuclei. In the central collisions the excitation energies of the quasi-projectile reach values exceeding largely 10 MeV/nucleon. The slope of the high energy part of the distribution can give only an upper limit of the apparent temperature (the average temperature along the decay chain). The highly excited quasi-projectile may get rapidly fragmented rather than sequentially. The heavy fragments are excited and can emit light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He, α,...) what perturbs additionally the spectrum of these particles. Concerning the expansion energy, one can determine the average kinetic energies of the product (in the quasi-projectile-framework) and compare with simulation values. To fit the experimental data an additional radial expansion energy is to be considered. The average expansion energy depends slightly on the impact parameter but it increases with E * / A, ranging from 0.4 to 1,2 MeV/nucleon for an excitation energy increasing from 7 to 10.5 MeV/nucleon. This collective radial energy seems to be independent of the fragment mass, what is possibly valid for the case of larger quasi-projectile masses. The origin of the expansion is to be determined. It may be due to a compression in the interaction zone at the initial stage of the collision, which propagates in the quasi-projectile and quasi-target, or else, may be due, simply, to the increase of thermal energy leading to a rapid fragment emission. The sequential de-excitation calculation overestimates light particle emission and consequently heavy residues, particularly, at higher excitation energies. This disagreement indicates that a sequential process can not account for the di-excitation of very hot nuclei
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika
Abstract: This paper analyses an online community of master’s students taking a course in ICT and organisational learning. The students initiated and facilitated an educational design for organisational learning called Proactive Review in the organisation where they are employed. By using an online...... discussion forum on Google groups, they created new ways of reflecting and learning. We used netnography to select qualitative postings from the online community and expansive learning concepts for data analysis. The findings show how students changed practices of organisational learning...
Miller, Renee; Kolipaka, Arunark; Nash, Martyn P; Young, Alistair A
2018-03-12
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been used to estimate isotropic myocardial stiffness. However, anisotropic stiffness estimates may give insight into structural changes that occur in the myocardium as a result of pathologies such as diastolic heart failure. The virtual fields method (VFM) has been proposed for estimating material stiffness from image data. This study applied the optimised VFM to identify transversely isotropic material properties from both simulated harmonic displacements in a left ventricular (LV) model with a fibre field measured from histology as well as isotropic phantom MRE data. Two material model formulations were implemented, estimating either 3 or 5 material properties. The 3-parameter formulation writes the transversely isotropic constitutive relation in a way that dissociates the bulk modulus from other parameters. Accurate identification of transversely isotropic material properties in the LV model was shown to be dependent on the loading condition applied, amount of Gaussian noise in the signal, and frequency of excitation. Parameter sensitivity values showed that shear moduli are less sensitive to noise than the other parameters. This preliminary investigation showed the feasibility and limitations of using the VFM to identify transversely isotropic material properties from MRE images of a phantom as well as simulated harmonic displacements in an LV geometry. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Longitudinal expansion of field line dipolarization
Saka, O.; Hayashi, K.
2017-11-01
We examine the substorm expansions that started at 1155 UT 10 August 1994 in the midnight sector focusing on the longitudinal (eastward) expansion of field line dipolarization in the auroral zone. Eastward expansion of the dipolarization region was observed in all of the H, D, and Z components. The dipolarization that started at 1155 UT (0027 MLT) from 260° of geomagnetic longitude (CMO) expanded to 351°(PBQ) in about 48 min. The expansion velocity was 0.03-0.04°/s, or 1.9 km/s at 62°N of geomagnetic latitude. The dipolarization region expanding to the east was accompanied by a bipolar event at the leading edge of the expansion in latitudes equatorward of the westward electrojet (WEJ). In the midnight sector at the onset meridian, the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MAP) on board geosynchronous satellite L9 measured electrons and ions between 10 eV and 40 keV. We conclude from the satellite observations that this dipolarization was characterized by the evolution of temperature anisotropies, an increase of the electron and ion temperatures, and a rapid change in the symmetry axis of the temperature tensor. The field line dipolarization and its longitudinal expansion were interpreted in terms of the slow MHD mode triggered by the current disruption. We propose a new magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling (MI-coupling) mechanism based on the scenario that transmitted westward electric fields from the magnetosphere in association with expanding dipolarization produced electrostatic potential (negative) in the ionosphere through differences in the mobility of collisional ions and collisionless electrons. The field-aligned currents that emerged from the negative potential region are arranged in a concentric pattern around the negative potential region, upward toward the center and downward on the peripheral.
Thermal expansion of granite rocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephansson, O.
1978-04-01
The thermal expansion of rocks is strongly controlled by the thermal expansion of the minerals. The theoretical thermal expansion of the Stripa Granite is gound to be 21 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 25 deg C and 38 . 10 -6 [deg C] -1 at 400 deg C. The difference in expansion for the rock forming minerals causes micro cracking at heating. The expansion due to micro cracks is found to be of the same order as the mineral expansion. Most of the micro cracks will close at pressures of the order of 10 - 20 MPa. The thermal expansion of a rock mass including the effect of joints is determined in the pilot heater test in the Stripa Mine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Froschauer, K J
1993-01-01
A study of the development of five provincial hydroelectric utilities in Canada indicates that power companies and the state invited manufacturers to use hydroelectricity and natural resources in order to diversify provincial economies. These hydro expansions also show that utilities and government designed hydro projects to serve continental requirements; serving both objectives became problematic. It is argued that when the Canadian state and firms such as utilities use hydro expansions to serve both continentalism and industrialization, then at best they foster dependent industrialization and staple processing. At worst, they overbuild the infrastructure to generate provincial surplus energy for continental, rather than national, integration. Hydro developments became subject to state intervention in Canada mainly through the failures of private utilities to provide power for the less-lucrative industrial markets within provincial subregions. Although the state and utilities invited foreign firms to manufacture hydro equipment within the provinces and others to use electricity to diversify production beyond resource processing, such a diversification did not occur. Since 1962, ca 80% of industrial energy was used to semi-process wood-derived products, chemicals, and metals. The idea for a national power network became undermined by interprovincial political-economic factors and since 1963, the federal national/continential power policy prevailed. 187 refs., 6 figs., 52 tabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vogeleer, J. P.
1985-01-01
The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses
Fourier Simulation of a Non-Isotropic Wind Field Model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mann, J.; Krenk, S.
Realistic modelling of three dimensional wind fields has become important in calculation of dynamic loads on same spatially extended structures, such as large bridges, towers and wind turbines. For some structures the along wind component of the of the turbulent flow is important while for others...
Baboli, Rahman; Sharafi, Azadeh; Chang, Gregory; Regatte, Ravinder R
2018-05-02
The progressive loss of hyaline articular cartilage due to osteoarthritis (OA) changes the functional and biochemical properties of cartilage. Measuring the T 1 ρ along with the morphological assessment can potentially be used as noninvasive biomarkers in detecting early-stage OA. To correlate the biochemical and morphological data, submillimeter isotropic resolution for both studies is required. To implement a high spatial resolution 3D-isotropic-MRI sequence for simultaneous assessment of morphological and biexponential T 1 ρ relaxometry of human knee cartilage in vivo. Prospective. Ten healthy volunteers with no known inflammation, trauma, or pain in the knee. Standard FLASH sequence and customized Turbo-FLASH sequence to acquire 3D-isotropic-T 1 ρ-weighted images on a 3T MRI scanner. The mean volume and thickness along with mono- and biexponential T 1 ρ relaxations were assessed in the articular cartilage of 10 healthy volunteers. Nonparametric rank-sum tests. Bland-Altman analysis and coefficient of variation. The mean monoexponential T 1 ρ relaxation was 40.7 ± 4.8 msec, while the long and short components were 58.2 ± 3.9 msec and 6.5 ± 0.6 msec, respectively. The mean fractions of long and short T 1 ρ relaxation components were 63.7 ± 5.9% and 36.3 ± 5.9%, respectively. Statistically significant (P ≤ 0.03) differences were observed in the monoexponential and long components between some of the regions of interest (ROIs). No gender differences between biexponential components were observed (P > 0.05). Mean cartilage volume and thickness were 25.9 ± 6.4 cm 3 and 2.2 ± 0.7 mm, respectively. Cartilage volume (P = 0.01) and thickness (P = 0.03) were significantly higher in male than female participants across all ROIs. Bland-Altman analysis showed agreement between two morphological methods with limits of agreement between -1000 mm 3 and +1100 mm 3 for volume, and -0.78 mm and +0.46 mm for
Thermal expansion and phase transitions of α-AlF{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morelock, Cody R.; Hancock, Justin C. [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States); Wilkinson, Angus P., E-mail: angus.wilkinson@chemistry.gatech.edu [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)
2014-11-15
ReO{sub 3}-type materials are of interest for their potential low or negative thermal expansion. Many metal trifluorides MF{sub 3} adopt the cubic form of this structure at elevated temperatures, which rhombohedrally distorts upon cooling. The rhombohedral form displays strong positive volume thermal expansion, but cubic MF{sub 3} display much lower and sometimes negative thermal expansion. The expansion behavior of α-AlF{sub 3} was characterized via synchrotron powder diffraction between 323 and 1177 K. α-AlF{sub 3} is rhombohedral at ambient conditions and displays strongly anisotropic thermal expansion. The volume coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), α{sub V}, at 500 K is ∼86 ppm K{sup −1}, but the linear CTE along the c-axis, α{sub c}, is close to zero. α-AlF{sub 3} becomes cubic on heating to ∼713 K and continues to show positive thermal expansion above the phase transition (α{sub V}(900 K) ∼25 ppm K{sup −1}). - Graphical abstract: α-AlF{sub 3} has a rhombohedrally distorted ReO{sub 3}-type structure at ambient conditions and displays strongly positive volume thermal expansion that is highly anisotropic; the material becomes cubic on heating above ∼713 K and continues to show positive thermal expansion. - Highlights: • ReO{sub 3}-type α-AlF{sub 3} displays strongly anisotropic thermal expansion below 713 K. • α-AlF{sub 3} is cubic above 713 K and maintains positive (isotropic) thermal expansion. • The volume CTE changes from ∼86 to ∼25 ppm K{sup −1} on heating from 500 to 900 K. • The PTE of cubic α-AlF{sub 3} may be due to the presence of local octahedral tilts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, G.; Marsden, B.J.; Fok, S.L.; Smart, J.
2003-01-01
In the 1960s, a theoretical relationship between the dimensional changes and the coefficient of thermal expansion of irradiated graphite was derived by J.H.W. Simmons. The theory was shown to be comparable with experimental observations at low irradiation doses, but shown to diverge at higher irradiation doses. However, various modified versions of this theory have been used as the foundation of design and life prediction calculations for graphite-moderated reactors. This paper re-examines the Simmons relationship, summarising its derivation and assumptions. The relationship was then modified to incorporate the high dose, high strain changes that were assumed to be represented in the changes in Young's modulus with irradiation dose. By scrutinising the behaviour of finite element analyses, it was possible to use a modified Simmons relationship to predict the dimensional changes of an isotropic and anisotropic graphite to high irradiation doses. These issues are important to present high-temperature reactors (HTRs) as the life of HTR graphite components is dependent upon their dimensional change behaviour. A greater understanding of this behaviour will help in the selection and development of graphite materials
Finite-Reynolds-number effects in turbulence using logarithmic expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sreenivasan, K.R.; Bershadskii, A.
2006-12-01
Experimental or numerical data in turbulence are invariably obtained at finite Reynolds numbers whereas theories of turbulence correspond to infinitely large Reynolds numbers. A proper merger of the two approaches is possible only if corrections for finite Reynolds numbers can be quantified. This paper heuristically considers examples in two classes of finite-Reynolds-number effects. Expansions in terms of logarithms of appropriate variables are shown to yield results in agreement with experimental and numerical data in the following instances: the third-order structure function in isotropic turbulence, the mixed-order structure function for the passive scalar and the Reynolds shear stress around its maximum point. Results suggestive of expansions in terms of the inverse logarithm of the Reynolds number, also motivated by experimental data, concern the tendency for turbulent structures to cluster along a line of observation and (more speculatively) for the longitudinal velocity derivative to become singular at some finite Reynolds number. We suggest an elementary hydrodynamical process that may provide a physical basis for the expansions considered here, but note that the formal justification remains tantalizingly unclear. (author)
Homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies with nonlinear electromagnetic radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vollick, Dan N.
2008-01-01
In this paper I examine cosmological models that contain a stochastic background of nonlinear electromagnetic radiation. I show that for Born-Infeld electrodynamics the equation of state parameter, w=P/ρ, remains close to 1/3 throughout the evolution of the universe if E 2 =B 2 in the late universe to a high degree of accuracy. Theories with electromagnetic Lagrangians of the form L=-(1/4)F 2 +αF 4 have recently been studied in magnetic universes, where the electric field vanishes. It was shown that the F 4 term can produce a bounce in the early universe, avoiding an initial singularity. Here I show that the inclusion of an electric field, with E 2 ≅B 2 in the late universe, eliminates the bounce and the universe begins with an initial singularity. I also examine theories with Lagrangians of the form L=-(1/4)F 2 -μ 8 /F 2 , which have been shown to produce a period of late time accelerated expansion in magnetic universes. I show that, if an electric field is introduced, the accelerated phase will only occur if E 2 2 .
Thermal expansion of coking coals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))
1992-12-01
Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.
Identity Expansion and Transcendence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
William Sims Bainbridge
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Emerging developments in communications and computing technology may transform the nature of human identity, in the process rendering obsolete the traditional philosophical and scientific frameworks for understanding the nature of individuals and groups. Progress toward an evaluation of this possibility and an appropriate conceptual basis for analyzing it may be derived from two very different but ultimately connected social movements that promote this radical change. One is the governmentally supported exploration of Converging Technologies, based in the unification of nanoscience, biology, information science and cognitive science (NBIC. The other is the Transhumanist movement, which has been criticized as excessively radical yet is primarily conducted as a dignified intellectual discussion within a new school of philosophy about human enhancement. Together, NBIC and Transhumanism suggest the immense transformative power of today’s technologies, through which individuals may explore multiple identities by means of online avatars, semi-autonomous intelligent agents, and other identity expansions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Lopez, E.; Moreno, R.; Baudin, C.
2011-07-01
Zirconium titanate is a well known compound in the field of electro ceramics, although it has also been used in catalyst and sensors applications. The crystallographic thermal expansion anisotropy of this compound makes it a potential candidate as constituent of structural components. In general, to assure the structural integrity and microstructural homogeneity of a ceramic piece, relatively low cooling rates from the fabrication temperature are required. This requirement is essential for zirconium titanate because thermal expansion as well as phase distribution is affected by small variations in the composition and cooling rate. This work reviews the available data on the phase equilibrium relationships in the systems ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The main discrepancies as well as the possible origins of them are discussed. Additionally, the crystallographic thermal expansion data in the current literature are reviewed. (Author) 56 refs.
Depression of Nonlinearity in Decaying Isotropic MHD Turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Dmitruk, P.
2008-01-01
Spectral method simulations show that undriven magnetohydrodynamic turbulence spontaneously generates coherent spatial correlations of several types, associated with local Beltrami fields, directional alignment of velocity and magnetic fields, and antialignment of magnetic and fluid acceleration components. These correlations suppress nonlinearity to levels lower than what is obtained from Gaussian fields, and occur in spatial patches. We suggest that this rapid relaxation leads to non-Gaussian statistics and spatial intermittency
Algorithm of constructing hybrid effective modules for elastic isotropic composites
Svetashkov, A. A.; Miciński, J.; Kupriyanov, N. A.; Barashkov, V. N.; Lushnikov, A. V.
2017-02-01
The algorithm of constructing of new effective elastic characteristics of two-component composites based on the superposition of the models of Reiss and Voigt, Hashin and Strikman, as well as models of the geometric average for effective modules. These effective characteristics are inside forks Voigt and Reiss. Additionally, the calculations of the stress-strain state of composite structures with new effective characteristics give more accurate prediction than classical models do.
Primordial vorticity and gradient expansion
Giovannini, Massimo
2012-01-01
The evolution equations of the vorticities of the electrons, ions and photons in a pre-decoupling plasma are derived, in a fully inhomogeneous geometry, by combining the general relativistic gradient expansion and the drift approximation within the Adler-Misner-Deser decomposition. The vorticity transfer between the different species is discussed in this novel framework and a set of general conservation laws, connecting the vorticities of the three-component plasma with the magnetic field intensity, is derived. After demonstrating that a source of large-scale vorticity resides in the spatial gradients of the geometry and of the electromagnetic sources, the total vorticity is estimated to lowest order in the spatial gradients and by enforcing the validity of the momentum constraint. By acknowledging the current bounds on the tensor to scalar ratio in the (minimal) tensor extension of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm the maximal comoving magnetic field induced by the total vorticity turns out to be, at most, of the or...
Bringmann, Torsten; Calore, Francesca; Di Mauro, Mattia; Donato, Fiorenza
2014-01-01
The nature of the isotropic γ-ray background (IGRB) measured by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi γ-ray space telescope (Fermi) remains partially unexplained. Non-negligible contributions may originate from extragalactic populations of unresolved sources such as blazars, star-forming galaxies or galactic millisecond pulsars. A recent prediction of the diffuse γ-ray emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) with a large viewing angle with respect to the line of sight has demonstrated that this faint but numerous population is also expected to contribute significantly to the total IGRB intensity. A more exotic contribution to the IGRB invokes the pair annihilation of dark matter (DM) weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) into γ rays. In this work, we evaluate the room left for galactic DM at high latitudes (>10∘) by including photons from both prompt emission and inverse Compton scattering, emphasizing the impact of the newly discovered contribution from misaligned AGN (MAGN) for such an analysis. Summing up all significant galactic and extragalactic components of the IGRB, we find that an improved understanding of the associated astrophysical uncertainties is still mandatory to put stringent bounds on thermally produced DM. On the other hand, we also demonstrate that the IGRB has the potential to be one of the most competitive future ways to test the DM WIMP hypothesis, once the present uncertainties are even slightly reduced. In fact, if MAGN contribute even at 90% of the maximal level consistent with our current understanding, thermally produced WIMPs would be severely constrained as DM candidates for masses up to several TeV.
Nonlinear ultrasonic stimulated thermography for damage assessment in isotropic fatigued structures
Fierro, Gian Piero Malfense; Calla', Danielle; Ginzburg, Dmitri; Ciampa, Francesco; Meo, Michele
2017-09-01
Traditional non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) systems are used to analyse that a structure is free of any harmful damage. However, these techniques still lack sensitivity to detect the presence of material micro-flaws in the form of fatigue damage and often require time-consuming procedures and expensive equipment. This research work presents a novel "nonlinear ultrasonic stimulated thermography" (NUST) method able to overcome some of the limitations of traditional linear ultrasonic/thermography NDE-SHM systems and to provide a reliable, rapid and cost effective estimation of fatigue damage in isotropic materials. Such a hybrid imaging approach combines the high sensitivity of nonlinear acoustic/ultrasonic techniques to detect micro-damage, with local defect frequency selection and infrared imaging. When exciting structures with an optimised frequency, nonlinear elastic waves are observed and higher frictional work at the fatigue damaged area is generated due to clapping and rubbing of the crack faces. This results in heat at cracked location that can be measured using an infrared camera. A Laser Vibrometer (LV) was used to evaluate the extent that individual frequency components contribute to the heating of the damage region by quantifying the out-of-plane velocity associated with the fundamental and second order harmonic responses. It was experimentally demonstrated the relationship between a nonlinear ultrasound parameter (βratio) of the material nonlinear response to the actual temperature rises near the crack. These results demonstrated that heat generation at damaged regions could be amplified by exciting at frequencies that provide nonlinear responses, thus improving the imaging of material damage and the reliability of NUST in a quick and reproducible manner.
Thermal expansion of beryllium oxide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solodukhin, A.V.; Kruzhalov, A.V.; Mazurenko, V.G.; Maslov, V.A.; Medvedev, V.A.; Polupanova, T.I.
1987-01-01
Precise measurements of temperature dependence of the coefficient of linear expansion in the 22-320 K temperature range on beryllium oxide monocrystals are conducted. A model of thermal expansion is suggested; the range of temperature dependence minimum of the coefficient of thermal expansion is well described within the frames of this model. The results of the experiment may be used for investigation of thermal stresses in crystals
Enhancement in (BHmax of PLD-made isotropic Nd-Fe-B thick film magnets deposited on Si substrates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Nakano
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Increase in Nd contents of a PLD-made isotropic Nd-Fe-B thick-film magnet enabled us to enhance the thickness of the film magnet deposited on a Si substrate because the linear expansion coefficient of Nd is an intermediate value between Nd2Fe14B and Si. The large amount of Nd, however, degraded the residual magnetic polarization and (BHmax. In the study, we reduced the Nd contents of each Nd-Fe-B film by inserting a Nd or a Nd-rich Nd-Fe-B buffer layer between a Nd-Fe-B film and a Si substrate in order to suppress the mechanical destruction together with the improvement in magnetic properties. It was found that the mechanical property of a Nd-Fe-B film comprising the Nd-Fe-B buffer layer in the thickness range from 10 to 60 μm was superior than that of a sample with the Nd buffer layer. Resultantly, an average (BHmax value of Nd-Fe-B films with each Nd-Fe-B buffer layer deposited on Si substrates could be enhanced by approximately 15 kJ/m3 compared to that of non-buffer-layered films.
Off-diagonal series expansion for quantum partition functions
Hen, Itay
2018-05-01
We derive an integral-free thermodynamic perturbation series expansion for quantum partition functions which enables an analytical term-by-term calculation of the series. The expansion is carried out around the partition function of the classical component of the Hamiltonian with the expansion parameter being the strength of the off-diagonal, or quantum, portion. To demonstrate the usefulness of the technique we analytically compute to third order the partition functions of the 1D Ising model with longitudinal and transverse fields, and the quantum 1D Heisenberg model.
The propagation of charged particles in a focussing magnetic field with random components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pauls, H.L.
1993-01-01
Boltzmann's equation which describes the evolution of the particle distribution function in a focussing magnetic field with finite helicity, is solved by expanding the distribution function in terms of orthogonal focussing eigenfunctions. The present work advances upon previous work by carrying the expansion of the particle distribution function to a higher order (Ν=7 compared to Ν=3), the adding of magnetic helicity, and the injection of a delta function instead of a Gaussian as initial distribution. Results from this model compare very well with those from other known numerical models, provided that a time constraint, which is a direct consequence of the truncation of the eigenfunction expansion, is satisfied. This model, which gives the solution of Boltzmann's equation to a very high degree of accuracy, is used to evaluate the densities predicted by three lower order (and hence easier to implement) models. Two of these models, where the anisotropic component of the distribution function is approximated to first and second order respectively, follow from the Born approximation technique, while the third follows from a truncated eigenfunction expansion of the particle distribution function. It is shown that the latter two models, which include the effect of the dispersion of the so-called coherent pulses, give a better description of the isotropic density than the model which ignores the effect. The main use of this dispersionless model is that it provides a zeroth order approximation to the speed of the coherent pulses in the presence of helicity and focussing. When the dispersion in the pulse is small, its speed is shown to be predicted quite well by this simple model. (author). 67 refs
Validity of the isotropic thermal conductivity assumption in supercell lattice dynamics
Ma, Ruiyuan; Lukes, Jennifer R.
2018-02-01
Superlattices and nano phononic crystals have attracted significant attention due to their low thermal conductivities and their potential application as thermoelectric materials. A widely used expression to calculate thermal conductivity, presented by Klemens and expressed in terms of the relaxation time by Callaway and Holland, originates from the Boltzmann transport equation. In its most general form, this expression involves a direct summation of the heat current contributions from individual phonons of all wavevectors and polarizations in the first Brillouin zone. In common practice, the expression is simplified by making an isotropic assumption that converts the summation over wavevector to an integral over wavevector magnitude. The isotropic expression has been applied to superlattices and phononic crystals, but its validity for different supercell sizes has not been studied. In this work, the isotropic and direct summation methods are used to calculate the thermal conductivities of bulk Si, and Si/Ge quantum dot superlattices. The results show that the differences between the two methods increase substantially with the supercell size. These differences arise because the vibrational modes neglected in the isotropic assumption provide an increasingly important contribution to the thermal conductivity for larger supercells. To avoid the significant errors that can result from the isotropic assumption, direct summation is recommended for thermal conductivity calculations in superstructures.
REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn
2004-01-01
Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...
Expansion planning for electrical generating systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1984-01-01
The guidebook outlines the general principles of electric power system planning in the context of energy and economic planning in general. It describes the complexities of electric system expansion planning that are due to the time dependence of the problem and the interrelation between the main components of the electric system (generation, transmission and distribution). Load forecasting methods are discussed and the principal models currently used for electric system expansion planning presented. Technical and economic information on power plants is given. Constraints imposed on power system planning by plant characteristics (particularly nuclear power plants) are discussed, as well as factors such as transmission system development, environmental considerations, availability of manpower and financial resources that may affect the proposed plan. A bibliography supplements the references that appear in each chapter, and a comprehensive glossary defines terms used in the guidebook
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1993-01-01
This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren Chun-Yu; Xiang Zhi-Hai; Cen Zhang-Zhi
2011-01-01
We present a method for designing an open acoustic cloak that can conceal a perturbation on flat ground and simultaneously meet the requirement of communication and matter interchange between the inside and the outside of the cloak. This cloak can be constructed with a multilayered structure and each layer is an isotropic and homogeneous medium. The design scheme consists of two steps: firstly, we apply a conformal coordinate transformation to obtain a quasi-perfect cloak with heterogeneous isotropic material; then, according to the profile of the material distribution, we degenerate this cloak into a multilayered-homogeneous isotropic cloak, which has two open windows with negligible disturbance on its invisibility performance. This may greatly facilitate the fabrication and enhance the applicability of such a carpet-type cloak. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Gokulnath, C.; Saravanan, U.; Rajagopal, K. R.
2017-12-01
A methodology for obtaining implicit constitutive representations involving the Cauchy stress and the Hencky strain for isotropic materials undergoing a non-dissipative process is developed. Using this methodology, a general constitutive representation for a subclass of implicit models relating the Cauchy stress and the Hencky strain is obtained for an isotropic material with no internal constraints. It is shown that even for this subclass, unlike classical Green elasticity, one has to specify three potentials to relate the Cauchy stress and the Hencky strain. Then, a procedure to obtain implicit constitutive representations for isotropic materials with internal constraints is presented. As an illustration, it is shown that for incompressible materials the Cauchy stress and the Hencky strain could be related through a single potential. Finally, constitutive approximations are obtained when the displacement gradient is small.
Topography-specific isotropic tunneling in nanoparticle monolayer with sub-nm scale crevices.
Wang, Guisheng; Jiao, Weihong; Yi, Lizhi; Zhang, Yuejiao; Wu, Ke; Zhang, Chao; Lv, Xianglong; Qian, Lihua; Li, Jianfeng; Yuan, Songliu; Chen, Liang
2016-10-07
Material used in flexible devices may experience anisotropic strain with identical magnitude, outputting coherent signals that tend to have a serious impact on device reliability. In this work, the surface topography of the nanoparticles (NPs) is proposed to be a parameter to control the performance of strain gauge based on tunneling behavior. In contrast to anisotropic tunneling in a monolayer of spherical NPs, electron tunneling in a monolayer of urchin-like NPs actually exhibits a nearly isotropic response to strain with different loading orientations. Isotropic tunneling of the urchin-like NPs is caused by the interlocked pikes of these urchin-like NPs in a random manner during external mechanical stimulus. Topography-dependent isotropic tunneling in two dimensions reported here opens a new opportunity to create highly reliable electronics with superior performance.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroshi Tsukahara
2017-05-01
Full Text Available We performed a large-scale micromagnetics simulation on a supercomputing system to investigate the properties of isotropic nanocrystalline permanent magnets consisting of cubic grains. In the simulation, we solved the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation under a periodic boundary condition for accurate calculation of the magnetization dynamics inside the nanocrystalline isotropic magnet. We reduced the inter-grain exchange interaction perpendicular and parallel to the external field independently. Propagation of the magnetization reversal process is inhibited by reducing the inter-grain exchange interaction perpendicular to the external field, and the coercivity is enhanced by this restraint. In contrast, when we reduce the inter-grain exchange interaction parallel to the external field, the coercivity decreases because the magnetization reversal process propagates owing to dipole interaction. These behaviors show that the coercivity of an isotropic permanent magnet depends on the direction of the inter-grain exchange interaction.
Torsional vibration of a pipe pile in transversely isotropic saturated soil
Zheng, Changjie; Hua, Jianmin; Ding, Xuanming
2016-09-01
This study considers the torsional vibration of a pipe pile in a transversely isotropic saturated soil layer. Based on Biot's poroelastic theory and the constitutive relations of the transversely isotropic medium, the dynamic governing equations of the outer and inner transversely isotropic saturated soil layers are derived. The Laplace transform is used to solve the governing equations of the outer and inner soil layers. The dynamic torsional response of the pipe pile in the frequency domain is derived utilizing 1D elastic theory and the continuous conditions at the interfaces between the pipe pile and the soils. The time domain solution is obtained by Fourier inverse transform. A parametric study is conducted to demonstrate the influence of the anisotropies of the outer and inner soil on the torsional dynamic response of the pipe pile.
A 3D printed dual GSM band near isotropic on-package antenna
Zhen, Su
2017-10-25
In this paper, we propose an on-package dual band monopole antenna with near-isotropic radiation pattern for GSM mobile applications. The proposed antenna is well matched for both GSM 900 and 1800 bands and provides decent gain for both the bands (1.67 and 3.27 dBi at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz respectively). The antenna is printed with silver ink on a 3D printed polymer based package. The package houses the GSM electronics and the battery. By optimizing the antenna arms width and length, a near-isotropic radiation pattern is achieved. Unlike the published isotropic antennas which are either single band or large in size, the proposed antenna covers both GSM bands with required bandwidth and is only half wavelength long. The design is low cost and highly suitable for various GSM applications such as localization, in additional to conventional communication applications.
Calculated isotropic Raman spectra from interacting H2-rare-gas pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gustafsson, M; Głaz, W; Bancewicz, T; Godet, J-L; Maroulis, G; Haskapoulos, A
2014-01-01
We report on a theoretical study of the H 2 -He and H 2 -Ar pair trace-polarizability and the corresponding isotropic Raman spectra. The conventional quantum mechanical approach for calculations of interaction-induced spectra, which is based on an isotropic interaction potential, is employed. This is compared with a close-coupling approach, which allows for inclusion of the full, anisotropic potential. It is established that the anisotropy of the potential plays a minor role for these spectra. The computed isotropic collision-induced Raman intensity, which is due to dissimilar pairs in H 2 -He and H 2 -Ar gas mixtures, is comparable to the intensities due to similar pairs (H 2 -H 2 , He-He, and Ar-Ar), which have been studied previously
A New Theory of Non-Linear Thermo-Elastic Constitutive Equation of Isotropic Hyperelastic Materials
Li, Chen; Liao, Yufei
2018-03-01
Considering the influence of temperature and strain variables on materials. According to the relationship of conjugate stress-strain, a complete and irreducible non-linear constitutive equation of isotropic hyperelastic materials is derived and the constitutive equations of 16 types of isotropic hyperelastic materials are given we study the transformation methods and routes of 16 kinds of constitutive equations and the study proves that transformation of two forms of constitutive equation. As an example of application, the non-linear thermo-elastic constitutive equation of isotropic hyperelastic materials is combined with the natural vulcanized rubber experimental data in the existing literature base on MATLAB, The results show that the fitting accuracy is satisfactory.
Renormalization group and Mayer expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1984-02-01
Mayer expansions promise to become a powerful tool in exact renormalization group calculations. Iterated Mayer expansions were sucessfully used in the rigorous analysis of 3-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory by Goepfert and the author, and it is hoped that they will also be useful in the 2-dimensional nonlinear sigma-model, and elsewhere. (orig.)
Renormalization group and mayer expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, G.
1984-01-01
Mayer expansions promise to become a powerful tool in exact renormalization group calculations. Iterated Mayer expansions were sucessfully used in the rigorous analysis of 3-dimensional U (1) lattice gauge theory by Gopfert and the author, and it is hoped that they will also be useful in the 2-dimensional nonlinear σ-model, and elsewhere
On summation of perturbation expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horzela, A.
1985-04-01
The problem of the restoration of physical quantities defined by divergent perturbation expansions is analysed. The Pad'e and Borel summability is proved for alternating perturbation expansions with factorially growing coefficients. The proof is based on the methods of the classical moments theory. 17 refs. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Qing; Hou Yu-Long; Jing Jian; Long Zheng-Wen
2014-01-01
In this paper, we study symmetrical properties of two-dimensional (2D) screened Dirac Hydrogen atom and isotropic harmonic oscillator with scalar and vector potentials of equal magnitude (SVPEM). We find that it is possible for both cases to preserve so(3) and su(2) dynamical symmetries provided certain conditions are satisfied. Interestingly, the conditions for preserving these dynamical symmetries are exactly the same as non-relativistic screened Hydrogen atom and screened isotropic oscillator preserving their dynamical symmetries. Some intuitive explanations are proposed. (general)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Zhi Yong; Chaboche, Jean-Louis; Wang, Qing Yuan; Wagner, Danièle; Bathias, Claude
2014-01-01
Carbon–manganese steel A48 (French standard) is used in steam generator pipes of nuclear reactor pressure vessels at high temperatures (about 200 °C). The steel is sensitive to dynamic strain aging in monotonic tensile test and low cycle fatigue test at certain temperature range and strain rate. Its isotropic hardening behavior observed from experiments has a hardening, softening and hardening evolution with the effect of dynamic strain aging. The isotropic hardening model is improved by coupling the dislocation and dynamic strain aging theory to describe the behavior of A48 at 200 °C
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Zhi Yong, E-mail: huangzy@scu.edu.cn [Sichuan University, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No. 29 Jiuyanqiao Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chaboche, Jean-Louis [ONERA, DMSM, 29 avenue de la Division Lecerc, F-92320 Chatillon (France); Wang, Qing Yuan [Sichuan University, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, No. 29 Jiuyanqiao Wangjiang Road, Chengdu 610064 (China); Wagner, Danièle; Bathias, Claude [Université ParisOuest Nanterre La Défense (France)
2014-01-01
Carbon–manganese steel A48 (French standard) is used in steam generator pipes of nuclear reactor pressure vessels at high temperatures (about 200 °C). The steel is sensitive to dynamic strain aging in monotonic tensile test and low cycle fatigue test at certain temperature range and strain rate. Its isotropic hardening behavior observed from experiments has a hardening, softening and hardening evolution with the effect of dynamic strain aging. The isotropic hardening model is improved by coupling the dislocation and dynamic strain aging theory to describe the behavior of A48 at 200 °C.
About zone structure of a stack of a cholesteric liquid crystal and isotropic medium layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gevorgyan, A H; Harutyunyan, E M; Matinyan, G K; Harutyunyan, M Z
2014-01-01
The optical properties of a stack of metamaterial-based cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) layers and isotropic medium layers are investigated. CLCs with two types of chiral nihility are defined. The peculiarities of the reflection spectra of this system are investigated and it is shown that the reflection spectra of the stacks of CLC layers of these two types differ from each other. The influence of: the CLC sublayer thicknesses; incidence angle; local dielectric (magnetic) anisotropy of the CLC layers; refraction indices and thicknesses of the isotropic media layers on the reflection spectra and other optical characteristics of the system is investigated.
Phase-field-crystal model for magnetocrystalline interactions in isotropic ferromagnetic solids
Faghihi, Niloufar; Provatas, Nikolas; Elder, K. R.; Grant, Martin; Karttunen, Mikko
2013-09-01
An isotropic magnetoelastic phase-field-crystal model to study the relation between morphological structure and magnetic properties of pure ferromagnetic solids is introduced. Analytic calculations in two dimensions were used to determine the phase diagram and obtain the relationship between elastic strains and magnetization. Time-dependent numerical simulations in two dimensions were used to demonstrate the effect of grain boundaries on the formation of magnetic domains. It was shown that the grain boundaries act as nucleating sites for domains of reverse magnetization. Finally, we derive a relation for coercivity versus grain misorientation in the isotropic limit.
Numerical implementation of a transverse-isotropic inelastic, work-hardening constitutive model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baladi, G.Y.
1978-01-01
The numerical implementation of a transverse-isotropic inelastic, work-hardening plastic constitutive model is documented. A brief review of the model is presented first to facilitate the understanding of its numerical implementation. This model is formulated in terms of 'pseudo' stress invariants, so that the incremental stress-strain relationship can be readily incorporated into existing finite-difference or infinite-element computer codes. The anisotropic model reduces to its isotropic counterpart without any changes in the mathematical formulation or in the numerical implementation (algorithm) of the model. A typical example of the model and its behavior in uniaxial strain and triaxial compression is presented. (Auth.)
Magnetic field sensor for isotropically sensing an incident magnetic field in a sensor plane
Pant, Bharat B. (Inventor); Wan, Hong (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A magnetic field sensor that isotropically senses an incident magnetic field. This is preferably accomplished by providing a magnetic field sensor device that has one or more circular shaped magnetoresistive sensor elements for sensing the incident magnetic field. The magnetoresistive material used is preferably isotropic, and may be a CMR material or some form of a GMR material. Because the sensor elements are circular in shape, shape anisotropy is eliminated. Thus, the resulting magnetic field sensor device provides an output that is relatively independent of the direction of the incident magnetic field in the sensor plane.
Full three-dimensional isotropic carpet cloak designed by quasi-conformal transformation optics.
Silva, Daniely G; Teixeira, Poliane A; Gabrielli, Lucas H; Junqueira, Mateus A F C; Spadoti, Danilo H
2017-09-18
A fully three-dimensional carpet cloak presenting invisibility in all viewing angles is theoretically demonstrated. The design is developed using transformation optics and three-dimensional quasi-conformal mapping. Parametrization strategy and numerical optimization of the coordinate transformation deploying a quasi-Newton method is applied. A discussion about the minimum achievable anisotropy in the 3D transformation optics is presented. The method allows to reduce the anisotropy in the cloak and an isotropic medium could be considered. Numerical simulations confirm the strategy employed enabling the design of an isotropic reflectionless broadband carpet cloak independently of the incident light direction and polarization.
Colwell, Morris A
1976-01-01
Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful
Plasma expansion: fundamentals and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engeln, R; Mazouffre, S; Vankan, P; Bakker, I; Schram, D C
2002-01-01
The study of plasma expansion is interesting from a fundamental point of view as well as from a more applied point of view. We here give a short overview of the way properties like density, velocity and temperature behave in an expanding thermal plasma. Experimental data show that the basic phenomena of plasma expansion are to some extent similar to those of the expansion of a hot neutral gas. From the application point of view, we present first results on the use of an expanding thermal plasma in the plasma-activated catalysis of ammonia, from N 2 -H 2 mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sergeev, V.A.; Malkov, M.; Mursula, K.
1993-01-01
This paper describes tests done on one model system for studying the magnetic field in the magneotail, called the isotropic boundary algorithm method. The tail field lines map into the ionosphere, and there have been two direct methods applied to study tail fields, one a global model, and the other a local model. The global models are so broad in scope that they have a hard time dealing with specific field configurations at some time and some location. Local models rely upon field measurements being simultaneously available over a large region of space to study simultaneously the field configurations. In general this is either very fortuitous or very expensive. The isotropic boundary algorithm method relys upon measuring energetic particles, here protons with energies greater than 30 keV, in the isotropic boundary at low altitudes and interpreting them as representing the boundary between stochastic and adiabatic particle motion regions in the equatorial tail current sheet. The authors have correlated particle measurements by NOAA spacecraft to study the isotropic boundary, with magnetic measurements of tail magnetic fields by the geostationary GOES 2 spacecraft. Positive correlations are observed
A simple free energy for the isotropic-nematic phase transition of rods
Tuinier, R.
2016-01-01
A free energy expression is proposed that describes the isotropic-nematic binodal concentrations of hard rods. A simple analytical form for this free energy was yet only available using a Gaussian trial function for the orientation distribution function (ODF), leading, however, to a significant
On metallic gratings coated conformally with isotropic negative-phase-velocity materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inchaussandague, Marina E.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Depine, Ricardo A.
2008-01-01
Application of the differential method (also called the C method) to plane-wave diffraction by a perfectly conducting, sinusoidally corrugated metallic grating coated with a linear, homogeneous, isotropic, lossless dielectric-magnetic material shows that coating materials with negative index of refraction may deliver enhanced maximum nonspecular reflection efficiencies in comparison to coating materials with positive index of refraction
On metallic gratings coated conformally with isotropic negative-phase-velocity materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inchaussandague, Marina E. [GEA-Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: mei@df.uba.ar; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh [CATMAS-Computational and Theoretical Materials Sciences Group, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-6812 (United States)], E-mail: akhlesh@psu.edu; Depine, Ricardo A. [GEA-Grupo de Electromagnetismo Aplicado, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); CONICET-Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: rdep@df.uba.ar
2008-03-31
Application of the differential method (also called the C method) to plane-wave diffraction by a perfectly conducting, sinusoidally corrugated metallic grating coated with a linear, homogeneous, isotropic, lossless dielectric-magnetic material shows that coating materials with negative index of refraction may deliver enhanced maximum nonspecular reflection efficiencies in comparison to coating materials with positive index of refraction.
A Dual Band Additively Manufactured 3D Antenna on Package with Near-Isotropic Radiation Pattern
Su, Zhen
2018-04-06
Internet of things (IoT) applications need wireless connectivity on devices with very small footprints, and in RF obscure environments. The antenna for such applications must work on multiple GSM bands (preferred choice for network connectivity), provide near isotropic radiation pattern to maintain orientation insensitive communication, be small in size so that it can be integrated with futuristic miniaturized IoT devices, and be low in cost to be implemented on billions of devices. This paper presents a novel 3D dual band near-isotropic wideband GSM antenna to fulfill these requirements. The antenna has been realized on the package of electronics through additive manufacturing to ensure efficient utilization of available space and lower cost. The proposed antenna consists of a meander line antenna that is folded on the faces of a 3D package with two variations, 0.375λ length for narrowband version and 0.67λ length for the wideband version. Theoretical conditions to achieve near isotropic radiation pattern with bent wire antennas on a 3D surface have been derived. The antenna has been optimized to operate with embedded electronics and a large metallic battery. The antenna provides 8.9% and 34.4% bandwidths, at 900 and 1800 MHz respectively with decent near isotropic radiation behavior.
A new approach to design of quasi-isotropic antenna systems for satellite applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Hansen, J.E.
1976-01-01
The new approach considered takes into account the maximum error of the quasi-isotropic radiation pattern relative to the ideal pattern. A design example involving a spherical satellite with quarter wave monopoles is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new approach. An investigation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barykin, V.N.
1989-01-01
A physical interpretation of the early detected ambiguity of the electrodynamic material equations of isotropic, inertially moving media which mathematically manifests itself through complementarity of the equations invariant under the Galileo group in some cases and in other ones - under the Lorentz group that can be experimentally discovered in the aberration phenomenon and Doppler effect
Poh, Leong Hien; Peerlings, R.H.J.
2016-01-01
Although formulated to represent a large system of polycrystals at the macroscopic level, isotropic gradient plasticity models have routinely been adopted at the meso scale. For such purposes, it is crucial to incorporate the plastic rotation effect in order to obtain a reasonable approximation of
Weak convergence to isotropic complex S α S $S\\alpha S$ random measure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Wang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove that an isotropic complex symmetric α-stable random measure ( 0 < α < 2 $0<\\alpha<2$ can be approximated by a complex process constructed by integrals based on the Poisson process with random intensity.
Numerical implementation of a transverse-isotropic inelastic, work-hardening constitutive model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baladi, G.Y.
1977-01-01
During the past few decades the dramatic growth of computer technology has been paralleled by an increasing degree of complexity in material constitutive modeling. This paper documents the numerical implementation of one of these models, specifically a transverse-isotropic, inelastic, work-hardening constitutive model which is developed elsewhere by the author. (Auth.)
Tsinober, A.; Vedula, P.; Yeung, P.K.
2001-01-01
The properties of acceleration fluctuations in isotropic turbulence are studied in direct numerical simulations (DNS) by decomposing the acceleration as the sum of local and convective contributions (aL = ?u/?t and aC = u??u), or alternatively as the sum of irrotational and solenoidal contributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pappas, G; Apostolatos, T A
2008-01-01
We demonstrate how one should transform correctly quasi-isotropic coordinates to Weyl-Papapetrou coordinates in order to compare the metric around a rotating star, which has been constructed numerically in the former coordinates, with an axially symmetric stationary metric, which is given through an analytical form in the latter coordinates. (comments, replies and notes)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pappas, G; Apostolatos, T A [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografos GR15783, Athens (Greece)
2008-11-21
We demonstrate how one should transform correctly quasi-isotropic coordinates to Weyl-Papapetrou coordinates in order to compare the metric around a rotating star, which has been constructed numerically in the former coordinates, with an axially symmetric stationary metric, which is given through an analytical form in the latter coordinates. (comments, replies and notes)
Multi-contrast, isotropic, single-slab 3D MR imaging in multiple sclerosis
Moraal, Bastiaan; Roosendaal, Stefan; Pouwels, Petra; Vrenken, Hugo; Schijndel, van Ronald; Meier, Dominik; Guttmann, Charles; Geurts, Jeroen; Barkhof, Frederik
2008-01-01
To describe signal and contrast properties of an isotropic, single-slab 3D dataset [double inversion- recovery (DIR), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T2, and T1-weighted magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE)] and to evaluate its performance in detecting
Multi-contrast, isotropic, single-slab 3D MR imaging in multiple sclerosis
Moraal, B.; Roosendaal, S.D.; Pouwels, P.J.W.; Vrenken, H.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Meier, D.S.; Guttmann, C.R.G.; Geurts, J.J.G.; Barkhof, F.
2008-01-01
To describe signal and contrast properties of an isotropic, single-slab 3D dataset [double inversion-recovery (DIR), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T2, and T1-weighted magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE)] and to evaluate its performance in detecting multiple
Bel-Robinson energy and the nature of singularities in isotropic cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klaoudatou, Ifigeneia; Cotsakis, Spiros
2007-01-01
We review our recent work on the classification of finite time singularities that arise in isotropic universes. This scheme is based on the exploitation of the Bel Robinson energy in a cosmological setting. We comment on the relation between geodesic completeness and the Bel Robinson energy and present evidence that relates the divergence of the latter to the existence of closed trapped surfaces
Development of a 10 m quasi-isotropic strand assembled from 2G wires
Kan, Changtao; Wang, Yinshun; Hou, Yanbing; Li, Yan; Zhang, Han; Fu, Yu; Jiang, Zhe
2018-03-01
Quasi-isotropic strands made of second generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires are attractive to applications of high-field magnets at low temperatures and power transmission cables at liquid nitrogen temperature in virtue of their high current carrying capability and well mechanical property. In this contribution, a 10 m length quasi-isotropic strand is manufactured and successfully tested in liquid nitrogen to verify the feasibility of an industrial scale production of the strand by the existing cabling technologies. The strand with copper sheath consists of 72 symmetrically assembled 2G wires. The uniformity of critical properties of long quasi-isotropic strands, including critical current and n-value, is very important for their using. Critical currents as well as n-values of the strand are measured every 1 m respectively and compared with the simulation results. Critical current and n-value of the strand are calculated basing on the self-consistent model solved by the finite element method (FEM). Effects of self-field on the critical current and n-value distributions in wires of the strand are analyzed in detail. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data and the 10 m quasi-isotropic strand has good critical properties uniformity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagrov, V.G.; Evseevich, A.A.; Obukhov, V.V.; Osetrin, K.E.
1987-01-01
The authors consider the problem of the classification of the Stackel spaces of the electrovacuum with isotropic complete sets. The metrics of the spaces are represented in a form that is convenient for their investigation. We obtain necessary relations for the construction of the field equations
Static deformation due to a long buried dip-slip fault in an isotropic
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Closed-form analytical expressions for the displacements and the stresses at any point of a two-phase medium consisting of a homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-space in welded contact with a homogeneous, orthotropic, perfectly elastic half-space due to a dip-slip fault of ﬁnite width located at an arbitrary ...
Split energy–helicity cascades in three-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic turbulence
Biferale, L.; Musacchio, S.; Toschi, F.
2013-01-01
We investigate the transfer properties of energy and helicity fluctuations in fully developed homogeneous and isotropic turbulence by changing the nature of the nonlinear Navier–Stokes terms. We perform a surgery of all possible interactions, by keeping only those triads that have sign-definite
Smoothing expansion rate data to reconstruct cosmological matter perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, J.E.; Alcaniz, J.S.; Carvalho, J.C., E-mail: javierernesto@on.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br, E-mail: jcarvalho@on.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, Rua Gal. José Cristino, 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil)
2017-08-01
The existing degeneracy between different dark energy and modified gravity cosmologies at the background level may be broken by analyzing quantities at the perturbative level. In this work, we apply a non-parametric smoothing (NPS) method to reconstruct the expansion history of the Universe ( H ( z )) from model-independent cosmic chronometers and high- z quasar data. Assuming a homogeneous and isotropic flat universe and general relativity (GR) as the gravity theory, we calculate the non-relativistic matter perturbations in the linear regime using the H ( z ) reconstruction and realistic values of Ω {sub m} {sub 0} and σ{sub 8} from Planck and WMAP-9 collaborations. We find a good agreement between the measurements of the growth rate and f σ{sub 8}( z ) from current large-scale structure observations and the estimates obtained from the reconstruction of the cosmic expansion history. Considering a recently proposed null test for GR using matter perturbations, we also apply the NPS method to reconstruct f σ{sub 8}( z ). For this case, we find a ∼ 3σ tension (good agreement) with the standard relativistic cosmology when the Planck (WMAP-9) priors are used.
Smoothing expansion rate data to reconstruct cosmological matter perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez, J.E.; Alcaniz, J.S.; Carvalho, J.C.
2017-01-01
The existing degeneracy between different dark energy and modified gravity cosmologies at the background level may be broken by analyzing quantities at the perturbative level. In this work, we apply a non-parametric smoothing (NPS) method to reconstruct the expansion history of the Universe ( H ( z )) from model-independent cosmic chronometers and high- z quasar data. Assuming a homogeneous and isotropic flat universe and general relativity (GR) as the gravity theory, we calculate the non-relativistic matter perturbations in the linear regime using the H ( z ) reconstruction and realistic values of Ω m 0 and σ 8 from Planck and WMAP-9 collaborations. We find a good agreement between the measurements of the growth rate and f σ 8 ( z ) from current large-scale structure observations and the estimates obtained from the reconstruction of the cosmic expansion history. Considering a recently proposed null test for GR using matter perturbations, we also apply the NPS method to reconstruct f σ 8 ( z ). For this case, we find a ∼ 3σ tension (good agreement) with the standard relativistic cosmology when the Planck (WMAP-9) priors are used.
Integrating agricultural expansion into conservation biogeography: conflicts and priorities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Dobrovolski
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Increasing food production without compromising biodiversity is one of the great challenges for humanity. The aims of my thesis were to define spatial priorities for biodiversity conservation and to evaluate conservation conflicts considering agricultural expansion in the 21st century. I also tested the effect of globalizing conservation efforts on both food production and biodiversity conservation. I found spatial conflicts between biodiversity conservation and agricultural expansion. However, incorporating agricultural expansion data into the spatial prioritization process can significantly alleviate conservation conflicts, by reducing spatial correlation between the areas under high impact of agriculture and the priority areas for conservation. Moreover, developing conservation blueprints at the global scale, instead of the usual approach based on national boundaries, can benefit both food production and biodiversity. Based on these findings I conclude that the incorporation of agricultural expansion as a key component for defining global conservation strategies should be added to the list of solutions for our cultivated planet.
Soil Organic Carbon Responses to Forest Expansion on Mountain Grasslands
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guidi, Claudia
. Changes in labile soil C were assessed by carbohydrate and thermal analyses of soil samples and fractions. Forest expansion on mountain grasslands caused a decrease in SOC stocks within the mineral soil. The SOC accumulation within the organic layers following forest establishment could not fully...... and thermally labile to resistant components decreased from grassland to forest successional stages, and corresponded to decreased SOC protection within stable aggregates. This PhD thesis showed that mineral SOC stocks and physically protected SOC fractions decreased following forest expansion on mountain......Grassland abandonment followed by progressive forest expansion is the dominant land-use change in the European Alps. Contrasting trends in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks have been reported for mountainous regions following forest expansion on grasslands. Moreover, its effects on SOC properties...
Sierra-Vázquez, Vicente; Serrano-Pedraza, Ignacio
2010-04-01
The existence of a special second-order mechanism in the human visual system, able to demodulate the envelope of visual stimuli, suggests that spatial information contained in the image envelope may be perceptually relevant. The Riesz transform, a natural isotropic extension of the Hilbert transform to multidimensional signals, was used here to demodulate band-pass filtered images of well-known visual illusions of length, size, direction, and shape. We show that the local amplitude of the monogenic signal or envelope of each illusion image conveys second-order information related to image holistic spatial structure, whereas the local phase component conveys information about the spatial features. Further low-pass filtering of the illusion image envelopes creates physical distortions that correspond to the subjective distortions perceived in the illusory images. Therefore the envelope seems to be the image component that physically carries the spatial information about these illusions. This result contradicts the popular belief that the relevant spatial information to perceive geometrical-optical illusions is conveyed only by the lower spatial frequencies present in their Fourier spectrum.
Hao, Qi
2016-11-21
Seismic-wave attenuation is an important component of describing wave propagation. Certain regions, such as gas clouds inside the earth, exert highly localized attenuation. In fact, the anisotropic nature of the earth induces anisotropic attenuation because the quasi P-wave dispersion effect should be profound along the symmetry direction. We have developed a 2D acoustic eikonal equation governing the complex-valued traveltime of quasi P-waves in attenuating, transversely isotropic media with a vertical-symmetry axis (VTI). This equation is derived under the assumption that the complex-valued traveltime of quasi P-waves in attenuating VTI media are independent of the S-wave velocity parameter υS0 in Thomsen\\'s notation and the S-wave attenuation coefficient AS0 in Zhu and Tsvankin\\'s notation. We combine perturbation theory and Shanks transform to develop practical approximations to the acoustic attenuating eikonal equation, capable of admitting an analytical description of the attenuation in homogeneous media. For a horizontal-attenuating VTI layer, we also derive the nonhyperbolic approximations for the real and imaginary parts of the complex-valued reflection traveltime. These equations reveal that (1) the quasi SV-wave velocity and the corresponding quasi SV-wave attenuation coefficient given as part of Thomsen-type notation barely affect the ray velocity and ray attenuation of quasi P-waves in attenuating VTI media; (2) combining the perturbation method and Shanks transform provides an accurate analytic eikonal solution for homogeneous attenuating VTI media; (3) for a horizontal attenuating VTI layer with weak attenuation, the real part of the complex-valued reflection traveltime may still be described by the existing nonhyperbolic approximations developed for nonattenuating VTI media, and the imaginary part of the complex-valued reflection traveltime still has the shape of nonhyperbolic curves. In addition, we have evaluated the possible extension of the
Warp drive with zero expansion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Natario, Jose [Department of Mathematics, Instituto Superior Tecnico (Portugal)
2002-03-21
It is commonly believed that Alcubierre's warp drive works by contracting space in front of the warp bubble and expanding the space behind it. We show that this contraction/expansion is but a marginal consequence of the choice made by Alcubierre and explicitly construct a similar spacetime where no contraction/expansion occurs. Global and optical properties of warp-drive spacetimes are also discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andro, Jean.
1973-01-01
The invention relates the expansion lyre-shaped tube portions formed in dudgeoned tubular bundles between two bottom plates. An expansion lyre comprises at least two sets of tubes of unequal lengths coplanar and symmetrical with respect to the main tube axis, with connecting portions between the tubes forming said sets. The invention applies to apparatus such as heat exchangers, heaters, superheaters or breeders [fr
Estimates of expansion time scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, E.M.
1979-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations of the expansion of a spacefaring civilization show that descendants of that civilization should be found near virtually every useful star in the Galaxy in a time much less than the current age of the Galaxy. Only extreme assumptions about local population growth rates, emigration rates, or ship ranges can slow or halt an expansion. The apparent absence of extraterrestrials from the solar system suggests that no such civilization has arisen in the Galaxy. 1 figure
Strategic Complexity and Global Expansion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Oladottir, Asta Dis; Hobdari, Bersant; Papanastassiou, Marina
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of global expansion strategies of newcomer Multinational Corporations (MNCs) by focusing on Iceland, Israel and Ireland. We argue that newcomer MNCs from small open economies pursue complex global expansion strategies (CGES). We distinguish....... The empirical evidence suggests that newcomer MNCs move away from simplistic dualities in the formulation of their strategic choices towards more complex options as a means of maintaining and enhancing their global competitiveness....
Range expansion of heterogeneous populations.
Reiter, Matthias; Rulands, Steffen; Frey, Erwin
2014-04-11
Risk spreading in bacterial populations is generally regarded as a strategy to maximize survival. Here, we study its role during range expansion of a genetically diverse population where growth and motility are two alternative traits. We find that during the initial expansion phase fast-growing cells do have a selective advantage. By contrast, asymptotically, generalists balancing motility and reproduction are evolutionarily most successful. These findings are rationalized by a set of coupled Fisher equations complemented by stochastic simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jin Seung; Lee, Seung S
2008-01-01
In this paper, a novel approach is developed to design an isotropic suspension system using thick metal freestanding micro-structures combining bulk micro-machining with electroplating based on a HAR SU-8 mold. An omega-shape isotropic suspension system composed of circular curved beams that have free switching of imaginary boundary conditions is proposed. This novel isotropic suspension design is not affected by geometric dimensional parameters and always achieves matching stiffness along the principle axes of elasticity. Using the finite element method, the isotropic suspension system was compared with an S-shaped meandering suspension system. In order to realize the suggested isotropic suspension system, a cost-effective fabrication process using electroplating with the SU-8 mold was developed to avoid expensive equipment and materials such as deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) or a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer. The fabricated isotropic suspension system was verified by electromagnetic actuation experiments. Finally, a biaxial accelerometer with isotropic suspension system was realized and tested using a vibration generator system. The proposed isotropic suspension system and the modified surface micro-machining technique based on electroplating with an SU-8 mold can contribute towards minimizing the system size, simplifying the system configuration, reducing the system price of and facilitating mass production of various types of low-cost sensors and actuators
Effect of gamma irradiation on density and thermal expansion changes of uniaxial oriented LLDPE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kacarevic-Popovic, Z.; Kostoski, D.; Novakovic, Lj.
1998-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. It is well known that gamma irradiation induces cross-linking in the amorphous phase of isotropic polyethylene, or chain scission in highly oriented fibers and films. Thermomechanical behavior and values of density are the reflection of the changes induced by gamma irradiation. Namely, scission of macromolecules, in general, increases thermal expansion coefficient and decreases density and vice versa. On the other hand, as it is well known, the thermal expansion behavior of oriented polymers shows marked anisotropy. It was found that many highly oriented polymers show a negative coefficient of thermal expansion in the draw direction and a positive coefficient in the transverse direction. It has been suggested that, apart from any intrinsic crystalline contribution, a significant part of the negative thermal expansion coefficients obtained for highly oriented polymers arises from the effect of entropy internal stresses in the amorphous regions. From our previous work, the thermal coefficients in draw direction of irradiated samples rise in the glass transition temperature range and it was related to the effects of cross-linking in the amorphous phase of LDPE. In our present work we observed initial decrease in density with absorbed dose, up to 35 kGy, and subsequent increase up to a dose of 500 kGy. The observed increase in thermal expansion coefficient followed the changes in density and is related to the parallel processes of chain scission and net cross-linking in the amorphous phase of LLDPE, induced by gamma irradiation
Localized Symmetry Breaking for Tuning Thermal Expansion in ScF _{3} Nanoscale Frameworks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Lei [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Qin, Feiyu [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Sanson, Andrea [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Padova I-35131, Italy; Huang, Liang-Feng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Pan, Zhao [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Li, Qiang [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Sun, Qiang [International Laboratory for Quantum Functional Materials of Henan, School of Physics and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, China; Wang, Lu [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Guo, Fangmin [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Aydemir, Umut [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Department of Chemistry, Koc University, Sariyer, Istanbul 34450, Turkey; Ren, Yang [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Sun, Chengjun [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Deng, Jinxia [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Aquilanti, Giuliana [Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, Basovizza, Trieste I-34149, Italy; Rondinelli, James M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, United States; Chen, Jun [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China; Xing, Xianran [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
2018-03-15
The local symmetry, beyond the averaged crystallographic structure, tends to bring unu-sual performances. Negative thermal expansion is a peculiar physical property of solids. Here, we report the delicate design of the localized symmetry breaking to achieve the controllable thermal expansion in ScF3 nano-scale frameworks. Intriguingly, an isotropic zero thermal expansion is concurrently engi-neered by localized symmetry breaking, with a remarkably low coefficient of thermal expansion of about +4.0×10-8/K up to 675K. This mechanism is investigated by the joint analysis of atomic pair dis-tribution function of synchrotron X-ray total scattering and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra. A localized rhombohedral distortion presumably plays a critical role in stiffening ScF3 nano-scale frameworks and concomitantly suppressing transverse thermal vibrations of fluorine atoms. This physical scenario is also theoretically corroborated by the extinction of phonon modes with negative Grüneisen parameters in the rhombohedral ScF3. The present work opens an untraditional chemical modification to achieve controllable thermal expansion by breaking local symmetries of materials.
Scalar properties of transversely isotropic tuff from images of orthogonal cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berge, P.A.; Berryman, J.G.; Blair, S.C.; Pena, C.
1997-01-01
Image processing methods have been used very effectively to estimate physical properties of isotropic porous earth materials such as sandstones. Anisotropic materials can also be analyzed in order to estimate their physical properties, but additional care and a larger number of well-chosen images of cross sections are required to obtain correct results. Although low-symmetry anisotropic media present difficulties for two-dimensional image processing methods, geologic materials are often transversely isotropic. Scalar properties of porous materials such as porosity and specific surface area can be determined with only minor changes in the analysis when the medium is transversely isotropic rather than isotropic. For example, in a rock that is transitively isotropic due to thin layers or beds, the overall porosity may be obtained by analyzing images of cross sections taken orthogonal to the bedding planes, whereas cross sections lying within the bedding planes will determine only the local porosity of the bed itself. It is known for translationally invariant anisotropic media that the overall specific surface area can be obtained from radial averages of the two-point correlation function in the full three-dimensional volume. Layered materials are not translationally invariant in the direction of the layering, but we show nevertheless how averages of cross sections may be used to obtain the specific surface area for a transversely isotropic rock. We report values of specific surface area obtained for thin sections of Topopah Spring Tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This formation is being evaluated as a potential host rock for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Although the present work has made use of thin sections of tuff for the images, the same methods of analysis could also be used to simplify quantitative analysis of three-dimensional volumes of pore structure data obtained by means of x-ray microtomography or other methods, using only a few representative cross
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, S.Y.; Lee, I.S.; Park, S.K.; Cheon, S.J.; Ahn, J.M.; Song, J.W.
2014-01-01
Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracies of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) using fat-suppressed proton density (PD) or volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with that of conventional MRA for the diagnosis of rotator cuff and labral lesions. Materials and methods: Eighty-six patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery were included. 3D isotropic sequences were performed in the axial plane using fat-suppressed PD (group A) in 53 patients and using VIBE (group B) in 33 patients. Reformatted images were obtained corresponding to conventional images, and evaluated for the presence of labral and rotator cuff lesions using conventional and 3D isotropic sequences. The diagnostic performances of each sequence were determined using arthroscopic findings as the standard. Results: Good to excellent interobserver agreements were obtained for both 3D isotropic sequences for the evaluation of rotator cuff and labral lesions. Excellent agreement was found between two-dimensional (2D) and 3D isotropic MRA, except for supraspinatus tendon (SST) tears by both readers and for subscapularis tendon (SCT) tears by reader 2 in group B. 2D MRA and 3D isotropic sequences had high diagnostic performances for rotator and labral tears, and the difference between the two imaging methods was insignificant. Conclusions: The diagnostic performances of 3D isotropic VIBE and PD sequences were similar to those of 2D MRA
On genus expansion of superpolynomials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mironov, Andrei, E-mail: mironov@itep.ru [Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Morozov, Alexei, E-mail: morozov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Sleptsov, Alexei, E-mail: sleptsov@itep.ru [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Laboratory of Quantum Topology, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454001 (Russian Federation); KdVI, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smirnov, Andrey, E-mail: asmirnov@math.columbia.edu [ITEP, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Columbia University, Department of Mathematics, New York (United States)
2014-12-15
Recently it was shown that the (Ooguri–Vafa) generating function of HOMFLY polynomials is the Hurwitz partition function, i.e. that the dependence of the HOMFLY polynomials on representation R is naturally captured by symmetric group characters (cut-and-join eigenvalues). The genus expansion and expansion through Vassiliev invariants explicitly demonstrate this phenomenon. In the present paper we claim that the superpolynomials are not functions of such a type: symmetric group characters do not provide an adequate linear basis for their expansions. Deformation to superpolynomials is, however, straightforward in the multiplicative basis: the Casimir operators are β-deformed to Hamiltonians of the Calogero–Moser–Sutherland system. Applying this trick to the genus and Vassiliev expansions, we observe that the deformation is fully straightforward only for the thin knots. Beyond the family of thin knots additional algebraically independent terms appear in the Vassiliev and genus expansions. This can suggest that the superpolynomials do in fact contain more information about knots than the colored HOMFLY and Kauffman polynomials. However, even for the thin knots the beta-deformation is non-innocent: already in the simplest examples it seems inconsistent with the positivity of colored superpolynomials in non-(anti)symmetric representations, which also happens in I. Cherednik's (DAHA-based) approach to the torus knots.
Inelastic neutron scattering an ab-initio calculation of negative thermal expansion in Ag2O
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, M.K.; Mittal, R.; Rols, S.; Chaplot, S.L.
2012-01-01
The compound Ag 2 O undergoes large and isotropic negative thermal expansion over 0-500 K. We report temperature dependent inelastic neutron scattering measurements and ab-initio calculations of the phonon spectrum. The temperature dependence of the experimental phonon spectrum shows strong anharmonic nature of phonon modes of energy around 2.4 meV. The ab-initio calculations reveal that the maximum negative Grüneisen parameter, which is a measure of the relevant anharmonicity, occurs for the transverse phonon modes that involve bending motions of the Ag 4 O tetrahedra. The thermal expansion is evaluated from the ab-initio calculation of the pressure dependence of the phonon modes, and found in good agreement with available experimental data.
Low Thermal Expansion Glass Ceramics
Bach, Hans
2005-01-01
This book appears in the authoritative series reporting the international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies. This series provides an overview of Schott's activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide in which glasses and glass ceramics are of interest. Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated. This new extended edition describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics. The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions. Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization. Thus g...
Low thermal expansion glass ceramics
1995-01-01
This book is one of a series reporting on international research and development activities conducted by the Schott group of companies With the series, Schott aims to provide an overview of its activities for scientists, engineers, and managers from all branches of industry worldwide where glasses and glass ceramics are of interest Each volume begins with a chapter providing a general idea of the current problems, results, and trends relating to the subjects treated This volume describes the fundamental principles, the manufacturing process, and applications of low thermal expansion glass ceramics The composition, structure, and stability of polycrystalline materials having a low thermal expansion are described, and it is shown how low thermal expansion glass ceramics can be manufactured from appropriately chosen glass compositions Examples illustrate the formation of this type of glass ceramic by utilizing normal production processes together with controlled crystallization Thus glass ceramics with thermal c...
Regulation of gas infrastructure expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Joode, J.
2012-01-01
The topic of this dissertation is the regulation of gas infrastructure expansion in the European Union (EU). While the gas market has been liberalised, the gas infrastructure has largely remained in the regulated domain. However, not necessarily all gas infrastructure facilities - such as gas storage facilities, LNG import terminals and certain gas transmission pipelines - need to be regulated, as there may be scope for competition. In practice, the choice of regulation of gas infrastructure expansion varies among different types of gas infrastructure facilities and across EU Member States. Based on a review of economic literature and on a series of in-depth case studies, this study explains these differences in choices of regulation from differences in policy objectives, differences in local circumstances and differences in the intrinsic characteristics of the infrastructure projects. An important conclusion is that there is potential for a larger role for competition in gas infrastructure expansion.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, F.D.; Boehm, H.J.
2005-01-01
The jumps of the strain and stress tensors on the surface of elastic homogeneous or inhomogeneous ellipsoidal inclusions embedded in an elastic matrix are obtained from results reported in the literature. They are used to derive closed-form expressions for the thermodynamic force in such matrix-inclusion systems that are subjected to a generally defined homogeneous transformation eigenstrain. A detailed study is presented for an isotropic spheroidal inclusion in an isotropic matrix in which the most important parameters are the inclusion's aspect ratio α and an eigenstrain triaxiality parameter d-bar. The fluctuations of the thermodynamic force are investigated for a set of specific transformation eigenstrain tensors and are presented for inclusion shapes ranging from disk-like to fiber-like spheroids
Coupled thermal stress analysis of a hollow circular cylinder with transversely isotropic properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanigawa, Y.; Ootao, Y.
1987-01-01
If we shall analyze the thermal stress problems exactly in a transient state in continuum media, discussed with both the coupling and inertia effect, it has be shown that the thermomechanical coupling term shows a significant role than the inertia term for the common commercial alloys. In the present paper, we have considered the continuum medium with transversely isotropic material property, which has an isotropic property in r-θ plane, and analyzed the transient thermal stress problem of an infinitely long hollow circular cylinder due to an axisymmetrical partial heating. In order to get the thermal and thermoelastic fundamental differential equations separated in each field, we have introduced a perturbation technique. And then, we have carried out numerical calculations for several values of thermal and thermoelastic orthotropical parameters. (orig./GL)
Zito, Gianluigi; Rusciano, Giulia; Pesce, Giuseppe; Dochshanov, Alden; Sasso, Antonio
2015-04-01
Label-free chemical imaging of live cell membranes can shed light on the molecular basis of cell membrane functionalities and their alterations under membrane-related diseases. In principle, this can be done by surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in confocal microscopy, but requires engineering plasmonic architectures with a spatially invariant SERS enhancement factor G(x, y) = G. To this end, we exploit a self-assembled isotropic nanostructure with characteristics of homogeneity typical of the so-called near-hyperuniform disorder. The resulting highly dense, homogeneous and isotropic random pattern consists of clusters of silver nanoparticles with limited size dispersion. This nanostructure brings together several advantages: very large hot spot density (~104 μm-2), superior spatial reproducibility (SD nanotoxicity issues. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01341k
General thermo-elastic solution of radially heterogeneous, spherically isotropic rotating sphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bayat, Yahya; EkhteraeiToussi, THamid [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-06-15
A thick walled rotating spherical object made of transversely isotropic functionally graded materials (FGMs) with general types of thermo-mechanical boundary conditions is studied. The thermo-mechanical governing equations consisting of decoupled thermal and mechanical equations are represented. The centrifugal body forces of the rotation are considered in the modeling phase. The unsymmetrical thermo-mechanical boundary conditions and rotational body forces are expressed in terms of the Legendre series. The series method is also implemented in the solution of the resulting equations. The solutions are checked with the known literature and FEM based solutions of ABAQUS software. The effects of anisotropy and heterogeneity are studied through the case studies and the results are represented in different figures. The newly developed series form solution is applicable to the rotating FGM spherical transversely isotropic vessels having nonsymmetrical thermo-mechanical boundary condition.
On the dual variable of the Cauchy stress tensor in isotropic finite hyperelasticity
Vallée, Claude; Fortuné, Danielle; Lerintiu, Camelia
2008-11-01
Elastic materials are governed by a constitutive law relating the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensor Σ and the right Cauchy-Green strain tensor C=FF. Isotropic elastic materials are the special cases for which the Cauchy stress tensor σ depends solely on the left Cauchy-Green strain tensor B=FF. In this Note we revisit the following property of isotropic hyperelastic materials: if the constitutive law relating Σ and C is derivable from a potential ϕ, then σ and lnB are related by a constitutive law derived from the compound potential ϕ○exp. We give a new and concise proof which is based on an explicit integral formula expressing the derivative of the exponential of a tensor. To cite this article: C. Vallée et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).
GOLIA-RK, Structure Stress for Isotropic Materials with Creep and Temperature Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donea, J.; Giuliani, S.
1976-01-01
1 - Nature of the physical problem solved: Stress analysis of complex structures in presence of creep, dimensional changes and thermal field. Plane stress, plane strain, generalized plane strain and axisymmetric problems can be solved. The material is assumed to be either isotropic or transversely isotropic. Any laws of material behaviour can easily be incorporated by the user (see subroutines WIGNER and CLAW). 2 - Method of solution: Finite element method using triangular elements with linear local fields. The equations for the displacements are solved by Choleski's method. An algorithm is incorporated to calculate automatically the successive time steps in a creep problem. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of elements is 700. Maximum number of nodal points is 400. The indexes of two adjacent nodes are not permitted to differ by more than 19
The loop expansion as a divergent-power-series expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murai, N.
1981-01-01
The loop expansion should be divergent, possibly an asymptotic one, in the Euclidean path integral formulation. This consideration is important in applications of the symmetric and mass-independent renormalization. The [1,1] Pade approximant is calculated in a PHI 4 model. Its classical vacua may be not truely stable for nonzero coupling constant. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Son, In Ho; An, Deuk Man
2012-01-01
In fracture mechanics, the weight function can be used for calculating stress intensity factors. In this paper, a two dimensional electroelastic analysis is performed on a transversely isotropic piezoelectric material with an open crack. A plane strain formulation of the piezoelectric problem is solved within the Leknitskii formalism. Weight function theory is extended to piezoelectric materials. The stress intensity factors and electric displacement intensity factor are calculated by the weight function theory
Spider Gland Fluids: From Protein-Rich Isotropic Liquid to Insoluble Super Fiber
2013-09-17
dehydration, methanol treatment, solubilized in ionic liquids and exposed to mechanical stress. Establish the relevant processing conditions for...for liquid-state NMR techniques such as gradient coherence selection , water suppression, and pulsed field gradient self-diffusion measurements. HR...Gln, Ser) including the carbonyl resonances. All the unambiguously assignable 13C isotropic chemical shifts are listed in Tab. 1. The assignment and
Tapping of Love waves in an isotropic surface waveguide by surface-to-bulk wave transduction.
Tuan, H.-S.; Chang, C.-P.
1972-01-01
A theoretical study of tapping a Love wave in an isotropic microacoustic surface waveguide is given. The surface Love wave is tapped by partial transduction into a bulk wave at a discontinuity. It is shown that, by careful design of the discontinuity, the converted bulk wave power and the radiation pattern may be controlled. General formulas are derived for the calculation of these important characteristics from a relatively general surface contour deformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin; Zhao Zhanyue
2008-01-01
Motivated by the universality of Hawking radiation and that of the anomaly cancellation technique as well as the effective action method, we investigate the Hawking radiation of a Schwarzschild black hole in the isotropic coordinates via the cancellation of gravitational anomaly. After performing a dimensional reduction from the four-dimensional isotropic Schwarzschild metric, we show that this reduction procedure will, in general, result in two classes of two-dimensional effective metrics: the conformal equivalent and the inequivalent ones. For the physically equivalent class, the two-dimensional effective metric displays such a distinct feature that the determinant is not equal to the unity √(-g)≠1, but also vanishes at the horizon, the latter of which possibly invalidates the anomaly analysis there. Nevertheless, in this paper we adopt the effective action method to prove that the consistent energy-momentum tensor T r t is divergent on the horizon but √(-g)T t r remains finite there. Meanwhile, through an explicit calculation we show that the covariant energy-momentum tensor T-tilde t r equals zero at the horizon. Therefore the validity of the covariant regularity condition that demands that T-tilde t r = 0 at the horizon has been justified, indicating that the gravitational anomaly analysis can be safely extrapolated to the case where the metric determinant vanishes at the horizon. It is then demonstrated that for the physically equivalent reduced metric, both methods can give the correct Hawking temperature of the isotropic Schwarzschild black hole, while for the inequivalent one with the determinant √(-g) = 1 it can only give half of the correct temperature. We further exclude the latter undesired result by taking into account the general covariance of the energy-momentum tensor under the isotropic coordinate transformation
Mode locking of Yb:GdYAG ceramic lasers with an isotropic cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, C W; Tang, D Y; Zhu, H Y; Zhang, J
2013-01-01
We report on the passive mode locking of a diode pumped Yb:GdYAG ceramic laser with a near isotropic cavity. It is found that the laser could simultaneously mode lock in the two orthogonal principal polarization directions of the cavity, and the mode locked pulses of the two polarizations have identical features and are temporally perfectly synchronized. However, their pulse energy varies out-of-phase periodically, manifesting the antiphase dynamics of mode locked lasers. (letter)
The NANOGrav Nine-year Data Set: Limits on the Isotropic Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background
Arzoumanian, Zaven; Brazier, Adam; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Chamberlin, Sydney; Chatterjee, Shami; Christy, Brian; Cordes, Jim; Cornish, Neil; Demorest, Paul; Deng, Xihao; Dolch, Tim; Ellis, Justin; Ferdman, Rob; Fonseca, Emmanuel; Garver-Daniels, Nate
2015-01-01
We compute upper limits on the nanohertz-frequency isotropic stochastic gravitational wave background (GWB) using the 9-year data release from the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) collaboration. We set upper limits for a GWB from supermassive black hole binaries under power law, broken power law, and free spectral coefficient GW spectrum models. We place a 95\\% upper limit on the strain amplitude (at a frequency of yr$^{-1}$) in the power law model of $A...
Surface-induced ordering of a liquid crystal in the isotropic phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyano, K.
1979-01-01
A detailed account of a measurement of order parameter of a liquid crystal at the boundary by means of the wall-induced pretransitional birefringence is given. Several surface treatments were studied including surfactants and evaporated films. Although all treatments produced good alignment in the nematic phase, the boundary order parameter (hence the strength of the aligning force) in the isotropic phase differed very much depending on the treatment, indicating the diverse nature of the alignment process
Gilabert, Francisco; Roux, Jean-Noël; Castellanos, Antonio
2008-01-01
International audience; The quasistatic behavior of a simple 2D model of a cohesive powder under isotropic loads is investigated by Discrete Element simulations. The loose packing states, as studied in a previous paper, undergo important structural changes under growing confining pressure P, while solid fraction \\Phi irreversibly increases by large amounts. The system state goes through three stages, with different forms of the plastic consolidation curve \\Phi(P*), under growing reduced press...
Controlled isotropic fission fragment sources on the base of nuclear-physical facilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sevast'yanov, V.D.; Maslov, G.N.
1995-01-01
Isotropic fission fragment sources (IFFS) are developed on the base of a neutron generator and pulse fast reactor. IFFS permit to calibrate fission fragment detectors. The IFFS consist of radiators with 235 U. The radiators are placed in a thermal neutron field of the neutron generator or in the reactor core center. The fragment activity is controlled by indications of an α-particle counter or by indications of a monitor of energy release in the core. 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab
Phase transition induced for external field in tree-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnet
Neto, Minos A.; Viana, J. Roberto; Salmon, Octavio D. R.; Filho, E. Bublitz; de Sousa, J. Ricardo
2017-01-01
In this paper, we report mean-field and effective-field renormalization group calculations on the isotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnetic model under a longitudinal magnetic field. As is already known, these methods, denoted by MFRG and EFRG, are based on the comparison of two clusters of different sizes, each of them trying to mimic certain Bravais lattice. Our attention has been on the obtantion of the critical frontier in the plane of temperature versus magnetic field, for the simple cubic ...
Amalia, A.; Rachmawati, D.; Lestari, I. A.; Mourisa, C.
2018-03-01
Colposcopy has been used primarily to diagnose pre-cancer and cancerous lesions because this procedure gives an exaggerated view of the tissues of the vagina and the cervix. But, the poor quality of colposcopy image sometimes makes physician challenging to recognize and analyze it. Generally, Implementation of image processing to identify cervical cancer have to implement a complex classification or clustering method. In this study, we wanted to prove that by only applying the identification of edge detection in the colposcopy image, identification of cervical cancer can be determined. In this study, we implement and comparing two edge detection operator which are isotropic and canny operator. Research methodology in this paper composed by image processing, training, and testing stages. In the image processing step, colposcopy image transformed by nth root power transformation to get better detection result and continued with edge detection process. Training is a process of labelling all dataset image with cervical cancer stage. This process involved pathology doctor as an expert in diagnosing the colposcopy image as a reference. Testing is a process of deciding cancer stage classification by comparing the similarity image of colposcopy results in the testing stage with the image of the results of the training process. We used 30 images as a dataset. The result gets same accuracy which is 80% for both Canny or Isotropic operator. Average running time for Canny operator implementation is 0.3619206 ms while Isotropic get 1.49136262 ms. The result showed that Canny operator is better than isotropic operator because Canny operator generates a more precise edge with a fast time instead.
Namani, R.; Feng, Y.; Okamoto, R. J.; Jesuraj, N.; Sakiyama-Elbert, S. E.; Genin, G. M.; Bayly, P. V.
2012-01-01
The mechanical characterization of soft anisotropic materials is a fundamental challenge because of difficulties in applying mechanical loads to soft matter and the need to combine information from multiple tests. A method to characterize the linear elastic properties of transversely isotropic soft materials is proposed, based on the combination of dynamic shear testing (DST) and asymmetric indentation. The procedure was demonstrated by characterizing a nearly incompressible transversely isot...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sridevi, S; Krishna Prasad, S; Shankar Rao, D S; Yelamaggad, C V
2008-01-01
The isotropic-nematic transition, being weakly first order, exhibits pretransitional effects signifying the appearance of the nematic-like regions in the isotropic phase. In the isotropic phase, strongly polar liquid crystals, such as the popular alkyl and alkoxy cyano biphenyl behave in a non-standard fashion: whereas far away from the transition the dielectric constant ε iso has a 1/T dependence (a feature also commonly seen in polar liquids), on approaching the nematic phase the trend reverses resulting in a maximum in ε iso , at a temperature slightly above the transition, an effect explained on the basis of short-range correlations with an antiparallel association of the neighbouring molecules. Recently, there has been a revival in studies on this behaviour to possibly associate it with the order of transition. Here we report dielectric measurements carried in the vicinity of this transition for a number of compounds having different molecular structures including a bent core system, but with a common feature that the molecules possess a strong terminal polar group, nitro in one case and cyano in the rest. Surprisingly, the convex shape of the thermal variation of ε iso was more an exception than the rule. In materials that exhibit such an anomaly we find a linear correlation between δε = (ε peak -ε IN )/ε IN and δT = T peak -T IN , where ε peak is the maximum value of the dielectric constant in the isotropic phase, ε IN the value at the transition, and T peak and T IN the corresponding temperatures.
Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.
2012-01-01
Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal
Cosmological expansion and local physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faraoni, Valerio; Jacques, Audrey
2007-01-01
The interplay between cosmological expansion and local attraction in a gravitationally bound system is revisited in various regimes. First, weakly gravitating Newtonian systems are considered, followed by various exact solutions describing a relativistic central object embedded in a Friedmann universe. It is shown that the 'all or nothing' behavior recently discovered (i.e., weakly coupled systems are comoving while strongly coupled ones resist the cosmic expansion) is limited to the de Sitter background. New exact solutions are presented which describe black holes perfectly comoving with a generic Friedmann universe. The possibility of violating cosmic censorship for a black hole approaching the big rip is also discussed
Temperature expansions for magnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cangemi, D.; Dunne, G.
1996-01-01
We derive finite temperature expansions for relativistic fermion systems in the presence of background magnetic fields, and with nonzero chemical potential. We use the imaginary-time formalism for the finite temperature effects, the proper-time method for the background field effects, and zeta function regularization for developing the expansions. We emphasize the essential difference between even and odd dimensions, focusing on 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions. We concentrate on the high temperature limit, but we also discuss the T=0 limit with nonzero chemical potential. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc
Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion
Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.
1995-01-01
Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.
Martin, Alexander T; Tan, Melissa; Nichols, Shane M; Timothy, Emily; Kahr, Bart
2018-07-01
Accurate polarimetric measurements of the optical activity of crystals along low symmetry directions are facilitated by isotropic points, frequencies where dispersion curves of eigenrays cross and the linear birefringence disappears. We report here the optical properties and structure of achiral, uniaxial (point group D 2d ) potassium trihydrogen di-(cis-4-cyclohexene-1,2-dicarboxylate) dihydrate, whose isotropic point was previously detected (S. A. Kim, C. Grieswatch, H. Küppers, Zeit. Krist. 1993; 208:219-222) and exploited for a singular measurement of optical activity normal to the optic axis. The crystal structure associated with the aforementioned study was never published. We report it here, confirming the space group assignment I 4¯c2, along with the frequency dependence of the fundamental optical properties and the constitutive tensors by fitting optical dispersion relations to measured Mueller matrix spectra. k-Space maps of circular birefringence and of the Mueller matrix near the isotropic wavelength are measured and simulated. The signs of optical rotation are correlated with the absolute crystallographic directions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Distinguishing spin-aligned and isotropic black hole populations with gravitational waves.
Farr, Will M; Stevenson, Simon; Miller, M Coleman; Mandel, Ilya; Farr, Ben; Vecchio, Alberto
2017-08-23
The direct detection of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes opens up a window into the environments in which binary black holes form. One signature of such environments is the angular distribution of the black hole spins. Binary systems that formed through dynamical interactions between already-compact objects are expected to have isotropic spin orientations (that is, the spins of the black holes are randomly oriented with respect to the orbit of the binary system), whereas those that formed from pairs of stars born together are more likely to have spins that are preferentially aligned with the orbit. The best-measured combination of spin parameters for each of the four likely binary black hole detections GW150914, LVT151012, GW151226 and GW170104 is the 'effective' spin. Here we report that, if the magnitudes of the black hole spins are allowed to extend to high values, the effective spins for these systems indicate a 0.015 odds ratio against an aligned angular distribution compared to an isotropic one. When considering the effect of ten additional detections, this odds ratio decreases to 2.9 × 10 -7 against alignment. The existing preference for either an isotropic spin distribution or low spin magnitudes for the observed systems will be confirmed (or overturned) confidently in the near future.
Design methodology of single-feed compact near-isotropic antenna design
Su, Zhen
2017-06-07
The abundance of mobile wireless devices is giving rise to a new paradigm known as Internet of Things. In this paradigm, wireless devices will be everywhere and communicating with each other. Since they will be oriented randomly in the environment, they should be able to communicate equally in all directions in order to have stable communication link. Hence, compact near isotropic antennas are required, which can enable orientation insensitive communication. In this paper, we propose a simple design methodology to design a compact near-isotropic wire antenna based on equal vector potentials. As a proof of concept, a quarter wavelength monopole antennas has been designed that is wrapped on a 3D-printed box keeping the vector potentials in three orthogonal different directions equal. By optimizing the dimension of the antenna arms, a nearly isotropic radiation pattern is thus achieved. The results show that the antenna has a maximum gain of 2.2dBi at 900 MHz with gain derivation of 9.4dB.
A program to calculate pulse transmission responses through transversely isotropic media
Li, Wei; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Zou, Changchun; Chen, Xiwei
2018-05-01
We provide a program (AOTI2D) to model responses of ultrasonic pulse transmission measurements through arbitrarily oriented transversely isotropic rocks. The program is built with the distributed point source method that treats the transducers as a series of point sources. The response of each point source is calculated according to the ray-tracing theory of elastic plane waves. The program could offer basic wave parameters including phase and group velocities, polarization, anisotropic reflection coefficients and directivity patterns, and model the wave fields, static wave beam, and the observed signals for pulse transmission measurements considering the material's elastic stiffnesses and orientations, sample dimensions, and the size and positions of the transmitters and the receivers. The program could be applied to exhibit the ultrasonic beam behaviors in anisotropic media, such as the skew and diffraction of ultrasonic beams, and analyze its effect on pulse transmission measurements. The program would be a useful tool to help design the experimental configuration and interpret the results of ultrasonic pulse transmission measurements through either isotropic or transversely isotropic rock samples.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna I Sulatskaya
Full Text Available In this work, the fluorescence of thioflavin T (ThT was studied in a wide range of viscosity and temperature. It was shown that ThT fluorescence quantum yield varies from 0.0001 in water at room temperature to 0.28 in rigid isotropic solution (T/η→0. The deviation of the fluorescence quantum yield from unity in rigid isotropic solution suggests that fluorescence quantum yield depends not only on the ultra-fast oscillation of ThT fragments relative to each other in an excited state as was suggested earlier, but also depends on the molecular configuration in the ground state. This means that the fluorescence quantum yield of the dye incorporated into amyloid fibrils must depend on its conformation, which, in turn, depends on the ThT environment. Therefore, the fluorescence quantum yield of ThT incorporated into amyloid fibrils can differ from that in the rigid isotropic solution. In particular, the fluorescence quantum yield of ThT incorporated into insulin fibrils was determined to be 0.43. Consequently, the ThT fluorescence quantum yield could be used to characterize the peculiarities of the fibrillar structure, which opens some new possibilities in the ThT use for structural characterization of the amyloid fibrils.
Efficient anisotropic quasi-P wavefield extrapolation using an isotropic low-rank approximation
Zhang, Zhendong
2017-12-17
The computational cost of quasi-P wave extrapolation depends on the complexity of the medium, and specifically the anisotropy. Our effective-model method splits the anisotropic dispersion relation into an isotropic background and a correction factor to handle this dependency. The correction term depends on the slope (measured using the gradient) of current wavefields and the anisotropy. As a result, the computational cost is independent of the nature of anisotropy, which makes the extrapolation efficient. A dynamic implementation of this approach decomposes the original pseudo-differential operator into a Laplacian, handled using the low-rank approximation of the spectral operator, plus an angular dependent correction factor applied in the space domain to correct for anisotropy. We analyze the role played by the correction factor and propose a new spherical decomposition of the dispersion relation. The proposed method provides accurate wavefields in phase and more balanced amplitudes than a previous spherical decomposition. Also, it is free of SV-wave artifacts. Applications to a simple homogeneous transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) and a modified Hess VTI model demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. The Reverse Time Migration (RTM) applied to a modified BP VTI model reveals that the anisotropic migration using the proposed modeling engine performs better than an isotropic migration.
Effects of molecular elongation on liquid crystalline phase behaviour: isotropic-nematic transition
Singh, Ram Chandra; Ram, Jokhan
2003-08-01
We present the density-functional approach to study the isotropic-nematic transitions and calculate the values of freezing parameters of the Gay-Berne liquid crystal model, concentrating on the effects of varying the molecular elongation, x0. For this, we have solved the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory to calculate the pair-correlation functions of a fluid the molecules of which interact via a Gay-Berne pair potential. These results have been used in the density-functional theory as an input to locate the isotropic-nematic transition and calculate freezing parameters for a range of length-to-width parameters 3.0⩽ x0⩽4.0 at reduced temperatures 0.95 and 1.25. We observed that as x0 is increased, the isotropic-nematic transition is seen to move to lower density at a given temperature. We find that the density-functional theory is good to study the freezing transitions in such fluids. We have also compared our results with computer simulation results wherever they are available.
Stress-induced birefringence in the isotropic phases of lyotropic mixtures
Fernandes, P. R. G.; Maki, J. N.; Gonçalves, L. B.; de Oliveira, B. F.; Mukai, H.
2018-02-01
In this work, the frequency dependence of the known mechano-optical effect which occurs in the micellar isotropic phases (I ) of mixtures of potassium laurate (KL), decanol (DeOH), and water is investigated in the range from 200 mHz to 200 Hz . In order to fit the experimental data, a model of superimposed damped harmonic oscillators is proposed. In this phenomenological approach, the micelles (microscopic oscillators) interact very weakly with their neighbors. Due to shape anisotropy of the basic structures, each oscillator i (i =1 ,2 ,3 ,...,N ) remains in its natural oscillatory rotational movement around its axes of symmetry with a frequency ω0 i. The system will be in the resonance state when the frequency of the driving force ω reaches a value near ω0 i. This phenomenological approach shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. One can find f ˜2.5 , 9.0, and 4.0 Hz as fundamental frequencies of the micellar isotropic phases I , I1, and I2, respectively. The different micellar isotropic phases I , I1, and I2 that we find in the phase diagram of the KL-DeOH-water mixture are a consequence of possible differences in the intermicellar correlation lengths. This work reinforces the possibilities of technological applications of these phases in devices such as mechanical vibration sensors.
Diffraction of SH-waves by topographic features in a layered transversely isotropic half-space
Ba, Zhenning; Liang, Jianwen; Zhang, Yanju
2017-01-01
The scattering of plane SH-waves by topographic features in a layered transversely isotropic (TI) half-space is investigated by using an indirect boundary element method (IBEM). Firstly, the anti-plane dynamic stiffness matrix of the layered TI half-space is established and the free fields are solved by using the direct stiffness method. Then, Green's functions are derived for uniformly distributed loads acting on an inclined line in a layered TI half-space and the scattered fields are constructed with the deduced Green's functions. Finally, the free fields are added to the scattered ones to obtain the global dynamic responses. The method is verified by comparing results with the published isotropic ones. Both the steady-state and transient dynamic responses are evaluated and discussed. Numerical results in the frequency domain show that surface motions for the TI media can be significantly different from those for the isotropic case, which are strongly dependent on the anisotropy property, incident angle and incident frequency. Results in the time domain show that the material anisotropy has important effects on the maximum duration and maximum amplitudes of the time histories.
Newton, Arthur C.; Kools, Ramses; Swenson, David W. H.; Bolhuis, Peter G.
2017-10-01
The association and dissociation of particles via specific anisotropic interactions is a fundamental process, both in biology (proteins) and in soft matter (colloidal patchy particles). The presence of alternative binding sites can lead to multiple productive states and also to non-productive "decoy" or intermediate states. Besides anisotropic interactions, particles can experience non-specific isotropic interactions. We employ single replica transition interface sampling to investigate how adding a non-productive binding site or a nonspecific isotropic interaction alters the dimerization kinetics of a generic patchy particle model. The addition of a decoy binding site reduces the association rate constant, independent of the site's position, while adding an isotropic interaction increases it due to an increased rebinding probability. Surprisingly, the association kinetics becomes non-monotonic for a tetramer complex formed by multivalent patchy particles. While seemingly identical to two-particle binding with a decoy state, the cooperativity of binding multiple particles leads to a kinetic optimum. Our results are relevant for the understanding and modeling of biochemical networks and self-assembly processes.
Energy expansion planning by considering electrical and thermal expansion simultaneously
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbasi, Ali Reza; Seifi, Ali Reza
2014-01-01
Highlights: • This paper focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems. • Employing two form of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies. • The main objective is to minimize the costs. • A new Modified Honey Bee Mating Optimization (MHBMO) algorithm is applied. - Abstract: This study focused on the expansion planning optimization of energy systems employing two forms of energy: the expansion of electrical and thermal energies simultaneously. The main objective of this investigation is confirming network adequacy by adding new equipment to the network, over a given planning horizon. The main objective of the energy expansion planning (EEP) is to minimize the real energy loss, voltage deviation and the total cost of installation equipments. Since the objectives are different and incommensurable, it is difficult to solve the problem by the conventional approaches that may optimize a single objective. So, the meta-heuristic algorithm is applied to this problem. Here, Honey Bee Mating Optimization algorithm (HBMO) as a new evolutionary optimization algorithm is utilized. In order to improve the total ability of HBMO for the global search and exploration, a new modification process is suggested such a way that the algorithm will search the total search space globally. Also, regarding the uncertainties of the new complicated energy systems, in this paper for the first time, the EEP problem is investigated in a stochastic environment by the use of probabilistic load flow technique based on Point Estimate Method (PEM). In order to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, two modified test systems are used as case studies
The Thermal Expansion Of Feldspars
Hovis, G. L.; Medford, A.; Conlon, M.
2009-12-01
Hovis and others (1) investigated the thermal expansion of natural and synthetic AlSi3 feldspars and demonstrated that the coefficient of thermal expansion (α) decreases significantly, and linearly, with increasing room-temperature volume (VRT). In all such feldspars, therefore, chemical expansion limits thermal expansion. The scope of this work now has been broadened to include plagioclase and Ba-K feldspar crystalline solutions. X-ray powder diffraction data have been collected between room temperature and 925 °C on six plagioclase specimens ranging in composition from anorthite to oligoclase. When combined with thermal expansion data for albite (2,3,4) a steep linear trend of α as a function of VRT emerges, reflecting how small changes in composition dramatically affect expansion behavior. The thermal expansion data for five synthetic Ba-K feldspars ranging in composition from 20 to 100 mole percent celsian, combined with data for pure K-feldspar (3,4), show α-VRT relationships similar in nature to the plagioclase series, but with a slope and intercept different from the latter. Taken as a group all Al2Si2 feldspars, including anorthite and celsian from the present study along with Sr- (5) and Pb-feldspar (6) from other workers, show very limited thermal expansion that, unlike AlSi3 feldspars, has little dependence on the divalent-ion (or M-) site occupant. This apparently is due to the necessitated alternation of Al and Si in the tetrahedral sites of these minerals (7), which in turn locks the tetrahedral framework and makes the M-site occupant nearly irrelevant to expansion behavior. Indeed, in feldspar series with coupled chemical substitution it is the change away from a 1:1 Al:Si ratio that gives feldspars greater freedom to expand. Overall, the relationships among α, chemical composition, and room-temperature volume provide useful predictive tools for estimating feldspar thermal expansion and give insight into the controls of expansion behavior in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podil'chuk, Yu.N.
1995-01-01
An explicit solution of the state thermoelasticity problem is constructed for an infinite transversally isotropic body containing an internal elliptical crack in the isotropy plane. It is assumed that a uniform heat flux is specified at the crack surface and the body is free of external loads. Values of the stress-intensity coefficients depending on the heat flux, the crack dimensions, and the thermoelastic properties of the material are obtained. Note that the analogous problem was considered for an isotropic body. The static thermoelasticity problem for a transversally isotropic body with an internal elliptical crack at whose surface linear temperature variation is specified was solved
Expansion control for cementation of incinerated ash
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakayama, T.; Suzuki, S.; Hanada, K.; Tomioka, O.; Sato, J.; Irisawa, K.; Kato, J.; Kawato, Y.; Meguro, Y.
2015-01-01
A method, in which incinerated ash is solidified with a cement material, has been developed to dispose of radioactive incinerated ash waste. A small amount of metallic Al, which was not oxidized in the incineration, existed in the ash. When such ash was mixed with a cement material and water, alkaline components in the ash and the cement were dissolved in the mixing water and then metallic Al reaction with the alkaline compounds resulted in generation of H 2 . Because the H 2 generation began immediately just after the mixing, H 2 bubbles pushed up the mixed grout material and an expanded solidified form was obtained. The expansion leads to lowering the strength of the solidified form and making harmful void. In this study, we tried to control H 2 generation from the reaction of metallic Al in the cementation by means of following two methods, one was a method to let metallic Al react prior to the cementation and the other was a method to add an expansion inhibitor that made an oxide film on the surface of metallic Al. In the pre-treatment, the ash was soaked in water in order to let metallic Al react with it, and then the ash with the immersion solution was dried at 105 Celsius degrees. The pre-treated ash was mixed with an ordinary portland cement and water. The inhibitor of lithium nitrite, sodium nitrite, phosphoric acid, or potassium dihydrogen phosphate was added at the mixing process. The solidified forms prepared using the pre-treated ash and lithium nitrite were not expanded. Phosphoric acid and sodium nitrite were effective for expansion control, but potassium dihydrogen phosphate did not work. (authors)
Thermal expansion of crystals of the N2 type
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tolkachev, A.M.; Manzhelii, V.G.; Azarenkov, V.P.; Jezowski, A.; Kosobutskaya, E.A.
1981-01-01
Linear expansion coefficients of low temperature crystals with linear molecules and Pa3 lattice N 2 (2-21 K), CO(2-28 K), CO 2 (2-25 K), N 2 O(2-90 K) were measured. A version of the law of corresponding states to describe the translational component of the thermal expansion of the substances studied and other low temperature crystals with close-packed lattices is proposed. In the thermal properties of crystals consisting of molecules without inversion centre, we have found anomalies interpreted as the evidence of a partial dipole ordering. (orig.)
Fields, Christina M.
2013-01-01
The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.
Crude oil pipeline expansion summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2005-02-01
The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers has been working with producers to address issues associated with the development of new pipeline capacity from western Canada. This document presents an assessment of the need for additional oil pipeline capacity given the changing mix of crude oil types and forecasted supply growth. It is of particular interest to crude oil producers and contributes to current available information for market participants. While detailed, the underlying analysis does not account for all the factors that may come into play when individual market participants make choices about which expansions they may support. The key focus is on the importance of timely expansion. It was emphasized that if pipeline expansions lags the crude supply growth, then the consequences would be both significant and unacceptable. Obstacles to timely expansion are also discussed. The report reviews the production and supply forecasts, the existing crude oil pipeline infrastructure, opportunities for new market development, requirements for new pipeline capacity and tolling options for pipeline development. tabs., figs., 1 appendix
Asymptotic Expansions - Methods and Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harlander, R.
1999-01-01
Different viewpoints on the asymptotic expansion of Feynman diagrams are reviewed. The relations between the field theoretic and diagrammatic approaches are sketched. The focus is on problems with large masses or large external momenta. Several recent applications also for other limiting cases are touched upon. Finally, the pros and cons of the different approaches are briefly discussed. (author)
Model of clinker capacity expansion
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Stylianides, T
1998-10-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a model which has been applied in practice to determine an optimal plan for clinker capacity expansion. The problem was formulated as an integer linear program aiming to determine the optimal number, size and location of kilns...
The bootstrap and edgeworth expansion
Hall, Peter
1992-01-01
This monograph addresses two quite different topics, in the belief that each can shed light on the other. Firstly, it lays the foundation for a particular view of the bootstrap. Secondly, it gives an account of Edgeworth expansion. Chapter 1 is about the bootstrap, witih almost no mention of Edgeworth expansion; Chapter 2 is about Edgeworth expansion, with scarcely a word about the bootstrap; and Chapters 3 and 4 bring these two themes together, using Edgeworth expansion to explore and develop the properites of the bootstrap. The book is aimed a a graduate level audience who has some exposure to the methods of theoretical statistics. However, technical details are delayed until the last chapter (entitled "Details of Mathematical Rogour"), and so a mathematically able reader without knowledge of the rigorous theory of probability will have no trouble understanding the first four-fifths of the book. The book simultaneously fills two gaps in the literature; it provides a very readable graduate level account of t...
Liflyand, E.
2012-01-01
We study an extension to Fourier transforms of the old problem on absolute convergence of the re-expansion in the sine (cosine) Fourier series of an absolutely convergent cosine (sine) Fourier series. The results are obtained by revealing certain relations between the Fourier transforms and their Hilbert transforms.
On persistently positively expansive maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Arbieto
2010-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we prove that any C¹-persistently positively expansive map is expanding. This improves a result due to Sakai (Sakai 2004.Neste artigo, mostramos que todo mapa C¹-persistentemente positivamente expansivo e expansor. Isto melhora um resultado devido a Sakai (Sakai 2004.
Basis for calculations in the topological expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levinson, M.A.
1982-12-01
Investigations aimed at putting the topological theory of particles on a more quantitative basis are described. First, the incorporation of spin into the topological structure is discussed and shown to successfully reproduce the observed lowest mass hadron spectrum. The absence of parity-doubled states represents a significant improvement over previous efforts in similar directions. This theory is applied to the lowest order calculation of elementary hadron coupling constant ratios. SU(6)/sub W/ symmetry is maintained and extended via the notions of topological supersymmetry and universality. Finally, efforts to discover a perturbative basis for the topological expansion are described. This has led to the formulation of off-shell Feynman-like rules which provide a calculational scheme for the strong interaction components of the topological expansion once the zero-entropy connected parts are known. These rules are shown to imply a topological asymptotic freedom. Even though the nonlinear zero-entropy problem cannot itself be treated perturbatively, plausible general assumptions about zero-entropy amplitudes allow immediate qualitative inferences concerning physical hadrons. In particular, scenarios for mass splittings beyond the supersymmetric level are described
Tensor integrand reduction via Laurent expansion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirschi, Valentin [SLAC, National Accelerator Laboratory,2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025-7090 (United States); Peraro, Tiziano [Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy,The University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom)
2016-06-09
We introduce a new method for the application of one-loop integrand reduction via the Laurent expansion algorithm, as implemented in the public C++ library Ninja. We show how the coefficients of the Laurent expansion can be computed by suitable contractions of the loop numerator tensor with cut-dependent projectors, making it possible to interface Ninja to any one-loop matrix element generator that can provide the components of this tensor. We implemented this technique in the Ninja library and interfaced it to MADLOOP, which is part of the public MADGRAPH5{sub A}MC@NLO framework. We performed a detailed performance study, comparing against other public reduction tools, namely CUTTOOLS, SAMURAI, IREGI, PJFRY++ and GOLEM95. We find that Ninja outperforms traditional integrand reduction in both speed and numerical stability, the latter being on par with that of the tensor integral reduction tool GOLEM95 which is however more limited and slower than Ninja. We considered many benchmark multi-scale processes of increasing complexity, involving QCD and electro-weak corrections as well as effective non-renormalizable couplings, showing that Ninja’s performance scales well with both the rank and multiplicity of the considered process.
Hu, Jiangtao; Cao, Junxing; Wang, Huazhong; Wang, Xingjian; Jiang, Xudong
2017-12-01
First-arrival traveltime computation for quasi-P waves in transversely isotropic (TI) media is the key component of tomography and depth migration. It is appealing to use the fast marching method in isotropic media as it efficiently computes traveltime along an expanding wavefront. It uses the finite difference method to solve the eikonal equation. However, applying the fast marching method in anisotropic media faces challenges because the anisotropy introduces additional nonlinearity in the eikonal equation and solving this nonlinear eikonal equation with the finite difference method is challenging. To address this problem, we present a Fermat’s principle-based fast marching method to compute traveltime in two-dimensional TI media. This method is applicable in both vertical and tilted TI (VTI and TTI) media. It computes traveltime along an expanding wavefront using Fermat’s principle instead of the eikonal equation. Thus, it does not suffer from the nonlinearity of the eikonal equation in TI media. To compute traveltime using Fermat’s principle, the explicit expression of group velocity in TI media is required to describe the ray propagation. The moveout approximation is adopted to obtain the explicit expression of group velocity. Numerical examples on both VTI and TTI models show that the traveltime contour obtained by the proposed method matches well with the wavefront from the wave equation. This shows that the proposed method could be used in depth migration and tomography.
Hydrophobic matrix-free graphene-oxide composites with isotropic and nematic states
Wåhlander, Martin; Nilsson, Fritjof; Carlmark, Anna; Gedde, Ulf W.; Edmondson, Steve; Malmström, Eva
2016-08-01
We demonstrate a novel route to synthesise hydrophobic matrix-free composites of polymer-grafted graphene oxide (GO) showing isotropic or nematic alignment and shape-memory effects. For the first time, a cationic macroinitiator (MI) has been immobilised on anionic GO and subsequently grafted with hydrophobic polymer grafts. Dense grafts of PBA, PBMA and PMMA with a wide range of average graft lengths (MW: 1-440 kDa) were polymerised by surface-initiated controlled radical precipitation polymerisation from the statistical MI. The surface modification is designed similarly to bimodal graft systems, where the cationic MI generates nanoparticle repulsion, similar to dense short grafts, while the long grafts offer miscibility in non-polar environments and cohesion. The state-of-the-art dispersions of grafted GO were in the isotropic state. Transparent and translucent matrix-free GO-composites could be melt-processed directly using only grafted GO. After processing, birefringence due to nematic alignment of grafted GO was observed as a single giant Maltese cross, 3.4 cm across. Permeability models for composites containing aligned 2D-fillers were developed, which were compared with the experimental oxygen permeability data and found to be consistent with isotropic or nematic states. The storage modulus of the matrix-free GO-composites increased with GO content (50% increase at 0.67 wt%), while the significant increases in the thermal stability (up to 130 °C) and the glass transition temperature (up to 17 °C) were dependent on graft length. The tuneable matrix-free GO-composites with rapid thermo-responsive shape-memory effects are promising candidates for a vast range of applications, especially selective membranes and sensors.We demonstrate a novel route to synthesise hydrophobic matrix-free composites of polymer-grafted graphene oxide (GO) showing isotropic or nematic alignment and shape-memory effects. For the first time, a cationic macroinitiator (MI) has been
Double Compression Expansion Engine: A Parametric Study on a High-Efficiency Engine Concept
Bhavani Shankar, Vijai Shankar; Johansson, Bengt; Andersson, Arne
2018-01-01
The Double compression expansion engine (DCEE) concept has exhibited a potential for achieving high brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). The effect of different engine components on system efficiency was evaluated in this work using GT Power
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Svetlov, I L; Sukhanov, N N; Krivko, A I; Roshchina, I N; Khatsinskaia, I M
1987-01-01
Experimental data are presented on the temperature dependence of the short- term strength characteristics, Young's modulus, and linear expansion coefficients of single crystals of a nickel alloy, ZhS6F, with crystallographic orientations along the 001, 111, 011, and 112 lines. It is found that the mechanical properties and Young's modulus of the alloy crystals exibit anisotropy in the temperature range 20-900 C. The linear thermal expansion coefficient is isotropic up to 900 C and equal to that of the equiaxed alloy. 10 references.
Specific heat of Ginzburg-Landau fields in the n-1 expansion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bray, A.J.
1975-01-01
The n -1 expansion for the specific heat C/subv/ of the n-component Ginzburg-Landau model is discussed in terms of an n -1 expansion for the irreducible polarization. In the low-temperature limit, each successive term of the latter expansion diverges more strongly than the last, invalidating a truncation of this series at any finite order in 1/n. The most divergent terms in each order are identified and summed. The results provide justification for the usual truncated expansions for C/subv/
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christov, C. I.
2010-01-01
A transversely isotropic elastic continuum is considered in four dimensions, three of which are isotropic, and the properties of the material change only related to the fourth dimension. The model employs two dilational and three shear Lame coefficients. The isotropic dilational coefficient is assumed to be much larger than the second dilational coefficient, and the three shear coefficients. This amounts to a material that is virtually incompressible in the three isotropic dimensions. The first and third shear coefficients are positive, while the second shear coefficient is assumed to be negative. As a result, in the equations of elastic equilibrium, the second derivatives of the displacement with respect to the fourth coordinate enter with negative sign. This makes the equations hyperbolic, with a fourth dimension opposing to the other three. The hyperbolic nature of the fourth dimension allows to be interpreted as time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Ram Chandra
2007-01-01
We have used the density-functional theory to study the effect of varying temperature on the isotropic-nematic transition of a fluid of molecules interacting via the Gay-Berne intermolecular potential. The nematic phase is found to be stable with respect to isotropic phase in the temperature range 0.80≤T*≤1.25. Pair correlation functions needed as input information in density-functional theory is calculated using the Percus-Yevick integral equation theory. We find that the density-functional theory is good for studying the isotropic-nematic transition in molecular fluids if the values of the pair-correlation functions in the isotropic phase are known accurately. We have also compared our results with computer simulation results wherever they are available
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehdi Raoofian Naeeni
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The problem of propagation of plane wave including body and surface waves propagating in a transversely isotropic half-space with a depth-wise axis of material symmetry is investigated in details. Using the advantage of representation of displacement fields in terms of two complete scalar potential functions, the coupled equations of motion are uncoupled and reduced to two independent equations for potential functions. In this paper, the secular equations for determination of body and surface wave velocities are derived in terms of both elasticity coefficients and the direction of propagation. In particular, the longitudinal, transverse and Rayleigh wave velocities are determined in explicit forms. It is also shown that in transversely isotropic materials, a Rayleigh wave may propagate in different manner from that of isotropic materials. Some numerical results for synthetic transversely isotropic materials are also illustrated to show the behavior of wave motion due to anisotropic nature of the problem.
Tichit, Paul-Henri; Burokur, Shah Nawaz; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; de Lustrac, André
2013-09-01
It has long been conjectured that isotropic radiation by a simple coherent source is impossible due to changes in polarization. Though hypothetical, the isotropic source is usually taken as the reference for determining a radiator’s gain and directivity. Here, we demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that an isotropic radiator can be made of a simple and finite source surrounded by electric-field-driven LC resonator metamaterials designed by space manipulation. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, we show the first isotropic source with omnidirectional radiation from a dipole source (applicable to all distributed sources), which can open up several possibilities in axion electrodynamics, optical illusion, novel transformation-optic devices, wireless communication, and antenna engineering. Owing to the electric- field-driven LC resonator realization scheme, this principle can be readily applied to higher frequency regimes where magnetism is usually not present.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
von Euler, Mia; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Janson, A M
1998-01-01
analysis after spinal cord injury is needed. Length quantification of the putatively spontaneously regenerating fibers has been difficult until recently, when two length estimators based on sampling with isotropic virtual planes within thick physical sections were introduced. The applicability...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Tsuyoshi; Imai, Hiroshi; Avis, David
2006-01-01
We show that some two-party Bell inequalities with two-valued observables are stronger than the CHSH inequality for 3x3 isotropic states in the sense that they are violated by some isotropic states in the 3x3 system that do not violate the CHSH inequality. These Bell inequalities are obtained by applying triangular elimination to the list of known facet inequalities of the cut polytope on nine points. This gives a partial solution to an open problem posed by Collins and Gisin. The results of numerical optimization suggest that they are candidates for being stronger than the I 3322 Bell inequality for 3x3 isotropic states. On the other hand, we found no Bell inequalities stronger than the CHSH inequality for 2x2 isotropic states. In addition, we illustrate an inclusion relation among some Bell inequalities derived by triangular elimination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Eva B. Vedel; Kiêu, K
1994-01-01
Unbiased stereological estimators of d-dimensional volume in R(n) are derived, based on information from an isotropic random r-slice through a specified point. The content of the slice can be subsampled by means of a spatial grid. The estimators depend only on spatial distances. As a fundamental ...... lemma, an explicit formula for the probability that an isotropic random r-slice in R(n) through 0 hits a fixed point in R(n) is given....
Temperature dependence of thermal expansion of cadmium sulfide in the temperature range 20 - 820 K
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oskotskij, V.S.; Kobyakov, I.B.; Solodukhin, A.V.
1980-01-01
The linear thermal expansion of cadmium sulfide is measured perpendicularly (α 1 ) and parallelly (α 2 ) to the hexagonal axis in the temperature range from 20 to 820 K. Anisotropy is low at up to 80 K; rises at higher temperatures; at 3OO K α 1 /α 3 ratio is 1.8; at 820 K, 2.4. Heat expansion is negative at temperatures lower than 104.5 K(α 1 ) and 126.0 K(α 2 ). It achieves the minimum at 43.6 K (α 1 ) and 52.5K (α 3 ). The theory of heat expansion is plotted in the Debue, approximation and cadmium sulfide is considered as an isotope crystal with average elastic constants. Two parameters of the theory are determined by the position and value of the minimum of volumetric thermal expansion of the model isotope crystal. The theoretic curve agrees well with the experimental one at temperatures up to 160 K, i.e in the range of applicability of the Debue approximation and the isotropic model
Exponential Expansion in Evolutionary Economics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frederiksen, Peter; Jagtfelt, Tue
2013-01-01
This article attempts to solve current problems of conceptual fragmentation within the field of evolutionary economics. One of the problems, as noted by a number of observers, is that the field suffers from an assemblage of fragmented and scattered concepts (Boschma and Martin 2010). A solution...... to this problem is proposed in the form of a model of exponential expansion. The model outlines the overall structure and function of the economy as exponential expansion. The pictographic model describes four axiomatic concepts and their exponential nature. The interactive, directional, emerging and expanding...... concepts are described in detail. Taken together it provides the rudimentary aspects of an economic system within an analytical perspective. It is argued that the main dynamic processes of the evolutionary perspective can be reduced to these four concepts. The model and concepts are evaluated in the light...
Production expansion continues to accelerate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1992-01-01
This paper reports that Saudi Arabian Oil Co. (Saudi Aramco) is continuing its accelerated Crude Oil Expansion Program initiated in 1989 that aims at achieving a 10 million bpd productive capacity by 1995. In addition to major engineering, construction and renovation work related to production expansion, Saudi Aramco drilling and workover operations have been markedly expanded. Since January 1991, rig activity has doubled. As an indication of aging of Saudi production, projects include modernizing current injection water treatment facilities, installing a new seawater injection plant on the Persian Gulf, installing dewatering facilities in a number of locations and installing a pilot gas lift project. In addition, equipment orders indicate the new discoveries south of Riyadh may also need the assistance of water injection from inception of production
Shrub expansion in SW Greenland
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Rasmus Halfdan
Arctic regions have experienced higher temperatures in recent decades, and the warming trend is projected to continue in the coming years. Arctic ecosystems are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate change. Expansion of shrubs has been observed widely in tundra areas across the Arctic......, and has a range of ecosystem effects where it occurs. Shrub expansion has to a large extend been attributed to increasing temperatures over the past century, while grazing and human disturbance have received less attention. Alnus viridis ssp. crispa is a common arctic species that contributes...... to increasing shrub cover. Despite this, there is only limited experimental evidence that growth of the species responds to warming. Plant populations in fragmented and isolated locations could face problems adapting to a warming climate due to limited genetic variation and restricted migration from southern...
Hypersonic expansion of the Fokker--Planck equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez-Feria, R.
1989-01-01
A systematic study of the hypersonic limit of a heavy species diluted in a much lighter gas is made via the Fokker--Planck equation governing its velocity distribution function. In particular, two different hypersonic expansions of the Fokker--Planck equation are considered, differing from each other in the momentum equation of the heavy gas used as the basis of the expansion: in the first of them, the pressure tensor is neglected in that equation while, in the second expansion, the pressure tensor term is retained. The expansions are valid when the light gas Mach number is O(1) or larger and the difference between the mean velocities of light and heavy components is small compared to the light gas thermal speed. They can be applied away from regions where the spatial gradient of the distribution function is very large, but it is not restricted with respect to the temporal derivative of the distribution function. The hydrodynamic equations corresponding to the lowest order of both expansions constitute two different hypersonic closures of the moment equations. For the subsequent orders in the expansions, closed sets of moment equations (hydrodynamic equations) are given. Special emphasis is made on the order of magnitude of the errors of the lowest-order hydrodynamic quantities. It is shown that if the heat flux vanishes initially, these errors are smaller than one might have expected from the ordinary scaling of the hypersonic closure. Also it is found that the normal solution of both expansions is a Gaussian distribution at the lowest order
Achieving dynamic behaviour and thermal expansion in the organic solid state via co-crystallization.
Hutchins, Kristin M; Groeneman, Ryan H; Reinheimer, Eric W; Swenson, Dale C; MacGillivray, Leonard R
2015-08-01
Thermal expansion involves a response of a material to an external stimulus that typically involves an increase in a crystallographic axis (positive thermal expansion (PTE)), although shrinking with applied heat (negative thermal expansion (NTE)) is known in rarer cases. Here, we demonstrate a means to achieve dynamic molecular motion and thermal expansions in organic solids via co-crystallizations. One co-crystal component is known to exhibit dynamic behaviour in the solid state while the second, when varied systematically, affords co-crystals with linear thermal expansion coefficients that range from colossal to nearly zero. Two co-crystals exhibit rare NTE. We expect the approach to guide the design of molecular solids that enable predesigned motion related to thermal expansion processes.
Investigation on the reliability of expansion joint for piping with probabilistic method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, Y.; Kambe, M.
1980-01-01
The reduction of the plant size is necessitated as one of the major targets in LMFBR design. Usually, piping work system is extensively used to absorb thermal expansion between two components anywhere. Besides above, expansion joint for piping seems to be attractive lately for the same object. This paper describes the significance of expansion joint with multiple boundaries, breakdown probability of expansion joint assembly and partly the bellows by introducing several hypothetical conditions in connection with piping. Also, an importance of in-service inspection (ISI) for expansion joint was discussed using a comparative table and probabilities on reliability from partly broken to full penetration. In conclusion, the expansion joint with ISI should be manufactured with excellent reliability in order to cope with piping work system; several conditions of the practical application for piping systems are suggested. (author)
Investigation on the reliability of expansion joint for piping with probabilistic method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishii, Y; Kambe, M
1980-02-01
The reduction of the plant size is necessitated as one of the major targets in LMFBR design. Usually, piping work system is extensively used to absorb thermal expansion between two components anywhere. Besides above, expansion joint for piping seems to be attractive lately for the same object. This paper describes the significance of expansion joint with multiple boundaries, breakdown probability of expansion joint assembly and partly the bellows by introducing several hypothetical conditions in connection with piping. Also, an importance of in-service inspection (ISI) for expansion joint was discussed using a comparative table and probabilities on reliability from partly broken to full penetration. In conclusion, the expansion joint with ISI should be manufactured with excellent reliability in order to cope with piping work system; several conditions of the practical application for piping systems are suggested. (author)
Investigation on the reliability of expansion joint for piping with probabilistic method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishii, Yoichiro; Kambe, Mitsuru.
1979-11-01
The reduction of the plant size if necessitated as one of the major target in LMFBR design. Usually, piping work system is extensively used to absorb thermal expansion between two components anywhere. Besides above, expansion joint for piping seems to be attractive lately for the same object. This paper describes about the significance of expansion joint with multiple boundaries, breakdown probability of expansion joint assembly and partly the bellows by introducing several hypothetical conditions in connection with piping. Also, an importance of inservice inspection (ISI) for expansion joint was discussed using by comparative table and probabilities on reliability from partly broken to full penetration. In the conclusion, the expansion joint with ISI should be manufactured with excellent reliability in order to cope with piping work system, and several conditions of the practical application for piping systems are suggested. (author)
RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel BURLACU,
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator
Temperature-monitored optical treatment for radial tissue expansion.
Bak, Jinoh; Kang, Hyun Wook
2017-07-01
Esophageal stricture occurs in 7-23% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, the current treatments including stent therapy, balloon dilation, and bougienage involve limitations such as stent migration, formation of the new strictures, and snowplow effect. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of structural expansion in tubular tissue ex vivo during temperature-monitored photothermal treatment with a diffusing applicator for esophageal stricture. Porcine liver was used as an ex vivo tissue sample for the current study. A glass tube was used to maintain a constant distance between the diffuser and tissue surface and to evaluate any variations in the luminal area after 10-W 1470-nm laser irradiation for potential stricture treatment. The 3D goniometer measurements confirmed roughly isotropic distribution with less than 10% deviation from the average angular intensity over 2π (i.e., 0.86 ± 0.09 in arbitrary unit) from the diffusing applicator. The 30-s irradiation increased the tissue temperature up to 72.5 °C, but due to temperature feedback, the interstitial tissue temperature became saturated at 70 °C (i.e., steady-state error = ±0.4 °C). The irradiation times longer than 5 s presented area expansion index of 1.00 ± 0.04, signifying that irreversible tissue denaturation permanently deformed the lumen in a circular shape and secured the equivalent luminal area to that of the glass tube. Application of a temperature feedback controller for photothermal treatment with the diffusing applicator can regulate the degree of thermal denaturation to feasibly treat esophageal stricture in a tubular tissue.
Urban Land Expansion and Spatial Dynamics in Globalizing Shanghai
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han Li
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Urban land expansion in China has attracted considerable scholarly attention. However, more work is needed to apply spatial modeling to understanding the mechanisms of urban growth from both institutional and physical perspectives. This paper analyzes urban expansion in Shanghai and its development zones (DZs. We find that, as nodes of global-local interface, the DZs are the most significant components of urban growth in Shanghai, and major spatial patterns of urban expansion in Shanghai are infilling and edge expansion. We apply logistic regression, geographically weighted logistic regression (GWLR and spatial regime regression to investigate the determinants of urban land expansion including physical conditions, state policy and land development. Regressions reveal that, though the market has been an important driving force in urban growth, the state has played a predominant role through the implementation of urban planning and the establishment of DZs to fully capitalize on globalization. We also find that differences in urban growth dynamics exist between the areas inside and outside of the DZs. Finally, this paper discusses policies to promote sustainable development in Shanghai.
An Improved Isotropic Periodic Sum Method That Uses Linear Combinations of Basis Potentials
Takahashi, Kazuaki Z.
2012-11-13
Isotropic periodic sum (IPS) is a technique that calculates long-range interactions differently than conventional lattice sum methods. The difference between IPS and lattice sum methods lies in the shape and distribution of remote images for long-range interaction calculations. The images used in lattice sum calculations are identical to those generated from periodic boundary conditions and are discretely positioned at lattice points in space. The images for IPS calculations are "imaginary", which means they do not explicitly exist in a simulation system and are distributed isotropically and periodically around each particle. Two different versions of the original IPS method exist. The IPSn method is applied to calculations for point charges, whereas the IPSp method calculates polar molecules. However, both IPSn and IPSp have their advantages and disadvantages in simulating bulk water or water-vapor interfacial systems. In bulk water systems, the cutoff radius effect of IPSn strongly affects the configuration, whereas IPSp does not provide adequate estimations of water-vapor interfacial systems unless very long cutoff radii are used. To extend the applicability of the IPS technique, an improved IPS method, which has better accuracy in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems has been developed and named the linear-combination-based isotropic periodic sum (LIPS) method. This improved IPS method uses linear combinations of basis potentials. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of bulk water and water-vapor interfacial systems to evaluate the accuracy of the LIPS method. For bulk water systems, the LIPS method has better accuracy than IPSn in estimating thermodynamic and configurational properties without the countercharge assumption, which is used for IPSp. For water-vapor interfacial systems, LIPS has better accuracy than IPSp and properly estimates thermodynamic and configurational properties. In conclusion, the LIPS method can successfully estimate
Electrochemical isotropic texturing of mc-Si wafers in KOH solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abburi, M.; Boström, T.; Olefjord, I.
2013-01-01
Boron doped multicrystalline Si-wafers were anodically polarized in 2 M KOH and 4 M KOH at 40 °C and 50 °C. The applied potentials were 25 V, 30 V, 40 V and 50 V. The morphology of the textured surfaces, the surface products and the light reflectivity were analyzed by utilizing SEM, XPS and Lambda UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometer, respectively. Isotropic texturing was obtained. The lowest average reflectivity, 17%, was achieved after pre-etching for 10 min and polarization at 40 V for 10 min in 4 M KOH at 50 °C. That reflection value is half of that measured on a chemical pre-etched surface, 34%. By increasing the voltage to 50 V the reflectivity rises to 28%. Polarizations to 25 V and 30 V at 50 °C in both solutions give local pores in the μm-range. The etch attack initiation is located at protrusions on the surface. At 40 V and 50 V in both solutions the pores are extended onto the entire surface. The width of the pores is about 10 μm. Inside the micro-pores, nm-pores are formed; their lateral size is in the range 100 nm–200 nm. A mechanism for the anodic dissolution reactions is discussed. - Highlights: ► A method to form isotropic textures on mc-Si wafers in KOH solution is presented. ► The method is based on anodic polarization of silicon in KOH at high potentials. ► Evolution of surface morphology is studied by varying the etch parameters. ► Isotropic textures with lowest average reflectivity are obtained at 40 V. ► A reaction model for texturing mechanism is discussed in the light of XPS data
An Improved Isotropic Periodic Sum Method That Uses Linear Combinations of Basis Potentials
Takahashi, Kazuaki Z.; Narumi, Tetsu; Suh, Donguk; Yasuoka, Kenji
2012-01-01
Isotropic periodic sum (IPS) is a technique that calculates long-range interactions differently than conventional lattice sum methods. The difference between IPS and lattice sum methods lies in the shape and distribution of remote images for long-range interaction calculations. The images used in lattice sum calculations are identical to those generated from periodic boundary conditions and are discretely positioned at lattice points in space. The images for IPS calculations are "imaginary", which means they do not explicitly exist in a simulation system and are distributed isotropically and periodically around each particle. Two different versions of the original IPS method exist. The IPSn method is applied to calculations for point charges, whereas the IPSp method calculates polar molecules. However, both IPSn and IPSp have their advantages and disadvantages in simulating bulk water or water-vapor interfacial systems. In bulk water systems, the cutoff radius effect of IPSn strongly affects the configuration, whereas IPSp does not provide adequate estimations of water-vapor interfacial systems unless very long cutoff radii are used. To extend the applicability of the IPS technique, an improved IPS method, which has better accuracy in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems has been developed and named the linear-combination-based isotropic periodic sum (LIPS) method. This improved IPS method uses linear combinations of basis potentials. We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of bulk water and water-vapor interfacial systems to evaluate the accuracy of the LIPS method. For bulk water systems, the LIPS method has better accuracy than IPSn in estimating thermodynamic and configurational properties without the countercharge assumption, which is used for IPSp. For water-vapor interfacial systems, LIPS has better accuracy than IPSp and properly estimates thermodynamic and configurational properties. In conclusion, the LIPS method can successfully estimate
Namani, R.; Feng, Y.; Okamoto, R. J.; Jesuraj, N.; Sakiyama-Elbert, S. E.; Genin, G. M.; Bayly, P. V.
2012-01-01
The mechanical characterization of soft anisotropic materials is a fundamental challenge because of difficulties in applying mechanical loads to soft matter and the need to combine information from multiple tests. A method to characterize the linear elastic properties of transversely isotropic soft materials is proposed, based on the combination of dynamic shear testing (DST) and asymmetric indentation. The procedure was demonstrated by characterizing a nearly incompressible transversely isotropic soft material. A soft gel with controlled anisotropy was obtained by polymerizing a mixture of fibrinogen and thrombin solutions in a high field magnet (B = 11.7 T); fibrils in the resulting gel were predominantly aligned parallel to the magnetic field. Aligned fibrin gels were subject to dynamic (20–40 Hz) shear deformation in two orthogonal directions. The shear storage modulus was 1.08 ± 0. 42 kPa (mean ± std. dev.) for shear in a plane parallel to the dominant fiber direction, and 0.58 ± 0.21 kPa for shear in the plane of isotropy. Gels were indented by a rectangular tip of a large aspect ratio, aligned either parallel or perpendicular to the normal to the plane of transverse isotropy. Aligned fibrin gels appeared stiffer when indented with the long axis of a rectangular tip perpendicular to the dominant fiber direction. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of asymmetric indentation were used to determine the relationship between direction-dependent differences in indentation stiffness and material parameters. This approach enables the estimation of a complete set of parameters for an incompressible, transversely isotropic, linear elastic material. PMID:22757501
Isotropic three-dimensional T2 mapping of knee cartilage: Development and validation.
Colotti, Roberto; Omoumi, Patrick; Bonanno, Gabriele; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; van Heeswijk, Ruud B
2018-02-01
1) To implement a higher-resolution isotropic 3D T 2 mapping technique that uses sequential T 2 -prepared segmented gradient-recalled echo (Iso3DGRE) images for knee cartilage evaluation, and 2) to validate it both in vitro and in vivo in healthy volunteers and patients with knee osteoarthritis. The Iso3DGRE sequence with an isotropic 0.6 mm spatial resolution was developed on a clinical 3T MR scanner. Numerical simulations were performed to optimize the pulse sequence parameters. A phantom study was performed to validate the T 2 estimation accuracy. The repeatability of the sequence was assessed in healthy volunteers (n = 7). T 2 values were compared with those from a clinical standard 2D multislice multiecho (MSME) T 2 mapping sequence in knees of healthy volunteers (n = 13) and in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA, n = 5). The numerical simulations resulted in 100 excitations per segment and an optimal radiofrequency (RF) excitation angle of 15°. The phantom study demonstrated a good correlation of the technique with the reference standard (slope 0.9 ± 0.05, intercept 0.2 ± 1.7 msec, R 2 ≥ 0.99). Repeated measurements of cartilage T 2 values in healthy volunteers showed a coefficient of variation of 5.6%. Both Iso3DGRE and MSME techniques found significantly higher cartilage T 2 values (P < 0.03) in OA patients. Iso3DGRE precision was equal to that of the MSME T 2 mapping in healthy volunteers, and significantly higher in OA (P = 0.01). This study successfully demonstrated that high-resolution isotropic 3D T 2 mapping for knee cartilage characterization is feasible, accurate, repeatable, and precise. The technique allows for multiplanar reformatting and thus T 2 quantification in any plane of interest. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2018;47:362-371. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Zero expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® roadmap for advanced lithography
Westerhoff, Thomas; Jedamzik, Ralf; Hartmann, Peter
2013-04-01
The zero expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in microlithography in critical components as wafer- and reticle-stages, mirrors and frames in the stepper positioning and alignment system. The very low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and its extremely high CTE homogeneity are key properties to achieve the tight overlay requirements of advanced lithography processes. SCHOTT is continuously improving critical material properties of ZERODUR® essential for microlithography applications according to a roadmap driven by the ever tighter material specifications broken down from the customer roadmaps. This paper will present the SCHOTT Roadmap for ZERODUR® material property development. In the recent years SCHOTT established a physical model based on structural relaxation to describe the coefficient of thermal expansion's temperature dependence. The model is successfully applied for the new expansion grade ZERODUR® TAILORED introduced to the market in 2012. ZERODUR® TAILORED delivers the lowest thermal expansion of ZERODUR® products at microlithography tool application temperature allowing for higher thermal stability for tighter overlay control in IC production. Data will be reported demonstrating the unique CTE homogeneity of ZERODUR® and its very high reproducibility, a necessary precondition for serial production for microlithography equipment components. New data on the bending strength of ZERODUR® proves its capability to withstand much higher mechanical loads than previously reported. Utilizing a three parameter Weibull distribution it is possible to derive minimum strength values for a given ZERODUR® surface treatment. Consequently the statistical uncertainties of the earlier approach based on a two parameter Weibull distribution have been eliminated. Mechanical fatigue due to stress corrosion was included in a straightforward way. The derived formulae allows calculating life time of ZERODUR® components for a given stress
Optimized cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Zhenzhong; Feng Yijun; Xu Xiaofei; Zhao Junming; Jiang Tian
2011-01-01
We present optimized design of cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials. Through an optimization procedure based on genetic algorithm, simpler cloak structure and more realizable material parameters can be achieved with better cloak performance than that of an ideal non-magnetic cloak with a reduced set of parameters. We demonstrate that a cloak shell with only five layers of two normal materials can result in an average 20 dB reduction in the scattering width for all directions when covering the inner conducting cylinder with the cloak. The optimized design can substantially simplify the realization of the invisibility cloak, especially in the optical range.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hilmi Volkan Demir
2009-11-01
Full Text Available We present circular architecture bioimplant strain sensors that facilitate a strong resonance frequency shift with mechanical deformation. The clinical application area of these sensors is for in vivo assessment of bone fractures. Using a rectangular geometry, we obtain a resonance shift of 330 MHz for a single device and 170 MHz for its triplet configuration (with three side-by-side resonators on chip under an applied load of 3,920 N. Using the same device parameters with a circular isotropic architecture, we achieve a resonance frequency shift of 500 MHz for the single device and 260 MHz for its triplet configuration, demonstrating substantially increased sensitivity.
Maximum likelihood based multi-channel isotropic reverberation reduction for hearing aids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuklasiński, Adam; Doclo, Simon; Jensen, Søren Holdt
2014-01-01
We propose a multi-channel Wiener filter for speech dereverberation in hearing aids. The proposed algorithm uses joint maximum likelihood estimation of the speech and late reverberation spectral variances, under the assumption that the late reverberant sound field is cylindrically isotropic....... The dereverberation performance of the algorithm is evaluated using computer simulations with realistic hearing aid microphone signals including head-related effects. The algorithm is shown to work well with signals reverberated both by synthetic and by measured room impulse responses, achieving improvements...
Gao, Zhiwen; Zhou, Youhe
2015-04-01
Real fundamental solution for fracture problem of transversely isotropic high temperature superconductor (HTS) strip is obtained. The superconductor E-J constitutive law is characterized by the Bean model where the critical current density is independent of the flux density. Fracture analysis is performed by the methods of singular integral equations which are solved numerically by Gauss-Lobatto-Chybeshev (GSL) collocation method. To guarantee a satisfactory accuracy, the convergence behavior of the kernel function is investigated. Numerical results of fracture parameters are obtained and the effects of the geometric characteristics, applied magnetic field and critical current density on the stress intensity factors (SIF) are discussed.
A non-commutative formula for the isotropic magneto-electric response
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leung, Bryan; Prodan, Emil
2013-01-01
A non-commutative formula for the isotropic magneto-electric response of disordered insulators under magnetic fields is derived using the methods of non-commutative geometry. Our result follows from an explicit evaluation of the Ito derivative with respect to the magnetic field of the non-commutative formula for the electric polarization reported in Schulz-Baldes and Teufel (2012 arXiv:1201.4812v1). The quantization, topological invariance and connection to a second Chern number of the magneto-electric response are discussed in the context of three-dimensional, disordered, time-reversal or inversion symmetric topological insulators. (paper)
Improvement of thermal shock resistance of isotropic graphite by Ti-doping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopez-Galilea, I.; Ordas, N.; Garcia-Rosales, C.; Lindig, S.
2009-01-01
Ti-doped isotropic graphite is a promising candidate material for the strike point area of the ITER divertor due to its reduced chemical erosion by hydrogen bombardment and its high thermal shock resistance, mainly due the catalytic effect of TiC on the graphitization leading to an increase of thermal conductivity and to higher mechanical strength. Several manufacturing parameters such as oxidative stabilization treatment, carbonization cycle, graphitization temperature and dwell time during graphitization have been investigated in order to establish a relationship between these parameters and the final properties.
Improvement of thermal shock resistance of isotropic graphite by Ti-doping
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Galilea, I. [Inmaculada Lopez-Galilea, CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Po de Manuel Lardizabal, 15 E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain)], E-mail: ilopez@ceit.es; Ordas, N.; Garcia-Rosales, C. [Inmaculada Lopez-Galilea, CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), Po de Manuel Lardizabal, 15 E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Lindig, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
2009-04-30
Ti-doped isotropic graphite is a promising candidate material for the strike point area of the ITER divertor due to its reduced chemical erosion by hydrogen bombardment and its high thermal shock resistance, mainly due the catalytic effect of TiC on the graphitization leading to an increase of thermal conductivity and to higher mechanical strength. Several manufacturing parameters such as oxidative stabilization treatment, carbonization cycle, graphitization temperature and dwell time during graphitization have been investigated in order to establish a relationship between these parameters and the final properties.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Jens Peder; Schleich, W. P.
2009-01-01
For a closed quantum system the state operator must be a function of the Hamiltonian. When the state is degenerate, additional constants of the motion enter the play. But although it is the Weyl transform of the state operator, the Wigner function is not necessarily a function of the Weyl...... transforms of the constants of the motion. We derive conditions for which this is actually the case. The Wigner functions of the energy eigenstates of a two-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator serve as an important illustration....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milewski, J., E-mail: jsmilew@wp.pl [Institute of Mathematics, Poznań University of Technology, Piotrowo 3A, 60-965 Poznań (Poland); Lulek, B., E-mail: barlulek@amu.edu.pl [East European State Higher School, ul. Tymona Terleckiego 6, 37-700 Przemyśl (Poland); Lulek, T., E-mail: tadlulek@prz.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznań (Poland); East European State Higher School, ul. Tymona Terleckiego 6, 37-700 Przemyśl (Poland); Łabuz, M., E-mail: labuz@univ.rzeszow.pl [University of Rzeszow, Institute of Physics, Rejtana 16a, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland); Stagraczyński, R., E-mail: rstag@prz.edu.pl [Rzeszow University of Technology, The Faculty of Mathematics and Applied Physics, Powstańców Warszawy 6, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)
2014-02-01
The exact Bethe eigenfunctions for the heptagonal ring within the isotropic XXX model exhibit a doubly degenerated energy level in the three-deviation sector at the centre of the Brillouin zone. We demonstrate an explicit construction of these eigenfunctions by use of algebraic Bethe Ansatz, and point out a relation of degeneracy to parity conservation, applied to the configuration of strings for these eigenfunctions. Namely, the internal structure of the eigenfunctions (the 2-string and the 1-string, with opposite quasimomenta) admits generation of two mutually orthogonal eigenfunctions due to the fact that the strings which differ by their length are distinguishable objects.
Spin-wave logic devices based on isotropic forward volume magnetostatic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klingler, S.; Pirro, P.; Brächer, T.; Leven, B.; Hillebrands, B.; Chumak, A. V.
2015-01-01
We propose the utilization of isotropic forward volume magnetostatic spin waves in modern wave-based logic devices and suggest a concrete design for a spin-wave majority gate operating with these waves. We demonstrate by numerical simulations that the proposed out-of-plane magnetized majority gate overcomes the limitations of anisotropic in-plane magnetized majority gates due to the high spin-wave transmission through the gate, which enables a reduced energy consumption of these devices. Moreover, the functionality of the out-of-plane majority gate is increased due to the lack of parasitic generation of short-wavelength exchange spin waves
Spin-wave logic devices based on isotropic forward volume magnetostatic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klingler, S., E-mail: stefan.klingler@wmi.badw-muenchen.de; Pirro, P.; Brächer, T.; Leven, B.; Hillebrands, B.; Chumak, A. V. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)
2015-05-25
We propose the utilization of isotropic forward volume magnetostatic spin waves in modern wave-based logic devices and suggest a concrete design for a spin-wave majority gate operating with these waves. We demonstrate by numerical simulations that the proposed out-of-plane magnetized majority gate overcomes the limitations of anisotropic in-plane magnetized majority gates due to the high spin-wave transmission through the gate, which enables a reduced energy consumption of these devices. Moreover, the functionality of the out-of-plane majority gate is increased due to the lack of parasitic generation of short-wavelength exchange spin waves.
Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Hu, Li; Zhang, Baile; Wu, Bae-Ian; Johnson, Steven G; Joannopoulos, John D
2009-08-03
Two novel classes of spherical invisibility cloaks based on nonlinear transformation have been studied. The cloaking characteristics are presented by segmenting the nonlinear transformation based spherical cloak into concentric isotropic homogeneous coatings. Detailed investigations of the optimal discretization (e.g., thickness control of each layer, nonlinear factor, etc.) are presented for both linear and nonlinear spherical cloaks and their effects on invisibility performance are also discussed. The cloaking properties and our choice of optimal segmentation are verified by the numerical simulation of not only near-field electric-field distribution but also the far-field radar cross section (RCS).
2016-05-01
norm does not cap - ture the geometry completely. The L1−L2 in (c) does a better job than TV while L1 in (b) and L1−0.5L2 in (d) capture the squares most...and isotropic total variation (TV) norms into a relaxed formu- lation of the two phase Mumford-Shah (MS) model for image segmentation. We show...results exceeding those obtained by the MS model when using the standard TV norm to regular- ize partition boundaries. In particular, examples illustrating
The thermalization of soft modes in non-expanding isotropic quark gluon plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blaizot, Jean-Paul, E-mail: jean-paul.blaizot@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CNRS/UMR 3681, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Liao, Jinfeng [Physics Department and Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, 2401 N Milo B. Sampson Lane, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); RIKEN BNL Research Center, Bldg. 510A, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Mehtar-Tani, Yacine [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1550 (United States)
2017-05-15
We discuss the role of elastic and inelastic collisions and their interplay in the thermalization of the quark–gluon plasma. We consider a simplified situation of a static plasma, spatially uniform and isotropic in momentum space. We focus on the small momentum region, which equilibrates first, and on a short time scale. We obtain a simple kinetic equation that allows for an analytic description of the most important regimes. The present analysis suggests that the formation of a Bose condensate, expected when only elastic collisions are present, is strongly hindered by the inelastic, radiative, processes.
Wei, Ding; Cong-cong, Yu; Chen-hui, Wu; Zheng-yi, Shu
2018-03-01
To analyse the strain localization behavior of geomaterials, the forward Euler schemes and the tangent modulus matrix are formulated based on the transversely isotropic yield criterion with non-coaxial flow rule developed by Lade, the program code is implemented based on the user subroutine (UMAT) of ABAQUS. The influence of the material principal direction on the strain localization and the bearing capacity of the structure are investigated and analyzed. Numerical results show the validity and performance of the proposed model in simulating the strain localization behavior of geostructures.
Longitudinal vibration of isotropic solid rods: from classical to modern theories
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Shatalov, M
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Vibration of Isotropic Solid Rods: From Classical to Modern Theories Michael Shatalov1,2, Julian Marais2, Igor Fedotov2 and Michel Djouosseu Tenkam2 1Council for Scientific and Industrial Research 2Tshwane University of Technology South Africa 1...). The classical approximate theory of longitudinal vibration of rods was developed during the 18th century by J. D?Alembert, D. Bernoulli, L. Euler and J. Lagrange. This theory is based on the analysis of the one dimensional wave equation and is applicable...
Universality of Critically Pinned Interfaces in Two-Dimensional Isotropic Random Media
Grassberger, Peter
2018-05-01
Based on extensive simulations, we conjecture that critically pinned interfaces in two-dimensional isotropic random media with short-range correlations are always in the universality class of ordinary percolation. Thus, in contrast to interfaces in >2 dimensions, there is no distinction between fractal (i.e., percolative) and rough but nonfractal interfaces. Our claim includes interfaces in zero-temperature random field Ising models (both with and without spontaneous nucleation), in heterogeneous bootstrap percolation, and in susceptible-weakened-infected-removed epidemics. It does not include models with long-range correlations in the randomness and models where overhangs are explicitly forbidden (which would imply nonisotropy of the medium).
Uniqueness of the Isotropic Frame and Usefulness of the Lorentz Transformation
Choi, Yang-Ho
2018-05-01
According to the postulates of the special theory of relativity (STR), physical quantities such as proper times and Doppler shifts can be obtained from any inertial frame by regarding it as isotropic. Nonetheless many inconsistencies arise from the postulates, as shown in this paper. However, there are numerous experimental results that agree with the predictions of STR. It is explained why they are accurate despite the inconsistencies. The Lorentz transformation (LT), unless subject to the postulates of STR, may be a useful method to approach physics problems. As an example to show the usefulness of LT, the problem of the generalized Sagnac effect is solved by utilizing it.
A hidden non-Abelian monopole in a 16-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Thanh-Son; Phan, Ngoc-Hung
2009-01-01
We suggest one variant of generalization of the Hurwitz transformation by adding seven extra variables that allow an inverse transformation to be obtained. Using this generalized transformation we establish the connection between the Schroedinger equation of a 16-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator and that of a nine-dimensional hydrogen-like atom in the field of a monopole described by a septet of potential vectors in a non-Abelian model of 28 operators. The explicit form of the potential vectors and all the commutation relations of the algebra are given./
A hidden non-Abelian monopole in a 16-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Thanh-Son; Phan, Ngoc-Hung [Department of Physics, HCMC University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong, Ward 10, Dist. 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)
2009-05-01
We suggest one variant of generalization of the Hurwitz transformation by adding seven extra variables that allow an inverse transformation to be obtained. Using this generalized transformation we establish the connection between the Schroedinger equation of a 16-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator and that of a nine-dimensional hydrogen-like atom in the field of a monopole described by a septet of potential vectors in a non-Abelian model of 28 operators. The explicit form of the potential vectors and all the commutation relations of the algebra are given./.
The generalized Cauchy relation: a probe for local structure in materials with isotropic symmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bactavatchalou, R [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Alnot, P [Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I (France); Bailer, J [Universite du Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Kolle, M [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Mueller, U [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Philipp, M [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Possart, W [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Rouxel, D [Universite Henri Poincare, Nancy I (France); Sanctuary, R [Universite du Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Tschoepe, A [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Vergnat, Ch [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg); Wetzel, B [Institut fuer Verbundwerkstoffe TU Kaiserslautern 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Krueger, J K [Laboratoire Europeen de Recherche Universitaire Saarland- Lorraine- Luxembourg at Universitaet des Saarlandes (Luxembourg)
2006-05-15
The elastic properties of the isotropic state of condensed matter are given by the elastic constants ell and c44. In the liquid state the static shear stiffness c44 vanishes whereas at sufficient high probe frequencies a dynamic shear stiffness may appear. In that latter case the question about the existence of a Cauchy relation appears. It will be shown that a pure Cauchy relation can appear only under special conditions which are rarely fulfilled. For all investigated materials, including ceramics, liquids and glasses, a linear relation between ell and c44 called generalized Cauchy relation is observed, which, surprisingly, follows a linear transformation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veryaskin, A.V.; Lapchinskij, V.G.; Nekrasov, V.I.; Rubakov, V.A.
1981-01-01
Behaviour of vacuum symmetry in the model of self-acting scalar field in the open and closed isotropic cosmological spaces is investigated. Considered are the cases with the mass squared of the scalar field m 2 >0, m 2 =0 and m 2 2 2 =0 at exponentially large scale factors the study of the problem on the behaviour of the symmetry requires exceeding the limits of the perturbation theory. The final behaviour of the vacuum symmetry in the open model at small radii depends on combined effect of all the external factors [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franca, L.P.; Stenberg, R.
1989-06-01
Stability conditions are described to analyze a variational formulation emanating from a variational principle for linear isotropic elasticity. The variational principle is based on four dependent variables (namely, the strain tensor, augmented stress, pressure and displacement) and is shown to be valid for any compressibility including the incompressible limit. An improved convergence error analysis is established for a Galerkin-least-squares method based upon these four variables. The analysis presented establishes convergence for a wide choice of combinations of finite element interpolations. (author) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, J; Tay, F E H; Miao Jianmin; Sun Jianbo
2006-01-01
This work investigates the isotropic etching properties in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher for microneedle arrays fabrication. The effects of process variables including powers, gas and pressure on needle structure generation are characterized by factorial design of experiment (DOE). The experimental responses of vertical etching depth, lateral etching length, ratio of vertical etching depth to lateral etching length and photoresist etching rate are reported. The relevance of the etching variables is also presented. The obtained etching behaviours for microneedle structure generation will be applied to develop recipes to fabricate microneedles in designed dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ji, J [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Tay, F E H [Mechanical Engineering National University of Singapore, 119260, Singapore (Singapore); Miao Jianmin [MicroMachines Center, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technologica l University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Sun Jianbo [MicroMachines Center, School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technologica l University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore)
2006-04-01
This work investigates the isotropic etching properties in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher for microneedle arrays fabrication. The effects of process variables including powers, gas and pressure on needle structure generation are characterized by factorial design of experiment (DOE). The experimental responses of vertical etching depth, lateral etching length, ratio of vertical etching depth to lateral etching length and photoresist etching rate are reported. The relevance of the etching variables is also presented. The obtained etching behaviours for microneedle structure generation will be applied to develop recipes to fabricate microneedles in designed dimensions.
Scattering of obliquely incident standing wave by a rotating transversely isotropic cylinder
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Shatalov, MY
2006-05-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info Shatalov2_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 15905 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Shatalov2_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 CSIR Material Science..., Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa. 2 CSIR Material Science and Manufacturing Abstract It is known that vibrating patterns of an isotropic cylinder, subjected to inertial rotation over the symmetry axis, precess in the direction...
Hayati, Yazdan; Eskandari-Ghadi, Morteza
2018-02-01
An asymmetric three-dimensional thermoelastodynamic wave propagation with scalar potential functions is presented for an isotropic half-space, in such a way that the wave may be originated from an arbitrary either traction or heat flux applied on a patch at the free surface of the half-space. The displacements, stresses and temperature are presented within the framework of Biot's coupled thermoelasticity formulations. By employing a complete representation for the displacement and temperature fields in terms of two scalar potential functions, the governing equations of coupled thermoelasticity are uncoupled into a sixth- and a second-order partial differential equation in cylindrical coordinate system. By virtue of Fourier expansion and Hankel integral transforms, the angular and radial variables are suppressed respectively, and a 6{th}- and a 2{nd}-order ordinary differential equation in terms of depth are received, which are solved readily, from which the displacement, stresses and temperature fields are derived in transformed space by satisfying both the regularity and boundary conditions. By applying the inverse Hankel integral transforms, the displacements and temperature are numerically evaluated to determine the solutions in the real space. The numerical evaluations are done for three specific cases of vertical and horizontal time-harmonic patch traction and a constant heat flux passing through a circular disc on the surface of the half-space. It has been previously proved that the potential functions used in this paper are applicable from elastostatics to thermoelastodynamics. Thus, the analytical solutions presented in this paper are verified by comparing the results of this study with two specific problems reported in the literature, which are an elastodynamic problem and an axisymmetric quasi-static thermoelastic problem. To show the accuracy of numerical results, the solution of this study is also compared with the solution for elastodynamics exists in
A Power Series Expansion and Its Applications
Chen, Hongwei
2006-01-01
Using the power series solution of a differential equation and the computation of a parametric integral, two elementary proofs are given for the power series expansion of (arcsin x)[squared], as well as some applications of this expansion.
Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Phase-Shifter Transformers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Celso T. Miasaki
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mathematical model for the transmission network expansion planning problem. Main idea is to consider phase-shifter (PS transformers as a new element of the transmission system expansion together with other traditional components such as transmission lines and conventional transformers. In this way, PS are added in order to redistribute active power flows in the system and, consequently, to diminish the total investment costs due to new transmission lines. Proposed mathematical model presents the structure of a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem and is based on the standard DC model. In this paper, there is also applied a specialized genetic algorithm aimed at optimizing the allocation of candidate components in the network. Results obtained from computational simulations carried out with IEEE-24 bus system show an outstanding performance of the proposed methodology and model, indicating the technical viability of using these nonconventional devices during the planning process.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Farhi, E.; Monzat, C.; Arnerin, R.
2014-01-01
-up, including lenses and prisms. A new library for McStas adds the ability to describe any geometrical arrangement as a set of polygons. This feature has been implemented in most sample scattering components such as Single_crystal, Incoherent, Isotropic_Sqw (liquids/amorphous/powder), PowderN as well...
Angle gathers in wave-equation imaging for transversely isotropic media
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Fomel, Sergey B.
2010-01-01
In recent years, wave-equation imaged data are often presented in common-image angle-domain gathers as a decomposition in the scattering angle at the reflector, which provide a natural access to analysing migration velocities and amplitudes. In the case of anisotropic media, the importance of angle gathers is enhanced by the need to properly estimate multiple anisotropic parameters for a proper representation of the medium. We extract angle gathers for each downward-continuation step from converting offset-frequency planes into angle-frequency planes simultaneously with applying the imaging condition in a transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) medium. The analytic equations, though cumbersome, are exact within the framework of the acoustic approximation. They are also easily programmable and show that angle gather mapping in the case of anisotropic media differs from its isotropic counterpart, with the difference depending mainly on the strength of anisotropy. Synthetic examples demonstrate the importance of including anisotropy in the angle gather generation as mapping of the energy is negatively altered otherwise. In the case of a titled axis of symmetry (TTI), the same VTI formulation is applicable but requires a rotation of the wavenumbers. © 2010 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Halo-independent determination of the unmodulated WIMP signal in DAMA: the isotropic case
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gondolo, Paolo [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East #201, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112-0830 (United States); Scopel, Stefano, E-mail: paolo.gondolo@utah.edu, E-mail: scopel@sogang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)
2017-09-01
We present a halo-independent determination of the unmodulated signal corresponding to the DAMA modulation if interpreted as due to dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). First we show how a modulated signal gives information on the WIMP velocity distribution function in the Galactic rest frame from which the unmodulated signal descends. Then we describe a mathematically-sound profile likelihood analysis in which the likelihood is profiled over a continuum of nuisance parameters (namely, the WIMP velocity distribution). As a first application of the method, which is very general and valid for any class of velocity distributions, we restrict the analysis to velocity distributions that are isotropic in the Galactic frame. In this way we obtain halo-independent maximum-likelihood estimates and confidence intervals for the DAMA unmodulated signal. We find that the estimated unmodulated signal is in line with expectations for a WIMP-induced modulation and is compatible with the DAMA background+signal rate. Specifically, for the isotropic case we find that the modulated amplitude ranges between a few percent and about 25% of the unmodulated amplitude, depending on the WIMP mass.
Soft network materials with isotropic negative Poisson's ratios over large strains.
Liu, Jianxing; Zhang, Yihui
2018-01-31
Auxetic materials with negative Poisson's ratios have important applications across a broad range of engineering areas, such as biomedical devices, aerospace engineering and automotive engineering. A variety of design strategies have been developed to achieve artificial auxetic materials with controllable responses in the Poisson's ratio. The development of designs that can offer isotropic negative Poisson's ratios over large strains can open up new opportunities in emerging biomedical applications, which, however, remains a challenge. Here, we introduce deterministic routes to soft architected materials that can be tailored precisely to yield the values of Poisson's ratio in the range from -1 to 1, in an isotropic manner, with a tunable strain range from 0% to ∼90%. The designs rely on a network construction in a periodic lattice topology, which incorporates zigzag microstructures as building blocks to connect lattice nodes. Combined experimental and theoretical studies on broad classes of network topologies illustrate the wide-ranging utility of these concepts. Quantitative mechanics modeling under both infinitesimal and finite deformations allows the development of a rigorous design algorithm that determines the necessary network geometries to yield target Poisson ratios over desired strain ranges. Demonstrative examples in artificial skin with both the negative Poisson's ratio and the nonlinear stress-strain curve precisely matching those of the cat's skin and in unusual cylindrical structures with engineered Poisson effect and shape memory effect suggest potential applications of these network materials.
A transversely isotropic medium with a tilted symmetry axis normal to the reflector
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2010-05-01
The computational tools for imaging in transversely isotropic media with tilted axes of symmetry (TTI) are complex and in most cases do not have an explicit closed-form representation. Developing such tools for a TTI medium with tilt constrained to be normal to the reflector dip (DTI) reduces their complexity and allows for closed-form representations. The homogeneous-case zero-offset migration in such a medium can be performed using an isotropic operator scaled by the velocity of the medium in the tilt direction. For the nonzero-offset case, the reflection angle is always equal to the incidence angle, and thus, the velocities for the source and receiver waves at the reflection point are equal and explicitly dependent on the reflection angle. This fact allows for the development of explicit representations for angle decomposition as well as moveout formulas for analysis of extended images obtained by wave-equation migration. Although setting the tilt normal to the reflector dip may not be valid everywhere (i.e., on salt flanks), it can be used in the process of velocity model building, in which such constrains are useful and typically are used. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
A controllable viewing angle LCD with an optically isotropic liquid crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Min Su; Lim, Young Jin; Yoon, Sukin; Kang, Shin-Woong; Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Miyoung; Wu, Shin-Tson
2010-01-01
An optically isotropic liquid crystal (LC) such as a blue phase LC or an optically isotropic nano-structured LC exhibits a very wide viewing angle because the induced birefringence is along the in-plane electric field. Utilizing such a material, we propose a liquid crystal display (LCD) whose viewing angle can be switched from wide view to narrow view using only one panel. In the device, each pixel is divided into two parts: a major pixel and a sub-pixel. The main pixels display the images while the sub-pixels control the viewing angle. In the main pixels, birefringence is induced by horizontal electric fields through inter-digital electrodes leading to a wide viewing angle, while in the sub-pixels, birefringence is induced by the vertical electric field so that phase retardation occurs only at oblique angles. As a result, the dark state (or contrast ratio) of the entire pixel can be controlled by the voltage of the sub-pixels. Such a switchable viewing angle LCD is attractive for protecting personal privacy.
Maruyama, T.; Kaito, T.; Onose, S.; Shibahara, I.
1995-08-01
Thirteen kinds of isotropic graphites with different density and maximum grain size were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor "JOYO" to fluences from 2.11 to 2.86 × 10 26 n/m 2 ( E > 0.1 MeV) at temperatures from 549 to 597°C. Postirradiation examination was carried out on the dimensional changes, elastic modulus, and thermal conductivity of these materials. Dimensional change results indicate that the graphites irradiated at lower fluences showed shrinkage upon neutron irradiation followed by increase with increasing neutron fluences, irrespective of differences in material parameters. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio increased by two to three times the unirradiated values. The large scatter found in Poisson's ratio of unirradiated materials became very small and a linear dependence on density was obtained after irradiation. The thermal conductivity decreased to one-fifth to one-tenth of unirradiated values, with a negligible change in specific heat. The results of postirradiation examination indicated that the changes in physical properties of high density, isotropic graphites were mainly dominated by the irradiation condition rather than their material parameters. Namely, the effects of irradiation induced defects on physical properties of heavily neutron-irradiated graphites are much larger than that of defects associated with as-fabricated specimens.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, T.; Kaito, T.; Onose, S.; Shibahara, I.
1995-01-01
Thirteen kinds of isotropic graphites with different density and maximum grain size were irradiated in the experimental fast reactor ''JOYO'' to fluences from 2.11 to 2.86x10 26 n/m 2 (E>0.1 MeV) at temperatures from 549 to 597 C. Postirradiation examination was carried out on the dimensional changes, elastic modulus, and thermal conductivity of these materials. Dimensional change results indicate that the graphites irradiated at lower fluences showed shrinkage upon neutron irradiation followed by increase with increasing neutron fluences, irrespective of differences in material parameters. The Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio increased by two to three times the unirradiated values. The large scatter found in Poisson's ratio of unirradiated materials became very small and a linear dependence on density was obtained after irradiation. The thermal conductivity decreased to one-fifth to one-tenth of unirradiated values, with a negligible change in specific heat. The results of postirradiation examination indicated that the changes in physical properties of high density, isotropic graphites were mainly dominated by the irradiation condition rather than their material parameters. Namely, the effects of irradiation induced defects on physical properties of heavily neutron-irradiated graphites are much larger than that of defects associated with as-fabricated specimens. (orig.)
Kerr effect in the isotropic phase of a side-chain polymeric liquid crystal
Reys, V.; Dormoy, Y.; Collin, D.; Keller, P.; Martinoty, P.
1992-02-01
The birefringence induced by a pulsed electrical field was used to study the pretransitional effects associated with the isotropic phase of a side-chain polysiloxane. The results obtained show that these effects are characterised by a conventional value of the static exponent and an abnormal value of the dynamic exponent, which shows that the dynamic theory of low molecular weight liquid crystals does not apply. The results also reveal competition between the dipolar moments induced by the electrical field and the permanent moments of the mesogenic molecules. La biréfringence induite par un champ électrique impulsionnel a été utilisée pour étudier les effets prétransitionnels associés à la phase isotrope d'un polysiloxane à chaînes latérales. Les résultats obtenus montrent que ces effets sont caractérisés par une valeur classique de l'exposant statique et une valeur anormale de l'exposant dynamique. Ce dernier résultat montre que la théorie dynamique des cristaux liquides de bas poids moléculaire n'est pas applicable au cas présent. Les expériences mettent également en évidence une compétition entre les moments dipolaires induits par le champ électrique et les moments permanents des molécules mésogènes.
Apparent splitting of S waves propagating through an isotropic lowermost mantle
Parisi, Laura
2018-03-24
Observations of shear‐wave anisotropy are key for understanding the mineralogical structure and flow in the mantle. Several researchers have reported the presence of seismic anisotropy in the lowermost 150–250 km of the mantle (i.e., D” layer), based on differences in the arrival times of vertically (SV) and horizontally (SH) polarized shear waves. By computing waveforms at period > 6 s for a wide range of 1‐D and 3‐D Earth structures we illustrate that a time shift (i.e., apparent splitting) between SV and SH may appear in purely isotropic simulations. This may be misinterpreted as shear wave anisotropy. For near‐surface earthquakes, apparent shear wave splitting can result from the interference of S with the surface reflection sS. For deep earthquakes, apparent splitting can be due to the S‐wave triplication in D”, reflections off discontinuities in the upper mantle and 3‐D heterogeneity. The wave effects due to anomalous isotropic structure may not be easily distinguished from purely anisotropic effects if the analysis does not involve full waveform simulations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Milewska, K.; Drzewiński, W. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Czerwiński, M., E-mail: mczerwinski@wat.edu.pl [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Dąbrowski, R. [Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Piecek, W. [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)
2016-03-01
Pure compounds and multicomponent mixtures with a broad temperature range of high tilted liquid crystalline antiferroelectric phase and a direct phase transition from antiferroelectric to isotropic phase, were obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms these kinds of materials form a high tilted anticlinic phase, with a fixed layer spacing and very weak dependency upon temperature, after the transition from the isotropic phase. Due to this, not only pure orthoconic antiferroelectric liquid crystals but also those with a moderate tilt should generate a good dark state. Furthermore, due to the increased potential for forming anticlinic forces, such materials could minimize a commonly observed asymmetry of a rise and fall switching times at a surface stabilized geometry. - Highlights: • The new class of liquid crystalline materials with the direct SmC{sub A}*. • Iso phase transition were obtained. • Materials possess the layer spacing fixed and very weak dependent upon temperature. • Smectic layers without shrinkage are observed. • A good dark state can be generate in SSAFLC.
Constraints on light WIMP candidates from the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arina, Chiara; Tytgat, Michel H.G.
2011-01-01
Motivated by the measurements reported by direct detection experiments, most notably DAMA, CDMS-II, CoGeNT and Xenon10/100, we study further the constraints that might be set on some light dark matter candidates, M DM ∼ few GeV, using the Fermi-LAT data on the isotropic gamma-ray diffuse emission. In particular, we consider a Dirac fermion singlet interacting through a new Z' gauge boson, and a scalar singlet S interacting through the Higgs portal. Both candidates are WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles), i.e. they have an annihilation cross-section in the pbarn range. Also they may both have a spin-independent elastic cross section on nucleons in the range required by direct detection experiments. Although being generic WIMP candidates, because they have different interactions with Standard Model particles, their phenomenology regarding the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission is quite distinct. In the case of the scalar singlet, the one-to-one correspondence between its annihilation cross-section and its spin-independent elastic scattering cross-section permits to express the constraints from the Fermi-LAT data in the direct detection exclusion plot, σ n 0 −M DM . Depending on the astrophysics, we argue that it is possible to exclude the singlet scalar dark matter candidate at 95% confidence level. The constraints on the Dirac singlet interacting through a Z' are comparatively weaker
Lu, Feng; Matsushita, Yasuyuki; Sato, Imari; Okabe, Takahiro; Sato, Yoichi
2015-10-01
We propose an uncalibrated photometric stereo method that works with general and unknown isotropic reflectances. Our method uses a pixel intensity profile, which is a sequence of radiance intensities recorded at a pixel under unknown varying directional illumination. We show that for general isotropic materials and uniformly distributed light directions, the geodesic distance between intensity profiles is linearly related to the angular difference of their corresponding surface normals, and that the intensity distribution of the intensity profile reveals reflectance properties. Based on these observations, we develop two methods for surface normal estimation; one for a general setting that uses only the recorded intensity profiles, the other for the case where a BRDF database is available while the exact BRDF of the target scene is still unknown. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations are conducted using both synthetic and real-world scenes, which show the state-of-the-art accuracy of smaller than 10 degree without using reference data and 5 degree with reference data for all 100 materials in MERL database.
Li, Guo; Xia, Jun; Li, Lei; Wang, Lidai; Wang, Lihong V.
2015-03-01
Linear transducer arrays are readily available for ultrasonic detection in photoacoustic computed tomography. They offer low cost, hand-held convenience, and conventional ultrasonic imaging. However, the elevational resolution of linear transducer arrays, which is usually determined by the weak focus of the cylindrical acoustic lens, is about one order of magnitude worse than the in-plane axial and lateral spatial resolutions. Therefore, conventional linear scanning along the elevational direction cannot provide high-quality three-dimensional photoacoustic images due to the anisotropic spatial resolutions. Here we propose an innovative method to achieve isotropic resolutions for three-dimensional photoacoustic images through combined linear and rotational scanning. In each scan step, we first elevationally scan the linear transducer array, and then rotate the linear transducer array along its center in small steps, and scan again until 180 degrees have been covered. To reconstruct isotropic three-dimensional images from the multiple-directional scanning dataset, we use the standard inverse Radon transform originating from X-ray CT. We acquired a three-dimensional microsphere phantom image through the inverse Radon transform method and compared it with a single-elevational-scan three-dimensional image. The comparison shows that our method improves the elevational resolution by up to one order of magnitude, approaching the in-plane lateral-direction resolution. In vivo rat images were also acquired.
Gotoh, Toshiyuki
2012-11-01
Spectrum of passive scalar variance at very high Schmidt number up to 1000 in isotropic steady turbulence has been studied by using very high resolution DNS. Gaussian random force and scalar source which are isotropic and white in time are applied at low wavenumber band. Since the Schmidt number is very large, the system was integrated for 72 large eddy turn over time for the system to forgot the initial state. It is found that the scalar spectrum attains the asymptotic k-1 spectrum in the viscous-convective range and the constant CB is found to be 5.7 which is larger than 4.9 obtained by DNS under the uniform mean scalar gradient. Reasons for the difference are inferred as the Reynolds number effect, anisotropy, difference in the scalar injection, duration of time average, and the universality of the constant is discussed. The constant CB is also compared with the prediction by the Lagrangian statistical theory for the passive scalar. The scalar spectrum in the far diffusive range is found to be exponential, which is consistent with the Kraichnan's spectrum. However, the Kraichnan spectrum was derived under the assumption that the velocity field is white in time, therefore theoretical explanation of the agreement needs to be explored. Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research No. 21360082, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan.
The role of isotropic diffusion MRI in children under 2 years of age
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelal, F.M.; Grant, P.E.; Fischbein, N.J.; Henry, R.G.; Vigneron, D.B.; Barkovich, A.J.
2001-01-01
Our objective was to determine the contribution of diffusion MR imaging to standard MR imaging in the neuroradiological evaluation of children less than 2 years of age. Echo-planar diffusion MR imaging was added to standard MR exams in 75 consecutive patients under the age of 2 years. Single-shot echo-planar spin-echo T2 weighted images (EPSE-T2) were acquired. Isotropic diffusion-weighted images (DWI), attenuation coefficient maps (ACM), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were calculated offline from images obtained with diffusion gradients (b=1000 s/mm 2 ) in three orthogonal directions. Two neuroradiologists determined if EPSE-T2, DWI, or ACM contributed new information to spin-echo proton density (SE PD) and T2 studies. In 15 of 18 abnormalities detected in 8 patients with symptoms less than 1 week in duration, DWI and/or ACM added information to SE PD and T2. Diffusion sequences detected five new lesions, showed six lesions with greater conspicuity, and identified four lesions with different diffusion character. In patients with symptoms of more than 7 days duration, diffusion studies added no information. Isotropic diffusion MR contributed to lesion detection and characterization in infants when symptoms were less than 1 week in duration. Diffusion MR is useful in patients with leukodystrophies, metabolic disorders, and patients with acute ischemic lesions. (orig.)
An efficient cost function for the optimization of an n-layered isotropic cloaked cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul, Jason V; Collins, Peter J; Coutu, Ronald A Jr
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present an efficient cost function for optimizing n-layered isotropic cloaked cylinders. Cost function efficiency is achieved by extracting the expression for the angle independent scatterer contribution of an associated Green's function. Therefore, since this cost function is not a function of angle, accounting for every bistatic angle is not necessary and thus more efficient than other cost functions. With this general and efficient cost function, isotropic cloaked cylinders can be optimized for many layers and material parameters. To demonstrate this, optimized cloaked cylinders made of 10, 20 and 30 equal thickness layers are presented for TE and TM incidence. Furthermore, we study the effect layer thickness has on optimized cloaks by optimizing a 10 layer cloaked cylinder over the material parameters and individual layer thicknesses. The optimized material parameters in this effort do not exhibit the dual nature that is evident in the ideal transformation optics design. This indicates that the inevitable field penetration and subsequent PEC boundary condition at the cylinder must be taken into account for an optimal cloaked cylinder design. Furthermore, a more effective cloaked cylinder can be designed by optimizing both layer thickness and material parameters than by additional layers alone. (paper)
Angle gathers in wave-equation imaging for transversely isotropic media
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali
2010-11-12
In recent years, wave-equation imaged data are often presented in common-image angle-domain gathers as a decomposition in the scattering angle at the reflector, which provide a natural access to analysing migration velocities and amplitudes. In the case of anisotropic media, the importance of angle gathers is enhanced by the need to properly estimate multiple anisotropic parameters for a proper representation of the medium. We extract angle gathers for each downward-continuation step from converting offset-frequency planes into angle-frequency planes simultaneously with applying the imaging condition in a transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) medium. The analytic equations, though cumbersome, are exact within the framework of the acoustic approximation. They are also easily programmable and show that angle gather mapping in the case of anisotropic media differs from its isotropic counterpart, with the difference depending mainly on the strength of anisotropy. Synthetic examples demonstrate the importance of including anisotropy in the angle gather generation as mapping of the energy is negatively altered otherwise. In the case of a titled axis of symmetry (TTI), the same VTI formulation is applicable but requires a rotation of the wavenumbers. © 2010 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.
Growth-induced axial buckling of a slender elastic filament embedded in an isotropic elastic matrix
O'Keeffe, Stephen G.
2013-11-01
We investigate the problem of an axially loaded, isotropic, slender cylinder embedded in a soft, isotropic, outer elastic matrix. The cylinder undergoes uniform axial growth, whilst both the cylinder and the surrounding elastic matrix are confined between two rigid plates, so that this growth results in axial compression of the cylinder. We use two different modelling approaches to estimate the critical axial growth (that is, the amount of axial growth the cylinder is able to sustain before it buckles) and buckling wavelength of the cylinder. The first approach treats the filament and surrounding matrix as a single 3-dimensional elastic body undergoing large deformations, whilst the second approach treats the filament as a planar, elastic rod embedded in an infinite elastic foundation. By comparing the results of these two approaches, we obtain an estimate of the foundation modulus parameter, which characterises the strength of the foundation, in terms of the geometric and material properties of the system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A transversely isotropic medium with a tilted symmetry axis normal to the reflector
Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali; Sava, Paul C.
2010-01-01
The computational tools for imaging in transversely isotropic media with tilted axes of symmetry (TTI) are complex and in most cases do not have an explicit closed-form representation. Developing such tools for a TTI medium with tilt constrained to be normal to the reflector dip (DTI) reduces their complexity and allows for closed-form representations. The homogeneous-case zero-offset migration in such a medium can be performed using an isotropic operator scaled by the velocity of the medium in the tilt direction. For the nonzero-offset case, the reflection angle is always equal to the incidence angle, and thus, the velocities for the source and receiver waves at the reflection point are equal and explicitly dependent on the reflection angle. This fact allows for the development of explicit representations for angle decomposition as well as moveout formulas for analysis of extended images obtained by wave-equation migration. Although setting the tilt normal to the reflector dip may not be valid everywhere (i.e., on salt flanks), it can be used in the process of velocity model building, in which such constrains are useful and typically are used. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savchenko, V.G.
1995-01-01
In this investigation, we will use a cylindrical coordinate system to study the stress state of laminated shells of revolution made of inelastically deforming isotropic materials and elastic materials with linear orthotropy. One of the principal directions of anisotropy coincides with the axis of revolution of the body. The shells will be subjected to nonaxisymmetric loading by body bar K (K Z , K r , K var-phi ) and surface bar t n (t nz , t nr , t nvar-phi ) forces and heating. The level of loading is such that the rheological properties of the materials of the layers are not a factor, although their thermomechanical characteristics depend on temperature. In addition, the loading and heating of the body occur in such a way that simple (or close to simple) deformation processes take place in its isotropic elements. These processes are accompanied by inelastic strains and the formation of unloading regions in which plastic strains having the sign opposite the initial strains develop. It is assumed that the layers of the body are secured to one another without interference and that conditions corresponding to ideal contact prevail at their interfaces
Angular dependence of coercivity in isotropically aligned Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets
Matsuura, Yutaka; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Sumitani, Kazushi; Kajiwara, Kentaro; Tamura, Ryuji; Osamura, Kozo
2018-05-01
In order to understand the coercivity mechanism in Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets, the angular dependence of the coercivity of an isotropically aligned Nd15Co1.0B6Febal. sintered magnet was investigated through magnetization measurements using a vibrating sample magnetometer. These results are compared with the angular dependence calculated under the assumption that the magnetization reversal of each grain follows the Kondorskii law or, in other words, the 1/cos θ law for isotropic alignment distributions. The calculated angular dependence of the coercivity agrees very well with the experiment for magnetic fields applied between angles of 0 and 60°, and it is expected that the magnetization reversal occurs in each grain individually followed the 1/cos θ law. In contrast, this agreement between calculation and experiment is not found for anisotropic Nd-Fe-B samples. This implies that the coercivity of the aligned magnets depends upon the de-pinning of the domain walls from pinning sites. When the de-pinning occurs, it is expected that the domain walls are displaced through several grains at once.
Apparent splitting of S waves propagating through an isotropic lowermost mantle
Parisi, Laura; Ferreira, Ana M. G.; Ritsema, Jeroen
2018-01-01
Observations of shear‐wave anisotropy are key for understanding the mineralogical structure and flow in the mantle. Several researchers have reported the presence of seismic anisotropy in the lowermost 150–250 km of the mantle (i.e., D” layer), based on differences in the arrival times of vertically (SV) and horizontally (SH) polarized shear waves. By computing waveforms at period > 6 s for a wide range of 1‐D and 3‐D Earth structures we illustrate that a time shift (i.e., apparent splitting) between SV and SH may appear in purely isotropic simulations. This may be misinterpreted as shear wave anisotropy. For near‐surface earthquakes, apparent shear wave splitting can result from the interference of S with the surface reflection sS. For deep earthquakes, apparent splitting can be due to the S‐wave triplication in D”, reflections off discontinuities in the upper mantle and 3‐D heterogeneity. The wave effects due to anomalous isotropic structure may not be easily distinguished from purely anisotropic effects if the analysis does not involve full waveform simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad Imtiaz; Lu Zhi-Ming; Liu Yu-Lu
2014-01-01
Streamwise evolution of longitudinal and transverse velocity structure functions in a decaying homogeneous and nearly isotropic turbulence is reported for Reynolds numbers Re λ up to 720. First, two theoretical relations between longitudinal and transverse structure functions are examined in the light of recently derived relations and the results show that the low-order transverse structure functions can be well approximated by longitudinal ones within the sub-inertial range. Reconstruction of fourth-order transverse structure functions with a recently proposed relation by Grauer et al. is comparatively less valid than the relation already proposed by Antonia et al. Secondly, extended self-similarity methods are used to measure the scaling exponents up to order eight and the streamwise evolution of scaling exponents is explored. The scaling exponents of longitudinal structure functions are, at first location, close to Zybin's model, and at the fourth location, close to She—Leveque model. No obvious trend is found for the streamwise evolution of longitudinal scaling exponents, whereas, on the contrary, transverse scaling exponents become slightly smaller with the development of a steamwise direction. Finally, the stremwise variation of the order-dependent isotropy ratio indicates the turbulence at the last location is closer to isotropic than the other three locations. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
On a wave-particle in closed and open isotropic universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campos, L. M. B. C.
2011-01-01
The Klein-Gordon equation satisfied by the wave function in general relativity is solved for the metric of the closed and open universe corresponding to Einstein-De Sitter-Friedmann isotropic cosmological model. The angular dependences are specified by spherical harmonics for the longitude and latitude, and for the hyperlatitude by modified spherical harmonics having as variable circular functions for the closed universe and hyperbolic functions for the open universes. The time dependence of the probabilistic wave function is similar for the closed and open universes and is obtained in the following three cases: (I) constant Hubble parameter, (II) constant decceleration parameter, and (III) uniform matter and energy distribution, which corresponds to the Hubble parameter a linear function of time. Thus six solutions are obtained, namely, the three cases I-III each for closed and open isotropic universes. For each of these six solutions is considered: (i) the existence of singularities in space-time including asymptotic time in the future or past, (ii) the square integrability of the wave function over the full extent of the four-dimensional space-time, and (iii) the existence or otherwise of a positive probability density associated with the wave function.
Simulating faults and plate boundaries with a transversely isotropic plasticity model
Sharples, W.; Moresi, L. N.; Velic, M.; Jadamec, M. A.; May, D. A.
2016-03-01
In mantle convection simulations, dynamically evolving plate boundaries have, for the most part, been represented using an visco-plastic flow law. These systems develop fine-scale, localized, weak shear band structures which are reminiscent of faults but it is a significant challenge to resolve the large- and the emergent, small-scale-behavior. We address this issue of resolution by taking into account the observation that a rock element with embedded, planar, failure surfaces responds as a non-linear, transversely isotropic material with a weak orientation defined by the plane of the failure surface. This approach partly accounts for the large-scale behavior of fine-scale systems of shear bands which we are not in a position to resolve explicitly. We evaluate the capacity of this continuum approach to model plate boundaries, specifically in the context of subduction models where the plate boundary interface has often been represented as a planar discontinuity. We show that the inclusion of the transversely isotropic plasticity model for the plate boundary promotes asymmetric subduction from initiation. A realistic evolution of the plate boundary interface and associated stresses is crucial to understanding inter-plate coupling, convergent margin driven topography, and earthquakes.
High heat flux experiment on isotropic graphite using pulsed laser beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kizaki, Hiroshi; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Fukuda, Shigehisa; Yoshida, Naoaki; Muroga, Takeo.
1989-01-01
In order to examine the plasma-withstanding behavior of isotropic graphite which is the leading favorite material for the first wall of nuclear fusion reactors, the pulsed thermal loading experiment was carried out by using a laser. As the result of analyzing the gas which was emitted during the pulsed thermal loading, together with the formation and release of various hydrocarbon gases, also the formation of carbon clusters due to the sublimation of carbon was observed. The vacuum characteristics and the dependence on thermal loading condition and surface treatment condition of these released gases were determined, and the problems and the way of improvement in its application to nuclear fusion reactors were elucidated. Since the isotropic graphite is of low atomic number, the radiation loss in plasma is small, and the improvement of the plasma parameters can be expected. Besides, the heat resistance and high temperature stability in vacuum are good, and the induced radioactivity is low. On the other hand, the quantity of gas occlusion is much, various hydrocarbon gases are formed at high temperature, and the wear due to sublimation arises by very high thermal loading. The experimental method, the observation of graphite surface by SEM, and the effect of carbon coating due to thermal decomposition are reported. (K.I.)
Study on the radial vibration and acoustic field of an isotropic circular ring radiator.
Lin, Shuyu; Xu, Long
2012-01-01
Based on the exact analytical theory, the radial vibration of an isotropic circular ring is studied and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. By means of the equivalent circuit model, the resonance frequency equation is derived; the relationship between the radial resonance frequency, the radial displacement amplitude magnification and the geometrical dimensions, the material property is analyzed. For comparison, numerical method is used to simulate the radial vibration of isotropic circular rings. The resonance frequency and the radial vibrational displacement distribution are obtained, and the radial radiation acoustic field of the circular ring in radial vibration is simulated. It is illustrated that the radial resonance frequencies from the analytical method and the numerical method are in good agreement when the height is much less than the radius. When the height becomes large relative to the radius, the frequency deviation from the two methods becomes large. The reason is that the exact analytical theory is limited to thin circular ring whose height must be much less than its radius. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spin-isotropic continuum of spin excitations in antiferromagnetically ordered Fe1.07Te
Song, Yu; Lu, Xingye; Regnault, L.-P.; Su, Yixi; Lai, Hsin-Hua; Hu, Wen-Jun; Si, Qimiao; Dai, Pengcheng
2018-02-01
Unconventional superconductivity typically emerges in the presence of quasidegenerate ground states, and the associated intense fluctuations are likely responsible for generating the superconducting state. Here we use polarized neutron scattering to study the spin space anisotropy of spin excitations in Fe1.07Te exhibiting bicollinear antiferromagnetic (AF) order, the parent compound of FeTe1 -xSex superconductors. We confirm that the low-energy spin excitations are transverse spin waves, consistent with a local-moment origin of the bicollinear AF order. While the ordered moments lie in the a b plane in Fe1.07Te , it takes less energy for them to fluctuate out of plane, similar to BaFe2As2 and NaFeAs. At energies above E ≳20 meV, we find magnetic scattering to be dominated by an isotropic continuum that persists up to at least 50 meV. Although the isotropic spin excitations cannot be ascribed to spin waves from a long-range-ordered local-moment antiferromagnet, the continuum can result from the bicollinear magnetic order ground state of Fe1.07Te being quasidegenerate with plaquette magnetic order.
Vibrational Averaging of the Isotropic Hyperfine Coupling Constants for the Methyl Radical
Adam, Ahmad; Jensen, Per; Yachmenev, Andrey; Yurchenko, Sergei N.
2014-06-01
Electronic contributions to molecular properties are often considered as the major factor and usually reported in the literature without ro-vibrational corrections. However, there are many cases where the nuclear motion contributions are significant and even larger than the electronic contribution. In order to obtain accurate theoretical predictions, nuclear motion effects on molecular properties need to be taken into account. The computed isotropic hyperfine coupling constants for the nonvibrating methyl radical CH_3 are far from the experimental values. For CH_3, we have calculated the vibrational-state-dependence of the isotropic hyperfine coupling constant in the electronic ground state. The vibrational wavefunctions used in the averaging procedure were obtained variationally with the TROVE program. Analytical representations for the potential energy surfaces and the hyperfine coupling constant surfaces are obtained in least-squares fitting procedures. Thermal averaging has been carried out for molecules in thermal equilibrium, i.e., with Boltzmann-distributed populations. The calculation methods and the results will be discussed in detail.
Kovacs, Geza
2018-04-01
The distribution of the stellar rotation axes of 113 main sequence stars in the open cluster Praesepe are examined by using current photometric rotation periods, spectroscopic rotation velocities, and estimated stellar radii. Three different samples of stellar rotation data on spotted stars from the Galactic field and two independent samples of planetary hosts are used as control samples to support the consistency of the analysis. Considering the high completeness of the Praesepe sample and the behavior of the control samples, we find that the main sequence F - K stars in this cluster are susceptible to rotational axis alignment. Using a cone model, the most likely inclination angle is 76° ± 14° with a half opening angle of 47° ± 24°. Non-isotropic distribution of the inclination angles is preferred over the isotropic distribution, except if the rotation velocities used in this work are systematically overestimated. We found no indication of this being the case on the basis of the currently available data. Data are only available at the CDS, together with the other two compiled datasets used in this paper, via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/612/L2