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Sample records for isotropic 3d fluid-attenuated

  1. Multi-contrast, isotropic, single-slab 3D MR imaging in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraal, Bastiaan; Roosendaal, Stefan; Pouwels, Petra; Vrenken, Hugo; Schijndel, van Ronald; Meier, Dominik; Guttmann, Charles; Geurts, Jeroen; Barkhof, Frederik

    2008-01-01

    To describe signal and contrast properties of an isotropic, single-slab 3D dataset [double inversion- recovery (DIR), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T2, and T1-weighted magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE)] and to evaluate its performance in detecting

  2. Multi-contrast, isotropic, single-slab 3D MR imaging in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraal, B.; Roosendaal, S.D.; Pouwels, P.J.W.; Vrenken, H.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Meier, D.S.; Guttmann, C.R.G.; Geurts, J.J.G.; Barkhof, F.

    2008-01-01

    To describe signal and contrast properties of an isotropic, single-slab 3D dataset [double inversion-recovery (DIR), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), T2, and T1-weighted magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient-echo (MPRAGE)] and to evaluate its performance in detecting multiple

  3. Fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery imaging: first experience with a 3D version in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieshmann, U.C.; Symms, M.R.; Bartlett, P.A.; Shorvon, S.D.; Barker, G.J.; Stevens, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    We developed a 3D version of fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery imaging (FLAIR) which provides images with a slice thickness of 1.5 mm. We present our initial experience with 3D fast FLAIR in patients with epilepsy. We compared 3D fast FLAIR (slice thickness 1.5 mm), 2D fast FLAIR (slice thickness 5 mm) and a 3D spoiled GRASS (IRSPGR) sequence (slice thickness 1.5 mm) in 10 patients with lesional epilepsy (head injury 1, hippocampal sclerosis 2, low-grade glioma 2, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour 2, polymicrogyria 1, perinatal infarct 1 and presumed thrombosed aneurysm 1). Both 2D and 3D fast FLAIR sequences yielded higher conspicuity for lesions than the T1-weighted IRSPGR sequence, except in the patient with polymicrogyria. The extent of the lesion, in particular that of low-grade tumours, was best assessed on 3D fast FLAIR images. 3D fast FLAIR may be a useful additional tool especially for imaging low-grade tumours. (orig.)

  4. 3D geometrically isotropic metamaterial for telecom wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    of the unit cell is not infinitely small, certain geometrical constraints have to be fulfilled to obtain an isotropic response of the material [3]. These conditions and the metal behaviour close to the plasma frequency increase the design complexity. Our unit cell is composed of two main parts. The first part...... is obtained in a certain bandwidth. The proposed unit cell has the cubic point group of symmetry and being repeatedly placed in space can effectively reveal isotropic optical properties. We use the CST commercial software to characterise the “cube-in-cage” structure. Reflection and transmission spectra...

  5. Whole-brain intracranial vessel wall imaging at 3 Tesla using cerebrospinal fluid-attenuated T1-weighted 3D turbo spin echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhaoyang; Yang, Qi; Deng, Zixin; Li, Yuxia; Bi, Xiaoming; Song, Shlee; Li, Debiao

    2017-03-01

    Although three-dimensional (3D) turbo spin echo (TSE) with variable flip angles has proven to be useful for intracranial vessel wall imaging, it is associated with inadequate suppression of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signals and limited spatial coverage at 3 Tesla (T). This work aimed to modify the sequence and develop a protocol to achieve whole-brain, CSF-attenuated T 1 -weighted vessel wall imaging. Nonselective excitation and a flip-down radiofrequency pulse module were incorporated into a commercial 3D TSE sequence. A protocol based on the sequence was designed to achieve T 1 -weighted vessel wall imaging with whole-brain spatial coverage, enhanced CSF-signal suppression, and isotropic 0.5-mm resolution. Human volunteer and pilot patient studies were performed to qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the advantages of the sequence. Compared with the original sequence, the modified sequence significantly improved the T 1 -weighted image contrast score (2.07 ± 0.19 versus 3.00 ± 0.00, P = 0.011), vessel wall-to-CSF contrast ratio (0.14 ± 0.16 versus 0.52 ± 0.30, P = 0.007) and contrast-to-noise ratio (1.69 ± 2.18 versus 4.26 ± 2.30, P = 0.022). Significant improvement in vessel wall outer boundary sharpness was observed in several major arterial segments. The new 3D TSE sequence allows for high-quality T 1 -weighted intracranial vessel wall imaging at 3 T. It may potentially aid in depicting small arteries and revealing T 1 -mediated high-signal wall abnormalities. Magn Reson Med 77:1142-1150, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. A Dual Band Additively Manufactured 3D Antenna on Package with Near-Isotropic Radiation Pattern

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Zhen; Klionovski, Kirill; Bilal, Rana Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2018-01-01

    presents a novel 3D dual band near-isotropic wideband GSM antenna to fulfill these requirements. The antenna has been realized on the package of electronics through additive manufacturing to ensure efficient utilization of available space and lower cost

  7. Isotropic 3D cardiac cine MRI allows efficient sparse segmentation strategies based on 3D surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odille, Freddy; Bustin, Aurélien; Liu, Shufang; Chen, Bailiang; Vuissoz, Pierre-André; Felblinger, Jacques; Bonnemains, Laurent

    2018-05-01

    Segmentation of cardiac cine MRI data is routinely used for the volumetric analysis of cardiac function. Conventionally, 2D contours are drawn on short-axis (SAX) image stacks with relatively thick slices (typically 8 mm). Here, an acquisition/reconstruction strategy is used for obtaining isotropic 3D cine datasets; reformatted slices are then used to optimize the manual segmentation workflow. Isotropic 3D cine datasets were obtained from multiple 2D cine stacks (acquired during free-breathing in SAX and long-axis (LAX) orientations) using nonrigid motion correction (cine-GRICS method) and super-resolution. Several manual segmentation strategies were then compared, including conventional SAX segmentation, LAX segmentation in three views only, and combinations of SAX and LAX slices. An implicit B-spline surface reconstruction algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the left ventricular cavity surface from the sparse set of 2D contours. All tested sparse segmentation strategies were in good agreement, with Dice scores above 0.9 despite using fewer slices (3-6 sparse slices instead of 8-10 contiguous SAX slices). When compared to independent phase-contrast flow measurements, stroke volumes computed from four or six sparse slices had slightly higher precision than conventional SAX segmentation (error standard deviation of 5.4 mL against 6.1 mL) at the cost of slightly lower accuracy (bias of -1.2 mL against 0.2 mL). Functional parameters also showed a trend to improved precision, including end-diastolic volumes, end-systolic volumes, and ejection fractions). The postprocessing workflow of 3D isotropic cardiac imaging strategies can be optimized using sparse segmentation and 3D surface reconstruction. Magn Reson Med 79:2665-2675, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. A Dual Band Additively Manufactured 3D Antenna on Package with Near-Isotropic Radiation Pattern

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Zhen

    2018-04-06

    Internet of things (IoT) applications need wireless connectivity on devices with very small footprints, and in RF obscure environments. The antenna for such applications must work on multiple GSM bands (preferred choice for network connectivity), provide near isotropic radiation pattern to maintain orientation insensitive communication, be small in size so that it can be integrated with futuristic miniaturized IoT devices, and be low in cost to be implemented on billions of devices. This paper presents a novel 3D dual band near-isotropic wideband GSM antenna to fulfill these requirements. The antenna has been realized on the package of electronics through additive manufacturing to ensure efficient utilization of available space and lower cost. The proposed antenna consists of a meander line antenna that is folded on the faces of a 3D package with two variations, 0.375λ length for narrowband version and 0.67λ length for the wideband version. Theoretical conditions to achieve near isotropic radiation pattern with bent wire antennas on a 3D surface have been derived. The antenna has been optimized to operate with embedded electronics and a large metallic battery. The antenna provides 8.9% and 34.4% bandwidths, at 900 and 1800 MHz respectively with decent near isotropic radiation behavior.

  9. A 3D printed dual GSM band near isotropic on-package antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Zhen, Su

    2017-10-25

    In this paper, we propose an on-package dual band monopole antenna with near-isotropic radiation pattern for GSM mobile applications. The proposed antenna is well matched for both GSM 900 and 1800 bands and provides decent gain for both the bands (1.67 and 3.27 dBi at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz respectively). The antenna is printed with silver ink on a 3D printed polymer based package. The package houses the GSM electronics and the battery. By optimizing the antenna arms width and length, a near-isotropic radiation pattern is achieved. Unlike the published isotropic antennas which are either single band or large in size, the proposed antenna covers both GSM bands with required bandwidth and is only half wavelength long. The design is low cost and highly suitable for various GSM applications such as localization, in additional to conventional communication applications.

  10. Role of three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) and proton density magnetic resonance imaging for the detection and evaluation of lesion extent of focal cortical dysplasia in patients with refractory epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, Jitender; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Bejoy; Singh, Atampreet; Rathore, Chathurbhuj; Radhakrishnan, Ashalatha; Radhakrishnan, Kurupath; Bahuleyan, Biji

    2010-01-01

    Background: Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) is often associated with epilepsy. Identification of FCD can be difficult due to subtle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes. Though fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence detects the majority of these lesions, smaller lesions may go unnoticed while larger lesions may be poorly delineated. Purpose: To determine the ability of a specialized epilepsy protocol in visualizing and delineating the extent of FCD. Material and Methods: We compared the imaging findings in nine patients with cortical malformation who underwent routine epilepsy MR imaging as well as a specialized epilepsy protocol. All imaging was done on a 1.5T MR unit. The specialized epilepsy protocol included 3D FLAIR in the sagittal plane as well as proton density (PD) and high-resolution T2-weighted (T2W) images in the transverse plane. Results: In all nine patients, the specialized protocol identified lesion anatomy better. In three patients in whom routine MRI was normal, the specialized epilepsy protocol including 3D FLAIR helped in identifying the lesions. One of these patients underwent surgery, and histo-pathology revealed a cortical dysplasia. In one patient, lesion characterization was improved, while in the remaining patients the extent of the FCD was more clearly demonstrated in the 3D FLAIR and PD images. Statistical analysis of images for cortical thickness, cortical signal intensity, adjacent white matter abnormalities, and gray-white matter junction showed significant statistical difference in the ability of 3D FLAIR to assess these aspects over conventional images. PD images were also found superior to the routine epilepsy protocol in assessment of cortical signal, adjacent white matter, and gray-white matter junction. Conclusion: Specialized MRI sequences and techniques should be performed whenever there is a high suspicion of cortical dysplasia, especially when they remain occult on conventional MR protocols. These techniques

  11. Spatial resolution limits for the isotropic-3D PET detector X’tal cube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp; Tashima, Hideaki; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-11-11

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a popular imaging method in metabolism, neuroscience, and molecular imaging. For dedicated human brain and small animal PET scanners, high spatial resolution is needed to visualize small objects. To improve the spatial resolution, we are developing the X’tal cube, which is our new PET detector to achieve isotropic 3D positioning detectability. We have shown that the X’tal cube can achieve 1 mm{sup 3} uniform crystal identification performance with the Anger-type calculation even at the block edges. We plan to develop the X’tal cube with even smaller 3D grids for sub-millimeter crystal identification. In this work, we investigate spatial resolution of a PET scanner based on the X’tal cube using Monte Carlo simulations for predicting resolution performance in smaller 3D grids. For spatial resolution evaluation, a point source emitting 511 keV photons was simulated by GATE for all physical processes involved in emission and interaction of positrons. We simulated two types of animal PET scanners. The first PET scanner had a detector ring 14.6 cm in diameter composed of 18 detectors. The second PET scanner had a detector ring 7.8 cm in diameter composed of 12 detectors. After the GATE simulations, we converted the interacting 3D position information to digitalized positions for realistic segmented crystals. We simulated several X’tal cubes with cubic crystals from (0.5 mm){sup 3} to (2 mm){sup 3} in size. Also, for evaluating the effect of DOI resolution, we simulated several X’tal cubes with crystal thickness from (0.5 mm){sup 3} to (9 mm){sup 3}. We showed that sub-millimeter spatial resolution was possible using cubic crystals smaller than (1.0 mm){sup 3} even with the assumed physical processes. Also, the weighted average spatial resolutions of both PET scanners with (0.5 mm){sup 3} cubic crystals were 0.53 mm (14.6 cm ring diameter) and 0.48 mm (7.8 cm ring diameter). For the 7.8 cm ring diameter, spatial

  12. An anatomical study of normal meniscal roots with isotropic 3D MRI at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Ahong; Zheng Zhuozhao; Shang Yao; Tian Chunyan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To clarify the morphological features of normal meniscal roots on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with an isotropic 3D proton density-weighted (PDW) sequence. Materials: 3D PDW MR was performed in sixty-two patients at 3 T before knee arthroscopy. MR images of 34 normal medial menisci and 33 intact lateral menisci confirmed by arthroscopy were retrospectively evaluated. MR signals, insertion sites, dimensions and courses of four meniscal roots were recorded. Results: The anterior root of medial meniscus (ARMM) was typically hypointense, while the posterior root of medial meniscus (PRMM) and the anterior root of lateral meniscus (ARLM) were prone to be hyperintense or showing a comblike signal, and the posterior root of lateral meniscus (PRLM) was usually hypointense or comblike on PDW MR images. ARMM and PRLM had more complex and diverse insertion patterns than ARLM and PRMM. There were significant statistical differences of the lengths, widths, heights and course angles among four meniscal roots (all P < 0.001). Conclusions: The signal intensity of each meniscal root can be hypointense, hyperintense, or comblike on 3D PDW MR images. ARMM and PRLM have more complex and diverse insertion patterns than ARLM and PRMM. The dimensions and courses of four meniscal roots all differ.

  13. An inkjet printed near isotropic 3-D antenna with embedded electronics for wireless sensor applications

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2014-07-01

    A 3-D (cube-shaped) antenna, which has been inkjet printed on a paper substrate and integrated with embedded electronics, is presented for the first time. A 1.5λ0 dipole is uniquely implemented on all the faces of the cube to achieve near isotropic radiation pattern. The antenna measures 13mm × 13mm × 13mm, where each side of the cube corresponds to only 0.1λ0 (at 2.4 GHz). Measurements with driving electronics placed inside the cube have shown that the antenna performance is not affected by the presence of embedded circuits. The cube antenna design is highly suitable for mobile sensing applications.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of wrist MRI at 3.0T - Comparison between isotropic 3D turbo spin echo and isotropic 3D fast field echo and 2D turbo spin echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jee Young; Yoon, Young Cheol; Jung, Jin Young; Choe, Bong-Keun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Isotropic three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applied to various joints. However, comparison for image quality between isotropic 3D MRI and two-dimensional (2D) turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence of the wrist at a 3T MR system has not been investigated. Purpose: To compare the image quality of isotropic 3D MRI including TSE intermediate-weighted (VISTA) sequence and fast field echo (FFE) sequence with 2D TSE intermediate-weighted sequence of the wrist joint at 3.0 T. Material and Methods: MRI was performed in 10 wrists of 10 healthy volunteers with isotropic 3D sequences (VISTA and FFE) and 2D TSE intermediate-weighted sequences at 3.0 T. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was obtained by imaging phantom and noise-only image. Contrast ratios (CRs) were calculated between fluid and cartilage, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), and the scapholunate ligament. Two radiologists independently assessed the visibility of TFCC, carpal ligaments, cartilage, tendons and nerves with a four-point grading scale. Statistical analysis to compare CRs (one way ANOVA with a Tukey test) and grades of visibility (Kruskal-Wallis test) between three sequences and those for inter-observer agreement (kappa analysis) were performed. Results: The SNR of 2D TSE (46.26) was higher than those of VISTA (23.34) and 3D FFE (19.41). CRs were superior in 2D TSE than VISTA (P = 0.02) for fluid-cartilage and in 2D TSE than 3D FFE (P < 0.01) for fluid-TFCC. The visibility was best in 2D TSE (P < 0.01) for TFCC and in VISTA (P = 0.01) for scapholunate ligament. The visibility was better in 2D TSE and 3D FFE (P 0.04) for cartilage and in VISTA than 3D FFE (P < 0.01) for TFCC. The inter-observer agreement for the visibility of anatomic structures was moderate or substantial. Conclusion: Image quality of 2D TSE was superior to isotropic 3D MR imaging for cartilage, and TFCC. 3D FFE has better visibility for cartilage than VISTA and VISTA has superior visibility for

  15. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of wrist MRI at 3.0T - Comparison between isotropic 3D turbo spin echo and isotropic 3D fast field echo and 2D turbo spin echo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jee Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chungang Univ. Hospital, School of Medicine, Chungang Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Cheol [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ. (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: ycyoon@skku.edu; Jung, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Saint Paul' s Hospital, The Catholic Univ. (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Background: Isotropic three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been applied to various joints. However, comparison for image quality between isotropic 3D MRI and two-dimensional (2D) turbo spin echo (TSE) sequence of the wrist at a 3T MR system has not been investigated. Purpose: To compare the image quality of isotropic 3D MRI including TSE intermediate-weighted (VISTA) sequence and fast field echo (FFE) sequence with 2D TSE intermediate-weighted sequence of the wrist joint at 3.0 T. Material and Methods: MRI was performed in 10 wrists of 10 healthy volunteers with isotropic 3D sequences (VISTA and FFE) and 2D TSE intermediate-weighted sequences at 3.0 T. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was obtained by imaging phantom and noise-only image. Contrast ratios (CRs) were calculated between fluid and cartilage, triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC), and the scapholunate ligament. Two radiologists independently assessed the visibility of TFCC, carpal ligaments, cartilage, tendons and nerves with a four-point grading scale. Statistical analysis to compare CRs (one way ANOVA with a Tukey test) and grades of visibility (Kruskal-Wallis test) between three sequences and those for inter-observer agreement (kappa analysis) were performed. Results: The SNR of 2D TSE (46.26) was higher than those of VISTA (23.34) and 3D FFE (19.41). CRs were superior in 2D TSE than VISTA (P = 0.02) for fluid-cartilage and in 2D TSE than 3D FFE (P < 0.01) for fluid-TFCC. The visibility was best in 2D TSE (P < 0.01) for TFCC and in VISTA (P = 0.01) for scapholunate ligament. The visibility was better in 2D TSE and 3D FFE (P 0.04) for cartilage and in VISTA than 3D FFE (P < 0.01) for TFCC. The inter-observer agreement for the visibility of anatomic structures was moderate or substantial. Conclusion: Image quality of 2D TSE was superior to isotropic 3D MR imaging for cartilage, and TFCC. 3D FFE has better visibility for cartilage than VISTA and VISTA has superior visibility for

  16. Fast isotropic banding-free bSSFP imaging using 3D dynamically phase-cycled radial bSSFP (3D DYPR-SSFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkert, Thomas; Blaimer, Martin; Breuer, Felix A. [Research Center Magnetic Resonance Bavaria (MRB), Wuerzburg (Germany); Ehses, Philipp [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Neuroimaging; Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen (Germany). High-Field MR Center; Jakob, Peter M. [Research Center Magnetic Resonance Bavaria (MRB), Wuerzburg (Germany); Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Experimental Physics 5

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Dynamically phase-cycled radial balanced steady-state free precession (DYPR-SSFP) is a method for efficient banding artifact removal in bSSFP imaging. Based on a varying radiofrequency (RF) phase-increment in combination with a radial trajectory, DYPR-SSFP allows obtaining a banding-free image out of a single acquired k-space. The purpose of this work is to present an extension of this technique, enabling fast three-dimensional isotropic banding-free bSSFP imaging. Methods: While banding artifact removal with DYPR-SSFP relies on the applied dynamic phase-cycle, this aspect can lead to artifacts, at least when the number of acquired projections lies below a certain limit. However, by using a 3D radial trajectory with quasi-random view ordering for image acquisition, this problem is intrinsically solved, enabling 3D DYPR-SSFP imaging at or even below the Nyquist criterion. The approach is validated for brain and knee imaging at 3 Tesla. Results: Volumetric, banding-free images were obtained in clinically acceptable scan times with an isotropic resolution up to 0.56 mm. Conclusion: The combination of DYPR-SSFP with a 3D radial trajectory allows banding-free isotropic volumetric bSSFP imaging with no expense of scan time. Therefore, this is a promising candidate for clinical applications such as imaging of cranial nerves or articular cartilage.

  17. 3D Isotropic MR Culprit Plaque Visualization of Carotid Plaque Edema and Hemorrhage with Motion Sensitized Blood Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søvsø Szocska Hansen, Esben; Pedersen, Steen Fjord; Bloch, Lars Ø.

    2014-01-01

    hemorrhage and plaque edema may represent advanced stages of atherosclerosis[1, 2]. In this study, we present a novel multi-contrast 3D motion sensitized black-blood CMR imaging sequence, which detects both plaque edema and hemorrhage with positive contrast. Subjects and Methods The 3D imaging sequence...... to lumen was 39.74±6.75. Discussion/Conclusion In conclusion, the proposed 3D isotropic multi-contrast CMR technique detects plaque edema and hemorrhage with positive contrast and excellent black-blood contrast, which may facilitate evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis. Ongoing studies will include CMR...

  18. The offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid in 3D transversely isotropic media with a horizontal symmetry axis

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Qi

    2014-12-30

    Analytic representation of the offset-midpoint traveltime equation for anisotropy is very important for prestack Kirchhoff migration and velocity inversion in anisotropic media. For transversely isotropic media with a vertical symmetry axis, the offset-midpoint traveltime resembles the shape of a Cheops’ pyramid. This is also valid for homogeneous 3D transversely isotropic media with a horizontal symmetry axis (HTI). We extended the offset-midpoint traveltime pyramid to the case of homogeneous 3D HTI. Under the assumption of weak anellipticity of HTI media, we derived an analytic representation of the P-wave traveltime equation and used Shanks transformation to improve the accuracy of horizontal and vertical slownesses. The traveltime pyramid was derived in the depth and time domains. Numerical examples confirmed the accuracy of the proposed approximation for the traveltime function in 3D HTI media.

  19. Initial experience with 3D isotropic high-resolution 3 T MR arthrography of the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, John K; Nozaki, Taiki; Kaneko, Yasuhito; J Yu, Hon; Rafijah, Gregory; Hitt, David; Yoshioka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-16

    Our study was performed to evaluate the image quality of 3 T MR wrist arthrograms with attention to ulnar wrist structures, comparing image quality of isotropic 3D proton density fat suppressed turbo spin echo (PDFS TSE) sequence versus standard 2D 3 T sequences as well as comparison with 1.5 T MR arthrograms. Eleven consecutive 3 T MR wrist arthrograms were performed and the following sequences evaluated: 3D isotropic PDFS, repetition time/echo time (TR/TE) 1400/28.3 ms, voxel size 0.35x0.35x0.35 mm, acquisition time 5 min; 2D coronal sequences with slice thickness 2 mm: T1 fat suppressed turbo spin echo (T1FS TSE) (TR/TE 600/20 ms); proton density (PD) TSE (TR/TE 3499/27 ms). A 1.5 T group of 18 studies with standard sequences were evaluated for comparison. All MR imaging followed fluoroscopically guided intra-articular injection of dilute gadolinium contrast. Qualitative assessment related to delineation of anatomic structures between 1.5 T and 3 T MR arthrograms was carried out using Mann-Whitney test and the differences in delineation of anatomic structures among each sequence in 3 T group were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Quantitative assessment of mean relative signal intensity (SI) and relative contrast measurements was performed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Mean qualitative scores for 3 T sequences were significantly higher than 1.5 T (p < 0.01), with isotropic 3D PDFS sequence having highest mean qualitative scores (p < 0.05). Quantitative analysis demonstrated no significant difference in relative signal intensity among the 3 T sequences. Significant differences were found in relative contrast between fluid-bone and fluid-fat comparing 3D and 2D PDFS (p < 0.01). 3D isotropic PDFS sequence showed promise in both qualitative and quantitative assessment, suggesting this may be useful for MR wrist arthrograms at 3 T. Primary reasons for diagnostic potential include the ability to make reformations in any

  20. Creation and annihilation operators, symmetry and supersymmetry of the 3D isotropic harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, R D; Granados, V D; Queijeiro, A; Garcia, J; Guzman, L

    2003-01-01

    We show that the supersymmetric radial ladder operators of the three-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator are contained in the spherical components of the creation and annihilation operators of the system. Also, we show that the constants of motion of the problem, written in terms of these spherical components, lead us to second-order radial operators. Further, we show that these operators change the orbital angular momentum quantum number by two units and are equal to those obtained by the Infeld-Hull factorization method

  1. A 3D printed dual GSM band near isotropic on-package antenna

    KAUST Repository

    Zhen, Su; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    .67 and 3.27 dBi at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz respectively). The antenna is printed with silver ink on a 3D printed polymer based package. The package houses the GSM electronics and the battery. By optimizing the antenna arms width and length, a near

  2. Isotropic 3D nuclear morphometry of normal, fibrocystic and malignant breast epithelial cells reveals new structural alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Nandakumar

    Full Text Available Grading schemes for breast cancer diagnosis are predominantly based on pathologists' qualitative assessment of altered nuclear structure from 2D brightfield microscopy images. However, cells are three-dimensional (3D objects with features that are inherently 3D and thus poorly characterized in 2D. Our goal is to quantitatively characterize nuclear structure in 3D, assess its variation with malignancy, and investigate whether such variation correlates with standard nuclear grading criteria.We applied micro-optical computed tomographic imaging and automated 3D nuclear morphometry to quantify and compare morphological variations between human cell lines derived from normal, benign fibrocystic or malignant breast epithelium. To reproduce the appearance and contrast in clinical cytopathology images, we stained cells with hematoxylin and eosin and obtained 3D images of 150 individual stained cells of each cell type at sub-micron, isotropic resolution. Applying volumetric image analyses, we computed 42 3D morphological and textural descriptors of cellular and nuclear structure.We observed four distinct nuclear shape categories, the predominant being a mushroom cap shape. Cell and nuclear volumes increased from normal to fibrocystic to metastatic type, but there was little difference in the volume ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (N/C ratio between the lines. Abnormal cell nuclei had more nucleoli, markedly higher density and clumpier chromatin organization compared to normal. Nuclei of non-tumorigenic, fibrocystic cells exhibited larger textural variations than metastatic cell nuclei. At p<0.0025 by ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests, 90% of our computed descriptors statistically differentiated control from abnormal cell populations, but only 69% of these features statistically differentiated the fibrocystic from the metastatic cell populations.Our results provide a new perspective on nuclear structure variations associated with malignancy and point to the

  3. Isotropic 3D nuclear morphometry of normal, fibrocystic and malignant breast epithelial cells reveals new structural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandakumar, Vivek; Kelbauskas, Laimonas; Hernandez, Kathryn F; Lintecum, Kelly M; Senechal, Patti; Bussey, Kimberly J; Davies, Paul C W; Johnson, Roger H; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2012-01-01

    Grading schemes for breast cancer diagnosis are predominantly based on pathologists' qualitative assessment of altered nuclear structure from 2D brightfield microscopy images. However, cells are three-dimensional (3D) objects with features that are inherently 3D and thus poorly characterized in 2D. Our goal is to quantitatively characterize nuclear structure in 3D, assess its variation with malignancy, and investigate whether such variation correlates with standard nuclear grading criteria. We applied micro-optical computed tomographic imaging and automated 3D nuclear morphometry to quantify and compare morphological variations between human cell lines derived from normal, benign fibrocystic or malignant breast epithelium. To reproduce the appearance and contrast in clinical cytopathology images, we stained cells with hematoxylin and eosin and obtained 3D images of 150 individual stained cells of each cell type at sub-micron, isotropic resolution. Applying volumetric image analyses, we computed 42 3D morphological and textural descriptors of cellular and nuclear structure. We observed four distinct nuclear shape categories, the predominant being a mushroom cap shape. Cell and nuclear volumes increased from normal to fibrocystic to metastatic type, but there was little difference in the volume ratio of nucleus to cytoplasm (N/C ratio) between the lines. Abnormal cell nuclei had more nucleoli, markedly higher density and clumpier chromatin organization compared to normal. Nuclei of non-tumorigenic, fibrocystic cells exhibited larger textural variations than metastatic cell nuclei. At pfibrocystic from the metastatic cell populations. Our results provide a new perspective on nuclear structure variations associated with malignancy and point to the value of automated quantitative 3D nuclear morphometry as an objective tool to enable development of sensitive and specific nuclear grade classification in breast cancer diagnosis.

  4. 3D Tensorial Elastodynamics for Isotropic Media on Vertically Deformed Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shragge, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Solutions of the 3D elastodynamic wave equation are sometimes required in industrial and academic applications of elastic reverse-time migration (E-RTM) and full waveform inversion (E-FWI) that involve vertically deformed meshes. Examples include incorporating irregular free-surface topography and handling internal boundaries (e.g., water bottom) directly into the computational meshes. In 3D E-RTM and E-FWI applications, the number of forward modeling simulations can number in the tens of thousands (per iteration), which necessitates the development of stable, accurate and efficient 3D elastodynamics solvers. For topographic scenarios, most finite-difference solution approaches use a change-of-variable strategy that has a number of associated computational challenges, including difficulties in handling of the free-surface boundary condition. In this study, I follow a tensorial approach and use a generalized family of analytic transforms to develop a set of analytic equations for 3D elastodynamics that directly incorporates vertical grid deformations. Importantly, this analytic approach allows for the specification of an analytic free-surface boundary condition appropriate for vertically deformed meshes. These equations are both straightforward and efficient to solve using a velocity-stress formulation with finite-difference (MFD) operators implemented on a fully staggered grid. Moreover, I demonstrate that the use of mimetic finite difference (MFD) methods allows stable, accurate, and efficient numerical solutions to be simulated for typical topographic scenarios. Examples demonstrate that high-quality elastic wavefields can be generated for topographic surfaces exhibiting significant topographic relief.

  5. Comparison between 3D isotropic and 2D conventional MR arthrography for diagnosing rotator cuff tear and labral lesions: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Hwa; Yun, Seong Jong; Jin, Wook; Park, So Young; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam

    2018-03-30

    Although 3D-isotropic MR arthrography has been characterized as a substitute imaging tool for rotator cuff tear (RCT) and labral lesions, it has not been commonly used in clinical practice because of controversy related to image blurring and indistinctness of structural edges. To perform a comparison of the diagnostic performance of 3D-isotropic MR arthrography and 2D-conventional MR arthrography for diagnosis of RCT (solely RCT, full/partial-thickness supraspinatus [SST]-infraspinatus [IST] tear, or subscapularis [SSc] tear) and labral lesions. Meta-analysis. Patients with shoulder pain. 3D-isotropic and 2D-conventional MR arthrography at 3.0T or 1.5T. PubMed and EMBASE were searched following the PRISMA guidelines. Bivariate modeling and hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic modeling were performed to compare the overall diagnostic performance of 3D-isotropic and 2D-conventional MR arthrography. Multiple-subgroup analyses were performed for diagnosing RCT, full/partial-thickness SST-IST tear, SSc tear, and labral lesions. Meta-regression analyses were performed according to subject, study, and MR arthrography characteristics including 3D-isotropic sequences (turbo spine echo [TSE] vs. gradient echo [GRE]). Eleven studies (825 patients) were included. Overall, 3D-isotropic MR arthrography had similar pooled sensitivity (0.90 [95% CI, 0.87-0.93]) (P = 0.95) and specificity (0.92 [95% CI, 0.87-0.95]) (P = 0.99), relative to 2D-conventional MR arthrography (sensitivity, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.86-0.94]); specificity, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.87-0.95]). Multiple-subgroup analyses showed that sensitivities (P = 0.13-0.91) and specificities (P = 0.26-0.99) on 3D-isotropic MR arthrography for diagnosing RCT, full/partial-thickness SST-IST tear, SSC tear, and labral lesions were not significantly different from 2D-conventional MR arthrography. On meta-regression analysis, 3D-TSE sequence demonstrated higher sensitivity (P 3D-GRE for RCT and labral

  6. Single-view volumetric PIV via high-resolution scanning, isotropic voxel restructuring and 3D least-squares matching (3D-LSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brücker, C; Hess, D; Kitzhofer, J

    2013-01-01

    Scanning PIV as introduced by Brücker (1995 Exp. Fluids 19 255–63, 1996a Appl. Sci. Res. 56 157–79) has been successfully applied in the last 20 years to different flow problems where the frame rate was sufficient to ensure a ‘frozen’ field condition. The limited number of parallel planes however leads typically to an under-sampling in the scan direction in depth; therefore, the spatial resolution in depth is typically considerably lower than the spatial resolution in the plane of the laser sheet (depth resolution = scan shift Δz ≫ pixel unit in object space). In addition, a partial volume averaging effect due to the thickness of the light sheet must be taken into account. Herein, the method is further developed using a high-resolution scanning in combination with a Gaussian regression technique to achieve an isotropic representation of the tracer particles in a voxel-based volume reconstruction with cuboidal voxels. This eliminates the partial volume averaging effect due to light sheet thickness and leads to comparable spatial resolution of the particle field reconstructions in x-, y- and z-axes. In addition, advantage of voxel-based processing with estimations of translation, rotation and shear/strain is taken by using a 3D least-squares matching method, well suited for reconstruction of grey-level pattern fields. The method is discussed in this paper and used to investigate the ring vortex instability at Re = 2500 within a measurement volume of roughly 75 × 75 × 50 mm 3 with a spatial resolution of 100 µm/voxel (750 × 750 × 500 voxel elements). The volume has been scanned with a number of 100 light sheets and scan rates of 10 kHz. The results show the growth of the Tsai–Widnall azimuthal instabilities accompanied with a precession of the axis of the vortex ring. Prior to breakdown, secondary instabilities evolve along the core with streamwise oriented striations. The front stagnation point's streamwise distance to the core starts to decrease

  7. Short term reproducibility of a high contrast 3-D isotropic optic nerve imaging sequence in healthy controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Smith, Alex K.; Mawn, Louise A.; Smith, Seth A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The optic nerve (ON) plays a crucial role in human vision transporting all visual information from the retina to the brain for higher order processing. There are many diseases that affect the ON structure such as optic neuritis, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Because the ON is the sole pathway for visual information from the retina to areas of higher level processing, measures of ON damage have been shown to correlate well with visual deficits. Increased intracranial pressure has been shown to correlate with the size of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surrounding the ON. These measures are generally taken at an arbitrary point along the nerve and do not account for changes along the length of the ON. We propose a high contrast and high-resolution 3-D acquired isotropic imaging sequence optimized for ON imaging. We have acquired scan-rescan data using the optimized sequence and a current standard of care protocol for 10 subjects. We show that this sequence has superior contrast-to-noise ratio to the current standard of care while achieving a factor of 11 higher resolution. We apply a previously published automatic pipeline to segment the ON and CSF sheath and measure the size of each individually. We show that these measures of ON size have lower short- term reproducibility than the population variance and the variability along the length of the nerve. We find that the proposed imaging protocol is (1) useful in detecting population differences and local changes and (2) a promising tool for investigating biomarkers related to structural changes of the ON.

  8. CAIPIRINHA accelerated SPACE enables 10-min isotropic 3D TSE MRI of the ankle for optimized visualization of curved and oblique ligaments and tendons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalia, Vivek [University of Vermont Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Burlington, VT (United States); Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fritz, Benjamin [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Johnson, Rory [Siemens Healthcare USA, Inc, Cary, NC (United States); Gilson, Wesley D. [Siemens Healthcare USA, Inc, Baltimore, MD (United States); Raithel, Esther [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Fritz, Jan [Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Section of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2017-09-15

    To test the hypothesis that a fourfold CAIPIRINHA accelerated, 10-min, high-resolution, isotropic 3D TSE MRI prototype protocol of the ankle derives equal or better quality than a 20-min 2D TSE standard protocol. Following internal review board approval and informed consent, 3-Tesla MRI of the ankle was obtained in 24 asymptomatic subjects including 10-min 3D CAIPIRINHA SPACE TSE prototype and 20-min 2D TSE standard protocols. Outcome variables included image quality and visibility of anatomical structures using 5-point Likert scales. Non-parametric statistical testing was used. P values ≤0.001 were considered significant. Edge sharpness, contrast resolution, uniformity, noise, fat suppression and magic angle effects were without statistical difference on 2D and 3D TSE images (p > 0.035). Fluid was mildly brighter on intermediate-weighted 2D images (p < 0.001), whereas 3D images had substantially less partial volume, chemical shift and no pulsatile-flow artifacts (p < 0.001). Oblique and curved planar 3D images resulted in mildly-to-substantially improved visualization of joints, spring, bifurcate, syndesmotic, collateral and sinus tarsi ligaments, and tendons (p < 0.001, respectively). 3D TSE MRI with CAIPIRINHA acceleration enables high-spatial resolution oblique and curved planar MRI of the ankle and visualization of ligaments, tendons and joints equally well or better than a more time-consuming anisotropic 2D TSE MRI. (orig.)

  9. CAIPIRINHA accelerated SPACE enables 10-min isotropic 3D TSE MRI of the ankle for optimized visualization of curved and oblique ligaments and tendons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, Vivek; Fritz, Benjamin; Johnson, Rory; Gilson, Wesley D.; Raithel, Esther; Fritz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a fourfold CAIPIRINHA accelerated, 10-min, high-resolution, isotropic 3D TSE MRI prototype protocol of the ankle derives equal or better quality than a 20-min 2D TSE standard protocol. Following internal review board approval and informed consent, 3-Tesla MRI of the ankle was obtained in 24 asymptomatic subjects including 10-min 3D CAIPIRINHA SPACE TSE prototype and 20-min 2D TSE standard protocols. Outcome variables included image quality and visibility of anatomical structures using 5-point Likert scales. Non-parametric statistical testing was used. P values ≤0.001 were considered significant. Edge sharpness, contrast resolution, uniformity, noise, fat suppression and magic angle effects were without statistical difference on 2D and 3D TSE images (p > 0.035). Fluid was mildly brighter on intermediate-weighted 2D images (p < 0.001), whereas 3D images had substantially less partial volume, chemical shift and no pulsatile-flow artifacts (p < 0.001). Oblique and curved planar 3D images resulted in mildly-to-substantially improved visualization of joints, spring, bifurcate, syndesmotic, collateral and sinus tarsi ligaments, and tendons (p < 0.001, respectively). 3D TSE MRI with CAIPIRINHA acceleration enables high-spatial resolution oblique and curved planar MRI of the ankle and visualization of ligaments, tendons and joints equally well or better than a more time-consuming anisotropic 2D TSE MRI. (orig.)

  10. Supraspinatus tendon tears at 3.0 T shoulder MR arthrography: diagnosis with 3D isotropic turbo spin-echo SPACE sequence versus 2D conventional sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon-Yong; Jee, Won-Hee; Park, Michael Y.; Lee, So-Yeon [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yang-Soo [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To assess the diagnostic performance of shoulder MR arthrography with 3D isotropic fat-suppressed (FS) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE-SPACE) for supraspinatus tendon tears in comparison with 2D conventional sequences at 3.0 T. The study was HIPAA-compliant and approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Eighty-seven arthroscopically confirmed patients who underwent 3.0 T shoulder MR arthrography with 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE were included in a consecutive fashion from March 2009 to February 2010. Two reviewers independently analyzed 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and interobserver agreement ({kappa}) were compared between 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE for full-thickness and partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears together and for partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears alone. There were 33 full-thickness tears and 28 partial-thickness tears of supraspinatus tendons. For full-thickness and partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears together, the mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of both readers were 96, 92, and 94% on 2D sequences and 91, 84, and 89% on 3D TSE-SPACE. For partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears alone, the mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 95, 92, and 94% on 2D sequences and 84, 85, and 84% on 3D TSE-SPACE. There was no statistical difference between 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE. Interobserver agreements were almost perfect on 2D conventional sequences and substantial on 3D TSE-SPACE. Compared with 2D conventional sequences, MR arthrography using 3D TSE-SPACE was comparable for diagnosing supraspinatus tendon tears despite limitations in detecting small partial-thickness tears and in discriminating between full-thickness and deep partial-thickness tears. (orig.)

  11. Supraspinatus tendon tears at 3.0 T shoulder MR arthrography: diagnosis with 3D isotropic turbo spin-echo SPACE sequence versus 2D conventional sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Joon-Yong; Jee, Won-Hee; Park, Michael Y.; Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Yang-Soo

    2012-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of shoulder MR arthrography with 3D isotropic fat-suppressed (FS) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE-SPACE) for supraspinatus tendon tears in comparison with 2D conventional sequences at 3.0 T. The study was HIPAA-compliant and approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Eighty-seven arthroscopically confirmed patients who underwent 3.0 T shoulder MR arthrography with 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE were included in a consecutive fashion from March 2009 to February 2010. Two reviewers independently analyzed 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and interobserver agreement (κ) were compared between 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE for full-thickness and partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears together and for partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears alone. There were 33 full-thickness tears and 28 partial-thickness tears of supraspinatus tendons. For full-thickness and partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears together, the mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of both readers were 96, 92, and 94% on 2D sequences and 91, 84, and 89% on 3D TSE-SPACE. For partial-thickness supraspinatus tendon tears alone, the mean sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 95, 92, and 94% on 2D sequences and 84, 85, and 84% on 3D TSE-SPACE. There was no statistical difference between 2D sequences and 3D TSE-SPACE. Interobserver agreements were almost perfect on 2D conventional sequences and substantial on 3D TSE-SPACE. Compared with 2D conventional sequences, MR arthrography using 3D TSE-SPACE was comparable for diagnosing supraspinatus tendon tears despite limitations in detecting small partial-thickness tears and in discriminating between full-thickness and deep partial-thickness tears. (orig.)

  12. MRI of the lumbar spine: comparison of 3D isotropic turbo spin-echo SPACE sequence versus conventional 2D sequences at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwon; Jee, Won-Hee; Jung, Joon-Yong; Lee, So-Yeon; Ryu, Kyeung-Sik; Ha, Kee-Yong

    2015-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) fast spin-echo sequence with variable flip-angle refocusing pulse allows retrospective alignments of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in any desired plane. To compare isotropic 3D T2-weighted (T2W) turbo spin-echo sequence (TSE-SPACE) with standard two-dimensional (2D) T2W TSE imaging for evaluating lumbar spine pathology at 3.0 T MRI. Forty-two patients who had spine surgery for disk herniation and had 3.0 T spine MRI were included in this study. In addition to standard 2D T2W TSE imaging, sagittal 3D T2W TSE-SPACE was obtained to produce multiplanar (MPR) images. Each set of MR images from 3D T2W TSE and 2D TSE-SPACE were independently scored for the degree of lumbar neural foraminal stenosis, central spinal stenosis, and nerve compression by two reviewers. These scores were compared with operative findings and the sensitivities were evaluated by McNemar test. Inter-observer agreements and the correlation with symptoms laterality were assessed with kappa statistics. The 3D T2W TSE and 2D TSE-SPACE had similar sensitivity in detecting foraminal stenosis (78.9% versus 78.9% in 32 foramen levels), spinal stenosis (100% versus 100% in 42 spinal levels), and nerve compression (92.9% versus 81.8% in 59 spinal nerves). The inter-observer agreements (κ = 0.849 vs. 0.451 for foraminal stenosis, κ = 0.809 vs. 0.503 for spinal stenosis, and κ = 0.681 vs. 0.429 for nerve compression) and symptoms correlation (κ = 0.449 vs. κ = 0.242) were better in 3D TSE-SPACE compared to 2D TSE. 3D TSE-SPACE with oblique coronal MPR images demonstrated better inter-observer agreements compared to 3D TSE-SPACE without oblique coronal MPR images (κ = 0.930 vs. κ = 0.681). Isotropic 3D T2W TSE-SPACE at 3.0 T was comparable to 2D T2W TSE for detecting foraminal stenosis, central spinal stenosis, and nerve compression with better inter-observer agreements and symptom correlation. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and

  13. CAIPIRINHA accelerated SPACE enables 10-min isotropic 3D TSE MRI of the ankle for optimized visualization of curved and oblique ligaments and tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Vivek; Fritz, Benjamin; Johnson, Rory; Gilson, Wesley D; Raithel, Esther; Fritz, Jan

    2017-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that a fourfold CAIPIRINHA accelerated, 10-min, high-resolution, isotropic 3D TSE MRI prototype protocol of the ankle derives equal or better quality than a 20-min 2D TSE standard protocol. Following internal review board approval and informed consent, 3-Tesla MRI of the ankle was obtained in 24 asymptomatic subjects including 10-min 3D CAIPIRINHA SPACE TSE prototype and 20-min 2D TSE standard protocols. Outcome variables included image quality and visibility of anatomical structures using 5-point Likert scales. Non-parametric statistical testing was used. P values ≤0.001 were considered significant. Edge sharpness, contrast resolution, uniformity, noise, fat suppression and magic angle effects were without statistical difference on 2D and 3D TSE images (p > 0.035). Fluid was mildly brighter on intermediate-weighted 2D images (p acceleration enables high-spatial resolution oblique and curved planar MRI of the ankle and visualization of ligaments, tendons and joints equally well or better than a more time-consuming anisotropic 2D TSE MRI. • High-resolution 3D TSE MRI improves visualization of ankle structures. • Limitations of current 3D TSE MRI include long scan times. • 3D CAIPIRINHA SPACE allows now a fourfold-accelerated data acquisition. • 3D CAIPIRINHA SPACE enables high-spatial-resolution ankle MRI within 10 min. • 10-min 3D CAIPIRINHA SPACE produces equal-or-better quality than 20-min 2D TSE.

  14. Isotropic resolution diffusion tensor imaging of lumbosacral and sciatic nerves using a phase-corrected diffusion-prepared 3D turbo spin echo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Barbara; Van, Anh T; Weidlich, Dominik; Kooijman, Hendrick; Hock, Andreas; Rummeny, Ernst J; Gersing, Alexandra; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2018-08-01

    To perform in vivo isotropic-resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of lumbosacral and sciatic nerves with a phase-navigated diffusion-prepared (DP) 3D turbo spin echo (TSE) acquisition and modified reconstruction incorporating intershot phase-error correction and to investigate the improvement on image quality and diffusion quantification with the proposed phase correction. Phase-navigated DP 3D TSE included magnitude stabilizers to minimize motion and eddy-current effects on the signal magnitude. Phase navigation of motion-induced phase errors was introduced before readout in 3D TSE. DTI of lower back nerves was performed in vivo using 3D TSE and single-shot echo planar imaging (ss-EPI) in 13 subjects. Diffusion data were phase-corrected per k z plane with respect to T 2 -weighted data. The effects of motion-induced phase errors on DTI quantification was assessed for 3D TSE and compared with ss-EPI. Non-phase-corrected 3D TSE resulted in artifacts in diffusion-weighted images and overestimated DTI parameters in the sciatic nerve (mean diffusivity [MD] = 2.06 ± 0.45). Phase correction of 3D TSE DTI data resulted in reductions in all DTI parameters (MD = 1.73 ± 0.26) of statistical significance (P ≤ 0.001) and in closer agreement with ss-EPI DTI parameters (MD = 1.62 ± 0.21). DP 3D TSE with phase correction allows distortion-free isotropic diffusion imaging of lower back nerves with robustness to motion-induced artifacts and DTI quantification errors. Magn Reson Med 80:609-618, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes. © 2018 The Authors Magnetic Resonance

  15. SLAP tears: diagnosis using 3-T shoulder MR arthrography with the 3D isotropic turbo spin-echo space sequence versus conventional 2D sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Joon-Yong; Jee, Won-Hee; Park, Michael Yong [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Yeon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yang-Soo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of shoulder magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography with three-dimensional (3D) isotropic intermediate-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sampling perfection with application-optimised contrasts using different flip angle evolution (SPACE) in the diagnosis of superior labrum anterior-to-posterior (SLAP) lesions compared with two-dimensional (2D) TSE at 3.0 T. MR arthrograms, including 2D TSE and 3D TSE-SPACE, in 87 patients who underwent arthroscopy were retrospectively analysed by two reviewers for the presence and type of SLAP lesions. Sensitivity and specificity were compared using McNemar's test, and inter-observer agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed. The mean sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 90%, 85% and 86% for 2D TSE, and 81%, 86% and 85% for 3D TSE-SPACE respectively, with no statistically significant differences. Inter-observer agreements were substantial in 2D TSE ({kappa} = 0.76) and 3D TSE-SPACE ({kappa} = 0.68). The areas under the ROC curves were 0.92 for 2D TSE and 0.90 for 3D TSE-SPACE, which were not significantly different. MR arthrography with 3D TSE-SPACE showed comparable accuracy and substantial inter-observer agreement for the diagnosis of SLAP lesions circle MR arthrography is regarded as the definitive method of shoulder imaging circle Different MR sequences are evolving for SLAP lesions circle 3D TSE-SPACE demonstrated comparable overall accuracy to 2D TSE for SLAP lesions. (orig.)

  16. 3T MRI of the knee with optimised isotropic 3D sequences. Accurate delineation of intra-articular pathology without prolonged acquisition times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulaal, Osamah M.; Rainford, Louise; Galligan, Marie; McGee, Allison [University College Dublin, Radiography and Diagnostic Imaging, School of Medicine, Belfield, Dublin (Ireland); MacMahon, Peter; Kavanagh, Eoin [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); University College Dublin, School of Medicine, Dublin (Ireland); Cashman, James [Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Dublin (Ireland); University College Dublin, School of Medicine, Dublin (Ireland)

    2017-11-15

    To investigate optimised isotropic 3D turbo spin echo (TSE) and gradient echo (GRE)-based pulse sequences for visualisation of articular cartilage lesions within the knee joint. Optimisation of experimental imaging sequences was completed using healthy volunteers (n=16) with a 3-Tesla (3T) MRI scanner. Imaging of patients with knee cartilage abnormalities (n=57) was then performed. Acquired sequences included 3D proton density-weighted (PDW) TSE (SPACE) with and without fat-suppression (FS), and T2*W GRE (TrueFISP) sequences, with acquisition times of 6:51, 6:32 and 5:35 min, respectively. One hundred sixty-one confirmed cartilage lesions were detected and categorised (Grade II n=90, Grade III n=71). The highest sensitivity and specificity for detecting cartilage lesions were obtained with TrueFISP with values of 84.7% and 92%, respectively. Cartilage SNR mean for PDW SPACE-FS was the highest at 72.2. TrueFISP attained the highest CNR means for joint fluid/cartilage (101.5) and joint fluid/ligament (156.5), and the lowest CNR for cartilage/meniscus (48.5). Significant differences were identified across the three sequences for all anatomical structures with respect to SNR and CNR findings (p-value <0.05). Isotropic TrueFISP at 3T, optimised for acquisition time, accurately detects cartilage defects, although it demonstrated the lowest contrast between cartilage and meniscus. (orig.)

  17. MRI of the popliteofibular ligament: isotropic 3D WE-DESS versus coronal oblique fat-suppressed T2W MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeswaran, G.; Lee, J.C.; Healy, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to compare isotropic 3D water excitation double-echo steady state (WE-DESS) MRI with coronal oblique fat-suppressed T2-weighted (FS T2W) images in the identification of the popliteofibular ligament (PFL). A prospective analysis of 122 consecutive knee MRIs was performed in patients referred for knee pain from the orthopaedic clinic. In addition to the standard knee sequences, isotropic WE-DESS volume acquisition through the whole knee and coronal oblique FS T2W fast spin echo sequences through the posterolateral corner were obtained. The presence of the popliteus and biceps femoris tendons, lateral collateral and PFL was documented. Anterior cruciate ligament injury was present in 33 cases and these were excluded from the study because of the risk of associated PFL injury, leaving a total of 89 cases. Of the 42 patients in whom arthroscopic evaluation was subsequently obtained, none were found to have an injury to the PFL. The lateral collateral ligament, biceps femoris and popliteus tendon were identified in all cases on all sequences. The PFL was seen in 81 (91.0%; 95% CI 85.1-97.0%) patients using the WE-DESS sequence and 63 (70.8%; 95% CI 61.3-80.2%) patients using the coronal oblique FS T2W sequence, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.00005). Isotropic 3D WE-DESS MRI significantly enhances our ability to identify the popliteofibular ligament compared with coronal oblique fat-suppressed T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  18. A SiPM-based isotropic-3D PET detector X'tal cube with a three-dimensional array of 1 mm{sup 3} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Matsumoto, Takahiro; Kawai, Hideyuki; Suga, Mikio [Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Watanabe, Mitsuo, E-mail: taiga@nirs.go.jp [Central Research Laboratory, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu 434-8601 (Japan)

    2011-11-07

    We are developing a novel, general purpose isotropic-3D PET detector X'tal cube which has high spatial resolution in all three dimensions. The research challenge for this detector is implementing effective detection of scintillation photons by covering six faces of a segmented crystal block with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). In this paper, we developed the second prototype of the X'tal cube for a proof-of-concept. We aimed at realizing an ultimate detector with 1.0 mm{sup 3} cubic crystals, in contrast to our previous development using 3.0 mm{sup 3} cubic crystals. The crystal block was composed of a 16 x 16 x 16 array of lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (LGSO) crystals 0.993 x 0.993 x 0.993 mm{sup 3} in size. The crystals were optically glued together without inserting any reflector inside and 96 multi-pixel photon counters (MPPCs, S10931-50P, i.e. six faces each with a 4 x 4 array of MPPCs), each having a sensitive area of 3.0 x 3.0 mm{sup 2}, were optically coupled to the surfaces of the crystal block. Almost all 4096 crystals were identified through Anger-type calculation due to the finely adjusted reflector sheets inserted between the crystal block and light guides. The reflector sheets, which formed a belt of 0.5 mm width, were placed to cover half of the crystals of the second rows from the edges in order to improve identification performance of the crystals near the edges. Energy resolution of 12.7% was obtained at 511 keV with almost uniform light output for all crystal segments thanks to the effective detection of the scintillation photons.

  19. 3D isotropic T2-weighted fast spin echo (VISTA) versus 2D T2-weighted fast spin echo in evaluation of the calcaneofibular ligament in the oblique coronal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H J; Lee, S Y; Choi, Y J; Hong, H P; Park, S J; Park, J H; Kim, E

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether the image quality of three-dimensional (3D) volume isotropic fast spin echo acquisition (VISTA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) view is comparable to that of 2D fast spin echo T2-weighted images (2D T2 FSE) for the evaluation of the CFL, and whether 3D VISTA can replace 2D T2 FSE for the evaluation of CFL injuries. This retrospective study included 76 patients who underwent ankle MRI with CFL views of both 2D T2 FSE MRI and 3D VISTA. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of both techniques were measured. The anatomical identification score and diagnostic performances were evaluated by two readers independently. The diagnostic performances of 3D VISTA and 2D T2 FSE were analysed by sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing CFL injury with reference standards of surgically or clinically confirmed diagnoses. Surgical correlation was performed in 29% of the patients, and clinical examination was used in those who did not have surgery (71%). The SNRs and CNRs of 3D VISTA were significantly higher than those of 2D T2 FSE. The anatomical identification scores on 3D VISTA were inferior to those on 2D T2 FSE, and the differences were statistically significant (pT2 FSE for the anatomical evaluation of CFL, 3D VISTA has a diagnostic performance comparable to that of 2D T2 FSE for the diagnosis of CFL injuries. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MRI of the anterior talofibular ligament, talar cartilage and os subfibulare: Comparison of isotropic resolution 3D and conventional 2D T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jisook; Cha, Jang Gyu [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Koo [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Bo Ra [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Department of Biomedical Statistics, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Chan Hong [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To determine the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) magnetic resonance (MR) sequence compared with two-dimensional (2D) sequence for diagnosing anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) tears, chondral lesion of the talus (CLT) and os subfibulare/avulsion fracture of the distal fibula (OSF). Thirty-five patients were included, who had undergone ankle MRI with 3D T2-weighted FSE and 2D T2-weighted FSE sequences, as well as subsequent ankle arthroscopy, between November 2013 and July 2014. Each MR imaging sequence was independently scored by two readers retrospectively for the presence of ATFL tears, CLT and OSF. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was compared to determine the discriminatory power of the two image sequences. Interobserver agreement was expressed as unweighted kappa value. Arthroscopic findings confirmed 21 complete tears of the ATFL, 14 partial tears of the ATFL, 17 CLTs and 7 OSFs. There were no significant differences in the diagnoses of ATFL tears (p = 0.074-0.501), CLT (p = 0.090-0.450) and OSF (p = 0.317) obtained from the 2D and 3D sequences by either reader. The interobserver agreement rates between two readers using the 3D T2-weighted FSE sequence versus those obtained with the 2D sequence were substantial (κ = 0.659) versus moderate (κ = 0.553) for ATFL tears, moderate (κ = 0.499) versus substantial (κ = 0.676) for CLT and substantial (κ = 0.621) versus substantial (κ = 0.689) for OSF. Three-dimensional isotropic T2-weighted FSE MRI of the ankle resulted in no statistically significant difference in diagnostic performance compared to two-dimensional T2-weighted FSE MRI in the evaluation of ATFL tears, CLTs and OSFs. (orig.)

  1. MRI of the anterior talofibular ligament, talar cartilage and os subfibulare: Comparison of isotropic resolution 3D and conventional 2D T2-weighted fast spin-echo sequences at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Jisook; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Young Koo; Lee, Bo Ra; Jeon, Chan Hong

    2016-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of a three-dimensional (3D) T2-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) magnetic resonance (MR) sequence compared with two-dimensional (2D) sequence for diagnosing anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) tears, chondral lesion of the talus (CLT) and os subfibulare/avulsion fracture of the distal fibula (OSF). Thirty-five patients were included, who had undergone ankle MRI with 3D T2-weighted FSE and 2D T2-weighted FSE sequences, as well as subsequent ankle arthroscopy, between November 2013 and July 2014. Each MR imaging sequence was independently scored by two readers retrospectively for the presence of ATFL tears, CLT and OSF. The area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was compared to determine the discriminatory power of the two image sequences. Interobserver agreement was expressed as unweighted kappa value. Arthroscopic findings confirmed 21 complete tears of the ATFL, 14 partial tears of the ATFL, 17 CLTs and 7 OSFs. There were no significant differences in the diagnoses of ATFL tears (p = 0.074-0.501), CLT (p = 0.090-0.450) and OSF (p = 0.317) obtained from the 2D and 3D sequences by either reader. The interobserver agreement rates between two readers using the 3D T2-weighted FSE sequence versus those obtained with the 2D sequence were substantial (κ = 0.659) versus moderate (κ = 0.553) for ATFL tears, moderate (κ = 0.499) versus substantial (κ = 0.676) for CLT and substantial (κ = 0.621) versus substantial (κ = 0.689) for OSF. Three-dimensional isotropic T2-weighted FSE MRI of the ankle resulted in no statistically significant difference in diagnostic performance compared to two-dimensional T2-weighted FSE MRI in the evaluation of ATFL tears, CLTs and OSFs. (orig.)

  2. High-speed imaging at 3 tesla. A technical and clinical review with an emphasis on whole-brain 3D imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo; Komada, Tomomi

    2005-01-01

    Improvements to the inherently high specific-absorption rate (SAR) of high-speed imaging at 3T are necessary in order to render this method clinically feasible. Various efforts have been undertaken to improve the associated hardware and software. In this review, we focus on whole-brain isotropic 3D imaging with a turbo spin-echo sequence with variable flip-angle echo trains (3D-TSE-VFL) and present its technical and clinical features. This sequence can be used to acquire images of various contrasts including T 2 -weighted, fat-suppressed T 2 -weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), fat-suppressed FLAIR, and STIR (short tau inversion recovery). Various aspects of 3D-TSE-VFL are discussed, including CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) and metal artifacts, STIR contrast, small-part visualization other than brain, and the possibility of serial subtraction. Some images from clinical cases are presented. (author)

  3. Postmortem verification of MS cortical lesion detection with 3D DIR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seewann, A.M.; Kooi, E.J.; Roosendaal, S.D.; Pouwels, P.J.W.; Wattjes, M.P.; van der Valk, P.; Barkhof, F.; Polman, C.H.; Geurts, J.J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sensitivity and specificity of 3D double inversion recovery (DIR) MRI for detecting multiple sclerosis (MS) cortical lesions (CLs) using a direct postmortem MRI to histopathology comparison. Methods: Single-slab 3D DIR and 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)

  4. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence for visualisation of subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Young Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Inje University, Department of Radiology, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Chai [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Kyo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun J. [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, So Hyun [Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyoung Ro [Philips HealthCare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an accepted treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, targeting the STN is difficult due to its relatively small size and variable location. The purpose of this study was to assess which of the following sequences obtained with the 3.0 T MR system can accurately delineate the STN: coronal 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), 2D T2*-weighted fast-field echo (T2*-FFE) and 2D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. We included 20 consecutive patients with PD who underwent 3.0 T MR for DBS targeting. 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images were obtained for all study patients. Image quality and demarcation of the STN were analysed using 4-point scales, and contrast ratio (CR) of the STN and normal white matter was calculated. The Friedman test was used to compare the three sequences. In qualitative analysis, the 2D T2*-FFE image showed more artefacts than 3D FLAIR or 2D T2-TSE, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. 3D FLAIR images showed significantly superior demarcation of the STN compared with 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images (P < 0.001, respectively). The CR of 3D FLAIR was significantly higher than that of 2D T2*-FFE or T2-TSE images in multiple comparison correction (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the CR between 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. Coronal 3D FLAIR images showed the most accurate demarcation of the STN for DBS targeting among coronal 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. (orig.)

  5. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence for visualisation of subthalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Young Jin; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Chai; Lee, Jung Kyo; Lee, Chong Sik; Chung, Sun J.; Cho, So Hyun; Lee, Gyoung Ro

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an accepted treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, targeting the STN is difficult due to its relatively small size and variable location. The purpose of this study was to assess which of the following sequences obtained with the 3.0 T MR system can accurately delineate the STN: coronal 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), 2D T2*-weighted fast-field echo (T2*-FFE) and 2D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences. We included 20 consecutive patients with PD who underwent 3.0 T MR for DBS targeting. 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images were obtained for all study patients. Image quality and demarcation of the STN were analysed using 4-point scales, and contrast ratio (CR) of the STN and normal white matter was calculated. The Friedman test was used to compare the three sequences. In qualitative analysis, the 2D T2*-FFE image showed more artefacts than 3D FLAIR or 2D T2-TSE, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. 3D FLAIR images showed significantly superior demarcation of the STN compared with 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images (P < 0.001, respectively). The CR of 3D FLAIR was significantly higher than that of 2D T2*-FFE or T2-TSE images in multiple comparison correction (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference in the CR between 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. Coronal 3D FLAIR images showed the most accurate demarcation of the STN for DBS targeting among coronal 3D FLAIR, 2D T2*-FFE and T2-TSE images. (orig.)

  6. Artificial 3D hierarchical and isotropic porous polymeric materials

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan; Musteata, Valentina-Elena; Sougrat, Rachid; Behzad, Ali Reza; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Hierarchical porous materials that replicate complex living structures are attractive for a wide variety of applications, ranging from storage and catalysis to biological and artificial systems. However, the preparation of structures with a high level of complexity and long-range order at the mesoscale and microscale is challenging. We report a simple, nonextractive, and nonreactive method used to prepare three-dimensional porous materials that mimic biological systems such as marine skeletons and honeycombs. This method exploits the concurrent occurrence of the self-assembly of block copolymers in solution and macrophase separation by nucleation and growth. We obtained a long-range order of micrometer-sized compartments. These compartments are interconnected by ordered cylindrical nanochannels. The new approach is demonstrated using polystyrene-b-poly(t-butyl acrylate), which can be further explored for a broad range of applications, such as air purification filters for viruses and pollution particle removal or growth of bioinspired materials for bone regeneration.

  7. Artificial 3D hierarchical and isotropic porous polymeric materials

    KAUST Repository

    Chisca, Stefan

    2018-05-11

    Hierarchical porous materials that replicate complex living structures are attractive for a wide variety of applications, ranging from storage and catalysis to biological and artificial systems. However, the preparation of structures with a high level of complexity and long-range order at the mesoscale and microscale is challenging. We report a simple, nonextractive, and nonreactive method used to prepare three-dimensional porous materials that mimic biological systems such as marine skeletons and honeycombs. This method exploits the concurrent occurrence of the self-assembly of block copolymers in solution and macrophase separation by nucleation and growth. We obtained a long-range order of micrometer-sized compartments. These compartments are interconnected by ordered cylindrical nanochannels. The new approach is demonstrated using polystyrene-b-poly(t-butyl acrylate), which can be further explored for a broad range of applications, such as air purification filters for viruses and pollution particle removal or growth of bioinspired materials for bone regeneration.

  8. Artificial 3D hierarchical and isotropic porous polymeric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisca, Stefan; Musteata, Valentina-Elena; Sougrat, Rachid; Behzad, Ali Reza; Nunes, Suzana P

    2018-05-01

    Hierarchical porous materials that replicate complex living structures are attractive for a wide variety of applications, ranging from storage and catalysis to biological and artificial systems. However, the preparation of structures with a high level of complexity and long-range order at the mesoscale and microscale is challenging. We report a simple, nonextractive, and nonreactive method used to prepare three-dimensional porous materials that mimic biological systems such as marine skeletons and honeycombs. This method exploits the concurrent occurrence of the self-assembly of block copolymers in solution and macrophase separation by nucleation and growth. We obtained a long-range order of micrometer-sized compartments. These compartments are interconnected by ordered cylindrical nanochannels. The new approach is demonstrated using polystyrene- b -poly( t -butyl acrylate), which can be further explored for a broad range of applications, such as air purification filters for viruses and pollution particle removal or growth of bioinspired materials for bone regeneration.

  9. 3D Animation Essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Andy

    2012-01-01

    The essential fundamentals of 3D animation for aspiring 3D artists 3D is everywhere--video games, movie and television special effects, mobile devices, etc. Many aspiring artists and animators have grown up with 3D and computers, and naturally gravitate to this field as their area of interest. Bringing a blend of studio and classroom experience to offer you thorough coverage of the 3D animation industry, this must-have book shows you what it takes to create compelling and realistic 3D imagery. Serves as the first step to understanding the language of 3D and computer graphics (CG)Covers 3D anim

  10. 3D video

    CERN Document Server

    Lucas, Laurent; Loscos, Céline

    2013-01-01

    While 3D vision has existed for many years, the use of 3D cameras and video-based modeling by the film industry has induced an explosion of interest for 3D acquisition technology, 3D content and 3D displays. As such, 3D video has become one of the new technology trends of this century.The chapters in this book cover a large spectrum of areas connected to 3D video, which are presented both theoretically and technologically, while taking into account both physiological and perceptual aspects. Stepping away from traditional 3D vision, the authors, all currently involved in these areas, provide th

  11. Diagnostic value of three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR imaging after intratympanic administration of contrast media in Meniere's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Honglu; Zhang Daogong; Wang Guangbin; Fan Zhaomin; Bai Xue; Guo Lijun; Man Xiaoni

    2012-01-01

    Objective: After intratympanic gadolinium administration through the tympanic membrane, three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (3D-FLAIR MRI) was performed to evaluate endolymphatic visualization and its diagnostic value in Meniere's disease. Methods: Twenty-four hours after intratympanic gadolinium administration through the tympanic membrane, 19 patients with unilateral Meniere's disease diagnosed clinically underwent 3D-FLAIR and 3D-Balance-FFE imaging at 3.0 T MR scanner. The enhanced imaging of perilymphatic space in bilateral cochlea, vestibular and (or) canal were observed. Scala tympani and scala vestibule of bilateral cochlear basal turn were scored respectively. The enhanced range of bilateral vestibule and the signal intensity ratio (SIR) between the vestibule and the brain stem were measured. Wilcoxon tests and paired t tests were used. Results: The gadolinium appeared in almost all parts of the perilymph in cochlea,vestibular and (or) canal, so the endolymphatic space was clearly visualized on 3D-FLAIR imaging. The score of scala vestibuli between the affected side (3 cases scored 2, 9 cases scored 1, 7 cases scored 0) and the healthy side (15 cases scored 2, 2 cases scored 1, 2 cases scored 0) were significantly different (U=3.090, P<0.05). The area of enhanced vestibular were (5.77 ± 2.33) mm 2 and (8.11 ± 3.32) mm 2 for the affected side and the healthy side, which were significantly different (U=3.090, P<0.05 and t=2.638, P<0.05). Conclusions: According to 3D-Balance-FFE MRI and the enhancement of perilymphatic space, 3D-FLAIR MRI with intratympanic gadolinium injection through the tympanic membrane can be used to show the border between the perilymph and the endolymph and confirm endolymphatic hydrops, thus providing radiographic evidence for the diagnosis of Meniere's disease. (authors)

  12. EUROPEANA AND 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletinckx

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current 3D hype creates a lot of interest in 3D. People go to 3D movies, but are we ready to use 3D in our homes, in our offices, in our communication? Are we ready to deliver real 3D to a general public and use interactive 3D in a meaningful way to enjoy, learn, communicate? The CARARE project is realising this for the moment in the domain of monuments and archaeology, so that real 3D of archaeological sites and European monuments will be available to the general public by 2012. There are several aspects to this endeavour. First of all is the technical aspect of flawlessly delivering 3D content over all platforms and operating systems, without installing software. We have currently a working solution in PDF, but HTML5 will probably be the future. Secondly, there is still little knowledge on how to create 3D learning objects, 3D tourist information or 3D scholarly communication. We are still in a prototype phase when it comes to integrate 3D objects in physical or virtual museums. Nevertheless, Europeana has a tremendous potential as a multi-facetted virtual museum. Finally, 3D has a large potential to act as a hub of information, linking to related 2D imagery, texts, video, sound. We describe how to create such rich, explorable 3D objects that can be used intuitively by the generic Europeana user and what metadata is needed to support the semantic linking.

  13. Macroscopic simulation of isotropic permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruckner, Florian; Abert, Claas; Vogler, Christoph; Heinrichs, Frank; Satz, Armin; Ausserlechner, Udo; Binder, Gernot; Koeck, Helmut; Suess, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Accurate simulations of isotropic permanent magnets require to take the magnetization process into account and consider the anisotropic, nonlinear, and hysteretic material behaviour near the saturation configuration. An efficient method for the solution of the magnetostatic Maxwell equations including the description of isotropic permanent magnets is presented. The algorithm can easily be implemented on top of existing finite element methods and does not require a full characterization of the hysteresis of the magnetic material. Strayfield measurements of an isotropic permanent magnet and simulation results are in good agreement and highlight the importance of a proper description of the isotropic material. - Highlights: • Simulations of isotropic permanent magnets. • Accurate calculation of remanence magnetization and strayfield. • Comparison with strayfield measurements and anisotropic magnet simulations. • Efficient 3D FEM–BEM coupling for solution of Maxwell equations.

  14. Influence of crosstalk on the fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery pulse sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Tohru; Nonoshita, Koji; Miyazaki, Takayuki; Arima, Akira [Funabashi Municipal Medical Center, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The influence of crosstalk on the fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (fast FLAIR) pulse sequence was studied. On multislice fast FLAIR images, the water null point was shortened in comparison with that on single slice images owing to the crosstalk received from adjacent slices. That influence became greater with decreases in the slice gap and increases in the number of slices. The timing of crosstalk in each slice varied according to excitation order. The process of recovery of longitudinal magnetization changed according to differences in timing; thus, it was possible that the water null point changed in each slice. In brain images with thinner slice gaps, the signal intensity of CSF is increased by the effect of crosstalk. In order to eliminate changes in the water null point caused by crosstalk on fast FLAIR, the multislice sequence requires a sequence with interleaving based on the premise that slice gaps are set for more than 100% of slice thickness. (author)

  15. Influence of crosstalk on the fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Tohru; Nonoshita, Koji; Miyazaki, Takayuki; Arima, Akira

    2000-01-01

    The influence of crosstalk on the fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (fast FLAIR) pulse sequence was studied. On multislice fast FLAIR images, the water null point was shortened in comparison with that on single slice images owing to the crosstalk received from adjacent slices. That influence became greater with decreases in the slice gap and increases in the number of slices. The timing of crosstalk in each slice varied according to excitation order. The process of recovery of longitudinal magnetization changed according to differences in timing; thus, it was possible that the water null point changed in each slice. In brain images with thinner slice gaps, the signal intensity of CSF is increased by the effect of crosstalk. In order to eliminate changes in the water null point caused by crosstalk on fast FLAIR, the multislice sequence requires a sequence with interleaving based on the premise that slice gaps are set for more than 100% of slice thickness. (author)

  16. MRI of the brain stem using fluid attenuated inversion recivery pulse sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Coene, B.; Hajnal, J.V.; Pennock, J.M.; Bydder, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Heavily T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences with inversion times of 2000-2500 ms and echo times of 130-200 ms were used to image the brain stem of a normal adult and five patients. These sequences produce high signal from many white matter tracts and display high lesion contrast. The corticospinal and parietopontine tracts, lateral and medial lemnisci, superior and inferior cerebellar peduncles, medial longitudinal fasciculi, thalamo-olivary tracts the cuneate and gracile fasiculi gave high signal and were directly visualised. The oculomotor and trigeminal nerves were demonstrated within the brain stem. Lesions not seen with conventional T2-weighted spin echo sequences were seen with high contrast in patients with infarction, multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis, chunt obstruction and metastatic tumour. The anatomical detail and high lesion contrast given by the FLAIR pulse sequence appear likely to be of value in diagnosis of disease in the brain stem. (orig.)

  17. Fast spine echo and fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paolillo, Andrea; Giugni, Elisabetta; Bozzao, Alessandro; Bastianello, Stefano

    1997-01-01

    Fast spin echo (FSE) and fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (fast-FLAIR) sequences, were compared with conventional spin echo (CSE) in quantitating multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion burden. For each sequence, the total number and volume of MS lesions were calculated in 38 remitting multiple sclerosis patients using a semiautomated lesion detection program. Conventional spin echo, fast spin echo, and fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery image were reported on randomly and at different times by two expert observers. Interobserver differences, the time needed to quantitative multiple sclerosis lesions and lesion signal intensity (contrast-to-noise ratio and overall contrast) were considered. The lesions were classified by site into infratentorial, white matter and cortical/subcortical. A total of 2970 lesions with a volume of 961.7 cm 3 was calculated on conventional spin echo images. Fast spin echo images depicted fewer (16.6%; p < .005) and smaller (24.9%; p < .0001) lesions and the differences were statistically significant. Despite an overall nonsignificant reduction for fast-FLAIR images (-5% and 4.8% for lesion number and volume, respectively), significantly lower values (lesion number: p < 0.1; volume: p < .04)were observed for infratentorial lesions, while significantly higher values were seen for cortical/subcortical lesions (lesion number: p < .01; volume: p < .02). A higher lesion/white matter contrast (p < .002), a significant time saving for lesion burden quantitation (p < .05) and very low interobserver variability were found in favor of fast-FLAIR. Our data suggest that, despite the limitations regarding infratentorial lesions, fast-FLAIR sequences are indicated in R studies because of their good identification of cortical/subcortical lesions, almost complete interobserver agreement, higher contrast-to-noise ratio and limited time needed for semiautomated quantitation

  18. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities in predicting cerebral hyperperfusion after intracranial arterial stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Chih-Cheng; Chen, David Yen-Ting; Tseng, Ying-Chi; Lee, Kun-Yu; Chiang, Chen-Hua; Chen, Chi-Jen [Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shuang-Ho Hospital, New Taipei City (China); Taipei Medical University, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei (China); Yan, Feng-Xian [Taipei Medical University, Department of Radiology, Shuang-Ho Hospital, New Taipei City (China)

    2017-08-15

    No reliable imaging sign predicting cerebral hyperperfusion after intracranial arterial stenting (IAS) had been described in the literature. This study evaluated the effect of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities (FVHs), also called hyperintense vessel sign on T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR) MR images, in predicting significant increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) defined by arterial spin labeling (ASL) after IAS. We reviewed ASL CBF images and T2-FLAIR MR images before (D0), 1 day after (D1), and 3 days after (D3) IAS of 16 patients. T1-weighted MR images were used as cerebral maps for calculating CBF. The changes in CBF values after IAS were calculated in and compared among stenting and nonstenting vascular territories. An increase more than 50% of CBF was considered as hyperperfusion. The effect of FVHs in predicting hyperperfusion was calculated. The D1 CBF value was significantly higher than the D0 CBF value in stenting vascular, contralateral anterior cerebral artery, contralateral middle cerebral artery, and contralateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories (all P <.05). The D1 and D3 CBF values were significantly higher than the D0 CBF value in overall vascular (P <.001), overall nonstenting vascular (P <.001), and ipsilateral PCA (P <.05) territories. The rate of more than 50% increases in CBF was significantly higher in patients who exhibited asymmetric FVHs than in those who did not exhibit these findings. FVHs could be a critical predictor of a significant increase in CBF after IAS. (orig.)

  19. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities in predicting cerebral hyperperfusion after intracranial arterial stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Chih-Cheng; Chen, David Yen-Ting; Tseng, Ying-Chi; Lee, Kun-Yu; Chiang, Chen-Hua; Chen, Chi-Jen; Yan, Feng-Xian

    2017-01-01

    No reliable imaging sign predicting cerebral hyperperfusion after intracranial arterial stenting (IAS) had been described in the literature. This study evaluated the effect of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities (FVHs), also called hyperintense vessel sign on T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR) MR images, in predicting significant increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) defined by arterial spin labeling (ASL) after IAS. We reviewed ASL CBF images and T2-FLAIR MR images before (D0), 1 day after (D1), and 3 days after (D3) IAS of 16 patients. T1-weighted MR images were used as cerebral maps for calculating CBF. The changes in CBF values after IAS were calculated in and compared among stenting and nonstenting vascular territories. An increase more than 50% of CBF was considered as hyperperfusion. The effect of FVHs in predicting hyperperfusion was calculated. The D1 CBF value was significantly higher than the D0 CBF value in stenting vascular, contralateral anterior cerebral artery, contralateral middle cerebral artery, and contralateral posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories (all P <.05). The D1 and D3 CBF values were significantly higher than the D0 CBF value in overall vascular (P <.001), overall nonstenting vascular (P <.001), and ipsilateral PCA (P <.05) territories. The rate of more than 50% increases in CBF was significantly higher in patients who exhibited asymmetric FVHs than in those who did not exhibit these findings. FVHs could be a critical predictor of a significant increase in CBF after IAS. (orig.)

  20. Open 3D Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many professionals and 3D artists consider Blender as being the best open source solution for 3D computer graphics. The main features are related to modeling, rendering, shading, imaging, compositing, animation, physics and particles and realtime 3D/game creation.

  1. Refined 3d-3d correspondence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F.; Genolini, Pietro Benetti; Bullimore, Mathew; Loon, Mark van [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Andrew Wiles Building,Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-28

    We explore aspects of the correspondence between Seifert 3-manifolds and 3d N=2 supersymmetric theories with a distinguished abelian flavour symmetry. We give a prescription for computing the squashed three-sphere partition functions of such 3d N=2 theories constructed from boundary conditions and interfaces in a 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory, mirroring the construction of Seifert manifold invariants via Dehn surgery. This is extended to include links in the Seifert manifold by the insertion of supersymmetric Wilson-’t Hooft loops in the 4d N=2{sup ∗} theory. In the presence of a mass parameter for the distinguished flavour symmetry, we recover aspects of refined Chern-Simons theory with complex gauge group, and in particular construct an analytic continuation of the S-matrix of refined Chern-Simons theory.

  2. A 3d-3d appetizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Du; Ye, Ke [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2016-11-02

    We test the 3d-3d correspondence for theories that are labeled by Lens spaces. We find a full agreement between the index of the 3d N=2 “Lens space theory” T[L(p,1)] and the partition function of complex Chern-Simons theory on L(p,1). In particular, for p=1, we show how the familiar S{sup 3} partition function of Chern-Simons theory arises from the index of a free theory. For large p, we find that the index of T[L(p,1)] becomes a constant independent of p. In addition, we study T[L(p,1)] on the squashed three-sphere S{sub b}{sup 3}. This enables us to see clearly, at the level of partition function, to what extent G{sub ℂ} complex Chern-Simons theory can be thought of as two copies of Chern-Simons theory with compact gauge group G.

  3. 3D virtuel udstilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournay, Bruno; Rüdiger, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s.......3d digital model af Arkitektskolens gård med virtuel udstilling af afgangsprojekter fra afgangen sommer 2006. 10 s....

  4. Revisiting the relationship of three-dimensional fluid attenuation inversion recovery imaging and hearing outcomes in adults with idiopathic unilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Wen-Huei [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hsiu-Mei [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hung-Yi [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Tu, Tzong-Yang; Shiao, An-Suey [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Castillo, Mauricio [Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599-7510 (United States); Hung, Sheng-Che, E-mail: hsz829@gmail.com [School of Medicine, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, 11217, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, 11221, Taiwan (China)

    2016-12-15

    Background and purpose: Three-dimensional fluid attenuation inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) may demonstrate high signal in the inner ears of patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL), but the correlations of this finding with outcomes are still controversial. Here we compared 4 3D MRI sequences with the outcomes of patients with ISSNHL. Materials and methods: 77 adult patients with ISSNHL underwent MRI with pre contrast FLAIR, fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition images (FIESTA-C), post contrast T1WI and post contrast FLAIR. The extent and degree of high signal in both cochleas were evaluated in all patients, and asymmetry ratios between the affected ears and the normal ones were calculated. The relationships among MRI findings, including extent and asymmetry of abnormal cochlear high signals, degree of FLAIR enhancement, and clinical information, including age, vestibular symptoms, baseline hearing loss, and final hearing outcomes were analyzed. Results: 54 patients (28 men; age, 52.1 ± 15.5 years) were included in our study. Asymmetric cochlear signal intensities were more frequently observed in pre contrast and post contrast FLAIR (79.6% and 68.5%) than in FIESTA-C (61.1%) and T1WI (51.9%) (p < 0.001). Age, baseline hearing loss, extent of high signal and asymmetry ratios of pre contrast and post contrast FLAIR were all correlated with final hearing outcomes. In multivariate analysis, age and the extent of high signals were the most significant predictors of final hearing outcomes. Conclusion: 3D FLAIR provides a higher sensitivity in detecting the asymmetric cochlear signal abnormality. The more asymmetric FLAIR signals and presence of high signals beyond cochlea indicated a poorer prognosis.

  5. Underwater 3D filming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Rinaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Underwater filming in 3D was not that easy and effective as filming in 2D, since not long ago. After almost 3 years of research, a French, Austrian and Italian team realized a perfect tool to film underwater, in 3D, without any constrains. This allows filmmakers to bring the audience deep inside an environment where they most probably will never have the chance to be.

  6. Underwater 3D filming

    OpenAIRE

    Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    After an experimental phase of many years, 3D filming is now effective and successful. Improvements are still possible, but the film industry achieved memorable success on 3D movie’s box offices due to the overall quality of its products. Special environments such as space (“Gravity” ) and the underwater realm look perfect to be reproduced in 3D. “Filming in space” was possible in “Gravity” using special effects and computer graphic. The underwater realm is still difficult to be handled. Unde...

  7. Blender 3D cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    This book is aimed at the professionals that already have good 3D CGI experience with commercial packages and have now decided to try the open source Blender and want to experiment with something more complex than the average tutorials on the web. However, it's also aimed at the intermediate Blender users who simply want to go some steps further.It's taken for granted that you already know how to move inside the Blender interface, that you already have 3D modeling knowledge, and also that of basic 3D modeling and rendering concepts, for example, edge-loops, n-gons, or samples. In any case, it'

  8. Comparison of post-contrast 3D-T1-MPRAGE, 3D-T1-SPACE and 3D-T2-FLAIR MR images in evaluation of meningeal abnormalities at 3-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandham, Balaji; Kalyanpur, Tejas; Gupta, Prashant; Cherian, Mathew

    2017-06-01

    This study was to assess the usefulness of newer three-dimensional (3D)-T 1 sampling perfection with application optimized contrast using different flip-angle evolutions (SPACE) and 3D-T 2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences in evaluation of meningeal abnormalities. 78 patients who presented with high suspicion of meningeal abnormalities were evaluated using post-contrast 3D-T 2 -FLAIR, 3D-T 1 magnetization-prepared rapid gradient-echo (MPRAGE) and 3D-T 1 -SPACE sequences. The images were evaluated independently by two radiologists for cortical gyral, sulcal space, basal cisterns and dural enhancement. The diagnoses were confirmed by further investigations including histopathology. Post-contrast 3D-T 1 -SPACE and 3D-T 2 -FLAIR images yielded significantly more information than MPRAGE images (p evaluation of meningeal abnormalities and when used in combination have the maximum sensitivity for leptomeningeal abnormalities. The negative-predictive value is nearly 100%, where no leptomeningeal abnormality was detected on these sequences. Advances in knowledge: Post-contrast 3D-T 1 -SPACE and 3D-T 2 -FLAIR images are more useful than 3D-T 1 -MPRAGE images in evaluation of meningeal abnormalities.

  9. DELTA 3D PRINTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘOVĂILĂ Florin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing is a very used process in industry, the generic name being “rapid prototyping”. The essential advantage of a 3D printer is that it allows the designers to produce a prototype in a very short time, which is tested and quickly remodeled, considerably reducing the required time to get from the prototype phase to the final product. At the same time, through this technique we can achieve components with very precise forms, complex pieces that, through classical methods, could have been accomplished only in a large amount of time. In this paper, there are presented the stages of a 3D model execution, also the physical achievement after of a Delta 3D printer after the model.

  10. Ivy Sign on Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images in Moyamoya Disease: Correlation with Clinical Severity and Old Brain Lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Kwon-Duk; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Ji Hwa; Ahn, Sung Jun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Leptomeningeal collateral, in moyamoya disease (MMD), appears as an ivy sign on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. There has been little investigation into the relationship between presentation of ivy signs and old brain lesions. We aimed to evaluate clinical significance of ivy signs and whether they correlate with old brain lesions and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with MMD. Materials and Methods FLAIR images of 83 patients were reviewed. Each cerebr...

  11. Professional Papervision3D

    CERN Document Server

    Lively, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Professional Papervision3D describes how Papervision3D works and how real world applications are built, with a clear look at essential topics such as building websites and games, creating virtual tours, and Adobe's Flash 10. Readers learn important techniques through hands-on applications, and build on those skills as the book progresses. The companion website contains all code examples, video step-by-step explanations, and a collada repository.

  12. Contrast-enhanced fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MR imaging in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Kyo; Na, Dong Gyu; Ryoo, Wook Jae; Byun Hong Sik; Yoon, Hye Kyung; Kim, Jong hyun

    2000-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (fast FLAIR) MR imaging in patients with brain tumors. This study involved 31 patients with pathologically proven brain tumors and nine with clinically diagnosed metastases. In all patients, T2-weighted, fast FLAIR, images were visual contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images were obtained. Contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR images were visually compared with other MR sequences in terms of tumor conspicuity. In order to distinguish tumor and surrounding edema, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR images were compared with fast FLAIR and T2-weighted images. The tumor-to- white matter contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs), as demonstrated by T2-weighted, fast FLAIR, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, were quantitatively assessed and compared. For the visual assessment of tumor conspicuity, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR image imaging superior to fast FLAIR in 60% of cases (24/40), and superior to T2-weighted in 70% (28/40). Contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR imaging was inferior to contrast-enhanced T1-weighted in 58% of cases (23/40). For distinguishing between tumor and surrounding edema, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR imaging was superior to fast FLAIR or T2-weighted in 22 of 27 tumors with peritumoral edema (81%). Quantitatively, CNR was the highest on contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR image and the lowest on fast FLAIR. For the detection of leptomeningeal metastases, contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR was partially superior to contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging in two of three high-grade gliomas. Although contrast-enhanced fast FLAIR imaging should not be seen as a replacement for conventional modalities, it provides additional informaton for assessment of the extent of glial cell tumors and leptomeningeal metastases in patients with brain tumors. (author)

  13. 3D-MR vs. 3D-CT of the shoulder in patients with glenohumeral instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillwater, Laurence; Koenig, James; Maycher, Bruce; Davidson, Michael [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2017-03-15

    To determine whether 3D-MR osseous reformats of the shoulder are equivalent to 3D-CT osseous reformats in patients with glenohumeral instability. Patients with glenohumeral instability, who were to be imaged with both CT and MRI, were prospectively selected. CT and MR were performed within 24 h of one another on 12 shoulders. Each MR study included an axial 3D isotropic VIBE sequence. The image data from the isotropic VIBE sequence were post-processed using subtraction and 3D software. CT data were post-processed using 3D software. The following measurements were obtained for both 3D-CT and 3D-MR post-processed images: height and width of the humeral head and glenoid, Hill-Sachs size and percent humeral head loss (if present), size of glenoid bone loss and percent glenoid bone loss (if present). Paired t-tests and two one-sided tests for equivalence were used to assess the differences between imaging modalities and equivalence. The measurement differences from the 3D-CT and 3D-MR post-processed images were not statistically significant. The measurement differences for humeral height, glenoid height and glenoid width were borderline statistically significant; however, using any adjustment for multiple comparisons, this failed to be significant. Using an equivalence margin of 1 mm for measurements and 1.5% for percent bone loss, the 3D-MR and 3D-CT post-processed images were equivalent. Three-dimensional-MR osseous models of the shoulder using a 3D isotropic VIBE sequence were equivalent to 3D-CT osseous models, and the differences between modalities were not statistically significant. (orig.)

  14. Wearable 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Imura, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Wearable 3D measurement realizes to acquire 3D information of an objects or an environment using a wearable computer. Recently, we can send voice and sound as well as pictures by mobile phone in Japan. Moreover it will become easy to capture and send data of short movie by it. On the other hand, the computers become compact and high performance. And it can easy connect to Internet by wireless LAN. Near future, we can use the wearable computer always and everywhere. So we will be able to send the three-dimensional data that is measured by wearable computer as a next new data. This paper proposes the measurement method and system of three-dimensional data of an object with the using of wearable computer. This method uses slit light projection for 3D measurement and user"s motion instead of scanning system.

  15. 3D Digital Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundebøl, Jesper

    wave of new building information modelling tools demands further investigation, not least because of industry representatives' somewhat coarse parlance: Now the word is spreading -3D digital modelling is nothing less than a revolution, a shift of paradigm, a new alphabet... Research qeustions. Based...... on empirical probes (interviews, observations, written inscriptions) within the Danish construction industry this paper explores the organizational and managerial dynamics of 3D Digital Modelling. The paper intends to - Illustrate how the network of (non-)human actors engaged in the promotion (and arrest) of 3...... important to appreciate the analysis. Before turning to the presentation of preliminary findings and a discussion of 3D digital modelling, it begins, however, with an outline of industry specific ICT strategic issues. Paper type. Multi-site field study...

  16. 3D ARCHITECTURAL VIDEOMAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Catanese

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 3D architectural mapping is a video projection technique that can be done with a survey of a chosen building in order to realize a perfect correspondence between its shapes and the images in projection. As a performative kind of audiovisual artifact, the real event of the 3D mapping is a combination of a registered video animation file with a real architecture. This new kind of visual art is becoming very popular and its big audience success testifies new expressive chances in the field of urban design. My case study has been experienced in Pisa for the Luminara feast in 2012.

  17. Interaktiv 3D design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, René Domine; Ørstrup, Finn Rude

    2002-01-01

    Projektet undersøger potentialet for interaktiv 3D design via Internettet. Arkitekt Jørn Utzons projekt til Espansiva blev udviklet som et byggesystem med det mål, at kunne skabe mangfoldige planmuligheder og mangfoldige facade- og rumudformninger. Systemets bygningskomponenter er digitaliseret som...... 3D elementer og gjort tilgængelige. Via Internettet er det nu muligt at sammenstille og afprøve en uendelig  række bygningstyper som  systemet blev tænkt og udviklet til....

  18. 3D Projection Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halskov, Kim; Johansen, Stine Liv; Bach Mikkelsen, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional projection installations are particular kinds of augmented spaces in which a digital 3-D model is projected onto a physical three-dimensional object, thereby fusing the digital content and the physical object. Based on interaction design research and media studies, this article ...... Fingerplan to Loop City, is a 3-D projection installation presenting the history and future of city planning for the Copenhagen area in Denmark. The installation was presented as part of the 12th Architecture Biennale in Venice in 2010....

  19. Herramientas SIG 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco R. Feito Higueruela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Applications of Geographical Information Systems on several Archeology fields have been increasing during the last years. Recent avances in these technologies make possible to work with more realistic 3D models. In this paper we introduce a new paradigm for this system, the GIS Thetrahedron, in which we define the fundamental elements of GIS, in order to provide a better understanding of their capabilities. At the same time the basic 3D characteristics of some comercial and open source software are described, as well as the application to some samples on archeological researchs

  20. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip; Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions 〈ψψψψ〉 in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ×ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C{sub T}. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the Gross-Neveu models at large N. We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  1. Shaping 3-D boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenholt, Rasmus; Madsen, Claus B.

    2011-01-01

    Enabling users to shape 3-D boxes in immersive virtual environments is a non-trivial problem. In this paper, a new family of techniques for creating rectangular boxes of arbitrary position, orientation, and size is presented and evaluated. These new techniques are based solely on position data...

  2. 3D Wire 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordi, Moréton; F, Escribano; J. L., Farias

    This document is a general report on the implementation of gamification in 3D Wire 2015 event. As the second gamification experience in this event, we have delved deeply in the previous objectives (attracting public areas less frequented exhibition in previous years and enhance networking) and have...

  3. 3D Harmonic Echocardiography:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Voormolen (Marco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThree dimensional (3D) echocardiography has recently developed from an experimental technique in the ’90 towards an imaging modality for the daily clinical practice. This dissertation describes the considerations, implementation, validation and clinical application of a unique

  4. Intra-connected three-dimensionally isotropic bulk negative index photonic metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guney, Durdu; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas

    2010-01-01

    Isotropic negative index metamaterials (NIMs) are highly desired, particularly for the realization of ultra-high resolution lenses. However, existing isotropic NIMs function only two-dimensionally and cannot be miniaturized beyond microwaves. Direct laser writing processes can be a paradigm shift toward the fabrication of three-dimensionally (3D) isotropic bulk optical metamaterials, but only at the expense of an additional design constraint, namely connectivity. Here, we demonstrate with a proof-of-principle design that the requirement connectivity does not preclude fully isotropic left-handed behavior. This is an important step towards the realization of bulk 3D isotropic NIMs at optical wavelengths.

  5. Phase correction for three-dimensional (3D) diffusion-weighted interleaved EPI using 3D multiplexed sensitivity encoding and reconstruction (3D-MUSER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hing-Chiu; Hui, Edward S; Chiu, Pui-Wai; Liu, Xiaoxi; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2018-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) multiplexed sensitivity encoding and reconstruction (3D-MUSER) algorithm is proposed to reduce aliasing artifacts and signal corruption caused by inter-shot 3D phase variations in 3D diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (DW-EPI). 3D-MUSER extends the original framework of multiplexed sensitivity encoding (MUSE) to a hybrid k-space-based reconstruction, thereby enabling the correction of inter-shot 3D phase variations. A 3D single-shot EPI navigator echo was used to measure inter-shot 3D phase variations. The performance of 3D-MUSER was evaluated by analyses of point-spread function (PSF), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and artifact levels. The efficacy of phase correction using 3D-MUSER for different slab thicknesses and b-values were investigated. Simulations showed that 3D-MUSER could eliminate artifacts because of through-slab phase variation and reduce noise amplification because of SENSE reconstruction. All aliasing artifacts and signal corruption in 3D interleaved DW-EPI acquired with different slab thicknesses and b-values were reduced by our new algorithm. A near-whole brain single-slab 3D DTI with 1.3-mm isotropic voxel acquired at 1.5T was successfully demonstrated. 3D phase correction for 3D interleaved DW-EPI data is made possible by 3D-MUSER, thereby improving feasible slab thickness and maximum feasible b-value. Magn Reson Med 79:2702-2712, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Isotropic Negative Thermal Expansion Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lingling; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji

    2016-07-13

    Negative thermal expansion materials are important and desirable in science and engineering applications. However, natural materials with isotropic negative thermal expansion are rare and usually unsatisfied in performance. Here, we propose a novel method to achieve two- and three-dimensional negative thermal expansion metamaterials via antichiral structures. The two-dimensional metamaterial is constructed with unit cells that combine bimaterial strips and antichiral structures, while the three-dimensional metamaterial is fabricated by a multimaterial 3D printing process. Both experimental and simulation results display isotropic negative thermal expansion property of the samples. The effective coefficient of negative thermal expansion of the proposed models is demonstrated to be dependent on the difference between the thermal expansion coefficient of the component materials, as well as on the circular node radius and the ligament length in the antichiral structures. The measured value of the linear negative thermal expansion coefficient of the three-dimensional sample is among the largest achieved in experiments to date. Our findings provide an easy and practical approach to obtaining materials with tunable negative thermal expansion on any scale.

  7. 3D Surgical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive ...

  8. A case of Marchiafava-Bignami disease: MRI findings on spin-echo and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takashi; Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Araki, Yutaka; Nishimura, Yasumasa

    2000-01-01

    Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) was diagnosed in a 56-year-old man. Spin-echo (SE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the acute phase showed normal signal areas in the central layer of the corpus callosum (CC), although the intensity of these areas revealed abnormal hyperintensity on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). On follow-up SE MRI at the late phase, the central layer of the CC showed fluid-like intensity. On FLAIR MRI, the lesions of the CC turned into hypointense cores surrounded by hyperintense rims indicating central necrosis and peripheral demyelination. Degenerative changes of the CC in MBD were clearly demonstrated by FLAIR MRI

  9. Tangible 3D Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejlesen, Aske K.; Ovesen, Nis

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental approach to teaching 3D modelling techniques in an Industrial Design programme. The approach includes the use of tangible free form models as tools for improving the overall learning. The paper is based on lecturer and student experiences obtained through...... facilitated discussions during the course as well as through a survey distributed to the participating students. The analysis of the experiences shows a mixed picture consisting of both benefits and limits to the experimental technique. A discussion about the applicability of the technique and about...

  10. Diffusion approximation for modeling of 3-D radiation distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zardecki, A.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; De Kinder, R.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional transport code DIF3D, based on the diffusion approximation, is used to model the spatial distribution of radiation energy arising from volumetric isotropic sources. Future work will be concerned with the determination of irradiances and modeling of realistic scenarios, relevant to the battlefield conditions. 8 refs., 4 figs

  11. Visualization and computer graphics on isotropically emissive volumetric displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Benjamin; Maciejewski, Ross; Chen, Min; Ebert, David S

    2009-01-01

    The availability of commodity volumetric displays provides ordinary users with a new means of visualizing 3D data. Many of these displays are in the class of isotropically emissive light devices, which are designed to directly illuminate voxels in a 3D frame buffer, producing X-ray-like visualizations. While this technology can offer intuitive insight into a 3D object, the visualizations are perceptually different from what a computer graphics or visualization system would render on a 2D screen. This paper formalizes rendering on isotropically emissive displays and introduces a novel technique that emulates traditional rendering effects on isotropically emissive volumetric displays, delivering results that are much closer to what is traditionally rendered on regular 2D screens. Such a technique can significantly broaden the capability and usage of isotropically emissive volumetric displays. Our method takes a 3D dataset or object as the input, creates an intermediate light field, and outputs a special 3D volume dataset called a lumi-volume. This lumi-volume encodes approximated rendering effects in a form suitable for display with accumulative integrals along unobtrusive rays. When a lumi-volume is fed directly into an isotropically emissive volumetric display, it creates a 3D visualization with surface shading effects that are familiar to the users. The key to this technique is an algorithm for creating a 3D lumi-volume from a 4D light field. In this paper, we discuss a number of technical issues, including transparency effects due to the dimension reduction and sampling rates for light fields and lumi-volumes. We show the effectiveness and usability of this technique with a selection of experimental results captured from an isotropically emissive volumetric display, and we demonstrate its potential capability and scalability with computer-simulated high-resolution results.

  12. 3D Surgical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevidanes, Lucia; Tucker, Scott; Styner, Martin; Kim, Hyungmin; Chapuis, Jonas; Reyes, Mauricio; Proffit, William; Turvey, Timothy; Jaskolka, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of methods for computer-aided jaw surgery. Computer-aided jaw surgery allows us to incorporate the high level of precision necessary for transferring virtual plans into the operating room. We also present a complete computer-aided surgery (CAS) system developed in close collaboration with surgeons. Surgery planning and simulation include construction of 3D surface models from Cone-beam CT (CBCT), dynamic cephalometry, semi-automatic mirroring, interactive cutting of bone and bony segment repositioning. A virtual setup can be used to manufacture positioning splints for intra-operative guidance. The system provides further intra-operative assistance with the help of a computer display showing jaw positions and 3D positioning guides updated in real-time during the surgical procedure. The CAS system aids in dealing with complex cases with benefits for the patient, with surgical practice, and for orthodontic finishing. Advanced software tools for diagnosis and treatment planning allow preparation of detailed operative plans, osteotomy repositioning, bone reconstructions, surgical resident training and assessing the difficulties of the surgical procedures prior to the surgery. CAS has the potential to make the elaboration of the surgical plan a more flexible process, increase the level of detail and accuracy of the plan, yield higher operative precision and control, and enhance documentation of cases. Supported by NIDCR DE017727, and DE018962 PMID:20816308

  13. 3D print of polymer bonded rare-earth magnets, and 3D magnetic field scanning with an end-user 3D printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, C.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Groenefeld, M.; Muthsam, O.; Schuschnigg, S.; Sirak, K.; Thanhoffer, R.; Teliban, I.; Vogler, C.; Windl, R.; Suess, D.

    2016-10-01

    3D print is a recently developed technique, for single-unit production, and for structures that have been impossible to build previously. The current work presents a method to 3D print polymer bonded isotropic hard magnets with a low-cost, end-user 3D printer. Commercially available isotropic NdFeB powder inside a PA11 matrix is characterized, and prepared for the printing process. An example of a printed magnet with a complex shape that was designed to generate a specific stray field is presented, and compared with finite element simulation solving the macroscopic Maxwell equations. For magnetic characterization, and comparing 3D printed structures with injection molded parts, hysteresis measurements are performed. To measure the stray field outside the magnet, the printer is upgraded to a 3D magnetic flux density measurement system. To skip an elaborate adjusting of the sensor, a simulation is used to calibrate the angles, sensitivity, and the offset of the sensor. With this setup, a measurement resolution of 0.05 mm along the z-axes is achievable. The effectiveness of our calibration method is shown. With our setup, we are able to print polymer bonded magnetic systems with the freedom of having a specific complex shape with locally tailored magnetic properties. The 3D scanning setup is easy to mount, and with our calibration method we are able to get accurate measuring results of the stray field.

  14. Mobile 3D tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illerhaus, Bernhard; Goebbels, Juergen; Onel, Yener; Sauerwein, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Mobile tomographs often have the problem that high spatial resolution is impossible owing to the position or setup of the tomograph. While the tree tomograph developed by Messrs. Isotopenforschung Dr. Sauerwein GmbH worked well in practice, it is no longer used as the spatial resolution and measuring time are insufficient for many modern applications. The paper shows that the mechanical base of the method is sufficient for 3D CT measurements with modern detectors and X-ray tubes. CT measurements with very good statistics take less than 10 min. This means that mobile systems can be used, e.g. in examinations of non-transportable cultural objects or monuments. Enhancement of the spatial resolution of mobile tomographs capable of measuring in any position is made difficult by the fact that the tomograph has moving parts and will therefore have weight shifts. With the aid of tomographies whose spatial resolution is far higher than the mechanical accuracy, a correction method is presented for direct integration of the Feldkamp algorithm [de

  15. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-07-13

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  16. 3D Printing and 3D Bioprinting in Pediatrics

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayavenkataraman, Sanjairaj; Fuh, Jerry Y H; Lu, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, commonly referred to as 3D printing, is a technology that builds three-dimensional structures and components layer by layer. Bioprinting is the use of 3D printing technology to fabricate tissue constructs for regenerative medicine from cell-laden bio-inks. 3D printing and bioprinting have huge potential in revolutionizing the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This paper reviews the application of 3D printing and bioprinting in the field of pediatrics.

  17. 3D printing for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hausman, Kalani Kirk

    2014-01-01

    Get started printing out 3D objects quickly and inexpensively! 3D printing is no longer just a figment of your imagination. This remarkable technology is coming to the masses with the growing availability of 3D printers. 3D printers create 3-dimensional layered models and they allow users to create prototypes that use multiple materials and colors.  This friendly-but-straightforward guide examines each type of 3D printing technology available today and gives artists, entrepreneurs, engineers, and hobbyists insight into the amazing things 3D printing has to offer. You'll discover methods for

  18. Efficacy of the fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence of MRI as a preoperative diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morioka, Takato; Nishio, Shunji; Mihara, Futoshi; Muraishi, Mitsuteru; Hisada, Kei; Hasuo, Kanehiro; Fukui, Masashi

    1998-01-01

    A newly advanced MRI pulse sequence, the FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) imaging, in which a long TE spin echo sequence is used with suppression of the CSF with an inversion pulse, displays the CSF space as a no-signal intensity area. There have been only a few reports on the FLAIR pulse sequence of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) as yet. We examined 9 cases of intractable TLE by FLAIR images and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the FLAIR pulse sequence for decision making on temporal lobectomy. All patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy with hippocampectomy, and the diagnoses were confirmed histologically after surgery. Abnormally high T2 signals (HT2S) were more conspicuous with the FLAIR sequence than with any of the conventional sequences. Tilted axial plane, orientated along to the long axis of the hippocampal body, clearly demonstrated hippocampal atrophy (HA). Selection of a FLAIR sequence into the routine MR examination of patients with TLE is recommended. (author)

  19. Clinical usefulness of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences in intracranial lesions focusing on emergent cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramochi, Masashi; Niitsu, Mamoru; Itai, Yuji [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Wada, Mitsuyoshi

    1997-06-01

    Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) Pulse Sequences with inversion times of 1700 ms and echo times of 110 ms were used to demonstrate the brain of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and brain trauma. The long inversion times and long echo times nulls the signal from cerebrospinal fluid and produces heavy T{sub 2} weighting images. We compared FLAIR Pulse Sequences with T{sub 2} weighted image Pulse Sequences for signal intensities of CVD and trauma. FLAIR Pulse Sequences is useful to detect at the periphery of the cerebral hemispheres, but infratentorial small infarctions often cannot be detected for its iso-intensity and slight intensity changes. In all patient of traumatic-subarachnoid hemorrhage (t-SAH) can be definitely detected high signal intensity of the cerebral hemispheres. (author)

  20. Importance of contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion reconvery magnetic resonance imaging in various intracranial pathologic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Eun Ja; Kim, Sung Won; Lee, Yong Seok [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Intracranial lesions may show contrast enhancement through various mechanisms that are closely associated with the disease process. The preferred magnetic resonance sequence in contrast imaging is T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) at most institutions. However, lesion enhancement is occasionally inconspicuous on T1WI. Although fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences are commonly considered as T2-weighted imaging with dark cerebrospinal fluid, they also show mild T1-weighted contrast, which is responsible for the contrast enhancement. For several years, FLAIR imaging has been successfully incorporated as a routine sequence at our institution for contrast-enhanced (CE) brain imaging in detecting various intracranial diseases. In this pictorial essay, we describe and illustrate the diagnostic importance of CE-FLAIR imaging in various intracranial pathologic conditions.

  1. 3D steady-state MR cisternography in CSF rhinorrhoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, P.N.; Kovoor, J.M.E.; Srikanth, S.G.; Praharaj, S.S.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the utility of 3D steady-state MR cisternography in the demonstration and localisation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak in patients with clinically suspected CSF rhinorrhoea. Material and Methods: Six consecutive patients with clinically suspected CSF rhinorrhoea were examined with routine MR evaluation and MR cisternography (MRC). All MR examinations included fast spin-echo (SE) T1WI in axial and sagittal planes, fast SE T2WI in axial and coronal planes and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images in the axial plane. 3D evaluation was done using the CISS technique with 0.7-mm thickness in the sagittal and coronal planes. The site and extent of the defect, and any brain herniation detected on MRC were correlated with surgical findings. Results: In the 6 patients who underwent surgical exploration and repair, intraoperative findings correlated with the defect revealed by MRC in all cases. Conclusion: In clinically suspected CSF rhinorrhoea, MRC is highly accurate in localising the site and extent of CSF fistula and may be used as the first investigation due to its efficacy and non-invasive nature

  2. 3-D quantum Heisenberg ferromagnet with random anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, R.M.Z. dos; Santos, Raimundo R. dos; Mariz, A.M.; Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal; Tsallis, C.

    1985-01-01

    Critical properties of the 3-D quantum Heisenberg ferromagnet with random anisotropies; that is, the coupling between any pair of nearest-neighbouring spins can be either isotropic (Heisenberg) or anisotropic (Ising-or XY-like) at random are studied. Within a Migdal-Kadanoff approximation the full critical frontier and correlation length critical exponents are obtained. It is found that the isotropic Heisenberg model is unstable (in the context of universality classes) in the presence of a small concentration of couplings with lower symmetry. (Author) [pt

  3. 3D Volume Rendering and 3D Printing (Additive Manufacturing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katkar, Rujuta A; Taft, Robert M; Grant, Gerald T

    2018-07-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) volume-rendered images allow 3D insight into the anatomy, facilitating surgical treatment planning and teaching. 3D printing, additive manufacturing, and rapid prototyping techniques are being used with satisfactory accuracy, mostly for diagnosis and surgical planning, followed by direct manufacture of implantable devices. The major limitation is the time and money spent generating 3D objects. Printer type, material, and build thickness are known to influence the accuracy of printed models. In implant dentistry, the use of 3D-printed surgical guides is strongly recommended to facilitate planning and reduce risk of operative complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 3D game environments create professional 3D game worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Ahearn, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate resource to help you create triple-A quality art for a variety of game worlds; 3D Game Environments offers detailed tutorials on creating 3D models, applying 2D art to 3D models, and clear concise advice on issues of efficiency and optimization for a 3D game engine. Using Photoshop and 3ds Max as his primary tools, Luke Ahearn explains how to create realistic textures from photo source and uses a variety of techniques to portray dynamic and believable game worlds.From a modern city to a steamy jungle, learn about the planning and technological considerations for 3D modelin

  5. The Future Is 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luke

    2015-01-01

    3D printers are a way of producing a 3D model of an item from a digital file. The model builds up in successive layers of material placed by the printer controlled by the information in the computer file. In this article the author argues that 3D printers are one of the greatest technological advances of recent times. He discusses practical uses…

  6. The 3D additivist cookbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahyari, Morehshin; Rourke, Daniel; Rasch, Miriam

    The 3D Additivist Cookbook, devised and edited by Morehshin Allahyari & Daniel Rourke, is a free compendium of imaginative, provocative works from over 100 world-leading artists, activists and theorists. The 3D Additivist Cookbook contains .obj and .stl files for the 3D printer, as well as critical

  7. Signal alteration of the cochlear perilymph on 3 different sequences after intratympanic Gd-DTPA administration at 3 tesla. Comparison of 3D-FLAIR, 3D-T1-weighted imaging, and 3D-CISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Masahiro; Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi; Nihashi, Takashi; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) imaging after intratympanic gadolinium injection is useful for pathophysiologic and morphologic analysis of the inner ear. However, statistical analysis of differences in inner ear signal intensity among 3D-FLAIR and other sequences has not been reported. We evaluated the signal intensity of cochlear fluid on each of 3D-FLAIR, 3D-T 1 -weighted imaging (T 1 WI), and 3D-constructive interference in the steady state (CISS) to clarify the differences in contrast effect among these 3 sequences using intratympanic gadolinium injection. Twenty-one patients underwent 3D-FLAIR, 3D-T 1 WI, and 3D-CISS imaging at 3 tesla 24 hours after intratympanic injection of gadolinium. We determined regions of interest of the cochleae (C) and medulla oblongata (M) on each image, evaluated the signal intensity ratio between C and M (CM ratio), and determined the ratio of cochlear signal intensity of the injected side to that of the non-injected side (contrast value). The CM ratio of the injected side (3.00±1.31, range, 0.53 to 4.88, on 3D-FLAIR; 0.83±0.30, range, 0.36 to 1.58 on 3D-T 1 WI) was significantly higher than that of the non-injected side (0.52±0.14, range, 0.30 to 0.76 on 3D-FLAIR; 0.49±0.11, range, 0.30 to 0.71 on 3D-T 1 WI) on 3D-FLAIR and 3D-T 1 WI (P 1 WI (1.73±0.60 range, 0.98 to 3.09) (P<0.001). The 3D-FLAIR sequence is the most sensitive for observing alteration in inner ear fluid signal after intratympanic gadolinium injection. Our results warrant use of 3D-FLAIR as a sensitive imaging technique to clarify the pathological and morphological mechanisms of disorders of the inner ear. (author)

  8. Motion robust high resolution 3D free-breathing pulmonary MRI using dynamic 3D image self-navigator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wenwen; Ong, Frank; Johnson, Kevin M; Nagle, Scott K; Hope, Thomas A; Lustig, Michael; Larson, Peder E Z

    2018-06-01

    To achieve motion robust high resolution 3D free-breathing pulmonary MRI utilizing a novel dynamic 3D image navigator derived directly from imaging data. Five-minute free-breathing scans were acquired with a 3D ultrashort echo time (UTE) sequence with 1.25 mm isotropic resolution. From this data, dynamic 3D self-navigating images were reconstructed under locally low rank (LLR) constraints and used for motion compensation with one of two methods: a soft-gating technique to penalize the respiratory motion induced data inconsistency, and a respiratory motion-resolved technique to provide images of all respiratory motion states. Respiratory motion estimation derived from the proposed dynamic 3D self-navigator of 7.5 mm isotropic reconstruction resolution and a temporal resolution of 300 ms was successful for estimating complex respiratory motion patterns. This estimation improved image quality compared to respiratory belt and DC-based navigators. Respiratory motion compensation with soft-gating and respiratory motion-resolved techniques provided good image quality from highly undersampled data in volunteers and clinical patients. An optimized 3D UTE sequence combined with the proposed reconstruction methods can provide high-resolution motion robust pulmonary MRI. Feasibility was shown in patients who had irregular breathing patterns in which our approach could depict clinically relevant pulmonary pathologies. Magn Reson Med 79:2954-2967, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. 3D Spectroscopy in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Arribas, Santiago; Roth, Martin; Cepa-Nogué, Jordi; Sánchez, Francisco

    2011-09-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Introductory review and technical approaches Martin M. Roth; 2. Observational procedures and data reduction James E. H. Turner; 3. 3D Spectroscopy instrumentation M. A. Bershady; 4. Analysis of 3D data Pierre Ferruit; 5. Science motivation for IFS and galactic studies F. Eisenhauer; 6. Extragalactic studies and future IFS science Luis Colina; 7. Tutorials: how to handle 3D spectroscopy data Sebastian F. Sánchez, Begona García-Lorenzo and Arlette Pécontal-Rousset.

  10. 3D Elevation Program—Virtual USA in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Stoker, J.M.

    2016-04-14

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) uses a laser system called ‘lidar’ (light detection and ranging) to create a virtual reality map of the Nation that is very accurate. 3D maps have many uses with new uses being discovered all the time.  

  11. 3D IBFV : Hardware-Accelerated 3D Flow Visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, Alexandru; Wijk, Jarke J. van

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D flow visualization problem in a

  12. 3D IBFV : hardware-accelerated 3D flow visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telea, A.C.; Wijk, van J.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present a hardware-accelerated method for visualizing 3D flow fields. The method is based on insertion, advection, and decay of dye. To this aim, we extend the texture-based IBFV technique presented by van Wijk (2001) for 2D flow visualization in two main directions. First, we decompose the 3D

  13. 3D for Graphic Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Connell, Ellery

    2011-01-01

    Helping graphic designers expand their 2D skills into the 3D space The trend in graphic design is towards 3D, with the demand for motion graphics, animation, photorealism, and interactivity rapidly increasing. And with the meteoric rise of iPads, smartphones, and other interactive devices, the design landscape is changing faster than ever.2D digital artists who need a quick and efficient way to join this brave new world will want 3D for Graphic Designers. Readers get hands-on basic training in working in the 3D space, including product design, industrial design and visualization, modeling, ani

  14. Using 3D in Visualization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Jo; Kirschenbauer, Sabine; Döllner, Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    to display 3D imagery. The extra cartographic degree of freedom offered by using 3D is explored and offered as a motivation for employing 3D in visualization. The use of VR and the construction of virtual environments exploit navigational and behavioral realism, but become most usefil when combined...... with abstracted representations embedded in a 3D space. The interactions between development of geovisualization, the technology used to implement it and the theory surrounding cartographic representation are explored. The dominance of computing technologies, driven particularly by the gaming industry...

  15. Qademah Fault 3D Survey

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Collect 3D seismic data at Qademah Fault location to 1. 3D traveltime tomography 2. 3D surface wave migration 3. 3D phase velocity 4. Possible reflection processing Acquisition Date: 26 – 28 September 2014 Acquisition Team: Sherif, Kai, Mrinal, Bowen, Ahmed Acquisition Layout: We used 288 receiver arranged in 12 parallel lines, each line has 24 receiver. Inline offset is 5 m and crossline offset is 10 m. One shot is fired at each receiver location. We use the 40 kgm weight drop as seismic source, with 8 to 15 stacks at each shot location.

  16. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  17. 3-D printers for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Griffey, Jason

    2014-01-01

    As the maker movement continues to grow and 3-D printers become more affordable, an expanding group of hobbyists is keen to explore this new technology. In the time-honored tradition of introducing new technologies, many libraries are considering purchasing a 3-D printer. Jason Griffey, an early enthusiast of 3-D printing, has researched the marketplace and seen several systems first hand at the Consumer Electronics Show. In this report he introduces readers to the 3-D printing marketplace, covering such topics asHow fused deposition modeling (FDM) printing workBasic terminology such as build

  18. Biocompatible 3D printed magnetic micro needles

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho

    2017-01-30

    Biocompatible functional materials play a significant role in drug delivery, tissue engineering and single cell analysis. We utilized 3D printing to produce high aspect ratio polymer resist microneedles on a silicon substrate and functionalized them by iron coating. Two-photon polymerization lithography has been used for printing cylindrical, pyramidal, and conical needles from a drop cast IP-DIP resist. Experiments with cells were conducted with cylindrical microneedles with 630 ± 15 nm in diameter with an aspect ratio of 1:10 and pitch of 12 μm. The needles have been arranged in square shaped arrays with various dimensions. The iron coating of the needles was 120 ± 15 nm thick and has isotropic magnetic behavior. The chemical composition and oxidation state were determined using energy electron loss spectroscopy, revealing a mixture of iron and Fe3O4 clusters. A biocompatibility assessment was performed through fluorescence microscopy using calcein/EthD-1 live/dead assay. The results show a very high biocompatibility of the iron coated needle arrays. This study provides a strategy to obtain electromagnetically functional microneedles that benefit from the flexibility in terms of geometry and shape of 3D printing. Potential applications are in areas like tissue engineering, single cell analysis or drug delivery.

  19. Biocompatible 3D printed magnetic micro needles

    KAUST Repository

    Kavaldzhiev, Mincho; Perez, Jose E.; Ivanov, Yurii; Bertoncini, Andrea; Liberale, Carlo; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    Biocompatible functional materials play a significant role in drug delivery, tissue engineering and single cell analysis. We utilized 3D printing to produce high aspect ratio polymer resist microneedles on a silicon substrate and functionalized them by iron coating. Two-photon polymerization lithography has been used for printing cylindrical, pyramidal, and conical needles from a drop cast IP-DIP resist. Experiments with cells were conducted with cylindrical microneedles with 630 ± 15 nm in diameter with an aspect ratio of 1:10 and pitch of 12 μm. The needles have been arranged in square shaped arrays with various dimensions. The iron coating of the needles was 120 ± 15 nm thick and has isotropic magnetic behavior. The chemical composition and oxidation state were determined using energy electron loss spectroscopy, revealing a mixture of iron and Fe3O4 clusters. A biocompatibility assessment was performed through fluorescence microscopy using calcein/EthD-1 live/dead assay. The results show a very high biocompatibility of the iron coated needle arrays. This study provides a strategy to obtain electromagnetically functional microneedles that benefit from the flexibility in terms of geometry and shape of 3D printing. Potential applications are in areas like tissue engineering, single cell analysis or drug delivery.

  20. The effect of magnetisation transfer contrast on cerebrospinal fluid on motion artefacts on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile, I.; Principi, M.; Ottaviano, P.; Scapeccia, M.

    2003-01-01

    We assessed possible advantages of the use of fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) sequences with magnetisation-transfer contrast (MTC) over conventional FLAIR images. We carried out cranial MRI at 1 tesla on 50 patients with both sequences. In nine patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) we performed a quantitative comparison of the two sequences, looking at the contrast-to-noise ratio between lesions and normal white matter and counting the number of lesions shown using each method. A qualitative comparison on all patients consisted of the analysis of the appearance of the normal parenchyma, of any lesions, and of artefacts, with particular reference to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) motion artefacts. The quantitative analysis showed no meaningful difference between the two sequences. The cerebral parenchyma and lesions appeared substantially the same with both techniques. With FLAIR MTC there was a clear, and consistent reduction in CSF motion artefacts. FLAIR MTC sequences can usefully be used in place of the conventional sequence at 1 tesla. (orig.)

  1. Fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MR image in the intracranial tumors: comparison with fast spin-echo image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hye Young; Kwang, Hyoen Joo; Baek, Seoung Yeon; Lee, Sun Wha

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery(FLAIR) magnetic resonance(MR) images for the diagnosis of intracranial tumors. MR imaging was used to study 15 patients with various intracranial tumors and were compared the findings according to fast spin echo and fast FLAIR images. In 12 of 15 patients, tumor signal intensities on FLAIR images were consistent with those shown on T2-weighted(T2W) images. In seven of eight patients who had cystic or necrotic components within the mass, FLAIR images showed isosignal intensity and in the other patient, high signal intensity was seen. There was variation in the signal intensity from cerebrospinal fluid(CSF). In 12 of 13 patients in whom edema was associated with tumor, FLAIR images were clearer than T2W images as their signal intensity was brighter. In eight patients, however, FLAIR and T2W images provided a similar definition of the margin between edema and tumor. In six patients with intratumoral hemorrhage except the chronic cystic stage. We concluded that in the diagnosis of intracranial tumors, FLAIR images can supplement conventional spin-echo images

  2. Application of variable threshold intensity to segmentation for white matter hyperintensities in fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Kim, Tae Hui [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Eun Young [Kyungbook National University Chilgok Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Buk-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); MacFall, James R. [Duke University Medical Center, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Payne, Martha E. [Duke University Medical Center, Neuropsychiatric Imaging Research Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Duke University Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Durham, NC (United States); Kim, Jae Hyoung [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Woong [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Natural Sciences, Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, Gwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are regions of abnormally high intensity on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate and reproducible automatic segmentation of WMHs is important since WMHs are often seen in the elderly and are associated with various geriatric and psychiatric disorders. We developed a fully automated monospectral segmentation method for WMHs using FLAIR MRIs. Through this method, we introduce an optimal threshold intensity (I{sub O}) for segmenting WMHs, which varies with WMHs volume (V{sub WMH}), and we establish the I{sub O} -V{sub WMH} relationship. Our method showed accurate validations in volumetric and spatial agreements of automatically segmented WMHs compared with manually segmented WMHs for 32 confirmatory images. Bland-Altman values of volumetric agreement were 0.96 ± 8.311 ml (bias and 95 % confidence interval), and the similarity index of spatial agreement was 0.762 ± 0.127 (mean ± standard deviation). Furthermore, similar validation accuracies were obtained in the images acquired from different scanners. The proposed segmentation method uses only FLAIR MRIs, has the potential to be accurate with images obtained from different scanners, and can be implemented with a fully automated procedure. In our study, validation results were obtained with FLAIR MRIs from only two scanner types. The design of the method may allow its use in large multicenter studies with correct efficiency. (orig.)

  3. Application of variable threshold intensity to segmentation for white matter hyperintensities in fluid attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Byung Il; Han, Ji Won; Oh, San Yeo Wool; Kim, Tae Hui; Lee, Jung Jae; Lee, Eun Young; MacFall, James R.; Payne, Martha E.; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Kim, Ki Woong

    2014-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) are regions of abnormally high intensity on T2-weighted or fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate and reproducible automatic segmentation of WMHs is important since WMHs are often seen in the elderly and are associated with various geriatric and psychiatric disorders. We developed a fully automated monospectral segmentation method for WMHs using FLAIR MRIs. Through this method, we introduce an optimal threshold intensity (I O ) for segmenting WMHs, which varies with WMHs volume (V WMH ), and we establish the I O -V WMH relationship. Our method showed accurate validations in volumetric and spatial agreements of automatically segmented WMHs compared with manually segmented WMHs for 32 confirmatory images. Bland-Altman values of volumetric agreement were 0.96 ± 8.311 ml (bias and 95 % confidence interval), and the similarity index of spatial agreement was 0.762 ± 0.127 (mean ± standard deviation). Furthermore, similar validation accuracies were obtained in the images acquired from different scanners. The proposed segmentation method uses only FLAIR MRIs, has the potential to be accurate with images obtained from different scanners, and can be implemented with a fully automated procedure. In our study, validation results were obtained with FLAIR MRIs from only two scanner types. The design of the method may allow its use in large multicenter studies with correct efficiency. (orig.)

  4. Arterial hyperintensity on BLADE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR) in hyperacute territorial infarction: comparison with conventional FLAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwag, Eujean; Lim, Soo Mee; Park, Ji Eun; Chae, In Hye [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mokdong Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    To evaluate the utility of BLADE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images (FLAIR) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging compared to conventional FLAIR for the detection of arterial hyperintensity (AH) in hyperacute territorial infarction. We retrospectively analysed MR images of patients with hyperacute (<6 h) territorial infarction over a 9-month study period. Special attention was paid to the presence or absence of AH in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes and the number of AHs in the sylvian fissure. We also evaluated the presence of three kinds of artefacts on BLADE FLAIR and conventional FLAIR images. AH was seen in 41 (91 %) patients with conventional FLAIR and 45 (100 %) patients with BLADE FLAIR images. More instances of AH were detected in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes and within the sylvian fissure using BLADE FLAIR. Motion artefacts, pulsation artefacts from the sigmoid sinus and incomplete cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) nulling that reduced image quality were observed more frequently on conventional FLAIR images than on BLADE FLAIR images. BLADE FLAIR sequences are more sensitive than conventional FLAIR for the detection of AH in hyperacute territorial infarctions and provide better image quality by reducing artefacts. They may be used in place of conventional FLAIR for patients with hyperacute stroke. (orig.)

  5. Abusir 3D survey 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinori Kawae

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, in collaboration with the Czech Institute of Egyptology, we, a Japanese consortium, initiated the Abusir 3D Survey (A-3DS for the 3D documentation of the site’s pyramids, which have not been updated since the time of the architectural investigations of Vito Maragioglio and Celeste Rinaldi in the 1960s to the 1970s. The first season of our project focused on the exterior of Neferirkare’s pyramid, the largest pyramid at Abusir. By developing a strategic mathematical 3D survey plan, step-by-step 3D documentation to suit specific archaeological needs, and producing a new display method for the 3D data, we successfully measured the dimensions of the pyramid in a cost-effective way.

  6. Advanced 3-D Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Fischer

    The main purpose of the PhD project was to develop methods that increase the 3-D ultrasound imaging quality available for the medical personnel in the clinic. Acquiring a 3-D volume gives the medical doctor the freedom to investigate the measured anatomy in any slice desirable after the scan has...... been completed. This allows for precise measurements of organs dimensions and makes the scan more operator independent. Real-time 3-D ultrasound imaging is still not as widespread in use in the clinics as 2-D imaging. A limiting factor has traditionally been the low image quality achievable using...... a channel limited 2-D transducer array and the conventional 3-D beamforming technique, Parallel Beamforming. The first part of the scientific contributions demonstrate that 3-D synthetic aperture imaging achieves a better image quality than the Parallel Beamforming technique. Data were obtained using both...

  7. 3D vector flow imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Michael Johannes

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for 3D vector flow imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of velocity estimation in ultrasound, which plays an important role in the clinic. The velocity of blood has components in all three spatial dimensions, yet...... are (vx, vy, vz) = (-0.03, 95, 1.0) ± (9, 6, 1) cm/s compared with the expected (0, 96, 0) cm/s. Afterwards, 3D vector flow images from a cross-sectional plane of the vessel are presented. The out of plane velocities exhibit the expected 2D circular-symmetric parabolic shape. The experimental results...... verify that the 3D TO method estimates the complete 3D velocity vectors, and that the method is suitable for 3D vector flow imaging....

  8. 3D printing in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery.

  9. E3D, 3-D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, S.; Harris, D.; Schultz, C.; Maddix, D.; Bakowsky, T.; Bent, L.

    2004-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output. 2 - Methods: The software simulates wave propagation by solving the elasto-dynamic formulation of the full wave equation on a staggered grid. The solution scheme is 4-order accurate in space, 2-order accurate in time

  10. Isotropic oscillator: spheroidal wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardoyan, L.G.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Ter-Antonyan, V.M.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    Solutions of the Schroedinger equation are found for an isotropic oscillator (10) in prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates. It is shown that the obtained solutions turn into spherical and cylindrical bases of the isotropic oscillator at R→0 and R→ infinity (R is the dimensional parameter entering into the definition of prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates). The explicit form is given for both prolate and oblate basis of the isotropic oscillator for the lowest quantum states

  11. The isotropic Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raine, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    This introduction to contemporary ideas in cosmology differs from other books on the 'expanding Universe' in its emphasis on physical cosmology and on the physical basis of the general theory of relativity. It is considered that the remarkable degree of isotropy, rather than the expansion, can be regarded as the central observational feature of the Universe. The various theories and ideas in 'big-bang' cosmology are discussed, providing an insight into current problems. Chapter headings are: quality of matter; expanding Universe; quality of radiation; quantity of matter; general theory of relativity; cosmological models; cosmological tests; matter and radiation; limits of isotropy; why is the Universe isotropic; singularities; evolution of structure. (U.K.)

  12. 3-D neutron transport benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Ikeda, H.

    1991-03-01

    A set of 3-D neutron transport benchmark problems proposed by the Osaka University to NEACRP in 1988 has been calculated by many participants and the corresponding results are summarized in this report. The results of K eff , control rod worth and region-averaged fluxes for the four proposed core models, calculated by using various 3-D transport codes are compared and discussed. The calculational methods used were: Monte Carlo, Discrete Ordinates (Sn), Spherical Harmonics (Pn), Nodal Transport and others. The solutions of the four core models are quite useful as benchmarks for checking the validity of 3-D neutron transport codes

  13. Handbook of 3D integration

    CERN Document Server

    Garrou , Philip; Ramm , Peter

    2014-01-01

    Edited by key figures in 3D integration and written by top authors from high-tech companies and renowned research institutions, this book covers the intricate details of 3D process technology.As such, the main focus is on silicon via formation, bonding and debonding, thinning, via reveal and backside processing, both from a technological and a materials science perspective. The last part of the book is concerned with assessing and enhancing the reliability of the 3D integrated devices, which is a prerequisite for the large-scale implementation of this emerging technology. Invaluable reading fo

  14. Comparison of three-dimensional isotropic and conventional MR arthrography with respect to the diagnosis of rotator cuff and labral lesions: Focus on isotropic fat-suppressed proton density and VIBE sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.Y.; Lee, I.S.; Park, S.K.; Cheon, S.J.; Ahn, J.M.; Song, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare the diagnostic accuracies of three-dimensional (3D) isotropic magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) using fat-suppressed proton density (PD) or volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with that of conventional MRA for the diagnosis of rotator cuff and labral lesions. Materials and methods: Eighty-six patients who underwent arthroscopic surgery were included. 3D isotropic sequences were performed in the axial plane using fat-suppressed PD (group A) in 53 patients and using VIBE (group B) in 33 patients. Reformatted images were obtained corresponding to conventional images, and evaluated for the presence of labral and rotator cuff lesions using conventional and 3D isotropic sequences. The diagnostic performances of each sequence were determined using arthroscopic findings as the standard. Results: Good to excellent interobserver agreements were obtained for both 3D isotropic sequences for the evaluation of rotator cuff and labral lesions. Excellent agreement was found between two-dimensional (2D) and 3D isotropic MRA, except for supraspinatus tendon (SST) tears by both readers and for subscapularis tendon (SCT) tears by reader 2 in group B. 2D MRA and 3D isotropic sequences had high diagnostic performances for rotator and labral tears, and the difference between the two imaging methods was insignificant. Conclusions: The diagnostic performances of 3D isotropic VIBE and PD sequences were similar to those of 2D MRA

  15. 3D-Flair sequence at 3T in cochlear otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Francesco; De Cori, Sara; Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Montanaro, Domenico; De Marchi, Daniele; Frijia, Francesca; Canapicchi, Raffaello [Fondazione CNR Regione Toscana ' ' G. Monasterio' ' , Neuroradiology Unit, Pisa (Italy); Fortunato, Susanna; Forli, Francesca; Berrettini, Stefano [University of Pisa, ENT Audiology Phoniatry Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Pisa (Italy); Chiappino, Dante [Fondazione CNR Regione Toscana ' ' G. Monasterio' ' , Department of Radiology, Massa (Italy)

    2016-10-15

    To assess the capability of three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) sequences in detecting signal alterations of the endolabyrinthine fluid in patients with otosclerosis. 3D-FLAIR before and after (-/+) gadolinium (Gd) administration was added to the standard MR protocol and acquired in 13 patients with a clinical/audiological diagnosis of severe/profound hearing loss in otosclerosis who were candidates for cochlear implantation and in 11 control subjects using 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The MRI signal of the fluid-filled cochlea was assessed both visually and calculating the signal intensity ratio (SIR = signal intensity cochlea/brainstem). We revealed no endocochlear signal abnormalities on T1-weighted -/+ Gd images for either group, while on 3D-FLAIR we found bilateral hyperintensity with enhancement after Gd administration in eight patients and bilateral hyperintensity without enhancement in one patient. No endocochlear signal abnormalities were detected in other patients or the control group. Using 3-T MRI equipment, the 3D-FLAIR -/+ Gd sequence is able to detect the blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) breakdown responsible for alterations of the endolabyrinthine fluid in patients with cochlear otosclerosis. We believe that 3D-FLAIR +/- Gd is an excellent imaging modality to assess the intra-cochlear damage in otosclerosis patients. (orig.)

  16. 3D-Flair sequence at 3T in cochlear otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, Francesco; De Cori, Sara; Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Montanaro, Domenico; De Marchi, Daniele; Frijia, Francesca; Canapicchi, Raffaello; Fortunato, Susanna; Forli, Francesca; Berrettini, Stefano; Chiappino, Dante

    2016-01-01

    To assess the capability of three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D-FLAIR) sequences in detecting signal alterations of the endolabyrinthine fluid in patients with otosclerosis. 3D-FLAIR before and after (-/+) gadolinium (Gd) administration was added to the standard MR protocol and acquired in 13 patients with a clinical/audiological diagnosis of severe/profound hearing loss in otosclerosis who were candidates for cochlear implantation and in 11 control subjects using 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) equipment. The MRI signal of the fluid-filled cochlea was assessed both visually and calculating the signal intensity ratio (SIR = signal intensity cochlea/brainstem). We revealed no endocochlear signal abnormalities on T1-weighted -/+ Gd images for either group, while on 3D-FLAIR we found bilateral hyperintensity with enhancement after Gd administration in eight patients and bilateral hyperintensity without enhancement in one patient. No endocochlear signal abnormalities were detected in other patients or the control group. Using 3-T MRI equipment, the 3D-FLAIR -/+ Gd sequence is able to detect the blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) breakdown responsible for alterations of the endolabyrinthine fluid in patients with cochlear otosclerosis. We believe that 3D-FLAIR +/- Gd is an excellent imaging modality to assess the intra-cochlear damage in otosclerosis patients. (orig.)

  17. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  18. AI 3D Cybug Gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper I briefly discuss 3D war Game based on artificial intelligence concepts called AI WAR. Going in to the details, I present the importance of CAICL language and how this language is used in AI WAR. Moreover I also present a designed and implemented 3D War Cybug for AI WAR using CAICL and discus the implemented strategy to defeat its enemies during the game life.

  19. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  20. Influence of fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery on stroke apparent diffusion coefficient measurements and its clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni Jianming [Medical Imaging Department, Wuxi Second Hospital Affiliated Nanjing Medical University, 68 Zhong Shan Road, Wuxi, Jiangsu Province 214002 (China); Radiology Department, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 12 Urumqi Middle Road, Shanghai 200040 (China); Nuclear Medicine Department, Renji Hospital, Medical School of Jiaotong University, Dongfang Road 1630, Shanghai 200127 (China); Mogensen, Monique A. [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chen Zengai [Radiology Department, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 12 Urumqi Middle Road, Shanghai 200040 (China); Nuclear Medicine Department, Renji Hospital, Medical School of Jiaotong University, Dongfang Road 1630, Shanghai 200127 (China); Shuang Chen; Shen Tianzhen [Radiology Department, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 12 Urumqi Middle Road, Shanghai 200040 (China); Huang Gang, E-mail: huang2802@163.co [Nuclear Medicine Department, Renji Hospital, Medical School of Jiaotong University, Dongfang Road 1630, Shanghai 200127 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Background and purpose: The application of a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery pulse with a conventional diffusion-weighted MRI sequence (FLAIR DWI) decreases the partial volume effects from cerebrospinal fluid on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements. For this reason, FLAIR DWI may be more useful in the evaluation of ischemic stroke, but few studies have looked at the effect of FLAIR on ADC measurements in this setting. This study quantitatively compares FLAIR DWI and conventional DWI in ischemic stroke of varying ages to assess the potential advantages of this technique. Methods: We respectively analyzed 139 DWI studies in patients with ischemic stroke with and without FLAIR at varying time points ranging from hyperacute to chronic. ADC values were measured in each lesion, as well as in the contralateral normal side. Comparisons were made between the ADC values obtained from the DWI sequences with and without FLAIR for both the lesion and the normal contralateral side. Results: The ADC measurements within the ischemic lesion were very similar on FLAIR DWI and conventional DWI for lesions less than 14 days old (p > 0.05), but were significantly decreased on FLAIR DWI for lesions between 15 and 30 days old and in lesions >31 days old (chronic stage) (p < 0.01). The contralateral ADC values were all significantly decreased on the FLAIR DWI sequence compared with conventional DWI (p < 0.01). Conclusions: The application of an inversion pulse does not significantly affect the ADC values for early stage ischemic stroke (less than 14 days from symptom onset), but results in a more accurate relative ADC measurement by reducing the cerebrospinal fluid partial volume effects of the normal contralateral side. In addition, combined with the conventional DWI, FLAIR DWI may be helpful in determining the age of ischemic lesions.

  1. Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR images in moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Hirokazu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)]. E-mail: hirokazu_fujiwara@ybb.ne.jp; Momoshima, Suketaka [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan); Kuribayashi, Sachio [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo 1608582 (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    Purpose: There are a few reports on leptomeningeal high signal intensity (LMHI: ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images in moyamoya disease, but the feature of this finding has not been completely understood. The purpose of this study was to characterize LMHI on FLAIR images in moyamoya disease and to assess usefulness of this finding in the diagnosis of moyamoya disease in conventional MR imaging. Material and methods: MR imaging of 28 patients with moyamoya disease was retrospectively reviewed. The grade of LMHI on FLAIR images was classified as 'absent,' 'minimal,' 'moderate' and 'marked.' Fifty-four hemispheres of 28 patients (2 patients had unilateral disease) were assessed for the frequency of visualization and distribution of LMHI. The correlations between LMHI on FLAIR images, moyamoya vessels on T1- and T2-weighted images and MR angiography findings were also analyzed. Results: Moderate and marked LMHI was seen in 31 out of 54 hemispheres (57%). LMHI was seen more prominently in the frontal and parietal lobes than in the temporal and occipital lobes. Although there was a tendency for LMHI on FLAIR images to be prominent in groups with moderate and marked moyamoya vessels on T1- and T2-weighted images, there was no significant correlation. More prominent LMHI was observed in the hemispheres in which cortical branches of the middle cerebral arteries were poorly visualized on MR angiography. Conclusion: Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on FLAIR images is predominantly seen in the frontal and parietal lobes. Because this sign can be seen in patients with unremarkable moyamoya vessels, LMHI is a useful sign in conventional MR imaging for the diagnosis of moyamoya disease.

  2. Ivy Sign on Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images in Moyamoya Disease: Correlation with Clinical Severity and Old Brain Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kwon-Duk; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Ji Hwa; Ahn, Sung Jun; Kim, Dong-Seok; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2015-09-01

    Leptomeningeal collateral, in moyamoya disease (MMD), appears as an ivy sign on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) images. There has been little investigation into the relationship between presentation of ivy signs and old brain lesions. We aimed to evaluate clinical significance of ivy signs and whether they correlate with old brain lesions and the severity of clinical symptoms in patients with MMD. FLAIR images of 83 patients were reviewed. Each cerebral hemisphere was divided into 4 regions and each region was scored based on the prominence of the ivy sign. Total ivy score (TIS) was defined as the sum of the scores from the eight regions and dominant hemispheric ivy sign (DHI) was determined by comparing the ivy scores from each hemisphere. According to the degree of ischemic symptoms, patients were classified into four subgroups: 1) nonspecific symptoms without motor weakness, 2) single transient ischemic attack (TIA), 3) recurrent TIA, or 4) complete stroke. TIS was significantly different as follows: 4.86±2.55 in patients with nonspecific symptoms, 5.89±3.10 in patients with single TIA, 9.60±3.98 in patients with recurrent TIA and 8.37±3.39 in patients with complete stroke (p=0.003). TIS associated with old lesions was significantly higher than those not associated with old lesions (9.35±4.22 vs. 7.49±3.37, p=0.032). We found a significant correlation between DHI and motor symptoms (p=0.001). Because TIS has a strong tendency with severity of ischemic motor symptom and the presence of old lesions, the ivy sign may be useful in predicting severity of disease progression.

  3. 3D accelerator magnet calculations using MAGNUS-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pissanetzky, S.; Miao, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The steady trend towards increased magnetic and geometric complexity in the design of accelerator magnets has caused a need for reliable 3D computer models and a better understanding of the behavior of magnetic system in three dimensions. The capabilities of the MAGNUS-3D family of programs are ideally suited to solve this class of problems and provide insight into 3D effects. MAGNUS-3D can solve any problem of magnetostatics involving permanent magnets, nonlinear ferromagnetic materials and electric conductors. MAGNUS-3D uses the finite element method and the two-scalar-potentials formulation of Maxwell's equations to obtain the solution, which can then be used interactively to obtain tables of field components at specific points or lines, plots of field lines, function graphs representing a field component plotted against a coordinate along any line in space (such as the beam line), and views of the conductors, the mesh and the magnetic bodies. The magnetic quantities that can be calculated include the force or torque on conductors or magnetic parts, the energy, the flux through a specified surface, line integrals of any field component along any line in space, and the average field or potential harmonic coefficients. We describe the programs with emphasis placed on their use for accelerator magnet design, and present an advanced example of actual calculations. (orig.)

  4. From 3D view to 3D print

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  5. 3D imaging, 3D printing and 3D virtual planning in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pratik; Chong, B S

    2018-03-01

    The adoption and adaptation of recent advances in digital technology, such as three-dimensional (3D) printed objects and haptic simulators, in dentistry have influenced teaching and/or management of cases involving implant, craniofacial, maxillofacial, orthognathic and periodontal treatments. 3D printed models and guides may help operators plan and tackle complicated non-surgical and surgical endodontic treatment and may aid skill acquisition. Haptic simulators may assist in the development of competency in endodontic procedures through the acquisition of psycho-motor skills. This review explores and discusses the potential applications of 3D printed models and guides, and haptic simulators in the teaching and management of endodontic procedures. An understanding of the pertinent technology related to the production of 3D printed objects and the operation of haptic simulators are also presented.

  6. YouDash3D: exploring stereoscopic 3D gaming for 3D movie theaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, Jonas; Seele, Sven; Masuch, Maic

    2012-03-01

    Along with the success of the digitally revived stereoscopic cinema, events beyond 3D movies become attractive for movie theater operators, i.e. interactive 3D games. In this paper, we present a case that explores possible challenges and solutions for interactive 3D games to be played by a movie theater audience. We analyze the setting and showcase current issues related to lighting and interaction. Our second focus is to provide gameplay mechanics that make special use of stereoscopy, especially depth-based game design. Based on these results, we present YouDash3D, a game prototype that explores public stereoscopic gameplay in a reduced kiosk setup. It features live 3D HD video stream of a professional stereo camera rig rendered in a real-time game scene. We use the effect to place the stereoscopic effigies of players into the digital game. The game showcases how stereoscopic vision can provide for a novel depth-based game mechanic. Projected trigger zones and distributed clusters of the audience video allow for easy adaptation to larger audiences and 3D movie theater gaming.

  7. Materialedreven 3d digital formgivning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Tvede

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med forskningsprojektet er for det første at understøtte keramikeren i at arbejde eksperimenterende med digital formgivning, og for det andet at bidrage til en tværfaglig diskurs om brugen af digital formgivning. Forskningsprojektet fokuserer på 3d formgivning og derved på 3d digital...... formgivning og Rapid Prototyping (RP). RP er en fællesbetegnelse for en række af de teknikker, der muliggør at overføre den digitale form til 3d fysisk form. Forskningsprojektet koncentrerer sig om to overordnede forskningsspørgsmål. Det første handler om, hvordan viden og erfaring indenfor det keramiske...... fagområde kan blive udnyttet i forhold til 3d digital formgivning. Det andet handler om, hvad en sådan tilgang kan bidrage med, og hvordan den kan blive udnyttet i et dynamisk samspil med det keramiske materiale i formgivningen af 3d keramiske artefakter. Materialedreven formgivning er karakteriseret af en...

  8. 3D future internet media

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The main contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Projects ROMEO, which focus on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the Future Internet (www.ict-romeo.eu). The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of constant video quality to both fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will design and develop hybrid-networking solutions that co...

  9. Novel 3D media technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Dagiuklas, Tasos

    2015-01-01

    This book describes recent innovations in 3D media and technologies, with coverage of 3D media capturing, processing, encoding, and adaptation, networking aspects for 3D Media, and quality of user experience (QoE). The contributions are based on the results of the FP7 European Project ROMEO, which focuses on new methods for the compression and delivery of 3D multi-view video and spatial audio, as well as the optimization of networking and compression jointly across the future Internet. The delivery of 3D media to individual users remains a highly challenging problem due to the large amount of data involved, diverse network characteristics and user terminal requirements, as well as the user’s context such as their preferences and location. As the number of visual views increases, current systems will struggle to meet the demanding requirements in terms of delivery of consistent video quality to fixed and mobile users. ROMEO will present hybrid networking solutions that combine the DVB-T2 and DVB-NGH broadcas...

  10. Modification of 3D milling machine to 3D printer

    OpenAIRE

    Taska, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Tato práce se zabývá přestavbou gravírovací frézky na 3D tiskárnu. V první části se práce zabývá možnými technologiemi 3D tisku a možností jejich využití u přestavby. Dále jsou popsány a vybrány vhodné součásti pro přestavbu. V další části je realizováno řízení ohřevu podložky, trysky a řízení posuvu drátu pomocí softwaru TwinCat od společnosti Beckhoff na průmyslovém počítači. Výsledkem práce by měla být oživená 3D tiskárna. This thesis deals with rebuilding of engraving machine to 3D pri...

  11. Aspects of defects in 3d-3d correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gang, Dongmin; Kim, Nakwoo; Romo, Mauricio; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study supersymmetric co-dimension 2 and 4 defects in the compactification of the 6d (2,0) theory of type A_N_−_1 on a 3-manifold M. The so-called 3d-3d correspondence is a relation between complexified Chern-Simons theory (with gauge group SL(N,ℂ)) on M and a 3d N=2 theory T_N[M]. We study this correspondence in the presence of supersymmetric defects, which are knots/links inside the 3-manifold. Our study employs a number of different methods: state-integral models for complex Chern-Simons theory, cluster algebra techniques, domain wall theory T[SU(N)], 5d N=2 SYM, and also supergravity analysis through holography. These methods are complementary and we find agreement between them. In some cases the results lead to highly non-trivial predictions on the partition function. Our discussion includes a general expression for the cluster partition function, which can be used to compute in the presence of maximal and certain class of non-maximal punctures when N>2. We also highlight the non-Abelian description of the 3d N=2T_N[M] theory with defect included, when such a description is available. This paper is a companion to our shorter paper http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/49/30/30LT02, which summarizes our main results.

  12. Stereoscopic 3D graphics generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Liu, Jianping; Zan, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Stereoscopic display technology is one of the key techniques of areas such as simulation, multimedia, entertainment, virtual reality, and so on. Moreover, stereoscopic 3D graphics generation is an important part of stereoscopic 3D display system. In this paper, at first, we describe the principle of stereoscopic display and summarize some methods to generate stereoscopic 3D graphics. Secondly, to overcome the problems which came from the methods of user defined models (such as inconvenience, long modifying period and so on), we put forward the vector graphics files defined method. Thus we can design more directly; modify the model simply and easily; generate more conveniently; furthermore, we can make full use of graphics accelerator card and so on. Finally, we discuss the problem of how to speed up the generation.

  13. 3-D Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Simon

    , if this significant reduction in the element count can still provide precise and robust 3-D vector flow estimates in a plane. The study concludes that the RC array is capable of estimating precise 3-D vector flow both in a plane and in a volume, despite the low channel count. However, some inherent new challenges...... ultrasonic vector flow estimation and bring it a step closer to a clinical application. A method for high frame rate 3-D vector flow estimation in a plane using the transverse oscillation method combined with a 1024 channel 2-D matrix array is presented. The proposed method is validated both through phantom...... hampers the task of real-time processing. In a second study, some of the issue with the 2-D matrix array are solved by introducing a 2-D row-column (RC) addressing array with only 62 + 62 elements. It is investigated both through simulations and via experimental setups in various flow conditions...

  14. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the

  15. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K.; Johnson, Blake N.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and ‘living’ platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with

  16. Ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Botella, Angel [Departamento Fisica Aplicada a los Recursos Naturales, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E.T.S.I. de Montes, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Balbuena, Antonio Alvarez; Vazquez, Daniel; Bernabeu, Eusebio [Departamento de Optica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Fac. CC. Fisicas, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Nonimaging optics is a field devoted to the design of optical components for applications such as solar concentration or illumination. In this field, many different techniques have been used for producing reflective and refractive optical devices, including reverse engineering techniques. In this paper we apply photometric field theory and elliptic ray bundles method to study 3D asymmetric - without rotational or translational symmetry - concentrators, which can be useful components for nontracking solar applications. We study the one-sheet hyperbolic concentrator and we demonstrate its behaviour as ideal 3D asymmetric concentrator. (author)

  17. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  18. 3D Terahertz Beam Profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Klarskov; Strikwerda, Andrew; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    We present a characterization of THz beams generated in both a two-color air plasma and in a LiNbO3 crystal. Using a commercial THz camera, we record intensity images as a function of distance through the beam waist, from which we extract 2D beam profiles and visualize our measurements into 3D beam...

  19. 3D Printing: Exploring Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Kyle; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    As 3D printers become more affordable, schools are using them in increasing numbers. They fit well with the emphasis on product design in technology and engineering education, allowing students to create high-fidelity physical models to see and test different iterations in their product designs. They may also help students to "think in three…

  20. 3D Pit Stop Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lael; Shaw, Daniel; Gaidds, Kimberly; Lyman, Gregory; Sorey, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Although solving an engineering design project problem with limited resources or structural capabilities of materials can be part of the challenge, students making their own parts can support creativity. The authors of this article found an exciting solution: 3D printers are not only one of several tools for making but also facilitate a creative…

  1. Adaptive interrogation for 3D-PIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novara, Matteo; Scarano, Fulvio; Ianiro, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    A method to adapt the shape and orientation of interrogation volumes for 3D-PIV motion analysis is introduced, aimed to increase the local spatial resolution. The main application of this approach is the detailed analysis of complex 3D and vortex-dominated flows that exhibit high vorticity in confined regions like shear layers and vortex filaments. The adaptive criterion is based on the analysis of the components of the local velocity gradient tensor, which returns the level of anisotropy of velocity spatial fluctuations. The principle to increase the local spatial resolution is based on the deformation of spherical isotropic interrogation regions, obtained by means of Gaussian weighting, into ellipsoids, with free choice of the principal axes and their directions. The interrogation region is contracted in the direction of the maximum velocity variation and elongated in the minimum one in order to maintain a constant interrogation volume. The adaptivity technique for three-dimensional PIV data takes advantage of the 3D topology of the flow, allowing increasing the spatial resolution not only in the case of shear layers, but also for vortex filaments, which is not possible for two-dimensional measurement in the plane normal to the vortex axis. The definition of the ellipsoidal interrogation region semi-axes is based on the singular values and singular directions of the local velocity gradient tensor as obtained by the singular values decomposition technique (SVD). The working principle is verified making use of numerical simulations of a shear layer and of a vortex filament. The application of the technique to data from a Tomo-PIV experiment conducted on a round jet, shows that the resolution of the shear layer at the jet exit can be considerably improved and an increase of about 25% in the vorticity peak is attained when the adaptive approach is applied. On the other hand, the peak vorticity description in the core of vortex rings is only slightly improved with

  2. 3D histomorphometric quantification from 3D computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F. de; Lopes, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    The histomorphometric analysis is based on stereologic concepts and was originally applied to biologic samples. This technique has been used to evaluate different complex structures such as ceramic filters, net structures and cancellous objects that are objects with inner connected structures. The measured histomorphometric parameters of structure are: sample volume to total reconstructed volume (BV/TV), sample surface to sample volume (BS/BV), connection thickness (Tb Th ), connection number (Tb N ) and connection separation (Tb Sp ). The anisotropy was evaluated as well. These parameters constitute the base of histomorphometric analysis. The quantification is realized over cross-sections recovered by cone beam reconstruction, where a real-time microfocus radiographic system is used as tomographic system. The three-dimensional (3D) histomorphometry, obtained from tomography, corresponds to an evolution of conventional method that is based on 2D analysis. It is more coherent with morphologic and topologic context of the sample. This work shows result from 3D histomorphometric quantification to characterize objects examined by 3D computer tomography. The results, which characterizes the internal structures of ceramic foams with different porous density, are compared to results from conventional methods

  3. DYNA3D2000*, Explicit 3-D Hydrodynamic FEM Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, J.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: DYNA3D2000 is a nonlinear explicit finite element code for analyzing 3-D structures and solid continuum. The code is vectorized and available on several computer platforms. The element library includes continuum, shell, beam, truss and spring/damper elements to allow maximum flexibility in modeling physical problems. Many materials are available to represent a wide range of material behavior, including elasticity, plasticity, composites, thermal effects and rate dependence. In addition, DYNA3D has a sophisticated contact interface capability, including frictional sliding, single surface contact and automatic contact generation. 2 - Method of solution: Discretization of a continuous model transforms partial differential equations into algebraic equations. A numerical solution is then obtained by solving these algebraic equations through a direct time marching scheme. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Recent software improvements have eliminated most of the user identified limitations with dynamic memory allocation and a very large format description that has pushed potential problem sizes beyond the reach of most users. The dominant restrictions remain in code execution speed and robustness, which the developers constantly strive to improve

  4. 3-D Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Helbert , David; Carré , Philippe; Andrès , Éric

    2006-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines:...

  5. Critical behavior of the compact 3D U(1) gauge theory on isotropic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisenko, O; Fiore, R; Papa, A; Gravina, M

    2010-01-01

    We report on the computation of the critical point of the deconfinement phase transition, critical indices and the string tension in the compact three-dimensional U(1) lattice gauge theory at finite temperatures. The critical indices govern the behavior across the deconfinement phase transition in the pure gauge U(1) model and are generally expected to coincide with the critical indices of the two-dimensional XY model. We studied numerically the U(1) model for N t = 8 on lattices with spatial extension ranging from L = 32 to 256. Our determination of the infinite volume critical point on the lattice with N t = 8 differs substantially from the pseudo-critical coupling at L = 32, found earlier in the literature and implicitly assumed as the onset value of the deconfined phase. The critical index ν computed from the scaling of the pseudo-critical couplings with the extension of the spatial lattice agrees well with the XY value ν = 1/2. On the other hand, the index η shows large deviation from the expected universal value. The possible reasons for such behavior are discussed in detail

  6. 3D integrated superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D.; Kim, D.; Das, R.; Yost, D.; Gustavsson, S.; Hover, D.; Krantz, P.; Melville, A.; Racz, L.; Samach, G. O.; Weber, S. J.; Yan, F.; Yoder, J. L.; Kerman, A. J.; Oliver, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    As the field of quantum computing advances from the few-qubit stage to larger-scale processors, qubit addressability and extensibility will necessitate the use of 3D integration and packaging. While 3D integration is well-developed for commercial electronics, relatively little work has been performed to determine its compatibility with high-coherence solid-state qubits. Of particular concern, qubit coherence times can be suppressed by the requisite processing steps and close proximity of another chip. In this work, we use a flip-chip process to bond a chip with superconducting flux qubits to another chip containing structures for qubit readout and control. We demonstrate that high qubit coherence (T1, T2,echo > 20 μs) is maintained in a flip-chip geometry in the presence of galvanic, capacitive, and inductive coupling between the chips.

  7. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  8. Mortars for 3D printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demyanenko Olga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at developing scientifically proven compositions of mortars for 3D printing modified by a peat-based admixture with improved operational characteristics. The paper outlines the results of experimental research on hardened cement paste and concrete mixture with the use of modifying admixture MT-600 (thermally modified peat. It is found that strength of hardened cement paste increases at early age when using finely dispersed admixtures, which is the key factor for formation of construction and technical specifications of concrete for 3D printing technologies. The composition of new formations of hardened cement paste modified by MT-600 admixture were obtained, which enabled to suggest the possibility of their physico-chemical interaction while hardening.

  9. Automated 3-D Radiation Mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarpinian, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    This work describes an automated radiation detection and imaging system which combines several state-of-the-art technologies to produce a portable but very powerful visualization tool for planning work in radiation environments. The system combines a radiation detection system, a computerized radiation imaging program, and computerized 3-D modeling to automatically locate and measurements are automatically collected and imaging techniques are used to produce colored, 'isodose' images of the measured radiation fields. The isodose lines from the images are then superimposed over the 3-D model of the area. The final display shows the various components in a room and their associated radiation fields. The use of an automated radiation detection system increases the quality of radiation survey obtained measurements. The additional use of a three-dimensional display allows easier visualization of the area and associated radiological conditions than two-dimensional sketches

  10. Forensic 3D Scene Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LITTLE, CHARLES Q.; PETERS, RALPH R.; RIGDON, J. BRIAN; SMALL, DANIEL E.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally law enforcement agencies have relied on basic measurement and imaging tools, such as tape measures and cameras, in recording a crime scene. A disadvantage of these methods is that they are slow and cumbersome. The development of a portable system that can rapidly record a crime scene with current camera imaging, 3D geometric surface maps, and contribute quantitative measurements such as accurate relative positioning of crime scene objects, would be an asset to law enforcement agents in collecting and recording significant forensic data. The purpose of this project is to develop a feasible prototype of a fast, accurate, 3D measurement and imaging system that would support law enforcement agents to quickly document and accurately record a crime scene

  11. 3D neutron transport modelization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warin, X.

    1996-12-01

    Some nodal methods to solve the transport equation in 3D are presented. Two nodal methods presented at an OCDE congress are described: a first one is a low degree one called RTN0; a second one is a high degree one called BDM1. The two methods can be made faster with a totally consistent DSA. Some results of parallelization show that: 98% of the time is spent in sweeps; transport sweeps are easily parallelized. (K.A.)

  12. 3D Printing A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zulkifl Hasan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Solid free fabrication SFF are produced to enhance the printing instrument utilizing distinctive strategies like Piezo spout control multi-spout injet printers or STL arrange utilizing cutting information. The procedure is utilized to diminish the cost and enhance the speed of printing. A few techniques take long at last because of extra process like dry the printing. This study will concentrate on SFFS utilizing UV gum for 3D printing.

  13. 3D neutron transport modelization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warin, X.

    1996-12-01

    Some nodal methods to solve the transport equation in 3D are presented. Two nodal methods presented at an OCDE congress are described: a first one is a low degree one called RTN0; a second one is a high degree one called BDM1. The two methods can be made faster with a totally consistent DSA. Some results of parallelization show that: 98% of the time is spent in sweeps; transport sweeps are easily parallelized. (K.A.). 10 refs.

  14. Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasso, Luigi; Vazquez, Patricia; Vedarethinam, Indumathi

    2010-01-01

    Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained...... showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared...

  15. [Real time 3D echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F.; Shiota, T.; Thomas, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional representation of the heart is an old concern. Usually, 3D reconstruction of the cardiac mass is made by successive acquisition of 2D sections, the spatial localisation and orientation of which require complex guiding systems. More recently, the concept of volumetric acquisition has been introduced. A matricial emitter-receiver probe complex with parallel data processing provides instantaneous of a pyramidal 64 degrees x 64 degrees volume. The image is restituted in real time and is composed of 3 planes (planes B and C) which can be displaced in all spatial directions at any time during acquisition. The flexibility of this system of acquisition allows volume and mass measurement with greater accuracy and reproducibility, limiting inter-observer variability. Free navigation of the planes of investigation allows reconstruction for qualitative and quantitative analysis of valvular heart disease and other pathologies. Although real time 3D echocardiography is ready for clinical usage, some improvements are still necessary to improve its conviviality. Then real time 3D echocardiography could be the essential tool for understanding, diagnosis and management of patients.

  16. 3D treatment planning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Cheng B; Li, Sicong

    2018-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems have evolved and become crucial components of modern radiation therapy. The systems are computer-aided designing or planning softwares that speed up the treatment planning processes to arrive at the best dose plans for the patients undergoing radiation therapy. Furthermore, the systems provide new technology to solve problems that would not have been considered without the use of computers such as conformal radiation therapy (CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The 3D treatment planning systems vary amongst the vendors and also the dose delivery systems they are designed to support. As such these systems have different planning tools to generate the treatment plans and convert the treatment plans into executable instructions that can be implemented by the dose delivery systems. The rapid advancements in computer technology and accelerators have facilitated constant upgrades and the introduction of different and unique dose delivery systems than the traditional C-arm type medical linear accelerators. The focus of this special issue is to gather relevant 3D treatment planning systems for the radiation oncology community to keep abreast of technology advancement by assess the planning tools available as well as those unique "tricks or tips" used to support the different dose delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Compact 3D quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Edwar; Deppe, Frank; Renger, Michael; Repp, Daniel; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Pogorzalek, Stefan; Fedorov, Kirill G.; Marx, Achim; Gross, Rudolf

    2018-05-01

    Superconducting 3D microwave cavities offer state-of-the-art coherence times and a well-controlled environment for superconducting qubits. In order to realize at the same time fast readout and long-lived quantum information storage, one can couple the qubit to both a low-quality readout and a high-quality storage cavity. However, such systems are bulky compared to their less coherent 2D counterparts. A more compact and scalable approach is achieved by making use of the multimode structure of a 3D cavity. In our work, we investigate such a device where a transmon qubit is capacitively coupled to two modes of a single 3D cavity. External coupling is engineered so that the memory mode has an about 100 times larger quality factor than the readout mode. Using an all-microwave second-order protocol, we realize a lifetime enhancement of the stored state over the qubit lifetime by a factor of 6 with a fidelity of approximately 80% determined via quantum process tomography. We also find that this enhancement is not limited by fundamental constraints.

  18. 3D Graphics with Spreadsheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Benacka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the formulas for orthographic parallel projection of 3D bodies on computer screen are derived using secondary school vector algebra. The spreadsheet implementation is demonstrated in six applications that project bodies with increasing intricacy – a convex body (cube with non-solved visibility, convex bodies (cube, chapel with solved visibility, a coloured convex body (chapel with solved visibility, and a coloured non-convex body (church with solved visibility. The projections are revolvable in horizontal and vertical plane, and they are changeable in size. The examples show an unusual way of using spreadsheets as a 3D computer graphics tool. The applications can serve as a simple introduction to the general principles of computer graphics, to the graphics with spreadsheets, and as a tool for exercising stereoscopic vision. The presented approach is usable at visualising 3D scenes within some topics of secondary school curricula as solid geometry (angles and distances of lines and planes within simple bodies or analytic geometry in space (angles and distances of lines and planes in E3, and even at university level within calculus at visualising graphs of z = f(x,y functions. Examples are pictured.

  19. 3D composite image, 3D MRI, 3D SPECT, hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mito, T.; Shibata, I.; Sugo, N.; Takano, M.; Takahashi, H.

    2002-01-01

    The three-dimensional (3D)SPECT imaging technique we have studied and published for the past several years is an analytical tool that permits visual expression of the cerebral circulation profile in various cerebral diseases. The greatest drawback of SPECT is that the limitation on precision of spacial resolution makes intracranial localization impossible. In 3D SPECT imaging, intracranial volume and morphology may vary with the threshold established. To solve this problem, we have produced complimentarily combined SPECT and helical-CT 3D images by means of general-purpose visualization software for intracranial localization. In hydrocephalus, however, the key subject to be studied is the profile of cerebral circulation around the ventricles of the brain. This suggests that, for displaying the cerebral ventricles in three dimensions, CT is a difficult technique whereas MRI is more useful. For this reason, we attempted to establish the profile of cerebral circulation around the cerebral ventricles by the production of combined 3D images of SPECT and MRI. In patients who had shunt surgery for hydrocephalus, a difference between pre- and postoperative cerebral circulation profiles was assessed by a voxel distribution curve, 3D SPECT images, and combined 3D SPECT and MRI images. As the shunt system in this study, an Orbis-Sigma valve of the automatic cerebrospinal fluid volume adjustment type was used in place of the variable pressure type Medos valve currently in use, because this device requires frequent changes in pressure and a change in pressure may be detected after MRI procedure. The SPECT apparatus used was PRISM3000 of the three-detector type, and 123I-IMP was used as the radionuclide in a dose of 222 MBq. MRI data were collected with an MAGNEXa+2 with a magnetic flux density of 0.5 tesla under the following conditions: field echo; TR 50 msec; TE, 10 msec; flip, 30ueK; 1 NEX; FOV, 23 cm; 1-mm slices; and gapless. 3D images are produced on the workstation TITAN

  20. 3D silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzefall, Ulrich; Bates, Richard; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco; Eckert, Simon; Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste; Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne; Lozano, Manuel; Pahn, Gregor; Parkes, Chris; Pellegrini, Giulio; Pennicard, David; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Szumlak, Tomasz; Zoboli, Andrea; Zorzi, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10 15 N eq /cm 2 , which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10 15 N eq /cm 2 . The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5μm spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr 90 β-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of the results obtained with 3D-STC-modules.

  1. 3D silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parzefall, Ulrich [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.parzefall@physik.uni-freiburg.de; Bates, Richard [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Boscardin, Maurizio [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, Gian-Franco [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Eckert, Simon [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Eklund, Lars; Fleta, Celeste [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Jakobs, Karl; Kuehn, Susanne [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Lozano, Manuel [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pahn, Gregor [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Parkes, Chris [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Pellegrini, Giulio [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM, CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Pennicard, David [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Szumlak, Tomasz [University of Glasgow, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Zoboli, Andrea [INFN and Universita' di Trento, via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy); Zorzi, Nicola [FBK-irst, Center for Materials and Microsystems, via Sommarive 18, 38050 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2009-06-01

    While the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has started operation in autumn 2008, plans for a luminosity upgrade to the Super-LHC (sLHC) have already been developed for several years. This projected luminosity increase by an order of magnitude gives rise to a challenging radiation environment for tracking detectors at the LHC experiments. Significant improvements in radiation hardness are required with respect to the LHC. Using a strawman layout for the new tracker of the ATLAS experiment as an example, silicon strip detectors (SSDs) with short strips of 2-3 cm length are foreseen to cover the region from 28 to 60 cm distance to the beam. These SSD will be exposed to radiation levels up to 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}, which makes radiation resistance a major concern for the upgraded ATLAS tracker. Several approaches to increasing the radiation hardness of silicon detectors exist. In this article, it is proposed to combine the radiation hard 3D-design originally conceived for pixel-style applications with the benefits of the established planar technology for strip detectors by using SSDs that have regularly spaced doped columns extending into the silicon bulk under the detector strips. The first 3D SSDs to become available for testing were made in the Single Type Column (STC) design, a technological simplification of the original 3D design. With such 3D SSDs, a small number of prototype sLHC detector modules with LHC-speed front-end electronics as used in the semiconductor tracking systems of present LHC experiments were built. Modules were tested before and after irradiation to fluences of 10{sup 15}N{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. The tests were performed with three systems: a highly focused IR-laser with 5{mu}m spot size to make position-resolved scans of the charge collection efficiency, an Sr{sup 90}{beta}-source set-up to measure the signal levels for a minimum ionizing particle (MIP), and a beam test with 180 GeV pions at CERN. This article gives a brief overview of

  2. The isotropic radio background revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I–10125 Torino (Italy); Lineros, Roberto A. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular – CSIC/U. Valencia, Parc Científic, calle Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, E-46980 Paterna (Spain); Taoso, Marco, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: taoso@cea.fr [Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA/Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cédex (France)

    2014-04-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky.

  3. The isotropic radio background revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Lineros, Roberto A.; Taoso, Marco

    2014-01-01

    We present an extensive analysis on the determination of the isotropic radio background. We consider six different radio maps, ranging from 22 MHz to 2.3 GHz and covering a large fraction of the sky. The large scale emission is modeled as a linear combination of an isotropic component plus the Galactic synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. Point-like and extended sources are either masked or accounted for by means of a template. We find a robust estimate of the isotropic radio background, with limited scatter among different Galactic models. The level of the isotropic background lies significantly above the contribution obtained by integrating the number counts of observed extragalactic sources. Since the isotropic component dominates at high latitudes, thus making the profile of the total emission flat, a Galactic origin for such excess appears unlikely. We conclude that, unless a systematic offset is present in the maps, and provided that our current understanding of the Galactic synchrotron emission is reasonable, extragalactic sources well below the current experimental threshold seem to account for the majority of the brightness of the extragalactic radio sky

  4. Magmatic Systems in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, G. M.; Harding, A. J.; Babcock, J. M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bazin, S.; Singh, S.; Detrick, R. S.; Canales, J. P.; Carbotte, S. M.; Diebold, J.

    2002-12-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) images of crustal magma chambers are ideal targets for advanced visualization techniques. In the mid-ocean ridge environment, reflections originating at the melt-lens are well separated from other reflection boundaries, such as the seafloor, layer 2A and Moho, which enables the effective use of transparency filters. 3-D visualization of seismic reflectivity falls into two broad categories: volume and surface rendering. Volumetric-based visualization is an extremely powerful approach for the rapid exploration of very dense 3-D datasets. These 3-D datasets are divided into volume elements or voxels, which are individually color coded depending on the assigned datum value; the user can define an opacity filter to reject plotting certain voxels. This transparency allows the user to peer into the data volume, enabling an easy identification of patterns or relationships that might have geologic merit. Multiple image volumes can be co-registered to look at correlations between two different data types (e.g., amplitude variation with offsets studies), in a manner analogous to draping attributes onto a surface. In contrast, surface visualization of seismic reflectivity usually involves producing "fence" diagrams of 2-D seismic profiles that are complemented with seafloor topography, along with point class data, draped lines and vectors (e.g. fault scarps, earthquake locations and plate-motions). The overlying seafloor can be made partially transparent or see-through, enabling 3-D correlations between seafloor structure and seismic reflectivity. Exploration of 3-D datasets requires additional thought when constructing and manipulating these complex objects. As numbers of visual objects grow in a particular scene, there is a tendency to mask overlapping objects; this clutter can be managed through the effective use of total or partial transparency (i.e., alpha-channel). In this way, the co-variation between different datasets can be investigated

  5. 3D Medical Image Interpolation Based on Parametric Cubic Convolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In the process of display, manipulation and analysis of biomedical image data, they usually need to be converted to data of isotropic discretization through the process of interpolation, while the cubic convolution interpolation is widely used due to its good tradeoff between computational cost and accuracy. In this paper, we present a whole concept for the 3D medical image interpolation based on cubic convolution, and the six methods, with the different sharp control parameter, which are formulated in details. Furthermore, we also give an objective comparison for these methods using data sets with the different slice spacing. Each slice in these data sets is estimated by each interpolation method and compared with the original slice using three measures: mean-squared difference, number of sites of disagreement, and largest difference. According to the experimental results, we present a recommendation for 3D medical images under the different situations in the end.

  6. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  7. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  8. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  9. 3D printed System-on-Package (SoP) for environmental sensing and localization applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhen, Su; Bilal, Rana Muhammad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time an innovative 3D printed SoP sensor node with temperature, pressure and humidity sensing capabilities. It has an integrated wireless readout through a near isotropic (900MHz) GSM antenna-on-package. This sensor

  10. Analysis of 3-D images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, M. Arif; Batchelor, Bruce G.

    1992-03-01

    Deriving generalized representation of 3-D objects for analysis and recognition is a very difficult task. Three types of representations based on type of an object is used in this paper. Objects which have well-defined geometrical shapes are segmented by using a fast edge region based segmentation technique. The segmented image is represented by plan and elevation of each part of the object if the object parts are symmetrical about their central axis. The plan and elevation concept enables representing and analyzing such objects quickly and efficiently. The second type of representation is used for objects having parts which are not symmetrical about their central axis. The segmented surface patches of such objects are represented by the 3-D boundary and the surface features of each segmented surface. Finally, the third type of representation is used for objects which don't have well-defined geometrical shapes (for example a loaf of bread). These objects are represented and analyzed from its features which are derived using a multiscale contour based technique. Anisotropic Gaussian smoothing technique is introduced to segment the contours at various scales of smoothing. A new merging technique is used which enables getting the current best estimate of break points at each scale. This new technique enables elimination of loss of accuracy of localization effects at coarser scales without using scale space tracking approach.

  11. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  12. 3D DNA Origami Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Hartl, Caroline; Frank, Kilian; Heuer-Jungemann, Amelie; Fischer, Stefan; Nickels, Philipp C; Nickel, Bert; Liedl, Tim

    2018-05-18

    3D crystals assembled entirely from DNA provide a route to design materials on a molecular level and to arrange guest particles in predefined lattices. This requires design schemes that provide high rigidity and sufficiently large open guest space. A DNA-origami-based "tensegrity triangle" structure that assembles into a 3D rhombohedral crystalline lattice with an open structure in which 90% of the volume is empty space is presented here. Site-specific placement of gold nanoparticles within the lattice demonstrates that these crystals are spacious enough to efficiently host 20 nm particles in a cavity size of 1.83 × 10 5 nm 3 , which would also suffice to accommodate ribosome-sized macromolecules. The accurate assembly of the DNA origami lattice itself, as well as the precise incorporation of gold particles, is validated by electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The results show that it is possible to create DNA building blocks that assemble into lattices with customized geometry. Site-specific hosting of nano objects in the optically transparent DNA lattice sets the stage for metamaterial and structural biology applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. 3D printed bionic ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.

  14. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics and 3D neutron kinetics. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution

  15. LOTT RANCH 3D PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larry Lawrence; Bruce Miller

    2004-01-01

    The Lott Ranch 3D seismic prospect located in Garza County, Texas is a project initiated in September of 1991 by the J.M. Huber Corp., a petroleum exploration and production company. By today's standards the 126 square mile project does not seem monumental, however at the time it was conceived it was the most intensive land 3D project ever attempted. Acquisition began in September of 1991 utilizing GEO-SEISMIC, INC., a seismic data contractor. The field parameters were selected by J.M. Huber, and were of a radical design. The recording instruments used were GeoCor IV amplifiers designed by Geosystems Inc., which record the data in signed bit format. It would not have been practical, if not impossible, to have processed the entire raw volume with the tools available at that time. The end result was a dataset that was thought to have little utility due to difficulties in processing the field data. In 1997, Yates Energy Corp. located in Roswell, New Mexico, formed a partnership to further develop the project. Through discussions and meetings with Pinnacle Seismic, it was determined that the original Lott Ranch 3D volume could be vastly improved upon reprocessing. Pinnacle Seismic had shown the viability of improving field-summed signed bit data on smaller 2D and 3D projects. Yates contracted Pinnacle Seismic Ltd. to perform the reprocessing. This project was initiated with high resolution being a priority. Much of the potential resolution was lost through the initial summing of the field data. Modern computers that are now being utilized have tremendous speed and storage capacities that were cost prohibitive when this data was initially processed. Software updates and capabilities offer a variety of quality control and statics resolution, which are pertinent to the Lott Ranch project. The reprocessing effort was very successful. The resulting processed data-set was then interpreted using modern PC-based interpretation and mapping software. Production data, log data

  16. Ellipsoidal basis for isotropic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallies, W.; Lukac, I.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    1994-01-01

    The solutions of the Schroedinger equation are derived for the isotropic oscillator potential in the ellipsoidal coordinate system. The explicit expression is obtained for the ellipsoidal integrals of motion through the components of the orbital moment and Demkov's tensor. The explicit form of the ellipsoidal basis is given for the lowest quantum numbers. 10 refs.; 1 tab. (author)

  17. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  18. Telerobotics and 3-d TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Able, E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of telerobotic techniques that can be used in the nuclear industry. The approach has been to apply available equipment, modify available equipment, or design and build anew. The authors have successfully built an input controller which can be used with standard industrial robots, converting them into telerobots. A clean room industrial robot has been re-engineered into an advanced telerobot engineered for the nuclear industry, using a knowledge of radiation tolerance design principles and collaboration with the manufacturer. A powerful hydraulic manipulator has been built to respond to a need for more heavy duty devices for in-cell handling. A variety of easy to use 3-D TV systems has been developed

  19. Conducting Polymer 3D Microelectrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Emnéus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer 3D microelectrodes have been fabricated for possible future neurological applications. A combination of micro-fabrication techniques and chemical polymerization methods has been used to create pillar electrodes in polyaniline and polypyrrole. The thin polymer films obtained showed uniformity and good adhesion to both horizontal and vertical surfaces. Electrodes in combination with metal/conducting polymer materials have been characterized by cyclic voltammetry and the presence of the conducting polymer film has shown to increase the electrochemical activity when compared with electrodes coated with only metal. An electrochemical characterization of gold/polypyrrole electrodes showed exceptional electrochemical behavior and activity. PC12 cells were finally cultured on the investigated materials as a preliminary biocompatibility assessment. These results show that the described electrodes are possibly suitable for future in-vitro neurological measurements.

  20. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-10-12

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step of printing the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate; placing the flexible silicon substrate in a cavity of the first portion of the 3D structure to embed the flexible silicon substrate in the 3D structure; and resuming the step of printing the 3D structure to form the second portion of the 3D structure.

  1. Supernova Remnant in 3-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    of the wavelength shift is related to the speed of motion, one can determine how fast the debris are moving in either direction. Because Cas A is the result of an explosion, the stellar debris is expanding radially outwards from the explosion center. Using simple geometry, the scientists were able to construct a 3-D model using all of this information. A program called 3-D Slicer modified for astronomical use by the Astronomical Medicine Project at Harvard University in Cambridge, Mass. was used to display and manipulate the 3-D model. Commercial software was then used to create the 3-D fly-through. The blue filaments defining the blast wave were not mapped using the Doppler effect because they emit a different kind of light synchrotron radiation that does not emit light at discrete wavelengths, but rather in a broad continuum. The blue filaments are only a representation of the actual filaments observed at the blast wave. This visualization shows that there are two main components to this supernova remnant: a spherical component in the outer parts of the remnant and a flattened (disk-like) component in the inner region. The spherical component consists of the outer layer of the star that exploded, probably made of helium and carbon. These layers drove a spherical blast wave into the diffuse gas surrounding the star. The flattened component that astronomers were unable to map into 3-D prior to these Spitzer observations consists of the inner layers of the star. It is made from various heavier elements, not all shown in the visualization, such as oxygen, neon, silicon, sulphur, argon and iron. High-velocity plumes, or jets, of this material are shooting out from the explosion in the plane of the disk-like component mentioned above. Plumes of silicon appear in the northeast and southwest, while those of iron are seen in the southeast and north. These jets were already known and Doppler velocity measurements have been made for these structures, but their orientation and

  2. Endolympathic hydrops in patients with vestibular schwannoma: visualization by non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi; Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Ikeda, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Signal intensity of ipsilateral labyrinthine lymph fluid has been reported to increase in most cases with vestibular schwannoma (VS) on 3D fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). The purpose of this study was twofold, (1) to evaluate if endolymphatic space can be recognized in the patients with VS on non-contrast-enhanced 3D-FLAIR images and (2) to know if the vertigo in the patients with VS correlates to vestibular endolymphatic hydrops. From the introduction of 32-channel head coil at 3 T in May 2008 to June 2010, 15 cases with unilateral VS were identified in the radiology report database. The two cases without a significant signal increase on 3D FLAIR were excluded. Resting 13 cases were retrospectively analyzed in regard to the recognition of endolymphatic hydrops in the cochlea and vestibule and to the correlation between the patients' symptoms and endolymphatic hydrops. In all cases, vestibular endolymphatic space can be recognized on non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR. Cochlear endolymphatic space can be identified only in one case with significant hydrops. Vestibular hydrops was identified in four cases. Among these four cases, three had vertigo, and one had no vertigo. In those nine cases without hydrops, two had vertigo, and seven did not have vertigo. No significant correlation between vertigo and vestibular hydrops was found. Vestibular endolymphatic space can be recognized on non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR. In some patients with VS, vestibular hydrops is seen; however, endolymphatic hydrops in the vestibule might not be the only responsible cause of vertigo in the patients with VS. (orig.)

  3. Endolympathic hydrops in patients with vestibular schwannoma: visualization by non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Kawai, Hisashi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nagoya (Japan); Sone, Michihiko; Nakashima, Tsutomu [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nagoya (Japan); Ikeda, Mitsuru [Nagoya University School of Health Sciences, Department of Radiological Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    Signal intensity of ipsilateral labyrinthine lymph fluid has been reported to increase in most cases with vestibular schwannoma (VS) on 3D fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). The purpose of this study was twofold, (1) to evaluate if endolymphatic space can be recognized in the patients with VS on non-contrast-enhanced 3D-FLAIR images and (2) to know if the vertigo in the patients with VS correlates to vestibular endolymphatic hydrops. From the introduction of 32-channel head coil at 3 T in May 2008 to June 2010, 15 cases with unilateral VS were identified in the radiology report database. The two cases without a significant signal increase on 3D FLAIR were excluded. Resting 13 cases were retrospectively analyzed in regard to the recognition of endolymphatic hydrops in the cochlea and vestibule and to the correlation between the patients' symptoms and endolymphatic hydrops. In all cases, vestibular endolymphatic space can be recognized on non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR. Cochlear endolymphatic space can be identified only in one case with significant hydrops. Vestibular hydrops was identified in four cases. Among these four cases, three had vertigo, and one had no vertigo. In those nine cases without hydrops, two had vertigo, and seven did not have vertigo. No significant correlation between vertigo and vestibular hydrops was found. Vestibular endolymphatic space can be recognized on non-contrast-enhanced 3D FLAIR. In some patients with VS, vestibular hydrops is seen; however, endolymphatic hydrops in the vestibule might not be the only responsible cause of vertigo in the patients with VS. (orig.)

  4. Natural fibre composites for 3D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Kapil

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has been common option for prototyping. Not all the materials are suitable for 3D printing. Various studies have been done and still many are ongoing regarding the suitability of the materials for 3D printing. This thesis work discloses the possibility of 3D printing of certain polymer composite materials. The main objective of this thesis work was to study the possibility for 3D printing the polymer composite material composed of natural fibre composite and various different ...

  5. 3-D discrete analytical ridgelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, David; Carré, Philippe; Andres, Eric

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an implementation of the 3-D Ridgelet transform: the 3-D discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (3-D DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated 3-D discrete Radon transform. The innovative step is the definition of a discrete 3-D transform with the discrete analytical geometry theory by the construction of 3-D discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. We propose two types of 3-D discrete lines: 3-D discrete radial lines going through the origin defined from their orthogonal projections and 3-D planes covered with 2-D discrete line segments. These discrete analytical lines have a parameter called arithmetical thickness, allowing us to define a 3-D DART adapted to a specific application. Indeed, the 3-D DART representation is not orthogonal, It is associated with a flexible redundancy factor. The 3-D DART has a very simple forward/inverse algorithm that provides an exact reconstruction without any iterative method. In order to illustrate the potentiality of this new discrete transform, we apply the 3-D DART and its extension to the Local-DART (with smooth windowing) to the denoising of 3-D image and color video. These experimental results show that the simple thresholding of the 3-D DART coefficients is efficient.

  6. ORMGEN3D, 3-D Crack Geometry FEM Mesh Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ORMGEN3D is a finite element mesh generator for computational fracture mechanics analysis. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional finite element model for six different crack geometries. These geometries include flat plates with straight or curved surface cracks and cylinders with part-through cracks on the outer or inner surface. Mathematical or user-defined crack shapes may be considered. The curved cracks may be semicircular, semi-elliptical, or user-defined. A cladding option is available that allows for either an embedded or penetrating crack in the clad material. 2 - Method of solution: In general, one eighth or one-quarter of the structure is modelled depending on the configuration or option selected. The program generates a core of special wedge or collapsed prism elements at the crack front to introduce the appropriate stress singularity at the crack tip. The remainder of the structure is modelled with conventional 20-node iso-parametric brick elements. Element group I of the finite element model consists of an inner core of special crack tip elements surrounding the crack front enclosed by a single layer of conventional brick elements. Eight element divisions are used in a plane orthogonal to the crack front, while the number of element divisions along the arc length of the crack front is user-specified. The remaining conventional brick elements of the model constitute element group II. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 5,500 nodes, 4 layers of clad elements

  7. Crowdsourcing Based 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Barsi, A.; Molnar, B.; Lovas, T.

    2016-06-01

    Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users' images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  8. CROWDSOURCING BASED 3D MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Somogyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Web-based photo albums that support organizing and viewing the users’ images are widely used. These services provide a convenient solution for storing, editing and sharing images. In many cases, the users attach geotags to the images in order to enable using them e.g. in location based applications on social networks. Our paper discusses a procedure that collects open access images from a site frequently visited by tourists. Geotagged pictures showing the image of a sight or tourist attraction are selected and processed in photogrammetric processing software that produces the 3D model of the captured object. For the particular investigation we selected three attractions in Budapest. To assess the geometrical accuracy, we used laser scanner and DSLR as well as smart phone photography to derive reference values to enable verifying the spatial model obtained from the web-album images. The investigation shows how detailed and accurate models could be derived applying photogrammetric processing software, simply by using images of the community, without visiting the site.

  9. Predictors of short-term outcome in patients with acute middle cerebral artery occlusion: unsuitability of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensity scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-chan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR vascular hyperintensity (FVH is used to assess leptomeningeal collateral circulation, but clinical outcomes of patients with FVH can be very different. The aim of the present study was to assess a FVH score and explore its relationship with clinical outcomes. Patients with acute ischemic stroke due to middle cerebral artery M1 occlusion underwent magnetic resonance imaging and were followed up at 10 days (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and 90 days (modified Rankin Scale to determine short-term clinical outcomes. Effective collateral circulation indirectly improved recovery of neurological function and short-term clinical outcome by extending the size of the pial penumbra and reducing infarct lesions. FVH score showed no correlation with 90-day functional clinical outcome and was not sufficient as an independent predictor of short-term clinical outcome.

  10. Vrste i tehnike 3D modeliranja

    OpenAIRE

    Bernik, Andrija

    2010-01-01

    Proces stvaranja 3D stvarnih ili imaginarnih objekata naziva se 3D modeliranje. Razvoj računalne tehnologije omogućuje korisniku odabir raznih metoda i tehnika kako bi se postigla optimalna učinkovitost. Odabir je vezan za klasično 3D modeliranje ili 3D skeniranje pomoću specijaliziranih programskih i sklopovskih rješenja. 3D tehnikama modeliranja korisnik može izraditi 3D model na nekoliko načina: koristi poligone, krivulje ili hibrid dviju spomenutih tehnika pod nazivom subdivizijsko modeli...

  11. Kuvaus 3D-tulostamisesta hammastekniikassa

    OpenAIRE

    Munne, Mauri; Mustonen, Tuomas; Vähäjylkkä, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    3D-tulostaminen kehittyy nopeasti ja yleistyy koko ajan. Tulostimien tarkkuuksien kehittyessä 3D-tulostus on ottamassa myös jalansijaa hammastekniikan alalta. Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena on kuvata 3D-tulostamisen tilaa hammastekniikassa. 3D-tulostaminen on Suomessa vielä melko harvinaista, joten opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on koota yhteen kaikki mahdollinen tieto liittyen 3D-tulostamiseen hammastekniikassa. Tavoitteena on myös 3D-tulostimen testaaminen käytännössä aina suun skannaami...

  12. NIF Ignition Target 3D Point Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O; Marinak, M; Milovich, J; Callahan, D

    2008-11-05

    We have developed an input file for running 3D NIF hohlraums that is optimized such that it can be run in 1-2 days on parallel computers. We have incorporated increasing levels of automation into the 3D input file: (1) Configuration controlled input files; (2) Common file for 2D and 3D, different types of capsules (symcap, etc.); and (3) Can obtain target dimensions, laser pulse, and diagnostics settings automatically from NIF Campaign Management Tool. Using 3D Hydra calculations to investigate different problems: (1) Intrinsic 3D asymmetry; (2) Tolerance to nonideal 3D effects (e.g. laser power balance, pointing errors); and (3) Synthetic diagnostics.

  13. Magma emplacement in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyk, W.; Vogt, K.

    2017-12-01

    Magma intrusion is a major material transfer process in Earth's continental crust. Yet, the mechanical behavior of the intruding magma and its host are a matter of debate. In this study, we present a series of numerical thermo-mechanical experiments on mafic magma emplacement in 3D.In our model, we place the magmatic source region (40 km diameter) at the base of the mantle lithosphere and connect it to the crust by a 3 km wide channel, which may have evolved at early stages of magmatism during rapid ascent of hot magmatic fluids/melts. Our results demonstrate continental crustal response due to magma intrusion. We observe change in intrusion geometries between dikes, cone-sheets, sills, plutons, ponds, funnels, finger-shaped and stock-like intrusions as well as injection time. The rheology and temperature of the host-rock are the main controlling factors in the transition between these different modes of intrusion. Viscous deformation in the warm and deep crust favours host rock displacement and magma pools along the crust-mantle boundary forming deep-seated plutons or magma ponds in the lower to middle-crust. Brittle deformation in the cool and shallow crust induces cone-shaped fractures in the host rock and enables emplacement of finger- or stock-like intrusions at shallow or intermediate depth. A combination of viscous and brittle deformation forms funnel-shaped intrusions in the middle-crust. Low-density source magma results in T-shaped intrusions in cross-section with magma sheets at the surface.

  14. Random laser action in 3-D ZnO nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, L.; Tanemura, S. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2 Nengyuan Rd. Tianhe district, Guangzhou (China); Materials R and D Laboratory, Japan Fine Ceramics Centre, Mutsuno, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya 456-8587 (Japan); Yang, H.Y.; Lau, S.P. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Xu, G. [Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrate, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 2 Nengyuan Rd. Tianhe district, Guangzhou (China)

    2009-05-15

    Room-temperature ultraviolet random lasing with low threshold pumping power was successfully achieved by ZnO 3-D random-wall nanostructure fabricated on ZnO/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate through a thermal chemical reaction and vapor transportation deposition method in a simple horizontal tube furnace from the mixed ZnO and graphite powders. The nanorods grown along c-axis on the substrate are coalesced to form the 3-D nano-wall with 80{proportional_to}100 nm in wall thickness and irregular height ranging of 95-250 nm. Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry reveals that evaluated refractive indices n(E) of ZnO nanowalls are well interpreted by taking account of the ratio between ZnO and void achieved by effective medium theory analysis and isotropic depolarization feature of the designated nanowalls. Random lasing action observed in the wide wavelength range between 375 and 395 nm is realized by coherent amplification of the closed-loop scattered light inside 3-D random-wall nanostructure. It is demonstrated that both transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes show the same threshold and pumping power dependent trend, while the intensity of TM lasing is weaker than that of TE due to the different scattering strength originated from the features of the inside of nanowall. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  15. UT inspection of nozzles by 3D raytracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isenberg, J.; Koshy, M.; Carcione, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper documents how we have adapted 3D geometric modeling and ray tracing to support design and verification of wedges and preparation of coverage maps for ultrasonic inspection of BWR nozzles. This software is capable of addressing a broad range of modeling issues, including ray tracing in completely general 3D objects comprised of blocky, transversely isotropic material. However, to capitalize on the full range of capability usually requires an investment of time on the part of users. To make 3D modeling accessible to users who have time-urgent requirements or who do not need to utilize the full capabilities of the software, we have developed specialized applications in which restrictions on generality are accepted in exchange for easy access to model building, wedge design and coverage maps for detecting flaws in the bore and inner blend regions of nozzles. This is done by providing partially-completed, parametrized models which give the user latitude to generate general models within a fixed framework. We also provide a graphical user interface which anticipates certain tasks that a user will wish to undertake; other tasks may readily be added. (author)

  16. Will 3D printers manufacture your meals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bommel, K.J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    These days, 3D printers are laying down plastics, metals, resins, and other materials in whatever configurations creative people can dream up. But when the next 3D printing revolution comes, you'll be able to eat it.

  17. Eesti 3D jaoks kitsas / Virge Haavasalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haavasalu, Virge

    2009-01-01

    Produktsioonifirma Digitaalne Sputnik: Kaur ja Kaspar Kallas tegelevad filmide produtseerimise ning 3D digitaalkaamerate tootearendusega (Silicon Imaging LLC). Vendade Kallaste 3D-kaamerast. Kommenteerib Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse direktor Marge Liiske

  18. 3D-Printed Millimeter Wave Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    demonstrates the resolution of the printer with a 10 micron nozzle. Figure 2: Measured loss tangent of SEBS and SBS samples. 3D - Printed Millimeter... 3D printing of styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) and styrene ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) is used to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D - printed ...Additionally, a dielectric lens is printed which improves the antenna gain of an open-ended WR-28 waveguide from 7 to 8.5 dBi. Keywords: 3D printing

  19. Digital Dentistry — 3D Printing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Zaharia Cristian; Gabor Alin-Gabriel; Gavrilovici Andrei; Stan Adrian Tudor; Idorasi Laura; Sinescu Cosmin; Negruțiu Meda-Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an additive manufacturing method in which a 3D item is formed by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of objects either planned with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D scanner. Printing is a method for replicating text and pictures, typically with ink on paper. We can print different dental pieces using different methods such as selective laser sintering (SLS), stereolithography, fused deposition mo...

  20. Detectors in 3D available for assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Re, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    This deliverable reports on 3D devices resulting from the vertical integration of pixel sensors and readout electronics. After 3D integration steps such as etching of through-silicon vias and backside metallization of readout integrated circuits, ASICs and sensors are interconnected to form a 3D pixel detector. Various 3D detectors have been devised in AIDA WP3 and their status and performance is assessed here.

  1. Free breathing whole-heart 3D CINE MRI with self-gated Cartesian trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M; Ruijsink, B; Nazir, M S; Cruz, G; Prieto, C

    2017-05-01

    To present a method that uses a novel free-running self-gated acquisition to achieve isotropic resolution in whole heart 3D Cartesian cardiac CINE MRI. 3D cardiac CINE MRI using navigator gating results in long acquisition times. Recently, several frameworks based on self-gated non-Cartesian trajectories have been proposed to accelerate this acquisition. However, non-Cartesian reconstructions are computationally expensive due to gridding, particularly in 3D. In this work, we propose a novel highly efficient self-gated Cartesian approach for 3D cardiac CINE MRI. Acquisition is performed using CArtesian trajectory with Spiral PRofile ordering and Tiny golden angle step for eddy current reduction (so called here CASPR-Tiger). Data is acquired continuously under free breathing (retrospective ECG gating, no preparation pulses interruption) for 4-5min and 4D whole-heart volumes (3D+cardiac phases) with isotropic spatial resolution are reconstructed from all available data using a soft gating technique combined with temporal total variation (TV) constrained iterative SENSE reconstruction. For data acquired on eight healthy subjects and three patients, the reconstructed images using the proposed method had good contrast and spatio-temporal variations, correctly recovering diastolic and systolic cardiac phases. Non-significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in cardiac functional measurements obtained with proposed 3D approach and gold standard 2D multi-slice breath-hold acquisition. The proposed approach enables isotropic 3D whole heart Cartesian cardiac CINE MRI in 4 to 5min free breathing acquisition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 3D modelling for multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduhl Rahman, A.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Hua, T.C.; Sharkawi, K.H.; Duncan, E.E.; Azri, N.; Hassan, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) modelling of cadastral objects (such as legal spaces around buildings, around utility networks and other spaces) is one of the important aspects for a multipurpose cadastre (MPC). This paper describes the 3D modelling of the objects for MPC and its usage to the knowledge of 3D

  3. Expanding Geometry Understanding with 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Jill A.; Cochran, Zane; Laney, Kendra; Dean, Mandi

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of personal desktop 3D printing, a wide spectrum of educational opportunities has become available for educators to leverage this technology in their classrooms. Until recently, the ability to create physical 3D models was well beyond the scope, skill, and budget of many schools. However, since desktop 3D printers have become readily…

  4. 3D Characterization of Recrystallization Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, Andrew William; MacDonald, A. Nicole

    2016-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) volume containing a recrystallizing grain and a deformed matrix in a partially recrystallized pure aluminum was characterized using the 3D electron backscattering diffraction technique. The 3D shape of a recrystallizing boundary, separating the recrystallizing grain...... on the formation of protrusions/retrusions....

  5. 3D-Printable Antimicrobial Composite Resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yue, Jun; Zhao, Pei; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; van de Lagemaat, Marieke; Grotenhuis, Arjen; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Herrmann, Andreas; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    3D printing is seen as a game-changing manufacturing process in many domains, including general medicine and dentistry, but the integration of more complex functions into 3D-printed materials remains lacking. Here, it is expanded on the repertoire of 3D-printable materials to include antimicrobial

  6. Investigating source processes of isotropic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Andrea

    explosion. In contrast, recovering the announced explosive yield using seismic moment estimates from moment tensor inversion remains challenging but we can begin to put error bounds on our moment estimates using the NSS technique. The estimation of seismic source parameters is dependent upon having a well-calibrated velocity model to compute the Green's functions for the inverse problem. Ideally, seismic velocity models are calibrated through broadband waveform modeling, however in regions of low seismicity velocity models derived from body or surface wave tomography may be employed. Whether a velocity model is 1D or 3D, or based on broadband seismic waveform modeling or the various tomographic techniques, the uncertainty in the velocity model can be the greatest source of error in moment tensor inversion. These errors have not been fully investigated for the nuclear discrimination problem. To study the effects of unmodeled structures on the moment tensor inversion, we set up a synthetic experiment where we produce synthetic seismograms for a 3D model (Moschetti et al., 2010) and invert these data using Green's functions computed with a 1D velocity mode (Song et al., 1996) to evaluate the recoverability of input solutions, paying particular attention to biases in the isotropic component. The synthetic experiment results indicate that the 1D model assumption is valid for moment tensor inversions at periods as short as 10 seconds for the 1D western U.S. model (Song et al., 1996). The correct earthquake mechanisms and source depth are recovered with statistically insignificant isotropic components as determined by the F-test. Shallow explosions are biased by the theoretical ISO-CLVD tradeoff but the tectonic release component remains low, and the tradeoff can be eliminated with constraints from P wave first motion. Path-calibration to the 1D model can reduce non-double-couple components in earthquakes, non-isotropic components in explosions and composite sources and improve

  7. View-based 3-D object retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Content-based 3-D object retrieval has attracted extensive attention recently and has applications in a variety of fields, such as, computer-aided design, tele-medicine,mobile multimedia, virtual reality, and entertainment. The development of efficient and effective content-based 3-D object retrieval techniques has enabled the use of fast 3-D reconstruction and model design. Recent technical progress, such as the development of camera technologies, has made it possible to capture the views of 3-D objects. As a result, view-based 3-D object retrieval has become an essential but challenging res

  8. Wafer level 3-D ICs process technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Chuan Seng; Reif, L Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This book focuses on foundry-based process technology that enables the fabrication of 3-D ICs. The core of the book discusses the technology platform for pre-packaging wafer lever 3-D ICs. However, this book does not include a detailed discussion of 3-D ICs design and 3-D packaging. This is an edited book based on chapters contributed by various experts in the field of wafer-level 3-D ICs process technology. They are from academia, research labs and industry.

  9. 3D Printing of Fluid Flow Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Kunihiko; Sun, Yiyang; Canuto, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the use of 3D printing to physically visualize (materialize) fluid flow structures. Such 3D models can serve as a refreshing hands-on means to gain deeper physical insights into the formation of complex coherent structures in fluid flows. In this short paper, we present a general procedure for taking 3D flow field data and producing a file format that can be supplied to a 3D printer, with two examples of 3D printed flow structures. A sample code to perform this process is also prov...

  10. The Esri 3D city information model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitz, T; Schubiger-Banz, S

    2014-01-01

    With residential and commercial space becoming increasingly scarce, cities are going vertical. Managing the urban environments in 3D is an increasingly important and complex undertaking. To help solving this problem, Esri has released the ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution. The ArcGIS for 3D Cities solution provides the information model, tools and apps for creating, analyzing and maintaining a 3D city using the ArcGIS platform. This paper presents an overview of the 3D City Information Model and some sample use cases

  11. Induced piezoelectricity in isotropic biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, R L

    1976-01-01

    Isotropic material can be made to exhibit piezoelectric effects by the application of a constant electric field. For insulators, the piezoelectric strain constant is proportional to the applied electric field and for semiconductors, an additional out-of-phase component of piezoelectricity is proportional to the electric current density in the sample. The two induced coefficients are proportional to the strain-dependent dielectric constant (depsilon/dS + epsilon) and resistivity (drho/dS - rho), respectively. The latter is more important at frequencies such that rhoepsilonomega less than 1, often the case in biopolymers.Signals from induced piezoelectricity in nature may be larger than those from true piezoelectricity. PMID:990389

  12. How Isotropic is the Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Daniela; Feeney, Stephen M; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V; McEwen, Jason D

    2016-09-23

    A fundamental assumption in the standard model of cosmology is that the Universe is isotropic on large scales. Breaking this assumption leads to a set of solutions to Einstein's field equations, known as Bianchi cosmologies, only a subset of which have ever been tested against data. For the first time, we consider all degrees of freedom in these solutions to conduct a general test of isotropy using cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization data from Planck. For the vector mode (associated with vorticity), we obtain a limit on the anisotropic expansion of (σ_{V}/H)_{0}Universe is strongly disfavored, with odds of 121 000:1 against.

  13. Case study: Beauty and the Beast 3D: benefits of 3D viewing for 2D to 3D conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy Turner, Tara

    2010-02-01

    From the earliest stages of the Beauty and the Beast 3D conversion project, the advantages of accurate desk-side 3D viewing was evident. While designing and testing the 2D to 3D conversion process, the engineering team at Walt Disney Animation Studios proposed a 3D viewing configuration that not only allowed artists to "compose" stereoscopic 3D but also improved efficiency by allowing artists to instantly detect which image features were essential to the stereoscopic appeal of a shot and which features had minimal or even negative impact. At a time when few commercial 3D monitors were available and few software packages provided 3D desk-side output, the team designed their own prototype devices and collaborated with vendors to create a "3D composing" workstation. This paper outlines the display technologies explored, final choices made for Beauty and the Beast 3D, wish-lists for future development and a few rules of thumb for composing compelling 2D to 3D conversions.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Effective Properties of 3D Piezoelectric Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri-Song Qin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of the overall effective properties of fibre-reinforced piezocomposites has drawn much interest from investigators recently. In this work, an algorithm used in two-dimensional (2D analysis for calculating transversely isotropic material properties is developed. Since the finite element (FE meshing patterns on the opposite areas are the same, constraint equations can be applied directly to generate appropriate load. The numerical results derived using this model have found a good agreement with those in the literature. The 2D algorithm is then modified and improved in such a way that it is valid for three-dimensional (3D analysis in the case of random distributed shorts and inclusions. Linear interpolation of displacement field is employed to establish constraint equations of nodal displacements between two adjacent elements.

  15. RELAP5-3D User Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riemke, Richard Allan

    2002-09-01

    The Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program with 3D capability1 (RELAP5-3D) is a reactor system analysis code that has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The 3D capability in RELAP5-3D includes 3D hydrodynamics2 and 3D neutron kinetics3,4. Assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability in RELAP5-3D is discussed in the literature5,6,7,8,9,10. Additional assessment, verification, and validation of the 3D capability of RELAP5-3D will be presented in other papers in this users seminar. As with any software, user problems occur. User problems usually fall into the categories of input processing failure, code execution failure, restart/renodalization failure, unphysical result, and installation. This presentation will discuss some of the more generic user problems that have been reported on RELAP5-3D as well as their resolution.

  16. 3DSEM: A 3D microscopy dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad P. Tafti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM as a 2D imaging instrument has been widely used in many scientific disciplines including biological, mechanical, and materials sciences to determine the surface attributes of microscopic objects. However the SEM micrographs still remain 2D images. To effectively measure and visualize the surface properties, we need to truly restore the 3D shape model from 2D SEM images. Having 3D surfaces would provide anatomic shape of micro-samples which allows for quantitative measurements and informative visualization of the specimens being investigated. The 3DSEM is a dataset for 3D microscopy vision which is freely available at [1] for any academic, educational, and research purposes. The dataset includes both 2D images and 3D reconstructed surfaces of several real microscopic samples. Keywords: 3D microscopy dataset, 3D microscopy vision, 3D SEM surface reconstruction, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM

  17. Depth migration in transversely isotropic media with explicit operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzcategui, Omar [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The author presents and analyzes three approaches to calculating explicit two-dimensional (2D) depth-extrapolation filters for all propagation modes (P, SV, and SH) in transversely isotropic media with vertical and tilted axis of symmetry. These extrapolation filters are used to do 2D poststack depth migration, and also, just as for isotropic media, these 2D filters are used in the McClellan transformation to do poststack 3D depth migration. Furthermore, the same explicit filters can also be used to do depth-extrapolation of prestack data. The explicit filters are derived by generalizations of three different approaches: the modified Taylor series, least-squares, and minimax methods initially developed for isotropic media. The examples here show that the least-squares and minimax methods produce filters with accurate extrapolation (measured in the ability to position steep reflectors) for a wider range of propagation angles than that obtained using the modified Taylor series method. However, for low propagation angles, the modified Taylor series method has smaller amplitude and phase errors than those produced by the least-squares and minimax methods. These results suggest that to get accurate amplitude estimation, modified Taylor series filters would be somewhat preferred in areas with low dips. In areas with larger dips, the least-squares and minimax methods would give a distinctly better delineation of the subsurface structures.

  18. Identification of the transition arrays 3d74s-3d74p in Br X and 3d64s-3d64p in Br XI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, X.T.; Jupen, C.; Bengtsson, P.; Engstroem, L.; Westerlind, M.; Martinson, I.

    1991-01-01

    We report a beam-foil study of multiply ionized bromine in the region 400-1300A, performed with 6 and 8 MeV Br ions from a tandem accelerator. At these energies transitions belonging to Fe-like Br X and Mn-like Br XI are expected to be prominent. We have identified 31 lines as 3d 7 4s-3d 7 4p transitions in Br X, from which 16 levels of the previously unknown 3d 7 4s configuration could be established. We have also added 6 new 3d 7 4p levels to the 99 previously known. For Br XI we have classified 9 lines as 3d 6 4s-3d 6 4p combinations. The line identifications have been corroborated by isoelectronic comparisons and theoretical calculations using the superposition-of-configurations technique. (orig.)

  19. 3D PHOTOGRAPHS IN CULTURAL HERITAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Schuhr

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper on providing "oo-information" (= objective object-information on cultural monuments and sites, based on 3D photographs is also a contribution of CIPA task group 3 to the 2013 CIPA Symposium in Strasbourg. To stimulate the interest in 3D photography for scientists as well as for amateurs, 3D-Masterpieces are presented. Exemplary it is shown, due to their high documentary value ("near reality", 3D photography support, e.g. the recording, the visualization, the interpretation, the preservation and the restoration of architectural and archaeological objects. This also includes samples for excavation documentation, 3D coordinate calculation, 3D photographs applied for virtual museum purposes and as educational tools. In addition 3D photography is used for virtual museum purposes, as well as an educational tool and for spatial structure enhancement, which in particular holds for inscriptions and in rock arts. This paper is also an invitation to participate in a systematic survey on existing international archives of 3D photographs. In this respect it is also reported on first results, to define an optimum digitization rate for analog stereo views. It is more than overdue, in addition to the access to international archives for 3D photography, the available 3D photography data should appear in a global GIS(cloud-system, like on, e.g., google earth. This contribution also deals with exposing new 3D photographs to document monuments of importance for Cultural Heritage, including the use of 3D and single lense cameras from a 10m telescope staff, to be used for extremely low earth based airborne 3D photography, as well as for "underwater staff photography". In addition it is reported on the use of captive balloon and drone platforms for 3D photography in Cultural Heritage. It is liked to emphasize, the still underestimated 3D effect on real objects even allows, e.g., the spatial perception of extremely small scratches as well as of nuances in

  20. 3D Systems” ‘Stuck in the Middle’ of the 3D Printer Boom?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hoffmann (Alan)

    2014-01-01

    textabstract3D Systems, the pioneer of 3D printing, predicted a future where "kids from 8 to 80" could design and print their ideas at home. By 2013, 9 years after the creation of the first working 3D printer, there were more than 30 major 3D printing companies competing for market share. 3DS and

  1. 3D High Resolution l1-SPIRiT Reconstruction on Gadgetron based Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Hui; Kelmann, Peter; Inati, Souheil

    framework to support distributed computing in a cloud environment. This extension is named GT-Plus. A cloud version of 3D l1-SPIRiT was implemented on the GT-Plus framework. We demonstrate that a 3mins reconstruction could be achieved for 1mm3 isotropic resolution neuro scans with significantly improved......Applying non-linear reconstruction to high resolution 3D MRI is challenging because of the lengthy computing time needed for those iterative algorithms. To achieve practical processing duration to enable clinical usage of non-linear reconstruction, we have extended previously published Gadgetron...

  2. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender (an open source visualization suite widely used in the entertainment and gaming industries) for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  3. Remote Collaborative 3D Printing - Process Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    COLLABORATIVE 3D PRINTING - PROCESS INVESTIGATION Cody M. Reese, PE CAD MODEL PRINT MODEL PRINT PREVIEW PRINTED PART AERIAL VIRTUAL This...REMOTE COLLABORATIVE 3D PRINTING - PROCESS INVESTIGATION 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Cody M. Reese...release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Remote Collaborative 3D Printing project is a collaboration between

  4. Microfabricating 3D Structures by Laser Origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    10.1117/2.1201111.003952 Microfabricating 3D structures by laser origami Alberto Piqué, Scott Mathews, Andrew Birnbaum, and Nicholas Charipar A new...folding known as origami allows the transformation of flat patterns into 3D shapes. A similar approach can be used to generate 3D structures com... geometries . The overarching challenge is to move away from traditional planar semiconductor photolitho- graphic techniques, which severely limit the type of

  5. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.

    2015-03-01

    This is the first book written on using Blender for scientific visualization. It is a practical and interesting introduction to Blender for understanding key parts of 3D rendering and animation that pertain to the sciences via step-by-step guided tutorials. 3D Scientific Visualization with Blender takes you through an understanding of 3D graphics and modelling for different visualization scenarios in the physical sciences.

  6. 3D images and expert system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun-ichi

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an expert system called 3D-IMPRESS for supporting applications of three dimensional (3D) image processing. This system can automatically construct a 3D image processing procedure based on a pictorial example of the goal given by a user. In the paper, to evaluate the performance of the system, it was applied to construction of procedures for extracting specific component figures from practical chest X-ray CT images. (author)

  7. ERP system for 3D printing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deaky Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GOCREATE is an original cloud-based production management and optimization service which helps 3D printing service providers to use their resources better. The proposed Enterprise Resource Planning system can significantly increase income through improved productivity. With GOCREATE, the 3D printing service providers get a much higher production efficiency at a much lower licensing cost, to increase their competitiveness in the fast growing 3D printing market.

  8. Thermalization vs. isotropization and azimuthal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2005-01-01

    Hydrodynamic description requires a local thermodynamic equilibrium of the system under study but an approximate hydrodynamic behaviour is already manifested when a momentum distribution of liquid components is not of equilibrium form but merely isotropic. While the process of equilibration is relatively slow, the parton system becomes isotropic rather fast due to the plasma instabilities. Azimuthal fluctuations observed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are argued to distinguish between a fully equilibrated and only isotropic parton system produced in the collision early stage

  9. Perspectives on Materials Science in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Materials characterization in 3D has opened a new era in materials science, which is discussed in this paper. The original motivations and visions behind the development of one of the new 3D techniques, namely the three dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) method, are presented and the route...... to its implementation is described. The present status of materials science in 3D is illustrated by examples related to recrystallization. Finally, challenges and suggestions for the future success for 3D Materials Science relating to hardware evolution, data analysis, data exchange and modeling...

  10. Getting started in 3D with Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Deliver professional-level 3D content in no time with this comprehensive guide to 3D animation with Maya. With over 12 years of training experience, plus several award winning students under his belt, author Adam Watkins is the ideal mentor to get you up to speed with 3D in Maya. Using a structured and pragmatic approach Getting Started in 3D with Maya begins with basic theory of fundamental techniques, then builds on this knowledge using practical examples and projects to put your new skills to the test. Prepared so that you can learn in an organic fashion, each chapter builds on the know

  11. Illustrating Mathematics using 3D Printers

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Oliver; Slavkovsky, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    3D printing technology can help to visualize proofs in mathematics. In this document we aim to illustrate how 3D printing can help to visualize concepts and mathematical proofs. As already known to educators in ancient Greece, models allow to bring mathematics closer to the public. The new 3D printing technology makes the realization of such tools more accessible than ever. This is an updated version of a paper included in book Low-Cost 3D Printing for science, education and Sustainable Devel...

  12. A 3d game in python

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    3D game has widely been accepted and loved by many game players. More and more different kinds of 3D games were developed to feed people’s needs. The most common programming language for development of 3D game is C++ nowadays. Python is a high-level scripting language. It is simple and clear. The concise syntax could speed up the development cycle. This project was to develop a 3D game using only Python. The game is about how a cat lives in the street. In order to live, the player need...

  13. Dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Kent; Ordway, Nathaniel; Diallo, Dalanda; Tillapaugh-Fay, Gwen; Aslan, Can

    2014-03-01

    3D printer applications in the biomedical sciences and medical imaging are expanding and will have an increasing impact on the practice of medicine. Orthopedic and reconstructive surgery has been an obvious area for development of 3D printer applications as the segmentation of bony anatomy to generate printable models is relatively straightforward. There are important issues that should be addressed when using 3D printed models for applications that may affect patient care; in particular the dimensional accuracy of the printed parts needs to be high to avoid poor decisions being made prior to surgery or therapeutic procedures. In this work, the dimensional accuracy of 3D printed vertebral bodies derived from CT data for a cadaver spine is compared with direct measurements on the ex-vivo vertebra and with measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra using commercial 3D image processing software. The vertebra was printed on a consumer grade 3D printer using an additive print process using PLA (polylactic acid) filament. Measurements were made for 15 different anatomic features of the vertebral body, including vertebral body height, endplate width and depth, pedicle height and width, and spinal canal width and depth, among others. It is shown that for the segmentation and printing process used, the results of measurements made on the 3D printed vertebral body are substantially the same as those produced by direct measurement on the vertebra and measurements made on the 3D rendered vertebra.

  14. Feasibility of fabricating personalized 3D-printed bone grafts guided by high-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Abigail L.; Newman, Benjamin T.; Khalid, Arbab; Teter, Olivia M.; Kobe, Elizabeth A.; Shukurova, Malika; Shinde, Rohit; Sipzner, Daniel; Pignolo, Robert J.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Rajapakse, Chamith S.

    2017-03-01

    Current methods of bone graft treatment for critical size bone defects can give way to several clinical complications such as limited available bone for autografts, non-matching bone structure, lack of strength which can compromise a patient's skeletal system, and sterilization processes that can prevent osteogenesis in the case of allografts. We intend to overcome these disadvantages by generating a patient-specific 3D printed bone graft guided by high-resolution medical imaging. Our synthetic model allows us to customize the graft for the patients' macro- and microstructure and correct any structural deficiencies in the re-meshing process. These 3D-printed models can presumptively serve as the scaffolding for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) engraftment in order to facilitate bone growth. We performed highresolution CT imaging of a cadaveric human proximal femur at 0.030-mm isotropic voxels. We used these images to generate a 3D computer model that mimics bone geometry from micro to macro scale represented by STereoLithography (STL) format. These models were then reformatted to a format that can be interpreted by the 3D printer. To assess how much of the microstructure was replicated, 3D-printed models were re-imaged using micro-CT at 0.025-mm isotropic voxels and compared to original high-resolution CT images used to generate the 3D model in 32 sub-regions. We found a strong correlation between 3D-printed bone volume and volume of bone in the original images used for 3D printing (R2 = 0.97). We expect to further refine our approach with additional testing to create a viable synthetic bone graft with clinical functionality.

  15. Comparison between isotropic linear-elastic law and isotropic hyperelastic law in the finite element modeling of the brachial plexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perruisseau-Carrier, A; Bahlouli, N; Bierry, G; Vernet, P; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P

    2017-12-01

    Augmented reality could help the identification of nerve structures in brachial plexus surgery. The goal of this study was to determine which law of mechanical behavior was more adapted by comparing the results of Hooke's isotropic linear elastic law to those of Ogden's isotropic hyperelastic law, applied to a biomechanical model of the brachial plexus. A model of finite elements was created using the ABAQUS ® from a 3D model of the brachial plexus acquired by segmentation and meshing of MRI images at 0°, 45° and 135° of shoulder abduction of a healthy subject. The offset between the reconstructed model and the deformed model was evaluated quantitatively by the Hausdorff distance and qualitatively by the identification of 3 anatomical landmarks. In every case the Hausdorff distance was shorter with Ogden's law compared to Hooke's law. On a qualitative aspect, the model deformed by Ogden's law followed the concavity of the reconstructed model whereas the model deformed by Hooke's law remained convex. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that the behavior of Ogden's isotropic hyperelastic mechanical model was more adapted to the modeling of the deformations of the brachial plexus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of Possible Prognostic Factors of Fulminant Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) on Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donmez, F.Y.; Aslan, H.; Coskun, M. (Dept. of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent Univ., Ankara (Turkey))

    2009-04-15

    Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) may be a rapidly progressive disease with different clinical outcomes. Purpose: To investigate the radiological findings of fulminant ADEM on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, and to correlate these findings with clinical outcome. Material and Methods: Initial and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans in eight patients were retrospectively evaluated for distribution of lesions on FLAIR images and presence of hemorrhage or contrast enhancement. DWI of the patients was evaluated as to cytotoxic versus vasogenic edema. The clinical records were analyzed, and MRI results and clinical outcome were correlated. Results: Four of the eight patients died, three had full recovery, and one had residual cortical blindness. The distribution of the hyperintense lesions on FLAIR sequence was as follows: frontal (37.5%), parietal (50%), temporal (37.5%), occipital (62.5%), basal ganglia (50%), pons (37.5%), mesencephalon (37.5%), and cerebellum (50%). Three of the patients who died had brainstem involvement. Two patients had a cytotoxic edema, one of whom died, and the other developed cortical blindness. Six patients had vasogenic edema: three of these patients had a rapid progression to coma and died; three of them recovered. Conclusion: DWI is not always helpful for evaluating the evolution or predicting the outcome of ADEM. However, extension of the lesions, particularly brainstem involvement, may have an influence on the prognosis.

  17. Temporal pole signal abnormality on MR imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Henrique; Abdala, Nitamar; Lin, Kátia; Caboclo, Luís Otávio; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Sakamoto, Américo Ceiki; Szjenfeld, Jacob; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2007-09-01

    To determine the frequency and regional involvement of temporal pole signal abnormality (TPA) in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging, and to correlate this feature with history. Coronal FLAIR images of the temporal pole were assessed in 120 patients with HS and in 30 normal subjects, to evaluate gray-white matter demarcation. Ninety (75%) of 120 patients had associated TPA. The HS side made difference regarding the presence of TPA, with a left side prevalence (p=0.04, chi2 test). The anteromedial zone of temporal pole was affected in 27 (30%) out of 90 patients. In 63 (70%) patients the lateral zone were also affected. Patients with TPA were younger at seizure onset (p=0.018), but without association with duration of epilepsy. Our FLAIR study show temporal pole signal abnormality in 3/4 of patients with HS, mainly seen on the anteromedial region, with a larger prevalence when the left hippocampus was involved.

  18. Bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI with high-resolution fast spin-echo and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oppenheim, C.; Dormont, D.; Lehericy, S.; Marsault, C. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Hasboun, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pite-Salpetriere, Paris (France)]|[Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France); Bazin, B.; Samson, S.; Baulac, M. [Dept. of Neurology, Paris VI Univ. (France)

    1999-07-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of MRI in 206 patients with intractable seizures and describe the findings in bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on fast spin-echo (FSE) and fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (fFLAIR) sequences. Criteria for MTS were atrophy, signal change and loss of the digitations of the head of the hippocampus. In patients with bilateral MRI signs of MTS, correlation with clinical electro, volumetric MRI data and neuropsychological tests, when available, was performed. Bilateral MTS was observed in seven patients. Bilateral loss of the digitations and signal change of fFLAIR was seen in all seven. In three, bilateral atrophy was obvious. In two patients, mild bilateral atrophy was observed and in two others, the hippocampi were: asymmetrical, with obvious atrophy on only one side. Volumetric data confirmed bilateral symmetrical atrophy in five patients, and volumes were at the lowest of the normal range in other two. The EEG showed temporal abnormalities in all patients, unilateral in five and bilateral in two. All patients had memory impairment and neuropsychological data confirmed visual and verbal memory deficits; two patients failed the Wada test on both sides. High-resolution T2-weighted FSE and fFLAIR sequences allow diagnosis of bilateral MTS, which has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  19. Temporal pole signal abnormality on MR imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis: a fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrete Junior, Henrique; Abdala, Nitamar; Szjenfeld, Jacob; Nogueira, Roberto Gomes; Lin, Katia; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Sakamoto, Americo Ceiki; Yacubian, Elza Marcia Targas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and regional involvement of temporal pole signal abnormality (TPA) in patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) using fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging, and to correlate this feature with history. Method: Coronal FLAIR images of the temporal pole were assessed in 120 patients with HS and in 30 normal subjects, to evaluate gray-white matter demarcation. Results: Ninety (75%) of 120 patients had associated TPA. The HS side made difference regarding the presence of TPA, with a left side prevalence (p=0.04, χ 2 test). The anteromedial zone of temporal pole was affected in 27 (30%) out of 90 patients. In 63 (70%) patients the lateral zone were also affected. Patients with TPA were younger at seizure onset (p=0.018), but without association with duration of epilepsy. Conclusion: Our FLAIR study show temporal pole signal abnormality in 3/4 of patients with HS, mainly seen on the anteromedial region, with a larger prevalence when the left hippocampus was involved. (author)

  20. Study of the fast inversion recovery pulse sequence. With reference to fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery and fast short TI inversion recovery pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Maki, Toshio; Suzuki, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The fast inversion recovery (fast IR) pulse sequence was evaluated. We compared the fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (fast FLAIR) pulse sequence in which inversion time (TI) was established as equal to the water null point for the purpose of the water-suppressed T 2 -weighted image, with the fast short TI inversion recovery (fast STIR) pulse sequence in which TI was established as equal to the fat null point for purpose of fat suppression. In the fast FLAIR pulse sequence, the water null point was increased by making TR longer. In the FLAIR pulse sequence, the longitudinal magnetization contrast is determined by TI. If TI is increased, T 2 -weighted contrast improves in the same way as increasing TR for the SE pulse sequence. Therefore, images should be taken with long TR and long TI, which are longer than TR and longer than the water null point. On the other hand, the fat null point is not affected by TR in the fast STIR pulse sequence. However, effective TE was affected by variation of the null point. This increased in proportion to the increase in effective TE. Our evaluation indicated that the fast STIR pulse sequence can control the extensive signals from fat in a short time. (author)

  1. Cerebrospinal Fluid Enhancement on Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery Images After Carotid Artery Stenting with Neuroprotective Balloon Occlusions: Hemodynamic Instability and Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogami, Ryo; Nakahara, Toshinori; Hamasaki, Osamu; Araki, Hayato; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A rare complication of carotid artery stenting (CAS), prolonged reversible neurological symptoms with delayed cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space enhancement on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, is associated with blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption. We prospectively identified patients who showed CSF space enhancement on FLAIR images. Methods: Nineteen patients—5 acute-phase and 14 scheduled—underwent 21 CAS procedures. Balloon catheters were navigated across stenoses, angioplasty was performed using a neuroprotective balloon, and stents were placed with after dilation under distal balloon protection. CSF space hyperintensity or obscuration on FLAIR after versus before CAS indicated CSF space enhancement. Correlations with clinical factors were examined. Results: CSF space was enhanced on FLAIR in 12 (57.1%) cases. Postprocedural CSF space enhancement was significantly related to age, stenosis rate, acute-stage procedure, and total occlusion time. All acute-stage CAS patients showed delayed enhancement. Only age was associated with delayed CSF space enhancement in scheduled CAS patients. Conclusions: Ischemic intolerance for severe carotid artery stenosis and temporary neuroprotective balloon occlusion, causing reperfusion injury, seem to be the main factors that underlie BBB disruption with delayed CSF space enhancement shortly after CAS, rather than sudden poststenting hemodynamic change. Our results suggest that factors related to hemodynamic instability or ischemic intolerance seem to be associated with post-CAS BBB vulnerability. Patients at risk for hemodynamic instability or with ischemic intolerance, which decrease BBB integrity, require careful management to prevent intracranial hemorrhagic and other post-CAS complications.

  2. Abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space evaluated by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MR imaging: a spectrum of central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Sakuma, H.; Takeda, K.; Yagishita, A.; Yamamoto, T.

    2003-01-01

    A variety of central nervous system (CNS) diseases are associated with abnormal hyperintensity within the subarachnoid space (SAS) by fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging. Careful attention to the SAS can provide additional useful information that may not be available with conventional MR sequences. The purpose of this article is to provide a pictorial essay about CNS diseases and FLAIR images with abnormal hyperintensity within the SAS. We present several CNS diseases including subarachnoid hemorrhage, meningitis, leptomeningeal metastases, acute infarction, and severe arterial occlusive diseases such as moya-moya disease. We also review miscellaneous diseases or normal conditions that may exhibit cerebrospinal fluid hyperintensity on FLAIR images. Although the detection of abnormal hyperintensity suggests the underlying CNS diseases and narrows differential diagnoses, FLAIR imaging sometimes presents artifactual hyperintensity within the SAS that can cause the misinterpretation of normal SAS as pathologic conditions; therefore, radiologists should be familiar with such artifactual conditions as well as pathologic conditions shown as hyperintensity by FLAIR images. This knowledge is helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI with high-resolution fast spin-echo and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppenheim, C.; Dormont, D.; Lehericy, S.; Marsault, C.; Hasboun, D.; Bazin, B.; Samson, S.; Baulac, M.

    1999-01-01

    We report a retrospective analysis of MRI in 206 patients with intractable seizures and describe the findings in bilateral mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on fast spin-echo (FSE) and fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (fFLAIR) sequences. Criteria for MTS were atrophy, signal change and loss of the digitations of the head of the hippocampus. In patients with bilateral MRI signs of MTS, correlation with clinical electro, volumetric MRI data and neuropsychological tests, when available, was performed. Bilateral MTS was observed in seven patients. Bilateral loss of the digitations and signal change of fFLAIR was seen in all seven. In three, bilateral atrophy was obvious. In two patients, mild bilateral atrophy was observed and in two others, the hippocampi were: asymmetrical, with obvious atrophy on only one side. Volumetric data confirmed bilateral symmetrical atrophy in five patients, and volumes were at the lowest of the normal range in other two. The EEG showed temporal abnormalities in all patients, unilateral in five and bilateral in two. All patients had memory impairment and neuropsychological data confirmed visual and verbal memory deficits; two patients failed the Wada test on both sides. High-resolution T2-weighted FSE and fFLAIR sequences allow diagnosis of bilateral MTS, which has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. (orig.)

  4. Clinical value of periventricular low-intensity areas detected by fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). Relationships between perinatal vital parameter and neonatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadowaki, Sachiko; Iwata, Osuke; Tamura, Masanori [Nagano Children' s Hospital, Toyoshina (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-01-01

    A follow-up study was performed to assess the correlation among the incidence of periventricular low intensities (PVLI) on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery) imaging, clinical evidence of perinatal insults that may cause white matter damage, and the outcome of the infants. We evaluated periventricular white matter lesions of 329 neonates whose MRI were obtained before two months corrected age. The detective rate of periventricular abnormalities on FLAIR imaging was significantly higher than that of T1-T2 weighted imaging. The most typical lesion detected on FLAIR imaging was periventricular low intensities (PVLI), frequently observed in the neonates with a history of preterm labour, very low birth weight, birth asphyxia and severe respiratory failure. Although we could not characterize the risk factors of PVLI, the incidence of PVLI had a strong correlation with the scores of motor and developmental tests at 12 and 36-months corrected age. In conclusion, FLAIR imaging, detecting the border zone damage of white matter, would be a strong tool to pick out neonates at high risk of neurological disturbances from those without clinical evidence of neurological insults in the neonatal period. (author)

  5. Towards sustainable and clean 3D Geoinformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoter, J.E.; Ledoux, H.; Zlatanova, S.; Biljecki, F.; Kolbe, T.H.; Bill, R.; Donaubauer, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarises the on going research activities of the 3D Geoinformation Group at the Delft University of Technology. The main challenge underpinning the research of this group is providing clean and appropriate 3D data about our environment in order to serve a wide variety of applications.

  6. Pattern recognition: invariants in 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proriol, J.

    1992-01-01

    In e + e - events, the jets have a spherical 3D symmetry. A set of invariants are defined for 3D objects with a spherical symmetry. These new invariants are used to tag the number of jets in e + e - events. (K.A.) 3 refs

  7. 3D Printing: What Are the Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Susan A

    2018-03-01

    As the popularity of three-dimensional (3D) printers increases, more research will be conducted to evaluate the benefits and risks of this technology. Occupational health professionals should stay abreast of new recommendations to protect workers from exposure to 3D printer emissions.

  8. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei; Yan, Dongming; Li, Er; Dong, Weiming; Wonka, Peter; Zhang, Xiaopeng

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces

  9. 3D, or Not to Be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Keith

    2012-01-01

    It may be too soon for students to be showing up for class with popcorn and gummy bears, but technology similar to that behind the 3D blockbuster movie "Avatar" is slowly finding its way into college classrooms. 3D classroom projectors are taking students on fantastic voyages inside the human body, to the ruins of ancient Greece--even to faraway…

  10. Embedding complex objects with 3d printing

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Diaz, Cordero Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    A CMOS technology-compatible fabrication process for flexible CMOS electronics embedded during additive manufacturing (i.e. 3D printing). A method for such a process may include printing a first portion of a 3D structure; pausing the step

  11. 3D Printing of Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Adam; Olson, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Physical molecular models have played a valuable role in our understanding of the invisible nano-scale world. We discuss 3D printing and its use in producing models of the molecules of life. Complex biomolecular models, produced from 3D printed parts, can demonstrate characteristics of molecular structure and function, such as viral self-assembly,…

  12. 3D printing of functional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.

    The technology colloquial known as ‘3D printing’ has developed in such diversity in printing technologies and application fields that meanwhile it seems anything is possible. However, clearly the ideal 3D Printer, with high resolution, multi-material capability, fast printing, etc. is yet to be

  13. 3D Printing. What's the Harm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Roy, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Health concerns from 3D printing were first documented by Stephens, Azimi, Orch, and Ramos (2013), who found that commercially available 3D printers were producing hazardous levels of ultrafine particles (UFPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when plastic materials were melted through the extruder. UFPs are particles less than 100 nanometers…

  14. 3D Printed Block Copolymer Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalfani, Vincent F.; Turner, C. Heath; Rupar, Paul A.; Jenkins, Alexander H.; Bara, Jason E.

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of 3D printing has dramatically advanced the availability of tangible molecular and extended solid models. Interestingly, there are few nanostructure models available both commercially and through other do-it-yourself approaches such as 3D printing. This is unfortunate given the importance of nanotechnology in science today. In this…

  15. 3D-printed cereal foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.; Bommel, K. van; Renzetti, S.

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is an up-and-coming production technology based on layer-by-layer deposition of material to reproduce a computer-generated 3D design. Additive manufacturing is a collective term used for a variety of technologies, such as fused deposition modeling

  16. A Framework for 3d Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Frandsen, Thomas; Kapetaniou, Chrystalla

    3D printing technologies and processes offer such a radical range of options for firms that we currently lack a structured way of recording possible impact and recommending actions for managers. The changes arising from 3d printing includes more than just new options for product design, but also...

  17. The 3D-city model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgren, Steen; Rüdiger, Bjarne; Tournay, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We have worked with the construction and use of 3D city models for about ten years. This work has given us valuable experience concerning model methodology. In addition to this collection of knowledge, our perception of the concept of city models has changed radically. In order to explain...... of 3D city models....

  18. 3D Programmable Micro Self Assembly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bohringer, Karl F; Parviz, Babak A; Klavins, Eric

    2005-01-01

    .... We have developed a "self assembly tool box" consisting of a range of methods for micro-scale self-assembly in 2D and 3D We have shown physical demonstrations of simple 3D self-assemblies which lead...

  19. Wow! 3D Content Awakens the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Dan

    2010-01-01

    From her first encounter with stereoscopic 3D technology designed for classroom instruction, Megan Timme, principal at Hamilton Park Pacesetter Magnet School in Dallas, sensed it could be transformative. Last spring, when she began pilot-testing 3D content in her third-, fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms, Timme wasn't disappointed. Students…

  20. Digital Dentistry — 3D Printing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Cristian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D printing is an additive manufacturing method in which a 3D item is formed by laying down successive layers of material. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of objects either planned with a CAD program or scanned with a 3D scanner. Printing is a method for replicating text and pictures, typically with ink on paper. We can print different dental pieces using different methods such as selective laser sintering (SLS, stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, and laminated object manufacturing. The materials are certified for printing individual impression trays, orthodontic models, gingiva mask, and different prosthetic objects. The material can reach a flexural strength of more than 80 MPa. 3D printing takes the effectiveness of digital projects to the production phase. Dental laboratories are able to produce crowns, bridges, stone models, and various orthodontic appliances by methods that combine oral scanning, 3D printing, and CAD/CAM design. Modern 3D printing has been used for the development of prototypes for several years, and it has begun to find its use in the world of manufacturing. Digital technology and 3D printing have significantly elevated the rate of success in dental implantology using custom surgical guides and improving the quality and accuracy of dental work.

  1. Case study of 3D fingerprints applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Liu

    Full Text Available Human fingers are 3D objects. More information will be provided if three dimensional (3D fingerprints are available compared with two dimensional (2D fingerprints. Thus, this paper firstly collected 3D finger point cloud data by Structured-light Illumination method. Additional features from 3D fingerprint images are then studied and extracted. The applications of these features are finally discussed. A series of experiments are conducted to demonstrate the helpfulness of 3D information to fingerprint recognition. Results show that a quick alignment can be easily implemented under the guidance of 3D finger shape feature even though this feature does not work for fingerprint recognition directly. The newly defined distinctive 3D shape ridge feature can be used for personal authentication with Equal Error Rate (EER of ~8.3%. Also, it is helpful to remove false core point. Furthermore, a promising of EER ~1.3% is realized by combining this feature with 2D features for fingerprint recognition which indicates the prospect of 3D fingerprint recognition.

  2. Immersive 3D Geovisualization in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigate how immersive 3D geovisualization can be used in higher education. Based on MacEachren and Kraak's geovisualization cube, we examine the usage of immersive 3D geovisualization and its usefulness in a research-based learning module on flood risk, called GEOSimulator. Results of a survey among participating students…

  3. LandSIM3D: modellazione in real time 3D di dati geografici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambo Srl Lambo Srl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available LandSIM3D: realtime 3D modelling of geographic data LandSIM3D allows to model in 3D an existing landscape in a few hours only and geo-referenced offering great landscape analysis and understanding tools. 3D projects can then be inserted into the existing landscape with ease and precision. The project alternatives and impact can then be visualized and studied into their immediate environmental. The complex evolution of the landscape in the future can also be simulated and the landscape model can be manipulated interactively and better shared with colleagues. For that reason, LandSIM3D is different from traditional 3D imagery solutions, normally reserved for computer graphics experts. For more information about LandSIM3D, go to www.landsim3d.com.

  4. Inclined nanoimprinting lithography for 3D nanopatterning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan; Bucknall, David G; Allen, Mark G

    2011-01-01

    We report a non-conventional shear-force-driven nanofabrication approach, inclined nanoimprint lithography (INIL), for producing 3D nanostructures of varying heights on planar substrates in a single imprinting step. Such 3D nanostructures are fabricated by exploiting polymer anisotropic dewetting where the degree of anisotropy can be controlled by the magnitude of the inclination angle. The feature size is reduced from micron scale of the template to a resultant nanoscale pattern. The underlying INIL mechanism is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The results indicate that the shear force generated at a non-zero inclination angle induced by the INIL apparatus essentially leads to asymmetry in the polymer flow direction ultimately resulting in 3D nanopatterns with different heights. INIL removes the requirements in conventional nanolithography of either utilizing 3D templates or using multiple lithographic steps. This technique enables various 3D nanoscale devices including angle-resolved photonic and plasmonic crystals to be fabricated.

  5. Density-Based 3D Shape Descriptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitt Francis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel probabilistic framework for the extraction of density-based 3D shape descriptors using kernel density estimation. Our descriptors are derived from the probability density functions (pdf of local surface features characterizing the 3D object geometry. Assuming that the shape of the 3D object is represented as a mesh consisting of triangles with arbitrary size and shape, we provide efficient means to approximate the moments of geometric features on a triangle basis. Our framework produces a number of 3D shape descriptors that prove to be quite discriminative in retrieval applications. We test our descriptors and compare them with several other histogram-based methods on two 3D model databases, Princeton Shape Benchmark and Sculpteur, which are fundamentally different in semantic content and mesh quality. Experimental results show that our methodology not only improves the performance of existing descriptors, but also provides a rigorous framework to advance and to test new ones.

  6. 3D-grafiikka ja pelimoottorit

    OpenAIRE

    Sillanpää, Otto

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkitaan miten 3D-mallit saadaan sellaiseen muotoon, että ne olisivat käytettävissä eri pelimoottoreissa. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena on selvittää, miten luodaan 3D-malleja pelimoottoreihin, sekä miten 3D-mallinnusohjelmat ja pelimoottorit eroavat toisistaan, kun käsitellään 3D-malleja. Tässä työssä pelimoottoreina toimivat Valven Source sekä Epic Gamesin Unreal Engine 3. 3D-mallinnusohjelmista käytössä olivat Autodeskin 3ds Max 2014 ja Blender Foundationin Blender 2.7...

  7. BEAMS3D Neutral Beam Injection Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazerson, Samuel

    2014-04-14

    With the advent of applied 3D fi elds in Tokamaks and modern high performance stellarators, a need has arisen to address non-axisymmetric effects on neutral beam heating and fueling. We report on the development of a fully 3D neutral beam injection (NBI) model, BEAMS3D, which addresses this need by coupling 3D equilibria to a guiding center code capable of modeling neutral and charged particle trajectories across the separatrix and into the plasma core. Ionization, neutralization, charge-exchange, viscous velocity reduction, and pitch angle scattering are modeled with the ADAS atomic physics database [1]. Benchmark calculations are presented to validate the collisionless particle orbits, neutral beam injection model, frictional drag, and pitch angle scattering effects. A calculation of neutral beam heating in the NCSX device is performed, highlighting the capability of the code to handle 3D magnetic fields.

  8. Fabrication of 3D Silicon Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, A.; Hansen, T.E.; Hansen, T.A.; Lietaer, N.; Summanwar, A.; /SINTEF, Oslo; Kenney, C.; Hasi, J.; /SLAC; Da Via, C.; /Manchester U.; Parker, S.I.; /Hawaii U.

    2012-06-06

    Silicon sensors with a three-dimensional (3-D) architecture, in which the n and p electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate, have many advantages over planar silicon sensors including radiation hardness, fast time response, active edge and dual readout capabilities. The fabrication of 3D sensors is however rather complex. In recent years, there have been worldwide activities on 3D fabrication. SINTEF in collaboration with Stanford Nanofabrication Facility have successfully fabricated the original (single sided double column type) 3D detectors in two prototype runs and the third run is now on-going. This paper reports the status of this fabrication work and the resulted yield. The work of other groups such as the development of double sided 3D detectors is also briefly reported.

  9. Maintaining and troubleshooting your 3D printer

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining and Troubleshooting Your 3D Printer by Charles Bell is your guide to keeping your 3D printer running through preventive maintenance, repair, and diagnosing and solving problems in 3D printing. If you've bought or built a 3D printer such as a MakerBot only to be confounded by jagged edges, corner lift, top layers that aren't solid, or any of a myriad of other problems that plague 3D printer enthusiasts, then here is the book to help you get past all that and recapture the joy of creative fabrication. The book also includes valuable tips for builders and those who want to modify the

  10. The psychology of the 3D experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicke, Sophie H.; Ellis, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    With 3D televisions expected to reach 50% home saturation as early as 2016, understanding the psychological mechanisms underlying the user response to 3D technology is critical for content providers, educators and academics. Unfortunately, research examining the effects of 3D technology has not kept pace with the technology's rapid adoption, resulting in large-scale use of a technology about which very little is actually known. Recognizing this need for new research, we conducted a series of studies measuring and comparing many of the variables and processes underlying both 2D and 3D media experiences. In our first study, we found narratives within primetime dramas had the power to shift viewer attitudes in both 2D and 3D settings. However, we found no difference in persuasive power between 2D and 3D content. We contend this lack of effect was the result of poor conversion quality and the unique demands of 3D production. In our second study, we found 3D technology significantly increased enjoyment when viewing sports content, yet offered no added enjoyment when viewing a movie trailer. The enhanced enjoyment of the sports content was shown to be the result of heightened emotional arousal and attention in the 3D condition. We believe the lack of effect found for the movie trailer may be genre-related. In our final study, we found 3D technology significantly enhanced enjoyment of two video games from different genres. The added enjoyment was found to be the result of an increased sense of presence.

  11. 3D Visualization Development of SIUE Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellutla, Shravya

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has progressed from the traditional map-making to the modern technology where the information can be created, edited, managed and analyzed. Like any other models, maps are simplified representations of real world. Hence visualization plays an essential role in the applications of GIS. The use of sophisticated visualization tools and methods, especially three dimensional (3D) modeling, has been rising considerably due to the advancement of technology. There are currently many off-the-shelf technologies available in the market to build 3D GIS models. One of the objectives of this research was to examine the available ArcGIS and its extensions for 3D modeling and visualization and use them to depict a real world scenario. Furthermore, with the advent of the web, a platform for accessing and sharing spatial information on the Internet, it is possible to generate interactive online maps. Integrating Internet capacity with GIS functionality redefines the process of sharing and processing the spatial information. Enabling a 3D map online requires off-the-shelf GIS software, 3D model builders, web server, web applications and client server technologies. Such environments are either complicated or expensive because of the amount of hardware and software involved. Therefore, the second objective of this research was to investigate and develop simpler yet cost-effective 3D modeling approach that uses available ArcGIS suite products and the free 3D computer graphics software for designing 3D world scenes. Both ArcGIS Explorer and ArcGIS Online will be used to demonstrate the way of sharing and distributing 3D geographic information on the Internet. A case study of the development of 3D campus for the Southern Illinois University Edwardsville is demonstrated.

  12. Pathways for Learning from 3D Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, L. Mark; Rab, Saira S.; Rosen, Larry D.; Vasquez, Ludivina; Cheever, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if 3D stereoscopic presentation of information in a movie format changes a viewer's experience of the movie content. Four possible pathways from 3D presentation to memory and learning were considered: a direct connection based on cognitive neuroscience research; a connection through "immersion" in that 3D presentations could provide additional sensorial cues (e.g., depth cues) that lead to a higher sense of being surrounded by the stimulus; a connection through general interest such that 3D presentation increases a viewer’s interest that leads to greater attention paid to the stimulus (e.g., "involvement"); and a connection through discomfort, with the 3D goggles causing discomfort that interferes with involvement and thus with memory. The memories of 396 participants who viewed two-dimensional (2D) or 3D movies at movie theaters in Southern California were tested. Within three days of viewing a movie, participants filled out an online anonymous questionnaire that queried them about their movie content memories, subjective movie-going experiences (including emotional reactions and "presence") and demographic backgrounds. The responses to the questionnaire were subjected to path analyses in which several different links between 3D presentation to memory (and other variables) were explored. The results showed there were no effects of 3D presentation, either directly or indirectly, upon memory. However, the largest effects of 3D presentation were on emotions and immersion, with 3D presentation leading to reduced positive emotions, increased negative emotions and lowered immersion, compared to 2D presentations. PMID:28078331

  13. 3D elastic inversion of vertical seismic profiles in horizontally stratified media; Inversion elastique 3D de profils sismiques verticaux en milieux stratifies horizontalement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, J.L.

    1997-07-21

    This thesis is devoted to the inversion of VSP (vertical seismic profile) seismic data in order to determine the elastic properties of horizontally stratified media. The VSP records are computed using the full wave elastic modelling in isotropic and transversely isotropic media using Hankel transform, a finite difference scheme and an inverse Hankel transform algorithm, and the propagation equations are determined and numerically solved; the importance of considering a 3D wave propagation model instead of a 1 D one is emphasized. The theoretical VSP inverse problem is then considered, with the seismic waveform inversion set as a least-squares problem, consisting in recovering the distribution of physical parameters which minimize the misfit between calculated and observed VSP. The corresponding problem requires the knowledge of the source function

  14. Full three-dimensional isotropic carpet cloak designed by quasi-conformal transformation optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Daniely G; Teixeira, Poliane A; Gabrielli, Lucas H; Junqueira, Mateus A F C; Spadoti, Danilo H

    2017-09-18

    A fully three-dimensional carpet cloak presenting invisibility in all viewing angles is theoretically demonstrated. The design is developed using transformation optics and three-dimensional quasi-conformal mapping. Parametrization strategy and numerical optimization of the coordinate transformation deploying a quasi-Newton method is applied. A discussion about the minimum achievable anisotropy in the 3D transformation optics is presented. The method allows to reduce the anisotropy in the cloak and an isotropic medium could be considered. Numerical simulations confirm the strategy employed enabling the design of an isotropic reflectionless broadband carpet cloak independently of the incident light direction and polarization.

  15. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Palomer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  16. 3D Laser Scanner for Underwater Manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomer, Albert; Ridao, Pere; Youakim, Dina; Ribas, David; Forest, Josep; Petillot, Yvan

    2018-04-04

    Nowadays, research in autonomous underwater manipulation has demonstrated simple applications like picking an object from the sea floor, turning a valve or plugging and unplugging a connector. These are fairly simple tasks compared with those already demonstrated by the mobile robotics community, which include, among others, safe arm motion within areas populated with a priori unknown obstacles or the recognition and location of objects based on their 3D model to grasp them. Kinect-like 3D sensors have contributed significantly to the advance of mobile manipulation providing 3D sensing capabilities in real-time at low cost. Unfortunately, the underwater robotics community is lacking a 3D sensor with similar capabilities to provide rich 3D information of the work space. In this paper, we present a new underwater 3D laser scanner and demonstrate its capabilities for underwater manipulation. In order to use this sensor in conjunction with manipulators, a calibration method to find the relative position between the manipulator and the 3D laser scanner is presented. Then, two different advanced underwater manipulation tasks beyond the state of the art are demonstrated using two different manipulation systems. First, an eight Degrees of Freedom (DoF) fixed-base manipulator system is used to demonstrate arm motion within a work space populated with a priori unknown fixed obstacles. Next, an eight DoF free floating Underwater Vehicle-Manipulator System (UVMS) is used to autonomously grasp an object from the bottom of a water tank.

  17. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K.; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J.; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B.; Grant, Gerald T.

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2015 PMID:26562233

  18. 3D bioprinting of tissues and organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean V; Atala, Anthony

    2014-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, otherwise known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, is driving major innovations in many areas, such as engineering, manufacturing, art, education and medicine. Recent advances have enabled 3D printing of biocompatible materials, cells and supporting components into complex 3D functional living tissues. 3D bioprinting is being applied to regenerative medicine to address the need for tissues and organs suitable for transplantation. Compared with non-biological printing, 3D bioprinting involves additional complexities, such as the choice of materials, cell types, growth and differentiation factors, and technical challenges related to the sensitivities of living cells and the construction of tissues. Addressing these complexities requires the integration of technologies from the fields of engineering, biomaterials science, cell biology, physics and medicine. 3D bioprinting has already been used for the generation and transplantation of several tissues, including multilayered skin, bone, vascular grafts, tracheal splints, heart tissue and cartilaginous structures. Other applications include developing high-throughput 3D-bioprinted tissue models for research, drug discovery and toxicology.

  19. Medical 3D Printing for the Radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Liacouras, Peter; Imanzadeh, Amir; Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Cai, Tianrun; Kumamaru, Kanako K; George, Elizabeth; Wake, Nicole; Caterson, Edward J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Ho, Vincent B; Grant, Gerald T; Rybicki, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    While use of advanced visualization in radiology is instrumental in diagnosis and communication with referring clinicians, there is an unmet need to render Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) images as three-dimensional (3D) printed models capable of providing both tactile feedback and tangible depth information about anatomic and pathologic states. Three-dimensional printed models, already entrenched in the nonmedical sciences, are rapidly being embraced in medicine as well as in the lay community. Incorporating 3D printing from images generated and interpreted by radiologists presents particular challenges, including training, materials and equipment, and guidelines. The overall costs of a 3D printing laboratory must be balanced by the clinical benefits. It is expected that the number of 3D-printed models generated from DICOM images for planning interventions and fabricating implants will grow exponentially. Radiologists should at a minimum be familiar with 3D printing as it relates to their field, including types of 3D printing technologies and materials used to create 3D-printed anatomic models, published applications of models to date, and clinical benefits in radiology. Online supplemental material is available for this article. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  20. Empirical isotropic chemical shift surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czinki, Eszter; Csaszar, Attila G.

    2007-01-01

    A list of proteins is given for which spatial structures, with a resolution better than 2.5 A, are known from entries in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and isotropic chemical shift (ICS) values are known from the RefDB database related to the Biological Magnetic Resonance Bank (BMRB) database. The structures chosen provide, with unknown uncertainties, dihedral angles φ and ψ characterizing the backbone structure of the residues. The joint use of experimental ICSs of the same residues within the proteins, again with mostly unknown uncertainties, and ab initio ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces obtained for the model peptides For-(l-Ala) n -NH 2 , with n = 1, 3, and 5, resulted in so-called empirical ICS(φ,ψ) surfaces for all major nuclei of the 20 naturally occurring α-amino acids. Out of the many empirical surfaces determined, it is the 13C α ICS(φ,ψ) surface which seems to be most promising for identifying major secondary structure types, α-helix, β-strand, left-handed helix (α D ), and polyproline-II. Detailed tests suggest that Ala is a good model for many naturally occurring α-amino acids. Two-dimensional empirical 13C α - 1 H α ICS(φ,ψ) correlation plots, obtained so far only from computations on small peptide models, suggest the utility of the experimental information contained therein and thus they should provide useful constraints for structure determinations of proteins

  1. Isotropic stars in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mak, M.K.; Harko, T.

    2013-01-01

    We present a general solution of the Einstein gravitational field equations for the static spherically symmetric gravitational interior space-time of an isotropic fluid sphere. The solution is obtained by transforming the pressure isotropy condition, a second order ordinary differential equation, into a Riccati type first order differential equation, and using a general integrability condition for the Riccati equation. This allows us to obtain an exact non-singular solution of the interior field equations for a fluid sphere, expressed in the form of infinite power series. The physical features of the solution are studied in detail numerically by cutting the infinite series expansions, and restricting our numerical analysis by taking into account only n=21 terms in the power series representations of the relevant astrophysical parameters. In the present model all physical quantities (density, pressure, speed of sound etc.) are finite at the center of the sphere. The physical behavior of the solution essentially depends on the equation of state of the dense matter at the center of the star. The stability properties of the model are also analyzed in detail for a number of central equations of state, and it is shown that it is stable with respect to the radial adiabatic perturbations. The astrophysical analysis indicates that this solution can be used as a realistic model for static general relativistic high density objects, like neutron stars. (orig.)

  2. Extra Dimensions: 3D in PDF Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, Norman A

    2012-01-01

    Experimental science is replete with multi-dimensional information which is often poorly represented by the two dimensions of presentation slides and print media. Past efforts to disseminate such information to a wider audience have failed for a number of reasons, including a lack of standards which are easy to implement and have broad support. Adobe's Portable Document Format (PDF) has in recent years become the de facto standard for secure, dependable electronic information exchange. It has done so by creating an open format, providing support for multiple platforms and being reliable and extensible. By providing support for the ECMA standard Universal 3D (U3D) and the ISO PRC file format in its free Adobe Reader software, Adobe has made it easy to distribute and interact with 3D content. Until recently, Adobe's Acrobat software was also capable of incorporating 3D content into PDF files from a variety of 3D file formats, including proprietary CAD formats. However, this functionality is no longer available in Acrobat X, having been spun off to a separate company. Incorporating 3D content now requires the additional purchase of a separate plug-in. In this talk we present alternatives based on open source libraries which allow the programmatic creation of 3D content in PDF format. While not providing the same level of access to CAD files as the commercial software, it does provide physicists with an alternative path to incorporate 3D content into PDF files from such disparate applications as detector geometries from Geant4, 3D data sets, mathematical surfaces or tesselated volumes.

  3. Advanced 3D Printers for Cellular Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    06-2016 1-Aug-2014 31-Dec-2015 Final Report: Advanced 3D printers for Cellular Solids The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are...2211 3d printing, cellular solids REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8...Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Advanced 3D printers for Cellular Solids Report Title Final Report for DURIP grant W911NF

  4. Pharmacophore definition and 3D searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, T; Wolber, G

    2004-12-01

    The most common pharmacophore building concepts based on either 3D structure of the target or ligand information are discussed together with the application of such models as queries for 3D database search. An overview of the key techniques available on the market is given and differences with respect to algorithms used and performance obtained are highlighted. Pharmacophore modelling and 3D database search are shown to be successful tools for enriching screening experiments aimed at the discovery of novel bio-active compounds.: © 2004 Elsevier Ltd . All rights reserved.

  5. 3D radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, M

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer in stellar atmospheres is reviewed with special emphasis on the atmospheres of cool stars and applications. A short review of methods in 3D radiative transfer shows that mature methods exist, both for taking into account radiation as an energy transport mechanism in 3D (magneto-) hydrodynamical simulations of stellar atmospheres and for the diagnostic problem of calculating the emergent spectrum in more detail from such models, both assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and in non-LTE. Such methods have been implemented in several codes, and examples of applications are given.

  6. Nonperturbative summation over 3D discrete topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Louapre, David

    2003-01-01

    The group field theories realizing the sum over all triangulations of all topologies of 3D discrete gravity amplitudes are known to be nonuniquely Borel summable. We modify these models to construct a new group field theory which is proved to be uniquely Borel summable, defining in an unambiguous way a nonperturbative sum over topologies in the context of 3D dynamical triangulations and spin foam models. Moreover, we give some arguments to support the fact that, despite our modification, this new model is similar to the original one, and therefore could be taken as a definition of the sum over topologies of 3D quantum gravity amplitudes

  7. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, N.N.

    2002-11-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnation points between 2D and 3D computations. The inner most sections shows clear evidence of 3D radial pumping, with increased lift compared to 2D values. In contrast to earlier investigated airfoils a very limited impact on the drag values are observed. (au)

  8. 3D Printing the ATLAS' barrel toroid

    CERN Document Server

    Goncalves, Tiago Barreiro

    2016-01-01

    The present report summarizes my work as part of the Summer Student Programme 2016 in the CERN IR-ECO-TSP department (International Relations – Education, Communication & Outreach – Teacher and Student Programmes). Particularly, I worked closely with the S’Cool LAB team on a science education project. This project included the 3D designing, 3D printing, and assembling of a model of the ATLAS’ barrel toroid. A detailed description of the project' development is presented and a short manual on how to use 3D printing software and hardware is attached.

  9. [3D planning in maxillofacial surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau, R; Zweifel, D; Lanthemann, E; Zrounba, H; Broome, M

    2014-10-01

    The development of new technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) planning has changed the everyday practice in maxillofacial surgery. Rapid prototyping associated with the 3D planning has also enabled the creation of patient specific surgical tools, such as cutting guides. As with all new technologies, uses, practicalities, cost effectiveness and especially benefits for the patients have to be carefully evaluated. In this paper, several examples of 3D planning that have been used in our institution are presented. The advantages such as the accuracy of the reconstructive surgery and decreased operating time, as well as the difficulties have also been addressed.

  10. Participation and 3D Visualization Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mullins, Michael; Jensen, Mikkel Holm; Henriksen, Sune

    2004-01-01

    With a departure point in a workshop held at the VR Media Lab at Aalborg University , this paper deals with aspects of public participation and the use of 3D visualisation tools. The workshop grew from a desire to involve a broad collaboration between the many actors in the city through using new...... perceptions of architectural representation in urban design where 3D visualisation techniques are used. It is the authors? general finding that, while 3D visualisation media have the potential to increase understanding of virtual space for the lay public, as well as for professionals, the lay public require...

  11. 3D Bio-Printing Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianbin

    2018-01-01

    Ultimate goal of tissue engineering is to replace pathological or necrotic body tissue or organ by artificial tissue or organ and tissue engineering is a very promising research field. 3D bio-printing is a kind of emerging technologies and a branch of tissue engineering. It has made significant progress in the past decade. 3D bio-printing can realize tissue and organ construction in vitro and has wide application in basic research and pharmacy. This paper is to make an analysis and review on 3D bio-printing from the perspectives of bioink, printing technology and technology application.

  12. 3D printed magnetic polymer composite transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, Lindsey M.; Hilpisch, Peter J.; Mowry, Greg S.; Nelson-Cheeseman, Brittany B.

    2017-11-01

    The possibility of 3D printing a transformer core using fused deposition modeling methods is explored. With the use of additive manufacturing, ideal transformer core geometries can be achieved in order to produce a more efficient transformer. In this work, different 3D printed settings and toroidal geometries are tested using a custom integrated magnetic circuit capable of measuring the hysteresis loop of a transformer. These different properties are then characterized, and it was determined the most effective 3D printed transformer core requires a high fill factor along with a high concentration of magnetic particulate.

  13. An Improved Version of TOPAZ 3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnykh, Anatoly

    2003-01-01

    An improved version of the TOPAZ 3D gun code is presented as a powerful tool for beam optics simulation. In contrast to the previous version of TOPAZ 3D, the geometry of the device under test is introduced into TOPAZ 3D directly from a CAD program, such as Solid Edge or AutoCAD. In order to have this new feature, an interface was developed, using the GiD software package as a meshing code. The article describes this method with two models to illustrate the results

  14. 3D face modeling, analysis and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Daoudi, Mohamed; Veltkamp, Remco

    2013-01-01

    3D Face Modeling, Analysis and Recognition presents methodologies for analyzing shapes of facial surfaces, develops computational tools for analyzing 3D face data, and illustrates them using state-of-the-art applications. The methodologies chosen are based on efficient representations, metrics, comparisons, and classifications of features that are especially relevant in the context of 3D measurements of human faces. These frameworks have a long-term utility in face analysis, taking into account the anticipated improvements in data collection, data storage, processing speeds, and application s

  15. 3D background aerodynamics using CFD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.

    2002-01-01

    3D rotor computations for the Greek Geovilogiki (GEO) 44 meter rotor equipped with 19 meters blades are performed. The lift and drag polars are extracted at five spanvise locations r/R= (.37, .55, .71, .82, .93) based on identification of stagnationpoints between 2D and 3D computations. The inner...... most sections shows clear evidence of 3D radial pumping, with increased lift compared to 2D values. In contrast to earlier investigated airfoils a very limited impact on the drag values are observed....

  16. FUN3D Manual: 13.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2018-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.3, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  17. FUN3D Manual: 12.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.8, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  18. FUN3D Manual: 13.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.1, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  19. FUN3D Manual: 13.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, William L.; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.2, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  20. FUN3D Manual: 12.9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.9, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  1. FUN3D Manual: 13.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bill; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 13.0, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  2. FUN3D Manual: 12.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Carlson, Jan-Renee; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Gnoffo, Peter A.; Hammond, Dana P.; Jones, William T.; Kleb, Bil; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This manual describes the installation and execution of FUN3D version 12.7, including optional dependent packages. FUN3D is a suite of computational fluid dynamics simulation and design tools that uses mixed-element unstructured grids in a large number of formats, including structured multiblock and overset grid systems. A discretely-exact adjoint solver enables efficient gradient-based design and grid adaptation to reduce estimated discretization error. FUN3D is available with and without a reacting, real-gas capability. This generic gas option is available only for those persons that qualify for its beta release status.

  3. Determination of the 3d34d and 3d35s configurations of Fe V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azarov, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of the spectrum of four times ionized iron, Fe V, has led to the determination of the 3d 3 4d and 3d 3 5s configurations. From 975 classified lines in the region 645-1190 A we have established 123 of 168 theoretically possible 3d 3 4d levels and 26 of 38 possible 3d 3 5s levels. The estimated accuracy of values of energy levels of these two configurations is about 0.7 cm -1 and 1.0 cm -1 , respectively. The level structure of the system of the 3d 4 , 3d 3 4s, 3d 3 4d and 3d 3 5s configurations has been theoretically interpreted and the energy parameters have been determined by a least squares fit to the observed levels. A comparison of parameters in Cr III and Fe V ions is given. (orig.)

  4. 3D object-oriented image analysis in 3D geophysical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fadel, I.; van der Meijde, M.; Kerle, N.

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniqueness of satellite gravity interpretation has traditionally been reduced by using a priori information from seismic tomography models. This reduction in the non-uniqueness has been based on velocity-density conversion formulas or user interpretation of the 3D subsurface structures (objects......) based on the seismic tomography models and then forward modelling these objects. However, this form of object-based approach has been done without a standardized methodology on how to extract the subsurface structures from the 3D models. In this research, a 3D object-oriented image analysis (3D OOA......) approach was implemented to extract the 3D subsurface structures from geophysical data. The approach was applied on a 3D shear wave seismic tomography model of the central part of the East African Rift System. Subsequently, the extracted 3D objects from the tomography model were reconstructed in the 3D...

  5. Intracranial arterial wall imaging using three-dimensional high isotropic resolution black blood MRI at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Ye; Steinman, David A; Qin, Qin; Etesami, Maryam; Schär, Michael; Astor, Brad C; Wasserman, Bruce A

    2011-07-01

    To develop a high isotropic-resolution sequence to evaluate intracranial vessels at 3.0 Tesla (T). Thirteen healthy volunteers and 4 patients with intracranial stenosis were imaged at 3.0T using 0.5-mm isotropic-resolution three-dimensional (3D) Volumetric ISotropic TSE Acquisition (VISTA; TSE, turbo spin echo), with conventional 2D-TSE for comparison. VISTA was repeated for 6 volunteers and 4 patients at 0.4-mm isotropic-resolution to explore the trade-off between SNR and voxel volume. Wall signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR(wall) ), wall-lumen contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR(wall-lumen) ), lumen area (LA), wall area (WA), mean wall thickness (MWT), and maximum wall thickness (maxWT) were compared between 3D-VISTA and 2D-TSE sequences, as well as 3D images acquired at both resolutions. Reliability was assessed by intraclass correlations (ICC). Compared with 2D-TSE measurements, 3D-VISTA provided 58% and 74% improvement in SNR(wall) and CNR(wall-lumen) , respectively. LA, WA, MWT and maxWT from 3D and 2D techniques highly correlated (ICCs of 0.96, 0.95, 0.96, and 0.91, respectively). CNR(wall-lumen) using 0.4-mm resolution VISTA decreased by 27%, compared with 0.5-mm VISTA but with reduced partial-volume-based overestimation of wall thickness. Reliability for 3D measurements was good to excellent. The 3D-VISTA provides SNR-efficient, highly reliable measurements of intracranial vessels at high isotropic-resolution, enabling broad coverage in a clinically acceptable time. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Do-It-Yourself: 3D Models of Hydrogenic Orbitals through 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Kaitlyn M.; de Cataldo, Riccardo; Fogarty, Keir H.

    2016-01-01

    Introductory chemistry students often have difficulty visualizing the 3-dimensional shapes of the hydrogenic electron orbitals without the aid of physical 3D models. Unfortunately, commercially available models can be quite expensive. 3D printing offers a solution for producing models of hydrogenic orbitals. 3D printing technology is widely…

  7. 3D-modeling and 3D-printing explorations on Japanese tea ceremony utensils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, P.D.; Yamada, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we inquire aesthetical aspects of the Japanese tea ceremony, described as the aesthetics in the imperfection, based on novel fabrication technologies: 3D-modeling and 3D-printing. To do so, 3D-printed utensils (chashaku and chasen) were iteratively designed for the ceremony and were

  8. T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted fast spin-echo contrast-enhanced imaging: a comparison in 20 patients with brain lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saeed, O.; Athyal, R. P.; Ismail, M.; Rudwan, M.; Khafajee, S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Tl-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence is a relatively new pulse sequence for intracranial MR imaging. This study was performed to compare the image quality of Tl-weighted FLAIR with the Tl-weighted FSE sequence. Twenty patients with brain lesions underwent Tl-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) and Tl-weighted FLAIR during the same imaging session. Four quantitative and three qualitative criteria were used to compare the two sequences after contrast. Two of four quantitative criteria pertained to lesion characteristics: lesion to white matter (WM) contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and lesion to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CNR, and two related to signals from normal tissue: grey matter to WM CNR and WM to CSF CNR. The three qualitative criteria were conspicuousness of the lesion, the presence of image artefacts and the overall image contrast. Both Tl-weighted FSE and FLAIR images were effective in demonstrating lesions. Image contrast was superior in Tl-weighted FLAIR images with significantly improved grey matter-WM CNRs and CSF-WM CNRs. The overall image contrast was judged to be superior on Tl-weighted FLAIR images compared with Tl-weighted FSE images by all neuroradiologists. Two of three reviewers considered that the FLAIR images had slightly increased imaging artefacts that, however, did not interfere with image interpretation. Tl-weighted FLAIR imaging provides improved lesion-to-background and grey to WM contrast-to-noise ratios. Superior conspicuity of lesions and overall image contrast is obtained in comparable acquisition times. These indicate an important role for Tl-weighted FLAIR in intracranial imaging and highlight its advantage over the more widely practiced Tl-weighted FSE sequence

  9. All that glitters is not gold: Increased Signal in the Subarachnoid Space on Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Imaging after gadolinium injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Avila Duarte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 61-year-old woman arrived at the emergency department of the Hospital Nossa Senhora das Graças, Canoas, southern Brazil, with suspected ischemic stroke. After clinical and laboratory examination, the clinical diagnosis of ischemic stroke was made, without fulfilling criteria for thrombolysis. The patient had no history of renal failure. Three days later, she performed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination that confirmed the suspected diagnosis. This examination was performed without sedation or supplemental oxygen. Brain MRI was performed after gadolinium injection, using fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR imaging, T1-weighted image, diffusion-weighted imaging, and T2-weighted image sequences that revealed signs of subacute watershed stroke in the left cerebral hemisphere (Figures 1, 2 and 3. There was a hyperintense cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in the subarachnoid space (SAS on FLAIR imaging, a finding that has been reported in many  pathologic conditions1 such as superior sagittal thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage², meningitis,  meningeal carcinomatosis,  next to tumors, status epilepticus and stroke.3-7 It has also been reported in otherwise healthy patients undergoing anesthesia with supplemental oxygen.8 The exact mechanism by which CSF diffuses into the SAS in patients with or without renal insufficiency is not completely explained. Some authores have suggested that in patients with renal failure, the gadolinium may shift across an osmotic gradient at the circumventricular organs in the setting of proctracted elevation of plasma concentrations.9 We believe that the cause of this imaging phenomenon of hyperintense signal of the CSF in the SAS which has already been noted in patients with compromised cerebral perfusion, including cases of acute ischemic stroke, was due to the recent stroke.10-11 Keywords: Flair hyperintensity, MRI, stroke, Gadolinium

  10. Regional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR at 7 Tesla correlates with Amyloid beta in Hippocampus and Brainstem of cognitively normal elderly subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J Schreiner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD. While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh compound-B positron-emission-tomography (PiB-PET, Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR- intensity. Methods: 14 healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T. Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho, followed by Holm-Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right:rho=0.86; left:rho=0.84, Brainstem (rho=0.85 and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho=0.82. Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR-intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative

  11. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, magnetization transfer spin echo, and fat-saturation T1-weighted sequences in infectious meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, Rajiv; Tayal, Mohit; Azad, Sheenam; Sharma, Garima; Srivastava, Rajendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    To compare the contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (CE-FLAIR), the CE T1-weighted (CE-T1W) sequence with fat suppression (FS) and magnetization transfer (MT) for early detection and characterization of infectious meningitis. Fifty patients and 10 control subjects were evaluated with the CE-FLAIR and the CE-T1W sequences with FS and MT. Qualitative assessment was done by two observers for presence and grading of abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement. Quantitative assessment included computation of net meningeal enhancement, using single pixel signal intensity software. A newly devised FLAIR based scoring system, based on certain imaging features including ventricular dilatation, ependymal enhancement, infarcts and subdural effusions was used to indicate the etiology. Data were analysed using the Student's t test, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the intraclass correlation coefficient, one way analysis of variance, and Fisher's exact test with Bonferroni correction as the post hoc test. The CE-FLAIR sequence demonstrated a better sensitivity (100%), diagnostic accuracy (95%), and a stronger correlation with the cerebrospinal fluid, total leukocyte count (r = 0.75), protein (r = 0.77), adenosine deaminase (r = 0.81) and blood glucose (r = -0.6) values compared to the CE-T1W sequences. Qualitative grades and quantitative meningeal enhancement on the CE-FLAIR sequence were also significantly greater than those on the other sequences. The FLAIR based scoring system yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 91.6% and a sensitivity of 96%. A strong inverse Pearson's correlation (r = -0.95) was found between the assigned score and patient's Glasgow Coma Scale at the time of admission. The CE-FLAIR sequence is better suited for evaluating infectious meningitis and could be included as a part of the routine MR imaging protocol

  12. Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery Hypointensity of the Pulvinar Nucleus of Patients with Alzheimer Disease: Its Possible Association with Iron Accumulation as Evidenced by the T2 Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Won Jin; Roh, Hong Gee; Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hee Jin; Han, Seol Heui

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that prominent pulvinar hypointensity in brain MRI represents the disease process due to iron accumulation in Alzheimer disease (AD). We aimed to determine whether or not the pulvinar signal intensity (SI) on the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences at 3.0T MRI differs between AD patients and normal subjects, and also whether the pulvinar SI is correlated with the T2 map, an imaging marker for tissue iron, and a cognitive scale. Twenty one consecutive patients with AD and 21 age-matched control subjects were prospectively included in this study. The pulvinar SI was assessed on the FLAIR image. We measured the relative SI ratio of the pulvinar to the corpus callosum. The T2 values were calculated from the T2 relaxometry map. The differences between the two groups were analyzed, by using a Student t test. The correlation between the measurements was assessed by the Pearson's correlation test. As compared to the normal white matter, the FLAIR signal intensity of the pulvinar nucleus was significantly more hypointense in the AD patients than in the control subjects (p < 0.01). The pulvinar T2 was shorter in the AD patients than in the control subjects (51.5 ± 4.95 ms vs. 56.5 ± 5.49 ms, respectively, p = 0.003). The pulvinar SI ratio was strongly correlated with the pulvinar T2 (r = 0.745, p < 0.001). When controlling for age, only the pulvinar-to-CC SI ratio was positively correlated with that of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (r = 0.303, p < 0.050). Conversely, the pulvinar T2 was not correlated with the MMSE score (r = 0.277, p = 0.080). The FLAIR hypointensity of the pulvinar nucleus represents an abnormal iron accumulation in AD and may be used as an adjunctive finding for evaluating AD.

  13. Usefulness of fluid attenuated inversion recovery(FLAIR) image in mesial temporal sclerosis : comparison with turbo spin-echo T2-weighted image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Seok Hyun; Chang, Seung Kuk; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-01

    To determine the usefulness of fluid attenuated inversion recovery(FLAIR) imaging for the in detection of high signal intensity of hippocampus or amygdala in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), compared with that of turbo spin-echo T2-weighted imaging. Two neuroradiologists independently analyzed randomly mixed MR images of 20 lesions of 17 patients in whom MTS had been diagnosed, and ten normal controls. All subjects underwent both who performed both FLAIR and turbo spin-echo T2-weighted imaging, in a blind fashion. In order to determine hippocampal morphology, oblique coronal images perpendicular to the long axis of the hippocampus were obtained. The detection rate of high signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala, the radiologists' preferred imaging sequence, and intersubject consistency of detection were evaluated. Signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala was considered high if substantially higher than signal intensity in the cortex of adjacent temporo-parietal lobe. In all normal controls, FLAIR and spin-echo T2-weighted images showed normal signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala. In MTS, the mean detection rate of high signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala, as seen on FLAIR images was 93%, compared with 43% on spin-echo T2-weighted images. In all cases in which signal intensity on FLAIR images was normal, signal intensity on spin-echo T2-weighted images was also normal. The radiologists preferred the contrast properties of FLAIR to those of spin-echo T2-weighted images. In the diagnosis of MTS using MRI, FLAIR images are more useful for the detection of high signal intensity of hippocampus or amygdala than are spin-echo T2-weighted images. In the diagnosis of MTS, FLAIR imaging is therefore a suitable alternative to spin-echo T2-weighted imaging.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, magnetization transfer spin echo, and fat-saturation T1-weighted sequences in infectious meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azad, Rajiv; Tayal, Mohit; Azad, Sheenam; Sharma, Garima; Srivastava, Rajendra Kumar [SGRR Institute of Medical and Health Sciences, Patel Nagar, Dehradun (India)

    2017-11-15

    To compare the contrast-enhanced fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (CE-FLAIR), the CE T1-weighted (CE-T1W) sequence with fat suppression (FS) and magnetization transfer (MT) for early detection and characterization of infectious meningitis. Fifty patients and 10 control subjects were evaluated with the CE-FLAIR and the CE-T1W sequences with FS and MT. Qualitative assessment was done by two observers for presence and grading of abnormal leptomeningeal enhancement. Quantitative assessment included computation of net meningeal enhancement, using single pixel signal intensity software. A newly devised FLAIR based scoring system, based on certain imaging features including ventricular dilatation, ependymal enhancement, infarcts and subdural effusions was used to indicate the etiology. Data were analysed using the Student's t test, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the intraclass correlation coefficient, one way analysis of variance, and Fisher's exact test with Bonferroni correction as the post hoc test. The CE-FLAIR sequence demonstrated a better sensitivity (100%), diagnostic accuracy (95%), and a stronger correlation with the cerebrospinal fluid, total leukocyte count (r = 0.75), protein (r = 0.77), adenosine deaminase (r = 0.81) and blood glucose (r = -0.6) values compared to the CE-T1W sequences. Qualitative grades and quantitative meningeal enhancement on the CE-FLAIR sequence were also significantly greater than those on the other sequences. The FLAIR based scoring system yielded a diagnostic accuracy of 91.6% and a sensitivity of 96%. A strong inverse Pearson's correlation (r = -0.95) was found between the assigned score and patient's Glasgow Coma Scale at the time of admission. The CE-FLAIR sequence is better suited for evaluating infectious meningitis and could be included as a part of the routine MR imaging protocol.

  15. Usefulness of fluid attenuated inversion recovery(FLAIR) image in mesial temporal sclerosis : comparison with turbo spin-echo T2-weighted image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Seok Hyun; Chang, Seung Kuk; Eun, Choong Ki

    1999-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of fluid attenuated inversion recovery(FLAIR) imaging for the in detection of high signal intensity of hippocampus or amygdala in mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS), compared with that of turbo spin-echo T2-weighted imaging. Two neuroradiologists independently analyzed randomly mixed MR images of 20 lesions of 17 patients in whom MTS had been diagnosed, and ten normal controls. All subjects underwent both who performed both FLAIR and turbo spin-echo T2-weighted imaging, in a blind fashion. In order to determine hippocampal morphology, oblique coronal images perpendicular to the long axis of the hippocampus were obtained. The detection rate of high signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala, the radiologists' preferred imaging sequence, and intersubject consistency of detection were evaluated. Signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala was considered high if substantially higher than signal intensity in the cortex of adjacent temporo-parietal lobe. In all normal controls, FLAIR and spin-echo T2-weighted images showed normal signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala. In MTS, the mean detection rate of high signal intensity in hippocampus or amygdala, as seen on FLAIR images was 93%, compared with 43% on spin-echo T2-weighted images. In all cases in which signal intensity on FLAIR images was normal, signal intensity on spin-echo T2-weighted images was also normal. The radiologists preferred the contrast properties of FLAIR to those of spin-echo T2-weighted images. In the diagnosis of MTS using MRI, FLAIR images are more useful for the detection of high signal intensity of hippocampus or amygdala than are spin-echo T2-weighted images. In the diagnosis of MTS, FLAIR imaging is therefore a suitable alternative to spin-echo T2-weighted imaging

  16. Regional Fluid-Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) at 7 Tesla correlates with amyloid beta in hippocampus and brainstem of cognitively normal elderly subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Simon J.; Liu, Xinyang; Gietl, Anton F.; Wyss, Michael; Steininger, Stefanie C.; Gruber, Esmeralda; Treyer, Valerie; Meier, Irene B.; Kälin, Andrea M.; Leh, Sandra E.; Buck, Alfred; Nitsch, Roger M.; Pruessmann, Klaas P.; Hock, Christoph; Unschuld, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) may occur during healthy aging and is a risk factor for Alzheimer Disease (AD). While individual Aβ-accumulation can be measured non-invasively using Pittsburgh Compund-B positron emission tomography (PiB-PET), Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) is a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequence, capable of indicating heterogeneous age-related brain pathologies associated with tissue-edema. In the current study cognitively normal elderly subjects were investigated for regional correlation of PiB- and FLAIR intensity. Methods: Fourteen healthy elderly subjects without known history of cognitive impairment received 11C-PiB-PET for estimation of regional Aβ-load. In addition, whole brain T1-MPRAGE and FLAIR-MRI sequences were acquired at high field strength of 7 Tesla (7T). Volume-normalized intensities of brain regions were assessed by applying an automated subcortical segmentation algorithm for spatial definition of brain structures. Statistical dependence between FLAIR- and PiB-PET intensities was tested using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho), followed by Holm–Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. Results: Neuropsychological testing revealed normal cognitive performance levels in all participants. Mean regional PiB-PET and FLAIR intensities were normally distributed and independent. Significant correlation between volume-normalized PiB-PET signals and FLAIR intensities resulted for Hippocampus (right: rho = 0.86; left: rho = 0.84), Brainstem (rho = 0.85) and left Basal Ganglia vessel region (rho = 0.82). Conclusions: Our finding of a significant relationship between PiB- and FLAIR intensity mainly observable in the Hippocampus and Brainstem, indicates regional Aβ associated tissue-edema in cognitively normal elderly subjects. Further studies including clinical populations are necessary to clarify the relevance of our findings for estimating individual risk for age-related neurodegenerative

  17. A 3D T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence for routine use in 3D radiosurgical treatment planning of brain metastases: first clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawighorst, H.; Schad, L.R.; Gademann, G.; Knopp, M.V.; Wenz, F.; Kaick, G. van

    1995-01-01

    The authors report on a 3D sequence for MRI of the brain and its application in radiosurgical treatment planning of 35 brain metastases. The measuring sequence, called magnetization - prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE), was compared with 2D T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequences following intravenous contrast-medium application in 19 patients with brain metastases. The average diameter of all lesions was similar in both sequences, with 16.8 and 17.0 mm for SE and MPRAGE, respectively. Target point definition was equal in 29 metastases, and in 6 cases superior on MPRAGE, due to better gray-white matter contrast and increased contrast enhancement. In cases of bleeding metastases there was improved depiction of internal structures in 3D MRI. Postprocessing of 3D MPRAGE data created multiplanar reconstruction along any chosen plane with isotropic spatial resolution, which helped to improve radiosurgical isodose distribution in 4 cases when compared to 2D SE. However, sensitivity of 3D MPRAGE to detect small lesions (< 3 mm) was decreased in one patient with more than 50 metastases. We conclude that 3D gradient-echo (GE) imaging might be of great value for radiosurgical treatment planning, but does not replace 2D SE with its current parameters. (orig.)

  18. Designing Biomaterials for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvendiren, Murat; Molde, Joseph; Soares, Rosane M D; Kohn, Joachim

    2016-10-10

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is becoming an increasingly common technique to fabricate scaffolds and devices for tissue engineering applications. This is due to the potential of 3D printing to provide patient-specific designs, high structural complexity, rapid on-demand fabrication at a low-cost. One of the major bottlenecks that limits the widespread acceptance of 3D printing in biomanufacturing is the lack of diversity in "biomaterial inks". Printability of a biomaterial is determined by the printing technique. Although a wide range of biomaterial inks including polymers, ceramics, hydrogels and composites have been developed, the field is still struggling with processing of these materials into self-supporting devices with tunable mechanics, degradation, and bioactivity. This review aims to highlight the past and recent advances in biomaterial ink development and design considerations moving forward. A brief overview of 3D printing technologies focusing on ink design parameters is also included.

  19. Tissue and Organ 3D Bioprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zengmin; Jin, Sha; Ye, Kaiming

    2018-02-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting enables the creation of tissue constructs with heterogeneous compositions and complex architectures. It was initially used for preparing scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. It has recently been adopted to create living tissues, such as cartilage, skin, and heart valve. To facilitate vascularization, hollow channels have been created in the hydrogels by 3D bioprinting. This review discusses the state of the art of the technology, along with a broad range of biomaterials used for 3D bioprinting. It provides an update on recent developments in bioprinting and its applications. 3D bioprinting has profound impacts on biomedical research and industry. It offers a new way to industrialize tissue biofabrication. It has great potential for regenerating tissues and organs to overcome the shortage of organ transplantation.

  20. Mobile 3D Viewer Supporting RFID System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J J; Yang, S W; Choi, Y [Chungang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    As hardware capabilities of mobile devices are being rapidly enhanced, applications based upon mobile devices are also being developed in wider areas. In this paper, a prototype mobile 3D viewer with the object identification through RFID system is presented. To visualize 3D engineering data such as CAD data, we need a process to compute triangulated data from boundary based surface like B-rep solid or trimmed surfaces. Since existing rendering engines on mobile devices do not provide triangulation capability, mobile 3D programs have focused only on an efficient handling with pre-tessellated geometry. We have developed a light and fast triangulation process based on constrained Delaunay triangulation suitable for mobile devices in the previous research. This triangulation software is used as a core for the mobile 3D viewer on a PDA with RFID system that may have potentially wide applications in many areas.

  1. Nonlaser-based 3D surface imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shin-yee; Johnson, R.K.; Sherwood, R.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    3D surface imaging refers to methods that generate a 3D surface representation of objects of a scene under viewing. Laser-based 3D surface imaging systems are commonly used in manufacturing, robotics and biomedical research. Although laser-based systems provide satisfactory solutions for most applications, there are situations where non laser-based approaches are preferred. The issues that make alternative methods sometimes more attractive are: (1) real-time data capturing, (2) eye-safety, (3) portability, and (4) work distance. The focus of this presentation is on generating a 3D surface from multiple 2D projected images using CCD cameras, without a laser light source. Two methods are presented: stereo vision and depth-from-focus. Their applications are described.

  2. 3D Maps Representation Using GNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Morell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current RGB-D sensors provide a big amount of valuable information for mobile robotics tasks like 3D map reconstruction, but the storage and processing of the incremental data provided by the different sensors through time quickly become unmanageable. In this work, we focus on 3D maps representation and propose the use of the Growing Neural Gas (GNG network as a model to represent 3D input data. GNG method is able to represent the input data with a desired amount of neurons or resolution while preserving the topology of the input space. Experiments show how GNG method yields a better input space adaptation than other state-of-the-art 3D map representation methods.

  3. Advances in 3D neuronal cell culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frimat, Jean Philippe; Xie, Sijia; Bastiaens, Alex; Schurink, Bart; Wolbers, Floor; Den Toonder, Jaap; Luttge, Regina

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors present our advances in three-dimensional (3D) neuronal cell culture platform technology contributing to controlled environments for microtissue engineering and analysis of cellular physiological and pathological responses. First, a micromachined silicon sieving

  4. 3D VISUALIZATION FOR VIRTUAL MUSEUM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Skamantzari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of virtual museums is nowadays rising rapidly. During the last decades there have been numerous efforts concerning the 3D digitization of cultural heritage and the development of virtual museums, digital libraries and serious games. The realistic result has always been the main concern and a real challenge when it comes to 3D modelling of monuments, artifacts and especially sculptures. This paper implements, investigates and evaluates the results of the photogrammetric methods and 3D surveys that were used for the development of a virtual museum. Moreover, the decisions, the actions, the methodology and the main elements that this kind of application should include and take into consideration are described and analysed. It is believed that the outcomes of this application will be useful to researchers who are planning to develop and further improve the attempts made on virtual museums and mass production of 3D models.

  5. Intrinsic defects in 3D printed materials

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Christopher; Dagastine, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the impact of bulk structural defects on the coherence, phase and polarisation of light passing through transparent 3D printed materials fabricated using a variety of commercial print technologies.

  6. Mobile 3D Viewer Supporting RFID System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. J.; Yang, S. W.; Choi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    As hardware capabilities of mobile devices are being rapidly enhanced, applications based upon mobile devices are also being developed in wider areas. In this paper, a prototype mobile 3D viewer with the object identification through RFID system is presented. To visualize 3D engineering data such as CAD data, we need a process to compute triangulated data from boundary based surface like B-rep solid or trimmed surfaces. Since existing rendering engines on mobile devices do not provide triangulation capability, mobile 3D programs have focused only on an efficient handling with pre-tessellated geometry. We have developed a light and fast triangulation process based on constrained Delaunay triangulation suitable for mobile devices in the previous research. This triangulation software is used as a core for the mobile 3D viewer on a PDA with RFID system that may have potentially wide applications in many areas

  7. Measuring Visual Closeness of 3-D Models

    KAUST Repository

    Gollaz Morales, Jose Alejandro

    2012-09-01

    Measuring visual closeness of 3-D models is an important issue for different problems and there is still no standardized metric or algorithm to do it. The normal of a surface plays a vital role in the shading of a 3-D object. Motivated by this, we developed two applications to measure visualcloseness, introducing normal difference as a parameter in a weighted metric in Metro’s sampling approach to obtain the maximum and mean distance between 3-D models using 3-D and 6-D correspondence search structures. A visual closeness metric should provide accurate information on what the human observers would perceive as visually close objects. We performed a validation study with a group of people to evaluate the correlation of our metrics with subjective perception. The results were positive since the metrics predicted the subjective rankings more accurately than the Hausdorff distance.

  8. Radiosity diffusion model in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jason D.; Arridge, Simon R.; Chrysanthou, Yiorgos; Dehghani, Hamid; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.; Schweiger, Martin

    2001-11-01

    We present the Radiosity-Diffusion model in three dimensions(3D), as an extension to previous work in 2D. It is a method for handling non-scattering spaces in optically participating media. We present the extension of the model to 3D including an extension to the model to cope with increased complexity of the 3D domain. We show that in 3D more careful consideration must be given to the issues of meshing and visibility to model the transport of light within reasonable computational bounds. We demonstrate the model to be comparable to Monte-Carlo simulations for selected geometries, and show preliminary results of comparisons to measured time-resolved data acquired on resin phantoms.

  9. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Hadwiger, Markus; Ben Romdhane, Mohamed; Behzad, Ali Reza; Madhavan, Poornima; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore

  10. 3D-printed Bioanalytical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite-Warden, Jennifer E; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Rusling, James F

    2016-01-01

    While 3D printing technologies first appeared in the 1980s, prohibitive costs, limited materials, and the relatively small number of commercially available printers confined applications mainly to prototyping for manufacturing purposes. As technologies, printer cost, materials, and accessibility continue to improve, 3D printing has found widespread implementation in research and development in many disciplines due to ease-of-use and relatively fast design-to-object workflow. Several 3D printing techniques have been used to prepare devices such as milli- and microfluidic flow cells for analyses of cells and biomolecules as well as interfaces that enable bioanalytical measurements using cellphones. This review focuses on preparation and applications of 3D-printed bioanalytical devices. PMID:27250897

  11. Eyes on the Earth 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, anton I.; Doronila, Paul R.; Nguyen, Viet T.; Jackson, Randal K.; Greene, William M.; Hussey, Kevin J.; Garcia, Christopher M.; Lopez, Christian A.

    2013-01-01

    Eyes on the Earth 3D software gives scientists, and the general public, a realtime, 3D interactive means of accurately viewing the real-time locations, speed, and values of recently collected data from several of NASA's Earth Observing Satellites using a standard Web browser (climate.nasa.gov/eyes). Anyone with Web access can use this software to see where the NASA fleet of these satellites is now, or where they will be up to a year in the future. The software also displays several Earth Science Data sets that have been collected on a daily basis. This application uses a third-party, 3D, realtime, interactive game engine called Unity 3D to visualize the satellites and is accessible from a Web browser.

  12. Expedient Gap Definition Using 3D LADAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Lulu; Jersey, Sarah R

    2006-01-01

    .... Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC), ASI has developed an algorithm to reduce the 3D point cloud acquired with the LADAR system into sets of 2D profiles that describe the terrain...

  13. 3D modeling of the marine relief

    OpenAIRE

    Mànuel-González, Bernat; Garcia Benadí, Albert; Río Fernandez, Joaquín del; Cadena Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The article detail the systematic process for transformation the 2D representation to 3D representation, likewise the systematic process for gather up of data, and the considerations and instrumentation necessary for this action. Peer Reviewed

  14. 3D Visualization for Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolfe, A. W.; Larsen, K.; Brain, D.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed visualization tools for viewing planetary orbiters and science data in 3D for both Earth and Mars, using the Cesium Javascript library, allowing viewers to visualize the position and orientation of spacecraft and science data.

  15. Lightning fast animation in Element 3D

    CERN Document Server

    Audronis, Ty

    2014-01-01

    An easy-to-follow and all-inclusive guide, in which the underlying principles of 3D animation as well as their importance are explained in detail. The lessons are designed to teach you how to think of 3D animation in such a way that you can troubleshoot any problem, or animate any scene that comes your way.If you are a Digital Artist, Animation Artist, or a Game Programmer and you want to become an expert in Element 3D, this is the book for you. Although there are a lot of basics for beginners in this book, it includes some advanced techniques for both animating in Element 3D, and overcoming i

  16. Stereo 3D spatial phase diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Jinwu, E-mail: kangjw@tsinghua.edu.cn; Liu, Baicheng, E-mail: liubc@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Phase diagrams serve as the fundamental guidance in materials science and engineering. Binary P-T-X (pressure–temperature–composition) and multi-component phase diagrams are of complex spatial geometry, which brings difficulty for understanding. The authors constructed 3D stereo binary P-T-X, typical ternary and some quaternary phase diagrams. A phase diagram construction algorithm based on the calculated phase reaction data in PandaT was developed. And the 3D stereo phase diagram of Al-Cu-Mg ternary system is presented. These phase diagrams can be illustrated by wireframe, surface, solid or their mixture, isotherms and isopleths can be generated. All of these can be displayed by the three typical display ways: electronic shutter, polarization and anaglyph (for example red-cyan glasses). Especially, they can be printed out with 3D stereo effect on paper, and watched by the aid of anaglyph glasses, which makes 3D stereo book of phase diagrams come to reality. Compared with the traditional illustration way, the front of phase diagrams protrude from the screen and the back stretches far behind of the screen under 3D stereo display, the spatial structure can be clearly and immediately perceived. These 3D stereo phase diagrams are useful in teaching and research. - Highlights: • Stereo 3D phase diagram database was constructed, including binary P-T-X, ternary, some quaternary and real ternary systems. • The phase diagrams can be watched by active shutter or polarized or anaglyph glasses. • The print phase diagrams retains 3D stereo effect which can be achieved by the aid of anaglyph glasses.

  17. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanen, Akkari; Imen, Bhouri; Asma, Ben Abdallah; Patrick, Dubois; Hedi, Bedoui Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  18. 3D Printing Electrically Small Spherical Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2013-01-01

    3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations.......3D printing is applied for rapid prototyping of an electrically small spherical wire antenna. The model is first printed in plastic and subsequently covered with several layers of conductive paint. Measured results are in good agreement with simulations....

  19. The Idaho Virtualization Laboratory 3D Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Holmer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D virtualization and visualization is an important component of industry, art, museum curation and cultural heritage, yet the step by step process of 3D virtualization has been little discussed. Here we review the Idaho Virtualization Laboratory’s (IVL process of virtualizing a cultural heritage item (artifact from start to finish. Each step is thoroughly explained and illustrated including how the object and its metadata are digitally preserved and ultimately distributed to the world.

  20. 3D Reconstruction of NMR Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Izak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces experiment of 3D reconstruction NMR images scanned from magnetic resonance device. There are described methods which can be used for 3D reconstruction magnetic resonance images in biomedical application. The main idea is based on marching cubes algorithm. For this task was chosen sophistication method by program Vision Assistant, which is a part of program LabVIEW.

  1. Making 3D movies of Northern Lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hivon, Eric; Mouette, Jean; Legault, Thierry

    2017-10-01

    We describe the steps necessary to create three-dimensional (3D) movies of Northern Lights or Aurorae Borealis out of real-time images taken with two distant high-resolution fish-eye cameras. Astrometric reconstruction of the visible stars is used to model the optical mapping of each camera and correct for it in order to properly align the two sets of images. Examples of the resulting movies can be seen at http://www.iap.fr/aurora3d

  2. Seismic processing using Parallel 3D FMM

    OpenAIRE

    Borlaug, Idar

    2007-01-01

    This thesis develops and tests 3D Fast Marching Method (FMM) algorithm and apply these to seismic simulations. The FMM is a general method for monotonically advancing fronts, originally developed by Sethian. It calculates the first arrival time for an advancing front or wave. FMM methods are used for a variety of applications including, fatigue cracks in materials, lymph node segmentation in CT images, computing skeletons and centerlines in 3D objects and for finding salt formations in seismi...

  3. Recognition of Symmetric 3D Bodies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2014), s. 722-757 ISSN 2073-8994 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : rotation symmetry * reflection symmetry * 3D complex moments * 3D rotation invariants Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.826, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/suk-0431156.pdf

  4. 3D Viscoelastic Traction Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyjanova, Jennet; Hannen, Erin; Bar-Kochba, Eyal; Darling, Eric M.; Henann, David L.; Franck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Native cell-material interactions occur on materials differing in their structural composition, chemistry, and physical compliance. While the last two decades have shown the importance of traction forces during cell-material interactions, they have been almost exclusively presented on purely elastic in-vitro materials. Yet, most bodily tissue materials exhibit some level of viscoelasticity, which could play an important role in how cells sense and transduce tractions. To expand the realm of cell traction measurements and to encompass all materials from elastic to viscoelastic, this paper presents a general, and comprehensive approach for quantifying 3D cell tractions in viscoelastic materials. This methodology includes the experimental characterization of the time-dependent material properties for any viscoelastic material with the subsequent mathematical implementation of the determined material model into a 3D traction force microscopy (3D TFM) framework. Utilizing this new 3D viscoelastic TFM (3D VTFM) approach, we quantify the influence of viscosity on the overall material traction calculations and quantify the error associated with omitting time-dependent material effects, as is the case for all other TFM formulations. We anticipate that the 3D VTFM technique will open up new avenues of cell-material investigations on even more physiologically relevant time-dependent materials including collagen and fibrin gels. PMID:25170569

  5. ASSESSING 3D PHOTOGRAMMETRY TECHNIQUES IN CRANIOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Moshobane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphometrics (the measurement of morphological features has been revolutionized by the creation of new techniques to study how organismal shape co-varies with several factors such as ecophenotypy. Ecophenotypy refers to the divergence of phenotypes due to developmental changes induced by local environmental conditions, producing distinct ecophenotypes. None of the techniques hitherto utilized could explicitly address organismal shape in a complete biological form, i.e. three-dimensionally. This study investigates the use of the commercial software, Photomodeler Scanner® (PMSc® three-dimensional (3D modelling software to produce accurate and high-resolution 3D models. Henceforth, the modelling of Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis and Antarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella skulls which could allow for 3D measurements. Using this method, sixteen accurate 3D skull models were produced and five metrics were determined. The 3D linear measurements were compared to measurements taken manually with a digital caliper. In addition, repetitive measurements were recorded by varying researchers to determine repeatability. To allow for comparison straight line measurements were taken with the software, assuming that close accord with all manually measured features would illustrate the model’s accurate replication of reality. Measurements were not significantly different demonstrating that realistic 3D skull models can be successfully produced to provide a consistent basis for craniometrics, with the additional benefit of allowing non-linear measurements if required.

  6. Endodontic applications of 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J; Wealleans, J; Ray, J

    2018-02-27

    Computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies can leverage cone beam computed tomography data for production of objects used in surgical and nonsurgical endodontics and in educational settings. The aim of this article was to review all current applications of 3D printing in endodontics and to speculate upon future directions for research and clinical use within the specialty. A literature search of PubMed, Ovid and Scopus was conducted using the following terms: stereolithography, 3D printing, computer aided rapid prototyping, surgical guide, guided endodontic surgery, guided endodontic access, additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping, autotransplantation rapid prototyping, CAD, CAM. Inclusion criteria were articles in the English language documenting endodontic applications of 3D printing. Fifty-one articles met inclusion criteria and were utilized. The endodontic literature on 3D printing is generally limited to case reports and pre-clinical studies. Documented solutions to endodontic challenges include: guided access with pulp canal obliteration, applications in autotransplantation, pre-surgical planning and educational modelling and accurate location of osteotomy perforation sites. Acquisition of technical expertise and equipment within endodontic practices present formidable obstacles to widespread deployment within the endodontic specialty. As knowledge advances, endodontic postgraduate programmes should consider implementing 3D printing into their curriculums. Future research directions should include clinical outcomes assessments of treatments employing 3D printed objects. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Towards next generation 3D cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mohit

    2017-03-01

    We are in the midst of a 3D revolution. Robots enabled by 3D cameras are beginning to autonomously drive cars, perform surgeries, and manage factories. However, when deployed in the real-world, these cameras face several challenges that prevent them from measuring 3D shape reliably. These challenges include large lighting variations (bright sunlight to dark night), presence of scattering media (fog, body tissue), and optically complex materials (metal, plastic). Due to these factors, 3D imaging is often the bottleneck in widespread adoption of several key robotics technologies. I will talk about our work on developing 3D cameras based on time-of-flight and active triangulation that addresses these long-standing problems. This includes designing `all-weather' cameras that can perform high-speed 3D scanning in harsh outdoor environments, as well as cameras that recover shape of objects with challenging material properties. These cameras are, for the first time, capable of measuring detailed (robotic inspection and assembly systems.

  8. 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Dylan; Jia, Jia; Yost, Michael; Markwald, Roger; Mei, Ying

    2016-01-01

    3D bioprinting holds remarkable promise for rapid fabrication of 3D tissue engineering constructs. Given its scalability, reproducibility, and precise multi-dimensional control that traditional fabrication methods do not provide, 3D bioprinting provides a powerful means to address one of the major challenges in tissue engineering: vascularization. Moderate success of current tissue engineering strategies have been attributed to the current inability to fabricate thick tissue engineering constructs that contain endogenous, engineered vasculature or nutrient channels that can integrate with the host tissue. Successful fabrication of a vascularized tissue construct requires synergy between high throughput, high-resolution bioprinting of larger perfusable channels and instructive bioink that promotes angiogenic sprouting and neovascularization. This review aims to cover the recent progress in the field of 3D bioprinting of vascularized tissues. It will cover the methods of bioprinting vascularized constructs, bioink for vascularization, and perspectives on recent innovations in 3D printing and biomaterials for the next generation of 3D bioprinting for vascularized tissue fabrication. PMID:27230253

  9. Exploring interaction with 3D volumetric displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Tovi; Wigdor, Daniel; Balakrishnan, Ravin

    2005-03-01

    Volumetric displays generate true volumetric 3D images by actually illuminating points in 3D space. As a result, viewing their contents is similar to viewing physical objects in the real world. These displays provide a 360 degree field of view, and do not require the user to wear hardware such as shutter glasses or head-trackers. These properties make them a promising alternative to traditional display systems for viewing imagery in 3D. Because these displays have only recently been made available commercially (e.g., www.actuality-systems.com), their current use tends to be limited to non-interactive output-only display devices. To take full advantage of the unique features of these displays, however, it would be desirable if the 3D data being displayed could be directly interacted with and manipulated. We investigate interaction techniques for volumetric display interfaces, through the development of an interactive 3D geometric model building application. While this application area itself presents many interesting challenges, our focus is on the interaction techniques that are likely generalizable to interactive applications for other domains. We explore a very direct style of interaction where the user interacts with the virtual data using direct finger manipulations on and around the enclosure surrounding the displayed 3D volumetric image.

  10. 3D for free using the Mac's standard apps : converting raw 3D text files to QuickDraw 3D's 3DMF format using AppleScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajadiningrat, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    This article introduces you to the basics of 3D files in general and the 3D Metafile (3DMF), QuickDraw 3D's native 3D format, in particular. It shows how you can use AppleScript to easily convert a raw 3D text file into a 3DMF readable by the QuickDraw 3D Viewer or any other QuickDraw 3D compatible

  11. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints

    OpenAIRE

    Coakley, Meghan F.; Hurt, Darrell E.; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C.; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T.; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S.; Huyen, Yentram

    2014-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print ...

  12. Simultaneous 3D tracking of passive tracers and microtubule bundles in an active gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yi; Breuer, Kenneth S.; Fluids Team

    Kinesin-driven microtubule bundles generate a spontaneous flow in unconfined geometries. They exhibit properties of active matter, including the emergence of collective motion, reduction of apparent viscosity and consumption of local energy. Here we present results from 3D tracking of passive tracers (using Airy rings and 3D scanning) synchronized with 3D measurement of the microtubule bundles motion. This technique is applied to measure viscosity variation and collective flow in a confined geometry with particular attention paid to the self-pumping system recently reported by Wu et al. (2016). Results show that the viscosity in an equilibrium microtubule network is around half that of the isotropic unbundled microtubule solution. Cross-correlations of the active microtubule network and passive tracers define a neighborhood around microtubule bundles in which passive tracers are effectively transported. MRSEC NSF.

  13. 3D printed System-on-Package (SoP) for environmental sensing and localization applications

    KAUST Repository

    Zhen, Su

    2017-12-22

    This paper presents for the first time an innovative 3D printed SoP sensor node with temperature, pressure and humidity sensing capabilities. It has an integrated wireless readout through a near isotropic (900MHz) GSM antenna-on-package. This sensor node is connected to the internet for remote monitoring and has the capability of localization. The paper presents the design of antenna-on-package as well as details of the communication and localization system. Fabrication challenges unique to 3D printing and integration of electronics on 3D printed circuit board are also discussed. Finally, the paper presents measurement results of antenna radiation pattern, return loss, localization accuracy and accuracy of sensing parameters.

  14. Recording stereoscopic 3D neurosurgery with a head-mounted 3D camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Brian; Chen, Brian R; Chen, Beverly B; Lu, James Y; Giannotta, Steven L

    2015-06-01

    Stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) imaging can present more information to the viewer and further enhance the learning experience over traditional two-dimensional (2D) video. Most 3D surgical videos are recorded from the operating microscope and only feature the crux, or the most important part of the surgery, leaving out other crucial parts of surgery including the opening, approach, and closing of the surgical site. In addition, many other surgeries including complex spine, trauma, and intensive care unit procedures are also rarely recorded. We describe and share our experience with a commercially available head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to obtain stereoscopic 3D recordings of these seldom recorded aspects of neurosurgery. The strengths and limitations of using the GoPro(®) 3D system as a head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system in the operating room are reviewed in detail. Over the past several years, we have recorded in stereoscopic 3D over 50 cranial and spinal surgeries and created a library for education purposes. We have found the head-mounted stereoscopic 3D camera system to be a valuable asset to supplement 3D footage from a 3D microscope. We expect that these comprehensive 3D surgical videos will become an important facet of resident education and ultimately lead to improved patient care.

  15. 3D deblending of simultaneous source data based on 3D multi-scale shaping operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Shaohuan; Zhou, Hui; Mao, Weijian; Gong, Fei; Huang, Weilin

    2018-04-01

    We propose an iterative three-dimensional (3D) deblending scheme using 3D multi-scale shaping operator to separate 3D simultaneous source data. The proposed scheme is based on the property that signal is coherent, whereas interference is incoherent in some domains, e.g., common receiver domain and common midpoint domain. In two-dimensional (2D) blended record, the coherency difference of signal and interference is in only one spatial direction. Compared with 2D deblending, the 3D deblending can take more sparse constraints into consideration to obtain better performance, e.g., in 3D common receiver gather, the coherency difference is in two spatial directions. Furthermore, with different levels of coherency, signal and interference distribute in different scale curvelet domains. In both 2D and 3D blended records, most coherent signal locates in coarse scale curvelet domain, while most incoherent interference distributes in fine scale curvelet domain. The scale difference is larger in 3D deblending, thus, we apply the multi-scale shaping scheme to further improve the 3D deblending performance. We evaluate the performance of 3D and 2D deblending with the multi-scale and global shaping operators, respectively. One synthetic and one field data examples demonstrate the advantage of the 3D deblending with 3D multi-scale shaping operator.

  16. The NIH 3D Print Exchange: A Public Resource for Bioscientific and Biomedical 3D Prints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Meghan F; Hurt, Darrell E; Weber, Nick; Mtingwa, Makazi; Fincher, Erin C; Alekseyev, Vsevelod; Chen, David T; Yun, Alvin; Gizaw, Metasebia; Swan, Jeremy; Yoo, Terry S; Huyen, Yentram

    2014-09-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has launched the NIH 3D Print Exchange, an online portal for discovering and creating bioscientifically relevant 3D models suitable for 3D printing, to provide both researchers and educators with a trusted source to discover accurate and informative models. There are a number of online resources for 3D prints, but there is a paucity of scientific models, and the expertise required to generate and validate such models remains a barrier. The NIH 3D Print Exchange fills this gap by providing novel, web-based tools that empower users with the ability to create ready-to-print 3D files from molecular structure data, microscopy image stacks, and computed tomography scan data. The NIH 3D Print Exchange facilitates open data sharing in a community-driven environment, and also includes various interactive features, as well as information and tutorials on 3D modeling software. As the first government-sponsored website dedicated to 3D printing, the NIH 3D Print Exchange is an important step forward to bringing 3D printing to the mainstream for scientific research and education.

  17. 3D asthenopia in horizontal deviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Suh, Young-Woo; Yun, Cheol-Min; Yoo, Eun-Joo; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Cho, Yoonae A

    2013-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the asthenopic symptoms in patients with exotropia and esotropia while watching stereoscopic 3D (S3D) television (TV). A total 77 subjects who more than 9 years of age were enrolled in this study. We divided them into three groups; Thirty-four patients with exodeviation (Exo group), 11 patients with esodeviation (Eso group) and 32 volunteers with normal binocular vision (control group). The S3D images were shown to all patients with S3D high-definition TV for a period of 20 min. Best corrected visual acuity, refractive errors, angle of strabismus, stereopsis test and history of strabismus surgery, were evaluated. After watching S3D TV for 20 min, a survey of subjective symptoms was conducted with a questionnaire to evaluate the degree of S3D perception and asthenopic symptoms such as headache, dizziness and ocular fatigue while watching 3D TV. The mean amounts of deviation in the Exo group and Eso group were 11.2 PD and 7.73PD, respectively. Mean stereoacuity was 102.7 arc sec in the the Exo group and 1389.1 arc sec in the Eso group. In the control group, it was 41.9 arc sec. Twenty-nine patients in the Exo group showed excellent stereopsis (≤60 arc sec at near), but all 11 subjects of the Eso group showed 140 arc sec or worse and showed more decreased 3D perception than the Exo and the control group (p Kruskal-Wallis test). The Exo group reported more eye fatigue (p Kruskal-Wallis test) than the Eso and the control group. However, the scores of ocular fatigue in the patients who had undergone corrective surgery were less than in the patients who had not in the Exo group (p Kruskal-Wallis test) and the amount of exodeviation was not correlated with the asthenopic symptoms (dizziness, r = 0.034, p = 0.33; headache, r = 0.320, p = 0.119; eye fatigue, r = 0.135, p = 0.519, Spearman rank correlation test, respectively). Symptoms of 3D asthenopia were related to the presence of exodeviation but not to esodeviation. This may

  18. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  19. 3D Hilbert Space Filling Curves in 3D City Modeling for Faster Spatial Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujang, Uznir; Antón Castro, Francesc/François; Azri, Suhaibah

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of three dimensional (3D) city models can be seen in various applications including photogrammetry, urban and regional planning, computer games, etc. They expand the visualization and analysis capabilities of Geographic Information Systems on cities, and they can be developed using...... method, retrieving portions of and especially searching these 3D city models, will not be done optimally. Even though current developments are based on an open data model allotted by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) called CityGML, its XML-based structure makes it challenging to cluster the 3D urban...... objects. In this research, the authors propose an opponent data constellation technique of space-filling curves (3D Hilbert curves) for 3D city model data representation. Unlike previous methods, that try to project 3D or n-dimensional data down to 2D or 3D using Principal Component Analysis (PCA...

  20. 3D-mallien muokkaus 3D-tulostamista varten CAD-ohjelmilla

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Jarmo

    2013-01-01

    Insinöörityössäni käsitellään 3D-mallien tulostamista ja erityisesti 3D-mallien mallintamista niin, että kappaleiden valmistaminen 3D-tulostimella onnistuisi mahdollisimman hyvin. Työ tehtiin Prohoc Oy:lle, joka sijaitsee Vaasassa. 3D-tulostuspalveluun tuli jatkuvasti 3D-malleja, joiden tulostuksessa oli ongelmia. Työssäni tutkin näiden ongelmien syntyä ja tein ohjeita eri 3D-mallinnusohjelmille, joiden tarkoituksena on auttaa tekemään helpommin tulostettavia 3D-malleja. Työhön kuului myös et...

  1. The 3d4-3d34p transitions of triply ionized manganese (Mn IV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchang-Brillet, W.Ue.L.; Artru, M.C.; Wyart, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of Mn IV is extended in the wavelength range 473-847 A. A total of 600 classified lines are given, of which 372 are newly observed. All of them are due to 3d 4 -3d 3 4p transitions. Their classification and the identification of 59 new levels are supported by the parametric studies of the 3d 4 and 3d 3 4p configurations. The ground configuration 3d 4 is calculated by taking into account the effective magnetic interactions which improve by an order of magnitude the theoretical fine structure of the quintet and triplet terms. The analysis was guided by the prediction of relative line strengths in intermediate coupling. Calculated energies and LS composition are given for all levels of the configuration, 3d 4 and 3d 3 4p. (orig).

  2. 3D prostate histology image reconstruction: Quantifying the impact of tissue deformation and histology section location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Gibson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guidelines for localizing prostate cancer on imaging are ideally informed by registered post-prostatectomy histology. 3D histology reconstruction methods can support this by reintroducing 3D spatial information lost during histology processing. The need to register small, high-grade foci drives a need for high accuracy. Accurate 3D reconstruction method design is impacted by the answers to the following central questions of this work. (1 How does prostate tissue deform during histology processing? (2 What spatial misalignment of the tissue sections is induced by microtome cutting? (3 How does the choice of reconstruction model affect histology reconstruction accuracy? Materials and Methods: Histology, paraffin block face and magnetic resonance images were acquired for 18 whole mid-gland tissue slices from six prostates. 7-15 homologous landmarks were identified on each image. Tissue deformation due to histology processing was characterized using the target registration error (TRE after landmark-based registration under four deformation models (rigid, similarity, affine and thin-plate-spline [TPS]. The misalignment of histology sections from the front faces of tissue slices was quantified using manually identified landmarks. The impact of reconstruction models on the TRE after landmark-based reconstruction was measured under eight reconstruction models comprising one of four deformation models with and without constraining histology images to the tissue slice front faces. Results: Isotropic scaling improved the mean TRE by 0.8-1.0 mm (all results reported as 95% confidence intervals, while skew or TPS deformation improved the mean TRE by <0.1 mm. The mean misalignment was 1.1-1.9΀ (angle and 0.9-1.3 mm (depth. Using isotropic scaling, the front face constraint raised the mean TRE by 0.6-0.8 mm. Conclusions: For sub-millimeter accuracy, 3D reconstruction models should not constrain histology images to the tissue slice front faces and

  3. 3D analysis of semiconductor devices: A combination of 3D imaging and 3D elemental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bianzhu; Gribelyuk, Michael A.

    2018-04-01

    3D analysis of semiconductor devices using a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) Z-contrast tomography and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) elemental tomography is presented. 3D STEM Z-contrast tomography is useful in revealing the depth information of the sample. However, it suffers from contrast problems between materials with similar atomic numbers. Examples of EDS elemental tomography are presented using an automated EDS tomography system with batch data processing, which greatly reduces the data collection and processing time. 3D EDS elemental tomography reveals more in-depth information about the defect origin in semiconductor failure analysis. The influence of detector shadowing and X-rays absorption on the EDS tomography's result is also discussed.

  4. 3D printed e-tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaál, Gabriel; da Silva, Tatiana A.; Gaál, Vladimir; Hensel, Rafael C.; Amaral, Lucas R.; Rodrigues, Varlei; Riul, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the biggest issues addressed to electronic sensor fabrication is the build-up of efficient electrodes as an alternative way to the expensive, complex and multistage processes required by traditional techniques. Printed electronics arises as an interesting alternative to fulfill this task due to the simplicity and speed to stamp electrodes on various surfaces. Within this context, the Fused Deposition Modeling 3D printing is an emerging, cost-effective and alternative technology to fabricate complex structures that potentiates several fields with more creative ideas and new materials for a rapid prototyping of devices. We show here the fabrication of interdigitated electrodes using a standard home-made CoreXY 3D printer using transparent and graphene-based PLA filaments. Macro 3D printed electrodes were easily assembled within 6 minutes with outstanding reproducibility. The electrodes were also functionalized with different nanostructured thin films via dip-coating Layer-by-Layer technique to develop a 3D printed e-tongue setup. As a proof of concept, the printed e-tongue was applied to soil analysis. A control soil sample was enriched with several macro-nutrients to the plants (N, P, K, S, Mg and Ca) and the discrimination was done by electrical impedance spectroscopy of water solution of the soil samples. The data was analyzed by Principal Component Analysis and the 3D printed sensor distinguished clearly all enriched samples despite the complexity of the soil chemical composition. The 3D printed e-tongue successfully used in soil analysis encourages further investments in developing new sensory tools for precision agriculture and other fields exploiting the simplicity and flexibility offered by the 3D printing techniques.

  5. 3-D image reconstruction in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grangeat, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this course, we present highlights on fully 3-D image reconstruction algorithms used in 3-D X-ray Computed Tomography (3-D-CT) and 3-D Rotational Radiography (3-D-RR). We first consider the case of spiral CT with a one-row detector. Starting from the 2-D fan-beam inversion formula for a circular trajectory, we introduce spiral CT 3-D image reconstruction algorithm using axial interpolation for each transverse slice. In order to improve the X-ray detection efficiency and to speed the acquisition process, the future is to use multi-row detectors associated with small angle cone-beam geometry. The generalization of the 2-D fan-beam image reconstruction algorithm to cone beam defined direct inversion formula referred as Feldkamp's algorithm for a circular trajectory and Wang's algorithm for a spiral trajectory. However, large area detectors does exist such as Radiological Image Intensifiers or in a near future solid state detectors. To get a larger zoom effect, it defines a cone-beam geometry associated with a large aperture angle. For this case, we introduce indirect image reconstruction algorithm by plane re-binning in the Radon domain. We will present some results from a prototype MORPHOMETER device using the RADON reconstruction software. Lastly, we consider the special case of 3-D Rotational Digital Subtraction Angiography with a restricted number of views. We introduce constraint optimization algorithm using quadratic, entropic or half-quadratic constraints. Generalized ART (Algebraic Reconstruction Technique) iterative reconstruction algorithm can be derived from the Bregman algorithm. We present reconstructed vascular trees from a prototype MORPHOMETER device. (author)

  6. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  7. A microfluidic device for 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D cell navigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamloo, Amir; Amirifar, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic devices have received wide attention and shown great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Investigating cell response to various stimulations is much more accurate and comprehensive with the aid of microfluidic devices. In this study, we introduced a microfluidic device by which the matrix density as a mechanical property and the concentration profile of a biochemical factor as a chemical property could be altered. Our microfluidic device has a cell tank and a cell culture chamber to mimic both 2D to 3D and 3D to 3D migration of three types of cells. Fluid shear stress is negligible on the cells and a stable concentration gradient can be obtained by diffusion. The device was designed by a numerical simulation so that the uniformity of the concentration gradients throughout the cell culture chamber was obtained. Adult neural cells were cultured within this device and they showed different branching and axonal navigation phenotypes within varying nerve growth factor (NGF) concentration profiles. Neural stem cells were also cultured within varying collagen matrix densities while exposed to NGF concentrations and they experienced 3D to 3D collective migration. By generating vascular endothelial growth factor concentration gradients, adult human dermal microvascular endothelial cells also migrated in a 2D to 3D manner and formed a stable lumen within a specific collagen matrix density. It was observed that a minimum absolute concentration and concentration gradient were required to stimulate migration of all types of the cells. This device has the advantage of changing multiple parameters simultaneously and is expected to have wide applicability in cell studies. (paper)

  8. Single-breath-hold 3-D CINE imaging of the left ventricle using Cartesian sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzl, Jens; Schmidt, Michaela; Pontana, François; Longère, Benjamin; Lugauer, Felix; Maier, Andreas; Hornegger, Joachim; Forman, Christoph

    2018-02-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate a single-breath-hold approach for Cartesian 3-D CINE imaging of the left ventricle with a nearly isotropic resolution of [Formula: see text] and a breath-hold duration of [Formula: see text]19 s against a standard stack of 2-D CINE slices acquired in multiple breath-holds. Validation is performed with data sets from ten healthy volunteers. A Cartesian sampling pattern based on the spiral phyllotaxis and a compressed sensing reconstruction method are proposed to allow 3-D CINE imaging with high acceleration factors. The fully integrated reconstruction uses multiple graphics processing units to speed up the reconstruction. The 2-D CINE and 3-D CINE are compared based on ventricular function parameters, contrast-to-noise ratio and edge sharpness measurements. Visual comparisons of corresponding short-axis slices of 2-D and 3-D CINE show an excellent match, while 3-D CINE also allows reformatting to other orientations. Ventricular function parameters do not significantly differ from values based on 2-D CINE imaging. Reconstruction times are below 4 min. We demonstrate single-breath-hold 3-D CINE imaging in volunteers and three example patient cases, which features fast reconstruction and allows reformatting to arbitrary orientations.

  9. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustercic, Dusan; Sersa, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 T MRI system for MR microscopy using the 3D spin-echo method that enabled image acquisition with isotropic resolution of 100 μm. The 3D images were then post processed by ImageJ program (NIH) to obtain advanced volume rendered views of dental pulps. MR microscopy at 2.35 T provided accurate data on dental pulp anatomy in vitro. The data were presented as a sequence of thin 2D slices through the pulp in various orientations or as volume rendered 3D images reconstructed form arbitrary view-points. Sequential 2D images enabled only an approximate assessment of the pulp, while volume rendered 3D images were more precise in visualization of pulp anatomy and clearly showed pulp diverticles, number of pulp canals and root canal anastomosis. This in vitro study demonstrated that MR microscopy could provide very accurate 3D visualization of dental pulp anatomy. A possible future application of the method in vivo may be of a great importance for the endodontic treatment

  10. Laboratory measurements of P- and S-wave anisotropy in synthetic rocks by 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, L.; Ostadhassan, M.; Tamimi, N.; Li, C.; Alexeyev, A.

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic rocks have been widely used to realize the models with controlled factors in rock physics and geomechanics experiments. Additive manufacturing technology, known as 3D printing, is becoming a popular method to produce the synthetic rocks as the advantages of timesaving, economics, and control. In terms of mechanical properties, the duplicability of 3D printed rock towards a natural rock has been studied whereas the seismic anisotropy still remains unknown as being the key factor in conducting rock physics experiments. This study utilized a 3D printer with gypsum as the ink to manufacture a series of synthetic rocks that have the shapes of octagonal prisms, with half of them printed from lateral and another half from the bottom. An ultrasonic investigation system was set up to measure the P- and S- wave velocities at different frequencies while samples were under dry conditions. The results show the impact of layered property on the P- and S- wave velocities. The measurement results were compared with the predicted results of Hudson model, demonstrating that the synthetic rock from 3D printing is a transverse isotropic model. The seismic anisotropy indicates that the availability of using 3D printed rocks to duplicate natural rocks for the purpose of recreating the experiments of rock physics. Future experiments will be performed on the dependence of seismic anisotropy on fracture geometry and density in 3D printed synthetic rocks.

  11. Efficient 3D porous microstructure reconstruction via Gaussian random field and hybrid optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z; Chen, W; Burkhart, C

    2013-11-01

    Obtaining an accurate three-dimensional (3D) structure of a porous microstructure is important for assessing the material properties based on finite element analysis. Whereas directly obtaining 3D images of the microstructure is impractical under many circumstances, two sets of methods have been developed in literature to generate (reconstruct) 3D microstructure from its 2D images: one characterizes the microstructure based on certain statistical descriptors, typically two-point correlation function and cluster correlation function, and then performs an optimization process to build a 3D structure that matches those statistical descriptors; the other method models the microstructure using stochastic models like a Gaussian random field and generates a 3D structure directly from the function. The former obtains a relatively accurate 3D microstructure, but computationally the optimization process can be very intensive, especially for problems with large image size; the latter generates a 3D microstructure quickly but sacrifices the accuracy due to issues in numerical implementations. A hybrid optimization approach of modelling the 3D porous microstructure of random isotropic two-phase materials is proposed in this paper, which combines the two sets of methods and hence maintains the accuracy of the correlation-based method with improved efficiency. The proposed technique is verified for 3D reconstructions based on silica polymer composite images with different volume fractions. A comparison of the reconstructed microstructures and the optimization histories for both the original correlation-based method and our hybrid approach demonstrates the improved efficiency of the approach. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  12. 3D Reasoning from Blocks to Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaoyin Jia; Gallagher, Andrew C; Saxena, Ashutosh; Chen, Tsuhan

    2015-05-01

    Objects occupy physical space and obey physical laws. To truly understand a scene, we must reason about the space that objects in it occupy, and how each objects is supported stably by each other. In other words, we seek to understand which objects would, if moved, cause other objects to fall. This 3D volumetric reasoning is important for many scene understanding tasks, ranging from segmentation of objects to perception of a rich 3D, physically well-founded, interpretations of the scene. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to parse a single RGB-D image with 3D block units while jointly reasoning about the segments, volumes, supporting relationships, and object stability. Our algorithm is based on the intuition that a good 3D representation of the scene is one that fits the depth data well, and is a stable, self-supporting arrangement of objects (i.e., one that does not topple). We design an energy function for representing the quality of the block representation based on these properties. Our algorithm fits 3D blocks to the depth values corresponding to image segments, and iteratively optimizes the energy function. Our proposed algorithm is the first to consider stability of objects in complex arrangements for reasoning about the underlying structure of the scene. Experimental results show that our stability-reasoning framework improves RGB-D segmentation and scene volumetric representation.

  13. 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrycky, Christian; Wang, Zongjie; Kim, Keekyoung; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Bioprinting is a 3D fabrication technology used to precisely dispense cell-laden biomaterials for the construction of complex 3D functional living tissues or artificial organs. While still in its early stages, bioprinting strategies have demonstrated their potential use in regenerative medicine to generate a variety of transplantable tissues, including skin, cartilage, and bone. However, current bioprinting approaches still have technical challenges in terms of high-resolution cell deposition, controlled cell distributions, vascularization, and innervation within complex 3D tissues. While no one-size-fits-all approach to bioprinting has emerged, it remains an on-demand, versatile fabrication technique that may address the growing organ shortage as well as provide a high-throughput method for cell patterning at the micrometer scale for broad biomedical engineering applications. In this review, we introduce the basic principles, materials, integration strategies and applications of bioprinting. We also discuss the recent developments, current challenges and future prospects of 3D bioprinting for engineering complex tissues. Combined with recent advances in human pluripotent stem cell technologies, 3D-bioprinted tissue models could serve as an enabling platform for high-throughput predictive drug screening and more effective regenerative therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 3D analysis methods - Study and seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daaviittila, A.

    2003-10-01

    The first part of the report results from a study that was performed as a Nordic co-operation activity with active participation from Studsvik Scandpower and Westinghouse Atom in Sweden, and VTT in Finland. The purpose of the study was to identify and investigate the effects rising from using the 3D transient com-puter codes in BWR safety analysis, and their influence on the transient analysis methodology. One of the main questions involves the critical power ratio (CPR) calculation methodology. The present way, where the CPR calculation is per-formed with a separate hot channel calculation, can be artificially conservative. In the investigated cases, no dramatic minimum CPR effect coming from the 3D calculation is apparent. Some cases show some decrease in the transient change of minimum CPR with the 3D calculation, which confirms the general thinking that the 1D calculation is conservative. On the other hand, the observed effect on neutron flux behaviour is quite large. In a slower transient the 3D effect might be stronger. The second part of the report is a summary of a related seminar that was held on the 3D analysis methods. The seminar was sponsored by the Reactor Safety part (NKS-R) of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme (NKS). (au)

  15. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions

  16. The importance of 3D dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been getting progressively more complex for the past 20 years. Early radiation therapy techniques needed only basic dosimetry equipment; motorized water phantoms, ionization chambers, and basic radiographic film techniques. As intensity modulated radiation therapy and image guided therapy came into widespread practice, medical physicists were challenged with developing effective and efficient dose measurement techniques. The complex 3-dimensional (3D) nature of the dose distributions that were being delivered demanded the development of more quantitative and more thorough methods for dose measurement. The quality assurance vendors developed a wide array of multidetector arrays that have been enormously useful for measuring and characterizing dose distributions, and these have been made especially useful with the advent of 3D dose calculation systems based on the array measurements, as well as measurements made using film and portal imagers. Other vendors have been providing 3D calculations based on data from the linear accelerator or the record and verify system, providing thorough evaluation of the dose but lacking quality assurance (QA) of the dose delivery process, including machine calibration. The current state of 3D dosimetry is one of a state of flux. The vendors and professional associations are trying to determine the optimal balance between thorough QA, labor efficiency, and quantitation. This balance will take some time to reach, but a necessary component will be the 3D measurement and independent calculation of delivered radiation therapy dose distributions.

  17. Optimization of 3D Field Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Nikolas; Zhu, Caoxiang

    2017-10-01

    Recent progress in 3D tokamak modeling is now leveraged to create a conceptual design of new external 3D field coils for the DIII-D tokamak. Using the IPEC dominant mode as a target spectrum, the Finding Optimized Coils Using Space-curves (FOCUS) code optimizes the currents and 3D geometry of multiple coils to maximize the total set's resonant coupling. The optimized coils are individually distorted in space, creating toroidal ``arrays'' containing a variety of shapes that often wrap around a significant poloidal extent of the machine. The generalized perturbed equilibrium code (GPEC) is used to determine optimally efficient spectra for driving total, core, and edge neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque and these too provide targets for the optimization of 3D coil designs. These conceptual designs represent a fundamentally new approach to 3D coil design for tokamaks targeting desired plasma physics phenomena. Optimized coil sets based on plasma response theory will be relevant to designs for future reactors or on any active machine. External coils, in particular, must be optimized for reliable and efficient fusion reactor designs. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  18. 3-D MRI for lumbar degenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aota, Yoichi; Kumano, Kiyoshi; Hirabayashi, Shigeru; Ogawa, Yu; Izumi, Yasujiro; Yoshikawa, Koki; Yamazaki, Tatsuo.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance (MR) images obtained from 10 patients with lumbar degenerative diseases were retrospectively reviewed to determine how far 3-D MR imaging is capable of demonstrating nerve roots. In 8 of the 10 patients, the area up to the dorsal root ganglion was visualized on 3-D MR images. Thus, it is capable of detecting a wide area of nerve roots, thereby allowing the determination of running of nerve root, and size and location of dorsal root ganglion. In delineating the area from the dural canal to root cyst, 3-D MR imaging was equal to conventional myelography. The former was superior to the latter in detecting the positional relation between the degenerative intervertebral disc and the nerve root, and herniation-compressed root cyst. In 3 of 9 patients who presented with root symptoms, disturbed nerve roots were of high signal on 3-D MR images. This may suggest that it has the potential for selectively detecting root nerves associated with clinical manifestations. (N.K.)

  19. RAG-3D: a search tool for RNA 3D substructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahran, Mai; Sevim Bayrak, Cigdem; Elmetwaly, Shereef; Schlick, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    To address many challenges in RNA structure/function prediction, the characterization of RNA's modular architectural units is required. Using the RNA-As-Graphs (RAG) database, we have previously explored the existence of secondary structure (2D) submotifs within larger RNA structures. Here we present RAG-3D—a dataset of RNA tertiary (3D) structures and substructures plus a web-based search tool—designed to exploit graph representations of RNAs for the goal of searching for similar 3D structural fragments. The objects in RAG-3D consist of 3D structures translated into 3D graphs, cataloged based on the connectivity between their secondary structure elements. Each graph is additionally described in terms of its subgraph building blocks. The RAG-3D search tool then compares a query RNA 3D structure to those in the database to obtain structurally similar structures and substructures. This comparison reveals conserved 3D RNA features and thus may suggest functional connections. Though RNA search programs based on similarity in sequence, 2D, and/or 3D structural elements are available, our graph-based search tool may be advantageous for illuminating similarities that are not obvious; using motifs rather than sequence space also reduces search times considerably. Ultimately, such substructuring could be useful for RNA 3D structure prediction, structure/function inference and inverse folding. PMID:26304547

  20. Characterizing 3D sensors using the 3D modulation transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Timo; Breitbarth, Andreas; Zhang, Chen; Notni, Gunther

    2018-03-01

    The fields of optical 3D measurement system applications are continuously expanding and becoming more and more diverse. To evaluate appropriate systems for various measurement tasks, comparable parameters are necessary, whereas the 3D modulation transfer function (3D-MTF) has been established as a further criterion. Its aim is the determination of the system response between the measurement of a straight, sharp-edged cube and its opposite ideal calculated one. Within the scope of this work simulations and practical investigations regarding the 3D-MTF’s influences and its main issues are specifically investigated. Therefore, different determined edge radii representing the high-frequency spectra lead to various decreasing 3D-MTF characteristics. Furthermore, rising sampling frequencies improve its maximum transfer value to a saturation point in dependence of the radius. To approve these results of previous simulations, three fringe projection scanners were selected to determine the diversity. As the best 3D-MTF characteristic, a saturated transfer value of H_3D( f_N, 3D) = 0.79 has been identified at a sufficient sampling frequency, which is reached at four times the Nyquist limit. This high 3D resolution can mainly be achieved due to an improved camera projector interaction. Additionally, too small sampling ratios lead to uncertainties in the edge function determination, while higher ratios do not show major improvements. In conclusion, the 3D-MTF algorithm has thus been practically verified and its repeatability as well as its robustness have been confirmed.

  1. In situ repair of bone and cartilage defects using 3D scanning and 3D printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Yu, Fei; Shi, Jianping; Shen, Sheng; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Jiquan; Wang, Xingsong; Jiang, Qing

    2017-08-25

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a rapidly emerging technology that promises to transform tissue engineering into a commercially successful biomedical industry. However, the use of robotic bioprinters alone is not sufficient for disease treatment. This study aimed to report the combined application of 3D scanning and 3D printing for treating bone and cartilage defects. Three different kinds of defect models were created to mimic three orthopedic diseases: large segmental defects of long bones, free-form fracture of femoral condyle, and International Cartilage Repair Society grade IV chondral lesion. Feasibility of in situ 3D bioprinting for these diseases was explored. The 3D digital models of samples with defects and corresponding healthy parts were obtained using high-resolution 3D scanning. The Boolean operation was used to achieve the shape of the defects, and then the target geometries were imported in a 3D bioprinter. Two kinds of photopolymerized hydrogels were synthesized as bioinks. Finally, the defects of bone and cartilage were restored perfectly in situ using 3D bioprinting. The results of this study suggested that 3D scanning and 3D bioprinting could provide another strategy for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  2. Accurate and reproducible reconstruction of coronary arteries and endothelial shear stress calculation using 3D OCT: comparative study to 3D IVUS and 3D QCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Riga, Maria; Giannopoulos, Andreas; Antoniadis, Antonios P; Tu, Shengxian; Fujino, Yusuke; Mitsouras, Dimitrios; Doulaverakis, Charalampos; Tsampoulatidis, Ioannis; Koutkias, Vassilis G; Bouki, Konstantina; Li, Yingguang; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Cheimariotis, Grigorios; Maglaveras, Nicos; Kompatsiaris, Ioannis; Nakamura, Sunao; Reiber, Johan H C; Rybicki, Frank; Karvounis, Haralambos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Giannoglou, George D

    2015-06-01

    Geometrically-correct 3D OCT is a new imaging modality with the potential to investigate the association of local hemodynamic microenvironment with OCT-derived high-risk features. We aimed to describe the methodology of 3D OCT and investigate the accuracy, inter- and intra-observer agreement of 3D OCT in reconstructing coronary arteries and calculating ESS, using 3D IVUS and 3D QCA as references. 35 coronary artery segments derived from 30 patients were reconstructed in 3D space using 3D OCT. 3D OCT was validated against 3D IVUS and 3D QCA. The agreement in artery reconstruction among 3D OCT, 3D IVUS and 3D QCA was assessed in 3-mm-long subsegments using lumen morphometry and ESS parameters. The inter- and intra-observer agreement of 3D OCT, 3D IVUS and 3D QCA were assessed in a representative sample of 61 subsegments (n = 5 arteries). The data processing times for each reconstruction methodology were also calculated. There was a very high agreement between 3D OCT vs. 3D IVUS and 3D OCT vs. 3D QCA in terms of total reconstructed artery length and volume, as well as in terms of segmental morphometric and ESS metrics with mean differences close to zero and narrow limits of agreement (Bland-Altman analysis). 3D OCT exhibited excellent inter- and intra-observer agreement. The analysis time with 3D OCT was significantly lower compared to 3D IVUS. Geometrically-correct 3D OCT is a feasible, accurate and reproducible 3D reconstruction technique that can perform reliable ESS calculations in coronary arteries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Circuit QED with 3D cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Edwar; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Deppe, Frank; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), 80799 Muenchen (Germany); Haeberlein, Max; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In typical circuit QED systems, on-chip superconducting qubits are coupled to integrated coplanar microwave resonators. Due to the planar geometry, the resonators are often a limiting factor regarding the total coherence of the system. Alternatively, similar hybrid systems can be realized using 3D microwave cavities. Here, we present studies on transmon qubits capacitively coupled to 3D cavities. The internal quality factors of our 3D cavities, machined out of high purity aluminum, are above 1.4 .10{sup 6} at the single photon level and a temperature of 50 mK. For characterization of the sample, we perform dispersive shift measurements up to the third energy level of the qubit. We show simulations and data describing the effect of the transmon geometry on it's capacitive properties. In addition, we present progress towards an integrated quantum memory application.

  4. DNA origami design of 3D nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig

    2009-01-01

    [8]. We have recently developed a semi-automated DNA origami software package [9] that uses a 2D sequence editor in conjunction with several automated tools to facilitate the design process. Here we extend the use of the program for designing DNA origami structures in 3D and show the application......Structural DNA nanotechnology has been heavily dependent on the development of dedicated software tools for the design of unique helical junctions, to define unique sticky-ends for tile assembly, and for predicting the products of the self-assembly reaction of multiple DNA strands [1-3]. Recently......, several dedicated 3D editors for computer-aided design of DNA structures have been developed [4-7]. However, many of these tools are not efficient for designing DNA origami structures that requires the design of more than 200 unique DNA strands to be folded along a scaffold strand into a defined 3D shape...

  5. 3D Reconstruction in Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostrom, G.; Fiocco, M.; Goncalves, J.M.C.; Puig, D.; Sequeira, V.; Chartier, B.; Mariotte, F.; Richard, M.; Zamora, P.; Kiesser, R.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate modelling is gaining increasing importance in security applications. Indeed, realistic and dimensionally accurate models of critical areas can be used for prevention and simulation exercises as well as for planning emergency responses once an attack is perpetrated. CEA-DAM and EC-JRC engaged in a joint exercise involving the simulation of a terrorist attack in an urban area with possible release of radiological substances. JRC was responsible for creating a dimensionally accurate (centimetre accuracy) 3D model from the urban area as-is before and after the attack. Further tests involved the automatic 3D detection of changes in both indoors and outdoors environments. The paper describes the principles and technologies behind the generation of photo-realistic and accurate 3D models of wide areas as-is, and will discuss the use of those technologies for nuclear security applications

  6. Pyrolytic 3D Carbon Microelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Amato, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    electrochemical activity, chemical stability, and ease in surface functionalization [1]. The most common carbon microfabrication techniques (i.e. screen printing) produce two-dimensional (2D) electrodes, which limit the detection sensitivity. Hence several 3D microfabrication techniques have been explored......This work presents the fabrication and characterization of multi-layered three-dimensional (3D) pyrolysed carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, an optimized UV photolithography and pyrolysis process with the negative tone photoresist SU-8 has been developed...... carbon [2]. This process enables fabrication of 2D and 3D electrodes with possibility for tailoring ad-hoc designs and unique sensitivities for specific applications. Due to this, pyrolysed carbon is becoming increasingly attractive for numerous applications, such as novel sensors and scaffolds for cell...

  7. EU Design Law and 3D Printing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the implications for EU design law of 3D-printing. It first describes the 3D-printing technology and the e-ecosystem which is evolving around the technology and involves a number of new stakeholders who in different ways are engaged in the making and sharing of CAD-files and....../or printing. It is submitted that it is only a matter of time before 3D-printing equipment becomes ubiquitous. It is pointed out how the new technology and e-ecosystem at the same time represent threats and opportunities to design holders and to the societal interests in design and design law. EU design law...

  8. 3D Printing Openable Imaging Phantom Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myoung Keun; Won, Jun Hyeok; Lee, Seung Wook

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to design an openable phantom that can replace the internal measurement bar used for contrast comparison in order to increase the efficiency of manufacturing imaging phantom used in the medical industry and to improve convenience using 3D printer. Phantom concept design, 3D printing, and Image reconstruction were defined as the scope of the thesis. Also, we study metal artifact reduction with openable phantom. We have designed a Openable phantom using 3D printing, and have investigated metal artifact reduction after inserting a metallic material inside the phantom. The openable phantom can be adjusted at any time to suit the user's experiment and can be easily replaced and useful.

  9. 3D Printed Multimaterial Microfluidic Valve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J Keating

    Full Text Available We present a novel 3D printed multimaterial microfluidic proportional valve. The microfluidic valve is a fundamental primitive that enables the development of programmable, automated devices for controlling fluids in a precise manner. We discuss valve characterization results, as well as exploratory design variations in channel width, membrane thickness, and membrane stiffness. Compared to previous single material 3D printed valves that are stiff, these printed valves constrain fluidic deformation spatially, through combinations of stiff and flexible materials, to enable intricate geometries in an actuated, functionally graded device. Research presented marks a shift towards 3D printing multi-property programmable fluidic devices in a single step, in which integrated multimaterial valves can be used to control complex fluidic reactions for a variety of applications, including DNA assembly and analysis, continuous sampling and sensing, and soft robotics.

  10. Automatic balancing of 3D models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Schmidt, Ryan; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2014-01-01

    3D printing technologies allow for more diverse shapes than are possible with molds and the cost of making just one single object is negligible compared to traditional production methods. However, not all shapes are suitable for 3D print. One of the remaining costs is therefore human time spent......, in these cases, we will apply a rotation of the object which only deforms the shape a little near the base. No user input is required but it is possible to specify manufacturing constraints related to specific 3D print technologies. Several models have successfully been balanced and printed using both polyjet...... is solved by creating cavities of air and distributing dense materials inside the model. Consequently, the surface is not deformed. However, printing materials with significantly different densities is often not possible and adding cavities of air is often not enough to make the model balance. Consequently...

  11. DNA origami design of 3D nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ebbe Sloth; Nielsen, Morten Muhlig

    2009-01-01

    , several dedicated 3D editors for computer-aided design of DNA structures have been developed [4-7]. However, many of these tools are not efficient for designing DNA origami structures that requires the design of more than 200 unique DNA strands to be folded along a scaffold strand into a defined 3D shape...... [8]. We have recently developed a semi-automated DNA origami software package [9] that uses a 2D sequence editor in conjunction with several automated tools to facilitate the design process. Here we extend the use of the program for designing DNA origami structures in 3D and show the application...... by the construction of a DNA box with dimensions of 42 × 36 × 36 nm3. The software is available at www.cdna.dk/origami/ ....

  12. Teknologi 3D dalam Proses Pembuatan Komik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes Baptista Permadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Comic has been people’s favorite since 1930. As the growth of years and technology, the demands in designing comic were also increasing. To fulfill the demands, comic authors spent their times to draw so that they have no time to discover other element besides technical. Therefore, it is important if the comic author helped by 3D technology to accelerate technical process so that the comic authors will get extra time to develop other elements like concept and story. Data is gathered from interviews with both semi-professional and professional comic authors who are having problems being solved. Solving problems are conducted by using 3D software to draw picture of distorted space. And then two semi-professional comic authors will try to draw distorted space in tracing the picture from 3D software to see how many times needed to draw hard part traditionally. 

  13. Butterfly effect in 3D gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaemmaqami, Mohammad M.

    2017-11-01

    We study the butterfly effect by considering shock wave solutions near the horizon of the anti-de Sitter black hole in some three-dimensional gravity models including 3D Einstein gravity, minimal massive 3D gravity, new massive gravity, generalized massive gravity, Born-Infeld 3D gravity, and new bigravity. We calculate the butterfly velocities of these models and also we consider the critical points and different limits in some of these models. By studying the butterfly effect in the generalized massive gravity, we observe a correspondence between the butterfly velocities and right-left moving degrees of freedom or the central charges of the dual 2D conformal field theories.

  14. 3D Object Metamorphosis with Pseudo Metameshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOCANU, B.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce a novel framework for 3D object metamorphosis, represented by closed triangular meshes. The systems returns a high quality transition sequence, smooth and gradual, that is visual pleasant and consistent to both source and target topologies. The method starts by parameterizing both the source and the target model to a common domain (the unit sphere. Then, the features selected from the two models are aligned by applying the CTPS C2a radial basis functions. We demonstrate how the selected approach can create valid warping by deforming the models embedded into the parametric domain. In the final stage, we propose and validate a novel algorithm to construct a pseudo-supermesh able to approximate both, the source and target 3D objects. By using the pseudo-supermesh we developed a morphing transition consistent with respect to both geometry and topology of the 3D models.

  15. 3D seismic surveys for shallow targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, D.C.; Stewart, R.R.; Bertram, M.B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology

    2008-07-01

    Although 3D seismic surveys are generally used to map deep hydrocarbon plays, this study demonstrated that they can be useful for characterizing shallow targets, such as oilsands deposits. A high-resolution 3D seismic survey was undertaken to map shallow stratigraphy near Calgary, Alberta. The project demonstrated the efficacy of reflection seismic surveys for shallow targets ranging from 100 to 500 metres. The purpose of the program was to map shallow stratigraphy and structure to depths of up to 500m, and to investigate shallow aquifers in the study area. The results of the survey illustrated the opportunity that 3D seismic surveys provide for mapping shallow reflectors and the acquisition geometry needed to image them. Applications include mapping the distribution of shallow aquifers, delineating shallow coals and investigating oilsands deposits. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  16. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  17. FABLAB PRONTO3D: learning with practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Trevisan Pupo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent development and use of digital fabrication techniques for architecture, product design, engineering, construction, among many others, has caused impact changes on design processes since its beginning until final construction. New construction methods have been developed with the use of those new techniques, spreading many ways of possibilities hardly achieved before. Nowadays, spaces called FABLABs offer a range of procedures and equipment that provide the manufacture of scale models, prototypes or final elements in different fidelity degrees. This paper shows the possibilities and activities being implemented, with the use of technology, at PRONTO3D - Prototyping and New 3D Oriented Technology Laboratory, at UFSC, that belongs to PRONTO3D Network Labs, in Santa Catarina State, since 2013.

  18. Simulating 3D deformation using connected polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, J. T.; Jaya, I.; Hardi, S. M.; Zamzami, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    In modern 3D application, interaction between user and the virtual world is one of an important factor to increase the realism. This interaction can be visualized in many forms; one of them is object deformation. There are many ways to simulate object deformation in virtual 3D world; each comes with different level of realism and performance. Our objective is to present a new method to simulate object deformation by using a graph-connected polygon. In this solution, each object contains multiple level of polygons in different level of volume. The proposed solution focusses on performance rather while maintaining the acceptable level of realism. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of our solution and show that this solution is usable in performance sensitive 3D application such as games and virtual reality.

  19. A Hybrid 3D Indoor Space Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jamali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available GIS integrates spatial information and spatial analysis. An important example of such integration is for emergency response which requires route planning inside and outside of a building. Route planning requires detailed information related to indoor and outdoor environment. Indoor navigation network models including Geometric Network Model (GNM, Navigable Space Model, sub-division model and regular-grid model lack indoor data sources and abstraction methods. In this paper, a hybrid indoor space model is proposed. In the proposed method, 3D modeling of indoor navigation network is based on surveying control points and it is less dependent on the 3D geometrical building model. This research proposes a method of indoor space modeling for the buildings which do not have proper 2D/3D geometrical models or they lack semantic or topological information. The proposed hybrid model consists of topological, geometrical and semantical space.

  20. Averaged description of 3D MHD equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, S.Yu.; Drozdov, V.V.; Ivanov, A.A.; Martynov, A.A.; Pashekhonov, Yu.Yu.; Mikhailov, M.I.

    2001-01-01

    A general approach by S.A.Galkin et al. in 1991 to 2D description of MHD equilibrium and stability in 3D systems was proposed. The method requires a background 3D equilibrium with nested flux surfaces to generate the metric of a Riemannian space in which the background equilibrium is described by the 2D equation of Grad-Shafranov type. The equation can be solved then varying plasma profiles and shape to get approximate 3D equilibria. In the framework of the method both planar axis conventional stellarators and configurations with spatial magnetic axis can be studied. In the present report the formulation and numerical realization of the equilibrium problem for stellarators with planar axis is reviewed. The input background equilibria with nested flux surfaces are taken from vacuum magnetic field approximately described by analytic scalar potential

  1. 3D EIT image reconstruction with GREIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Müller, Beat; Adler, Andy

    2016-06-01

    Most applications of thoracic EIT use a single plane of electrodes on the chest from which a transverse image 'slice' is calculated. However, interpretation of EIT images is made difficult by the large region above and below the electrode plane to which EIT is sensitive. Volumetric EIT images using two (or more) electrode planes should help compensate, but are little used currently. The Graz consensus reconstruction algorithm for EIT (GREIT) has become popular in lung EIT. One shortcoming of the original formulation of GREIT is its restriction to reconstruction onto a 2D planar image. We present an extension of the GREIT algorithm to 3D and develop open-source tools to evaluate its performance as a function of the choice of stimulation and measurement pattern. Results show 3D GREIT using two electrode layers has significantly more uniform sensitivity profiles through the chest region. Overall, the advantages of 3D EIT are compelling.

  2. 3D CAPABILITIES OF PLEIADES SATELLITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available End of 2011 a new optical satellite, called Pléiades, was launched by the French space agency (CNES. It provides 20 km x 20 km images at 0.5 meters. This agile acquisition system is able to relocate very rapidly and scan the earth in any direction. The agility of the system offers the ability to acquire multi viewing angle images of the same area during the same orbit. This ability to capture, from a single stereoscopic pair, to a sequence of 25 images, allows enhancing the quality and the completeness of automatically extracted 3D maps. The aim of the study is to validate and quantify the capacity of the Pléiades system to perform 3D mapping. The analysis explores the advantages in terms of quality and automatism to use more than 2 stereoscopic images. In the last 10 years, automatic 3D processing of digital images became more and more popular and efficient. Thanks to aerial images with very large overlap and very high resolution satellite images, new methodologies and algorithms have been implemented to improve the quality and accuracy of automatic 3D processing. We propose to experiment the same type of approaches using Pléiades images to produce digital elevation models (DEM. A focus is made on analysing the 3D processing using video like (multi viewing acquisitions. Different reference sites with very accurate 3D control points are used to quantify the quality of the Pléiades DEM. Different acquisition modes are explored from a single stereo pair to a sequence of 17 images.

  3. User-centered 3D geovisualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anette Hougaard

    2004-01-01

    . In a broader perspective, the overall aim is to develop a language in 3D Geovisualisation gained through usability projects and the development of a theoretical background. A conceptual level of user-centered 3D Geovisualisation is introduced by applying a categorisation originating from Virtual Reality...... and shadowing effects or with weather phenomena serving a level of realism and providing depth cues. The rendered objects and scenes are graphically accessible through the interface where immersive or non-immersive monitors in different sizes and shapes are relevant. Through the user interface, users can...

  4. Immersive 3D geovisualisation in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Andrea; Walz, Ariane; Bergner, Andreas; Graeff, Thomas; Heistermann, Maik; Kienzler, Sarah; Korup, Oliver; Lipp, Torsten; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2014-05-01

    Through geovisualisation we explore spatial data, we analyse it towards a specific questions, we synthesise results, and we present and communicate them to a specific audience (MacEachren & Kraak 1997). After centuries of paper maps, the means to represent and visualise our physical environment and its abstract qualities have changed dramatically since the 1990s - and accordingly the methods how to use geovisualisation in teaching. Whereas some people might still consider the traditional classroom as ideal setting for teaching and learning geographic relationships and its mapping, we used a 3D CAVE (computer-animated virtual environment) as environment for a problem-oriented learning project called "GEOSimulator". Focussing on this project, we empirically investigated, if such a technological advance like the CAVE make 3D visualisation, including 3D geovisualisation, not only an important tool for businesses (Abulrub et al. 2012) and for the public (Wissen et al. 2008), but also for educational purposes, for which it had hardly been used yet. The 3D CAVE is a three-sided visualisation platform, that allows for immersive and stereoscopic visualisation of observed and simulated spatial data. We examined the benefits of immersive 3D visualisation for geographic research and education and synthesized three fundamental technology-based visual aspects: First, the conception and comprehension of space and location does not need to be generated, but is instantaneously and intuitively present through stereoscopy. Second, optical immersion into virtual reality strengthens this spatial perception which is in particular important for complex 3D geometries. And third, a significant benefit is interactivity, which is enhanced through immersion and allows for multi-discursive and dynamic data exploration and knowledge transfer. Based on our problem-oriented learning project, which concentrates on a case study on flood risk management at the Wilde Weisseritz in Germany, a river

  5. Rakennusten 3d-mallinnusmenetelmät

    OpenAIRE

    Gangsö, Tanja

    2006-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään rakennuksen 3D-mallinnusmenetelmiä. Pääasiassa perehdytäänn rakennusten tuotemalleihin sekä rakennusmallinnukseen visuaalisena projektina. Työssä pyritään tuomaan esille kuinka 3D-malleja voidaan rakennusten yhteydessä monipuolisesti hyödyntää. Keskitytään rakennusten mallinnusmenetelmiin, joita vasta suunnitellaan tai joita ei ole enää olemassa. Työn tavoitteena on esittää rakennusten CAD-mallien sekä visuaalisten mallien ominaisuuksia sekä eroavaisuu...

  6. Multifractal modelling and 3D lacunarity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanen, Akkari, E-mail: bettaieb.hanen@topnet.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Imen, Bhouri, E-mail: bhouri_imen@yahoo.f [Unite de recherche ondelettes et multifractals, Faculte des sciences (Tunisia); Asma, Ben Abdallah, E-mail: asma.babdallah@cristal.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia); Patrick, Dubois, E-mail: pdubois@chru-lille.f [INSERM, U 703, Lille (France); Hedi, Bedoui Mohamed, E-mail: medhedi.bedoui@fmm.rnu.t [Laboratoire de biophysique, TIM, Faculte de Medecine (Tunisia)

    2009-09-28

    This study presents a comparative evaluation of lacunarity of 3D grey level models with different types of inhomogeneity. A new method based on the 'Relative Differential Box Counting' was developed to estimate the lacunarity features of grey level volumes. To validate our method, we generated a set of 3D grey level multifractal models with random, anisotropic and hierarchical properties. Our method gives a lacunarity measurement correlated with the theoretical one and allows a better model classification compared with a classical approach.

  7. 3D Biomaterial Microarrays for Regenerative Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaharwar, Akhilesh K.; Arpanaei, Ayyoob; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2015-01-01

    Three dimensional (3D) biomaterial microarrays hold enormous promise for regenerative medicine because of their ability to accelerate the design and fabrication of biomimetic materials. Such tissue-like biomaterials can provide an appropriate microenvironment for stimulating and controlling stem...... for tissue engineering and drug screening applications....... cell differentiation into tissue-specifi c lineages. The use of 3D biomaterial microarrays can, if optimized correctly, result in a more than 1000-fold reduction in biomaterials and cells consumption when engineering optimal materials combinations, which makes these miniaturized systems very attractive...

  8. Pyrolytic 3D Carbon Microelectrodes for Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Caviglia, Claudia; Amato, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the fabrication and characterization of suspended three-dimensional (3D) pyrolytic carbon microelectrodes for electrochemical applications. For this purpose, an optimized process with multiple steps of UV photolithography with the negative tone photoresist SU-8 followed...... by pyrolysis at 900ºC for 1h was developed. With this process, microelectrode chips with a three electrode configuration were fabricated and characterized with cyclic voltammetry (CV) using a 10mM potassium ferri-ferrocyanide redox probe in a custom made batch system with magnetic clamping. The 3D pyrolytic...... carbon microelectrodes displayed twice the higher peak current compared to 2D....

  9. Calibrated HDRI in 3D point clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Tamke, Martin

    2017-01-01

    the challenges of dynamic smart lighting planning in outdoor urban space. This paper presents findings on how 3D capturing of outdoor environments combined with HDRI establishes a new way for analysing and representing the spatial distribution of light in combination with luminance data.......3D-scanning technologies and point clouds as means for spatial representation introduce a new paradigm to the measuring and mapping of physical artefacts and space. This technology also offers possibilities for the measuring and mapping of outdoor urban lighting and has the potential to meet...

  10. Antenna Fabrication using 3D printing techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Elibiary, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses to explore the use of additive manufacturing (AM) techniques to fabricate various radio frequency (RF) devices. 3D printing, a term used for AM has evolved to the point where it is being introduced into various industries, one of these, discussed in this thesis is the fabrication of antennas for the aim to reduce manufacturing costs and time.\\ud The aim is to investigate the performance and reliability of a modified low-cost 3D printer to print plastic and metal simultaneo...

  11. Building 3D models with modo 701

    CERN Document Server

    García, Juan Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    The book will focus on creating a sample application throughout the book, building gradually from chapter to chapter.If you are new to the 3D world, this is the key to getting started with a modern software in the modern visualization industry. Only minimal previous knowledge is needed.If you have some previous knowledge about 3D content creation, you will find useful tricks that will differentiate the learning experience from a typical user manual from this, a practical guide concerning the most common problems and situations and how to solve them.

  12. Infra Red 3D Computer Mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use of bandw......The infra red 3D mouse is a three dimensional input device to a computer. It works by determining the position of an arbitrary object (like a hand) by emitting infra red signals from a number of locations and measuring the reflected intensities. To maximize stability, robustness, and use...

  13. 3D Membrane Imaging and Porosity Visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2016-03-03

    Ultrafiltration asymmetric porous membranes were imaged by two microscopy methods, which allow 3D reconstruction: Focused Ion Beam and Serial Block Face Scanning Electron Microscopy. A new algorithm was proposed to evaluate porosity and average pore size in different layers orthogonal and parallel to the membrane surface. The 3D-reconstruction enabled additionally the visualization of pore interconnectivity in different parts of the membrane. The method was demonstrated for a block copolymer porous membrane and can be extended to other membranes with application in ultrafiltration, supports for forward osmosis, etc, offering a complete view of the transport paths in the membrane.

  14. Body Language Advanced 3D Character Rigging

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Eric; Fong, Jared; Sidwell, Adam G

    2011-01-01

    Whether you're a professional Character TD or just like to create 3D characters, this detailed guide reveals the techniques you need to create sophisticated 3D character rigs that range from basic to breathtaking. Packed with step-by-step instructions and full-color illustrations, Body Language walks you through rigging techniques for all the body parts to help you create realistic and believable movements in every character you design. You'll learn advanced rigging concepts that involve MEL scripting and advanced deformation techniques and even how to set up a character pipeline.

  15. 3D geometric phase analysis and its application in 3D microscopic morphology measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ronghua; Shi, Wenxiong; Cao, Quankun; Liu, Zhanwei; Guo, Baoqiao; Xie, Huimin

    2018-04-01

    Although three-dimensional (3D) morphology measurement has been widely applied on the macro-scale, there is still a lack of 3D measurement technology on the microscopic scale. In this paper, a microscopic 3D measurement technique based on the 3D-geometric phase analysis (GPA) method is proposed. In this method, with machine vision and phase matching, the traditional GPA method is extended to three dimensions. Using this method, 3D deformation measurement on the micro-scale can be realized using a light microscope. Simulation experiments were conducted in this study, and the results demonstrate that the proposed method has a good anti-noise ability. In addition, the 3D morphology of the necking zone in a tensile specimen was measured, and the results demonstrate that this method is feasible.

  16. Comparison of T1-weighted fast spin-echo and T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images of the lumbar spine at 3.0 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavdas, Eleftherios; Vlychou, Marianna; Arikidis, Nikos; Kapsalaki, Eftychia; Roka, Violetta; Fezoulidis, Ioannis V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence has been reported to provide improved contrast between lesions and normal anatomical structures compared to T1-weighted fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging at 1.5T regarding imaging of the lumbar spine. Purpose: To compare T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging in normal anatomic structures and degenerative and metastatic lesions of the lumbar spine at 3.0T. Material and Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients (19 females, 13 males; mean age 44 years, range 30-67 years) with lesions of the lumbar spine were prospectively evaluated. Sagittal images of the lumbar spine were obtained using T1-weighted FSE and fast T1-weighted FLAIR sequences. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and relative contrast (ReCon) between degenerative and metastatic lesions and normal anatomic structures were conducted, comparing these sequences. Results: On quantitative evaluation, SNRs of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), nerve root, and fat around the root of fast T1-weighted FLAIR imaging were significantly lower than those of T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). CNRs of normal spinal cord/CSF and disc herniation/ CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). ReCon of normal spinal cord/CSF, disc herniation/CSF, and vertebral lesions/CSF for fast T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly higher than those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001). On qualitative evaluation, it was found that CSF nulling and contrast at the spinal cord (cauda equina)/CSF interface for T1-weighted FLAIR images were significantly superior compared to those for T1-weighted FSE images (P<0.001), and the disc/spinal cord (cauda equina) interface was better for T1-weighted FLAIR images (P<0.05). Conclusion: The T1-weighted FLAIR sequence may be considered as the preferred lumbar spine imaging

  17. Tensorial analysis of Eshelby stresses in 3D supercooled liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Anaël

    2015-10-01

    It was recently proposed that the local rearrangements governing relaxation in supercooled liquids impress on the liquid medium long-ranged (Eshelby) stress fluctuations that accumulate over time. From this viewpoint, events must be characterized by elastic dipoles, which are second order tensors, and Eshelby fields are expected to show up in stress and stress increment correlations, which are fourth order tensor fields. We construct here an analytical framework that permits analyzing such tensorial correlations in isotropic media in view of accessing Eshelby fields. Two spherical bases are introduced, which correspond to Cartesian and spherical coordinates for tensors. We show how they can be used to decompose stress correlations and thus test such properties as isotropy and power-law scalings. Eshelby fields and the predicted stress correlations in an infinite medium are shown to belong to an algebra that can conveniently be described using the spherical tensor bases. Using this formalism, we demonstrate that the inherent stress field of 3D supercooled liquids is power law correlated and carries the signature of Eshelby fields, thus supporting the idea that relaxation events give rise to Eshelby stresses that accumulate over time.

  18. K-decompositions and 3d gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimofte, Tudor; Gabella, Maxime; Goncharov, Alexander B.

    2016-11-01

    This paper combines several new constructions in mathematics and physics. Mathematically, we study framed flat PGL( K, ℂ)-connections on a large class of 3-manifolds M with boundary. We introduce a moduli space ℒ K ( M) of framed flat connections on the boundary ∂ M that extend to M. Our goal is to understand an open part of ℒ K ( M) as a Lagrangian subvariety in the symplectic moduli space {{X}}_K^{un}(partial M) of framed flat connections on the boundary — and more so, as a "K2-Lagrangian," meaning that the K2-avatar of the symplectic form restricts to zero. We construct an open part of ℒ K ( M) from elementary data associated with the hypersimplicial K-decomposition of an ideal triangulation of M, in a way that generalizes (and combines) both Thurston's gluing equations in 3d hyperbolic geometry and the cluster coordinates for framed flat PGL( K, ℂ)-connections on surfaces. By using a canonical map from the complex of configurations of decorated flags to the Bloch complex, we prove that any generic component of ℒ K ( M) is K2-isotropic as long as ∂ M satisfies certain topological constraints (theorem 4.2). In some cases this easily implies that ℒ K ( M) is K2-Lagrangian. For general M, we extend a classic result of Neumann and Zagier on symplectic properties of PGL(2) gluing equations to reduce the K2-Lagrangian property to a combinatorial statement.

  19. 3D Modelling and Printing Technology to Produce Patient-Specific 3D Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birbara, Nicolette S; Otton, James M; Pather, Nalini

    2017-11-10

    A comprehensive knowledge of mitral valve (MV) anatomy is crucial in the assessment of MV disease. While the use of three-dimensional (3D) modelling and printing in MV assessment has undergone early clinical evaluation, the precision and usefulness of this technology requires further investigation. This study aimed to assess and validate 3D modelling and printing technology to produce patient-specific 3D MV models. A prototype method for MV 3D modelling and printing was developed from computed tomography (CT) scans of a plastinated human heart. Mitral valve models were printed using four 3D printing methods and validated to assess precision. Cardiac CT and 3D echocardiography imaging data of four MV disease patients was used to produce patient-specific 3D printed models, and 40 cardiac health professionals (CHPs) were surveyed on the perceived value and potential uses of 3D models in a clinical setting. The prototype method demonstrated submillimetre precision for all four 3D printing methods used, and statistical analysis showed a significant difference (p3D printed models, particularly using multiple print materials, were considered useful by CHPs for preoperative planning, as well as other applications such as teaching and training. This study suggests that, with further advances in 3D modelling and printing technology, patient-specific 3D MV models could serve as a useful clinical tool. The findings also highlight the potential of this technology to be applied in a variety of medical areas within both clinical and educational settings. Copyright © 2017 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In situ repair of bone and cartilage defects using 3D scanning and 3D printing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lan; Yu, Fei; Shi, Jianping; Shen, Sheng; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Jiquan; Wang, Xingsong; Jiang, Qing

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a rapidly emerging technology that promises to transform tissue engineering into a commercially successful biomedical industry. However, the use of robotic bioprinters alone is not sufficient for disease treatment. This study aimed to report the combined application of 3D scanning and 3D printing for treating bone and cartilage defects. Three different kinds of defect models were created to mimic three orthopedic diseases: large segmental defects of long bon...

  1. 3dRPC: a web server for 3D RNA-protein structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yangyu; Li, Haotian; Xiao, Yi

    2018-04-01

    RNA-protein interactions occur in many biological processes. To understand the mechanism of these interactions one needs to know three-dimensional (3D) structures of RNA-protein complexes. 3dRPC is an algorithm for prediction of 3D RNA-protein complex structures and consists of a docking algorithm RPDOCK and a scoring function 3dRPC-Score. RPDOCK is used to sample possible complex conformations of an RNA and a protein by calculating the geometric and electrostatic complementarities and stacking interactions at the RNA-protein interface according to the features of atom packing of the interface. 3dRPC-Score is a knowledge-based potential that uses the conformations of nucleotide-amino-acid pairs as statistical variables and that is used to choose the near-native complex-conformations obtained from the docking method above. Recently, we built a web server for 3dRPC. The users can easily use 3dRPC without installing it locally. RNA and protein structures in PDB (Protein Data Bank) format are the only needed input files. It can also incorporate the information of interface residues or residue-pairs obtained from experiments or theoretical predictions to improve the prediction. The address of 3dRPC web server is http://biophy.hust.edu.cn/3dRPC. yxiao@hust.edu.cn.

  2. Innovations in 3D printing: a 3D overview from optics to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carl; van Langeveld, Mark C; Donoso, Larry A

    2014-02-01

    3D printing is a method of manufacturing in which materials, such as plastic or metal, are deposited onto one another in layers to produce a three dimensional object, such as a pair of eye glasses or other 3D objects. This process contrasts with traditional ink-based printers which produce a two dimensional object (ink on paper). To date, 3D printing has primarily been used in engineering to create engineering prototypes. However, recent advances in printing materials have now enabled 3D printers to make objects that are comparable with traditionally manufactured items. In contrast with conventional printers, 3D printing has the potential to enable mass customisation of goods on a large scale and has relevance in medicine including ophthalmology. 3D printing has already been proved viable in several medical applications including the manufacture of eyeglasses, custom prosthetic devices and dental implants. In this review, we discuss the potential for 3D printing to revolutionise manufacturing in the same way as the printing press revolutionised conventional printing. The applications and limitations of 3D printing are discussed; the production process is demonstrated by producing a set of eyeglass frames from 3D blueprints.

  3. Quantitative elastic migration. Applications to 3D borehole seismic surveys; Migration elastique quantitative. Applications a la sismique de puits 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clochard, V.

    1998-12-02

    3D VSP imaging is nowadays a strategic requirement by petroleum companies. It is used to precise in details the geology close to the well. Because of the lack of redundancy and limited coverage in the data. this kind of technology is more restrictive than surface seismic which allows an investigation at a higher scale. Our contribution was to develop an elastic quantitative imagine (GRT migration) which can be applied to 3 components borehole dataset. The method is similar to the Kirchhoff migration using sophistical weighting of the seismic amplitudes. In reality. GRT migration uses pre-calculated Green functions (travel time. amplitude. polarization). The maps are obtained by 3D ray tracing (wavefront construction) in the velocity model. The migration algorithm works with elementary and independent tasks. which is useful to process different kind of dataset (fixed or moving geophone antenna). The study has been followed with validations using asymptotic analytical solution. The ability of reconstruction in 3D borehole survey has been tested in the Overthrust synthetic model. The application to a real circular 3D VSP shows various problems like velocity model building, anisotropy factor and the preprocessing (deconvolution. wave mode separation) which can destroy seismic amplitudes. An isotropic 3 components preprocessing of the whole dataset allows a better lateral reconstruction. The choice of a big migration aperture can help the reconstruction of strong geological dip in spite of migration smiles. Finally, the methodology can be applied to PS converted waves. (author)

  4. Local orientation measurements in 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, D.

    2005-01-01

    The 3 Dimensional X-Ray Diffraction (3DXRD) method is presented and its potentials illustrated by examples. The 3DXRD method is based on diffraction of high energy X-rays and allows fast and nondestructive 3D characterization of the local distribution of crystallographic orientations in the bulk....

  5. The New Realm of 3-D Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Dimension Technologies Inc., developed a line of 2-D/3-D Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screens, including a 15-inch model priced at consumer levels. DTI's family of flat panel LCD displays, called the Virtual Window(TM), provide real-time 3-D images without the use of glasses, head trackers, helmets, or other viewing aids. Most of the company initial 3-D display research was funded through NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The images on DTI's displays appear to leap off the screen and hang in space. The display accepts input from computers or stereo video sources, and can be switched from 3-D to full-resolution 2-D viewing with the push of a button. The Virtual Window displays have applications in data visualization, medicine, architecture, business, real estate, entertainment, and other research, design, military, and consumer applications. Displays are currently used for computer games, protein analysis, and surgical imaging. The technology greatly benefits the medical field, as surgical simulators are helping to increase the skills of surgical residents. Virtual Window(TM) is a trademark of Dimension Technologies Inc.

  6. Embedding 3D into multipurpose cadastre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahman, A.A.; Hua, T.C.; Van Oosterom, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    There is no doubt that the cadastral map provides a useful entrance to information in a land parcel based information system. However, such information system could be made more meaningful and useful if it can be extended for multiple usages with multi data layers, and in three-dimensions (3D).

  7. Techniques and architectures for 3D interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, G.

    2009-01-01

    Spatial scientific datasets are all around us, and 3D visualization is a powerful tool to explore details and structures within them. When dealing with complex spatial structures, interactive Virtual Reality (VR) systems can potentially improve exploration over desktop-based systems. However, from

  8. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Jeffrey; Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David; Lega, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r s ), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r s or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r s and γ in our study.

  9. Introduction to 3D Graphics through Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a method of explaining the principles of 3D graphics through making a revolvable and sizable orthographic parallel projection of cuboid in Excel. No programming is used. The method was tried in fourteen 90 minute lessons with 181 participants, which were Informatics teachers, undergraduates of Applied Informatics and gymnasium…

  10. 3D Printing and Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehnberg, Märtha; Ponte, Stefano

    From the birth of industrialization, access to new technology has been a decisive factor in how value added is created and distributed across networks of global production. This article provides a balanced assessment of the potential impact that one of these technologies (3D printing, or 3DP) may...

  11. 3D printed helical antenna with lens

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2016-01-01

    of 3D and 2D inkjet printing of dielectric and metallic inks respectively, we demonstrate a Fresnel lens that has been monolithically integrated to a non-planar antenna (helix) for the first time. Antenna measurements show that the integration of a

  12. Spacecraft 3D Augmented Reality Mobile App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Kevin J.; Doronila, Paul R.; Kumanchik, Brian E.; Chan, Evan G.; Ellison, Douglas J.; Boeck, Andrea; Moore, Justin M.

    2013-01-01

    The Spacecraft 3D application allows users to learn about and interact with iconic NASA missions in a new and immersive way using common mobile devices. Using Augmented Reality (AR) techniques to project 3D renditions of the mission spacecraft into real-world surroundings, users can interact with and learn about Curiosity, GRAIL, Cassini, and Voyager. Additional updates on future missions, animations, and information will be ongoing. Using a printed AR Target and camera on a mobile device, users can get up close with these robotic explorers, see how some move, and learn about these engineering feats, which are used to expand knowledge and understanding about space. The software receives input from the mobile device's camera to recognize the presence of an AR marker in the camera's field of view. It then displays a 3D rendition of the selected spacecraft in the user's physical surroundings, on the mobile device's screen, while it tracks the device's movement in relation to the physical position of the spacecraft's 3D image on the AR marker.

  13. On drawing complicated 3D surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, I.N.; Talanov, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of constructing images of complicated 3D surfaces - world sheet of strings is considered. The world sheet representation in the form of a frame of points determined with a specified supporting curve is described. The images of the world sheets of free string are constructed using various graphical technologies. 15 refs., 6 figs

  14. 3D Cell Culture in Alginate Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese Andersen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review compiles information regarding the use of alginate, and in particular alginate hydrogels, in culturing cells in 3D. Knowledge of alginate chemical structure and functionality are shown to be important parameters in design of alginate-based matrices for cell culture. Gel elasticity as well as hydrogel stability can be impacted by the type of alginate used, its concentration, the choice of gelation technique (ionic or covalent, and divalent cation chosen as the gel inducing ion. The use of peptide-coupled alginate can control cell–matrix interactions. Gelation of alginate with concomitant immobilization of cells can take various forms. Droplets or beads have been utilized since the 1980s for immobilizing cells. Newer matrices such as macroporous scaffolds are now entering the 3D cell culture product market. Finally, delayed gelling, injectable, alginate systems show utility in the translation of in vitro cell culture to in vivo tissue engineering applications. Alginate has a history and a future in 3D cell culture. Historically, cells were encapsulated in alginate droplets cross-linked with calcium for the development of artificial organs. Now, several commercial products based on alginate are being used as 3D cell culture systems that also demonstrate the possibility of replacing or regenerating tissue.

  15. 3D MHD Flux emergence experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hood, A.W.; Archontis, V.; Mactaggart, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the many 3D numerical experiments of the emergence of magnetic fields from the solar interior and the subsequent interaction with the pre-existing coronal magnetic field. The models described here are idealised, in the sense that the internal energy equation only involves...

  16. 3D scanning particle tracking velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyer, Klaus; Holzner, Markus; Guala, Michele; Liberzon, Alexander; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang [Swiss Federal Institut of Technology Zurich, Institut fuer Hydromechanik und Wasserwirtschaft, Zuerich (Switzerland); Luethi, Beat [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2005-11-01

    In this article, we present an experimental setup and data processing schemes for 3D scanning particle tracking velocimetry (SPTV), which expands on the classical 3D particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) through changes in the illumination, image acquisition and analysis. 3D PTV is a flexible flow measurement technique based on the processing of stereoscopic images of flow tracer particles. The technique allows obtaining Lagrangian flow information directly from measured 3D trajectories of individual particles. While for a classical PTV the entire region of interest is simultaneously illuminated and recorded, in SPTV the flow field is recorded by sequential tomographic high-speed imaging of the region of interest. The advantage of the presented method is a considerable increase in maximum feasible seeding density. Results are shown for an experiment in homogenous turbulence and compared with PTV. SPTV yielded an average 3,500 tracked particles per time step, which implies a significant enhancement of the spatial resolution for Lagrangian flow measurements. (orig.)

  17. 3D super-virtual refraction interferometry

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Kai; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    Super-virtual refraction interferometry enhances the signal-to-noise ratio of far-offset refractions. However, when applied to 3D cases, traditional 2D SVI suffers because the stationary positions of the source-receiver pairs might be any place

  18. Planetary Torque in 3D Isentropic Disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, Jeffrey [Department of Astronomy, University of California at Berkeley, Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Masset, Frédéric; Velasco, David [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Av. Universidad s/n, 62210 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Lega, Elena, E-mail: jeffrey.fung@berkeley.edu [Université de la Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, Laboratoire Lagrange UMR 7293, Nice (France)

    2017-03-01

    Planetary migration is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) problem, because Earth-size planetary cores are deeply embedded in protoplanetary disks. Simulations of these 3D disks remain challenging due to the steep resolution requirements. Using two different hydrodynamics codes, FARGO3D and PEnGUIn, we simulate disk–planet interaction for a one to five Earth-mass planet embedded in an isentropic disk. We measure the torque on the planet and ensure that the measurements are converged both in resolution and between the two codes. We find that the torque is independent of the smoothing length of the planet’s potential ( r {sub s}), and that it has a weak dependence on the adiabatic index of the gaseous disk ( γ ). The torque values correspond to an inward migration rate qualitatively similar to previous linear calculations. We perform additional simulations with explicit radiative transfer using FARGOCA, and again find agreement between 3D simulations and existing torque formulae. We also present the flow pattern around the planets that show active flow is present within the planet’s Hill sphere, and meridional vortices are shed downstream. The vertical flow speed near the planet is faster for a smaller r {sub s} or γ , up to supersonic speeds for the smallest r {sub s} and γ in our study.

  19. Metrological characterization of 3D imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, G.

    2013-04-01

    Manufacturers often express the performance of a 3D imaging device in various non-uniform ways for the lack of internationally recognized standard requirements for metrological parameters able to identify the capability of capturing a real scene. For this reason several national and international organizations in the last ten years have been developing protocols for verifying such performance. Ranging from VDI/VDE 2634, published by the Association of German Engineers and oriented to the world of mechanical 3D measurements (triangulation-based devices), to the ASTM technical committee E57, working also on laser systems based on direct range detection (TOF, Phase Shift, FM-CW, flash LADAR), this paper shows the state of the art about the characterization of active range devices, with special emphasis on measurement uncertainty, accuracy and resolution. Most of these protocols are based on special objects whose shape and size are certified with a known level of accuracy. By capturing the 3D shape of such objects with a range device, a comparison between the measured points and the theoretical shape they should represent is possible. The actual deviations can be directly analyzed or some derived parameters can be obtained (e.g. angles between planes, distances between barycenters of spheres rigidly connected, frequency domain parameters, etc.). This paper shows theoretical aspects and experimental results of some novel characterization methods applied to different categories of active 3D imaging devices based on both principles of triangulation and direct range detection.

  20. Implementation of a 3D Virtual Drummer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnenat-ThalmannThalmann, M.; Kragtwijk, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Thalmann, D.; Zwiers, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    We describe a system for the automatic generation of a 3D animation of a drummer playing along with a given piece of music. The input, consisting of a sound wave, is analysed to determine which drums are struck at what moments. The Standard MIDI File format is used to store the recognised notes.

  1. 3D Virtual Reality for Teaching Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Laffey, J.; Ding, N.

    2012-01-01

    We are developing 3D virtual learning environments (VLEs) as learning materials for an undergraduate astronomy course, in which will utilize advances both in technologies available and in our understanding of the social nature of learning. These learning materials will be used to test whether such VLEs can indeed augment science learning so that it is more engaging, active, visual and effective. Our project focuses on the challenges and requirements of introductory college astronomy classes. Here we present our virtual world of the Jupiter system and how we plan to implement it to allow students to learn course material - physical laws and concepts in astronomy - while engaging them into exploration of the Jupiter's system, encouraging their imagination, curiosity, and motivation. The VLE can allow students to work individually or collaboratively. The 3D world also provides an opportunity for research in astronomy education to investigate impact of social interaction, gaming features, and use of manipulatives offered by a learning tool on students’ motivation and learning outcomes. Use of this VLE is also a valuable source for exploration of how the learners’ spatial awareness can be enhanced by working in 3D environment. We will present the Jupiter-system environment along with a preliminary study of the efficacy and usability of our Jupiter 3D VLE.

  2. 3-D Vision Techniques for Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    TITLE (Include Security Classification) W 3-D Vision Techniques for Autonomous Vehicles 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, inso Kweoni... Autonomous Vehicles Martial Hebert, Takeo Kanade, Inso Kweon CMU-RI-TR-88-12 The Robotics Institute Carnegie Mellon University Acession For Pittsburgh

  3. MIM in 3D: dream or reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, J.H.; Jinesh, K.B.; Roozeboom, F.

    2011-01-01

    Last decades great effort has been put in the development of 3D capacitors. These capacitors are used for RF decoupling and should therefore have a high capacitance density associated with a sufficient breakdown voltage. Increased capacitance densities have been achieved by exploring the use of the

  4. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  5. 3D microstructuring of biodegradable polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagstrup, Johan; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Biopolymer films with a thickness of 100μm are prepared using spin coating technique with solutions consisting of 25wt.% polycaprolactone or poly-l-lactide in dichloromethane. SU-8 stamps are fabricated using three photolithography steps. The stamps are used to emboss 3D microstructures in the bi...

  6. Cellular Factors Shape 3D Genome Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers, using novel large-scale imaging technology, have mapped the spatial location of individual genes in the nucleus of human cells and identified 50 cellular factors required for the proper 3D positioning of genes. These spatial locations play important roles in gene expression, DNA repair, genome stability, and other cellular activities.

  7. Excimer laser micromachining for 3D microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Choi, Kyung Hyun; Meijer, J.; Masuzawa, Takahisa; Kim, Dae-Hyun

    2004-01-01

    A new 3D micromachining method, called Hole Area Modulation (HAM), has been introduced to enhance the current micromachining technology. In this method, information on the machining depth is converted to the sizes of holes on the mask. The machining is carried out with a simple 2D movement of the

  8. Optoelectronic interconnects for 3D wafer stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, David; Carson, John C.; Lome, Louis S.

    1996-01-01

    Wafer and chip stacking are envisioned as means of providing increased processing power within the small confines of a three-dimensional structure. Optoelectronic devices can play an important role in these dense 3-D processing electronic packages in two ways. In pure electronic processing, optoelectronics can provide a method for increasing the number of input/output communication channels within the layers of the 3-D chip stack. Non-free space communication links allow the density of highly parallel input/output ports to increase dramatically over typical edge bus connections. In hybrid processors, where electronics and optics play a role in defining the computational algorithm, free space communication links are typically utilized for, among other reasons, the increased network link complexity which can be achieved. Free space optical interconnections provide bandwidths and interconnection complexity unobtainable in pure electrical interconnections. Stacked 3-D architectures can provide the electronics real estate and structure to deal with the increased bandwidth and global information provided by free space optical communications. This paper will provide definitions and examples of 3-D stacked architectures in optoelectronics processors. The benefits and issues of these technologies will be discussed.

  9. Gravitational radiation and 3D numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.

    1986-01-01

    Study of Numerical Relativity in Kyoto is reviewed. Main topics discussed are 2D rotating collapse, phase cancellation effects and perturbation calculation of the gravitational radiation from a particle falling into a black hole. New numerical results on 3D time evolution of pure gravitational waves are also presented

  10. Scoops3D: software to analyze 3D slope stability throughout a digital landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mark E.; Christian, Sarah B.; Brien, Dianne L.; Henderson, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    The computer program, Scoops3D, evaluates slope stability throughout a digital landscape represented by a digital elevation model (DEM). The program uses a three-dimensional (3D) method of columns approach to assess the stability of many (typically millions) potential landslides within a user-defined size range. For each potential landslide (or failure), Scoops3D assesses the stability of a rotational, spherical slip surface encompassing many DEM cells using a 3D version of either Bishop’s simplified method or the Ordinary (Fellenius) method of limit-equilibrium analysis. Scoops3D has several options for the user to systematically and efficiently search throughout an entire DEM, thereby incorporating the effects of complex surface topography. In a thorough search, each DEM cell is included in multiple potential failures, and Scoops3D records the lowest stability (factor of safety) for each DEM cell, as well as the size (volume or area) associated with each of these potential landslides. It also determines the least-stable potential failure for the entire DEM. The user has a variety of options for building a 3D domain, including layers or full 3D distributions of strength and pore-water pressures, simplistic earthquake loading, and unsaturated suction conditions. Results from Scoops3D can be readily incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) or other visualization software. This manual includes information on the theoretical basis for the slope-stability analysis, requirements for constructing and searching a 3D domain, a detailed operational guide (including step-by-step instructions for using the graphical user interface [GUI] software, Scoops3D-i) and input/output file specifications, practical considerations for conducting an analysis, results of verification tests, and multiple examples illustrating the capabilities of Scoops3D. Easy-to-use software installation packages are available for the Windows or Macintosh operating systems; these packages

  11. 3-D Whole-Core Transport Calculation with 3D/2D Rotational Plane Slicing Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Han Jong; Cho, Nam Zin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Use of the method of characteristics (MOC) is very popular due to its capability of heterogeneous geometry treatment and widely used for 2-D core calculation, but direct extension of MOC to 3-D core is not so attractive due to huge calculational cost. 2-D/1-D fusion method was very successful for 3-D calculation of current generation reactor types (highly heterogeneous in radial direction but piece-wise homogeneous in axial direction). In this paper, 2-D MOC concept is extended to 3-D core calculation with little modification of an existing 2-D MOC code. The key idea is to suppose 3-D geometry as a set of many 2-D planes like a phone-directory book. Dividing 3-D structure into a large number of 2-D planes and solving each plane with a simple 2-D SN transport method would give the solution of a 3-D structure. This method was developed independently at KAIST but it is found that this concept is similar with that of 'plane tracing' in the MCCG-3D code. The method developed was tested on the 3-D C5G7 OECD/NEA benchmark problem and compared with the 2-D/1-D fusion method. Results show that the proposed method is worth investigating further. A new approach to 3-D whole-core transport calculation is described and tested. By slicing 3-D structure along characteristic planes and solving each 2-D plane problem, we can get 3-D solution. The numerical test results indicate that the new method is comparable with the 2D/1D fusion method and outperforms other existing methods. But more fair comparison should be done in similar discretization level.

  12. Effect of viewing distance on 3D fatigue caused by viewing mobile 3D content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Lee, Dong-Su; Park, Min-Chul; Yano, Sumio

    2013-05-01

    With an advent of autostereoscopic display technique and increased needs for smart phones, there has been a significant growth in mobile TV markets. The rapid growth in technical, economical, and social aspects has encouraged 3D TV manufacturers to apply 3D rendering technology to mobile devices so that people have more opportunities to come into contact with many 3D content anytime and anywhere. Even if the mobile 3D technology leads to the current market growth, there is an important thing to consider for consistent development and growth in the display market. To put it briefly, human factors linked to mobile 3D viewing should be taken into consideration before developing mobile 3D technology. Many studies have investigated whether mobile 3D viewing causes undesirable biomedical effects such as motion sickness and visual fatigue, but few have examined main factors adversely affecting human health. Viewing distance is considered one of the main factors to establish optimized viewing environments from a viewer's point of view. Thus, in an effort to determine human-friendly viewing environments, this study aims to investigate the effect of viewing distance on human visual system when exposing to mobile 3D environments. Recording and analyzing brainwaves before and after watching mobile 3D content, we explore how viewing distance affects viewing experience from physiological and psychological perspectives. Results obtained in this study are expected to provide viewing guidelines for viewers, help ensure viewers against undesirable 3D effects, and lead to make gradual progress towards a human-friendly mobile 3D viewing.

  13. 3-D Force-balanced Magnetospheric Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorin Zaharia; Cheng, C.Z.; Maezawa, K.

    2003-01-01

    The knowledge of plasma pressure is essential for many physics applications in the magnetosphere, such as computing magnetospheric currents and deriving magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. A thorough knowledge of the 3-D pressure distribution has however eluded the community, as most in-situ pressure observations are either in the ionosphere or the equatorial region of the magnetosphere. With the assumption of pressure isotropy there have been attempts to obtain the pressure at different locations by either (a) mapping observed data (e.g., in the ionosphere) along the field lines of an empirical magnetospheric field model or (b) computing a pressure profile in the equatorial plane (in 2-D) or along the Sun-Earth axis (in 1-D) that is in force balance with the magnetic stresses of an empirical model. However, the pressure distributions obtained through these methods are not in force balance with the empirical magnetic field at all locations. In order to find a global 3-D plasma pressure distribution in force balance with the magnetospheric magnetic field, we have developed the MAG-3D code, that solves the 3-D force balance equation J x B = (upside-down delta) P computationally. Our calculation is performed in a flux coordinate system in which the magnetic field is expressed in terms of Euler potentials as B = (upside-down delta) psi x (upside-down delta) alpha. The pressure distribution, P = P(psi,alpha), is prescribed in the equatorial plane and is based on satellite measurements. In addition, computational boundary conditions for y surfaces are imposed using empirical field models. Our results provide 3-D distributions of magnetic field and plasma pressure as well as parallel and transverse currents for both quiet-time and disturbed magnetospheric conditions

  14. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A.; Steigner, Michael L.; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Summary Medical 3D printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as CT, MRI, echocardiography and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced pre-operative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases, valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing peri-operative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality. PMID:27149367

  15. 3D printed soft parallel actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharian, Ali; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Khoo, Sui Yang; Noshadi, Amin; Kaynak, Akif

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a 3-dimensional (3D) printed soft parallel contactless actuator for the first time. The actuator involves an electro-responsive parallel mechanism made of two segments namely active chain and passive chain both 3D printed. The active chain is attached to the ground from one end and constitutes two actuator links made of responsive hydrogel. The passive chain, on the other hand, is attached to the active chain from one end and consists of two rigid links made of polymer. The actuator links are printed using an extrusion-based 3D-Bioplotter with polyelectrolyte hydrogel as printer ink. The rigid links are also printed by a 3D fused deposition modelling (FDM) printer with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) as print material. The kinematics model of the soft parallel actuator is derived via transformation matrices notations to simulate and determine the workspace of the actuator. The printed soft parallel actuator is then immersed into NaOH solution with specific voltage applied to it via two contactless electrodes. The experimental data is then collected and used to develop a parametric model to estimate the end-effector position and regulate kinematics model in response to specific input voltage over time. It is observed that the electroactive actuator demonstrates expected behaviour according to the simulation of its kinematics model. The use of 3D printing for the fabrication of parallel soft actuators opens a new chapter in manufacturing sophisticated soft actuators with high dexterity and mechanical robustness for biomedical applications such as cell manipulation and drug release.

  16. 3-D bioprinting law regulation perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii; Harkusha, Andrii

    Achieved level of technical progress moves us closer and closer to practical use of 3-d bioprinting technologies in real life. Such perspective raise a wide variety of crucial legal issues from the acceptable model of regulation of the science and its' societal effects to problems of the commercialization of the technology and potential restrictions of its use. Some key points on concept of legal regulation of abovementioned sphere is a base of this study. Scientific discussion on 3-D bioprinting, European Union`s and US experience in patenting of 3-D bioprinting technologies, European Medicine Agency (EMA) or the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations, European Medical Technology Industry Association (EUCOMED) Acts. Article is based on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. General debate of last few years comes down to an attempt to resolve hesitation between legal attempts for regulation of 3-D biobrinting and concept of complete prohibition of such activities. An adequate response to the mentioned challenge is a reasonable position between some aspects of prohibition and self-regulation, resulting in a moderate number of regulations and standards for developing and marketing. Such regulations may concern an intellectual property (IP) rights, regulation of distribution, premarket restrictions, control mechanism etc. Scientific approach and regulatory settlement of 3-D bioprinting sphere must unite to achieve a fair balance between the interests of humanity and of individuals - on the one hand, and development of science and business benefits for stakeholders - on the other. The main instruments for this must be balanced regulation of intellectual property (IP) rights, regulation of access and distribution, premarket restrictions, control mechanism etc.

  17. Antera 3D capabilities for pore measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaraa, C; Metois, A; Walsh, M; Flynn, J; Doyle, L; Robertson, N; Mansfield, A; O'Connor, C; Mavon, A

    2018-04-29

    The cause of enlarged pores remains obscure but still remains of concern for women. To complement subjective methods, bioengineered methods are needed for quantification of pores visibility following treatments. The study objective was to demonstrate the suitability of pore measurements from the Antera 3D. Pore measurements were collected on 22 female volunteers aged 18-65 years with the Antera 3D, the DermaTOP and image analysis on photographs. Additionally, 4 raters graded pore size on photographs on a scale 0-5. Repeatability of Antera 3D parameters was ascertained and the benefit of a pore minimizer product on the cheek was assessed on a sub panel of seven female volunteers. Pore parameters using the Antera were shown to depict pore severity similar to raters on photographs, except for Max Depth. Mean pore volume, mean pore area and count were moderately correlated with DermaTOP parameters (up to r = .50). No relationship was seen between the Antera 3D and pore visibility analysis on photographs. The most repeatable parameters were found to be mean pore volume, mean pore area and max depth, especially for the small and medium filters. The benefits of a pore minimizer product were the most striking for mean pore volume and mean pore area when using the small filter for analysis, rather than the medium/large ones. Pore measurements with the Antera 3D represent a reliable tool for efficacy and field studies, with an emphasis of the small filter for analysis for the mean pore volume/mean pore area parameters. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Laser printing of 3D metallic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniam, Iyoel; Mathews, Scott A.; Charipar, Nicholas A.; Auyeung, Raymond C. Y.; Piqué, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The use of laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) techniques for the printing of functional materials has been demonstrated for numerous applications. The printing gives rise to patterns, which can be used to fabricate planar interconnects. More recently, various groups have demonstrated electrical interconnects from laser-printed 3D structures. The laser printing of these interconnects takes place through aggregation of voxels of either molten metal or of pastes containing dispersed metallic particles. However, the generated 3D structures do not posses the same metallic conductivity as a bulk metal interconnect of the same cross-section and length as those formed by wire bonding or tab welding. An alternative is to laser transfer entire 3D structures using a technique known as lase-and-place. Lase-and-place is a LIFT process whereby whole components and parts can be transferred from a donor substrate onto a desired location with one single laser pulse. This paper will describe the use of LIFT to laser print freestanding, solid metal foils or beams precisely over the contact pads of discrete devices to interconnect them into fully functional circuits. Furthermore, this paper will also show how the same laser can be used to bend or fold the bulk metal foils prior to transfer, thus forming compliant 3D structures able to provide strain relief for the circuits under flexing or during motion from thermal mismatch. These interconnect "ridges" can span wide gaps (on the order of a millimeter) and accommodate height differences of tens of microns between adjacent devices. Examples of these laser printed 3D metallic bridges and their role in the development of next generation electronics by additive manufacturing will be presented.

  19. A 3D Printing Model Watermarking Algorithm Based on 3D Slicing and Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao N. Pham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of three-dimensional (3D printing applications in many areas of life, a large amount of 3D printing data is copied, shared, and used several times without any permission from the original providers. Therefore, copyright protection and ownership identification for 3D printing data in communications or commercial transactions are practical issues. This paper presents a novel watermarking algorithm for 3D printing models based on embedding watermark data into the feature points of a 3D printing model. Feature points are determined and computed by the 3D slicing process along the Z axis of a 3D printing model. The watermark data is embedded into a feature point of a 3D printing model by changing the vector length of the feature point in OXY space based on the reference length. The x and y coordinates of the feature point will be then changed according to the changed vector length that has been embedded with a watermark. Experimental results verified that the proposed algorithm is invisible and robust to geometric attacks, such as rotation, scaling, and translation. The proposed algorithm provides a better method than the conventional works, and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is much higher than previous methods.

  20. The 3D LAOKOON--Visual and Verbal in 3D Online Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liestol, Gunnar

    This paper reports on a project where three-dimensional (3D) online gaming environments were exploited for the purpose of academic communication and learning. 3D gaming environments are media and meaning rich and can provide inexpensive solutions for educational purposes. The experiment with teaching and discussions in this setting, however,…

  1. MolPrint3D: Enhanced 3D Printing of Ball-and-Stick Molecular Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukstelis, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    The increased availability of noncommercial 3D printers has provided instructors and students improved access to printing technology. However, printing complex ball-and-stick molecular structures faces distinct challenges, including the need for support structures that increase with molecular complexity. MolPrint3D is a software add-on for the…

  2. FIT3D toolbox: multiple view geometry and 3D reconstruction for Matlab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, I.; Dijk, J.; Groen, F.

    2010-01-01

    FIT3D is a Toolbox built for Matlab that aims at unifying and distributing a set of tools that will allow the researcher to obtain a complete 3D model from a set of calibrated images. In this paper we motivate and present the structure of the toolbox in a tutorial and example based approach. Given

  3. A new method of 3-D cephalometry Part I: the anatomic Cartesian 3-D reference system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swennen, G.R.J.; Schutyser, F.A.C.; Barth, E.L.; Groeve, P. De; Mey, A. De

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a new innovative three-dimensional (3-D) cephalometric method. Part I deals with the set-up and validation of a voxel-based semi-automatic 3-D cephalometric reference system. The CT data (DICOM 3.0 files) of 20 control patients with normal skeletal

  4. Isotropic Growth of Graphene toward Smoothing Stitching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mengqi; Tan, Lifang; Wang, Lingxiang; Mendes, Rafael G; Qin, Zhihui; Huang, Yaxin; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Liwen; Zhang, Yanfeng; Yue, Shuanglin; Rümmeli, Mark H; Peng, Lianmao; Liu, Zhongfan; Chen, Shengli; Fu, Lei

    2016-07-26

    The quality of graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition still has very great disparity with its theoretical property due to the inevitable formation of grain boundaries. The design of single-crystal substrate with an anisotropic twofold symmetry for the unidirectional alignment of graphene seeds would be a promising way for eliminating the grain boundaries at the wafer scale. However, such a delicate process will be easily terminated by the obstruction of defects or impurities. Here we investigated the isotropic growth behavior of graphene single crystals via melting the growth substrate to obtain an amorphous isotropic surface, which will not offer any specific grain orientation induction or preponderant growth rate toward a certain direction in the graphene growth process. The as-obtained graphene grains are isotropically round with mixed edges that exhibit high activity. The orientation of adjacent grains can be easily self-adjusted to smoothly match each other over a liquid catalyst with facile atom delocalization due to the low rotation steric hindrance of the isotropic grains, thus achieving the smoothing stitching of the adjacent graphene. Therefore, the adverse effects of grain boundaries will be eliminated and the excellent transport performance of graphene will be more guaranteed. What is more, such an isotropic growth mode can be extended to other types of layered nanomaterials such as hexagonal boron nitride and transition metal chalcogenides for obtaining large-size intrinsic film with low defect.

  5. In-Situ Characterization of Isotropic and Transversely Isotropic Elastic Properties Using Ultrasonic Wave Velocities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pant, S; Laliberte, J; Martinez, M.J.; Rocha, B.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a one-sided, in situ method based on the time of flight measurement of ultrasonic waves was described. The primary application of this technique was to non-destructively measure the stiffness properties of isotropic and transversely isotropic materials. The method consists of

  6. 3D Model Optimization of Four-Facet Drill for 3D Drilling Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buranský Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on optimization of four-facet drill for 3D drilling numerical modelling. For optimization, the process of reverse engineering by PowerShape software was used. The design of four-facet drill was created in NumrotoPlus software. The modified 3D model of the drill was used in the numerical analysis of cutting forces. Verification of the accuracy of 3D models for reverse engineering was implemented using the colour deviation maps. The CAD model was in the STEP format. For simulation software, 3D model in the STEP format is ideal. STEP is a solid model. Simulation software automatically splits the 3D model into finite elements. The STEP model was therefore more suitable than the STL model.

  7. The dimension added by 3D scanning and 3D printing of meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vet, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    An overview for the 3D photodocumentation of meteorites is presented, focussing on two 3D scanning methods in relation to 3D printing. The 3D photodocumention of meteorites provides new ways for the digital preservation of culturally, historically or scientifically unique meteorites. It has the potential for becoming a new documentation standard of meteorites that can exist complementary to traditional photographic documentation. Notable applications include (i.) use of physical properties in dark flight-, strewn field-, or aerodynamic modelling; (ii.) collection research of meteorites curated by different museum collections, and (iii.) public dissemination of meteorite models as a resource for educational users. The possible applications provided by the additional dimension of 3D illustrate the benefits for the meteoritics community.

  8. Stereolithographic hydrogel printing of 3D culture chips with biofunctionalized complex 3D perfusion networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Rujing; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2017-01-01

    the required freedom in design, detail and chemistry for fabricating truly 3D constructs have remained limited. Here, we report a stereolithographic high-resolution 3D printing technique utilizing poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA, MW 700) to manufacture diffusion-open and mechanically stable hydrogel...... and material flexibility by embedding a highly compliant cell-laden gelatin hydrogel within the confines of a 3D printed resilient PEGDA hydrogel chip of intermediate compliance. Overall, our proposed strategy represents an automated, cost-effective and high resolution technique to manufacture complex 3D......Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro models capturing both the structural and dynamic complexity of the in vivo situation are in great demand as an alternative to animal models. Despite tremendous progress in engineering complex tissue/organ models in the past decade, approaches that support...

  9. 3D gaze tracking system for NVidia 3D Vision®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibirama, Sunu; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Inappropriate parallax setting in stereoscopic content generally causes visual fatigue and visual discomfort. To optimize three dimensional (3D) effects in stereoscopic content by taking into account health issue, understanding how user gazes at 3D direction in virtual space is currently an important research topic. In this paper, we report the study of developing a novel 3D gaze tracking system for Nvidia 3D Vision(®) to be used in desktop stereoscopic display. We suggest an optimized geometric method to accurately measure the position of virtual 3D object. Our experimental result shows that the proposed system achieved better accuracy compared to conventional geometric method by average errors 0.83 cm, 0.87 cm, and 1.06 cm in X, Y, and Z dimensions, respectively.

  10. Quasi 3D dosimetry (EPID, conventional 2D/3D detector matrices)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bäck, A

    2015-01-01

    Patient specific pretreatment measurement for IMRT and VMAT QA should preferably give information with a high resolution in 3D. The ability to distinguish complex treatment plans, i.e. treatment plans with a difference between measured and calculated dose distributions that exceeds a specified tolerance, puts high demands on the dosimetry system used for the pretreatment measurements and the results of the measurement evaluation needs a clinical interpretation. There are a number of commercial dosimetry systems designed for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. 2D arrays such as MapCHECK ® (Sun Nuclear), MatriXX Evolution (IBA Dosimetry) and OCTAVIOUS ® 1500 (PTW), 3D phantoms such as OCTAVIUS ® 4D (PTW), ArcCHECK ® (Sun Nuclear) and Delta 4 (ScandiDos) and software for EPID dosimetry and 3D reconstruction of the dose in the patient geometry such as EPIDose TM (Sun Nuclear) and Dosimetry Check TM (Math Resolutions) are available. None of those dosimetry systems can measure the 3D dose distribution with a high resolution (full 3D dose distribution). Those systems can be called quasi 3D dosimetry systems. To be able to estimate the delivered dose in full 3D the user is dependent on a calculation algorithm in the software of the dosimetry system. All the vendors of the dosimetry systems mentioned above provide calculation algorithms to reconstruct a full 3D dose in the patient geometry. This enables analyzes of the difference between measured and calculated dose distributions in DVHs of the structures of clinical interest which facilitates the clinical interpretation and is a promising tool to be used for pretreatment IMRT QA measurements. However, independent validation studies on the accuracy of those algorithms are scarce. Pretreatment IMRT QA using the quasi 3D dosimetry systems mentioned above rely on both measurement uncertainty and accuracy of calculation algorithms. In this article, these quasi 3D dosimetry systems and their use in patient specific

  11. CASTLE3D - A Computer Aided System for Labelling Archaeological Excavations in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshiar, H.; Borrmann, D.; Elseberg, J.; Nüchter, A.; Näth, F.; Winkler, S.

    2015-08-01

    Documentation of archaeological excavation sites with conventional methods and tools such as hand drawings, measuring tape and archaeological notes is time consuming. This process is prone to human errors and the quality of the documentation depends on the qualification of the archaeologist on site. Use of modern technology and methods in 3D surveying and 3D robotics facilitate and improve this process. Computer-aided systems and databases improve the documentation quality and increase the speed of data acquisition. 3D laser scanning is the state of the art in modelling archaeological excavation sites, historical sites and even entire cities or landscapes. Modern laser scanners are capable of data acquisition of up to 1 million points per second. This provides a very detailed 3D point cloud of the environment. 3D point clouds and 3D models of an excavation site provide a better representation of the environment for the archaeologist and for documentation. The point cloud can be used both for further studies on the excavation and for the presentation of results. This paper introduces a Computer aided system for labelling archaeological excavations in 3D (CASTLE3D). Consisting of a set of tools for recording and georeferencing the 3D data from an excavation site, CASTLE3D is a novel documentation approach in industrial archaeology. It provides a 2D and 3D visualisation of the data and an easy-to-use interface that enables the archaeologist to select regions of interest and to interact with the data in both representations. The 2D visualisation and a 3D orthogonal view of the data provide cuts of the environment that resemble the traditional hand drawings. The 3D perspective view gives a realistic view of the environment. CASTLE3D is designed as an easy-to-use on-site semantic mapping tool for archaeologists. Each project contains a predefined set of semantic information that can be used to label findings in the data. Multiple regions of interest can be joined under

  12. Illustrating the disassembly of 3D models

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Jianwei

    2013-06-11

    We present a framework for the automatic disassembly of 3D man-made models and the illustration of the disassembly process. Given an assembled 3D model, we first analyze the individual parts using sharp edge loops and extract the contact faces between each pair of neighboring parts. The contact faces are then used to compute the possible moving directions of each part. We then present a simple algorithm for clustering the sets of the individual parts into meaningful sub-assemblies, which can be used for a hierarchical decomposition. We take the stability of sub-assemblies into account during the decomposition process by considering the upright orientation of the input models. Our framework also provides a user-friendly interface to enable the superimposition of the constraints for the decomposition. Finally, we visualize the disassembly process by generating an animated sequence. The experiments demonstrate that our framework works well for a variety of complex models. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Laser scanner 3D terrestri e mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ciamba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente si è svolto a Roma un evento dimostrativo per informare, professionisti e ricercatori del settore inerente il rilievo strumentale, sulle recenti innovazioni che riguardano i laser scanner 3d. Il mercato della strumentazione dedicata al rilevamento architettonico e dell'ambiente, offre molte possibilità di scelta. Oggi i principali marchi producono strumenti sempre più efficienti ed ideati per ambiti di applicazione specifici, permettendo ai professionisti, la giusta scelta in termini di prestazioni ed economia. A demonstration event was recently held in Rome with the aim to inform professionals and researchers on recent innovations on instrumental survey related to the 3d laser scanner. The market of instrumentation for architectural survey offers many possibilitiesof choice. Today the major brands produce instruments that are more efficient and designed for specific areas of application, allowing the right choice in terms of performance and economy.

  14. Laser scanner 3D terrestri e mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ciamba

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Recentemente si è svolto a Roma un evento dimostrativo per informare, professionisti e ricercatori del settore inerente il rilievo strumentale, sulle recenti innovazioni che riguardano i laser scanner 3d. Il mercato della strumentazione dedicata al rilevamento architettonico e dell'ambiente, offre molte possibilità di scelta. Oggi i principali marchi producono strumenti sempre più efficienti ed ideati per ambiti di applicazione specifici, permettendo ai professionisti, la giusta scelta in termini di prestazioni ed economia.A demonstration event was recently held in Rome with the aim to inform professionals and researchers on recent innovations on instrumental survey related to the 3d laser scanner. The market of instrumentation for architectural survey offers many possibilitiesof choice. Today the major brands produce instruments that are more efficient and designed for specific areas of application, allowing the right choice in terms of performance and economy.

  15. 3D GEO: AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgopoulos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information, related to monuments and artefacts, into relational data bases and its use for various purposes, other than just geometric documentation is also described and presented. In order to help the reader understand the above, several characteristic examples are presented and their methodology explained and their results evaluated.

  16. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  17. Essentials of 3D biofabrication and translation

    CERN Document Server

    Atala, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Essentials of 3D Biofabrication and Translation discusses the techniques that are making bioprinting a viable alternative in regenerative medicine. The book runs the gamut of topics related to the subject, including hydrogels and polymers, nanotechnology, toxicity testing, and drug screening platforms, also introducing current applications in the cardiac, skeletal, and nervous systems, and organ construction. Leaders in clinical medicine and translational science provide a global perspective of the transformative nature of this field, including the use of cells, biomaterials, and macromolecules to create basic building blocks of tissues and organs, all of which are driving the field of biofabrication to transform regenerative medicine. Provides a new and versatile method to fabricating living tissue Discusses future applications for 3D bioprinting technologies, including use in the cardiac, skeletal, and nervous systems, and organ construction Describes current approaches and future challenges for translation...

  18. Narratives from the Agora 3D world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sanne Fejfer; Siggaard Jensen, Sisse; Bolander, Klara

    2004-01-01

    is on presence and knowledge sharing in interaction with avatars communicating in chat while building a 3D Agora AWEDU world (www.activeworlds.com). The narratives and reflections on knowledge sharing are all produced in explorative sessions carried out in a special interest group (SIG 5) on ?Knowledge sharing...... across knowledge cultures? in the EU project EQUEL on quality in e-learning. The understanding of social interaction and knowledge sharing in the Agora 3D world is based on explorative and experiential approaches and sessions. Joint explorations have been carried out to facilitate the sharing...... of experience among participants in the Agora world SIG. The idea with these sessions has been to build a community of shared knowledge based on practicing, acting and interacting with avatars. The underlying assumption being that first hand experience with collaboration and knowledge sharing are essential...

  19. 3D Geo: An Alternative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.

    2016-10-01

    The expression GEO is mostly used to denote relation to the earth. However it should not be confined to what is related to the earth's surface, as other objects also need three dimensional representation and documentation, like cultural heritage objects. They include both tangible and intangible ones. In this paper the 3D data acquisition and 3D modelling of cultural heritage assets are briefly described and their significance is also highlighted. Moreover the organization of such information, related to monuments and artefacts, into relational data bases and its use for various purposes, other than just geometric documentation is also described and presented. In order to help the reader understand the above, several characteristic examples are presented and their methodology explained and their results evaluated.

  20. Developing 3D microstructures for tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan

    casting process to generate various large scale tissue engineering constructs with single pore geometry with the desired mechanical stiffness and porosity. In addition, a new technique was developed to fa bricate dual-pore scaffolds for various tissue-engineering applications where 3D printing...... materials have been developed and tested for enhancing the differentiation of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes and fabricating biodegradable scaffolds for in-vivo tissue engineering applications. Along with various scaffolds fabrication methods we finally presented an optimized study of hepatic differentiation...... of hiPSC-derived DE cells cultured for 25 days in a 3D perfusion bioreactor system with an array of 16 small-scale tissue-bioreactors with integrated dual-pore pore scaffolds and flow rates. Hepatic differentiation and functionality of hiPSC-derived hepatocytes were successfully assessed and compared...