WorldWideScience

Sample records for isotopes parti 102pd

  1. MEASUREMENTS OF ^102Pd(n,γ) REACTIONS USING DANCE(funded via DOE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatarik, R.; Alpizar-Vicente, A. M.; Greife, U.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Esch, E.-I.; Haight, R. C.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Reifarth, R.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J.; Wouters, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    The so called p-nuclei (proton rich, Z > 34) cannot be produced by s or r process, therefore other processes are required in order to produce them. There are two ways to produce p-nuclei: rapid proton capture (rp process) and photo disintegration of neutron rich elements (p process). In the termination range of the rp process are three stable even-even p-nuclei: ^102Pd, ^106Cd and ^112Sn. The exact knowledge of all three (n,γ)-rates are potentially important for disentangling the p- and rp-contributions. ^102Pd(n,γ) was measured with the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center to complete the experimental data set in this range. The target was a sheet of 2 mg ^102Pd (78% enriched) held in a bag of 0.9 μm mylar, which was selected after testing of different plastic support materials. Preliminary results will be presented.

  2. Circuit parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, R

    2000-03-01

    Circuit parties are extended celebrations, lasting from a day to a week, primarily attended by gay and bisexual men in their thirties and forties. These large-scale dance parties move from city to city and draw thousands of participants. The risks for contracting HIV during these parties include recreational drug use and unsafe sex. Limited data exists on the level of risk at these parties, and participants are skeptical of outside help because of past criticism of these events. Health care and HIV advocates can promote risk-reduction strategies with the cooperation of party planners and can counsel individuals to personally reduce their own risk. To convey the message, HIV prevention workers should emphasize positive and community-centered aspects of the parties, such as taking care of friends and avoiding overdose.

  3. Christmas party

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    The Christmas party organized by the Staff Association took place on Saturday 3 December. 200 children from 5 to 7 years old attended a magic show which filled them with wonder. Then they were served a snack in the Novae restaurant. Finally, just before their parents came to pick them up, Father Christmas gave them a present. The Staff Association wishes you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

  4. Danish Party Membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Political parties have as their main assignment the creation of linkage between citizens and government. They provide one of several channels of participation in modern democracies. Yet, the general trend across the Western world is that party membership figures decline. The purpose of this article...... is to report on the state of Danish party membership; the numbers and participation. The claim of the article is that total membership figures hide evidence of membership renewal and increases, and that mere party membership figures are insufficient when evaluating political parties as channels...... of participation. Instead, membership figures at party level as well as the participation of party members need to be taken into account in order to assess parties as channels of participation. This is supported by the analyses reported here which show that even though membership figures are declining, parties...

  5. What do Parties Want?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2012-01-01

    What parties want – policy, office or votes - is important to how they represent their voters, how they make strategic decisions and how they respond to external changes in society. What parties strive to accomplish is simply important to what they do. Moreover, our knowledge of what parties want...... is important to what we expect them to do. For instance, coalition theory assumes that parties have homogeneous goals, and hence are equally likely to join coalitions given the same circumstances. However, this article investigates this basic assumption of party goal homogeneity and finds that party goals do...

  6. Political Parties and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Carina Saxlund; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2017-01-01

    parties themselves as well their impact on potentially innovative public decisions. One major expectation is that hierarchical parties with centralized leadership make more efficient decisions but that sustainable innovation outcomes promoted by collaborative efforts are easier to obtain for decentralized...... political parties with participatory internal democratic processes....

  7. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  8. Party member recruitment and the representativeness of party membership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Party membership figures are in decline. However, parties are still recruiting party members. Are there any differences in the social and political characteristics of old and new party members? If there is a difference, are new party members more or less representative for party voters than old...

  9. Party Control, Party Competition and Public Service Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boyne, George Alexander; James, O.; John, P.; Petrovsky, Nicolai

    2012-01-01

    This article assesses party effects on the performance of public services. A policy-seeking model, hypothesizing that left and right party control affects performance, and an instrumental model, where all parties strive to raise performance, are presented. The framework also suggests a mixed model in which party effects are contingent on party competition, with parties raising performance as increasing party competition places their control of government at increasing risk. These models are t...

  10. Party brands and voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sigge Winther; Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2014-01-01

    heuristics and voting models. Next, the article measures the brand value of Danish parties by utilizing a representative association analysis. Finally, this measure is used to conduct the very first empirical analysis of a party brand's effect on voting behavior. Overall, the primary finding demonstrates...

  11. Gendering transnational party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantola, Johanna; Rolandsen-Agustín, Lise

    2016-01-01

    research traditions, we build toward an analytical framework to study gender and transnational party politics. Our empirical analysis focuses on two policy issues, the economic crisis and the sexual and reproductive health and rights, analyzing European Parliament reports, debates and voting on the issues...... from 2009 to 2014. By focusing on gender equality constructions and the way in which consensus and contestation are built around them within and between party groups, we argue that shared constructions about gender equality are issue specific and change over time. Consensus breaks down along the left......In this article, we analyze transnational party politics in the European Union from a gender perspective. This is a subject that has been neglected both by mainstream European studies on party politics and by gender scholars who work on political parties. Drawing on the insights of these two...

  12. Partying as Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    situates the event in everyday life. By drawing on Maffesoli's (1996) concept of ‘sociality' and Lincoln's (2005) concept of zoning the spatial and social logic of the house, partying is analysed using both qualitative and quantitative material. The analysis suggests that the consumption of alcohol (i.......e. collective intoxication) is one way the parents' dining room is transformed creatively into a space for teenage partying. Hence, the social logic of a party is to consume alcohol collectively as it symbolises commitment to both the party and to the specific group of friends. Finally, attention is drawn...... to reaffirm friendship and is therefore an integrated part of adolescents' everyday life.  ...

  13. Third party processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, S.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of Canada's natural gas industry to remain competitive on a global level was discussed. Third party processing is a tool that the Canadian gas industry can use to overcome the relative disadvantage of smaller, and therefore more expensive, gas processing plants in Canada, and to maintain, and even improve, its competitive position vis-a-vis its US counterparts. The principal role of a third party processor is to provide midstream services such as raw gas gathering, field compression, gas processing, sales gas transmission, and natural gas liquids fractionation. Some third party processors also provide marketing services. Third party processors add value to the gas producer by reducing risk, reducing cost, improving reliability, and improving netbacks. The many variables involved in determining the economic viability of third party processing, including the quantity and deliverability of the raw resource, facility capacity, capital investment, operating costs, technology, fee structures, operational reliability, and speed, among others, were examined and the significance of each variable was explained

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND PARTY FUNDING: MODELS AND CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje MATAKOVIC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The first modern political parties were formed at the end of the 18th century and have, from those times up to now, undergone 4 developing phases; each of the phases is bound to ideal-type political party model: cadre parties, mass parties, catch-all parties and cartel parties. Each of these party models differentiates in various characteristics: party foundation, number of members, and way of leading the election campaigns, but also in ways of financing. This paper describes the above mentioned 4 phases of political parties’ development and 4 phases of parties' finances development; it will be analysed in detail positive and negative sides of each of the models of party financing.

  15. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director General would like to invite all staff working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held on the terrace of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks and snacks. Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate!

  16. Terrorism and Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army (IRA). More...... for realization of free speech rights and representation is also emphasized, and where proscription is seen as inimical to resolution of conflict underpinning violence. In the context of party competition, a winning coalition is required for one discourse to predominate. However, I also argued that both ideas...

  17. Partying as Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob; Østergaard, Jeanette

    2007-01-01

    situates the event in everyday life. By drawing on Maffesoli's (1996) concept of ‘sociality' and Lincoln's (2005) concept of zoning the spatial and social logic of the house, partying is analysed using both qualitative and quantitative material. The analysis suggests that the consumption of alcohol (i...... to reaffirm friendship and is therefore an integrated part of adolescents' everyday life.  ...

  18. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director General would like to invite all staff working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held on the terrace of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks and snacks! Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! http://www.cern.ch/cern50/

  19. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director General would like to invite all staff working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held on the terrace of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks and snacks. Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! http://www.cern.ch/cern50/

  20. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director-General would like to invite all the people working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. The party will be held in the cafeteria and on the terrace (if the weather permits) of the Main Building on 17 September at 4:00 pm. The event will include an address by the DG, music, film clips, drinks, snacks and a surprise music show by the CERN Big Bang Orchestra! Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! Early closure of Restaurant No. 1 (Bldg. 501, Meyrin site): Friday 17 September at 2:00 p.m. On Friday, 17 September, Restaurant No. 1 (NOVAE) will close at 2:00 p.m. owing to the Golden Jubilee party for the CERN staff. No dinner will be served that evening.

  1. Your Golden Jubilee Party!

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ All staff are invited to the Golden Jubilee Staff Party on the evening of 17 September. To mark CERN's 50th anniversary, the Director-General would like to invite all the people working at CERN to celebrate the success of the organization. Your Golden Jubilee Party Friday 17 September 2004 at 16:00 Restaurant 1, Main Building Programme Speech by Director-General Toast in honour of CERN Cocktails and ambient music Video projections of five decades of CERN and at 18:00 ... A surprise music show. Your effort, hard work and enthusiasm have been the key to CERN's success. The first of the main events celebrating the organization's Golden Jubilee is for you, so come along and celebrate! Early closure of Restaurant No. 1 (bldg. 501, Meyrin site): Friday 17 September at 2:00 p.m. On Friday, 17 September, Restaurant No. 1 (NOVAE) will close at 2:00 p.m. owing to the Golden Jubilee party for the CERN staff. No dinner will be served that evening.

  2. Biomedical research applications of electromagnetically separated enriched stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrecht, R.M.

    1982-01-01

    The current and projected annual requirements through 1985 for stable isotopes enriched by electromagnetic separation methods were reviewed for applications in various types of biomedical research: (1) medical radiosotope production, labeled compounds, and potential radiopharmaceuticals; (2) nutrition, food science, and pharmacology; (3) metallobiochemistry and environmental toxicology; (4) nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance, and Moessbauer spectroscopy in biochemical, biophysical, and biomedical research; and (5) miscellaneous advances in radioactive and non-radioactive tracer technology. Radioisotopes available from commercial sources or routinely used in clinical nuclear medicine were excluded. Priorities and summaries are based on statements in the references and from answers to a survey conducted in the fall of 1981. Current requirements for enriched stable isotopes in biomedical research are not being satisfied. Severe shortages exist for 26 Mg, 43 Ca, 70 Zn, 76 Se, 78 Se, 102 Pd, 111 Cd, 113 Cd, and 190 Os. Many interesting and potentially important investigations in biomedical research require small quantities of specific elements at high isotopic enrichments

  3. Production of stable isotopes utilizing the plasma separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Tarallo, F. J.; Stevenson, N. R.

    2005-12-01

    A plasma separation process (PSP) is being operated at Theragenics Corporation's®, Oak Ridge, TN, facility for the enrichment of stable isotopes. The PSP utilizes ion cyclotron mass discrimination to separate isotopes on a relatively large scale. With a few exceptions, nearly any metallic element could be processed with PSP. Output isotope enrichment factor depends on natural abundance and mass separation and can be fairly high in some cases. The Theragenics™ PSP facility is believed to be the only such process currently in operation. This system was developed and formerly operated under the US Department of Energy Advanced Isotope Separation program. Theragenics™ also has a laboratory at the PSP site capable of harvesting the isotopes from the process and a mass spectrometer system for analyzing enrichment and product purity. Since becoming operational in 2002, Theragenics™ has utilized the PSP to separate isotopes of several elements including: dysprosium, erbium, gadolinium, molybdenum and nickel. Currently, Theragenics™ is using the PSP for the separation of 102Pd, which is used as precursor for the production of 103Pd. The 103Pd radioisotope is the active ingredient in TheraSeed®, which is used in the treatment of early stage prostate cancer and being investigated for other medical applications. New industrial, medical and research applications are being investigated for isotopes that can be enriched on the PSP. Pre-enrichment of accelerator or reactor targets offers improved radioisotope production. Theragenics operates 14 cyclotrons for proton activation and has access to HFIR at ORNL for neutron activation of radioisotopes.

  4. Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjær, Eivind Grip; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk...

  5. Nuclear opponents and party politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tollmann, A.

    1987-01-01

    The question treated in this article is: what do the members of the Austrian parliament - of the different parties - against nuclear energy, in particular against nuclear installations in neighbour countries? Of special interest is the Green party, now also represented in the parliament. The conclusion is that even this party, though in principle definitely anti-nuclear, is of no help to nuclear opponents in general, and to the Working Group No to Zwentendorf in particular. (qui)

  6. Party rules, party resources and the politics of parliamentary democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poguntke, Thomas; Scarrow, Susan; Webb, Paul

    2016-01-01

    , then investigate what it tells us about contemporary party organization in these countries, focusing on parties’ resources, structures and internal decision-making. We examine organizational patterns by country and party family, and where possible we make temporal comparisons with older data sets. Our analyses...... suggest a remarkable coexistence of uniformity and diversity. In terms of the major organizational resources on which parties can draw, such as members, staff and finance, the new evidence largely confirms the continuation of trends identified in previous research: that is, declining membership......, but enhanced financial resources and more paid staff. We also find remarkable uniformity regarding the core architecture of party organizations. At the same time, however, we find substantial variation between countries and party families in terms of their internal processes, with particular regard to how...

  7. Infants in cocktail parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Rochelle S.

    2003-04-01

    Most work on listeners' ability to separate streams of speech has focused on adults. Yet infants also find themselves in noisy environments. In order to learn from their caregivers' speech in these settings, they must first separate it from background noise such as that from television shows and siblings. Previous work has found that 7.5-month-old infants can separate streams of speech when the target voice is more intense than the distractor voice (Newman and Jusczyk, 1996), when the target voice is known to the infant (Barker and Newman, 2000) or when infants are presented with an audiovisual (rather than auditory-only) signal (Hollich, Jusczyk, and Newman, 2001). Unfortunately, the paradigm in these studies can only be used on infants at least 7.5 months of age, limiting the ability to investigate how stream segregation develops over time. The present work uses a new paradigm to explore younger infants' ability to separate streams of speech. Infants aged 4.5 months heard a female talker repeat either their own name or another infants' name, while several other voices spoke fluently in the background. We present data on infants' ability to recognize their own name in this cocktail party situation. [Work supported by NSF and NICHD.

  8. Between Party, Parents and Peers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the lived contradictions entailed in being a young member of the Chinese Communist Party (ccp) today. The focus is on how political and existential issues intersect. It explores party membership as a strategy for personal mobility among Beijing elite university students by p...

  9. Which Party Gets the Mayoralty?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjæveland, Asbjørn; Serritzlew, Søren

    2010-01-01

    expands the scope of these explanatory variables. However, the study also shows that being a large party is not sufficient for a party to have a good chance of winning the mayoralty. Furthermore, norms guiding appropriate behaviour seem important in addition to instrumental behaviour. It appears......In non-presidential multiparty systems, it is not only the voters but also coalition formation after the election that decides the government of the community. Some national-level studies investigate which parties are most likely to win the Prime Minister's office. The aim of this article...... is to investigate the same question at the local level:What makes a party more likely to win the post of mayor? The article finds that party size and change in size are important along with experience and ideological centrality. The results are similar to those obtained at the national level, and this study thus...

  10. Multi-party Quantum Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Adam

    2001-01-01

    We investigate definitions of and protocols for multi-party quantum computing in the scenario where the secret data are quantum systems. We work in the quantum information-theoretic model, where no assumptions are made on the computational power of the adversary. For the slightly weaker task of verifiable quantum secret sharing, we give a protocol which tolerates any t < n/4 cheating parties (out of n). This is shown to be optimal. We use this new tool to establish that any multi-party quantu...

  11. Economic Beliefs and Party Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Michael W.M. Roos; Andreas Orland

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a questionnaire study used to explore the economic understanding, normative positions along the egalitarian-libertarian spectrum, and the party preferences of a large student sample. The aim of the study is both to find socio-economic determinants of normative and positive beliefs and to explore how beliefs about the economy influence party support. We find that positive beliefs of lay people differ systematically from those of economic experts. Positive beli...

  12. Electrophysical properties of silicon doped by palladium-103 isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhkamov, Sh.; Tursunov, N.A.; Sattiev, A.R.; Normurodov, A.B.

    2007-01-01

    The work is devoted to study of radiation physical processes taking place in Si under nuclear transmutation, Identification and determination of defects microstructure and homogeneities and their distribution, study of interactions of nuclear-transformed phosphorus isotopes with palladium atoms, and its effect on crystal properties. For examination monocrystalline silicon of n- and p-type conductivity with specific resistance from 1 to 40 Ω·cm, dislocation density ∼10 4 cm -2 and oxygen content ∼10 17 cm -3 has been applied. Doping of silicon plates by examined admixture has been carried out by thermal diffusion method within temperature range 1000-1250 deg. C for 0.5- 5 h. Irradiation of doped silicon was conducted by reactor neutron fluences 5·10 18 - 5·10 19 cm -2 with subsequent annealing at 1000 deg. C for 30 min. Efficiency of mixture centers formation in silicon, effect of concentration of formed mixture-defect centers on electro-physical, photoelectric and recombination parameters of doped silicon and revealing of type and state of generated defects have been controlled by electric, volume and X-ray fluorescent methods. On the base of spectroscopic researches it is shown, that in silicon forbidden zone after Pd diffusion in DLTS spectra peaks related with acceptor (E c -0.18 and E v +0.34 eV) levels, and peak responsible for level E v +0.32 eV of donor character caused by palladium impurity. It is shown, that irradiation of doped silicon samples by neutrons lead to nuclear transmutation of 102 Pd, 104 Pd in 103 Pd isotopes in the crystal volume with following electron capture in stable isotope 103m Rh

  13. Intra-party democracy beyond aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolkenstein, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    , discussing several functions intra-party deliberation is said to serve in the democratic theory literature. It then goes on to explore the deliberative credentials of political discussion between party members, drawing on group interviews with party members in two Social Democratic parties in Germany...

  14. Promoting Party Politics in Emerging Democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnell, P.; Gerrits, A.

    2010-01-01

    This opening section briefly introduces international political party support, that is, assistance to political parties by international organizations, mostly from the US and Europe, to strengthen individual political parties, to promote peaceful interaction between parties and to help to create a

  15. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IDAE.

    1994-01-01

    IDAE (Institute of Energy Saving and Diversification) Hosted the Third party on financing renewable energy sources. The meeting was articulated into chapters: 1.- Experiences in the renewable energy field. 2.- Third party financing of small hydro-power projects. 3.- Third party financing of biomass projects. 4.- Third party financing of wind energy projects

  16. Democracy, the Party, and Self-Emancipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raekstad, P.

    2017-01-01

    The Party is once again the subject of sustained discussion among academics and popular movements. Jodi Dean’s most recent book, Crowds and Party, is an attempt to re-think the party form for contemporary politics after the experiences and lessons of Occupy. Crowds and Party is engaging and

  17. Public Funding of Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortuno-Ortin, Ignacio; Schultz, Christian

    This paper concerns public funding of parties. Parteis receive public funds depending on their vote share. Funds finance electoral campaigns. Two cases are investigated. In the first, some voters are policy motivated and some are ?impressionable? ? their vote depends directly on campaign...... expenditures. In the second, campaigning is informative and all voters are policy motivated. Public funds increase policy convergence in both cases. The effect is larger, the more funding depends on vote shares. When campaigns are informative, there may be multiple euqilibria. Intuitively, a large party can...

  18. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  19. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne Party Poppers,” and “Party Surprise Poppers,”) shall not contain more than 0.25 grains of pyrotechnic...

  20. The niche party concept and its measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Thomas M; Miller, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The concept of the niche party has become increasingly popular in analyses of party competition. Yet, existing approaches vary in their definitions and their measurement approaches. We propose using a minimal definition that allows us to compare political parties in terms of their ?nicheness?. We argue that the conceptual core of the niche party concept is based on issue emphasis and that a niche party emphasizes policy areas neglected by its rivals. Based on this definition, we propose a con...

  1. Being a potentially responsible party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronan, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on CERCLA II- ability for the unlucky potentially responsible parties (PRPs) which is a Draconian form of strict, joint and several liability with limited statutory defenses that in most cases are impossible to establish. CERCLA vigorously employs these legal concepts, stretching a PRP's financial exposure to the limits necessary to meet the enormous financial costs of remediation

  2. The Party-state Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünberg, Nis

    society through its legacy as a socialist work unit (danwei). Using Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness, the paper reveals how SOEs are split into two tiers each tasked with the respective objectives of economic development and political stability, and thus as Party-state organizations are used to flexibly...

  3. [Ketamine as a party drug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroegop, M.P.; Dongen, R.T.M. van; Vantroyen, B.; Kramers, C.

    2007-01-01

    Ketamine is a new party drug, which is easy to obtain. For this reason, it is possible that physicians will be increasingly confronted with users that have medical problems. Relatively few cases of ketamine intoxication with a fatal outcome have been reported thus far. Ketamine is very

  4. 7 CFR 955.91 - Additional parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Marketing Agreement § 955.91 Additional parties. After the effective date thereof, any handler may become a... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... then be effective as to such new contracting party. ...

  5. Inheritance and the Dynamics of Party Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Kroh, Martin; Selb, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Extensive research efforts notwithstanding, scholars continue to disagree on the nature and meaning of party identification. Traditionalists conceive of partisanship as a largely affective attachment to a political party that emerges in childhood through parental influences and tends to persist throughout life. The revisionist conception of partisanship is that of a running tally of party utilities that is updated based on current party performance. We attempt to reconcile both schools of tho...

  6. When can we trust a third party?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hee, van K.M.; Sidorova, N.; Werf, van der J.M.E.M.; Koutny, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Yakovlev, A.

    2013-01-01

    Organizations often do not want to reveal the way a product is created or a service is delivered. As a consequence, if two organizations want to cooperate, they contact a trusted third party. Each specifies how it wants to communicate with the other party. The trusted third party then needs to

  7. 28 CFR 51.7 - Political parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 51.7 Political parties. Certain activities of political parties are subject to the preclearance requirement of section 5. A change affecting... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political parties. 51.7 Section 51.7...

  8. The 19th Party Congress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Høyrup Christensen, Nis

    2017-01-01

    veteran leaders such as Wang Qishan (69) continue to serve on the committee? Would Xi Jinping pack the Politburo and the PSC with his own close allies, or would he try to achieve a factional balance observing the interests of former leaders such as Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao? There was also much....... Such a report is usually a long document setting out the Party's priorities and policy objectives for the next five-year period. Would Xi Jinping's report signal new policy initiatives, and would it outline strategic guidelines reaching beyond 2022? This article examines these questions and assesses the future...

  9. Authentication method for authenticating a first party to a second party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    An authentication system and method is presented for authenticating a first party to a second party, where an operation is performed on condition that the authentication succeeds. The authentication method verifies whether the first party is authenticated. If the first party is not authenticated,

  10. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraedts, J.M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF 6 ) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  11. The niche party concept and its measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas M; Miller, Bernhard

    2015-03-01

    The concept of the niche party has become increasingly popular in analyses of party competition. Yet, existing approaches vary in their definitions and their measurement approaches. We propose using a minimal definition that allows us to compare political parties in terms of their 'nicheness'. We argue that the conceptual core of the niche party concept is based on issue emphasis and that a niche party emphasizes policy areas neglected by its rivals. Based on this definition, we propose a continuous measure that allows for more fine-grained measurement of a party's 'nicheness' than the dominant, dichotomous approaches and thereby limits the risk of measurement error. Drawing on data collected by the Comparative Manifesto Project, we show that (1) our measure has high face validity and (2) exposes differences among parties that are not captured by alternative, static or dichotomous measures.

  12. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  13. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  14. Gender differences in Assessments of Party Leaders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2015-01-01

    Is there a relationship between party leader gender and voters' assessments? Yes, according to theses on gender identity and stereotyping. A voter survey during the 2011 Danish general election allows for a comprehensive analysis of a less likely case with four male and four female party leaders...... of gender does not increase with age, actually, the opposite is the case among men since younger male voters have smaller sympathy for female party leaders. Furthermore, there is no support for the expectation that voters with more education or with higher levels of political interest and knowledge are more....... Female party leaders are assessed more positively by female voters than male voters both in regard to general party leader sympathy and assessment of specific characteristics, whereas it is not the case that male party leaders are assessed more positively by male voters than female voters. The impact...

  15. Party drugs - use and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Matthew

    2010-08-01

    Party drug use, the intermittent use of stimulants, ecstasy and so-called 'designer drugs' at dance parties or 'raves', is now part of the culture of many young Australians. This article discusses the risks associated with the use of 'party drugs' and describes an useful approach to general practitioner assessment and management of patients who may be using party drugs. Party drug use is associated with a range of harms, including risks associated with behaviour while drug affected, toxicity and overdose, mental health complications and physical morbidity. Multiple substance use, particularly combining sedatives, further amplifies risk. If GPs have some understanding of these drugs and their effects, they are well placed to provide an effective intervention in party drug users by supporting the reduction of harm.

  16. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party) through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistribut...

  17. Latin American intra-party democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Adrián Martínez Hernández

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Research proposes to determine the level of internal democracy of political parties in Latin America from perception of its members, allowing the creation of an index that has parameters for the measurement and comparison of the parties according to its democratic features. At the same time, research supports designing a profile of the parties by subjecting to analysis the relationship between ideology and internal democracy, stressing that despite the differences between left and right, parties in Latin America do not have dichotomous democratic features, while maintaining low levels despite their ideological location.

  18. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method for deriving, from a starting material including an element having a plurality of isotopes, derived material enriched in one isotope of the element. The starting material is deposited on a substrate at less than a critical submonatomic surface density, typically less than 10 16 atoms per square centimeter. The deposit is then selectively irradiated by a laser (maser or electronic oscillator) beam with monochromatic coherent radiation resonant with the one isotope causing the material including the one istope to escape from the substrate. The escaping enriched material is then collected. Where the element has two isotopes, one of which is to be collected, the deposit may be irradiated with radiation resonant with the other isotope and the residual material enriched in the one isotope may be evaporated from the substrate and collected

  19. How to hold an ethical pox party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, Euzebiusz

    2018-04-01

    Pox parties are a controversial alternative to vaccination for diseases such as chickenpox. Such parties involve parents infecting non-immune children by exposing them to a contagious child. If successful, infection will usually lead to immunity, thus preventing infection later in life, which, for several vaccine-preventable diseases, is more severe than childhood infection. Some may consider pox parties more morally objectionable than opting out of vaccination through non-medical exemptions. In this paper, I argue that this is not the case. Pox parties involve immediate risk of harm for children and reduce future harms, whereas opting out of vaccination places children at long-term risk of harms that increase with time, at least for some pathogens. Regarding harm to others through onward transmission of infection, this can be easily prevented in the case of pox parties-given the relatively controlled timing of infection-by quarantining attendees after the party, whereas opting out of vaccination involves risks to others that are more difficult to control. I defend three criteria for an ethical pox party: (1) that the disease is sufficiently low risk, (2) that parents consent to their child's attendance and (3) that children exposed to infection are quarantined and isolated appropriately. I argue that, if these criteria are met, pox parties are morally preferable to non-vaccination; such parties involve less risk to non-consenting others and, for some pathogens in some cases, even involve less risk for the children who participate. Thus, policies that permit non-medical exemption to vaccination should also permit ethical pox parties. Alternatively, if pox parties are not permitted, then vaccination should be mandated for those without medical contraindication. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  1. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  2. Book Review: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China. Charlotte P. Lee . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 251 pp. $99.99. ISBN 978-1-107-09063-7......Review of: Training the Party: Party Adaptation and Elite Training in Reform-era China. Charlotte P. Lee . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015. xii + 251 pp. $99.99. ISBN 978-1-107-09063-7...

  3. 12 CFR 747.603 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevailing party. 747.603 Section 747.603 Banks... in NCUA Board Adjudications § 747.603 Prevailing party. An eligible applicant may be a “prevailing... dismissed. In appropriate situations an applicant may also have prevailed if the outcome of the proceeding...

  4. 12 CFR 263.102 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevailing party. 263.102 Section 263.102 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM RULES... Prevailing party. Only an eligible applicant that prevailed on the merits of an adversary proceeding may...

  5. 12 CFR 308.173 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prevailing party. 308.173 Section 308.173 Banks....173 Prevailing party. (a) General rule. An eligible applicant who, following an adversary adjudication has gained victory on the merits in the proceeding is a “prevailing party”. An eligible applicant may...

  6. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers,

  7. Party Governance and the Selection of Parliamentarians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Beniers (Klaas)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the incentives for a party leader in office and for a parties' rank-and-file to replace a sitting member of parliament. As to the leader's decision, we show that the leader prefers to replace a critical member of parliament who votes against the leader's policy. A

  8. Psychometric Analyses of the Birthday Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sun

    2016-01-01

    The present research focuses on the psychometric properties of the Birthday Party measure for ages 3-5. The Birthday Party was developed to provide a reliable, valid, and engaging measure of early mathematical content--Number and Operation, Shape, Space, and Pattern--that can be given in either a short or a long form to English and Spanish…

  9. Third party financing of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Institut of Energy Saving and Diversification (IDAE) hosted the third party on financing Renewable Energy Sources in Spain. The main aspects were : 1) Experiences in renewable energy. 2) Financing of small hydro-power projects. 3) Third party financing of biomass projects. 4) Financing of wind energy projects

  10. Sex Parties: Female Teen Sexual Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Sharyl Eve

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent participants in a study aimed at exploring the nature and characteristics of girls' dating relationships revealed the phenomenon of sex parties. These teens defined a "sex party" as an opportunity to engage in sexual contact outside of typical dating relationships. Sexual activity could involve actual intercourse, but usually involved…

  11. Low Membership in Czech Political Parties: Party Strategy or Structural Determinants?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Linek, Lukáš; Pecháček, Š.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2007), s. 259-275 ISSN 1352-3279 R&D Projects: GA MPS 1J004/04-DP1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : political parties * party membership * antiparty sentiments * party organization Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences

  12. The Institutionalisation of the Romanian Party System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Volintiru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the level of institutionalisation achieved by the Romanian political system since transitioning to democracy. Following through the key components of an institutionalised party system, the inquiry looks at the stability of interparty competition in Romania and the depth of its parties’ roots in society. These components are measured through such indicators as electoral volatility or the cohesiveness of the ideological preferences. Their levels suggest that the Romanian party system isn’t fully instituionalised, with fluctuating volatility and a rather incohesive ideological positioning of both voters and parties. This paper argues that in response to the double challenge of poor institutionalisation of the political parties and the party system as a whole, informal remedies, such as patronage of public jobs, or proprietary use of state resources, become highly attractive solutions for electoral success.

  13. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  14. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  15. Campaigning on behalf of the party? Party constraints on candidate campaign personalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Troels; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses what makes political candidates run a party-focused or personalised election campaign. Prior work shows that candidates face incentives from voters and the media to personalise their campaign rhetoric and promises at the expense of party policy. This has raised concerns about...... that party control over the candidate nomination process and campaign financing constrains most political candidates in following electoral incentives for campaign personalisation. Using candidate survey data from the 2009 EP election campaign in 27 countries, we show how candidates from parties in which...... party officials exerted greater control over the nomination process and campaign finances were less likely to engage in personalised campaigning at the expense of the party programme. The findings imply that most parties, as central gatekeepers and resource suppliers, hold important control mechanisms...

  16. Leakage Resilient Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Hazay, Carmit; Patra, Arpita

    2012-01-01

    we initiate the study of {\\em secure two-party computation in the presence of leakage}, where on top of corrupting one of the parties the adversary obtains leakage from the content of the secret memory of the honest party. Our study involves the following contributions: \\BE \\item {\\em Security...... and returns its result. Almost independently of secure computation, the area of {\\em leakage resilient cryptography} has recently been evolving intensively, studying the question of designing cryptographic primitives that remain secure even when some information about the secret key is leaked. In this paper...

  17. The Chinese Communist Party in Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik; Yongnian, Zheng

    Contrary to the expectations of many people, China's recent economic growth has not led to the collapse of the Chinese Communist Party. In fact, the party has recently carried out a peaceful and orderly transition to the so-called fourth generation of leadership, has revitalised itself, and created...... a new, younger and better trained cadre corps. Despite this successful transformation, there continue to be many problems that the party will need to overcome if it is to remain in power, including pressures for democratization in both urban and rural areas, widespread corruption, the emergence of new...

  18. The German Environmentalist Party - The Greens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettke, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The Greens are winning supporters throughout the FRG, quite a few of them are already members of the parliament of various lands. Will they cooperate with the established political parties in Bonn. Will they take over from the Free Democrats the role of holding the balance of power. In this book, Spiegel editors present their analyses of the changing concepts of the new political movement. The most outstanding members of the Environmentalist Party - the so-called Greens - define their position and state their opinions on the problems of coalition forming, and prominent members of the parties of the German Bundestag answer these statements. (orig.) [de

  19. The Labour Party and British Republicanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth O. MORGAN

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The famous detective, Sherlock Holmes, once solved a case by referring to “the dog that did not bark.” In the past 250 years of British history, republicanism is another dog that did not bark. This is particularly true of supposedly our most radical major political party, the Labour Party. Over the monarchy, as over constitutional matters generally, Labour’s instincts have been conservative. Even after 1997, when the party, led by Lord Irvine, has indeed embarked upon major constitutional ref...

  20. Political Marketing Mix in Indonesia Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Simbolon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The reform era has changed the paradigm of Indonesian politics. Multiparty system has demanded a political party to be able to compete for their constituents. Article aimed to convey a political marketing concept that can helppolitical parties in planning a strategy to win the election. Research method used descriptive method analysis. The results suggest that the approach of the marketing mix that includes the product, price, place, and promotion areapproaches that are very helpful in presenting a plan to win the marketing strategy of political parties in elections.

  1. Isotope angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepinska, J.; Ruzyllo, W.; Konieczny, W.

    1979-01-01

    Method of technetium isotope 99 m pass through the heart recording with the aid of radioisotope scanner connected with seriograph and computer is being presented. Preliminary tests were carried out in 26 patients with coronary disease without or with previous myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, ventricular septal defect and in patients with artificial mitral and aortic valves. The obtained scans were evaluated qualitatively and compared with performed later contrast X-rays of the heart. Size of the right ventricle, volume and rate of left atrial evacuation, size and contractability of left ventricle were evaluated. Similarity of direct and isotope angiocardiographs, non-invasional character and repeatability of isotope angiocardiography advocate its usefulness. (author)

  2. Parties heed (with caution): Public knowledge of and attitudes towards party finance in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanHeerde-Hudson, Jennifer; Fisher, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Despite comprehensive reform ( Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act ) and recent review (Phillips Review in 2007) of party finance in Britain, public opinion of party finance remains plagued by perceptions of corruption, undue influence from wealthy donors, carefree and wasteful spending and, more generally, from the perception that there is just 'too much money' in politics. In this article we argue that knowledge of and attitudes to party finance matter, not least because advocates of reform have cited public opinion as evidence for reform. However, because attitudes to party finance are part of a broader attitudinal structure, opinion-led reforms are unlikely to succeed in increasing public confidence. Using data generated from YouGov's online panel (N=2,008), we demonstrate that the public know little of the key provisions regulating party finance and attitudes to party finance can be explained along two underlying dimensions - Anti-Party Finance and Reformers . As such, we consider whether parties and politicians should be freed from the constraints of public opinion in reforming party finance.

  3. Lebanon's Hizbollah Movement: The Party of God

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schad, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    In the summer of 1982 in Lebanon, a group of radical Shi'a Muslim clerics in association with Iranian Revolutionary Guardsmen formed the secretive and at times deadly movement known as Hizbollah, or the Party of God...

  4. Leatherback Isotopes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently working on a project identifying global marine isotopes using leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) as the indicator species. We currently...

  5. Isotope Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-18

    The objective of this training modules is to examine the process of using gamma spectroscopy for radionuclide identification; apply pattern recognition to gamma spectra; identify methods of verifying energy calibration; and discuss potential causes of isotope misidentification.

  6. Isotope laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document concerned with isotope laboratories in hospitals, in connection with the Dutch laws for hospitals. It discusses which hospitals should have isotope laboratories and concludes that as many hospitals as possible should have small laboratories so that emergency cases can be dealt with. It divides the Netherlands into regions and suggests which hospitals should have these facilities. The questions of how big each lab. is to be, what equipment each has, how each lab. is organised, what therapeutic and diagnostic work should be carried out by each, etc. are discussed. The answers are provided by reports from working groups for in vivo diagnostics, in vitro diagnostics, therapy, and safety and their results form the criteria for the licences of isotope labs. The results of a questionnaire for isotope labs. already in the Netherlands are presented, and their activities outlined. (C.F.)

  7. Movements in Parties: OccupyPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella della Porta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available When the United States activists called for people to Occupy#everywhere, it is unlikely they were thinking of the headquarters of the Italian centre-left party. Parties and movements are often considered to be worlds apart. In reality, parties have been relevant players in movement politics, and movements have influenced parties, often through the double militancy of many of their members. OccupyPD testifies to a continuous fluidity at the movement-party border, but also to a blockage in the party’s interactions with society that started long before the economic crisis but drastically accelerated with it. In this paper we present the OccupyPD Movement as a case of interaction between party politics and social movement politics, and in particular between the base membership of a centre-left party and the broader anti-austerity movement that diffused from the US to Europe adopting similar forms of actions and claims. Second, by locating it within the context of the economic and democratic crisis that erupted in 2007, we understand its emergence as a reaction towards politics in times of crisis of responsibility, by which we mean a drastic drop in the capacity of the government to respond to citizens’ requests. To fulfil this double aim, we bridge social movement studies with research on party change, institutional trust and democratic theory, looking at some political effects of the economic crisis in terms of a specific form of legitimacy crisis, as well as citizens’ responses to it, with a particular focus on the political meaning of recent anti-austerity protests. In this analysis, we refer to both quantitative and qualitative data from secondary liter-ature and original in-depth interviews carried out with a sample of OccupyPD activists.

  8. Jewish problem in the Polish Communist Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimek Henryk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jews accounted for approx. 8-10% of the population of the Second Republic and in the communist movement (Polish Communist Party and Polish Communist Youth Union the rate was approx, 30%, while in subsequent years it much fluctuated. The percentage of Jews was the highest in the authorities of the party and in the KZMP. This had a negative impact on the position of the KPP on many issues, especially in its relation to the Second Republic.

  9. Social praxis, party, and class relations today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egni Malo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s political sociologists are once again interested in the study of the crisis of mass-based parties, anti-politics and anti-parliamentarism, crisis in the authority of the political class, prevailing corporate interests within republican institutions, and populism. Political sociology however, takes the party, as a construct of political sociology alone, without consideration upon its militancy and action, as the party, which objectifies the foundation of a State, and as a result the party becomes, simply an historical category. We approach the problem of the modern state from many angles; analysing the nature of a political party as such; the ideological dangers of determinism and spontaneism which a party necessarily must struggle with; the type of non-administrative internal regime which is necessary for a party to be effective and so on. The problem we seek to elaborate is the specific character of the collective action that makes possible the passage from a sectored, corporate and subordinate role of purely negative opposition, to a leading role of conscious action towards not merely a partial adjustment within the system, but posing the issue of the State in its entirety. In developing this theme – as a study of the real relations between the political party, the classes and the State – a two-fold consideration is devoted to the study of Machiavelli and Marx: first from the angle of the real relations between the two, as thinkers of revolutionary politics, of action; and secondly from a perspective which would derive from the Marxist doctrines an articulated system of contemporary politics, as found in The Prince.

  10. Recent tendency of Nuclear Third Party Legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohara, Fumiaki

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear accidents in Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have a great influence on Nuclear Third Party Legislation of many countries. Nuclear Third Party Law of Japan is due to expire as at 31st, December, 1989, under the recent circumstances in which threre exist pros and cons to nuclear installations among people. This report describes the outline of Japanese Nuclear Law compared with foreign ones and the prospect of its revision. (author)

  11. The Hobby Horse of the Party for the Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Can a small, new political party increase the attention to nonhuman animal welfare? This paper traces the effect of the Party for the Animals on the Dutch parliament. This was the first animal advocacy party to enter parliament.

  12. Isotopic chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floss, H.G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    This paper deals with compounds that are chiral-at least in part, due to isotope substitution-and their use in tracing the steric course of enzyme reaction in vitro and in vivo. There are other applications of isotopically chiral compounds (for example, in analyzing the steric course of nonenzymatic reactions and in probing the conformation of biomolecules) that are important but they will not be discussed in this context.

  13. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for separating isotopes in which photo-excitation of selected isotope species is used together with the reaction of the excited species with postive ions of predetermined ionization energy, other excited species, or free electrons to produce ions or ion fragments of the selected species. Ions and electrons are produced by an electrical discharge, and separation is achieved through radial ambipolar diffusion, electrostatic techniques, or magnetohydrodynamic methods

  14. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydtin, H-J.; Wilden, R.J.; Severin, P.J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope enrichment method described is based on the recognition that, owing to mass diffusion and thermal diffusion in the conversion of substances at a heated substrate while depositing an element or compound onto the substrate, enrichment of the element, or a compound of the element, with a lighter isotope will occur. The cycle is repeated for as many times as is necessary to obtain the degree of enrichment required

  15. Motivated Reasoning and Political Parties: Evidence for Increased Processing in the Face of Party Cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Skov, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2013-01-01

    . As part of the latter processes, the presence of party cues would make individuals engage in effortful motivated reasoning to produce arguments for the correctness of their party’s position. Following psychological research, we use response latency to measure processing effort and, in support......Extant research in political science has demonstrated that citizens’ opinions on policies are influenced by their attachment to the party sponsoring them. At the same time, little evidence exists illuminating the psychological processes through which such party cues are filtered. From...... the psychological literature on source cues, we derive two possible hypotheses: (1) party cues activate heuristic processing aimed at minimizing the processing effort during opinion formation, and (2) party cues activate group motivational processes that compel citizens to support the position of their party...

  16. Partis islamistes et démocratisation : expérience du Parti de la ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Partis islamistes et démocratisation : expérience du Parti de la justice et du développement (Turquie). En Turquie, les élections de novembre 2002 ont été remportées par un nouveau parti politique d'orientation islamiste, l'AKP, qui détient environ les deux tiers des sièges au Parlement. La victoire de l'AKP traduit ...

  17. Party Members in Context. Social networks and local branches as context for party membership

    OpenAIRE

    Paulis, Emilien

    2018-01-01

    In this doctoral dissertation, I put party members and activists back in context. I stress theimportance of two contextual dimensions, often overlooked in the scientific literature. On theone hand, I put forward social network explanations of party membership and activism,emphasizing the importance of social interactions, relations and structures, which were scarcelyexplored as potential triggers. Like other forms of participation, party membership haspredominantly been portrayed through indi...

  18. Institute of party leadership system of the party creation of modern Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Lavrenyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article based on the study of the theory and practice of party­building in Ukraine examines the role of party leader in the political process and the establishment of parties, implementation of the political power, the development of political consciousness and the formation of modern political elite of our country. It is alleged that party leader – a reputable, recognized in its political environment, the person chosen to lead the party and the ability of citizens to consolidate around a common goal, most effectively represent the interests of a particular social group. It is stated that the defining feature of the phenomenon of party leadership is that under conditions of constant political development and irreversibility of democratic transformations in Ukraine part of leaders of political parties in fact is a powerful talent pool for senior government officials, local government agencies and other administrative institutions. The process of creating games as an integral part of the political process is characterized by a certain way, the mechanism of action of consciousness and culture in the public sphere, which deals with political parties. Regularities component of modern political elite of the party elite acts ­ governing the range of persons in the political party headed by its leader that are directly involved in strategic decision­making, policy formulation of this power, as well as its participation in the political process. We study the classification model of national political parties and the institutions of the party leadership. It is proposed to assess the level of correlation of the party leaders and the general dynamics of the civil society in Ukraine. It is stated that at this time a fundamental change in Ukrainian Party elite has not happened yet. However, there is a long evolution of the institute of the party leadership – a rather difficult process of internal and external, objective and subjective, economic

  19. Isotopes Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairiki, J.M.; Browne, E.; Firestone, R.B.; Lederer, C.M.; Shirley, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Isotopes Project compiles and evaluates nuclear structure and decay data and disseminates these data to the scientific community. From 1940-1978 the Project had as its main objective the production of the Table of Isotopes. Since publication of the seventh (and last) edition in 1978, the group now coordinates its nuclear data evaluation efforts with those of other data centers via national and international nuclear data networks. The group is currently responsible for the evaluation of mass chains A = 167-194. All evaluated data are entered into the International Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and are published in Nuclear Data Sheets. In addition to the evaluation effort, the Isotopes Project is responsible for production of the Radioactivity Handbook

  20. Isotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Dewi M.

    1995-07-15

    Some 2 0% of patients using radiopharmaceuticals receive injections of materials produced by cyclotrons. There are over 200 cyclotrons worldwide; around 35 are operated by commercial companies solely for the production of radio-pharmaceuticals with another 25 accelerators producing medically useful isotopes. These neutron-deficient isotopes are usually produced by proton bombardment. All commonly used medical isotopes can be generated by 'compact' cyclotrons with energies up to 40 MeV and beam intensities in the range 50 to 400 microamps. Specially designed target systems contain gram-quantities of highly enriched stable isotopes as starting materials. The targets can accommodate the high power densities of the proton beams and are designed for automated remote handling. The complete manufacturing cycle includes large-scale target production, isotope generation by cyclotron beam bombardment, radio-chemical extraction, pharmaceutical dispensing, raw material recovery, and labelling/packaging prior to the rapid delivery of these short-lived products. All these manufacturing steps adhere to the pharmaceutical industry standards of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Unlike research accelerators, commercial cyclotrons are customized 'compact' machines usually supplied by specialist companies such as IBA (Belgium), EBCO (Canada) or Scanditronix (Sweden). The design criteria for these commercial cyclotrons are - small magnet dimensions, power-efficient operation of magnet and radiofrequency systems, high intensity extracted proton beams, well defined beam size and automated computer control. Performance requirements include rapid startup and shutdown, high reliability to support the daily production of short-lived isotopes and low maintenance to minimize the radiation dose to personnel. In 1987 a major step forward in meeting these exacting industrial requirements came when IBA, together with the University of Louvain-La-Neuve in Belgium, developed the Cyclone-30

  1. Parties, rituals and symbolisms in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cecilia Valencia Aguirre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analyzing school parties from interaction spaces and principals’ narratives in six schools in the state of Jalisco. A party is a ritual where participants share symbols related to imaginary –hence the importance of conducting an analysis for understanding institutions as a symbolic framework. A core argument is that established actors are configured from symbolic practices in the institutional space (schools. The repetition of these practices awash with symbolism leads to daily rituals or micro rituals that are ratified in institutions. Methodologically, interviews and non-participant observation in school interaction spaces were used. Based on the findings, it may be stated that the nuclear family, rooted in the Christian image in which authority is a central point, becomes a fundamental factor in shaping institutional life as well as the imaginary linked to school parties.

  2. Nationalism, territory and extremism in party politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army. More specifica......In the paper I address the empirical puzzle arising from different responses by political authorities in Spain and the UK to the existence of political parties integrated in the terrorist groups Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA, Basque Homeland and Freedom) and the Irish Republican Army. More...... for realization of free speech rights and representation is also emphasized, and where proscription is seen as inimical to resolution of conflict underpinning violence. In the context of party competition, a winning coalition is required for one discourse to predominate. However, I also argued that both ideas...

  3. The doctrine of party autonomy in international commercial arbitration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The freedom of parties to consensually execute arbitration agreement is known as the principle of party autonomy. The principle provides a right for the parties to international commercial arbitration to choose applicable substantive law and these laws when chosen shall govern the contractual relationship of the parties.

  4. Runtime party switch in an inter-organizational collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourmirza, S.

    2016-01-01

    During the execution of an inter-organizational business-to-business (B2B) collaboration, a collaborating party may drop out for technical reasons or for business reasons. In such a case, the leaving party must be replaced, at runtime, by a new party. Ideally, the new party can pick up where the old

  5. Electoral system, pesonal votes, and party choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Søren Risbjerg

    Using local elections in Denmark as an example this paper shows that individual party choice is influenced both by individual level, municipality level, and national level characteristics. Some hypotheses about the effects of the electoral system on personal votes derived from a theory by Carey...... & Shugart (1995) are first tested using a fixed-effects model. The effect of the personal reputation of the candidates, measured by personal votes, on party choice is then tested using a multilevel multinomial logit model suggested by Rabe-Hesketh and Skrondal (2008). The paper shows that both the electoral...

  6. The ICRP working party on bioassay interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, F.A.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Birchall, A.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years there have been many developments in modelling the behaviour of radionuclides in the human body. The current generation of models are designed to be more 'realistic' than the previous generation of simple compartment models. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) uses these models to produce dose coefficients and recognises that there is a need to give more guidance on how these models can be used to interpret bioassay data. A working party has been set up to address the issue. This paper describes some of the problems, some approaches to solving the problems and the progress of the ICRP working party. (author)

  7. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  8. Isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The patent describes an isotope generator incorporating the possibility of stopping elution before the elution vessel is completely full. Sterile ventilation of the whole system can then occur, including of both generator reservoir and elution vessel. A sterile, and therefore pharmaceutically acceptable, elution fluid is thus obtained and the interior of the generator is not polluted with non-sterile air. (T.P.)

  9. Authoritarian Inheritance and Conservative Party-Building in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Loxton, James Ivor

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1970s, with the onset of the third wave of democratization, a host of new conservative parties emerged in Latin America. The trajectories of these parties varied tremendously. While some went on to enjoy long-term electoral success, others failed to take root. The most successful new conservative parties all shared a surprising characteristic: they had deep roots in former dictatorships. They were "authoritarian successor parties," or parties founded by high-level in...

  10. Related party transactions and firms financial performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Related party transactions and firms financial performance. ... African Research Review ... financial performance using Secondary data obtained from Nigeria stock ... on Asset, Return on Equity and Earnings per share of manufacturing firms. ... Result showed RPT has no significant effects on ROA and EPS and not used to ...

  11. Related Party Transactions and Firms Financial Performance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof

    Chien and Hsu (2010) found a positive moderating effect of corporate governance on the related transactions-firm performance relationship and deduce that presence of corporate governance could 'transfer' related party transactions 'conflict- of-interest' to be efficient. Past studies on the impact of RPT on financial reporting ...

  12. Group Cohesiveness in the Black Panther Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, Carolyn R.

    1977-01-01

    This study selects for study the following propositions: 1) similarity among members increased the degree of cohesiveness within the party, 2) group devotion heightened interest in accomplishing group goals and 3) the threat of an external enemy led to interdependence among members and affected both activities and leadership styles. (Author/AM)

  13. Social media, parties, and political inequalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, K.T.E.; Spierings, C.H.B.M.

    2016-01-01

    This book examines how social media have transformed politics in established democracies. Specifically, the authors examine the influence of the unique qualities of social media on the power balance between and within parties. They present a general theory as well as an in-depth case study of the

  14. Trends in nuclear third party liability law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avossa, G.

    1992-01-01

    For some ten years now, nuclear third-party liability has been changing at an ever-faster pace, further accelerated by the Chernobyl catastrophe. Some of these changes are discussed in this article. A joint protocol drawn up by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) mutually extends the benefit of the special third-party liability system regarding nuclear damage instituted by virtue of previous Conventions and settles the conflicts of law likely to result from the simultaneous application of the two international instruments. Within the framework of the IAEA, a review procedure of the Convention of Vienna has been underway since 1989, in which the NEA has taken an integral part. At the outcome of the process underway, not only will the Convention of Vienna be revised, but so, indirectly but very rapidly, will the Conventions of Paris and Brussels. Ultimately, the entire field of nuclear third-party liability will be recast for decades to come. The texts under discussion are as yet nowhere near their final stage but two areas of consideration have already emerged, which will be discussed. Substantial modifications are made in nuclear third-party liability law. Secondly, the indemnification process for nuclear damage will be vastly modified, due to the subsidiary nature of government intervention and new obligations on operators to become members of a Nuclear Operator Pool. (author)

  15. Implementing Democratic Equality in Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolleyer, Nicole; von Nostitz, Felix-Christopher; Little, Conor

    2015-01-01

    This article theorises and empirically assesses some important intra-organisational implications of maximising democratic equality in political parties both between followers and members and between members and elites. They include weak member commitment, passivity of the rank-and-file membership...

  16. LEGO for Two-Party Secure Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Orlandi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This paper continues the recent line of work of making Yao’s garbled circuit approach to two-party computation secure against an active adversary. We propose a new cut-and-choose based approach called LEGO (Large Efficient Garbled-circuit Optimization): It is specifically aimed at large circuits...

  17. Feature Project--A Bookmaking Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Lori; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The teaching activities presented in this article focus on a bookmaking party, which gives children a format in which they can publish and share their activities in a formal way, provides them with books for recording their writing, and involves students, parents, and the community with children's writing. The paper describes the steps for…

  18. Capuchin Monkeys Judge Third-Party Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R.; Takimoto, Ayaka; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Increasing interest is being shown in how children develop an understanding of reciprocity in social exchanges and fairness in resource distribution, including social exchanges between third parties. Although there are descriptions of reciprocity on a one-to-one basis in other species, whether nonhumans detect reciprocity and violations of…

  19. Political party affiliation, political ideology and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drost, W.

    1978-01-01

    The International Symposium on Isotope Hydrology was jointly organized by the IAEA and UNESCO, in co-operation with the National Committee of the Federal Republic of Germany for the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) and the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH (GSF). Upon the invitation of the Federal Republic of Germany the Symposium was held from 19-23 June 1978 in Neuherberg on the GSF campus. The Symposium was officially opened by Mr. S. Eklund, Director General of the IAEA. The symposium - the fifth meeting held on isotope hydrology - was attended by over 160 participants from 44 countries and four international organizations and by about 30 observers from the Federal Republic of Germany. Due to the absence of scientists from the USSR five papers were cancelled and therefore only 46 papers of the original programme were presented in ten sessions

  1. Political Market Orientation and Strategic Party Postures in Danish Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper investigates the relationship between the strategic postures and political market orientation profile of two Danish parties. Profile stability at the organisational level is used as a control variable. Design/methodology/approach – The strategic political postures of two Danish...... are used to control for organisational stability. Findings – The self-typing study revealed that Party A was perceived to follow a Relationship Builder posture, and Party B a Convinced Ideologist posture. However, both market orientation profiles resembled the organisational structures of a Convinced...... in the political sphere. More specifically it empirically links political market orientation as an issue of political marketing implementation on the one hand, and strategic postures of parties as a strategic issue on the other, following a configuration theory logic. Research limitations...

  2. Political Market Orientation and Strategic Party Postures in Danish Political Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper investigates the relationship between the strategic postures and political market orientation profile of two Danish parties. Profile stability at the organisational level is used as a control variable. Design/methodology/approach – The strategic political postures of two Danish...... parties are derived using a self-typing study. Based on configuration theory, ideal organisational profiles to implement these studies are juxtaposed with the actual political market orientation profile for each party, gained from two datasets analysed using Partial Least Squares. Member activity levels...... Ideologist. Thus, Party A exhibits a mismatch between strategic orientation and implemented organisational profile, based on configuration theory. The results were generally stable across political activity levels. Originality/value – The study contributes to understanding the concept of market orientation...

  3. So Close But So Far: Voting Propensity and Party Choice for Left-�Wing Parties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel; Sciarini, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    While the bulk of the literature focuses on the vote for parties from different blocs, the purpose of our article is to study the vote for two parties that are ideologically very close to each other: The Social Democrats and the Greens in Switzerland. To that end, we develop a two-step model, where...... voters first make a selection of parties that are acceptable to them and then make their electoral choice out of this set of acceptable al- ternatives. We use voting propensities as a measure of the first, consideration step and we show that they strongly depend on the distance between voters and parties...... on the Left–Right scale. With regard to the second, choice stage of the electoral process we hypothesize about the factors that may account for the varying ability of the two par- ties to convert potential voters into real voters. Our empirical tests provide encourag- ing support for our hypotheses regarding...

  4. Internal party democracy as a factor of transitional societiy consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Tupitzya

    2016-08-01

    The possibility of intra-party democracy appearance as a sustainable and well played phenomena can only be based on the formation of political parties as a competitive and dynamic structures that have a high degree of internal relationships and a clear understanding of a common goal that is shared by both the governing parties and the basis of parties and ordinary party members. Distribution of party members in top management, middle functional rank and ordinary members is an obvious consequence of the organizational functioning of any extensive and systematic organization.

  5. REFLECTIONS ON WAGAR ' S WORLD PARTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Bergesen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our task is to reflect upon Wagar's idea of a world party. In case such reflections are affected by the recent historical situation of the collapse of communism/existing socialism in 1989 and the implications this has for visions of progressive politics going into the 21st century. This event colors most political thinking, although for many the response has been that existing socialism was not real socialism, or that existing socialism was but the Stalinist deformation that, if avoided in the future, the 1917 project could again be resumed and human history and social relations remade anew. I don't see it that way. What existing socialism stood for in terms of the role of a vanguard party taking state power for the larger good is, now after the fall, I think off the board as a realistic program that can be sold to anyone.

  6. Simple multi-party set reconciliation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzenmacher, Michael; Pagh, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

     set reconciliation: two parties A1A1 and A2A2 each hold a set of keys, named S1S1 and S2S2 respectively, and the goal is for both parties to obtain S1∪S2S1∪S2. Typically, set reconciliation is interesting algorithmically when sets are large but the set difference |S1−S2|+|S2−S1||S1−S2|+|S2−S1| is small...

  7. Ombuds’ corner: the third party, the institution

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    “The Ombuds shall provide confidential assistance for the informal resolution of interpersonal issues, in the interests of the good functioning of CERN.”*   In any institution, conflicts are inevitable. They can, however, offer an opportunity for a positive resolution. Relationships in a workplace are generally better and stronger between people who have been able to reach a positive resolution of their disagreement, than they are between people who get along moderately well. However, in disputes involving two antagonistic parties, people often forget that there is actually a third party behind the scenes: the institution. It is sometimes surprising to see that even people holding management responsibilities or hierarchical positions in projects fight each other, and completely forget that they are accountable for the good functioning of CERN. Commitment and professionalism are part of the five priority values of CERN, as expressed in its Code of Conduct: “Promot...

  8. Ordinance on nuclear third party liability (ORCN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The Ordinance exempts from the application of the 1983 Act on Nuclear Third Party Liability some substances with low radiation effects. It determines the amount of private insurance cover and defines the risks that insurers may exclude from cover. It establishes a special fund for nuclear damage made up of contributions from the nuclear operators. Specifications are given on the amount of the contributions and their conditions, as well as on administration of the fund. The Ordinance repeals the Ordinance of 13 June 1960 on funds for delayed atomic damage, the Order of 19 December 1960 on contributions to the fund for delayed atomic damage and the Ordinance of 30 November 1981 on cover for third party liability resulting from nuclear power plant operation [fr

  9. Political Parties, Clientelism, and Bureaucratic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Cesi; Keefer, Philip

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of public administration reform is well-known: politicians often have little interest in the efficient implementation of government policy. Using new data from 439 World Bank public sector reform loans in 109 countries, we demonstrate that such reforms are significantly less likely to succeed in the presence of non-programmatic political parties. Earlier research uses evidence from a small group of countries to conclude that clientelistic politicians resist reforms that restrict...

  10. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Obłój Jan; Abramczuk Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when ...

  11. Social Networks and Political Parties in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adler Lomnitz, Larissa

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the origin and evolution of two Chilean political parties (the Radical Party and the Christian Democrat Party through the analysis of the social networks that originated and composed them. The aim of this study is to propose a model of national political cultures on the basis of the structure of social networks related to power and of the symbol system, which legitimizes it. The structure of social networks, horizontal and vertical, are based on reciprocal or redistributive forms of exchange, on what is being exchanged and on the articulation between networks. In every society there are symmetrical and asymmetrical exchanges, which produce horizontal and vertical networks. These networks interact among themselves to form the social fabric. The dominance of some over others and how they combine, delineate the character of the political culture (authoritarian vs. egalitarian. Chile is a multiparty country within which there are cohorts of horizontal groups of friends, who informally exercise a central control over their members and create invisible boundaries setting them apart from others, in which leadership is under constrains. The result is both a strong presidential system based on an almost fanatic legitimacy, combined with factionalism and a strong parliamentary system.

  12. The value of political parties to representative democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kölln, Ann-Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Political parties play a major role in democratic processes around the world. Recent empirical research suggests that parties are increasingly less important to citizens. Simultaneously, classic and contemporary theories of representative democracy specifically still minimally incorporate accounts

  13. Inequality and anti-globalization backlash by political parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.

    2013-01-01

    Does income inequality increase political backlash against European and global integration? This paper reports research suggesting that it can. The article analyses party opposition to and support for trade openness, European Union integration and general internationalism of political party

  14. Third-party online payment solutions in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    The topic of this paper is third-party online payment solutions in China and the main purpose of this paper is to figure out the research question: What are the impacts of third-party online payment solutions on China? Generally speaking, the third-party online payment solutions, including mobile payments, usually used by customer who purchase online and usually used in transaction platform. However, in China, people can use third-party payment solutions in different platfor...

  15. The Organizational Weapon: Ruling Parties in Authoritarian Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This project examines party building in authoritarian regimes. The overarching puzzle I seek to address is: why are some autocratic ruling parties stronger organizations than others? What explains variation in the institutional capacity of autocratic rule? The collection of three essays in this dissertation outline the strategic logic of party institutionalization, in addition to providing new and original ways in which to measure this key concept of authoritarian party strength. It tests pre...

  16. 31 CFR 19.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded Parties List System 19.950 Section 19.950 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.950 Excluded Parties List System Excluded Parties...

  17. 45 CFR 99.22 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rights of parties. 99.22 Section 99.22 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS FOR THE CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Hearing Procedures § 99.22 Rights of parties. All parties may: (a...

  18. 26 CFR 301.7430-5 - Prevailing party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prevailing party. 301.7430-5 Section 301.7430-5... Prevailing party. (a) In general. For purposes of an award of reasonable administrative costs under section... prevailing party only if— (1) The position of the Internal Revenue Service was not substantially justified...

  19. The Dark Side of Altruistic Third-Party Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibbrandt, Andreas; Lopez-Perez, Raul

    2011-01-01

    This article experimentally studies punishment from unaffected third parties in ten different games. The authors show that third-party punishment exhibits several features that are arguably undesirable. First, third parties punish strongly a decider if she chooses a socially efficient or a Pareto efficient allocation and becomes the richest party…

  20. Political Party Financing and why it Matters in Tanzania | Walwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the key recommendations is that public funding for ongoing party activities and campaigns should be allocated by a mix of proportional rules and flat subsidies to all parties that meet reasonable thresholds and flat subsidies as refers here imply providing subsidies to all political parties on equal basis. The other key ...

  1. Flawed Political Party Primaries In Nigeria's Fourth Republic: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... However, through an assessment of extant secondary data, this paper submits that the experience in the Peoples Democratic Party; the ruling party, during the 2007 General Elections was a case of deliberate imposition of candidates by powerful party leaders.

  2. 6 CFR 13.17 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rights of parties. 13.17 Section 13.17 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.17 Rights of parties. Except as otherwise limited by this part, all parties may: (a) Be accompanied...

  3. 6 CFR 13.13 - Parties to the hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parties to the hearing. 13.13 Section 13.13 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.13 Parties to the hearing. (a) The parties to the hearing will be the Defendant and the Authority...

  4. Electrophysiological correlates of cocktail-party listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewald, Jörg; Getzmann, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    Detecting, localizing, and selectively attending to a particular sound source of interest in complex auditory scenes composed of multiple competing sources is a remarkable capacity of the human auditory system. The neural basis of this so-called "cocktail-party effect" has remained largely unknown. Here, we studied the cortical network engaged in solving the "cocktail-party" problem, using event-related potentials (ERPs) in combination with two tasks demanding horizontal localization of a naturalistic target sound presented either in silence or in the presence of multiple competing sound sources. Presentation of multiple sound sources, as compared to single sources, induced an increased P1 amplitude, a reduction in N1, and a strong N2 component, resulting in a pronounced negativity in the ERP difference waveform (N2d) around 260 ms after stimulus onset. About 100 ms later, the anterior contralateral N2 subcomponent (N2ac) occurred in the multiple-sources condition, as computed from the amplitude difference for targets in the left minus right hemispaces. Cortical source analyses of the ERP modulation, resulting from the contrast of multiple vs. single sources, generally revealed an initial enhancement of electrical activity in right temporo-parietal areas, including auditory cortex, by multiple sources (at P1) that is followed by a reduction, with the primary sources shifting from right inferior parietal lobule (at N1) to left dorso-frontal cortex (at N2d). Thus, cocktail-party listening, as compared to single-source localization, appears to be based on a complex chronology of successive electrical activities within a specific cortical network involved in spatial hearing in complex situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear third party liability under Polish law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewaszkiewic-Petrykowska, B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the system governing liability for nuclear incidents in Poland. The Atomic Energy Act of 10 April 1986, which entered into force on 1 July 1986, covers all aspects of nuclear activities, including third party liability. Such liability is channelled onto the nuclear operator who must take out insurance to cover his liability up to an amount fixed in the contract. The Act provides that questions not settled by its provisions are governed by the Civil Code; therefore, if personal injuries exceed that amount victims may claim the difference from the State under that Code (NEA) [fr

  6. Efficient secure two-party protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hazay, Carmit

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive study of efficient protocols and techniques for secure two-party computation -- both general constructions that can be used to securely compute any functionality, and protocols for specific problems of interest. The book focuses on techniques for constructing efficient protocols and proving them secure. In addition, the authors study different definitional paradigms and compare the efficiency of protocols achieved under these different definitions.The book opens with a general introduction to secure computation and then presents definitions of security for a

  7. Third party liability for nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crancher, D.W.

    1976-12-01

    Basic principles of nuclear liability legislation are discussed including absolute and limited liability and the role of the Sovereign State in idemnifying the operator for damage in excess of limited liability. European counrties realised the need for unifying the law of nuclear instability and efforts were made accordingly towards producing workable international conventions. The world's first legislation on nuclear liability - the USA Price-Anderson Act - is described in detail and a digest of nuclear liability claims experience is given. Observations of the present status of nuclear third party liability are outlined. (Author)

  8. The Tibetan Policy of Chinese Communist Party

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 朝美

    2001-01-01

    This study is a part of the master degree thesis on Tibet that covers the religious policy of CCP (Chinese Communist Party) toward Tibet. For the last 50 years of 20th century, various policies by CCP have been undertaken into Tibet. Up to now, however, they are not always successful. On the contrary, it can be recognized that antagonistic feeling of Tibetan people against Hanzu race has been even accelerated. This is why one of reasons for it may be attributed to the religious policy of CCP ...

  9. Le Parti paysan d’union sociale

    OpenAIRE

    Bensoussan, David

    2015-01-01

    La fondation, le 11 juillet 1945 à Paris, du Parti paysan n’a sans doute guère suscité l’attention des contemporains alors immergés dans le contexte tumultueux de l’immédiat après-guerre. Il faut d’ailleurs attendre la parution, quelque temps plus tard, le 6 octobre, du premier numéro de L’Unité Paysanne, organe hebdomadaire de cette nouvelle formation politique, pour que sa naissance soit publiquement officialisée. Sans vouloir surévaluer l’importance d’une organisation qui n’arrivera jamais...

  10. Third-Party Software's Trust Quagmire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, J; Hurlburt, G

    2015-12-01

    Current software development has trended toward the idea of integrating independent software sub-functions to create more complete software systems. Software sub-functions are often not homegrown - instead they are developed by unknown 3 rd party organizations and reside in software marketplaces owned or controlled by others. Such software sub-functions carry plausible concern in terms of quality, origins, functionality, security, interoperability, to name a few. This article surveys key technical difficulties in confidently building systems from acquired software sub-functions by calling out the principle software supply chain actors.

  11. Turkish Political Market and the Perception of Political Parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Polat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to describe the Turkish political market and determine where and how Turkish political parties are perceived by voters. The study uses a two-dimensional map to determine the voter perceptions of the parties in the Turkish political market based on a survey questionnaire applied to 400 young voters. It also investigates whether there are any major differences in the perception of parties in the political space based on voter ideologies. The study finds that young voters have clear perceptions of the positions of Turkish parties. It also finds that voter perceptions of parties vary based on voters’ ideological positions.

  12. Political parties in the Sverdlovsk region: stages of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhametov Ruslan Salikhovich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the processes of party building in the Russian Federation. On the example of a single region – the Sverdlovsk region – we study the evolution of political parties. The factors favoring the process of formation and functioning of regional political parties and political movements in the Middle Urals are identified and classified. Much attention is paid to such factors of development of the parties in the region as a party-electoral law and the electoral system view.

  13. Natural isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    14 C dates between 600 and 900 AD were obtained for early Iron Age sites in Natal, and from 1300 to 1450 AD for rock engraving sites in Bushmanland. Palaeoenvironmental data derived from the dating of samples related to sedimentary and geomorphic features in the central and northern Namib Desert enabled the production of a tentative graph for the changes in humidity in the region over the past 40000 years. These results suggest that relatively humid conditions came to an end in the Namib at ±25000 BP (before present). The increased precision of the SIRA mass spectrometer enabled the remeasurement of 13 C and 18 O in the Cango stalagmite. This data confirmed that the environmental temperatures in the Southern Cape remained constant to within ±1 o C during the past 5500 years. Techniques and applications for environmental isotopes in hydrology were developed to determine the origin and movement of ground water. Isotopic fractionation effects in light elements in nature were investigated. The 15 N/ 14 N ratio in bones of animals and humans increases in proportion to the aridity of the environment. This suggests that 15 N in bone from dated archaeological sites could be used to detect changes in past climatic conditions as naturally formed nitrate minerals are higly soluble and are only preserved in special, very dry environments. The sources and sinks of CO 2 on the South African subcontinent were also determined. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of air CO 2 obtained suggest that the vegetation provides the major proportion of respired CO 2 . 9 refs., 1 fig

  14. Efficient Multi-Party Computation over Rings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Fehr, Serge; Ishai, Yuval

    2003-01-01

    Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is an active research area, and a wide range of literature can be found nowadays suggesting improvements and generalizations of existing protocols in various directions. However, all current techniques for secure MPC apply to functions that are represented by ...... the usefulness of the above results by presenting a novel application of MPC over (non-field) rings to the round-efficient secure computation of the maximum function. Basic Research in Computer Science (www.brics.dk), funded by the Danish National Research Foundation.......Secure multi-party computation (MPC) is an active research area, and a wide range of literature can be found nowadays suggesting improvements and generalizations of existing protocols in various directions. However, all current techniques for secure MPC apply to functions that are represented...... by (boolean or arithmetic) circuits over finite fields. We are motivated by two limitations of these techniques: – Generality. Existing protocols do not apply to computation over more general algebraic structures (except via a brute-force simulation of computation in these structures). – Efficiency. The best...

  15. LES PARTIES DU CONTRAT DE CONCESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian OLARU

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential feature of the administrative contract, which is part of the concession contract, differentiates from the civil contract with at least one of the topics of administrative contract that is a physical person of public law. Thus, if the subject of civil contract can be any physical or juridical person that has full the capacity to exercise, then, in the case of the administrative contract, at least one subject must have the special “quality”, namely to be a public authority or a moral person of public law. If one of the contracting parties is a public figure and the other is a person of private law, the contract may be administrative. “This condition is necessary, but not sufficient”. By the definition given to concession in article 1 line 1 of the Law on concessions, the legislator determines not only the name of the contracting parties, which formed the juridical report (the conceded, the concessionaire but also the subject concession contract, which makes it different from other administrative contracts. Moreover, in the article 4 of the cited law, it is determined the scope of the public authorities, juridical persons of public law that may have the quality of conceded, while article 5 provides the scope of persons who may have the quality of concessionaire.

  16. Marmoset monkeys evaluate third-party reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yasue, Miyuki; Banno, Taku; Ichinohe, Noritaka

    2014-05-01

    Many non-human primates have been observed to reciprocate and to understand reciprocity in one-to-one social exchanges. A recent study demonstrated that capuchin monkeys are sensitive to both third-party reciprocity and violation of reciprocity; however, whether this sensitivity is a function of general intelligence, evidenced by their larger brain size relative to other primates, remains unclear. We hypothesized that highly pro-social primates, even with a relatively smaller brain, would be sensitive to others' reciprocity. Here, we show that common marmosets discriminated between human actors who reciprocated in social exchanges with others and those who did not. Monkeys accepted rewards less frequently from non-reciprocators than they did from reciprocators when the non-reciprocators had retained all food items, but they accepted rewards from both actors equally when they had observed reciprocal exchange between the actors. These results suggest that mechanisms to detect unfair reciprocity in third-party social exchanges do not require domain-general higher cognitive ability based on proportionally larger brains, but rather emerge from the cooperative and pro-social tendencies of species, and thereby suggest this ability evolved in multiple primate lineages. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  18. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopes are separated by contacting a feed solution containing the isotopes with a cyclic polyether wherein a complex of one isotope is formed with the cyclic polyether, the cyclic polyether complex is extracted from the feed solution, and the isotope is thereafter separated from the cyclic polyether

  19. Picturing the Party: Instagram and Party Campaigning in the 2014 Swedish Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Filimonov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores Swedish parties’ activities on Instagram during the 2014 elections. Understanding party campaign communication as highly strategic, that is, communication to persuade and mobilize voters in order to win the elections, we ask whether Instagram was used to (1 broadcast campaign messages, (2 mobilize supporters, (3 manage the party’s image, and (4 amplify and complement other campaign material (i.e., hybrid campaign use. With this study, we follow previous studies on the use of digital communication platforms in the hands of campaigning political actors, but we direct our attention to a new platform. We conducted a content analysis of 220 party postings on Instagram, collected during the hot phase of the campaign. The result shows that the platform was mainly used for broadcasting rather than for mobilization. The image the parties were presenting leaned toward personalization with a strong presence of top candidates in their postings. Top candidates were primarily displayed in a political/professional context. Finally, half of the analyzed postings showed signs of hybridized campaign practices. The presented findings give a first glimpse on how political parties use and perform on Instagram.

  20. 76 FR 69595 - Application of Third Party Testing Requirements; Reducing Third Party Testing Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... material change in the product's design or manufacturing process, including the sourcing of component parts...)) defines a ``children's product,'' in relevant part, as a consumer product designed or intended primarily... testing by a third party) be designed to show the similarity between the products? Also, sampling...

  1. Political Parties and the Institutionalization of Education: A Comparative Analysis of Party Manifestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Anja P.

    2011-01-01

    Education has been featured prominently in recent election campaigns in different countries. This article explains this observation by the idea of a world culture and the global institutionalization of education. It compares party manifestors of 25 OECD countries from 1946 onward, analyzing how education developed in election campaigns over time…

  2. Party Organizational Change: Formal Distribution of Power between National and Regional Levels in Italian Political Parties (1991-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Calossi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years an increasing number of scholars have centred their attention on the relationships between party national structures and party sub-national branches. A relevant part of the specialized literature has interpreted party change as the by-product of the denationalization of party politics. The aim of this contribution is to investigate to what extent eight relevant Italian parties have followed patterns of organizational change, after the reforms of the municipal, provincial and regional election sys-tems; and the process of devolution of administrative powers begun during the Nineties. By focusing on two analytical dimensions (the level of involvement and the level of autonomy of party regional units, we analyse diachronically continuity and change in party formal organization, through an in-depth analysis of the statutes adopted from 1992 to 2012

  3. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jepson, B.E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention comprises a method for separating different isotopes of elements from each other by contacting a feed solution containing the different isotopes with a macrocyclic polyether to preferentially form a macrocyclic polyether complex with the lighter of the different isotopes. The macrocyclic polyether complex is then separated from the lighter isotope depleted feed solution. A chemical separation of isotopes is carried out in which a constant refluxing system permits a continuous countercurrent liquid-liquid extraction. (LL)

  4. Method for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A vortex tube for separating isotopes is described. A gas mixture containing the isotopic molecules enters the vortex tube under pressure and is separated into a hot discharge flow stream and a cold discharge flow stream. The hot discharge is enriched in lighter isotopic molecules whereas the cold discharge flow stream is enriched in the heavier isotopic molecules. The vortex tube can be used in a single stage or multistage isotope separation apparatus

  5. Nuclear third party liability in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The German system of nuclear third party liability has always been, and arguably still is, the object of considerable interest in the international nuclear law community. This may seem surprising since Germany adheres to the Paris Convention and is therefore a party to a community of 15 states all following the same principles enshrined in this Convention. In fact, when implementing the PC, Germany chose the approach ensuring the most literal adherence to the PC's principles: it adopted the PC in its entirety, thus directly transposing the PC text into binding German law, instead of enacting a national law derived from, but not literally translating, the PC. At the same time, perhaps no other nation has made use of the options, choices and margins offered or abandoned by the PC to the national legislators, or kept in store by way of a reservation at signature of the Convention, in such an extended manner, testing - and as has even been contended in the past: stressing - the boundaries of the PC system. Unlimited liability introduced in 1985, the highest financial security of any PC state (EUR 2.5 billion), unlimited territorial scope combined with the principle of reciprocity and liability of German operators even in the force majeure cases of Article 9 of the PC are probably the most interesting decisions made by Germany in this context, established in the Atomic Energy Act (Atomgesetz). These choices betray a certain tendency of the German government to give the greatest possible benefit to victims, and in parallel to achieve a 'normalisation' of the nuclear liability regime, without stifling the industry. Within the compromise underlying the international nuclear liability regime - enabling the nuclear industry to create and sustain an energy sector highly relevant for national electricity production on the one hand and protecting potential victims on the other - Germany has more and more shifted the balance, as far as practically possible, to the

  6. Third party objection and action against enforcement: Request for exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a right of a third party to prevent enforcement on the basis of a claim and evidence that rights or assets seized in enforcement proceeding belong to him (third party and not to the enforcement debtor. In most of jurisdictions that were subject of analysis of this paper, this right of a third party is exercised by filing an objection to the court conducting enforcement proceedings. The claim of the third party is directed towards the enforcement creditor as well as against the enforcement debtor. In the event the claim of the third party is being contested, the court instructs the third party to initiate litigation proceedings for determining whether the third party is entitled to exclusion of such rights or assets from enforcement, especially if such third party holds property rights or some other rights over the assets that are being subject to enforcement proceedings. In majority of analyzed jurisdictions, enforcement proceedings are being suspended provided the third party, in the objection being filed makes prima facie likely, on the basis of credible evidence, that his assets were seized in the enforcement proceedings. However, according to the law of the Republic of Serbia, a credible objection of a third party does not result in suspension of enforcement proceedings, something that is being criticized in this paper. As a result of this provision of the law, a bona fide third party is forced to endure the enforcement although his claim has been made likely and subsequently confirmed in the litigation proceedings. The author, in particular, points to the legal consequences of mala fide enforcement creditor that knew that the assets that are being subject of the enforcement proceedings do not belong to the enforcement debtor. The author is of the opinion that, in such cases, the enforcement creditor should be obliged to pay to the third party damages that such party suffered as a result of enforcement proceedings being

  7. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obłój Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

  8. Public funding of political parties when campaigns are informative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortín, Ignacio Ortuño; Schultz, Christian

    dependence on vote shares induces fur- ther moderation and improves welfare. If parties are asymmetric, vote share dependent public funding bene…ts the large party and makes it moderate its candidate, while the smaller party reacts by choosing a more extremist candidate. On balance, however, if the parties......The paper considers public funding of political parties when some voters are poorly informed about parties’ candidates and campaigns are informative. For symmetric equilibria, it is shown that more pub- lic funding leads parties to chose more moderate candidates, and that an increase in the funding’s...... are not too asymmetric, an increase in vote share dependent funding improves welfare and increases the likelihood that a moderate candidate wins the election...

  9. Changing the Rules of the Game : the development and reform of party law in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, F.F.

    2017-01-01

    Party law, or the legal regulation of political parties, has become a prominent feature of party systems. Some party laws are designed to have a much larger political impact than others. It remains unknown why some countries adopt party laws that have substantial implications for party

  10. Report of the ITER Council's Ways and Means Working Party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Beginning in 1988 and continuing through 1990, the four Parties involved, under the auspices of the IAEA, have been cooperating in the ITER Conceptual Design Activities. In order to develop ways and means to comply with the objective of the cooperation, a Working Party was chartered by the Council in July, 1989. This report contains the outcome of the Working Party's effort to fulfil the Council's charge and subsequent additional guidance, which are also given in this document. 2 figs, 13 tabs

  11. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  12. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    negatively affect immigrants the most. Combining quantitative and qualitative analysis of labour market reforms in Denmark, where one of the most successful populist right-wing parties in Europe – the Danish People's Party – held a pivotal position in the period 2001–11, the article traces the intentions...... and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different...

  13. Server-Aided Two-Party Computation with Simultaneous Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Ranellucci, Samuel

    We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal composab......We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal...

  14. Isotope puzzle in sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Liping

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms affecting multicomponent material sputtering are complex. Isotope sputtering is the simplest in the multicomponent materials sputtering. Although only mass effect plays a dominant role in the isotope sputtering, there is still an isotope puzzle in sputtering by ion bombardment. The major arguments are as follows: (1) At the zero fluence, is the isotope enrichment ejection-angle-independent or ejection-angle-dependent? (2) Is the isotope angular effect the primary or the secondary sputter effect? (3) How to understand the action of momentum asymmetry in collision cascade on the isotope sputtering?

  15. From Protest to Political Parties: Online Deliberation in New Parties in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Borge Bravo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The new parties that emerged following the 15-M movement and against the austerity measures in Spain want to build parties open to the participation and deliberation for all the citizenry. To what extent are these ideals being fulfilled? The aim of this article is to describe and assess some of the main online deliberative processes of the two most important parties, Podemos and Barcelona En Comú, following commonly accepted criteria in the literature for measuring online deliberation. Specifically, we have examined the two most-voted proposals from the online platform Plaza Podemos and the online development of the electoral programme of Barcelona En Comú. Thus, we have conducted a content analysis of 713 (Plaza Podemos and 563 (Barcelona En Comú posts. Both platforms meet the structural and technical criteria for fostering deliberation, but the external impact is high only in the case of Barcelona En Comú. The deliberative quality of the communication is good but not the criteria of reflexivity, inclusion and plurality.

  16. Party-state relationship, an effect of the political competition. The party system and patronage in Romanian politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Lonean

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the party-state relationship in post-communist Romania. It shows the connections between the existence of patronage, corruption and the states’ weak administrative capacity, on one hand, and the dynamics of the political party system, as an explanatory variable, on the other hand. The instability of the political parties in Romania and their changing relations within the system make the electorates’ task of anticipating and sanctioning their politics impossible. Consequently, the political parties have the possibility of extracting resources from the state without being held accountable in elections, as an effect of their dynamic, but non-robust competition.

  17. Improvement of nuclear third party liability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. W.; Oh, B. J.; Yoo, S. O.; Kang, S. C.; Lee, J. I.

    2001-01-01

    A special regime for nuclear third party liability is necessary since the ordinary common law is not well suited to deal with the particular problems in the field of nuclear industry. The basic principles of this regime is i) strict liability (other than traditional fault liability), ii) channelling and the exclusive liability of operator, iii) compulsory financial security, iv) limits on liability in amount and in time v) intervention by the state, etc. In Korea, a revision was made to the Nuclear Damage Compensation Act on 16th January, 2001. The revision aimed at the reflection of the spirit of the new Vienna Convention on Nuclear Liability (1997) such as i) limit of liability to an amount of 300mil SDR, ii) increase of the level of financial protection (in the presidential decree, the 'Phasing-In' system would be introduced), iii) Extension of the definition 'nuclear damage', iv) extension of the scope of application to EEZ, v) deletion of 'natural calamity' from the causes of immunity, vi) extension of prescription period for personal injury to a length of 30 year

  18. CERN clubs join the fiftieth anniversary party!

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    CERN's clubs are planning to celebrate the Organization's 50th anniversary by organising a variety of special events. It's raining projects! CERN's clubs have chosen to celebrate the Organization's Golden Jubilee, each in its own style, by organising a whole host of anniversary events. While the Cine-Club continues to screen films made in the Member States on Thursday evenings, other clubs are organising special races and tournaments to honour CERN's 50th year. The CERN Rugby Club led the way in early April when it hosted a children's tournament which brought the Laboratory firmly into the view of its many young participants. On 24 April, the Cycling Club moves to centre stage as it takes its members on a unique 50-km discovery trip around the countryside above the tunnel of the future LHC. The Croquet Club, the Running Club, the Horse Riding Club and the Golf Club will all be joining the party in May and June. After that, football, softball, cycling, pétanque and sailing are just some of the items on a sp...

  19. Monday (after work) is party time!

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    In this interview with Hermann Schmickler, CERN accelerator expert and, more recently, manager of the Open Day organising team, the Bulletin looks behind the scenes of the organisation of CERN’s most popular events for the public.  After the huge endeavour, the “Bosons&More” party awaits you too!   The Open Days core team. “In the early days of the preparations when we still had some spare time, we decided to take photos in two different dress codes to illustrate the spirit of “Bosons&More”: formal evening dress and festival type clothes,” says Herman Schmickler. What will your dress code be on Monday evening?   When Hermann is asked “what did you like best” about this whole adventure, he has no hesitation: “The team,” he says. “We have a wonderful team of very motivated people.” Let’s make a rough calculation: the core team compris...

  20. Isotopically exchangeable phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro, N.O.

    1984-01-01

    A critique revision of isotope dilution is presented. The concepts and use of exchangeable phosphorus, the phosphate adsorption, the kinetics of isotopic exchange and the equilibrium time in soils are discussed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  1. Optical isotope shifts for unstable samarium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; Grant, I.S.; England, J.G.; Fawcett, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Using a tunable dye laser beam intersecting a thermal atomic beam, optical isotope shifts and hyperfine splittings have been measured for the four unstable samarium isotopes between 144 Sm and 154 Sm, covering the well known transition region from spherical to deformed shapes. (orig.)

  2. Secure Two-Party Computation with Low Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Hazay, Carmit

    2011-01-01

    We propose a 2-party UC-secure computation protocol that can compute any function securely. The protocol requires only two messages, communication that is poly-logarithmic in the size of the circuit description of the function, and the workload for one of the parties is also only poly-logarithmic...

  3. Developing Product Lines with 3rd-party components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonge, M.

    2007-01-01

    The trends toward product line development and toward adopting more 3rd-party software are hard to combine. The reason is that productlines demand fine control over the software (e.g., for diversity management), while 3rd-party software (almost by definition) provides only little or no control. A

  4. Risk based approach and interactions between interested parties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... interested parties in QSE management systems. Hanae DAHMAN EL ... relevant interested parties participating in the logistics chain and who contribute to the ... huge logistic crossroads of loads and flows: supply of aircraft in kerosene, ... Swissport which represents the global supplier of services to the ...

  5. STEM and the Evolution of the Astronomical Star Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Munive, P.; Franco, J.; Jones, A. P.; Shaner, A. J.; Buxner, S.; Bleacher, L.

    2015-12-01

    The astronomical star party has long been a powerful and effective way to engage the public and enhance cohesiveness within the amateur astronomy community. Early star parties tended to be strictly small, local events. But with improvements in transportation, larger regional star parties became popular. These advanced the considerable capabilities for citizen science in the amateur community, shared technology and engineering innovations in the field of telescope making, and refined numerous mathematical techniques in areas such instrument design and ephemeris generation, covering the full breadth of STEM. Advancements in astrophotography showcased at these events brought the star party from STEM to STEAM. Now, the advent of social media, web streaming, and virtual presence has facilitated the phenomenon of very large, networked star parties with international scope. These mega star parties take public engagement to a new, far greater levels, giving a vastly larger and more diverse public the opportunity to directly participate in exciting first-hand STEM activities. This presentation will recount the evolution of the star party and will focus on two examples of large, multinational, networked star parties, International Observe the Moon Night and Noche de las Estrellas. We will look at lessons learned and ways to participate.

  6. 34 CFR 81.19 - Costs and fees of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Costs and fees of parties. 81.19 Section 81.19 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GENERAL EDUCATION PROVISIONS ACT-ENFORCEMENT General Provisions § 81.19 Costs and fees of parties. The Equal Access to Justice Act, 5 U.S.C. 504...

  7. Features of modern security policy UK political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Stalovierova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The security policy of the British coalition government of D. Cameron (2010-2015 is summarized; it’s been proved that political forces of Tory and Liberal Democrat should have compromised to carry out unanimous course in the scope of national security, and the problems of the security strategy on parliamentary elections in 2015 are analyzed, particularly the comparative analysis of the modern safety strategy of leading British parties is exercised. Under conditions of the appearance of new challenges and threats, transformation of international safety system, the questions of safety policy often become the object of attention of the British community and experts. The absence of cross-party consensus on most terms of safety strategy of the United Kingdom during the election campaign in 2015 makes the discussion about perspectives of the British safety policy still more urgent. During the election campaign there was no unity on any aspect of security subject between parties. First of all, Labourists, Liberal Democrats, Scottish National Party and Green Party made a statement about readiness to develop cooperation with the EU and the Conservatives and the UK Independence Party were on the side of the Eurosceptics. The opinions of the parties were also divided on military operations abroad, financing and force level. In terms of one-party government and presence of majority in the House of Commons, the Conservatives have opportunities to realize their own vision of British safety policy.

  8. Inequality and anti-globalization backlash by political parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Does inequality fuel anti-globalization backlash? This paper answers this question by analyzing how income inequality affects the embrace or eschew of globalization by political parties. It focuses on party opposition to and support for trade openness, European-Union integration, and general

  9. The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Political Parties and Political Participation in Rivers State, Nigeria: A Case Study of 2015 General Elections. Goddey Wilson. Abstract. The study reviewed the activities of the political parties and its impact on voters' participation in the political activities in Rivers State. In pursuit of this objective, the study generated ...

  10. 25 CFR 11.906 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ORDER CODE Children's Court § 11.906 Rights of parties. (a) In all hearings and proceedings under §§ 11.900-11.1114 of this part the following rights will be observed unless modified by the particular... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rights of parties. 11.906 Section 11.906 Indians BUREAU...

  11. 16 CFR 240.13 - Customer's and third party liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customer's and third party liability. 240.13 Section 240.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.13 Customer's and third party...

  12. the doctrine of party autonomy in international commercial arbitration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    provoke discussions in many fora on the applicability of party autonomy in international ... questions, this article analyses the principle of party autonomy. The ultimate aim of .... 12 Odoe, (n 1) 48; English Arbitration Act 1996 s 6. 13 Odoe ibid ...

  13. African Ruling Political Parties and the Making of 'Authoritarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appearing to be a 'reincarnation' of the one-party system and military rule that held sway for about three to four decades in Africa (from the 1960s). In the process of this transformation, African ruling parties have been grossly destabilising opposition and perceived dissenters through clientelism, patronage politics and ...

  14. Supreme matters: tea parties and the activism of restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurzbauer, H.

    2010-01-01

    An essay on the impact of Tea Parties on the appointment of Supreme Court Justices. According to recently released statistics, one-fifth of all US citizens are Tea Party Supporters: predominately white conservatives convinced of the 'evils' of the Obama administration. Taking their cue from the

  15. New Swiss legislation on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1981-10-01

    Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA) [fr

  16. The gender of party leadership and its impact on voter's asessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    Even though most political parties are still male dominated, an increasing number of women reach the top position of party leader. Furthermore, party leadership is increasingly regarded as an important part of party images due to the personalization of politics. Does the gender of the party leader...... leader characteristics appreciated by men and women. If this holds, the gender of party leadership matters to women because they value woman party leaders higher, not because they value other characteristics than men....

  17. Matrix revolutions? An analysis of party organization and ICT use by political parties in the Republic of Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wall, M.; Sudulich, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the characteristics of political parties' websites in the Republic of Ireland and seeks to evaluate whether parties' organizational structures influence the manner in which they present themselves online. Ireland has been chosen as a research environment because there is

  18. Isotopes in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Justin SJ

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to review the current, state-of-the-art application of isotopic methods to the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Isotopic studies are arguably the ultimate technique in in situ methods for heterogeneous catalysis. In this review volume, chapters have been contributed by experts in the field and the coverage includes both the application of specific isotopes - Deuterium, Tritium, Carbon-14, Sulfur-35 and Oxygen-18 - as well as isotopic techniques - determination of surface mobility, steady state transient isotope kinetic analysis, and positron emission profiling.

  19. Geochemistry of silicon isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Tiping; Li, Yanhe; Gao, Jianfei; Hu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Geological Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mineral Resources; Jiang, Shaoyong [China Univ. of Geosciences, Wuhan (China).

    2018-04-01

    Silicon is one of the most abundant elements in the Earth and silicon isotope geochemistry is important in identifying the silicon source for various geological bodies and in studying the behavior of silicon in different geological processes. This book starts with an introduction on the development of silicon isotope geochemistry. Various analytical methods are described and compared with each other in detail. The mechanisms of silicon isotope fractionation are discussed, and silicon isotope distributions in various extraterrestrial and terrestrial reservoirs are updated. Besides, the applications of silicon isotopes in several important fields are presented.

  20. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  1. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...... entrepreneurship has been present. Theoretically, the study argues that the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ can be usefully borrowed from the public policy literature by researchers of party policy preferences and intra-party politics. Empirically, it adds to the small but growing body of research on climate...

  2. Third party bargaining and contract terms: a link over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, John M; Doucette, William R; Sorofman, Bernard A

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate whether prior pharmacy bargaining process strategies and pharmacy dependence on third parties affect the bargaining power of pharmacies in price negotiations with third parties. One-time survey. Random sample of 900 independent and small chain pharmacies in nine states: Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Kentucky, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin. Two hundred sixteen of the returned surveys contained sufficient responses for this analysis. Survey data on pharmacy bargaining power and prior pharmacy bargaining strategies, pharmacy dependence, and market characteristics were analyzed using multiple regression in a previously developed and modified provider/third party bargaining model. Pharmacy bargaining power. Pharmacy bargaining power varied across our sample. Pharmacy bargaining power was positively related to whether a pharmacy previously bargained with the third parties, negatively related to prior requests for contract changes, and negatively related to the pharmacy's dependence on third parties in total. Pharmacy bargaining power is related to the bargaining strategies employed by pharmacies during the previous year and the dependence of pharmacies on third party payers in total. With the prevalence of "take-it-or-leave-it" contracts from third parties, prior pharmacy bargaining behavior may affect the initial terms of the contracts that pharmacies are offered.

  3. Church parties in the Arian controversy: problems of typologization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Zakharov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of typologization of the church parties of the 4th century. This historical phenomenon arises within the framework of a long church conflict, called the Arian crisis. The designations of the church parties used by contemporaries are polemical concepts and do not correspond to the self-consciousness of their supporters. In the early Christian heresiological tradition and in the modern historiography, the basis of church parties’ classification is their theological position. However, it is necessary to take into account other consolidating factors, such as Eucharistic communion and church-political activity. The formation of church parties, as a rule, was directly related to the development of the synodal institution. Analysis of sources in the 4th century allows us to distinguish, in addition to the extensive currents - macro-parties - claiming a universal or regional consensus based on the heritage of one of the representative and authoritative councils, some small consolidated groups - micro-parties, which gather for little councils and constantly coordinate their actions within the ecclesiastical confrontation. Micro-parties could exist both within the limits of macro-party, in many respects determining the trends of it’s development, and beyond it’s boundaries. In the latter case, it is actually a marginal church group rallied around one or more extraordinary theologian, sometimes even without the episcopal rank.

  4. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Knowles

    Full Text Available The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification, and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  5. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  6. Modelling the dynamics of two political parties in the presence of switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyabadza, F; Alassey, Tobge Yawo; Muchatibaya, Gift

    2016-01-01

    This paper generalizes the model proposed by Misra, by considering switching between political parties. In the model proposed, the movements of members from political party B to political party C and vice versa, are considered but the net movement is considered by assuming that [Formula: see text] (a constant), which implies that the movement of members is either from party B to party C or from party C to party B. In this paper we remodel these movements through switching functions to capture how individuals switch between parties. The results provide a more comprehensive synopsis of the dynamics between two political parties.

  7. 13 CFR 120.920 - Required participation by the Third Party Lender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Third Party Loan collateral. Third Party Loans usually are collateralized by a first lien on the Project... BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Third Party Loans § 120.920 Required participation by the Third Party Lender. (a) Amount of Third Party Loans. A Project financing must include one or more...

  8. Moral emotions as determinants of third-party punishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M. A. Nelissen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of punishment. Low levels of punishment are observed only when neither emotion is elicited. We discuss the implications of these findings for the functions of altruistic sanctions.

  9. Effects and outcomes of third-party reproduction: parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfeld, Dorothy A

    2015-09-01

    Third-party reproduction has introduced a host of changing family constellations. Research has shown that children conceived through third-party reproduction are doing well psychologically and developmentally, but what about their parents? How have they coped with the transition to third-party reproduction? Has the experience impacted their marital stability or the quality of their parenting? This review will address parents of children conceived through oocyte donation, parents of children conceived through gestational surrogacy, and gay male parents of children conceived through oocyte donation and gestational surrogacy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-party arbitration in international trade: problems and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siig, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    Legal disputes regarding international trade frequently involve more than two parties. This leads to problems, as the preferred means of dispute resolution within international trade - arbitration - tends to be ill-equipped to handle such disputes. The topic of the paper is arbitration as a means...... of dispute resolution in a multy-party set-up. Both the possible legal bases and the problems encountered are considere. It is concluded that arbitration is still the only real option to the parties in international business disputes and that many of the shortcomings  may be contered by skilful drafting...

  11. Third Party Liability governing Dangerous and Nuclear Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Martino, Vittorio.

    1979-01-01

    The introductory chapters of this book analyse the concept of fault as a basis for third party liability and the evolution of jurisprudence and doctrine towards the concept of absolute liability. The following part covers the Italian system of liability for hazardous activities. The nuclear third party liability system is then analysed according to existing international conventions and nuclear legislation in several countries. The Appendix contains various legislative and regulatory texts on nuclear third party liability in Italy and in other countries which provide for special legislation in this field. (NEA) [fr

  12. Political parties and politics on the Internet: An analysis of the websites of Catalan political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Padró-Solanet

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The article analyses the use of New Information and Communications Technologies (NICT by the political parties, going beyond approaches focusing on the potential of these technologies for political transformation and renovation. In order to do this a set of variables that characterise the strategic position of the Catalan parties is employed: ideology, organisation and position in the electoral market. The analysis shows three different forms of usage of the Internet. One group of parties (PSC, CDC-CiU uses it to promote participation and campaigning activities; a second group (ICV, Cs, to generate new resources, and finally, a third group (PSC, ERC uses it to build contact networks. The size, and to a lesser degree the type of organisation, stand out as the major explanatory variables. The major parties use the Internet to promote campaign activities and participation; in contrast, smaller parties tend to make use of the Internet to generate new sources of financing and workforce. Depending on the type of organisation, the parties of the masses seem to be more likely to use the Internet to set up and activate an extensive contact network which recreates the characteristic associative realm of these parties in cyberspace.

  13. Impossibility of secure two-party classical computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbeck, Roger

    2007-01-01

    We present attacks that show that unconditionally secure two-party classical computation is impossible for many classes of function. Our analysis applies to both quantum and relativistic protocols. We illustrate our results by showing the impossibility of oblivious transfer

  14. motor vehicle lessors' liability for damages to third parties: acomment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    of defining the scope of application of the Ethiopian law on liability for damages ... Federal Supreme Court in a recent case has rendered a decision that allows. ♧ .... 3.1 Whether Third Party Practice Exonerates Joint and Several. Liability.

  15. Energy-political ideas of environmentalist parties in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrbek, R.

    1990-01-01

    By and large the green-alternative parties embrace the same energy policies: They reject nuclear energy, they demand a radically new approach to energy politics and they want to realise their programmes within a comprehensive restructuring of the political and economic order of the respective states. The reasons for this categorical NO to nuclear energy seen in its social and environmental compatibility. In the following we will explain how this type of party works and functions. The reasons for the formation of these parties and the profile of green-alternative parties on a national and international level are described in detail as well as the resonance in society and their chances of success in general. (orig./HSCH) [de

  16. 17 CFR 201.150 - Service of papers by parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... motion, brief, or other written communication, shall be served upon each party in the proceeding in... age and discretion then residing therein; (2) Mailing the papers through the U.S. Postal Service by...

  17. 47 CFR 76.935 - Participation of interested parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... parties. In order to regulate basic tier rates or associated equipment costs, a franchising authority must..., 120, or 180-day time periods that franchising authorities have to review rates under § 76.933. ...

  18. Anteneh Geremew Gemeda Abstract Ethiopia is party to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopia submitted four reports to the Committee and received .... the technical and financial resources and the State Party which is in need of .... the initial report and the third periodic report were each two years overdue and the consolidated.

  19. ISLAMIC PARTIES AND THE POLITICS OF CONSTITUTIONALISM IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukrimin Mukrimin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between religion and the state in Indonesia by exploring how Islam is used by political parties to shape the politics. The study shows that Islamic politics is a complementary in both nationhood and statehood in Indonesia. From the early days of the new-born nation-state, Muslims in Indonesia had played significant role in shaping the nation; nonetheless, they have never dominated the political power. Fragmentation among Muslims themselves and internal political parties is among the reason why religious (Islamic parties failed in bringing religious identity to the state arena. Political subordination-inclusion-ignorance-confrontation is the circular game that features Islamic politics in Indonesia. The debatable issue on shari‘ah law, which is frequently used by Islamic parties, always becomes the core problem of the relation between Islam and the state. Even though Islam has played an important role in colouring the Indonesian politics, its existence remains complementary.

  20. The 2014 Elections and the Brazilian Party System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ranulfo Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian party system presents a paradox. Although the Workers Party (PT and the Brazilian Social Democratic Party (PSDB have controlled presidential elections for the last 20 years, their force at the other levels of electoral competition has not grown. The objective of this study is to undertake a discussion of this situation through the 2014 general elections. After attempting to explain why successive challengers have not been able to change the structure of competition for the Brazilian presidency, I will analyze the relation established between the pattern observed at this level and the other “connected” electoral disputes—both those for state executive and federal legislative office. The general conclusion is that even if the pattern continues, it is quite improbable that this will significantly impact the other levels of national political party competition.

  1. Islamist Parties and Democratization : Lessons from Turkey's Justice ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Turkish elections of November 2002 brought a new Islamic-oriented political party to power, with ... They will endeavor to explain the Turkish experience in terms of general causal ... IDRC at the ICLEI Resilient Cities 2018 conference.

  2. Secure Two-Party Computation with Low Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kölker, Jonas; Faust, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    We propose a 2-party UC-secure protocol that can compute any function securely. The protocol requires only two messages, communication that is poly-logarithmic in the size of the circuit description of the function, and the workload for one of the parties is also only poly-logarithmic in the size...... on the knowledge of exponent in an RSA group, and build succinct zero-knowledge arguments in the CRS model....

  3. Asynchronous Multi-Party Computation with Quadratic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirt, Martin; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Przydatek, Bartosz

    2008-01-01

    We present an efficient protocol for secure multi-party computation in the asynchronous model with optimal resilience. For n parties, up to t < n/3 of them being corrupted, and security parameter κ, a circuit with c gates can be securely computed with communication complexity O(cn^2k) bits, which...... circuit randomization due to Beaver (Crypto’91), and an abstraction of certificates, which can be of independent interest....

  4. Political Party Development in the Arab World | Page 2 | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Iraqi Communist Party [Arabic language]. Documents. í€ l'épreuve du gouvernement urbain, les transformations du Parti de la Justice et du développement au Maroc. Documents. Rassemblement yéménite pour la réforme (al-Islâh) : la difficile construction d'un projet d'alternance. Documents. Socialist Union of Popular ...

  5. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emile, B.F.M.

    1983-11-01

    A process is claimed for isotopic separation applied to isotopes of elements that can be placed in at least a physicochemical form in which the isotopic atoms or the molecules containing these atoms can be easily displaced and for which there are selective radiations preferentially absorbed by the isotopes of a certain type or by the molecules containing them, said absorption substantially increasing the probability of ionization of said atoms or molecules relative to the atoms or molecules that did not absorb the radiation. The process consists of placing the isotopic mixture in such a form, subjecting it in a separation zone to selective radiations and to an electrical field that produces migration of positive ions toward the negative electrodes and negative ions toward the positive electrodes, and withdrawing from certain such zones the fractions thus enriched in certain isotopes

  6. Web party effect: a cocktail party effect in the web environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Fantoni, Carlo; Gerbino, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In goal-directed web navigation, labels compete for selection: this process often involves knowledge integration and requires selective attention to manage the dizziness of web layouts. Here we ask whether the competition for selection depends on all web navigation options or only on those options that are more likely to be useful for information seeking, and provide evidence in favor of the latter alternative. Participants in our experiment navigated a representative set of real websites of variable complexity, in order to reach an information goal located two clicks away from the starting home page. The time needed to reach the goal was accounted for by a novel measure of home page complexity based on a part of (not all) web options: the number of links embedded within web navigation elements weighted by the number and type of embedding elements. Our measure fully mediated the effect of several standard complexity metrics (the overall number of links, words, images, graphical regions, the JPEG file size of home page screenshots) on information seeking time and usability ratings. Furthermore, it predicted the cognitive demand of web navigation, as revealed by the duration judgment ratio (i.e., the ratio of subjective to objective duration of information search). Results demonstrate that focusing on relevant links while ignoring other web objects optimizes the deployment of attentional resources necessary to navigation. This is in line with a web party effect (i.e., a cocktail party effect in the web environment): users tune into web elements that are relevant for the achievement of their navigation goals and tune out all others.

  7. Web party effect: a cocktail party effect in the web environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rigutti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In goal-directed web navigation, labels compete for selection: this process often involves knowledge integration and requires selective attention to manage the dizziness of web layouts. Here we ask whether the competition for selection depends on all web navigation options or only on those options that are more likely to be useful for information seeking, and provide evidence in favor of the latter alternative. Participants in our experiment navigated a representative set of real websites of variable complexity, in order to reach an information goal located two clicks away from the starting home page. The time needed to reach the goal was accounted for by a novel measure of home page complexity based on a part of (not all web options: the number of links embedded within web navigation elements weighted by the number and type of embedding elements. Our measure fully mediated the effect of several standard complexity metrics (the overall number of links, words, images, graphical regions, the JPEG file size of home page screenshots on information seeking time and usability ratings. Furthermore, it predicted the cognitive demand of web navigation, as revealed by the duration judgment ratio (i.e., the ratio of subjective to objective duration of information search. Results demonstrate that focusing on relevant links while ignoring other web objects optimizes the deployment of attentional resources necessary to navigation. This is in line with a web party effect (i.e., a cocktail party effect in the web environment: users tune into web elements that are relevant for the achievement of their navigation goals and tune out all others.

  8. Web party effect: a cocktail party effect in the web environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Walter

    2015-01-01

    In goal-directed web navigation, labels compete for selection: this process often involves knowledge integration and requires selective attention to manage the dizziness of web layouts. Here we ask whether the competition for selection depends on all web navigation options or only on those options that are more likely to be useful for information seeking, and provide evidence in favor of the latter alternative. Participants in our experiment navigated a representative set of real websites of variable complexity, in order to reach an information goal located two clicks away from the starting home page. The time needed to reach the goal was accounted for by a novel measure of home page complexity based on a part of (not all) web options: the number of links embedded within web navigation elements weighted by the number and type of embedding elements. Our measure fully mediated the effect of several standard complexity metrics (the overall number of links, words, images, graphical regions, the JPEG file size of home page screenshots) on information seeking time and usability ratings. Furthermore, it predicted the cognitive demand of web navigation, as revealed by the duration judgment ratio (i.e., the ratio of subjective to objective duration of information search). Results demonstrate that focusing on relevant links while ignoring other web objects optimizes the deployment of attentional resources necessary to navigation. This is in line with a web party effect (i.e., a cocktail party effect in the web environment): users tune into web elements that are relevant for the achievement of their navigation goals and tune out all others. PMID:25802803

  9. Complete Fairness in Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, S. Dov; Hazay, Carmit; Katz, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    In the setting of secure two-party computation, two mutually distrusting parties wish to compute some function of their inputs while preserving, to the extent possible, various security properties such as privacy, correctness, and more. One desirable property is fairness which guarantees, informa...... for such functions must have round complexity super-logarithmic in the security parameter. Our results demonstrate that the question of completely fair secure computation without an honest majority is far from closed.......In the setting of secure two-party computation, two mutually distrusting parties wish to compute some function of their inputs while preserving, to the extent possible, various security properties such as privacy, correctness, and more. One desirable property is fairness which guarantees......-party setting. We demonstrate that this folklore belief is false by showing completely fair protocols for various nontrivial functions in the two-party setting based on standard cryptographic assumptions. We first show feasibility of obtaining complete fairness when computing any function over polynomial...

  10. Role of political parties in the formation of civil society in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сирожжон Насипкулович Бердикулов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of political parties in the development of civil society and the rule of law, as well as issues of political parties differ from other public organizations, the concept of a multi-party system, the importance of a multi-party system in ensuring political pluralism, inter-party competition, constructive opposition, the expression of the interests of the electorate, the space of political parties in parliament and local councils (soviets

  11. Isotopic marking and tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1997-01-01

    The use of radioactive isotopes as tracers in biology has been developed thanks to the economic generation of the required isotopes in accelerators and nuclear reactors, and to the multiple applications of tracers in the life domain; the most usual isotopes employed in biology are carbon, hydrogen, phosphorus and sulfur isotopes, because these elements are present in most of organic molecules. Most of the life science knowledge appears to be dependent to the extensive use of nuclear tools and radioactive tracers; the example of the utilization of radioactive phosphorus marked ATP to study the multiple reactions with proteins, nucleic acids, etc., is given

  12. Isotopes in oxidation reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, R.

    1976-01-01

    The use of isotopes in the study of organic oxidation mechanisms is discussed. The help provided by tracer studies to demonstrate the two-equivalent path - hydride transfer, is illustrated by the examples of carbonium oxidants and the Wacker reaction. The role of kinetic isotope effects in the study of the scission of carbon-hydrogen bonds is illustrated by hydride abstraction, hydrogen atom abstraction, proton abstraction and quantum mechanical tunnelling. Isotopic studies on the oxidation of alcohols, carbonyl compounds, amines and hydrocarbons are discussed. The role of isotopes in the study of biochemical oxidation is illustrated with a discussion on nicotinamide and flavin coenzymes. (B.R.H.)

  13. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1976-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by selective dissociation of said excited molecules by the absorption of a single photon of visible or ultraviolet light. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 11 Claims, 2 Drawing Figures

  14. Multi-party semi-quantum key distribution-convertible multi-party semi-quantum secret sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun-Fei; Gu, Jun; Hwang, Tzonelih; Gope, Prosanta

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes a multi-party semi-quantum secret sharing (MSQSS) protocol which allows a quantum party (manager) to share a secret among several classical parties (agents) based on GHZ-like states. By utilizing the special properties of GHZ-like states, the proposed scheme can easily detect outside eavesdropping attacks and has the highest qubit efficiency among the existing MSQSS protocols. Then, we illustrate an efficient way to convert the proposed MSQSS protocol into a multi-party semi-quantum key distribution (MSQKD) protocol. The proposed approach is even useful to convert all the existing measure-resend type of semi-quantum secret sharing protocols into semi-quantum key distribution protocols.

  15. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  16. Discovery of the iron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-eight iron isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  17. Discovery of the silver isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, A.; Fritsch, A.; Ginepro, J.Q.; Heim, M.; Shore, A.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-eight silver isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  18. Discovery of the cadmium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Thoennessen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-seven cadmium isotopes have been observed so far and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  19. Means of discourse manipulations in political party programs in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina V. Smirnova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to different mass media sources, members of any society are well aware of political developments and events and politicians. Every person has his or her own formed political beliefs and affirmations, interpreters other people's actions during political developments and evaluates events that take place. Political forces, in turn, see a person (a potential elector as an object of external information influence. This lets them use political communication when competing for the power. In the modern democratic society this competition is carried out via parliamentarian debates, politicians' speeches, examining political parties' programs, political agitation and voting. General audience-oriented political discourse implements its function of political information influence. As the goal of any political party's program (as an independent form of text in the system of political discourse is to win the elections and come to power, thus the audience influence function is one of the most fundamental and serve as the basis for the text. The text of a program itself is characterized by its persuasive orientation towards the audience, which reveal itself in such methods as convincing, argumentation, manipulation and evaluation. All the political programs pertain to parties which are at the power or which are in opposition. The main characteristic of oppositional programs is the criticism of the power, vice versa, the dominant party's programs confirm the correctness of their policy. All the political programs are multi-authored. The written form of any political program lets put into practice a detailed text analysis. This article presents the analysis of the texts of two leading Spanish political parties (the Spanish socialist worker's party and the people's party of Spain.

  20. Hotel Overbooking and Cooperation with Third-Party Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Dong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hotels cooperate with third-party websites to enhance their competitive position and attain sustainable development in the era of e-commerce. Furthermore, hotel managers overbook to hedge against last-minute cancellations and customer no-shows. This paper discusses pricing and overbooking strategies of a hotel in the context of cooperation with multiple third-party websites and analyzes how these strategies influence the cooperation process. The increase in profits resulting from the overbooking strategy is also examined. A model of a Stackelberg game between the hotel and third-party websites and a Nash game among the third-party websites are developed to analyze the process. Results indicate that the compensation coefficient has a slight influence on hotel pricing strategy, but causes a sharp decrease in overbooking level. As the hotel demands to lessen the probability of denying under higher compensation rate, the third-party websites would exert less sales effort to reduce the demand of online customers. Results also show that under a given market demand, hotel effort only serves to redistribute market shares among the hotel and third-party websites, without influencing hotel pricing and overbooking decisions. Specifically, the market shares of the third-party websites decrease in the effort level of the hotel resulting from an increase in the hotel market share. Finally, in the numerical example where one hotel and two websites are analyzed, hotel overbooking strategy improves hotel profit by 4.20%, whereas profit improvements for Websites 1 and 2 are as high as 5.26% and 5.21%, respectively. Managerial implications of the study are also provided.

  1. Isotopic research in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetze, H.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1978 scientists of the Central Institute of Isotope- and Radiation Research of the Academy of Sciences of the GDR have participated in antarctic research. Substantial results have been achieved in research on isotope ratios, on the dynamics of water resources, on concentration of deuterium in lichens, and on age determination of a mummified seal and a penguin colony

  2. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  3. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  5. ICT: isotope correction toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Neubauer, Stefan; Mairinger, Teresa; Zanghellini, Jürgen; Hann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Isotope tracer experiments are an invaluable technique to analyze and study the metabolism of biological systems. However, isotope labeling experiments are often affected by naturally abundant isotopes especially in cases where mass spectrometric methods make use of derivatization. The correction of these additive interferences--in particular for complex isotopic systems--is numerically challenging and still an emerging field of research. When positional information is generated via collision-induced dissociation, even more complex calculations for isotopic interference correction are necessary. So far, no freely available tools can handle tandem mass spectrometry data. We present isotope correction toolbox, a program that corrects tandem mass isotopomer data from tandem mass spectrometry experiments. Isotope correction toolbox is written in the multi-platform programming language Perl and, therefore, can be used on all commonly available computer platforms. Source code and documentation can be freely obtained under the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License from: https://github.com/jungreuc/isotope_correction_toolbox/ {christian.jungreuthmayer@boku.ac.at,juergen.zanghellini@boku.ac.at} Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed for separation of uranium isotopes by selective isotopic excitation of photochemically reactive uranyl salt source material at cryogenic temperatures, followed by chemical separation of selectively photochemically reduced U+4 thereby produced from remaining uranyl source material

  7. Isotope research materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Preparation of research isotope materials is described. Topics covered include: separation of tritium from aqueous effluents by bipolar electrolysis; stable isotope targets and research materials; radioisotope targets and research materials; preparation of an 241 Am metallurgical specimen; reactor dosimeters; ceramic and cermet development; fission-fragment-generating targets of 235 UO 2 ; and wire dosimeters for Westinghouse--Bettis

  8. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption after which more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  9. Superdeformation in Pb isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2017-01-01

    The Relatvistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) theory is used to explore the structure of superdeformed (SD) 190,212 Pb isotopes using the non-linear NL3* and density dependent (DD-ME2, DD-PC1) interactions. We have studied the the excitation energy, the potential depth and the deformation of these Pb isotopes

  10. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C. K.; Smith, D. H.

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers.

  11. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers

  12. Isotope dilution analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fudge, A.

    1978-12-15

    The following aspects of isotope dilution analysis are covered in this report: fundamental aspects of the technique; elements of interest in the nuclear field, choice and standardization of spike nuclide; pre-treatment to achieve isotopic exchange and chemical separation; sensitivity; selectivity; and accuracy.

  13. Wide angle isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantrowitz, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for particle separation. The method uses a wide angle radially expanding vapor of a particle mixture. In particular, selective ionization of one isotope type in the particle mixture is produced in a multichamber separator and the ionized isotope type is accelerated out of the path of the vapor expansion for separate collection

  14. Environmental isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Environmental isotope hydrology is a relatively new field of investigation based on isotopic variations observed in natural waters. These isotopic characteristics have been established over a broad space and time scale. They cannot be controlled by man, but can be observed and interpreted to gain valuable regional information on the origin, turnover and transit time of water in the system which often cannot be obtained by other techniques. The cost of such investigations is usually relatively small in comparison with the cost of classical hydrological studies. The main environmental isotopes of hydrological interest are the stable isotopes deuterium (hydrogen-2), carbon-13, oxygen-18, and the radioactive isotopes tritium (hydrogen-3) and carbon-14. Isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen are ideal geochemical tracers of water because their concentrations are usually not subject to change by interaction with the aquifer material. On the other hand, carbon compounds in groundwater may interact with the aquifer material, complicating the interpretation of carbon-14 data. A few other environmental isotopes such as 32 Si and 238 U/ 234 U have been proposed recently for hydrological purposes but their use has been quite limited until now and they will not be discussed here. (author)

  15. Laser assisted aerodynamic isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. van den

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that the efficiency of conventional aerodynamic isotope seperation can be improved by two orders of magnitude with the aid of a relatively weak cw infrared laser which is used to induce isotopically selective condensation. Overall isotope enrichment factors in excess of 2 are obtained as compared to about 1.02 in the conventional seperation. Sulphur isotopes in SF 6 as well as Silicon isotopes in SiF 4 and Bromine isotopes in CF 3 Br are seperated on a laboratory scale. Infrared vibrational predissociation by itself and in combination with isotopically selective condensation are also shown to be effective new ways of isotope separation. (orig.) [de

  16. Isotopes in Greenland Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Anne-Katrine

    Greenland ice cores offer a unique opportunity to investigate the climate system behaviour. The objective of this PhD project is to investigate isotope modelling of present- day conditions and conduct model-data comparison using Greenland ice cores. Thus this thesis investigates how the integration...... of model and data can be used to improve the understanding of climate changes. This is done through analysis of isotope modelling, observations and ice core measurements. This dissertation comprises three projects: (1) Modelling the isotopic response to changes in Arctic sea surface conditions, (2......) Constructing a new Greenland database of observations and present-day ice core measurements, and (3) Performance test of isotope-enabled CAM5 for Greenland. The recent decades of rapid Arctic sea ice decline are used as a basis for an observational-based model experiment using the isotope-enabled CAM model 3...

  17. Applications of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby-Smith, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Current and potential applications of stable isotopes as tracers in a number of biomedical and environmental areas are discussed. It is pointed out that a wide variety of problems exist in these fields whose solutions in principle are amenable to the isotopic approach. The number and diversity of these problems as well as the unique role stable isotopes can play in their solution illustrate the importance of achieving and maintaining a broad inventory of isotopic species. Experience has demonstrated unequivocally an additional overriding requirement for widespread exploration of stable isotopes by the scientific and technical community, i.e., the need for low cost availability of the materials in quantity. Some representative applications of 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, and 18 O are discussed

  18. Choosing memories? Russian political parties as actors of historical policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikin Daniil Alexandrovich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article takes an attempt to analyse the transformation of relations between the state power and political parties in Russia within the framework of implementation the politics of memory. On the basis of the content analysis, the article analyses the specifics of using the images of the past in the activities of the 7th State Duma’s political parties: mentioning the historical periods, frequency of mentions, the function of a statement containing positive, neutral or critical assessments of the past, the theme of the continuity of historical experience of the Russian statehood, ways of implementation of some elements of the politics of memory. To sum up, the stumbling block for the main parliamentary parties becomes the Soviet past concerning which there are only separate points of correlation of all political forces. Today we can talk about the process set by the parties to develop the systematic strategies for comprehending the past. The article also analyses the history of the political parties in the context of the politics of memory.

  19. Peoples Democratic Party in the Fourth Republic of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mukhtar Katsina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Their nature and functions make political parties central to democratic governance especially in the new democracies of Africa that face the challenge of building strong and enduring democratic institutions. It is accepted that the existing trend in most of these democracies of one big party dominating the political space weakens democracy and undermines its prospects for consolidation. Big parties—usually the ruling ones—exhibit tendencies such as absence of internal democracy that are antithetical to democratic governance. While observations such as these are incontestable, there is little understanding into the nature, character, ideology, and internal structure of big parties generally. In this article, I attempt to address this concern. Specifically, I examine the nature, structure, and ideology of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP, Nigeria’s ruling party at the federal level with considerable strength at local level between 1999 and 2015. Relying on data obtained from multiple sources, I investigate the process of its formation, the nature of its ideology, internal organization, its electoral strength, and how absence of internal democracy contributed significantly to its defeat in 2015 general elections.

  20. The energy policy message of the Hamburg SPD party congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2007-01-01

    On October 26-28 this year, the Social Democratic (SPD) party congress was held in Hamburg; its new party platform, the so-called ''Hamburg Program,'' constitutes a landmark for the party. The Program's chapter on ''Sustainable Progress and Qualitative Growth'' refers to energy policy in the section about ''Turning Point in Energy Policy; Environmental Protection.'' Emphasis is given to the fact that energy, like air and water, is a basis of life of our civilization, and that the present ways of wasting energy and resources have no future. For this reason, the turnaround in energy policy initiated by the SPD must be advanced in the key issue of switching from non-renewable to renewable energy resources and from polluting to non-polluting resources. The ultimate goal is a solar age. As far as nuclear power is concerned, the Social Democratic Party finds that nuclear fission appeared to many as the big hope for energy available forever, but that these hopes cannot come true. To put it in a nutshell: The SPD is fast embarking on the road into a solar age. The party does see the growing world population and the rising energy requirement as well as the resulting challenges. However, its energy policy concept is too rigidly focused on Germany and the country's pioneering role. At the present time, nuclear power stands no chance in the SPD, although the Hamburg declaration includes a cautious reminder of the fact that, until 1986, the SPD was among the proponents of nuclear power. (orig.)

  1. The Finns Party: Euroscepticism, Euro Crisis, Populism and the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Herkman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In many European countries, populist right-wing parties have been most noticeable representatives of Euroscepticism. In Finland, the Finns Party (Perussuomalaiset has been a constant promoter of organisational Euroscepticism through its leader, Timo Soini. The party broke through in Finland’s ‘big bang elections’ of 2011, when the most debated issue was the European economic crisis, which was dominated by Eurosceptic Soini. Research concerning the relationship between the media, populism and Euroscepticism usually focus on national or European Parliament elections. This study analyses the media portrayal of the Eurosceptic Finns Party during times other than elections, focusing on the Finland’s overall Euro crisis press coverage in 2010–2012. The analysis shows that the populist Finns Party has been a minor player in that coverage, which was dominated by the Euro positive political and economic elites. Differences between newspapers indicate that journalistic routines and political context direct media coverage toward particular framings, even when the media proclaims itself politically independent and neutral.

  2. Online trust building through third party trust transfer and third party protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandoko, Wanda; Saleh Abbas, Bahtiar; Budiastuti, Dyah; Kosala, Raymond

    2017-03-01

    The primary objective of this research is to develop an online trust building mechanism for SME (Small Medium Enterprise). Trust is very important in e-commerce. The nature of online shopping has a greater uncertainty than offline shopping. Seeing as there is an uncertainty that can produce risks, a prospective buyer’s trust is needed. A lot of people’s unwillingness to shop online is caused by their lack of trust toward e-commerce. E-commerce is said to be one of the ways for SME to compete with bigger companies. However, building trust requires immense time and cost. SME with limited resources may experience difficulties in building trust just with their own resources. Base on literature research that needs to be validated in next research, we found that trust can be built through trust transfer from the reputable and well-known trust-mark issuer, and third party protection such as escrow account service and credit card issuer.

  3. Economic Conditions affect Support for Prime Minister Parties in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2016-01-01

    between unemployment, economic growth and support for prime minister parties is re-examined in two datasets. The first is a dataset of Scandinavian elections, and the second is a yearly Danish vote function, which was constructed using election polls. Across both datasets, it is found that if one simply......Previous research has not been able to identify a relationship between objective economic indicators and support for governing parties in the Scandinavian countries. This is potentially problematic, as it suggests that political leaders are not held electorally accountable for the economic...... correlates support for the prime minister's party with economic conditions, there is no relationship; however, if one specifies a statistical model, which takes the Scandinavian context into account, it is possible to identify a statistically significant effect of economic conditions on electoral support...

  4. Ideology, Party Systems and Corruption Voting in European Democracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charron, Nicholas; Bågenholm, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    What is the impact of corruption on citizens' voting behavior? There is a growing literature on an increasingly ubiquitous puzzle in many democratic countries: that corrupt officials continue to be re-elected by voters. In this study we address this issue with a novel theory and newly collected...... original survey data for 24 European countries. The crux of the argument is that voters' ideology is a salient factor in explaining why citizens would continue voting for their preferred party despite the fact that it has been involved in a corruption scandal. Developing a theory of supply (number...... of effective parties) and demand (voters must have acceptable ideological alternatives to their preferred party), we posit that there is a U-shaped relationship between the likelihood of corruption voting and where voters place themselves on the left/right spectrum. The further to the fringes, the more likely...

  5. The Romanian Social Democratic Party versus the authoritarian monarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Grecu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article approaches the Romanian social-democratic collaboration during 1938-1940 with the authoritarian monarch regime. Even though the party leaders had diverging political views, regards to the acceptance or the non-acceptance of the authoritarian regime, the influential PSDR members held leading positions within the single party and the corporate parliament and within the union structures. The positions were offered by the regime, so that the union leaders would stop instigating workers to go on strike, and to accept the governmental policies. The freedom of speech and the political actions were ceded to the monarch, who governed at the place of the political parties and he controlled the unions, by using the guilds.

  6. Contextualizing Intergroup Contact: Do Political Party Cues Enhance Contact Effects?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Thomsen, Jens Peter Frølund

    2015-01-01

    This article examines intergroup contact effects in different political contexts. We expand on previous efforts of social psychologists by incorporating the messages of political parties as a contextual trigger of group membership awareness in contact situations. We argue that the focus among...... political parties on us-them categorizations heightens the awareness of group memberships. This focus in turn enhances the positive intergroup contact effect by stimulating majority members to perceive contacted persons as prototypical outgroup members. A multilevel analysis of 22 countries and almost 37......,000 individuals confirms that the ability of intergroup contact to reduce antiforeigner sentiment increases when political parties focus intensively on immigration issues and cultural differences. Specifically, both workplace contact and interethnic friendship become more effective in reducing antiforeigner...

  7. THE THIRD PARTY CERTIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ORGANIC PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Roxana MUNTEANU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an increasing organic trade worldwide, the organic standards and the certification of the organic practices are ever more important and relevant for both business and consumers. The certification by third parties of the organic operators is meant to ensure the application of an organic standard. However, the documented fraud cases are proof that the current system can undergo further improvement. The current paper gives an overview of the mechanisms of certification and inspection worldwide and discusses the issues raised by third party certification of the organic operators in the European context. Moreover, the paper reviews the major arguments for the effectiveness of the third party certification and also points to the improvement possibilities of the systems.

  8. Between Confessionalism and Liberal Conservatism : The Christian Democratic Parties of Belgium and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucardie, Anthonie; Ten Napel, Hans_Martien; Hanley, David

    1994-01-01

    According to Horner (1981), the Christian Democratic parties of the Low Countries are still confessional parties (Konjessionsparteien) , whereas their sister parties in Germany and Italy are evolving towards liberal conservative catch-all parties (Volksparteien). In this chapter Horner's thesis will

  9. 11 CFR 109.37 - What is a “party coordinated communication”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Provisions for Political Party Committees § 109.37 What is a “party coordinated communication”? (a) Definition. A political party communication is coordinated with a candidate, a candidate's authorized... paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), and (a)(3) of this section. (1) The communication is paid for by a political party...

  10. Chromium isotope variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary

    the δ53Cr value of continental runoff into the ocean. The major findings were that river water is characterised by heavy δ53Cr values (+0.1‰ to +1.6‰), while soils are characterised by light δ53Cr values (-0.3‰), relative to the catchment bedrock (-0.17‰ to -0.21‰), indicating that Cr isotopes......, and the quantification the Cr isotope composition of major Cr fluxes into and out of ocean. This thesis adds to the current knowledge of the Cr isotope system and is divided into two studies. The focus of the first study was to determine what processes control the Cr isotopic compositionof river water and to quantify......Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes are a useful tracer of changes in redox conditions because changes in its oxidation state are accompanied by an isotopic fractionation. For this reason the Cr isotope system is being developed as a potential tool for paleo-redox reconstruction. Dissolved Cr in seawater...

  11. Italy's green party: on the road to success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbaum, A.

    1988-01-01

    Italy's Green Party (Lista Verde) does not consider itself a political party but it is changing the environmental consciousness of the nation. There are new eight popular television shows covering environmental problems and a national weekly newspaper devotes a regular column to ecology. Environmental associations, including the Environmental League, have been started in the 1980s. The Greens have also succeeded in halting Italy's nuclear power programme. In a national referendum held in 1987 almost 80% of the voters agreed with the Greens' views. No fewer than 14 more popular referenda are planned throughout Italy on environmental issues. (UK)

  12. Membership ballots and the value of intra-party democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolkenstein, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    On the face of it, membership ballots present a clear case in which intra- party democracy comes into collision with core principles of representative democracy: they weaken the autonomy of representatives, and undermine the authority of the voters. In this article, I investigate whether this is ......On the face of it, membership ballots present a clear case in which intra- party democracy comes into collision with core principles of representative democracy: they weaken the autonomy of representatives, and undermine the authority of the voters. In this article, I investigate whether...

  13. Is supporting populist political parties a mental disorder?

    OpenAIRE

    McGowan, J.

    2015-01-01

    It’s just over a month until the UK general election and many Brits seem to have lost trust in their traditional politicos. Whether it’s the UK Independence Party (UKIP) scapegoating the European Union and immigrants, a rise in nationalism (the Scottish National party), or Russell Brand’s teenage anarchism, faith in facile, and sometimes ugly, solutions is on the march. It’s a huge relief, therefore, to hear that the editors of the DSM (the main reference book for psychiatric classification),...

  14. Direct and indirect welfare chauvinism as party strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Klitgaard, Michael Baggesen

    2016-01-01

    welfare chauvinism occurs as a result of legislative changes that explicitly exclude recipients from social protection or reduce the level thereof on the basis of ethnicity. Indirect welfare chauvinism is the result of policy measures that apply to both natives and immigrants, but which deliberately...... and deliberate policy-making strategies of the party. It shows that the distinction between direct and indirect chauvinism is a useful theoretical tool for understanding how the Danish People's Party can fulfill the expectations of both its electorate and its coalition partners, even if they point in different...

  15. Actively Secure Two-Party Evaluation of Any Quantum Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Salvail, Louis

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first two-party protocol allowing Alice and Bob to evaluate privately even against active adversaries any completely positive, trace-preserving map , given as a quantum circuit, upon their joint quantum input state . Our protocol leaks no more to any active adversary than an ideal ...... functionality for provided Alice and Bob have the cryptographic resources for active secure two-party classical computation. Our protocol is constructed from the protocol for the same task secure against specious adversaries presented in [4]....

  16. Third party liability cover for nuclear damage and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbone, Ferdinando; Gambardella, Elio.

    1974-06-01

    This paper analyses the financial security and cover for third party liability for nuclear damage as provided for by Act No. 1860 of 31 December 1962 on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The relevant Sections of the Act are quoted and explained, as are the nuclear operator's obligation to furnish financial security for his liability. Different possible types of security and cover are described, also with reference to other national legislation. Finally, the author mentions the Paris Convention which provides the basis for Italian nuclear third party liability legislation. (NEA) [fr

  17. Political Parties and Social Policy Responses to Global Economic Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    2014-01-01

    Based on empirical findings froma comparative study onwelfare state responses to the four major economic shocks (the 1970s oil shocks, the early 1990s recession, the 2008 financial crisis) in four OECD countries, this article demonstrates that, in contrast to conventional wisdom, policy responses...... to global economic crises vary significantly across countries. What explains the cross-national and within-case variation in responses to crises?We discuss several potential causes of this pattern and argue that political parties and the party composition of governments can play a key role in shaping crisis...

  18. Isotopically controlled semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Eugene E.

    2006-06-19

    The following article is an edited transcript based on the Turnbull Lecture given by Eugene E. Haller at the 2005 Materials Research Society Fall Meeting in Boston on November 29, 2005. The David Turnbull Lectureship is awarded to recognize the career of a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to understanding materials phenomena and properties through research, writing, and lecturing, as exemplified by the life work of David Turnbull. Haller was named the 2005 David Turnbull Lecturer for his 'pioneering achievements and leadership in establishing the field of isotopically engineered semiconductors; for outstanding contributions to materials growth, doping and diffusion; and for excellence in lecturing, writing, and fostering international collaborations'. The scientific interest, increased availability, and technological promise of highly enriched isotopes have led to a sharp rise in the number of experimental and theoretical studies with isotopically controlled semiconductor crystals. This article reviews results obtained with isotopically controlled semiconductor bulk and thin-film heterostructures. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, band structure, and lattice constant in subtle, but, for their physical understanding, significant ways. Large isotope-related effects are observed for thermal conductivity in local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping. Spectacularly sharp photoluminescence lines have been observed in ultrapure, isotopically enriched silicon crystals. Isotope multilayer structures are especially well suited for simultaneous self- and dopant-diffusion studies. The absence of any chemical, mechanical, or electrical driving forces makes possible the study of an ideal random-walk problem. Isotopically controlled semiconductors may find applications in quantum computing, nanoscience, and spintronics.

  19. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a process for separating a given material into two or more parts, in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in the said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase UF 6 by infrared photon absorption followed by selective reaction of said excited UF 6 with atomic chlorine, bromine, or iodine to form a product which may be separated by means known in the art

  20. Radiation gradient isotope separator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A system is described for transporting, separating and storing charged particles, charged antiparticles and fully or partially ionized isotopes of any element comprising a laser beam generator, laser beam intensity profiler, a laser beam variable intensity attenuator, and means for injecting charged particles, charged antiparticles and ionized isotopes into the beam and extracting them from the system as required. The invention is particularly useful for channelling electrons and ions used for fuel pellet compression in inertial fusion systems, for separating the isotopes of elements and for the confinement of charged antiparticles and particle/antiparticle plasmas

  1. Atomic and molecular isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melamed, N.T.

    1979-01-01

    A method for differentially exciting a selected isotopic species in a mixture of isotopic species is described characterized in that almost the entire isotopic mixture is placed in an excited gaseous state; and a preselected isotopic species is then selectively de-excited through stimulated emission

  2. Third party liability insurance for international transport of nuclear substances in countries party to the Paris Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, F.

    1977-01-01

    The number of international transports of radioactive materials has been increasing at an accelerating rate for several years. These transports are subject to specific safety rules which must be complied with in order to obtain nuclear third party liability cover. In general nuclear transports are insured under a policy which differs from that for installations. Transport policy criteria have been harmonized to some extent, in particular, in the frame of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Certificates established by the competent national authorities testifying to the existence of insurance must in principle be approved by the countries crossed which are parties to the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  3. Isotope Production Facility (IPF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Los Alamos National Laboratory has produced radioactive isotopes for medicine and research since the mid 1970s, when targets were first irradiated using the 800...

  4. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  5. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    The instant invention relates to a process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same material in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than nonexcited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium. 15 claims, 1 figure

  6. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The instant invention relates to an improved process for separating a material into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes of a given element differ from the abundances of the isotopes of the same element in said material. More particularly, the invention relates to a method for the isotopically selective excitation of gas phase molecules by multiple infrared photon absorption followed by a step wherein more of the excited molecules than non-excited molecules are converted to a chemically different form which may be separated by means known in the art. This invention is useful for, but not limited to, the separation of the principal isotopes of uranium

  7. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  8. Laser separation of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for separating uranium isotopes are claimed. The method comprises the steps of irradiating a uranyl source material at a wavelength selective to a desired isotope and at an effective temperature for isotope spectral line splitting below about 77 deg.K., further irradiating the source material within the fluorescent lifetime of the source material to selectively photochemically reduce the excited isotopic species, and chemically separating the reduced isotope species from the remaining uranyl salt compound

  9. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the isotope separation art and, more particularly, to a selectively photon-induced energy level transition of an isotopic molecule containing the isotope to be separated and a chemical reaction with a chemically reactive agent to provide a chemical compound containing atoms of the isotope desired. In particular a description is given of a method of laser isotope separation applied to the separation of 235 UF 6 from 238 UF 6 . (U.K.)

  10. Gains from Early Support of a New Political Party

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonardi, Marco; Mossucca, Rossella; Schivardi, Fabiano

    2017-01-01

    start Silvio Berlusconi in his bid to become prime minister in 1994 did better than competitors over the following years. Using balance sheet data for the period 1985 ‐2010, we find that the 100 firms which supported the foundation of his party in 1994 did better than the competitors in terms of value...

  11. Billing third party payers for pharmaceutical care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, S; Buffington, D E; Memoli, G A

    1999-01-01

    To describe the steps pharmacists must complete when seeking compensation from third party payers for pharmaceutical care services. Government publications; professional publications, including manuals and newsletters; authors' personal experience. Pharmacists in increasing numbers are meeting with success in getting reimbursed by third party payers for patient care activities. However, many pharmacists remain reluctant to seek compensation because they do not understand the steps involved. Preparatory steps include obtaining a provider/supplier number, procuring appropriate claim forms, developing data collection and documentation systems, establishing professional fees, creating a marketing plan, and developing an accounting system. To bill for specific patient care services, pharmacists need to collect the patient's insurance information, obtain a statement of medical necessity from the patient's physician, complete the appropriate claim form accurately, and submit the claim with supporting documentation to the insurer. Although many claims from pharmacists are rejected initially, pharmacists who work with third party payers to understand the reasons for denial of payment often receive compensation when claims are resubmitted. Pharmacists who follow these guidelines for billing third party payers for pharmaceutical care services should notice an increase in the number of paid claims.

  12. The construction of Uhuru party group identity in Zimbabwe: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ZANU-PF concept of Chimurenga is heterogeneous as it draws upon various other ideologies, such as Maoism, and the dogma of 'the children of the soil'. That heterogeneity is homogenized so as to enable the party to portray itself as perfect deliverer and guarantor of Black liberation, and rival political formations as ...

  13. Constitutional reform processes and political parties : principles for practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.; Wahiu, W.; Magolowondo, A.

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides a set of guiding principles for constitutional reform on the basis of practical experiences of constitutional reform processes in selected countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The focus is on the role of political parties in

  14. Monitoring multi-party contracts for E-business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, L.

    2004-01-01

    "Monitoring multi-party contracts for E-business" investigates the issues involved in the performance of econtract monitoring of business automations in business to business e-commerce environment. A pro-active monitoring contract model and monitoring mechanism have been designed and developed. A

  15. Party financing and referendum campaigns in EU member states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klingeren, M.; Orozco, M.; van Spanje, J.; de Vreese, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study has been prepared by the Amsterdam School of Communication Research (ASCoR), part of the Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam (UvA). It comprises 1) an up-to-date inventory of party finance rules within the EU Member States, 2) an overview of the regulations

  16. The Data Party: Involving Stakeholders in Meaningful Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Nancy K.

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark of Extension includes the involvement of stakeholders in research and program needs assessment, design, implementation, evaluation, and reporting. A data party can be used to enhance this stakeholder involvement specifically in data analysis. This type of event can not only increase client participation in Extension programming and…

  17. 29 CFR 458.77 - Rights of parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STANDARDS OF CONDUCT STANDARDS... witnesses, and to introduce into the record documentary or other relevant evidence, except that the...) copies of documentary evidence shall be submitted and a copy furnished to each of the other parties...

  18. Party choice and family influence in the age of modernity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; Solhaug, Trond

    2017-01-01

    they wish to constitute themselves as. In this process, upbringing and cultural background are less predominant, which lead to the hypothesis that; young people’s choice of party as first time voters is first and foremost a result of their self-reflections and search for their political self. A selection...

  19. The Impact of Having Children on Party Member Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiara-Pedersen, Karina

    2014-01-01

    party member survey of 2012, analyses show: First, the cost of having children is more important when explaining more demanding activities than the less demanding activities, and, second, the impact of the cost of having children in the household is larger when including the intensity of participation...

  20. 21 CFR 1404.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded Parties List System 1404.950 Section 1404.950 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... other information about persons who are ineligible. The EPLS system includes the printed version...

  1. Extended KCI attack against two-party key establishment protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang; Chen, Liqun

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an extended Key Compromise Impersonation (KCI) attack against two-party key establishment protocols, where an adversary has access to both long-term and ephemeral secrets of a victim. Such an attack poses serious threats to both key authentication and key confirmation properties of a

  2. A family of multi-party authentication protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, C.J.F.; Mauw, S.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a family of multi-party authentication protocols and discuss six novel protocols, which are members of this family. The first three generalize the well-known Needham-Schroeder-Lowe public-key protocol, the Needham-Schroeder private-key protocol, and the Bilateral Key Exchange protocol.

  3. Star Parties in Mexico extended to Colombia and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Peimbert, Silvia; Franco, José

    2016-10-01

    The preparation for The International Year of Astronomy 2009 stirred our interest in preparing star parties in Mexico. The lunar eclipse of February 20th 2008 was the perfect event for the first massive observation in Mexico City that attracted over 25,000 people. To accompany this event there were additional attractions: a massive astronomical lecture, more than 100 telescopes were set up for people to watch the sky, exhibits of astronomical images, children hands-on projects, rock concert, dance performance, and chats with astronomers. Already in 2009 a collective program was organized to involve more than 30 sites in Mexico to hold star parties at the same time once a year. These star parties were more in the spirit of science fairs, that include lectures, astronomy exhibits, children projects, as well as concerts and other cultural displays. The scope of each one of them depended on the local support from volunteers and from the local authorities. After the International Year of Astronomy the group that organized these star parties decided to continue its activities. The main attraction in these fairs has been the opportunity to see the Moon, Jupiter and Saturn (if observable) through a telescope. For this program the presence of the amateur astronomers has been crucial. They have brought their instruments to the sites and have generously taught the public how to look through the telescopes and pointed out to the interesting features on the sky.

  4. Corruption and re-election chances of incumbent parties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of information about corruption depends on whether the incumbent parties field different candidates from those in previous elections. In Africa, South and Central America, however, the effect also depends on whether the elections are free or fair. A key finding is that press freedom reduces the re-election chances ...

  5. A Timely Idea: Third Party Billing for Related Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaller, Kathy Dye; Thomas, Stephen B.

    1994-01-01

    Federal allocations for special education programs are below 10% whereas the federal contribution to state medicaid programs ranges from 50-80%. Third-party billing provides a more equitable distribution of the costs among federal, state, and local governments, in addition to including private-sector contributions. (MLF)

  6. 27 CFR 8.23 - Third party arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Prohibited Practices § 8.23 Third party arrangements. Industry member requirements, by agreement or otherwise, with non-retailers which result in a retailer being required to purchase the industry member's products are within the exclusive outlet provisions...

  7. The French Election Marks The End Of France's Traditional Parties

    OpenAIRE

    Perrineau, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    For the first time in more than 60 years, the republic’s top presidential candidates don’t belong to either of the major parties. After an unprecedented electoral campaign characterized by multiple political upheavals, the first round of France’s presidential elections has confirmed that the republic is in the midst of a radical renewal. [First paragraphs

  8. 78 FR 76092 - Section 752 and Related Party Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... This document contains proposed amendments to the Income Tax Regulations (26 CFR part 1) under section... in 26 CFR Part 1 Income Taxes, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Proposed Amendments to the... economic risk of loss due to its relationship with a related party, Indeck Energy. The Tax Court held that...

  9. The party political make-up of EU legislative bodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warntjen, Andreas; Hix, Simon; Crombez, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    This research note provides an overview of the party political make-up of EU legislative bodies for the period 1979-2004 (Commission: 1979-2007) in terms of the left-right and pro-/anti-Europe dimensions. The various methods of measuring political positions are discussed and compared. Measures for

  10. 26 CFR 1.7476-1 - Interested parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES The Tax Court § 1.7476-1 Interested parties. (a) In general—(1) Notice requirement. Before the Internal Revenue Service can issue an advance determination as to the qualified status of certain...

  11. 26 CFR 1.7476-2 - Notice to interested parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1.7476-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES The Tax Court § 1.7476-2 Notice to interested parties. (a) In general... Internal Revenue Service before the date on which section 410 applies to the plan. (b) Nature of notice...

  12. Gendering the vote for populist radical-right parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, N.; Zaslove, A.S.

    2015-01-01

    Why do more men than women vote for populist radical-right (PRR) parties? And do more men than women still vote for the PRR? Can attitudes regarding gender and gender equality explain these differences (if they exist)? These are the questions that Spierings and Zaslove explore in this article. They

  13. Getting Something for Nothing: Trump, Fraud, and the Tea Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, David

    2017-01-01

    David Bordelon identifies himself as one of the majority of Americans who voted to keep Trump out of office. In this article he discusses his confusion by the Tea Party's fixation on welfare fraud, and inability to recognize it in President Trump's behavior. The author says that he can only hope that his confusion will be shared, and progress to…

  14. 31 CFR 210.9 - Parties to the reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties to the reclamation. 210.9 Section 210.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN THE...

  15. After the Arab Spring : Are Secular Parties the Answer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boduszynski, Mieczyslaw; Fabbe, Kristin; Lamont, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    After the “Arab Spring” and the initial democratic reforms in Turkey under the Justice and Development Party (AKP), why has democratic progress remained so elusive in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA)? In recent years, that question has preoccupied numerous scholars, commentators, and policy

  16. Mwalimu Nyerere's Thoughts on Party System and Democracy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mwalimu Julius Kambarage Nyerere, the philosopher-statesman, was a man of great vision and strong belief in the role of the leading party in the relations between the people and the state. Whether under capitalism or socialism, under mono-partism or multi-partism, the state is a coercive instrument. Mwalimu considered ...

  17. Measurement study of multi-party video conferencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Kuipers, F.A.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    More and more free multi-party video conferencing applications are readily available over the Internet and both Server-to-Client (S/C) or Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technologies are used. Investigating their mechanisms, analyzing their system performance, and measuring their quality are important objectives

  18. African Ruling Political Parties and the Making of 'Authoritarian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    only contributed to corruption, violent conflict, poverty, human rights abuses and the throttling of social justice. The contradiction in Africa's democratisation is further shown by the increasing metamorphoses of many African ruling political parties into what can be called 'democratic authoritarianism'. The process of this met-.

  19. Party-political and electoral system of Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Decresci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Oriental Republic of Uruguay is seen by many as a pioneer among Latin American nations to modernize its state and its policy. Since the late nineteenth century to the twentieth, Uruguayan political actors operate significant changes such as the separation of church and state, labor regulation, divorce law, women's vote, etc. Because of this and the progressive modernization, it was called the “Switzerland of the Americas”. Today, it still stands out in this area by regularizing abortion, homoaffective marriage, liberalization and access to marijuana. Moreover, noteworthy that such measures were achieved largely because of governance that the executive enjoys in the midst of this political system. Thus, this work aims to analyze such Uruguayan political system. In short, a political system is understood by the government system, the electoral system and the party system. That said, it will be analyzed in the political scenario of the country, their characteristics, party and election rules, political parties, party dynamics and relations between the powers.

  20. Emission spectrometric isotope analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Meier, G.; Nitschke, W.; Rose, W.; Schmidt, G.; Rahm, N.; Andrae, G.; Krieg, D.; Kuefner, W.; Tamme, G.; Wichlacz, D.

    1982-01-01

    An emission spectrometric isotope analyzer has been designed for determining relative abundances of stable isotopes in gaseous samples in discharge tubes, in liquid samples, and in flowing gaseous samples. It consists of a high-frequency generator, a device for defined positioning of discharge tubes, a grating monochromator with oscillating slit and signal converter, signal generator, window discriminator, AND connection, read-out display, oscillograph, gas dosing device and chemical conversion system with carrier gas source and vacuum pump

  1. Isotope toolbox turns 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenander, Fredrik; Riisager, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    REX-ISOLDE, one of CERN’s most compact accelerators, has just celebrated its 10th anniversary. The machine’s versatility provides radioactive ion beams across the range of nuclear isotopes.......REX-ISOLDE, one of CERN’s most compact accelerators, has just celebrated its 10th anniversary. The machine’s versatility provides radioactive ion beams across the range of nuclear isotopes....

  2. Laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re and Tc

  3. UWIS isotope separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtasiewicz, A. [Warsaw Univ., Inst. of Experimental Physics, Nuclear Physics Div., Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Since 1995 the University of Warsaw Isotope Separator group has participated in the ISOL/IGISOL project at the Heavy Ion Cyclotron. This project consists in installation of an isotope separator (on line with cyclotron heavy ion beam) with a hot plasma ion source (ISOL system) and/or with an ion guide source (IGISOL system). In the report the short description of the present status of the project is presented. 2 figs, 10 refs.

  4. Laser isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.

    1976-01-01

    The claimed invention is a method of isotope separation based on the unimolecular decomposition of vibrationally excited negative ions which are produced in the reaction of thermal electrons and molecules which have been vibrationally excited in an isotope selective manner. This method is especially applicable to molecules represented by the formula MF 6 wherein M is selected from the group consisting of U, S, W, Se, Te, Mo, Re, and Tc. 9 claims, 1 drawing figure

  5. Isotopes in environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, G.; Rozanski, K.; Vose, P.

    1990-01-01

    Radioactive and stable isotopes have long been considered a very efficient tool for studying physical and biological aspects of how the global ecosystem functions. Their applications in environmental research are numerous, embracing research at all levels. This article looks at only a few of the approaches to environmental problems that involve the use of isotopes. Special attention is given to studies of the Amazon Basin. Environmental isotopes are very efficient tools in water cycle studies. Tritium, a radioactive tracer, is especially useful in studying dynamics of water movement in different compartments of the hydrosphere, both on the local and global scales. Heavy stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen (deuterium and oxygen-18) provide information about steady-state characteristics of the water cycle. Isotope methods, some relatively new, have a major role in site-specific studies. Some indicative examples include: Studying turnover of organic matter. Changes in the carbon-13/carbon-12 isotopic ratio of organic matter were used to determine the respective contributions of organic carbon derived from forest and pasture. Studying biological nitrogen fixation. One of the ways nitrogen levels in soil can be maintained for productivity is by biological nitrogen fixation. Studying nitrogen availability and losses. The experimental use of nitrogen-15 is invaluable for defining losses of soil nitrogen to the atmosphere and to groundwater. Studies can similarly be done with stable and radioactive sulphur isotopes. This article indicates some potential uses of isotopes in environmental research. While the major problem of global climate change has not been specifically addressed here, the clearing of the Amazon forest, one focus of the IAEA's environmental programme, may have serious consequences for the global climate. These include substantial reduction of the amount of latent heat transported to the regions outside the tropics and acceleration of the greenhouse

  6. Isotopes in everyday life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seligman, H.; Gillen, V.A.

    1990-12-01

    Isotopes represent a tool which can do certain jobs better, easier, quicker, more simply and cheaper than competitive methods. Some measurements could not be done at all without the use of isotopes as there are no alternative methods available. A short review of these tools of science in their different fields is given: food and agriculture, human health applications, industry, hydrology, geology, geochemistry, geophysics and dating, environment, basic scientific research

  7. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabicar, J.; Stamberg, K.; Katzer, J.

    1983-01-01

    A process for separating isotopes by the method of controlled distribution is claimed. A first phase is either a solution of isotopic components and a ligand (from 10 - 6 M to a saturated solution), or a gaseous mixture of isotopic components, or a gaseous mixture of isotopic components and an inert gas. The isotopes are in the starting mixture in molar ratio from 1:10 5 to 1:10 - 5 . The second phase is a solid sorbent such as styrene-divinylbenzene ion exchangers, or bio-sorbents on the basis of mycelium of lower fungi and sorbents on the basis of cellulose, or an extraction agent such as tributyl phosphate and trioctyl amine, if need be, kept by a carrier such as teflon, silica gel and cellulose. The two-phase system exhibits non-linear equilibrium isotherm for sorption and/or desorption or for extraction and/or re-extraction. After bringing both phases into contact the rate of transport of isotopic components from one phase into another is not equal. Retardation of isotopic exchange takes place by complexation of isotopes with ligands such as cabonate, sulphate, citrate, chloride and ethylenediamine tetraacetate ions, or by using sorbents and extraction agents with chelating functional groups such as carboxyl and hyroxyl groups, groups on the basis of phosphorus, nitrogen and sulphur and/or by operating in darkness, or in the light having wave length between 2.5x10 2 and 10 9 nm. The contact time is between 10 - 2 and 10 6 s, temperature between 10 2 and 10 3 K, the number of stirrer revolutions between 10 - 2 and 10 4 revolutions per s, flow rate at column arrangement between 10 - 6 and 10 - 1 m/s and the size of particles of sorbent between 10 - 6 and 10 - 2 m

  8. Isotope separation apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.I.

    1983-01-01

    This application discloses a method for and an apparatus in which isotopes of an element in a compared are separated from each other while that compound, i.e., including a mixture of such isotopes, flows along a predetermined path. The apparatus includes a flow tube having a beginning and an end. The mixture of isotopes is introduced into the flow tube at a first introduction point between the beginning and the end thereof to flow the mixture toward the end thereof. A laser irradiates the flow tube dissociating compounds of a preselected one of said isotopes thereby converting the mixture in an isotopically selective manner. The dissociation products are removed from the tube at a first removal point between the first introduction point and the end. The dissociation product removed at the the first removal point are reconverted back into the comound thereby providing a first stage enriched compound. This first stage enriched compound is reintroduced into the flow tube at a second introduction point between the beginning thereof and the first introduction point. Further product is removed from the flow tube at a second removal point between the second introduction point and the first introduction point. The second introduction point is chosen so that the isotope composition of the first stage enriched compound is approximately the same as that of the compound in the flow tube

  9. International Isotopes Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Z. Zhiznin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies world markets of stable and radioactive isotopes. Isotopes have found various applications in science, industry, agriculture and other sectors of the economy, but especially - in medicine. Nuclear medicine is developing intensively all over the world thanks to the success in the treatment of various diseases with the help of radioactive pharmaceuticals (radiopharmaceuticals. The article uses empirical data from a forecast study of the global radiopharmaceuticals market made in 2015 by a research company «Markets and Markets» for the European, North American and global markets. The paper also analyzes the statistical data on the global export and import of natural uranium, enriched and depleted uranium, plutonium, thorium and some stable isotopes of non-medical purposes, presented by a company «Trend economy» in 2014. Despite a unique industrial base for the production of isotopes created in the Soviet Union Russia occupies a modest position on the world market of nuclear medicine except for certain areas. More than 80% of isotopes, produced in USSR were consumed domestically, the export of the stable and radioactive isotopes was in equal proportions. Now the country's domestic radiopharmaceuticals market is poorly developed. To radically change the situation, it is necessary to carry out reforms that stimulate the development of nuclear medicine.

  10. Beneficial use of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Stevens, G.H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper gives an outlook on the main isotopes currently used for beneficial applications, provides an overview on geographic distribution of isotope production capabilities and identifies the main suppliers world-wide. It analyses trends in different countries and regions, including the refurbishment and/or replacement of ageing facilities and the implementation of new capabilities. Issues related to adequate supply of isotopes and potential under or over capacity of production for some key products are discussed. The evolution of the isotope production sector is analysed. Issues such as lowering of governmental support to production facilities, emergence of international co-operation and agreements on production capabilities, and developments in non-OECD/NEA countries are addressed. The paper offers some concluding remarks on the importance of maintaining and enhancing beneficial uses of isotopes, the role of government policies, the need for co-operation between countries and between the private and public sectors. The paper addresses the role of international cooperation in making efficient use of existing isotope production capacity and investigates ways for reducing the need for investment in additional capacity. (author)

  11. Women's participation in parliament: 'Glass ceiling' syndrome and party selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičkarić Lilijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 'glass ceiling' syndrome and party selection on participation of women in parliament and other political institutions are examined in this article. 'Glass ceiling' syndrome, which means invisible, but almost impenetrable border that women face in professional life, keeping them away from positions of influence and progress in career, is the main reason for the small number of women involved in politics. According to the focus of the research, there are three groups of barriers to women's political participation. Most researchers examine the influence of the political system, institutional and legal mechanisms, the question of their transparency and functional improvement. Significantly less frequent approach came from authors who are concentrated on the social and economic barriers, financial conditions and the broader social context. The third group consists of those who are considering the ideological and psychological barriers, patriarchal cultural patterns, traditional gender roles, self-confidence, ambition and women's desire to be involved in politics. Political parties are key actors in the process of discrimination against women, because they do not allow them to be selected in a number of political functions. There are many factors that determine that the issue of gender equality is variously interpreted in political parties. The most present are contextual and ideological factors, referring to a different definition of the status of women on the political agenda, the social climate in terms of gender equality and respect for human rights, the level of social development and political freedom. Then come organizational factors pertaining to the structure of parties, the manner in which the leadership is elected, whether there are internal women's pressure groups and lobbying, and are women leaders are visible on high positions in decision-making process. Finally, there are institutional-legal factors, which include the type

  12. Candidates stick to party guns. In lieu of new healthcare plans, Bush, Gore follow party reform proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J; Hallam, K

    2000-07-03

    As the Democratic and GOP nominating conventions approach next month, presumptive nominees Al Gore and George W. Bush are offering no new healthcare plans, both preferring to ride the healthcare waves already set in motion by their respective party's leadership. And the really interesting thing is, the plans aren't that different. Call it creeping incrementalism.

  13. The Third Party and Beyond. An Analysis of the Different Parties, in particular The Fifth, Involved in Online Dispute Resolution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    In a society that virtualises, with most of the current youth being online substantial parts of the day, to say that in the not so far future ODR will handle a large part of the disputes is not a daring prophecy. The relations between the various parties involved in ODR are more diverse and

  14. 11 CFR 109.33 - May a political party committee assign its coordinated party expenditure authority to another...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION GENERAL COORDINATED AND INDEPENDENT EXPENDITURES (2 U.S.C. 431(17... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May a political party committee assign its... committee includes a subordinate committee of a State committee and includes a district or local committee...

  15. ERA—European Radiochemists Association: Report on the activities of the Working Party for Nuclear and Radiochemistry of the Federation of European Chemical Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Z. I.; Ware, A. R.

    2003-01-01

    The European Radiochemists Association started almost simultaneously with the appearance of the first issue of the Radiochemistry in Europe newsletter in August 1995. The objective of the European Radiochemists Association (ERA) is to extend and improve communication between radiochemists in Europe through a newsletter. Liaison persons within each country or group exchange details of their activities, set up a diary of relevant international events and exchange details of specialist equipment, facilities and technology. In the year 2000 the Federation of European Chemical Societies decided to form a working party on nuclear and radiochemistry. It is a formalisation of the European Radiochemists Association. Each chemical society is allowed to nominate a member to the Working Party on Nuclear and Radiochemistry. Currently we have 12 nominated members plus two invited and one observer. In addition to the ERA aims and objectives it proposes to put together a syllabus of radiochemistry for undergraduate and post-graduate students—this aspect has been a part of our support of the International Atomic Energy Agency initiative. Also the aim of the working party is to support other working parties and divisions, to press the Federation of the European Chemical Societies for financial structure. To this end an Expression of Interest has been tabled with the Framework 6 Programme for networking within radiochemistry in Europe. The WP will liaise with the International Isotope Society and the International Society on Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry and Biology to seek to communicate and to consider ways of working together.

  16. Monopolizing, Mutualizing, or Muddling Through: Factions and Party Management in Contemporary Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul W. Chambers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In democracies throughout the world, intra-party factions manifest themselves in parties and governments. Formal and informal institutions have, however, proved crucial in managing factionalism. This is especially true in Thailand’s emerging parliamentary democracy where the management of factionalism has become a major objective for Thai parties. This study explores factions and factionalism as well as how different types of parties try to manage intra-party dissension especially in the case of Thailand. The findings suggest that management style tends to be a function of a party’s organization, with parties which practice a collegial style tending to be the more successful in controlling intra-party cliques over time. At the same time, the most important tools which party leaderships can use to control factions are the careful use of constitutional provisions and manipulation of party finance.

  17. Transportation of medical isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  18. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wexler, Sol; Young, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Description is given of method for separating a specific isotope from a mixture of isotopes of an actinide element present as MF 6 , wherein M is the actinide element. It comprises: preparing a feed gas mixture of MF 6 in a propellant gas; passing the feed gas mixture under pressure through an expansion nozzle while heating the mixture to about 600 0 C; releasing the heated gas mixture from the nozzle into an exhaust chamber having a reduced pressure, whereby a gas jet of MF 6 molecules, MF 6 molecular clusters and propellant gas molecules is formed, the MF 6 molecules having a translational energy of about 3 eV; converting the MF 6 molecules to MF 6 ions by passing the jet through a cross jet of electron donor atoms so that an electron transfer takes place between the MF 6 - molecules and the electron donor atoms whereby the jet is now quasi-neutral, containing negative MF 6 - ions and positive donor ions; passing the quasi-neutral jet through a radiofrequency mass filter tuned to separate the MF 6 ions containing the specific isotope from the MF 6 - ions of the other isotopes and neutralizing and collecting the MF 6 molecules of the specific isotope [fr

  19. Noncovalent Hydrogen Isotope Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, A. L.; Breslavskaya, N. N.

    2018-02-01

    Zero-point energies (ZPE) and isotope effects, induced by intermolecular, noncovalent vibrations, are computed and tested by experimental data. The ZPE differences of H- and D-complexes of water with hydrogen, methane, and water molecules are about 100-300 cal/mol; they result to isotope effects IE of 1.20-1.70. Semi-ionic bonds between metal ions and water ligands in M(H2O) 6 2+ complexes are much stronger; their ZPEs are about 12-14 kcal/mol per molecule and result to IE of 1.9-2.1 at 300 K. Protonated (deuterated) water and biwater exhibit the largest ZPE differences and isotope effects; the latter are 25-28 and 12-13 for water and biwater, respectively. Noncovalent IEs contribute markedly into the experimentally measured effects and explain many anomalous and even magic properties of the effects, such as the dependence of IE on the solvents and on the presence of the third substances, enormously large isotope effects at the mild conditions, the difference between IEs measured in the reactions of individual protiated and deuterated compounds and those measured in their mixture. Noncovalent IEs are not negligible and should be taken into account to make correct and substantiated conclusions on the reaction mechanisms. The kinetic equations are derived for the total isotope effects, which include noncovalent IEs as additive factors.

  20. Transportation of medical isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document

  1. Isotope methods in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.; Rauert, W.

    1980-01-01

    Of the investigation methods used in hydrology, tracer methods hold a special place as they are the only ones which give direct insight into the movement and distribution processes taking place in surface and ground waters. Besides the labelling of water with salts and dyes, as in the past, in recent years the use of isotopes in hydrology, in water research and use, in ground-water protection and in hydraulic engineering has increased. This by no means replaces proven methods of hydrological investigation but tends rather to complement and expand them through inter-disciplinary cooperation. The book offers a general introduction to the application of various isotope methods to specific hydrogeological and hydrological problems. The idea is to place the hydrogeologist and the hydrologist in the position to recognize which isotope method will help him solve his particular problem or indeed, make a solution possible at all. He should also be able to recognize what the prerequisites are and what work and expenditure the use of such methods involves. May the book contribute to promoting cooperation between hydrogeologists, hydrologists, hydraulic engineers and isotope specialists, and thus supplement proven methods of investigation in hydrological research and water utilization and protection wherever the use of isotope methods proves to be of advantage. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Separation of uranium isotopes by accelerated isotope exchange reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seko, M.; Miyake, T.; Inada, K.; Ochi, K.; Sakamoto, T.

    1977-01-01

    A novel catalyst for isotope exchange reaction between uranium(IV) and uranium(VI) compounds enables acceleration of the reaction rate as much as 3000 times to make industrial separation of uranium isotopes economically possible

  3. Nuclear insurance and third-party liability. An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Nahrul Khair

    1986-04-01

    As for any other insurance policy, nuclear insurance involves two parties, the insurer and the insured. The coverage provided for can be against any misfortune or peril; material or physical losses, financial losses, third party liability or even the insured himself as in the case of life or personal insurance. In property and liability insurance, the element of certainty does not exist. Accidents cannot be predicted, the insured will only be able to financially recover the present worth of the property insured as evaluated at the time of the accident and to the extent of the damage arising from the event insured against, which in most cases will be lower than the full value of the property.

  4. The liberal party and the achievement of national Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, P E

    2009-01-01

    The process that led to the implementation of a full national health insurance system in Canada was as complicated and contested as the battles that were fought over Medicare in Saskatchewan. The federal Liberal party had to first adopt health insurance as a serious component of its electoral platform, devise a strategy for dealing with provinces which had constitutional jurisdiction over health, and finally wrestle with those within the party--and within the cabinet--who continued to question whether Canada was financially prepared to administer such a costly program. The strategies were devised and the battles were fought privately, but had an important effect on the timing and shape of a national health insurance system.

  5. Public Attitudes towards Parties in Portugal: A Longitudinal Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Pequito Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the case of the often claimed “crisis of parties” in Portugal, and argues that such controversy rests at least in part on “ambiguous” evidence. We will try to answer two fundamental research questions: 1 What motivates popular support for political parties (or lack thereof? 2 Why does antiparty rhetoric resonate with some citizens, but not with others? The empirical data and statistical regression models used allow the following conclusion: in the eyes of Portuguese citizens, parties have become a kind of “necessary evil”, being criticized for “what they actually do” and supported for “what they are supposed to do”.

  6. Political Market Orientation and the Network Party Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    and Saglie (2003). This is motivated by the growing need to integrate the current political science and marketing literature in order to provide a deeper understanding of the behaviour of political actors and their relationships with relevant stakeholder groups. Whilst the underlying conceptualisation draws......The conceptualisation of a political market orientation (PMO) draws on current marketing thought by focussing on the relationships that exist between the party2 and relevant internal and external stakeholders (Ormrod 2005, 2011a). However, the specific way in which the PMO model is linked...... on the management-based ‘relationship marketing’ approach (Bannon 2005; Henneberg and O’Shaughnessy 2009), by striving for contextual sensitivity it is hoped that the fears noted by political scientists that political marketing is solely concerned with applying standard management models to political parties...

  7. Bolivia: New Presidential Electoral System and Political Parties Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrico

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the incentives generated by presidential electoral systems in Bolivia. The system that was in place until 2005 led to the formation of coalition governments that aimed at giving the Executive the majority in Congress. However, these coalitions gradually lost the electorate confidence, and citizens sought alternative political options to major parties from the early nineties on, giving rise to a social dissatisfaction with democracy. This, in turn, led to the resignation of Sánchez de Lozada and, later, to the triumph of Evo Morales. The new electoral system for electing the president, included in the 2009 Constitution, increases the likelihood that the elected government does not have a majority in Congress. Similar situations in the past led to political crisis and anticipation of elections. In a more favorable context characterized by greater satisfaction with democracy and their parties, the challenge is to take decisions inclusively, something unprecedented in Bolivian politics.

  8. Third-Party Incentive Strategies and Conflict Management in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2016-01-01

    Dr. Nikolas Emmanuel's examines the use of an incentives approach in managing intrastate conflict in Africa because in many cases, risks and costs make applications of hard power alone unfeasible. Furthermore, simply ignoring episodes of civil conflict in the hope that they will "burn themselves...... out"� does not appear to be a viable alternative. That said, both noncoercive and coercive incentive strategies exist and have been deployed by third parties in a variety of conflict situations. Such incentives seek to manage conflict by encouraging political bargaining. The clear intention...... parties can help manage conflicts. Second, it offers a typology of the available incentive strategies, classifying them along noncoercive and coercive lines. Thus, the article outlines the possibilities offered by an incentives approach, focusing on examples drawn from recent African cases....

  9. Group Membership Modulates the Neural Circuitry Underlying Third Party Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morese, Rosalba; Rabellino, Daniela; Sambataro, Fabio; Perussia, Felice; Valentini, Maria Consuelo; Bara, Bruno G; Bosco, Francesca M

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore the neural correlates involved in altruistic punishment, parochial altruism and anti-social punishment, using the Third-Party Punishment (TPP) game. In particular, this study considered these punishment behaviors in in-group vs. out-group game settings, to compare how people behave with members of their own national group and with members of another national group. The results showed that participants act altruistically to protect in-group members. This study indicates that norm violation in in-group (but not in out-group) settings results in increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and temporo-parietal junction, brain regions involved in the mentalizing network, as the third-party attempts to understand or justify in-group members' behavior. Finally, exploratory analysis during anti-social punishment behavior showed brain activation recruitment of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, an area associated with altered regulation of emotions.

  10. 1986 Agreement on third party liability in the nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Agreement intends to facilitate the settlement of disputes, if they are due to an event (caused by the peaceful utilisation of nuclear energy) which occurs on the territory of one State and gives rise to damage on the territory of the other State. Unlike the Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland has neither ratified the Paris Convention of 29th July 1960 on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy nor the Brussels Supplementary Convention of 31st January 1963. This might result in diverging interpretations by the German and Swiss courts, in particular, regarding the competent courts and the laws applicable if a third party liability problem were to arise between both countries. The Agreement therefore aims to settle these matters directly by treaty between the States before the courts are confronted by an occurrence of damage and have to seek a solution which conforms to international private law. (NEA) [fr

  11. Good patriots. The nation according to the Spanish conservative party

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    embedded a culture of dialogue and the conflicts became more accentuated at the end of their first term (Tusell, 2000: 239). The Spanish president, José María Aznar, interpreted the results as a big electoral support for his project and started a new orientation in some areas such as the relation...... national parties, PP and Partido Socialista (PSOE, social democrats) agreed to fight against terrorism and the nationalist environment together. In that context, Aznar undertook the definition of the nation maintaining this division and tried to find a way of formulating Spanish nationalism and getting...... some accept by the citizens. In this paper I will examine the discursive formation constituted by PP to redefine the Spanish nationalism using the idea of constitutional patriotism, which emanates from the academic debate, in competition with the social democrat party, that aspires also to apply...

  12. Pirate political parties: New democracy or political utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanović Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is changing under the influence of IT technologies, more and more we talk about 'digital revolution', and political and economic developments are shaped by computer networks. Undeniably, the Internet has opened new possibilities for socio-political expansion, networking and mobilization. Besides the political establishment, many social movements found their chance in cyberspace recognizing the IT technology as a platform for the development and improvement of their internal and external communication. In this article we will focus on the Pirate Party, movement that has been seriously growing on the European political stage for last several years. Following the example of German Pirate Party we will try to explain the characteristics of the movement, its goals and communication strategies, and political dilemmas which it brings.

  13. Limits to Party Autonomy in International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Giuditta Cordero-Moss

    2014-01-01

    International contracts are often written in a standardised manner and without taking into consideration the applicable law. This may create the illusion that the contract is the only basis for the parties' rights and obligations, especially when the contract contains an arbitration clause. Using two typical contract clauses as an illustration (force majeure clause and entire agreement clause), this article analyses the extent to which an international contract, eventhough it contains an arbi...

  14. Knowledge Integrated Business Process Management for Third Party Logistics Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongyan

    2013-01-01

    The growing importance of logistics as well as the increasing dynamic complexity of markets, technologies, and customer needs has brought great challenges to logistics. In order to focus on their core competency in such a competitive environment, more and more companies have outsourced a part or the entirety of the logistics process to third party logistics (3PL) service providers. 3PL has played a crucial role in managing logistics processes within supply chain management. Logistics processe...

  15. Contract law: relationship between dermatologists and third-party payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askanas, A V

    1993-04-01

    The relationship between third-party payers and dermatologists is generally governed by a written contract. That relationship can be more beneficial to the dermatologist, and chances of liability may be decreased, both for breach of contract and for malpractice, if the dermatologist pays close attention to the language in the contract. All contracts are generally negotiable; detrimental language in the contract often may be removed or changed. This article presents information to help prepare dermatologists to review and negotiate contracts.

  16. Constitutional reform processes and political parties: principles for practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vliet, van, M.; Wahiu, W.; Magolowondo, A.

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides a set of guiding principles for constitutional reform on the basis of practical experiences of constitutional reform processes in selected countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Indonesia, Iraq, Kenya, Malawi, Zimbabwe and South Africa. The focus is on the role of political parties in constitution-building processes. The publication shows that although country-specific reform processes may be unique in terms of objectives, context, popular involvement, and achievements, they go ...

  17. Newspapers and Parties: How Advertising Revenues Created an Independent Press

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Petrova

    2009-01-01

    Does economic development promote media freedom? Do higher advertising revenues tend to make media outlets independent of political groups?in?uence? Using data on the 19th century American newspapers, I show that in places with higher advertising revenues, newspapers were more likely to be independent from political parties. Similar results hold when local advertising rates are instrumented by regulations on outdoor advertising and newspaper distribution. I also show that newly created newspa...

  18. Segmentasi Pasar Penyedia Jasa Logistik (Third Party Logistics) di Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-01-01

    Market segmentation is fundamental in marketing strategy and the first step of market-based strategy preparation, to strengthen its marketing efficiency, and creating opportunities for sales growth and profits. This also applies to market segmentation logistics service providers (TPL - Third Party Logistics), the market is highly developed in the last decade, so that the logistics service providers has to develop marketing strategies properly. The purpose of this research is to gain a better ...

  19. Reflexive intergroup bias in third-party punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudkin, Daniel A; Rothmund, Tobias; Twardawski, Mathias; Thalla, Natasha; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-11-01

    Humans show a rare tendency to punish norm-violators who have not harmed them directly-a behavior known as third-party punishment. Research has found that third-party punishment is subject to intergroup bias, whereby people punish members of the out-group more severely than the in-group. Although the prevalence of this behavior is well-documented, the psychological processes underlying it remain largely unexplored. Some work suggests that it stems from people's inherent predisposition to form alliances with in-group members and aggress against out-group members. This implies that people will show reflexive intergroup bias in third-party punishment, favoring in-group over out-group members especially when their capacity for deliberation is impaired. Here we test this hypothesis directly, examining whether intergroup bias in third-party punishment emerges from reflexive, as opposed to deliberative, components of moral cognition. In 3 experiments, utilizing a simulated economic game, we varied participants' group relationship to a transgressor, measured or manipulated the extent to which they relied on reflexive or deliberative judgment, and observed people's punishment decisions. Across group-membership manipulations (American football teams, nationalities, and baseball teams) and 2 assessments of reflexive judgment (response time and cognitive load), reflexive judgment heightened intergroup bias, suggesting that such bias in punishment is inherent to human moral cognition. We discuss the implications of these studies for theories of punishment, cooperation, social behavior, and legal practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Young children remedy second- and third-party ownership violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2015-09-01

    When responding to ownership violations, children can focus on the victim's needs, the perpetrator's punishment, or both. Recent studies show that 3- and 5-year-olds are equally likely to respond to second- and third-party violations, and 3-year-olds return objects to their rightful owners. Children's interventions are consistent with justice for victims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Issues in third party attacks on SMCRA permits. [USA - Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, G.D. Jr. (Ice Miller Donadio Ryan, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Legal issues which have occurred in third party attacks on SMCRA (Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act) permit, mainly in Indiana, are discussed. Problems that can occur with the interrelationship of common law nuisance/injunction actions, the permit process, enforcement proceedings and collateral estoppel from administrative agency action, as well as finality issues in the permit process as related to other provisions of SMCRA. 37 refs.

  2. Imitating the newcomer. How, when and why established political parties imitate the policy positions and issue attention of new political parties in the electoral and parliamentary arena : the case of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon Pieter

    2012-01-01

    This thesis studies, how, when and why established political parties imitate new political parties. It examines new party effects on both the policy positions of established parties and the attention established political parties spend on issues. It examines this effect in both the electoral and

  3. Political Parties and Popular Representation in Myanmar’s Democratisation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Stokke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of political parties in Myanmar’s democratisation process. We argue that the substance of democratisation depends on popular representation through political parties but question their capacity to provide such representation. Examining capacity through the concept of party institutionalisation, we find that most parties have not been able to build effective organisational structures. However, we also find a degree of party institutionalisation in the form of rootedness in society. Political cleavages between those favouring authoritarian rule over democratic rule and Burman nationhood over ethnic notions of nationhood have produced divisions between state-centred parties associated with Myanmar’s authoritarian legacy and society-centred pro-democracy and ethnic parties. Although being less dichotomous than in the past, we argue that these cleavages continue to provide a basis for party identity and rootedness in society. We conclude that further development of political parties and popular representation will be shaped by the relations between parties, the state, and society – where individual parties are shaped according to their tendencies towards state-centred cartel parties or society-centred mass parties.

  4. Comparative Party System Analysis in Central and Eastern Europe: the Case of the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnis Saarts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the party systems in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE has puzzled many scholars. High instability of the party systems and their specific evolution makes the application of theoretical models designed predominately for Western European party politics problematic. The paper puts forward the argument that we should further elaborate and specify the models for a small N comparative party system analysis in CEE countries and to incorporate some region specific components into the framework. The essential dimensions included into proposed comparative framework are as follows: (1 the stability of the party system, (2 party system fragmentation, (3 parties´ penetration into society, (4 the ideology and origins of the major parties, (5 the dominant cleavage constellations framing the party competition (6 the strength of the party organizations. The above-mentioned dimensions are expected to capture the most important aspects that make the difference between the party systems in general, and each dimension is complemented with the specific additional variables suitable for party system analysis in CEE in particular. The framework will be tested on the Baltic States, which party systems are often regarded to be very similar to each other. However, the analysis will demonstrate that based on the above-mentioned framework, very significant and noteworthy differences will be revealed.

  5. The nuclear safety convention. Results for Argentine as contracting party

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    A powerful mechanism for increasing safety worldwide is through the development and adoption of legally binding Safety Conventions. Since 1986 four Conventions were ratified in the areas of Nuclear, Radiation and Waste Safety. The Nuclear Safety Convention establishes an international co-operation mechanism to maintain safety nuclear installations, focused on: to achieve and maintain a high level of nuclear safety worldwide through the enhancement of national measures and international co-operation including, where appropriate, safety-related technical co-operation; to establish and maintain effective defences in nuclear installations against potential radiological hazards in order to protect individuals, society and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation from such installations and to prevent accidents with radiological consequences and to mitigate such consequences should they occur. Each contracting party shall take, within the framework of its national law, the legislative, regulatory and administrative measures and other steps necessary for implementing its obligations under this Convention. Moreover, each contracting parties shall submit for review prior to each review meeting, a National Report on the measures it has taken to implement each of the obligations of the Convention. The contracting parties concluded that the review process had proven to be of great value to their national nuclear safety programmes. (author)

  6. Separate issues of rights and obligations of loan agreement parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Ночовкіна

    2015-05-01

    Paper main body. Peculiarities of rights and duties of loan agreement parties mainly connected to gratuitous nature of such relations. The scope and content of rights and duties of the counterparts according to the agreement depends upon its legal structure (real or consensus. At characterization of the loan agreement parties’ duties we should address as to the regulations of Chapter 60 of Ukrainian Civil Law and to the regulations governing hire (rent relations. The Clauses of Chapter 58 of Ukrainian Civil Law shall be applied only if the opposite not determined by Chapter “Loan” and does not contradict gratuitous nature of loan relations. The main responsibility of the loaner according to the agreement is the transfer of piece of property to a user for gratuitous usage. At real transaction the loaner performs this function at the moment of agreement conclusion. At consensus model of transaction the duty of the loaner to transfer piece of property arise first of all.Conclusions. In order to improve legal regulation of certain duties of loan agreement parties we should: 1 in legal regulations to determine such terms as “ordinary costs”, “capital repairs” and “minor repairs”; 2 we should clearly indicate which regulations of Clause 58 “Hire(rent” can be applied to govern the loan agreement. Such improvement will allow to eliminate any disputes at allocation of rights and duties of the parties during insurance of loaned property, at repair of property and reimbursement of repair expenses.

  7. Costly third-party punishment in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Katherine; Jordan, Jillian J; Warneken, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Human adults engage in costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior, but the developmental origins of this behavior are unknown. Here we investigate costly third-party punishment in 5- and 6-year-old children. Participants were asked to accept (enact) or reject (punish) proposed allocations of resources between a pair of absent, anonymous children. In addition, we manipulated whether subjects had to pay a cost to punish proposed allocations. Experiment 1 showed that 6-year-olds (but not 5-year-olds) punished unfair proposals more than fair proposals. However, children punished less when doing so was personally costly. Thus, while sensitive to cost, they were willing to sacrifice resources to intervene against unfairness. Experiment 2 showed that 6-year-olds were less sensitive to unequal allocations when they resulted from selfishness than generosity. These findings show that costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior is present in young children, suggesting that from early in development children show a sophisticated capacity to promote fair behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Museums & Mermaids: Bringing Climate Literacy to the Party

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillinger, D.

    2014-12-01

    If science is for everyone, then it needs to be taught in environments that are welcoming to people who may not feel at home in a traditional classroom. A team of scientists and educators at the American Museum of Natural History have developed a new course, Our Earth's Future, which prepares participants to contribute intelligently and fluently to informal "cocktail party" conversations about climate and climate change. The course, taught after hours at the museum, culminates in an actual cocktail party in one of the museum's halls where participants can practice their skills. Participants' knowledge of climate change and attitudes towards climate change were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed before and after the two five-week course sessions.Climate literacy can also be included in existing events that are not obviously science-focused. Venues such as festivals, galleries, and underground art parties may be willing to broaden their definition of culture to include science - but only if they are asked. Given the increase in public discourse around the topic of climate change, there is an opportunity to reach people who wouldn't attend a formal science lecture, but might attend a film screening or a fundraiser that had some scientific content. Qualitative audience assessments done after the annual "Mermaid Lagoon," a fundraiser for ocean related causes that includes a scientific segment along with dance and theatrical performances, show increased enthusiasm and support for climate science when it is presented in a relevant, fun, and non-intimidating manner.

  9. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  10. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  11. Isotope separation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of an isotope separation device comprising a system for converting into gaseous form a first and second isotope to be separated, a monochromatic excitation light source to excite the gaseous molecules of these two isotopes in a distinct manner, a first and second receiver to collect selectively the molecules of the first and second distinctly excited isotopes. The frequency FL of the excitation light is selected between a lower limit and a higher limit F2 + 1/2 LD, depending on the frequences F1 and F2 of two absorption lines near this first and second isotope. The difference DF between these two frequencies F1 and F2 is less than the Doppler width LD of each one of these lines and greater than the natural width LN of each of these two lines and also the width of line LR of the excitation light source. The probability that the molecules will be excited by this light depends on the direction of their displacement to a major and different extent for both isotopes. An ionising light source LI is set up to irradiate the seat of interaction between the excitation light and the gaseous molecules with an ionisation light able to ionise the excited molecules without ionising the molecules that are not excited. The receivers are able to collect selectively the ionised molecules. A sufficiently low gas pressure is selected for the distance between the place of interaction and the first receiver to be less than double the free mean travel of the molecules in the gas [fr

  12. Climate and isotopic tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    The applications of natural radioactivity and isotopic measurements in the sciences concerning Earth and its atmosphere, are numerous: carbon 14 dating with the Tandetron apparatus at the Cea, measurement of oxygen 18 in coral or sediment limestone for the determination of ocean temperature and salinity, carbon 14 dating of corals for the determination of sea level variations, deuterium content in polar ice-cap leads to temperature variations determination; isotopic measurements also enable the determination of present climate features such as global warming, oceanic general circulation

  13. Method to separate isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, H.; Neuschuetz, D.

    1980-01-01

    An extraction by means of supercritical pure gases (e.g. CD 2 ) or gas mixtures is proposed to separate isotopes, especially H/D, Li-6/Li-7, and U-235/U-238, and water or benzol is used as entrainer. The extraction shall be carried out at pressure rates of about 350 bar above the critical pressure with the temperature being by up to 100 0 C above the critical temperature. A NaCl-solution and the change of the isotopic ratio Cl-35/Cl-37 are investigated for example purpose. (UWI) [de

  14. Environmental isotope survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacovides, J.S.

    1979-03-01

    Work was initiated on the 1st of September 1971 with the objective of finding out how best to use environmental isotopes in the interpretation of the hydrology, particularly subsurface hydrology, of Cyprus through a sparse reconnaissance sampling of all the major aquifers and springs covering the whole island. The distribution of sampling was such that the survey in itself could assist in clarifying particular hydrogeologic problems, provide a better understanding of the water systems of the island, establish a general environmental isotope - framework of the hydrologic regimen of Cyprus as well as to provide the basis for specific, more detailed, studies to be undertaken subsequently

  15. Lectures in isotope geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, E.; Hunziker, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Designed for a introductory course in geochronology and the geochemistry of stable isotopes, this text has been written by recognized experts in the field. Emphasis is on the interpretation and on applications, and examples of these are offered along with each technique. Extraterrestrial applications have been avoided and the treatment of pure experimentation has been kept at a minimum. This text will be appreciated by geologists who want to learn more about methods used in isotope geology, how they can be applied, and how to gauge their usefulness. (orig.) [de

  16. High mass isotope separation arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    An isotope separation arrangement for separating a preselected isotope from a mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules by either photon-induced pure revibrational or vibronic selective excitation of the molecules containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated from a lower to a higher energy state, and a chemical reaction of the higher energy state molecules with a chemically-reactive agent to form a chemical compound containing primarily the atoms of the isotope to be separated in a physicochemical state different from the physicochemical state of the mixture of chemically-identical but isotopically-different molecules. The chemical compound containing the atoms of the isotope to be separated may be subsequently processed to obtain the isotope. The laser configuration used to generate the photon beam is fully described

  17. Isotope separation method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Eisner, P.N.; Thomas, W.R.L.

    1980-01-01

    A method and apparatus are specified for separating a mixture of isotopes present in a compound, preferably a gaseous compound, into two or more parts in each of which the abundances of the isotopes differ from the natural abundances of the isotopes in the compound. The invention particularly relates to carrying out a laser induced, isotopically selective conversion of gaseous molecules in such a manner as to achieve more than one stage of isotope separation along the length of the laser beam. As an example, the invention is applied to the separation of the isotopes of uranium in UF 6 , in which either the U-235 or U-238 isotope is selectively excited by means of irradiation from an infrared laser, and the selectively excited isotope converted into a product that can be recovered from UF 6 by one of a variety of methods that are described. (U.K.)

  18. 78 FR 34795 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products... Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products AGENCY: Environmental... certification, auditing and reporting of third-party certifiers, recordkeeping, enforcement, laminated products...

  19. Measuring the effects of social media participation on political party communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, Robin; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Huibers, T.; Reddick, C.; Aikins, S.K.

    2012-01-01

    Political parties can potentially benefit from Social Media to shape interactions between their members. This chapter presents the Social Media Participation Model (SMPM), which measures the effects of Social Media Participation on political party communities. As people and politicians increasingly

  20. A contextual analysis of party system formation in Nigeria, 1960-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliyu Mukhtar Katsina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the parties and party systems in Nigeria since independence. The article argues that the country has witnessed four different types of party systems corresponding to the four democratisation attempts that saw the emergence of constitutional governments since 1960. Special focus is awarded to the transformations of the four party systems and developments in their various institutional designs including regulating the number of parties that participate in the electoral politics of the country. In trying to achieve its objective, the article adopts chronological and thematic approaches. Chronologically, the paper investigates these party systems in successive order beginning with the First Republic when the elements of party politics were first adopted in Nigeria. Thematically, the article focuses on those issues that influenced the formation and transformation of the party systems from the First Republic in 1960 to the present Fourth Republic.

  1. Techniques for preparing isotopic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guoji; Guan Shouren; Luo Xinghua; Sun Shuhua

    1987-12-01

    The techniques of making isotopic targets for nuclear physics experiments are introduced. Vacuum evaporation, electroplating, centrifugal precipitation, rolling and focused heavy-ion beam sputtering used to prepare various isotopic targets at IAE are described. Reduction-distillation with active metals and electrolytic reduction for converting isotope oxides to metals are mentioned. The stripping processes of producing self-supporting isotopic targets are summarized. The store methods of metallic targets are given

  2. Isotope separation using tunable lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snavely, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Various processes for laser isotope separation based upon the use of the spectroscopic isotope effect in atomic and molecular vapors are discussed. Emphasis is placed upon processes which are suitable for uranium enrichment. A demonstration process for the separation of uranium isotopes using selective photoionization is described. (U.S.)

  3. Isotope effects on nuclear shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    This review concentrates upon empirical trends and practical uses of mostly secondary isotope effects, both of the intrinsic and equilibrium types. The text and the tables are arranged in the following fashion. The most 'popular' isotope effect is treated first, deuterium isotope effects on 13 C nuclear shielding, followed by deuterium on 1 H nuclear shieldings, etc. Focus is thus on the isotopes producing the effect rather than on the nuclei suffering the effect. After a brief treatment of each type of isotope effect, general trends are dealt with. Basic trends of intrinsic isotope effects such as additivity, solvent effects, temperature effects, steric effects, substituent effects and hyperconjugation are discussed. Uses of isotope effects for assignment purposes, in stereochemical studies, in hydrogen bonding and in isotopic tracer studies are dealt with. Kinetic studies, especially of phosphates, are frequently performed by utilizing isotope effects. In addition, equilibrium isotope effects are treated in great detail as these are felt to be new and very important and may lead to new uses of isotope effects. Techniques used to obtain isotope effects are briefly surveyed at the end of the chapter. (author)

  4. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  5. Ecologies of Ideologies: Explaining Party Entry and Exit in West-European Parliaments, 1945-2013

    OpenAIRE

    van de Wardt, M.; Berkhout, J.; Vermeulen, F.

    2017-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our exp...

  6. Tracing the territorial dynamics of party fragmentation in Mexico (1991-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald SONNLEITNER

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, Mexican politics evolved from a closed, corporative and hegemonic-party authoritarianism, towards a more plural and competitive multi-party system. In the nineties, three relevant parties structured electoral politics. But this system soon fragmented and reached an average of 5.6 effective parties in 2015. What causes and drives political and partisan fragmentation in Mexico? Which have been the main temporal and territorial dynamics? How did they reshape Mexico’s electoral geography?

  7. Third Party Nuclear Liability: The Case of a Supplier in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, A.; Heffron, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The law surrounding third party nuclear liability is important to all parties in the nuclear supply chain whether they are providing decommissioning services, project management expertise or a new reactor. This paper examines third party nuclear liability, and in particular, in relation to a Supplier in the nuclear energy sector in the United Kingdom (UK). The term “Supplier” is used in this paper and, depending on the context, is intended to cover all parties in the supply chain providing se...

  8. The Puzzle of Democratic Monopolies: Single Party Dominance and Decline in India

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    How to explain political monopolies in democratic institutional settings? Dominant parties in countries with robust formal democratic institutions are surprisingly frequent, yet poorly understood. Existing theories explain away the puzzle by characterizing dominant parties as `catch-all' parties that survive on the basis of historically imbued mass voter legitimacy. This dissertation develops a theory of how dominant parties in fact routinely win free and fair elections despite counter-majori...

  9. Coalitions and Competition in Malaysia – Incremental Transformation of a Strong-party System

    OpenAIRE

    Meredith L. WEISS

    2013-01-01

    "The seeming entrenchment of a two-coalition system in Malaysia solidifies the centrality of strongly institutionalised parties in the polity. The primary parties in Malaysia reach deeply into society and nest within dense networks of both intra-party and external organisations. Given this order - which differentiates Malaysia from its neighbours in the region - political liberalisation, if it happens, should be expected largely via electoral politics, and, specifically, through inter-party c...

  10. Uranium Isotopic Analysis with the FRAM Isotopic Analysis Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.T.; Sampson, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    FRAM is the acronym for Fixed-Energy Response-Function Analysis with Multiple efficiency. This software was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory originally for plutonium isotopic analysis. Later, it was adapted for uranium isotopic analysis in addition to plutonium. It is a code based on a self-calibration using several gamma-ray peaks for determining the isotopic ratios. The versatile-parameter database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration and detector type

  11. Isotopes in aquaculture research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyappan, S.; Dash, B.; Ghosh, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    The applications of isotopes in aquaculture research include areas like aquatic production process, nutrient cycles and food chain dynamics, fish nutrition, fish physiology, genetics and immunology. The radioisotopes commonly used are beta emitters. The use of different radioisotopes in aquaculture research are presented. 2 tabs

  12. Process for isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.; Kersting, A.; Gebauhr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Isotope separation in UF 6 gas takes place on the principle of selective excitation by laser irradiation and separation by chemical conversion with a partner in a reaction. Atomic H, N or O or the CH 3 or CHO radicals are suitable partners in the reaction. The recombination takes place by catalytic acceleration on leaving the reaction area. (DG) [de

  13. SHELL ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The land snail Limicolaria kambeul chudeaui Germain was collected ... Key words/phrases: Ethiopia, isotope geochemistry, Lake Tilo, Limicolaria .... 1984), (c) 6'80 values of precipitation at Addis Ababa, with i 1 S.D. bars for the .... (breakfast cereal), deionised water and cuttlefish bone, the carbon and oxygen.

  14. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Maas, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Processes are disclosed for the separation of isotopes of an element comprising vaporizing uranyl compounds having the formula (UO2a2)n, where a is a monovalent anion and n in an integer from 2 to 4, the compounds having an isotopically shifted infrared absorption spectrum associated with uranyl ions containing said element which is to be separated, and then irradiating the uranyl compound with infrared radiation which is preferentially absorbed by a molecular vibration of uranyl ions of the compound containing a predetermined isotope of that element so that excited molecules of the compound are provided which are enriched in the molecules of the compound containing that predetermined isotope, thus enabling separation of these excited molecules. The processes disclosed include separation of the excited molecules by irradiating under conditions such that the excited molecules dissociate, and also separating the excited molecules by a discrete separation step. The latter includes irradiating the excited molecules by a second infrared laser in order to convert the excited molecules into a separable product, or also by chemically converting the excited molecules, preferably by reaction with a gaseous reactant

  15. Isotopic effect giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; Saintignon, P. de; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.

    1981-10-01

    The systematics of the excitation energy of the giant dipole, monopole, and quadrupole resonances are shown to exhibit an isotopic effect. For a given element, the excitation energy of the transition decreases faster with the increasing neutron number than the empirical laws fitting the overall data. This effect is discussed in terms of the available models

  16. Isotopes in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    For most people the obvious application of nuclear technology is in power generation. But there are many other uses for radioactive materials or for products made with their help. They are found in our factories, hospitals, offices and homes. ''Isotopes in Action'' looks at the many applications of radioisotopes in our society. (author)

  17. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  18. Isotopes and atomic weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinglian

    1990-01-01

    A review of the chemical and mass spectrometric methods of determining the atomic weights of elements is presented. A, special discussion is devoted to the calibration of the mass spectrometer with highly enriched isotopes. It is illustrated by the recent work on europium. How to choose the candidate element for new atomic weight determination forms the last section of the article

  19. Actinide isotopic analysis systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, Z.M.; Ruhter, W.D.; Gunnink, R.

    1990-01-01

    This manual provides instructions and procedures for using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's two-detector actinide isotope analysis system to measure plutonium samples with other possible actinides (including uranium, americium, and neptunium) by gamma-ray spectrometry. The computer program that controls the system and analyzes the gamma-ray spectral data is driven by a menu of one-, two-, or three-letter options chosen by the operator. Provided in this manual are descriptions of these options and their functions, plus detailed instructions (operator dialog) for choosing among the options. Also provided are general instructions for calibrating the actinide isotropic analysis system and for monitoring its performance. The inventory measurement of a sample's total plutonium and other actinides content is determined by two nondestructive measurements. One is a calorimetry measurement of the sample's heat or power output, and the other is a gamma-ray spectrometry measurement of its relative isotopic abundances. The isotopic measurements needed to interpret the observed calorimetric power measurement are the relative abundances of various plutonium and uranium isotopes and americium-241. The actinide analysis system carries out these measurements. 8 figs

  20. 29 CFR 1425.6 - Use of third-party mediation assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of third-party mediation assistance. 1425.6 Section 1425.6 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE MEDIATION ASSISTANCE IN THE FEDERAL SERVICE § 1425.6 Use of third-party mediation assistance. If the parties...

  1. Évolution des partis politiques dans le monde arabe | Page 4 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Orient et en Afrique du Nord subir diverses mutations. Le soutien dont bénéficiaient les partis nationalistes a diminué au profit des partis islamistes. Ce sont ces derniers qui sont désormais les plus dynamiques et les plus contestataires des partis ...

  2. 76 FR 55261 - Safety Zone; Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht, San Francisco, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht. This temporary safety zone is established to ensure the safety of... Events will sponsor the Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht on September 17, 2011, in the navigable...

  3. Mediated Leader Effects: The Impact of Newspapers’ Portrayal of Party Leadership on Electoral Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaldering, L.; van der Meer, T.; van der Brug, W.

    2018-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that party leaders matter in democratic elections. As very few voters have direct contact with party leaders, media are voters’ primary source of information about these leaders and, thus, the likely origin of leader effects on party support. Our study focuses on these

  4. The Soviet Union and the Socialist and Social Democratic Parties of Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    British forces, Craxi stated, "Those missiles are not on the moon," Corriere della Sera, May 30, 1985. • 7 .- P.- N" It.- ’j -9.’-V 1.r". k7 17- -. W...Party (PIP) Progressive Labor Party of St. Lucia (PLP) People’s Electoral Movement (MEP), Venezuela Consultative Parties-in-Exile Bulgarian Social

  5. Évolution des partis politiques dans le monde arabe | Page 2 | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Orient et en Afrique du Nord subir diverses mutations. Le soutien dont bénéficiaient les partis nationalistes a diminué au profit des partis islamistes. Ce sont ces derniers qui sont désormais les plus dynamiques et les plus contestataires des partis ...

  6. Évolution des partis politiques dans le monde arabe | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Orient et en Afrique du Nord subir diverses mutations. Le soutien dont bénéficiaient les partis nationalistes a diminué au profit des partis islamistes. Ce sont ces derniers qui sont désormais les plus dynamiques et les plus contestataires des partis ...

  7. 78 FR 44090 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite Wood Products..., concerning a third-party certification framework for the formaldehyde standards for composite wood products... Environmental protection, Composite wood products, Formaldehyde, Reporting and recordkeeping, Third-party...

  8. Party policy position of Die Linke. A continuation of the PDS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Plassa, R.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the German party Die Linke emerged as the result of the PDS (Party of Democratic Socialism; the successor of the Communist Party) merging with the WASG (Wahlalternative Arbeit und Soziale Gerechtigkeit; a break away left wing of the Social Democrats). This article compares the policy

  9. Two shades of Green? The electorates of GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, S.; Krouwel, A.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has two electorally significant parties that might be considered to be part of the ‘Green’ family: GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals. These two parties appeal to different niches of the Green electorate, identified on the basis of issue dimensions, demographics, and their trust

  10. Two shades of Green? The electorates of GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otjes, Simon; Krouwel, Andre

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has two electorally significant parties that might be considered to be part of the Green' family: GreenLeft and the Party for the Animals. These two parties appeal to different niches of the Green electorate, identified on the basis of issue dimensions, demographics, and their trust

  11. 78 FR 23545 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request: Third Party Conformity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request: Third Party Conformity Assessment Body Registration Form AGENCY... evaluate whether third party conformity assessment bodies meet the requirements to test for compliance to specified children's product safety rules. Third party conformity assessment bodies found to meet the...

  12. Application of the isotopic index in isotope geochemical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetze, H.

    1982-06-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate approximately isotope exchange equilibria between different crystalline silicates. The algorithm uses a newly introduced isotopic index. It is defined using isotopic increments of the variant types of silicatic bonds. This isotopic index gives a quantitative measure of the ability to enrich 18 O or 30 Si, respectively. The dependence of isotopic fractionations on temperature can be calculated approximately by means of the isotopic index, too. On this theoretical base some problems of magmatism and two varieties of an isotope geochemical model of the evolution of the Earth's crust are treated. Finally, the possibility is demonstrated to give prognostic statements about the likelihood of ore bearing of different granites. (author)

  13. Isotopic separation by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, M.G.; Barre, Y.; Neige, R.

    1994-01-01

    The isotopic exchange reaction and the isotopic separation factor are first recalled; the principles of ion chromatography applied to lithium isotope separation are then reviewed (displacement chromatography) and the process is modelled in the view of dimensioning and optimizing the industrial process; the various dimensioning parameters are the isotopic separation factor, the isotopic exchange kinetics and the material flow rate. Effects of the resin type and structure are presented. Dimensioning is also affected by physico-chemical and hydraulic parameters. Industrial implementation features are also discussed. 1 fig., 1 tab., 5 refs

  14. Physics with isotopically controlled semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haller, E.E.

    1994-08-01

    Control of the isotopic composition of semiconductors offers a wide range of new scientific opportunities. In this paper a number of recent results obtained with isotopically pure as well as deliberately mixed diamond and Ge bulk single crystals and Ge isotope superlattices will be reviewed. Isotopic composition affects several properties such as phonon energies, bandstructure and lattice constant in subtle but theoretically well understood ways. Large effects are observed for thermal conductivity, local vibrational modes of impurities and after neutron transmutation doping (NTD). Several experiments which could profit greatly from isotope control are proposed

  15. Parteilisest tsensuurist Nõukogude Eestis. Party Censorship in Soviet Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Kreegipuu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available During the years of imposed Soviet rule in Estonia from 1940 to its collapse in 1991, Estonian culture and the written word were subject to Soviet censorship which due to its perseverance, extent and rigidity constrained creativity and self-expression. At the same time, archival documents and memories testify that considerable shifting could take place within this censorship which on the surface appeared strict and regulated, depending on the general ideological stance and the officials and party functionaries in place at the time. Soviet censorship is usually studied and described with the activities of the censorship office Glavlit as the focal point. However, for a more complete overview, it would be wise to keep in mind that a whole row of other institutions and authorities with the Communist Party in front also were involved in censorship matters. When it came to censorship, it was the party that had the final word – as it did with everything else – and if needed, it also acted as punisher. Apart from the role of censor, the Communist Party, its departments (with the Department for Propaganda and Agitation or Ideology in front and its officials also took part in hands-on censorship work, both in terms of decision-making and in dealing with concrete incidents (breach of censorship rules and censor mistakes but also in the search for and pointing out of ideological flaws. One area in which the party’s censorship activities manifested itself in a rather vivid manner was the leadership and control of the Soviet press. When analysing materials from the bureau of the Communist Party of Estonia’s Central Committee, it becomes clear that the party’s governing organs were constantly active in this area. The manifestation of problems and discussion of flaws here point to the circumstance that journalists and editors did not accept the censorship rules, but rather tried to find possibilities and means through which to modify or ignore them

  16. Integration between manufacturers and third party logistics providers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole; Lemoine, Olga W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to analyse the extent of the integration between manufacturers and third party logistics (TPL) providers at present and how the integration is expected to develop in the near future. The focus is on studying what tasks are part of the cooperation, what...... of the eight business processes studied. Further integration in the same processes is expected, based on ICT tools and with a focus on cost. ICT competences are primarily seen as a qualifier not a differentiator. Because the future TPL industry is expected to be characterised by more standardised services...

  17. Conservative Party Modernisation and David Cameron's Politics of the Family

    OpenAIRE

    Hayton, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A key feature of David Cameron's electoral appeal is his carefully cultivated image as a ‘family man’. Cameron has repeatedly stressed the importance of the family to his political views and stated his desire to see marriage rewarded through the tax system. At the same time, Cameron has presented himself as a modernising leader, keen to demonstrate that he and his party are in touch with contemporary society. Central to this effort to detoxify the Conservative brand has been an emphasis on so...

  18. Party Finances: Between Dependence on the State and Its Embezzlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Matiuța

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyze the financial behavior of political parties in Romania and the revenues collected in recent years, on the basis of available official data, as well as the practices of embezzling public money and using state resources for electoral purposes, by referring to several corruption scandals related to their funding. It suggests that, as laws became clearer and more restrictive, the methods of those engaged in corrupt practices seem to be refined as well and that a coherent legal framework along with the firm punishment of those guilty of violating laws could lessen the scourge of corruption.

  19. Interrelationships of risks faced by third party logistics service providers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Chaudhuri, Atanu

    2016-01-01

    insights. Results show that arms-length relationship between the customer and the 3PLs has strong influence on other risks and there is a need for collaborative relationships between 3PLs and its customers. Moreover, analysis indicates that the 3PLs need to improve internal processes related to quality......This paper analyses the interrelationships between risks faced by third party logistics service providers (3PLs) in relation to one of its customers using DEMATEL. Novel analysis of both within and between risk categories and generation of threshold value to prioritize risks generate useful...... management, flexibility of its operations and also geographical coverage of their services....

  20. Establishment of the PIN within the Colombian party system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ortiz López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of the legislative elections held in Colombia in 2010 and one of their main results, the establishment of the National Integration Party (PIN. The authors offer an analysis of articles that appeared in printed media, taking into consideration such variables as financing, legal constitution, popular acceptance and settling time. In this way, the authors attempt to demonstrate how the PIN managed to get a place in the political system and what are the consequences of this development, in particular, as the Department of Valle del Cauca is concerned.

  1. When Two of the Same Are Needed: A Multilevel Model of Intragroup Ethnic Party Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    diversification of minority groups. In states with multiple levels of governments, intra-ethnic rival parties emerge if minorities are local majorities in certain regions. Intra-ethnic party competition is limited, however, through the national electoral system, and especially high legal thresholds can restrict......Parties of ethno-regional minorities have been created in a large number of ethnically diverse countries, but sometimes one such party is not enough. While previous work has investigated the consequences of intragroup party competition, this study looks at the causes of internal political...

  2. Political parties and the EU in national election campaigns: who talks about Europe, and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senninger, Roman; Wagner, Markus

    2015-01-01

    addressed as well as their framing. We argue that issue-based strategies and government participation may provide important reasons why parties only mobilize selectively on EU issues. We test our expectations using data from party press releases in Austrian general election campaigns in 2008 and 2013. We......This paper examines political party mobilization on European Union issues during national election campaigns. We consider which actors talk about the EU, specifically which parties and which actors within parties, as well as how these actors talk about the EU, specifically the types of EU issues...

  3. Password-only authenticated three-party key exchange proven secure against insider dictionary attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Junghyun; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Paik, Juryon; Won, Dongho

    2014-01-01

    While a number of protocols for password-only authenticated key exchange (PAKE) in the 3-party setting have been proposed, it still remains a challenging task to prove the security of a 3-party PAKE protocol against insider dictionary attacks. To the best of our knowledge, there is no 3-party PAKE protocol that carries a formal proof, or even definition, of security against insider dictionary attacks. In this paper, we present the first 3-party PAKE protocol proven secure against both online and offline dictionary attacks as well as insider and outsider dictionary attacks. Our construct can be viewed as a protocol compiler that transforms any 2-party PAKE protocol into a 3-party PAKE protocol with 2 additional rounds of communication. We also present a simple and intuitive approach of formally modelling dictionary attacks in the password-only 3-party setting, which significantly reduces the complexity of proving the security of 3-party PAKE protocols against dictionary attacks. In addition, we investigate the security of the well-known 3-party PAKE protocol, called GPAKE, due to Abdalla et al. (2005, 2006), and demonstrate that the security of GPAKE against online dictionary attacks depends heavily on the composition of its two building blocks, namely a 2-party PAKE protocol and a 3-party key distribution protocol.

  4. Major trends in party system in Ukraine for 1998-2014 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Nosenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current party system of Ukraine, defined its main features and trends with regard of parliamentary elections 2014 was investigated. The classification, which distinguish the parliamentary system was determined. It is established that the party system has undergone significant changes compared to previous years. Thus, according to classification Mayra Ukrainian party system evolved from a secondary party system to a system of small parties because the two largest parties have 47.5% of votes in parliament. Meyer’s Index fell by almost a factor of 2, indicating that the party system became more competitive, the process of forming a coalition will be longer, and the stability of the government will be lower than in previous years. The calculated effective indices of the number of parties suggested Laakso, Taagepera and Golosov also show that the party system became more fragmented. Based on the analyzed results of parliamentary elections for 1998­2014 years, it has found that increasing or decreasing the percentage threshold of 1%, not significantly affected by the number of parties represented in Parliament; none of the parties could not be present in every convocation; there is uncertainty in electoral preferences.

  5. Political Culture, Values and Economic Utility: A Different Perspective on Norwegian Party-based Euroscepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. Skinner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a content analysis of party manifestos and a survey of Norwegian MPs, this article examines the nuances in, and the causality of, the different Norwegian parties’ Euroscepticism. The study of the comparative party politics of Euroscepticism, which focuses on ideology and strategy, falls short of accounting for the Norwegian case, where, unlike other European countries, the parties’ Euroscepticism is exceptionally stable and appears across the political spectrum. Therefore, the article tests an alternative set of theories, drawn from the literature on opinion formation on European integration, to find a more suitable framework for analysing and explaining the motivation of Norwegian Euroscepticism. The analysis shows that Norwegian party-based Euroscepticism can be divided into three types when it comes to its strength and policy opposition, with the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party on the ‘hardest’ end of the Euroscepticism scale, followed by the Christian Democratic Party and the Liberal Party, and finally, the Labour Party and the Progress Party. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that Norwegian Eurosceptic party stances on Europe are primarily driven by political values and political culture concerns, except for the Progress Party, which base its Eurosceptic motivation on economic utilitarianism and political culture.

  6. Two-party secret key distribution via a modified quantum secret sharing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, W P; Evans, P G; Lawrie, B; Legré, M; Lougovski, P; Ray, W; Williams, B P; Qi, B; Smith, A M

    2015-03-23

    We present and demonstrate a novel protocol for distributing secret keys between two and only two parties based on N-party single-qubit Quantum Secret Sharing (QSS). We demonstrate our new protocol with N = 3 parties using phase-encoded photons. We show that any two out of N parties can build a secret key based on partial information from each other and with collaboration from the remaining N - 2 parties. Our implementation allows for an accessible transition between N-party QSS and arbitrary two party QKD without modification of hardware. In addition, our approach significantly reduces the number of resources such as single photon detectors, lasers and dark fiber connections needed to implement QKD.

  7. Manipulating Morality: Third-Party Intentions Alter Moral Judgments by Changing Causal Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan; Shaw, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The present studies investigate how the intentions of third parties influence judgments of moral responsibility for other agents who commit immoral acts. Using cases in which an agent acts under some situational constraint brought about by a third party, we ask whether the agent is blamed less for the immoral act when the third party intended for that act to occur. Study 1 demonstrates that third-party intentions do influence judgments of blame. Study 2 finds that third-party intentions only influence moral judgments when the agent's actions precisely match the third party's intention. Study 3 shows that this effect arises from changes in participants' causal perception that the third party was controlling the agent. Studies 4 and 5, respectively, show that the effect cannot be explained by changes in the distribution of blame or perceived differences in situational constraint faced by the agent. © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldor, A.; Rabinowitz, P.

    1979-01-01

    A method of separating the isotopes of an element is described, which comprises the steps of (i) subjecting molecules of a gaseous compound of the element simultaneously to two infrared radiations of different wavelengths, the first radiation having a wavelength which corresponds to an absorption band of the compound, which in turn corresponds to a mode of molecular motion in which there is participation by atoms of the element, and the second radiation having a power density greater than 10 6 watts per cm 2 , thereby exciting molecules of the compound in an isotopically selective manner, this step being conducted in such manner that the excited molecules either receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by unimolecular decomposition or receive a level of energy sufficient to cause them to undergo conversion by reaction with molecules of another gas present for that purpose; and (ii) separating and recovering converted molecules from unconverted molecules. (author)

  9. Decontamination of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despotovic, R.; Music, S.; Subotic, B.; Wolf, R.H.H.

    1979-01-01

    Removal of radioactive isotopes under controlled conditions is determined by a number of physical and chemical properties considered radiocontaminating and by the characteristics of the contaminated object. Determination of quantitative and qualitative factors for equilibrium in a contamination-decontamination system provides the basis for rational and successful decontamination. The decontamination of various ''solid/liquid'' systems is interesting from the scientific and technological point of view. These systems are of great importance in radiation protection (decontamination of various surfaces, liquids, drinking water, fixation or collection of radiocontaminants). Different types of decontamination systems are discussed. The dependence of rate and efficiency of the preparation conditions and on the ageing of the scavenger is described. The influence of coagulating electrolyte on radioactive isotope fixation efficiency was also determined. The fixation of fission radionuclide on oxide scavengers has been studied. The connection between fundamental investigations and practical decontamination of the ''solid/liquid'' systems is discussed. (author)

  10. Cyclotrons for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Stevenson, N.R.

    1995-06-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radioisotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, and isotope production, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 100 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  11. Rechargeable radioactive isotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, A.K.; Cerone, F.E.

    1978-01-01

    The description is given of a rechargeable radioactive isotope generator having the following features: a box containing a transport shield, a shielded generator including elements for the absorption and holding of the parent isotope, an eluant tank, a first pipe causing this tank to communicate with the transport shield, a second pipe causing this transport shield to communicate with the shielded generator and a third pipe placing the shielded generator in communication with the outside of the unit. It also includes a shelf across the external front part of the unit a part of which is shielded by external components, a shielded elution flask in which the eluate is poured and a filter set at a point between the flask and the third pipe [fr

  12. Analysis of Construction Accidents in Turkey and Responsible Parties

    Science.gov (United States)

    GÜRCANLI, G. Emre; MÜNGEN, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Construction is one of the world’s biggest industry that includes jobs as diverse as building, civil engineering, demolition, renovation, repair and maintenance. Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards. This study analyzes 1,117 expert witness reports which were submitted to criminal and labour courts. These reports are from all regions of the country and cover the period 1972–2008. Accidents were classified by the consequence of the incident, time and main causes of the accident, construction type, occupation of the victim, activity at time of the accident and party responsible for the accident. Falls (54.1%), struck by thrown/falling object (12.9%), structural collapses (9.9%) and electrocutions (7.5%) rank first four places. The accidents were most likely between the hours 15:00 and 17:00 (22.6%), 10:00–12:00 (18.7%) and just after the lunchtime (9.9%). Additionally, the most common accidents were further divided into sub-types. Expert-witness assessments were used to identify the parties at fault and what acts of negligence typically lead to accidents. Nearly two thirds of the faulty and negligent acts are carried out by the employers and employees are responsible for almost one third of all cases. PMID:24077446

  13. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, John C. [Tourgee and Associates Inc., 11459 Cronhill Drive, Suite A, Owings Mills, MD 21117 (United States)]. E-mail: jbirkmire@taiengineering.com; Lay, James R. [5644 High Tor Hill, Columbia, MD 21045 (United States)]. E-mail: jim.lay21045@gmail.com; McMahon, Mona C. [General Physics Corporation, 6095 Marshalee Drive, Suite 300, Elkridge, MD 21075 (United States)]. E-mail: mmcmahon@gpworldwide.com

    2007-04-11

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally.

  14. The Contracting Parties' Ability To Conclude The Employment Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina NENU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study's main objective is to analyze certain effects produced by the changes of the Labor Code and by the entry into force of the current Romanian Civil Code. These effects refer to one of the fundamental conditions for the valid conclusion of the individual employment contract, that is, to the legal capacity of employers and employees. Thus, a complete analysis of legal regulations and of the correlations between different provisions on the legal capacity of parties to the individual employment contract is required to identify the existing noncompliance and to propose solutions. The research demonstrated that the current regulatory framework governing the legal capacity of the parties to an individual employment contract does not entirely correspond to the social reality. Therefore, only the employer benefits from a relatively comprehensive statutory regulation on the legal capacity to conclude an individual employment contract. The employee, however, does not benefit from the same attention from legislature. Considering the above, the study represents a significant scientific contribution, whose value lies in the proposed changes to modify legislature, so that the legal capacity of job holders would benefit from fair regulation, in accordance with the principle of legal protection of employee rights.

  15. Affective Media, Cyberlibertarianism and the New Zealand Internet Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Jutel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The New Zealand Internet Party tested key notions of affective media politics. Embracing techno-solutionism and the hacker politics of disruption, Kim Dotcom’s party attempted to mobilize the digital natives through an irreverent politics of lulz. While an electoral failure the party’s political discourse offers insights into affective media ontology. The social character of affective media creates the political conditions for an antagonistic political discourse. In this case affective identification in the master signifier “The Internet” creates a community of enjoyment threatened by the enemy of state surveillance as an agent of rapacious jouissance. The Internet Party’s politics of lulz was cast as a left-wing techno-fix to democracy, but this rhetoric belied a politics of cyberlibertarianism. Dotcom’s political intervention attempted to conflate his private interests as a battle that elevates him to the status of cyberlibertarian super-hero in the mold of Edward Snowden or Julian Assange.

  16. Keys to effective third-party process safety audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkmire, John C.; Lay, James R.; McMahon, Mona C.

    2007-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Process Safety Management (PSM) regulation was promulgated in 1992. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) corresponding Risk Management Program (RMP) rule followed in 1996. Both programs include requirements for triennial compliance audits. Effective compliance audits are critical in identifying program weaknesses and ensuring the safety of facility personnel and the surrounding public. Large companies with corporate and facility health, safety, and environmental groups typically have the resources and experience to conduct audits internally, either through a corporate audit team or the sharing of personnel between multiple facilities. Small to medium sized businesses frequently do not have the expertise or the resources to perform compliance audits, and rely on third-party consultants to provide these services. This paper will discuss the observations of the authors in performing audits and working with PSM/RMP programs across a number of market sectors (e.g. chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, food and beverage, water treatment), including effective practices, hurdles to successful implementation and execution of programs, and typical program shortcomings. The paper will also discuss steps to improve the audit process and increase effectiveness whether performed by a third party or internally

  17. Party Political Panthers: Hegemonic Tamil Politics and the Dalit Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Gorringe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Viduthalai Ciruthaigal Katchi (VCK, Liberation Panther Party has successfully transformed from the largest Dalit movement in Tamil Nadu into a recognised political organisation. Social movement theorists like Gamson (1990 view political recognition and engagement as one of the main aims and successes of social mobilisation. Despite the obvious achievements of the VCK, however, activists and commentators express disappointment or disillusionment with its performance. The Panthers clearly reject the caste hierarchy, but they increasingly adopt hegemonic forms of politics which can undermine their aims. This paper, thus, engages with the questions of movement institutionalisation by tracing the political trajectory of the VCK and charting its resistance to and compliance with Dravidian hegemony. It argues that institutionalisation needs to be understood within particular socio-political contexts and notes how the hegemony of Dravidian politics partly explains the disjuncture between activist and political perceptions. It portrays how the dominant political parties have set the template for what it means to ‘do’ politics in Tamil Nadu which serves as both an opportunity and a constraint for potential challengers.

  18. Analysis of construction accidents in Turkey and responsible parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürcanli, G Emre; Müngen, Uğur

    2013-01-01

    Construction is one of the world's biggest industry that includes jobs as diverse as building, civil engineering, demolition, renovation, repair and maintenance. Construction workers are exposed to a wide variety of hazards. This study analyzes 1,117 expert witness reports which were submitted to criminal and labour courts. These reports are from all regions of the country and cover the period 1972-2008. Accidents were classified by the consequence of the incident, time and main causes of the accident, construction type, occupation of the victim, activity at time of the accident and party responsible for the accident. Falls (54.1%), struck by thrown/falling object (12.9%), structural collapses (9.9%) and electrocutions (7.5%) rank first four places. The accidents were most likely between the hours 15:00 and 17:00 (22.6%), 10:00-12:00 (18.7%) and just after the lunchtime (9.9%). Additionally, the most common accidents were further divided into sub-types. Expert-witness assessments were used to identify the parties at fault and what acts of negligence typically lead to accidents. Nearly two thirds of the faulty and negligent acts are carried out by the employers and employees are responsible for almost one third of all cases.

  19. Golkar Party's Political Communications the New Paradigm Bakrie Leadership 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoiruddin Muchtar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study base on the efforts of the Golkar Party's to the process of interpretation, socialization, and implementation of the new paradigm, the paradigm guide to reformations Golkar Party's become to democratic, independent, solid, strong, foundamental, and responsive. How Golkar party's political communication about socialization and implementation of a new paradigm of Golkar Party's leadership Aburizal Bakrie-year period from 2009 to 2012.The aim of this research is to study and overview of the process of socialization and implementation new paradigm Golkar Party's of the Aburizal Bakrie’s leadership. This contect described to using constructivist paradigm through the theory of Performance of Communication and Structuration. Research using the case study method. Data obtained by participation observer, unstructured interviews, and documentary study. The data also collected from informants. The results of this research show: 1 The Golkar Party's has a very significant infrastructure, so the making easier to socialization new paradigm to internal party, but Golkar Party's can not erase stigma society as the New Order party. Socializing new paradigm Golkar Party's to be done in integrated, systematic and continuous addressed to all cadres of various levels from the center to the village. 2 the new paradigm Golkar Party's ideals as the basis and foundation values stand for the Golkar Party's, the implementation is faced with the reality of the condition of the various political considerations and the interests of power, so it can not shown the Golkar Party's political communication with the direction of the reality, Golkar Party's must be have to political communication with the role of multi faces.

  20. Equipment for isotope diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platz, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns an improvement of equipment for isotope diagnostics allowing to mark special intensity ranges of the recorded measurements by means of different colors. For undisturbed operation it is of advantage to avoid electric circuits between movable and unmovable parts of the color recorder. According to the invention, long gear wheels of glass fiber-reinforced polyamide are used for these connections. (ORU) [de

  1. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  2. Stable-isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Structures of bacteriochlorophyll b and the Krasnovskii photoreduction products of chlorophyll a are given. All 55 13 C and 4 15 N NMR transitions in chlorophyl a and its magnesium-free derivative pheophytin a were assigned. ESR of triplet states of chlorophylls a, b, c/sub z/, and c 2 and bacteriochlorophyll a are reported. Experiments in the cultivation of 13 C-enriched morning glory plants indicated that the isotope enrichment can produce observable morphological changes. (U.S.)

  3. Protected isotope heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.K.; Shure, L.I.; Katzen, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive isotope capsule is disposed in a container (heat shield) which will have a single stable trim attitude when reentering the earth's atmosphere and while falling to earth. The center of gravity of the heat source is located forward of the midpoint between the front face and the rear face of the container. The capsule is insulated from the front face of the container but not from the rear surface of the container. (auth)

  4. Isotopes and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavolta, E.

    1988-01-01

    The agriculture is defined as the art of desturbing the ecosystems in economical terms with the minimum of irreversible damage. Man survival in the biosphere will depend on its ability of using four technologies - mechanization, fertilizers, irrigation and pest disease control. The isotopes are usefull to establish means of producing more food and to preserve it; and clains of unbearable damages to the ecosystems caused by fertilizers and pesticides are not true, are presented. (author) [pt

  5. The isotope correlation experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Schoof, S.

    1983-01-01

    The ESARDA working group on Isotopic Correlation Techniques, ICT and Reprocessing Input Analysis performed an Isotope Correlation Experiment, ICE with the aim to check the feasibility of the new technique. Ten input batches of the reprocessing of the KWO fuel at the WAK plant were analysed by 4 laboratories. All information to compare ICT with the gravimetric and volumetric methods was available. ICT combined with simplified reactor physics calculation was included. The main objectives of the statistical data evaluation were detection of outliers, the estimation of random errors and of systematic errors of the measurements performed by the 4 laboratories. Different methods for outlier detection, analysis of variances, Grubbs' analysis for the constant-bias model and Jaech's non-constant-bias model were applied. Some of the results of the statistical analysis may seem inconsistent which is due to the following reasons. For the statistical evaluations isotope abundance data (weight percent) as well as nuclear concentration data (atoms/initial metal atoms) were subjected to different outlier criteria before being used for further statistical evaluations. None of the four data evaluation groups performed a complete statistical data analysis which would render possible a comparison of the different methods applied since no commonly agreed statistical evaluation procedure existed. The results prove that ICT is as accurate as conventional techniques which have to rely on costly mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis. The potential of outlier detection by ICT on the basis of the results from a single laboratory is as good as outlier detection by costly interlaboratory comparison. The application of fission product or Cm-244 correlations would be more timely than remeasurements at safeguards laboratories

  6. Isotopic safeguards statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmerman, C.L.; Stewart, K.B.

    1978-06-01

    The methods and results of our statistical analysis of isotopic data using isotopic safeguards techniques are illustrated using example data from the Yankee Rowe reactor. The statistical methods used in this analysis are the paired comparison and the regression analyses. A paired comparison results when a sample from a batch is analyzed by two different laboratories. Paired comparison techniques can be used with regression analysis to detect and identify outlier batches. The second analysis tool, linear regression, involves comparing various regression approaches. These approaches use two basic types of models: the intercept model (y = α + βx) and the initial point model [y - y 0 = β(x - x 0 )]. The intercept model fits strictly the exposure or burnup values of isotopic functions, while the initial point model utilizes the exposure values plus the initial or fabricator's data values in the regression analysis. Two fitting methods are applied to each of these models. These methods are: (1) the usual least squares fitting approach where x is measured without error, and (2) Deming's approach which uses the variance estimates obtained from the paired comparison results and considers x and y are both measured with error. The Yankee Rowe data were first measured by Nuclear Fuel Services (NFS) and remeasured by Nuclear Audit and Testing Company (NATCO). The ratio of Pu/U versus 235 D (in which 235 D is the amount of depleted 235 U expressed in weight percent) using actual numbers is the isotopic function illustrated. Statistical results using the Yankee Rowe data indicates the attractiveness of Deming's regression model over the usual approach by simple comparison of the given regression variances with the random variance from the paired comparison results

  7. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  8. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  9. ISOTOPE METHODS IN HOMOGENEOUS CATALYSIS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BULLOCK,R.M.; BENDER,B.R.

    2000-12-01

    The use of isotope labels has had a fundamentally important role in the determination of mechanisms of homogeneously catalyzed reactions. Mechanistic data is valuable since it can assist in the design and rational improvement of homogeneous catalysts. There are several ways to use isotopes in mechanistic chemistry. Isotopes can be introduced into controlled experiments and followed where they go or don't go; in this way, Libby, Calvin, Taube and others used isotopes to elucidate mechanistic pathways for very different, yet important chemistries. Another important isotope method is the study of kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) and equilibrium isotope effect (EIEs). Here the mere observation of where a label winds up is no longer enough - what matters is how much slower (or faster) a labeled molecule reacts than the unlabeled material. The most careti studies essentially involve the measurement of isotope fractionation between a reference ground state and the transition state. Thus kinetic isotope effects provide unique data unavailable from other methods, since information about the transition state of a reaction is obtained. Because getting an experimental glimpse of transition states is really tantamount to understanding catalysis, kinetic isotope effects are very powerful.

  10. Successful application of lead isotopes in source apportionment, legal proceedings, remediation and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Korsch, Michael [CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Winchester, Wayne; Devenish, Matthew; Hobbs, Thad [Esperance Cleanup and Recovery Project, Western Australia (WA) Department of Transport, Esperance 6450 (Australia); Main, Cleve; Smith, Gerard [Animal Health Laboratory, Department of Agriculture and Food, Perth 6151, WA (Australia); Rosman, Kevin; Howearth, Lynette; Burn-Nunes, Laurie [Curtin University, Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Bentley 6102, WA (Australia); Seow, Jimmy; Oxford, Cameron [Department of Environment and Conservation, Booragoon 6154, WA (Australia); Yun, Gracie; Gillam, Lindsay [Department of Health, East Perth 6004, WA (Australia); Crisp, Michelle [LED (Locals for Esperance Development), Esperance 6450, WA (Australia)

    2012-01-15

    In late 2006, the seaside community in Esperance Western Australia was alerted to thousands of native bird species dying. The source of the lead (Pb) was determined by Pb isotopes to derive from the handling of Pb carbonate concentrate through the Port, which began in July 2005. Concern was expressed for the impact of this on the community. Our objectives were to employ Pb isotope ratios to evaluate the source of Pb in environmental samples for use in legal proceedings, and for use in remediation and monitoring. Isotope measurements were undertaken of bird livers, plants, drinking water, soil, harbour sediments, air, bulk ceiling dust, gutter sludge, surface swabs and blood. The unique lead isotopic signature of the contaminating Pb carbonate enabled diagnostic apportionment of lead in samples. Apart from some soil and water samples, the proportion of contaminating Pb was >95% in the environmental samples. Lead isotopes were critical in resolving legal proceedings, are being used in the remediation of premises, were used in monitoring of workers involved in the decontamination of the storage facility, and monitoring transport of the concentrate through another port facility. Air samples show the continued presence of contaminant Pb, more than one year after shipping of concentrate ceased, probably arising from dust resuspension. Brief details of the comprehensive testing and cleanup of the Esperance community are provided along with the role of the Community. Lead isotopic analyses can provide significant benefits to regulatory agencies, interested parties, and the community where the signature is able to be characterised with a high degree of certainty. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Lead carbonate concentrate. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Successful use of Pb isotopes in identifying sources of Pb arising from transport and shipping. Black-Right-Pointing-Triangle Use of Pb isotopes in legal proceedings and their use in cleanup of residences. Black

  11. La politique internationale du Parti des Travailleurs: de la fondation du parti à diplomatie du gouvernement Lula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Almeida

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Analiza el discurso y las posiciones en política internacional del Partido de los Trabajadores y de Luiz Inácio Lula de la Silva, desde la fundación del Partido y a través de las campañas presidenciales a partir de 1989, hasta las elecciones victoriosas de 2002, poniendo el acento en su evolución gradual. Presentación y discurso son las principales cuestiones de política exterior, y comprenden desde el dominio económico hasta el rol de la diplomacia presidencial._______________________ABSTRACT:Historical and analytical evaluation of the Brazilian Workers'' Party (PT views in matters dealing with Brazil''s international relations positions and foreign affairs practices. Particular emphasis is given to the declarations made by Luiz Inácio Lula de la Silva over the four presidential campaigns since 1989, until his coming to power in 2002. Stressing the gradual evolution in those matters of both the Party and its leader towards more ''realistic'' approaches, the article also presents and discusses some of the main issues of Brazil''s foreign affairs agenda, particularly in its economic aspects (multilateral and hemispheric trade negotiations and the role of the presidential diplomacy.  

  12. Isotope effects on chemical equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golding, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    The thermodynamic equilibrium constants of three deuterated substituted acetic acids are reported. The calculation of secondary isotope effects of the second kind for the three isotopic acid pairs has been accomplished by the appropriate comparison of thermodynamic equilibrium constants, and by the comparison of isotopic slopes. The effect of substituent variation on the isotope effects reported here disqualifies the simple inductive model as a legitimate description of secondary isotope effects of the second kind. The correlation of diminishing isotope effect per deuterium atom with increasing acidity is also invalidated by the present results. The syntheses of 9-thia-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene-9-oxide and thioxanthene-10-oxide are described. These compounds have been partially deuterated at their respective methylene positions. Spectral evidence indicates stereoselectivity of the methylene protons in the exchange reactions of both compounds. (author)

  13. Therapeutic use of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Caroline Duc

    2013-01-01

    In December, researchers from ISOLDE-CERN, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) published the results of an in vivo study which successfully proved the effectiveness of four terbium isotopes for diagnosing and treating cancerous tumours.   Four terbium isotopes suitable for clinical purposes. “ISOLDE is the only installation capable of supplying terbium isotopes of such purity and intensity in the case of three out of the four types used in this study,” explains Karl Johnson, a physicist at ISOLDE.  “Producing over a thousand different isotopes, our equipment offers the widest choice of isotopes in the world!” Initially intended for fundamental physics research, ISOLDE has diversified its activities over time to invest in various projects in the materials science, biochemistry and nuclear medicine fields. The proof-of-concept study has confirmed that the four terbium isotopes 149Tb, 152Tb, 155Tb produ...

  14. Creating A Nationwide Nonpartisan Initiative for Family Caregivers in Political Party Platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Ben; Lynn, Joanne; Walker, Victoria; Morgan, Les; Montgomery, Anne; Blair, Elizabeth; Baird, Davis; Goldschmidt, Barbara; Kirschenbaum, Naomi

    2017-06-01

    Policymakers have been slow to support family caregivers, and political agendas mostly fail to address the cost burdens, impact on employment and productivity, and other challenges in taking on long-term care tasks. This project set out to raise policymakers' awareness of family caregivers through proposals to Republican and Democratic party platforms during the 2016 political season. The Family Caregiver Platform Project (FCPP) reviewed the state party platform submission process for Democratic and Republican parties in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. We built a website to make each process understandable by caregiver advocates. We designed model submissions to help volunteers tailor a proposal and recruited caregiver advocates participating in their state process. Finally, we mobilized a ground operation in many states and followed the progress of submissions in each state, as well as the formation of the national platforms. In 39 states, at least one party, Republican or Democrat, hosted a state party platform process. As of September 2016 FCPP volunteers submitted proposals to 29 state parties in 22 states. Family caregiver language was added to eight state party platforms, one state party resolution, two bipartisan legislative resolutions, and one national party platform. The FCPP generated a non-partisan grassroots effort to educate and motivate policymakers to address caregiving issues and solutions. Democratic party leaders provided more opportunities to connect with political leaders, with seven Democratic parties and one Republican party, addressing family caregiver issues in their party platforms. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  15. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  16. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  17. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  18. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF/sub 3/ gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF/sub 3/. Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF/sub 3/ solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references.

  19. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  20. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  1. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  2. Isotope separation by ion waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  3. Chemical separation of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, A.A.

    1978-06-01

    This is the final report of the research performed at ORNL on the chemical fractionation of boron isotopes between BF 3 gas and the liquid molecular addition compounds of BF 3 . Thirty compounds were studied, ten of them in detail. Graphs and equations are given for variation of isotopic equilibrium constant, vapor pressure, and BF 3 solubility as a function of temperature. Rate of isotopic exchange and melting points were determined. Several of the compounds are likely candidates for use in a gas-liquid countercurrent exchange system for large-scale separation of boron isotopes. 23 figs, 53 tables, 39 references

  4. Isotope separation by magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    One of the isotopes of an element having several isotopes can be separated from the others in a dense, neutral plasma. Thus initially a neutral plasma is prepared including the element in question. This may consist of positive ions and negative electrons or alternatively of positive and negative ions, or else of a mixture of positive ions, negative ions and electrons. The plasma may then be injected into a magnetic field or may be generated in the field where more energy is imparted to a selected isotope than to the others. Finally, the isotopes are separated from each other on the basis of their differential energies. For example, the selected isotope may be given more energy than the others by stimulating it within the plasma at its resonant frequency which may be close to the cyclotron frequency, either by an electric field or by a magnetic field. In order to excite the other isotope, a different resonant frequency is required which depends on the plasma density, the relative concentration of electrons if the plasma contains electrons, the strength of the magnetic field, the ratio of charge to mass of the isotope, and possibly on the physical parameters of the plasma apparatus itself, such as the ratio of the length of the plasma column to its radius. The more energetic isotope may be separated by energy dependent chemical reactions, it may be collected by a positively biased probe or else the isotopes may be separated from each other by magnetic fields or in various other ways

  5. Enhanced forensic discrimination of pollutants by position-specific isotope analysis using isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julien, Maxime; Nun, Pierrick; Höhener, Patrick; Parinet, Julien; Robins, Richard J; Remaud, Gérald S

    2016-01-15

    In forensic environmental investigations the main issue concerns the inference of the original source of the pollutant for determining the liable party. Isotope measurements in geochemistry, combined with complimentary techniques for contaminant identification, have contributed significantly to source determination at polluted sites. In this work we have determined the intramolecular (13)C profiles of several molecules well-known as pollutants. By giving additional analytical parameters, position-specific isotope analysis performed by isotope ratio monitoring by (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (irm-(13)C NMR) spectrometry gives new information to help in answering the major question: what is the origin of the detected contaminant? We have shown that isotope profiling of the core of a molecule reveals both the raw materials and the process used in its manufacture. It also can reveal processes occurring between the contamination site 'source' and the sampling site. Thus, irm-(13)C NMR is shown to be a very good complement to compound-specific isotope analysis currently performed by mass spectrometry for assessing polluted sites involving substantial spills of pollutant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficient Solutions to Two-Party and Multiparty Millionaires’ Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The millionaires’ problem is the basis of secure multiparty computation and has many applications. Using a vectorization method and the Paillier encryption scheme, we first propose a secure two-party solution to the millionaires’ problem, which can determine x=y,  xy in one execution. Subsequently, using the vectorization and secret splitting methods, we propose an information-theoretically secure protocol to solve the multiparty millionaires’ problem (a.k.a. secure sorting problem, and this protocol can resist collusion attacks. We analyze the accuracy and security of our protocols in the semihonest model and compare the computational and communication complexities between the proposed protocols and the existing ones.

  7. The rights of avoidance of third parties and 'protection laws'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gassner, E.

    1981-01-01

    After having given an account of the rights of avoidance of third parties and their foundation in the law the author cites an atypical example of a right of avoidance, i.e. the corporation suit in the environmental protection law in the German Laender Bremen and Hesse. The corporations can only denounce the violation of the environmental protection law. These regulations constitute the protection law, namely in favour of the interests of nature protection, i.e. public interests. It is natural that the corporation has only be concerned an independent right of conducting a case. The (altruistic) corporation suit is therefore a complaint suit aiming at administration control and not a means of an individual legal protection. (HSCH) [de

  8. Multi-particle entanglement via two-party entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Gilles; Mor, Tal

    2001-09-01

    Entanglement between n particles is a generalization of the entanglement between two particles, and a state is considered entangled if it cannot be written as a mixture of tensor products of the n particles' states. We present the key notion of semi-separability, used to investigate n-particle entanglement by looking at two-party entanglement between its various subsystems. We provide necessary conditions for n-particle separability (that is, sufficient conditions for n-particle entanglement). We also provide necessary and sufficient conditions in the case of pure states. By surprising examples, we show that such conditions are not sufficient for separability in the case of mixed states, suggesting entanglement of a strange type.

  9. Advanced isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Study Group briefly reviewed the technical status of the three Advanced Isotope Separation (AIS) processes. It also reviewed the evaluation work that has been carried out by DOE's Process Evaluation Board (PEB) and the Union Carbide Corporation-Nuclear Division (UCCND). The Study Group briefly reviewed a recent draft assessment made for DOE staff of the nonproliferation implications of the AIS technologies. The staff also very briefly summarized the status of GCEP and Advanced Centrifuge development. The Study Group concluded that: (1) there has not been sufficient progress to provide a firm scientific, technical or economic basis on which to select one of the three competing AIS processes for full-scale engineering development at this time; and (2) however, should budgetary restraints or other factors force such a selection, we believe that the evaluation process that is being carried out by the PEB provides the best basis available for making a decision. The Study Group recommended that: (1) any decisions on AIS processes should include a comparison with gas centrifuge processes, and should not be made independently from the plutonium isotope program; (2) in evaluating the various enrichment processes, all applicable costs (including R and D and sales overhead) and an appropriate discounting approach should be included in order to make comparisons on a private industry basis; (3) if the three AIS programs continue with limited resources, the work should be reoriented to focus only on the most pressing technical problems; and (4) if a decision is made to develop the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation process, the solid collector option should be pursued in parallel to alleviate the potential program impact of liquid collector thermal control problems

  10. Isotope effect and isotope separation. A chemist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takanobu

    2002-01-01

    What causes the isotope effects (IE)? This presentation will be centered around the equilibrium isotope effects due to the differences in the nuclear masses. The occurrence of the equilibrium constant, K, of isotope exchange reactions which differ from the values predicted by the classical theory of statistical mechanics, K cl , is explored. The non-classical K corresponds to the unit-stage separation factor, α, that is different from unity and forms a basis of an isotope separation process involving the chemical exchange reaction. Here, the word 'chemical exchange' includes not only the isotope exchange chemical reactions between two or more chemical species but also the isotope exchanges involving the equilibria between liquid and vapor phases and liquid-gas, liquid solution-gas, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid phases. In Section I, origins of the isotope effect phenomena will be explored and, in the process, various quantities used in discussions of isotope effect that have often caused confusions will be unambiguously defined. This Section will also correlate equilibrium constant with separation factor. In Section II, various forms of temperature-dependence of IE and separation factor will be discussed. (author)

  11. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-12

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates.

  12. Cold regions isotope applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrigo, L.D.; Divine, T.E.

    1976-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) started the Cold Regions Isotope Applications Program in FY-1975 to identify special conditions in the Arctic and similar geographic areas (Cold Regions) where radioisotope power, heater, or sterilization systems would be desirable and economically viable. Significant progress was made in the first year of this program and all objectives for this initial 12-month period were achieved. The major conclusions and recommendations resulting for this effort are described below. The areas of interest covered include: radiosterilization of sewage; heating of septic tanks; and radioisotope thermoelectric generators as power sources for meteorological instruments and navigational aids

  13. Applied isotope hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, F.J. jr; Balderer, W.; Gautschi, A.

    1991-01-01

    This volume is a report on the isotopic investigations of ground-water in northern Switzerland and adjacent regions carried out since 1981 by Nagra, the Swiss National Cooperation for the Storage of Radio-active Waste. This study was undertaken to support a programme assessing potential sites for nuclear waste repositories. It includes measurements on a large number of stable- and radioisotopes and noble gases, supported by complete water chemical analyses and many rock and mineral analyses. A synthesis and interpretation of the data, along with the data themselves, are given here. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  14. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1983-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation column. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale multi-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  15. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldridge, F.T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu5 type of crystal structure , particularly LaNiCo and CaNi5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors

  16. Isotope diagnostics apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrschaft, H.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a measuring probe for an isotope diagnostics apparatus to determine the distribution of radioactive substances in a body by measuring the radiation emanating from this body by means of a multiplicity of measuring probes directed simultaneously towards areas of measuring surfae and carried in guidances of a holding block. The measuring results of the individual probes are recorded separately, thus allowing the possibility of being evaluated separately, too. Measuring probes of this kind are used in multi-channel measuring objects and are useful particularly for determining the regional cerebral blood flow. (orig./ORU) [de

  17. Container for hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A container is described for storage, shipping and and dispensing of hydrogen isotopes such as hydrogen, deuterium, tritium, or mixtures of the same. The container is compact, safe against fracture or accident, and is reusable. It consists of an outer housing with suitable inlet and outlet openings and electrical feed elements, the housing containing an activated sorber material in the form, for example of titanium sponge or an activated zirconium aluminate cartridge. The gas to be stored is introduced into the chamber under conditions of heat and vacuum and is retained in the sorber material. Subsequently, it may be released by heating the unit to drive off the stored gas at desired rates

  18. Isotopic Thermionic Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemot, M.; Devin, B.; Durand, J.P.

    1967-01-01

    This report describes the general design of a thermionic direct conversion space generator. The power source used is a radioisotope. Two radioisotopes are considered: Pu 238 and Cm 244. The system is made up of a heat pipe concentrating the thermal flux from the isotope to the emitter, and of a second heat pipe evacuating the waste heat from the collector to the outer wall used as radiating panel. Calculations are given in the particular case of a 100 electrical watts output power. (authors) [fr

  19. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, R.K.; Kaldor, A.

    1977-01-01

    In a method for the separation of isotopes of uranium in UF 6 , the UF 6 is subjected to ir radiation at a predetermined wavelength or set of wavelengths for less than 10 -3 sec in such a manner that at least 0.1% of the 235 UF 6 molecules absorb an energy of more than 2000 cm -1 . The excited UF 6 is then reacted with a gaseous reagent, F 2 , Cl 2 , or Br 2 , to produce a product which is then recovered by means known in the art

  20. A novel quantum solution to secure two-party distance computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhen-wan; Shi, Run-hua; Wang, Pan-hong; Zhang, Shun

    2018-06-01

    Secure Two-Party Distance Computation is an important primitive of Secure Multiparty Computational Geometry that it involves two parties, where each party has a private point, and the two parties want to jointly compute the distance between their points without revealing anything about their respective private information. Secure Two-Party Distance Computation has very important and potential applications in settings of high secure requirements, such as privacy-preserving Determination of Spatial Location-Relation, Determination of Polygons Similarity, and so on. In this paper, we present a quantum protocol for Secure Two-Party Distance Computation by using QKD-based Quantum Private Query. The security of the protocol is based on the physical principles of quantum mechanics, instead of difficulty assumptions, and therefore, it can ensure higher security than the classical related protocols.

  1. Ecologies of ideologies: Explaining party entry and exit in West-European parliaments, 1945–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Joost; Vermeulen, Floris

    2016-01-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our expectations. We find that political parties are more likely to exit when density within their niche increases. Also there is competition between adjacent ideological niches, i.e. between centrist and right-wing niches. In contrast to our expectations, neither density nor institutional rules impact party entry. This raises important questions about the rationale of prospective entrants. PMID:29046613

  2. Candidate nomination, intra-party democracy, and election violence in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Merete Bech; Wahman, Michael; Skaaning, Svend-Erik

    2018-01-01

    . When local-level or national-level competition between parties is low, as in much of Africa, electoral politics become a matter of intra-party rather than inter-party competition. Nominations are a part of the electoral process often left to the discretion of poorly institutionalized parties, free......This article introduces a special issue on candidate nomination, intra-party democracy, and election violence in Africa. Although a burgeoning literature on African democratization has focused on the topic of electoral violence, little attention has been given to violence during party nominations...... of the involvement of electoral management bodies and external monitors, and violence often results. Rather than developing an elaborate theoretical framework on the causes of nomination violence, our ambition in this introduction is to introduce the concept of nomination violence and situate it in the literatures...

  3. Intra-Campaign Changes in Voting Preferences: The Impact of Media and Party Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, David; Königslöw, Katharina Kleinen-von; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Thomas, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of citizens change and adapt their party preferences during the electoral campaign. We analyze which short-term factors explain intra-campaign changes in voting preferences, focusing on the visibility and tone of news media reporting and party canvassing. Our analyses rely on an integrative data approach, linking data from media content analysis to public opinion data. This enables us to investigate the relative impact of news media reporting as well as party communication. Inherently, we overcome previously identified methodological problems in the study of communication effects on voting behavior. Our findings reveal that campaigns matter: Especially interpersonal party canvassing increases voters’ likelihood to change their voting preferences in favor of the respective party, whereas media effects are limited to quality news outlets and depend on individual voters’ party ambivalence.

  4. Intra-Campaign Changes in Voting Preferences: The Impact of Media and Party Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, David; Königslöw, Katharina Kleinen-von; Kritzinger, Sylvia; Thomas, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of citizens change and adapt their party preferences during the electoral campaign. We analyze which short-term factors explain intra-campaign changes in voting preferences, focusing on the visibility and tone of news media reporting and party canvassing. Our analyses rely on an integrative data approach, linking data from media content analysis to public opinion data. This enables us to investigate the relative impact of news media reporting as well as party communication. Inherently, we overcome previously identified methodological problems in the study of communication effects on voting behavior. Our findings reveal that campaigns matter: Especially interpersonal party canvassing increases voters' likelihood to change their voting preferences in favor of the respective party, whereas media effects are limited to quality news outlets and depend on individual voters' party ambivalence.

  5. Ecologies of ideologies: Explaining party entry and exit in West-European parliaments, 1945-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wardt, Marc; Berkhout, Joost; Vermeulen, Floris

    2017-06-01

    This study introduces a population-ecological approach to the entry and exit of political parties. A primary proposition of population ecology is that organizational entry and exit depends on the number of organizations already present: that is, density. We propose that political parties mainly experience competition from parties in the same ideological niche (left, centre, right). Pooled time-series analyses of 410 parties, 263 elections and 18 West-European countries largely support our expectations. We find that political parties are more likely to exit when density within their niche increases. Also there is competition between adjacent ideological niches, i.e. between centrist and right-wing niches. In contrast to our expectations, neither density nor institutional rules impact party entry. This raises important questions about the rationale of prospective entrants.

  6. Secure multi-party quantum summation based on quantum Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui-Yi; Ye, Tian-Yu

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel secure multi-party quantum summation protocol based on quantum Fourier transform, where the traveling particles are transmitted in a tree-type mode. The party who prepares the initial quantum states is assumed to be semi-honest, which means that she may misbehave on her own but will not conspire with anyone. The proposed protocol can resist both the outside attacks and the participant attacks. Especially, one party cannot obtain other parties' private integer strings; and it is secure for the colluding attack performed by at most n - 2 parties, where n is the number of parties. In addition, the proposed protocol calculates the addition of modulo d and implements the calculation of addition in a secret-by-secret way rather than a bit-by-bit way.

  7. FORMATION OF THE ENTITY'S ACCOUNTING POLICIES WITH REGARD TO RELATED PARTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zasadnyi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article solved the problem concerning the development and practical application of accounting policies with regards to related parties. One element of the company’s accounting policies is to establish the principles of classification of related parties and their list considering materiality relations. In addition, the company must determine its related entities for the purposes of transfer pricing. Based the criteria definition and classification of related parties, proposed that the significance of the impact of one party to another based on the content of operations, their volume, the results and how such operations significantly affect the financial, investment and commercial activities. Only an analysis of all the factors together contribute to reliable estimates list of related parties. The critical analysis are made of methods for determining transfer prices for transactions, designed piece order of accounting policies, which reflected information about related parties.

  8. Mauritania: an authoritarian regime and the reconfiguration of the party system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ojeda García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation raises the question of whether Mauritania should be considered an authoritarian regime. The explanatory variable used is not the only factor, but in Mauritania’s case it is one that has been given little attention. It is an analysis of the party system and its level of institutionalisation through five indicators: the social rooting of the parties; personalism and the profile of the leader; the level of volatility; the calling and participation of the opposition parties in the boycott of the elections and the ultimate acceptance by those parties of their results. It starts from the premise that representative democracy is built on a party political structure and draws conclusions about the low level of institutionalisation of the party system and the authoritarianism of the Mauritanian regime.

  9. Assessing the Influence of Political Parties on Public Opinion: The Challenge from Pretreatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slothuus, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Despite generations of research, political scientists have trouble pinpointing the influence of political parties on public opinion. Recently, scholars have made headway in exploring whether parties in fact shape policy preferences by relying on experimental designs. Yet, the evidence from...... this work is mixed. I argue that the typical experiment faces a design problem that likely minimizes the extent to which parties apparently matter. Because parties have policy reputations, experimental participants may already know from real-world exposure to political debate where the parties stand before...... they are told in the experiment—they are “pretreated.” This study investigates how real-world political context interferes with party cue stimulus in experiments. In two experiments I show that two types of “pretreatment” from outside the experiment—exposure-based and reputation-based—dramatically moderate...

  10. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  11. Vote Buying or Campaign Promises? Electoral Strategies When Party Credibility is Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Hanusch, Marek; Keefer, Philip; Vlaicu, Razvan

    2016-01-01

    What explains significant variation across countries in the use of vote buying instead of campaign promises to secure voter support? This paper explicitly models the tradeoff parties face between engaging in vote buying and making campaign promises, and explores the distributional consequences of this decision, in a setting where party credibility can vary. When parties are less credible they spend more on vote buying and target vote buying more heavily toward groups that do not believe campa...

  12. The role of the party leadership to activization the political process of modern Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    N. V. Morar

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the conceptual position of the party leadership as a factor in activation processes of political transformation in societies. The place of the party leaders in the political processes in Ukraine, which belongs to the transitional societies. It is proved that the main factor determining the place and role of party leaders in the political processes of transformation of societies dynamics. Where society is experiencing political transformation implemented constitutional...

  13. Competitive and Cooperative Degree in Supply Chain: Supplier Selection between Competitors and Third-Party Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Bo; Wang, Xianjia; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Part 5: Modelling and Simulation; International audience; This work explores the firm’s supplier selection question that the competitor firm and the third-party supplier can supply the substitutable component. We consider a supply chain with two competing original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and two third-party suppliers. The two OEMs produce the competing products which are comprised by two main components. Each OEM only can produce one component in-house and each third-party supplier onl...

  14. Isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaka, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to elucidate the isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems, according to the calculations of the equilibrium constants for oxygen isotopic exchange reactions, and the calculations of the oxygen isotope separation factors between two phases. The equilibrium constants (K65, K67, K68 and K69) of 16 O- 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O exchange reactions between diatomic oxides were calculated in a wide temperature range on the basis of quantum statistical mechanics. Many equilibrium constants showed the anomalous mass effects, and then had the crossover temperatures and the mass independent fractionation (MIF) temperatures which held K67 = K65, K67 = K68, or K67 = K69, etc. For example, the equilibrium constants for the reactions between OH and the other diatomic oxides (MO) showed the anomalous mass effects, when M was Li, Na, Mg, K, Fe, Al, Ge, Zr, Pt, etc. The 16 O 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O oxygen isotope separation factors (S65, S67, S68 and S69) between two phases were calculated, when OH and CO were in the first phase, and SiO was in the second phase. Although the oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria in the two phases had no MIF and crossover temperatures, the separation factors showed the anomalous mass effects and had the temperatures. According to what is called the normal mass effects for the equilibrium constant of isotopic exchange reaction, the value of InK68/InK67 is 1.885. Therefore, the value of InS68/InS67 should be 1.885 too. The value calculated, however, widely changed. It can be concluded from the results obtained in the present work that some oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria cause the anomalous mass effects, the anomalous oxygen isotope separation factors, and then isotope anomalies

  15. Crescent and Electoral Strength: Islamic Party Portrait of Reform Era In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LILI ROMLI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of Islamic political parties in the reform era in Indonesia after the fall of Suharto (1998, considered as resurgence of political stream. There are several factors that led to the revival of Islamic parties after the New Order, the theological factor, historical, sociological, and reform factor. The presence of Islamic political parties after the New Order was apparently diverse and fragmented. In the political elite of Islam itself in establishing a political party based on Islam and there is also based on nationality, and in establishing political party was using substantially approach and there is also that use formalistic approach. In the reform era elections, political Islam has failed, in which Islamic parties do not receive optimal support from voters Islam. The failure of Islamic parties in election of reform era is caused of factor among Muslims has been change the orientation of political views. Islamic parties in the reform era stuck in a political myth quantity, and Islamic parties are also fragmented and fractured in to small forces.

  16. Information Technology & Applications Corporation v. United States: An Interested Party's "Substantial Chance" at APA Standing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Slicker, Christina

    2003-01-01

    .... Building on CICA's "interested party" definition with Information Technology's refinement of "substantial chance" rule, the Federal Circuit has effectively translated "APA standing" into the language...

  17. Selfish third parties act as peacemakers by transforming conflicts and promoting cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, Nir; Halali, Eliran

    2015-06-02

    The tremendous costs of conflict have made humans resourceful not only at warfare but also at peacemaking. Although third parties have acted as peacemakers since the dawn of history, little is known about voluntary, informal third-party intervention in conflict. Here we introduce the Peacemaker Game, a novel experimental paradigm, to model and study the interdependence between disputants and third parties in conflict. In the game, two disputants choose whether to cooperate or compete and a third party chooses whether or not to intervene in the conflict. Intervention introduces side payments that transform the game disputants are playing; it also introduces risk for the third party by making it vulnerable to disputants' choices. Six experiments revealed three robust effects: (i) The mere possibility of third-party intervention significantly increases cooperation in interpersonal and intergroup conflicts; (ii) reducing the risk to third parties dramatically increases intervention rates, to everyone's benefit; and (iii) disputants' cooperation rates are consistently higher than third parties' intervention rates. These findings explain why, how, and when self-interested third parties facilitate peaceful conflict resolution.

  18. Measuring party nationalisation: A new Gini-based indicator that corrects for the number of units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsler, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The study of the territorial distribution of votes in elections has become an important field of the political party research in recent years. Quantitative studies on the homogeneity of votes and turnout employ different indicators of territorial variance, but despite important progresses...... in measurement, many of them are sensitive to size and number of political parties or electoral districts. This article proposes a new 'standardised party nationalisation score', which is based on the Gini coefficient of inequalities in distribution. Different from previous indicators, the standardised party...

  19. Social Movements and New Forms of Political Organization: Podemos as a Hybrid Party

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Chironi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the restructuring of the party systems in several European countries was accompanied or preceded by massive waves of anti-austerity protests. Although the causal relation between these mobilizations and the rise of new parties has already been assessed, the organizational features remain understudied. To fill this gap, here we analyse the impact of the cycle of anti-austerity and pro-real democracy protests which emerged in 2011 with the birth and organizational development of the Spanish party Podemos. Bridging two subfields of social and political sciences—movement studies and party studies—we pay particular attention to the dichotomy between horizontality and verticality within Podemos' organization. In particular, we address the issues of social movement effects as well as party foundation and organizational development. Our main findings suggest that movement mobilization played a large role in shaping Podemos' foundational choices, particularly with reference to the fundamental principles of the party and its strategic positioning. Podemos is also experimenting new democratic methods internally. Nonetheless, empirical analysis shows that, overall, the influence of movements' organizational models on the organizational structure of the party has been limited. Yet, the result is a “hybrid” party that finds a balance between the horizontalism of social movements and the efficiency of parties.

  20. Zirconium isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.H.; Lahoda, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for reducing the amount of zirconium 91 isotope in zirconium comprising: forming a first solution of (a) a first solvent, (b) a scavenger, and (c) a zirconium compound which is soluble in the first solvent and reacts with the scavenger when exposed to light of a wavelength of 220 to 600 nm; irradiating the first solution with light at the wavelength for a time sufficient to photoreact a disproportionate amount of the zirconium compound containing the zirconium 91 isotope with the scavenger to form a reaction product in the first solution; contacting the first solution, while effecting the irradiation, with a second solvent which is immiscible with the first solvent, which the second solvent is a preferential solvent for the reaction product relative to the first solvent, such that at least a portion of the reaction product is transferred to the second solvent to form a second solution; and separating the second solution from the first solution after the contacting