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Sample records for isotope shifts suggest

  1. Isotope shift studies in gadolinium spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Saksena, G.D.; Venugopalan, A.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope shift studies have been carried out in the gadolinium spectrum using a recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer and gadolinium samples enriched in 156 Gd and 160 Gd isotopes. Isotope shifts Δsigma(156-160) have been recorded in 134 lines in the region 3930-4140 A. Some of these lines involve the recently identified even configuration 4f 8 5d6s of Gd I and the newly classified transition 4f 8 6s-4f 8 6p of Gd II. From the isotope shift measurements of lines involving the 4f 8 6s-4f 8 6p transition in Gd II, the isotope shift, ΔT(156-160)=87 mK, has been obtained for the 4f 8 6s configuration. Electronic configurations have been suggested for a number of energy levels and configuration mixing has been pointed out in certain cases. (Auth.)

  2. Calculation of relativistic and isotope shifts in Mg I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berengut, J.C.; Flambaum, V.V.; Kozlov, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    We present an ab initio method of calculation of the isotope and relativistic shifts in atoms with a few valence electrons. It is based on an energy calculation involving the combination of the configuration-interaction method and many-body perturbation theory. This work is motivated by analyses of quasar absorption spectra that suggest that the fine-structure constant α was smaller at an early epoch. Relativistic shifts are needed to measure this variation of α, while isotope shifts are needed to resolve systematic effects in this study. The isotope shifts can also be used to measure isotopic abundances in gas clouds in the early universe, which are needed to study nuclear reactions in stars and supernovae and test models of chemical evolution. This paper shows that the isotope shift in magnesium can be calculated to very high precision using our method

  3. Isotope shifting capacity of rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1980-01-01

    Any oxygen isotope shifted rock volume exactly defines a past throughput of water. An expression is derived that relates the throughput of an open system to the isotope shift of reservoir rock and present-day output. The small isotope shift of Ngawha reservoir rock and the small, high delta oxygen-18 output are best accounted for by a magmatic water source

  4. Optical isotope shifts for unstable samarium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; Grant, I.S.; England, J.G.; Fawcett, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Using a tunable dye laser beam intersecting a thermal atomic beam, optical isotope shifts and hyperfine splittings have been measured for the four unstable samarium isotopes between 144 Sm and 154 Sm, covering the well known transition region from spherical to deformed shapes. (orig.)

  5. Isotopic shift in even-even barium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Afaque; Naz, Tabassum; Ahmad, Shakeb

    2017-01-01

    We have discussed the correlation between a nuclear shape and its matter distribution. Here, we present the root-mean-square radii (r rms ) and rms charge radius (r ch ). We have also discussed the isotopic shift in terms of the observable ‹Δr 2 c › N,82 and its differential ‹Δr 2 c › N-2,N . We present nuclear radii evaluated using different interactions. Neutron radii and charge radii for all the isotopic chains are shown. Neutron radii for Ba isotopes show an increasing trend with the neutron number for all isotopic chains. One can observe a clear kink about magic number N=82

  6. Isotope shift studies in gadolinium spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Saksena, G.D.; Venugopalan, A.

    1975-01-01

    Isotope shift studies have been carried out in the gadolinium spectrum using a recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer and gadolinium samples enriched in 156 Gd and 160 Gd isotopes. The source used is a liquid-nitrogen-cooled hollow cathode with Ne as the carrier gas and operating at about 30 mA. Isotope shifts Δsigma (156-160) have been recorded in 350 transitions of Gd I and Gd II. In the case of the Gd I spectrum, the transitions studied presently involve almost all the reported configurations assigned to the energy levels of Gd I. The odd configurations are 4f 7 5d6s 2 , 4f 7 5d 2 6s, 4f 7 5d 3 , 4f 8 6s6p, 4f 7 5d6s7s and 4f 7 6s 2 6p, and the even ones are 4f 8 6s 2 , 4f 7 5d6s6p, 4f 7 6s 2 6p, 4f 8 5d6s and 4f 7 5d 2 6p. In the case of the Gd II spectrum isotope shifts in the lines of the newly classified transition 4f 8 6s - 4f 8 6p have been studied and isotope shift ΔT (156-160) 87 mK has been obtained for the 4f 8 6s configuration. The other transitions of Gd II involve the odd configurations 4f 7 5d6s, 4f 7 6s 2 , 4f 7 5d 2 and 4f 8 6p and the even ones 4f 7 6s6p, 4f 8 5d, 4f 7 5d6p and 4f 8 6p. The ΔT (156-160) of a large number of odd and even levels of Gd I and Gd II have been evaluated. Electronic configurations have been suggested for a number of energy levels and configuration mixing has been pointed out in certain cases. A number of hitherto unreported transitions have been found and using a monoisotopic sample of Gd, that is 160 Gd, their separations from the closest listed transitions have been measured. (author)

  7. Isotope shifts in unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    1980-05-01

    Current experimental investigations of isotope shifts in atomic spectra of unstable nuclei and the resulting information about size and shape of nuclei far off stability are discussed with reference to some representative examples. (orig.)

  8. Electronic isotope shifts, muonic atoms, and electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shera, E.B.

    1982-01-01

    The roles of electronic isotope shift, muonic atom, and electron scattering experiments in studying the nuclear charge distribution are discussed in terms of the potentials of each probe. Barium isotope shift data are presented as an example of a combined muonic-optical analysis and the results are compared with droplet and IBA model predictions. A survey of muonic and (e,e) results is presented with emphasis on shell-structure related features

  9. Isotope shift of 234U, 236U, 238U in U I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, J.M.; Nguyen Van, S.; Saint-Dizier, J.P.; Pianarosa, P.

    1976-01-01

    New and very accurate data of isotope shifts and relative isotope shifts in 234 U, 236 U, 238 U are presented. The invariance of the relative isotope shift, for the transitions we have investigated, supports the hypothesis that the so called specific mass effect is negligible in uranium

  10. Isotope effect on the zero point energy shift upon condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, Z.C.; Ishida, T.

    1977-07-01

    The various isotope-dependent and independent atomic and molecular properties that pertain to the isotopic difference between the zero point energy (ZPE) shifts upon condensation were derived. The theoretical development of the change of the ZPE associated with the internal molecular vibrations, due to the condensation of the gaseous molecules, is presented on the basis of Wolfsberg's second-order perturbation treatment of the isotope-dependent London dispersion forces between liquid molecules. The isotope effect on the ZPE shift is related to the difference between the sums of the integrated intensities of the infrared absorption bands of the two gaseous isotopic molecules. The effective atomic charges are also calculated from available experimental infrared intensity data. The effects of isotopic substitutions of carbon-13 for carbon-12 and/or deuterium for protium, in ethylene, methane, and the fluorinated methanes, CH 3 F, CH 2 F 2 , CHF 3 , and CF 4 , on the ZPE shift upon condensation are calculated. These results compare well with the Bigeleisen B-factors, which are experimentally obtained from vapor pressure measurements of the isotopic species. Each of the following molecular properties will tend to increase the isotopic difference between the ZPE shifts upon condensation: (1) large number of highly polar bonds, (2) high molecular weight, (3) non-polar (preferably) or massive molecule, (4) non-hydrogenous molecule, and (5) closely packed liquid molecules. These properties will result in stronger dispersion forces in the liquid phase between the lighter molecules than between the isotopically heavier molecules. 36 tables, 9 figures

  11. Constraining new physics models with isotope shift spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frugiuele, Claudia; Fuchs, Elina; Perez, Gilad; Schlaffer, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Isotope shifts of transition frequencies in atoms constrain generic long- and intermediate-range interactions. We focus on new physics scenarios that can be most strongly constrained by King linearity violation such as models with B -L vector bosons, the Higgs portal, and chameleon models. With the anticipated precision, King linearity violation has the potential to set the strongest laboratory bounds on these models in some regions of parameter space. Furthermore, we show that this method can probe the couplings relevant for the protophobic interpretation of the recently reported Be anomaly. We extend the formalism to include an arbitrary number of transitions and isotope pairs and fit the new physics coupling to the currently available isotope shift measurements.

  12. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of the neutron-rich barium isotopes 139-146Ba and 148Ba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendt, K.; Ahmad, S.A.; Klempt, W.; Neugart, R.; Otten, E.W.

    1988-01-01

    The hyperfine structure and isotope shift in the 6s 2 S 1/2 -6p 2 P 3/2 line of Ba II (455.4 nm) have been measured by collinear fast-beam laser spectroscopy for the neutron-rich isotopes 139-146 Ba and 148 Ba. Nuclear moments and mean square charge radii of these isotopes have been recalculated. The isotope shift of the isotope 148 Ba (T 1/2 = 0.64 s) could be studied for the first time, yielding δ 2 > 138,148 = 1.245(3) fm 2 . (orig.)

  13. Isotope effect on the zero point energy shift upon condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, Z.C.

    1977-01-01

    The various isotope-dependent and independent atomic and molecular properties that pertain to the isotopic difference between the zero point energy (ZPE) shifts upon condensation have been derived. The theoretical development of the change of the ZPE associated with the internal molecular vibrations, due to the condensation of the gaseous molecules, has been presented on the basis of Wolfsberg's second-order perturbation treatment of the isotope-dependent London dispersion forces between liquid molecules. The isotope effect on the ZPE shift is related to the difference between the sums of the integrated intensities of the infrared absorption bands of the two gaseous isotopic molecules. Each intensity sum is expressed, in part, in terms of partial derivatives of the molecular dipole moment with respect to atomic cartesian coordinates. These derivatives are related to the isotope-independent effective charges of the atoms, which are theoretically calculated by means of a modified CNDO/2 computer program. The effective atomic charges are also calculated from available experimental infrared intensity data. The effects of isotopic substitutions of carbon-13 for carbon-12 and/or deuterium for protium, in ethylene, methane, and the fluorinated methanes, CH 3 F, CH 2 F 2 , CHF 3 , and CF 4 , on the ZPE shift upon condensation are calculated. These results compare well with the Bigeleisen B-factors, which are experimentally obtained from vapor pressure measurements of the isotopic species. Each of the following molecular properties will tend to increase the isotopic difference between the ZPE shifts upon condensation: (1) large number of highly polar bonds, (2) high molecular weight, (3) non-polar (preferably) or massive molecule, (4) non-hydrogenous molecule, and (5) closely packed liquid molecules. These properties will result in stronger dispersion forces in the liquid phase between the lighter molecules than between the isotopically heavier molecules

  14. Isotope shifts in odd and even energy levels of the neutral and singly ionised gadolinium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Venugopalan, A.; Saksena, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    Isotope shift studies in the gadolinium spectra have been extended in the region 4140 to 4535 A. Isotope shift Δσ(156 to 160) have been measured in 315 lines of the neutral and singly ionised gadolinium atom using a recording Fabry-Perot Spectrometer and gadolinium samples enriched in 156 Gd and 160 Gd isotopes. Some of the Gd I lines studied involve transitions from newly identified high odd levels of 4f 8 6s6p, 4f 7 5d6s7s and 4f 7 5d 3 configurations to low even levels of 4f 8 6s 2 and 4f 7 6s 2 6p configurations. Electronic configurations of the energy levels have been discussed on the basis of observed isotope shifts. In some cases assigned configurations have been revised and probable configurations have been suggested. (author)

  15. Isotope effect in the Knight shift of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahm, W.; Schwenk, A.

    1975-01-01

    The Knight shifts of the potassium isotopes 39 K and 41 K were determined with high accuracy: Ksup((39)) = 0.274 35(10)% and Ksup((41)) = 0.274 93(12)%. The relative isotope effect ΔK/K = -0.210 (20)% is in agreement with the hyperfine structure anomaly 39 Δ 41 . (orig.) [de

  16. Measurement of isotope shift of recycled uranium by laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oba, Masaki; Wakaida, Ikuo; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Miyabe, Masabumi

    1999-07-01

    Isotope shift of the recycled uranium atoms including the 236 U was measured by laser induced fluorescence method. Eight even levels at 2 eV and three odd levels at 4 eV were measured with isotope shifts among 238 U, 236 U and 235 U obtained. As for the measurement of the 4 eV levels, the Doppler free two photon absorption method was used, and the hyperfine structure of the 235 U was analyzed simultaneously. The isotope shift of 234 U was also observed in the three transition. (J.P.N.)

  17. Isotopic shifts and configuration mixing in the dysprosium II spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufmuth, P.

    1977-01-01

    Using a photoelectric Fabry-Perot spectrometer with digital data acquisition, the isotopic shifts of all stable dysprosium isotopes (Z = 66, A = 156, 158, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164) have been measured in transitions from the groundstate configuration 4f 10 6s to the excited configurations 4f 9 5d6s, 4f 9 5d 2 , and 4f 10 6p of the spark spectrum. Mass and volume effects have been seperated; the results are compared with arc spectrum measurements. From the volume effect of a pure s-p transition the change of the mean electric quadratic nuclear radius delta 2 > has been calculated. In order to test fine structure calculations of the Dy II spectrum, the isotopic shifts of 29 lines of the isotopes 162 Dy and 164 Dy have been measured. Based on the sharing rule, the reported configuration mixing could be confirmed in principle; for one energy level (E = 22908 K) the asignement has been proved to be false, in the case of three other levels (E = 22467, 22672, and 28885 K) the asignement is doubtfull. For the ground state levels 4f 10 6s 6 I the influence of relativistic effects could be proved; these effects can be interpreted in the framework of a parametric representation of the isotopic shift. The order of magnitude of the crossed second order effects has been estimated. (orig.) [de

  18. Spectroscopic measurement of 204Pb isotope shift and 205Pb nuclear spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schonberger, P.

    1984-01-01

    The isotope shift of 204 Pb and the nuclear spin of 1.4 X 10 7 -y 205 Pb was determined from a high-resolution optical measurement of the 6p 23 P 0 -6p7s 3 P 1 0 283.3-nm resonance line. The value of the shift, relative to 208 Pb is -140.2(8) x 10 -3 cm -1 , the negative sign indicating a shift to lower wave numbers. The precision is 3-4 times greater than that of previous measurements. The spin of 205 Pb I = 5/2 was obtained from the measurement of the relative intensities of its three hyperfine components. This method of absorption spectroscopy determination of ground state nuclear spin is applicable to any stable or long-lived isotope. High resolution optical absorption spectra were obtained with a 25.4 cm diffraction grating in a 9.1 m focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer. A signal-averaging scanning technique was used to record the spectra. Increased precision in the isotope shift measurement was attained by using separated isotope samples of 204 Pb and 207 Pb

  19. Deuterium isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts of 10-Hydroxybenzo[h]quinolines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Gryko, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    Deuterium isotope effects on 13C-NMR chemical shifts are investigated in a series of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinolines (HBQ’s) The OH proton is deuteriated. The isotope effects on 13C chemical shifts in these hydrogen bonded systems are rather unusual. The formal four-bond effects are found to be nega...

  20. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from top predator amino acids reveal rapidly shifting ocean biochemistry in the outer California Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I Ruiz-Cooley

    Full Text Available Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore California Current System (CCS by measuring δ15N and δ13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus. Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ≥1 ‰ by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer δ15N and δ13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ∼4‰ for δ15N source-AAs and 3‰ for δ13C essential-AAs, while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline δ15N and δ13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure.

  1. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from top predator amino acids reveal rapidly shifting ocean biochemistry in the outer California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I; Koch, Paul L; Fiedler, Paul C; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore California Current System (CCS) by measuring δ15N and δ13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs) can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ≥1 ‰) by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer) δ15N and δ13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ∼4‰ for δ15N source-AAs and 3‰ for δ13C essential-AAs), while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline δ15N and δ13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure.

  2. Isotope effects on chemical shifts in tautomeric systems with double proton transfer. Citronin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.E.; Langgard, M.; Bolvig, S.

    1998-01-01

    Primary and secondary deuterium isotope effects on 1 H and 13 C chemical shifts are measured in citrinin, a tautomeric compound with an unusual doubly intramolecularly hydrogen bonded structure. The isotope effects are to a large extent dominated by equilibrium contributions and deuteration leads to more of the deuterated enol forms rather than the deuterated acid form. 1 H 13 C and 17 O nuclear shieldings are calculated using density functional ab initio methods. A very good correlation between calculated nuclear shieldings and experimental 1 H and 13 C chemical shifts is obtained. The tautomeric equilibrium can be analyzed based on the isotope effects on B-6 and C-8 carbons and shows an increase in the o-quinone form on lowering the temperature. Furthermore, upon deuteration the largest equilibrium shift is found for deuteration at OH-8 and the shift in the tautomeric equilibrium upon deuteration at OH-8 and the shift in the tautomeric equilibrium upon deuteration is increasing at lower temperature. (author)

  3. Variations of nuclear charge radii in mercury isotopes with A = 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, and 204 from x-ray isotope shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.L.; Boehm, F.; Hahn, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope shifts of atomic K x rays were measured for pairs of the six mercury isotopes with A = 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, and 204, using a curved crystal spectrometer. The changes of the nuclear charge radii were derived in terms of delta 2 > and deltaR/sub k/ and compared with optical an muonic isotope shift data. From our results, a renormalization of the optical data was obtained

  4. Spectroscopic Measurement of LEAD-204 Isotope Shift and LEAD-205 Nuclear Spin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Peter

    The isotope shift of ('204)Pb and the nuclear spin of 1.4 x 10('7)-y ('205)Pb was determined from a high -resolution optical measurement of the 6p('2) ('3)P(,o) -6p7s('3)P(,1)('o) 283.3-nm resonance line. The value of the shift, relative to ('208)Pb is -140.2(8) x 10('-3)cm(' -1), the negative sign indicating a shift to lower wave numbers. The precision is 3-4 times greater than that of previous measurements. The spin of ('205)Pb l = 5/2 was obtained from the measurement of the relative intensities of its three hyperfine components. This method of absorption spectroscopy determination of ground state nuclear spin is applicable to any stable or longlived isotope. High resolution optical absorption spectra were obtained with a 25.4cm diffraction grating in a 9.1m focal length Czerny-Turner spectrometer. A signal-averaging scanning technique was used to record the spectra. Increased precision in the isotope shift measurement was attained by using separated isotope samples of ('204)Pb and ('207)Pb. A controlled amount of the later was incorporated in the absorption cell to provide internal calibration by its 6p7s ('3)P(,1)('o) hfs separation. Absorption spectra were recorded for several optical thicknesses of the absorber. A single spin value of increased precision was derived from the entire set of combined data.

  5. Isotope shifts and hyperfine splittings in 144-154Sm I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, J.G.; Grant, I.S.; Newton, G.W.A.; Walker, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    The isotope shifts and hyperfine splittings have been measured in 144-154 Sm I using the crossed-beam laser fluorescence method. Transitions at 598.98 nm and 570.68 nm were investigated for all isotopes except 146 Sm and 153 Sm, in which measurements were only obtained at 570.68 nm. Laser-induced fluorescence has not previously been reported for 145 Sm. The magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of the odd isotopes and the changes in mean square radii of the even ones are shown to be consistent with the information obtained from nuclear spectroscopy. (author)

  6. Isotope shift studies in the spectra of gadolinium in UV region and term shifts of high even levels of Gd I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.M.; Venugopalan, A.; Ahmad, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Isotope shift Δσ( 156 Gd- 160 Gd) is reported in 70 spectral lines of neutral gadolinium atom (Gd I) in the 3290-3920 A region providing isotope shift data in UV lines of Gd I spectrum for the first time. The measurements were carried out on a photoelectric recording Fabry-Perot Spectrometer using highly enriched isotopic samples of gadolinium. Term isotope shifts ΔT( 156 Gd- 160 Gd) have been evaluated for 48 high lying even parity energy levels of Gd I using this data; new ΔT values have been obtained for 24 levels. Electronic configurations 4f 7 5d6s6p, 4f 7 5d 2 6p and 4f 8 5d6s assigned earlier to these even levels have been either confirmed or configuration mixing pointed out in some of these levels. Probable assignment of 4f 8 5d6s configuration to 8 even levels between 32930 and 35500 cm -1 have been confirmed. (orig.)

  7. Optical isotope shifts of sup(80,82)Sr from coincidence laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Smith, J.R.H.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; Wells, S.A.; Fawcett, M.J.; Grant, I.S.

    1986-01-01

    The isotope shifts of radioactive sup(80,82)Sr have been measured by a new, ultrasensitive, laser fluorescence technique. The results have been used to calculate changes in nuclear charge radii. The values, together with those of nearby stable isotopes, are discussed in terms of changes in the static and dynamic nuclear deformations. (author)

  8. Isotope effect on the zero point energy shift upon condensation. I. Formulation and application to ethylene, methane, and fluoromethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, Z.C.; Ishida, T.

    1978-01-01

    A method of evaluating the isotope effect (IE) on the zero point energy (ZPE) shift upon condensation due to the London dispersion forces in the liquid has been formulated. It is expressed to the first order, as a product of an isotope-independent liquid factor and a factor of isotopic differences in gas-phase properties. The theory has been tested by calculating the effective atomic charges for carbon and hydrogen in ethylene, according to the CNDO/2 molecular orbital algorithm, and it correctly predicts the magnitude of the IE on the ZPE shift and the first-order sum rules involving the isotopic ethylenes. However, it fails to explain the difference in vapor pressures of isotopic isomers. The theory has also been applied to the D/H and to the 13 C/ 12 C isotope effects in methane and fluoromethanes. The results obtained from the CNDO/2 calculations have been compared with the experimental values of the total infrared absorption intensities and of the IE on the ZPE shift of isotopic methanes. Based on these calculations, the molecular properties that enhance the stronger dispersion forces in the liquid phase between the lighter molecules than between the isotopically heavier molecules, and hence favor a large IE on the ZPE shift, have been deduced

  9. 2H isotope effect on 13C chemical shifts of Nitro-Benzo-9-Crown-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghimi, A.; Rastegar, M.; Ghandi, M.; Bijanzadeh, H. R.

    2002-01-01

    Deuterium substitution on two ortho-substituted-OCH 2 fragments in Nitro-Benzo-9 Crown-3 induces low frequency shifts, positive m ''nΔC j, in all 13 C NMR resonances which is an indication of the increased shielding in this crown ether. The magnitude of these shifts vary from 15 ΔC 7=716 to 54 ΔC 3=15 ppb for C 7 and C 3 carbons directly attached to 2 H, respectively. The influences of concentration and solvent, CDCl 3 CD 3 COCD 3 , and C 6 D 6 , on mn ΔC j values were investigated. The mn ΔC j values depended more on the nature of the solvent than on the concentration. The order of induced isotope shifts is 15 Δ, 51 Δ > 24 Δ, 42 Δ> 34 Δ, 43 Δ > 56 Δ, 65 Δ> 45 Δ, 54 Δ. The isotope shifts observed are suggested to be a sum of contributions from low frequency shift due to inductive-type and negative hyperconjugation perturbations. The C-D bond, as a poorer electron acceptor than a C-H bond induced less positive charge on directly attached oxygens O 1 and O 2. This, in turn, causes shielding of C 1 and C 2 in C1O1CD 2 and C 2 0 2 CD 2 fragments. The difference in 34 ΔC 1 and 43 ΔC 2 values is attributed to the conformational dependence of the negative hyperconjugation. The C 1 and C 2, are in fact, not equally affected by the two CD 2 groups by negative hyperconjugation because of the existence of NO 2 group attached to the benzene ring

  10. Estimation of the specific mass effect in the isotope shifts of energy levels in the optical spectrum of Ba I and Ba II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendrill, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A graphical method for separating mass and volume effects from purely optical isotope shift data is presented and compared with King's ''bunching'' method. Recent experimental data on isotope shifts for a wide range of spectral lines in the naturally abundant isotopes of Ba I and Ba II are analysed. Some agreement is found with muonic X-ray data concerning the nuclear size for the isotopes 136, 137 and 138, but there is disagreement (over 20%) for the other isotopes. The level isotope shifts are further parameterised in terms of a linear model, and the specific mass effect is decomposed into sums of one-electron and two-electron shift parameters with respect to the inert-gas like ground state of Ba III. (orig.)

  11. Nitrogen Isotope Evidence for a Shift in Eastern Beringian Nitrogen Cycle after the Terminal Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, F.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Zazula, G.

    2016-12-01

    The loess deposits of eastern Beringia, a region in North America between 60° and 70°N latitude and bounded by Chukchi Sea to the west and the Mackenzie River to the east, are a magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene megafauna fossils. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of these fossils are measured to determine the paleodiet of these animals, and hence the paleoenvironment of this ecosystem during the Quaternary. For this approach to be most successful, however, requires consideration of possible changes in nutrient cycling and hence the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of vegetation in this ecosystem. To test for such a shift following the terminal Pleistocene, we analyzed the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of modern plants and bone collagen of Arctic ground squirrels from Yukon Territory, and fossil plants and bones recovered from Late Pleistocene fossil Arctic ground squirrel nests. The data for modern samples provided a measure of the isotopic fractionation between ground squirrel bone collagen and their diet. The over-wintering isotopic effect of decay on typical forage grasses was also measured to evaluate its role in determining fossil plant isotopic compositions. The grasses showed only a minor change ( 0-1 ‰) in carbon isotope composition, but a major change ( 2-10 ‰) in nitrogen isotope composition over the 317-day experiment. Based on the modern carbon isotope fractionation between ground squirrel bone collagen and their diet, the modern vegetation carbon isotopic baseline provides a suitable proxy for the Late Pleistocene of eastern Beringia, after accounting for the Suess effect. However, the predicted nitrogen isotope composition of vegetation comprising the diet of fossil ground squirrels remains 2.5 ‰ higher than modern grasslands in this area, even after accounting for possible N-15 enrichment during decay. This result suggests a change in N cycling in this region since the Late Pleistocene.

  12. Deuterium isotope shifts for backbone {sup 1}H, {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C nuclei in intrinsically disordered protein {alpha}-synuclein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltsev, Alexander S.; Ying Jinfa; Bax, Ad, E-mail: bax@nih.gov [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are abundant in nature and characterization of their potential structural propensities remains a widely pursued but challenging task. Analysis of NMR secondary chemical shifts plays an important role in such studies, but the output of such analyses depends on the accuracy of reference random coil chemical shifts. Although uniform perdeuteration of IDPs can dramatically increase spectral resolution, a feature particularly important for the poorly dispersed IDP spectra, the impact of deuterium isotope shifts on random coil values has not yet been fully characterized. Very precise {sup 2}H isotope shift measurements for {sup 13}C{sup {alpha}}, {sup 13}C{sup {beta}}, {sup 13}C Prime , {sup 15}N, and {sup 1}H{sup N} have been obtained by using a mixed sample of protonated and uniformly perdeuterated {alpha}-synuclein, a protein with chemical shifts exceptionally close to random coil values. Decomposition of these isotope shifts into one-bond, two-bond and three-bond effects as well as intra- and sequential residue contributions shows that such an analysis, which ignores conformational dependence, is meaningful but does not fully describe the total isotope shift to within the precision of the measurements. Random coil {sup 2}H isotope shifts provide an important starting point for analysis of such shifts in structural terms in folded proteins, where they are known to depend strongly on local geometry.

  13. Identifying Stereoisomers by ab-initio Calculation of Secondary Isotope Shifts on NMR Chemical Shieldings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Böhm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We present ab-initio calculations of secondary isotope effects on NMR chemical shieldings. The change of the NMR chemical shift of a certain nucleus that is observed if another nucleus is replaced by a different isotope can be calculated by computing vibrational corrections on the NMR parameters using electronic structure methods. We demonstrate that the accuracy of the computational results is sufficient to even distinguish different conformers. For this purpose, benchmark calculations for fluoro(2-2Hethane in gauche and antiperiplanar conformation are carried out at the HF, MP2 and CCSD(T level of theory using basis sets ranging from double- to quadruple-zeta quality. The methodology is applied to the secondary isotope shifts for 2-fluoronorbornane in order to resolve an ambiguity in the literature on the assignment of endo- and exo-2-fluoronorbornanes with deuterium substituents in endo-3 and exo-3 positions, also yielding insight into mechanistic details of the corresponding synthesis.

  14. Identifying stereoisomers by ab-initio calculation of secondary isotope shifts on NMR chemical shieldings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Karl-Heinz; Banert, Klaus; Auer, Alexander A

    2014-04-23

    We present ab-initio calculations of secondary isotope effects on NMR chemical shieldings. The change of the NMR chemical shift of a certain nucleus that is observed if another nucleus is replaced by a different isotope can be calculated by computing vibrational corrections on the NMR parameters using electronic structure methods. We demonstrate that the accuracy of the computational results is sufficient to even distinguish different conformers. For this purpose, benchmark calculations for fluoro(2-2H)ethane in gauche and antiperiplanar conformation are carried out at the HF, MP2 and CCSD(T) level of theory using basis sets ranging from double- to quadruple-zeta quality. The methodology is applied to the secondary isotope shifts for 2-fluoronorbornane in order to resolve an ambiguity in the literature on the assignment of endo- and exo-2-fluoronorbornanes with deuterium substituents in endo-3 and exo-3 positions, also yielding insight into mechanistic details of the corresponding synthesis.

  15. Strontium isotopes provide clues for a process shift in base cation dynamics in young volcanic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, N.; Jackson, M. G.; Bookhagen, B.; Maher, K.; Chadwick, O.

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in soil development theory based on studies of old soils or over long timescales, little is known about soil thresholds (dramatic changes in soil properties associated with only small shifts in external forcing factors) that might be expressed in young soils (less than 10 kyr). Therefore, we seek to understand infant soil development in a tropical environment through the sourcing of plant available base cations by measuring the strontium (Sr) isotopic composition of the soil exchange complex. Our sampling strategy spans soils in three different precipitation ranges (950-1060 mm, 1180-1210 mm, and 1450-1500) and an array of soil ages from 500 to 7500 years in the Kona region on the island of Hawaii. In Hawaiian soils, 87Sr/86Sr values are determined by a mixture of three components: a mantle-derived component from the lava (0.7034), a rainfall component (0.7093) and a component from continental dust (0.720). Elevation-controlled leaching intensity in the wettest localities produces a decline in the concentration of base cations supplied by basalt and a dilute resupply by rainfall. In the driest sites, where leaching intensity is dramatically reduced, there is a buildup of rainfall-derived extractable Sr in the soil over time. Slow rock weathering rates produce a small rock-derived cation input to the soil. Thus, Sr isotope signatures reflect both the input of rainfall-derived cations and rock-derived cations with values that fall between rainfall and basaltic signatures. Soils in the intermediate precipitation range have Sr isotopic signatures consistent with both the wet and dry trends; suggesting that they lie close to the critical precipitation amount that marks a shift between these two processes. For the Kona region, this transition seems to occur at 1200 mm /yr. In contrast to the clear-cut differentiation in strontium isotopes with precipitation shifts observed in older soils, patterns on these young soils in Kona are complicated by low soil

  16. Stable Isotopic Shifts in Fish Bones from Multiple Archeological Coastal Middens in Penobscot Bay, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C.; Johnson, B.; Ambrose, W. G.; Bourque, B.; Dostie, P.; Crowley, E.

    2010-12-01

    The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions of collagen extracted from well-preserved archeological fish bones has the potential to provide useful information on fish diets and food web dynamics over time. Previous work on the Turner Farm archaeological site in Penobscot Bay, Gulf of Maine, reveals significant shifts in fish diets have occurred since European colonization (post 1620’s). The objective of the present study was to analyze samples from other archaeological sites within Penobscot Bay to characterize the spatial extent of the isotopic shift measured at Turner Farm. Stratified cod, flounder, and sculpin bones were analyzed from eight coastal middens located approximately 50km apart from one another within Penobscot Bay. The bones were sampled from three time horizons (0kya, 0.5-1kya, and 2.2-2.4kya). All bone samples were demineralized in 0.2M HCl at 4°C for 2 to 7 days and then extracted in 0.25M NaOH at 4°C for 1 to 2 hours. After freeze-drying, the bulk isotopic composition of each sample was analyzed using the EA-IRMS. In all stratigraphic horizons analyzed, cod were more enriched in δ13C and δ15N than sculpin, and flounder were the most depleted in δ13C and δ15N . However, the isotopic offsets between the fish species decreased from 2.4kya to the present. The nitrogen isotope composition was relatively constant over time and space for all species, implying that trophic levels for the fishes analyzed have not changed significantly in Penobscot Bay for the last 2,400 years. The carbon isotope composition also appears to be constant spatially in Penobscot Bay, however, the modern signal was more depleted than the paleo signal in all three species. The difference between the modern and paleo δ13C is ~5‰ for cod and flounder, and ~9‰ for sculpin. These shifts may, in part, be explained by decreases in both primary producer and prey species diversity, as kelp forests replace eelgrass beds in the Gulf of Maine.

  17. A hypothesis-testing framework for studies investigating ontogenetic niche shifts using stable isotope ratios.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M Hammerschlag-Peyer

    Full Text Available Ontogenetic niche shifts occur across diverse taxonomic groups, and can have critical implications for population dynamics, community structure, and ecosystem function. In this study, we provide a hypothesis-testing framework combining univariate and multivariate analyses to examine ontogenetic niche shifts using stable isotope ratios. This framework is based on three distinct ontogenetic niche shift scenarios, i.e., (1 no niche shift, (2 niche expansion/reduction, and (3 discrete niche shift between size classes. We developed criteria for identifying each scenario, as based on three important resource use characteristics, i.e., niche width, niche position, and niche overlap. We provide an empirical example for each ontogenetic niche shift scenario, illustrating differences in resource use characteristics among different organisms. The present framework provides a foundation for future studies on ontogenetic niche shifts, and also can be applied to examine resource variability among other population sub-groupings (e.g., by sex or phenotype.

  18. Isotope shifts and electronic configurations of some of the energy levels of the neutral gadolinium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.A.; Venugopalan, A.; Saksena, G.D.

    1982-01-01

    Isotope shift ΔT (156-160) have been evaluated for 52 odd and 90 even energy levels of the neutral gadolinium atom from the measurements carried out on 166 lines of the first spectrum in the region 4535 to 4975 A on a photoelectric recording Fabry-Perot Spectrometer and enriched samples of 156 Gd and 160 Gd. Earlier studies provide data for just two lines in this region. Assignment of electronic configurations to some of the energy levels have been either confirmed or revised; some unassigned levels have been assigned probable configurations. The present study provides, for the first time, isotope shift of the two levels of 4f 7 6s 2 7s configuration of Gd I. (author)

  19. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift measurements of short-lived elements by laser spectroscopy, January 1-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, H.A.

    1983-09-01

    Research progress is reported in the areas of stored ion spectroscopy, numerical studies of the trapping of pulse injected ions, beam tests at the TRISTAN mass separator, fluorescence line narrowing technique for Doppler-free observation, observation of the isotope shift on long-lived gold isotopes, and observation of Doppler-free signals in a fast Ar + beam

  20. Rare-earth nuclei: Radii, isotope-shifts and deformation properties in the relativistic mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalazissis, G.A.; Ring, P.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic study of the ground-state properties of even-even rare earth nuclei has been performed in the framework of the Relativistic Mean-Field (RMF) theory using the parameter set NL-SH. Nuclear radii, isotope shifts and deformation properties of the heavier rare-earth nuclei have been obtained, which encompass atomic numbers ranging from Z=60 to Z=70 and include a large range of isospin. It is shown that RMF theory is able to provide a good and comprehensive description of the empirical binding energies of the isotopic chains. At the same time the quadrupole deformations β 2 obtained in the RMF theory are found to be in good agreement with the available empirical values. The theory predicts a shape transition from prolate to oblate for nuclei at neutron number N=78 in all the chains. A further addition of neutrons up to the magic number 82 brings about the spherical shape. For nuclei above N=82, the RMF theory predicts the well-known onset of prolate deformation at about N=88, which saturates at about N=102. The deformation properties display an identical behaviour for all the nuclear chains. A good description of the above deformation transitions in the RMF theory in all the isotopic chains leads to a successful reproduction of the anomalous behaviour of the empirical isotopic shifts of the rare-earth nuclei. The RMF theory exhibits a remarkable success in providing a unified and microscopic description of various empirical data. (orig.)

  1. Design and development of high-resolution atomic beam fluorescence spectroscopy facility for isotope shift and hyperfine structure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharyulu, G.V.S.G.; Sankari, M.; Kiran Kumar, P.V.; Suryanarayana, M.V.

    2012-01-01

    A high-resolution atomic beam fluorescence spectroscopy facility for the determination of isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in atomic species has been designed and developed. A resistively heated graphite tube atomic beam source was designed, tested and integrated into a compact interaction chamber for atomic beam fluorescence experiments. The design of the laser-atom interaction chamber and the source has been modified in a phased manner so as to achieve sub-Doppler resolution. The system has been used to record the hyperfine spectrum of the D2 transitions of Rb and K isotopes. The spectral resolution achieved is ∼ 26 MHz and is adequate to carry out high resolution measurement of isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of various atomic species. The other major advantage of the source is that it requires very small amounts of sample for achieving very good signal to noise ratio. (author)

  2. Isotopic shifts in chemical exchange systems. 1. Large isotope effects in the complexation of Na+ isotopes by macrocyclic polyethers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoechel, A.; Wilken, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The complexation of 24 Na + and 22 Na + by 18 of the most widely used macrocyclic polyethers (crown ethers and monocyclic and bicyclic aminopolyethers) has been investigated in view of possible equilibrium isotope shifts. Solvated salts and polyether complexes were distributed differently into two phases and isotope ratios determined in both phases. Chloroform/water systems were shown to be particularly suitable to the investigations allowing favorable distribution for Na + and 13 of the 18 polyethers employed. With crown ethers 24 Na + enrichment varied from nonsignficant values (for large crown ethers) up to 3.1 +- 0.4% (18-crown-6). In the case of bicyclic aminopolyethers, ligands with cages of optimum size to accommodate Na + showed 24 Na + enrichment between O (nonsignificant) (2.2/sub B/2./sub B/) and 5.2 +- 1.8% (2.2.1). In contrast, for 2.2.2. and its derivatives, being too large for Na + , 22 Na + enrichment varying from O (nonsignificant) (2.2.2.p) up to 5.4 +- 0.5% (2.2.2.) has been observed. These values are remarkably high. They are explained by different bonding in solvate structure and polyether complex by using the theoretical approach of Bigeleisen

  3. Hyperfine Structure and Isotope Shifts in Dy II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan F. Del Papa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Using fast-ion-beam laser-fluorescence spectroscopy (FIBLAS, we have measured the hyperfine structure (hfs of 14 levels and an additional four transitions in Dy II and the isotope shifts (IS of 12 transitions in the wavelength range of 422–460 nm. These are the first precision measurements of this kind in Dy II. Along with hfs and IS, new undocumented transitions were discovered within 3 GHz of the targeted transitions. These atomic data are essential for astrophysical studies of chemical abundances, allowing correction for saturation and the effects of blended lines. Lanthanide abundances are important in diffusion modeling of stellar interiors, and in the mechanisms and history of nucleosynthesis in the universe. Hfs and IS also play an important role in the classification of energy levels, and provide a benchmark for theoretical atomic structure calculations.

  4. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift analysis of singly ionized titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Safa

    2013-04-01

    The even-parity low configuration system of Ti II has been considered on the basis of the experimental data found in the literature, and its fine structure has been reanalyzed by simultaneous parameterization of one- and two-body interactions for the model space (3d + 4s)3. Furthermore, the main one-electron hyperfine structure parameters for these configurations have been evaluated. For instance, for 3d24s1, a_{3{\\rm{d}}}^{01} = - {\\rm{63}}.{\\rm{2}}\\left( {{\\rm{3}}.{\\rm{1}}} \\right)\\,{\\rm{MHz}} and a_{4{\\rm{s}}}^{10} = - {\\rm{984}}.{\\rm{1}}\\left( {{\\rm{7}}.{\\rm{1}}} \\right)\\,{\\rm{MHz}} . Field shifts (FS) and specific mass shifts (SMS) of the main Ti II configurations are deduced by means of ab initio estimates combined with a small quantity of experimental isotope shift data available in the literature: FS(3d3) = -63.3 MHz, FS(3d24p1) = -49.7 MHz, FS(3d14s2) = 98.2 MHz, FS(4s24P1) = 163.4 MHz and SMS(3d3) = 1453.3 MHz, SMS(3d14s2) = -2179.7 MHz, …, referred to 3d24s1 for the pair Ti46-Ti48.

  5. Chlorine isotope effects from isotope ratio mass spectrometry suggest intramolecular C-Cl bond competition in trichloroethene (TCE) reductive dehalogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretnik, Stefan; Bernstein, Anat; Shouakar-Stash, Orfan; Löffler, Frank; Elsner, Martin

    2014-05-20

    Chlorinated ethenes are prevalent groundwater contaminants. To better constrain (bio)chemical reaction mechanisms of reductive dechlorination, the position-specificity of reductive trichloroethene (TCE) dehalogenation was investigated. Selective biotransformation reactions (i) of tetrachloroethene (PCE) to TCE in cultures of Desulfitobacterium sp. strain Viet1; and (ii) of TCE to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) in cultures of Geobacter lovleyi strain SZ were investigated. Compound-average carbon isotope effects were -19.0‰ ± 0.9‰ (PCE) and -12.2‰ ± 1.0‰ (TCE) (95% confidence intervals). Using instrumental advances in chlorine isotope analysis by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry, compound-average chorine isotope effects were measured for PCE (-5.0‰ ± 0.1‰) and TCE (-3.6‰ ± 0.2‰). In addition, position-specific kinetic chlorine isotope effects were determined from fits of reactant and product isotope ratios. In PCE biodegradation, primary chlorine isotope effects were substantially larger (by -16.3‰ ± 1.4‰ (standard error)) than secondary. In TCE biodegradation, in contrast, the product cis-DCE reflected an average isotope effect of -2.4‰ ± 0.3‰ and the product chloride an isotope effect of -6.5‰ ± 2.5‰, in the original positions of TCE from which the products were formed (95% confidence intervals). A greater difference would be expected for a position-specific reaction (chloride would exclusively reflect a primary isotope effect). These results therefore suggest that both vicinal chlorine substituents of TCE were reactive (intramolecular competition). This finding puts new constraints on mechanistic scenarios and favours either nucleophilic addition by Co(I) or single electron transfer as reductive dehalogenation mechanisms.

  6. Determination of spin, magnetic moment and isotopic shift of neutron rich 205Hg by optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.; Bonn, J.; Huber, G.; Kluge, H.J.; Otten, E.W.; European Organisation for Nuclear Research, Geneva

    1975-01-01

    Neutron rich 205 Hg(Tsub(1/2) = 5.2 min) was produced and on-line mass separated at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The polarization achieved by optical pumping via the atomic line (6s 21 S 0 - 6s6p 3 P 1 , lambda = 2,537 A) was monitored by the β decay asymmetry. Hyperfine structure and isotopic shift of the 205 Hg absorption line was determined by Zeeman scanning. In addition a magnetic resoncance was performed on the polarized 205 Hg nuclei in the atomic ground state. The results are: I( 205 Hg) = 1/2 (confirmed); μ(I, 205 Hg) = 0.5915(1)μ(N) (uncorrected for diamagnetism); isotopic shift deltaν(204/205) = ν( 205 Hg) - ν( 204 Hg) = -1.8(1)GHz. μ(I) and IS are discussed briefly in the frame of current literature. (orig.) [de

  7. Chlorine Isotope Effects from Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry Suggest Intramolecular C-Cl Bond Competition in Trichloroethene (TCE Reductive Dehalogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Cretnik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated ethenes are prevalent groundwater contaminants. To better constrain (biochemical reaction mechanisms of reductive dechlorination, the position-specificity of reductive trichloroethene (TCE dehalogenation was investigated. Selective biotransformation reactions (i of tetrachloroethene (PCE to TCE in cultures of Desulfitobacterium sp. strain Viet1; and (ii of TCE to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cis-DCE in cultures of Geobacter lovleyi strain SZ were investigated. Compound-average carbon isotope effects were −19.0‰ ± 0.9‰ (PCE and −12.2‰ ± 1.0‰ (TCE (95% confidence intervals. Using instrumental advances in chlorine isotope analysis by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry, compound-average chorine isotope effects were measured for PCE (−5.0‰ ± 0.1‰ and TCE (−3.6‰ ± 0.2‰. In addition, position-specific kinetic chlorine isotope effects were determined from fits of reactant and product isotope ratios. In PCE biodegradation, primary chlorine isotope effects were substantially larger (by −16.3‰ ± 1.4‰ (standard error than secondary. In TCE biodegradation, in contrast, the product cis-DCE reflected an average isotope effect of −2.4‰ ± 0.3‰ and the product chloride an isotope effect of −6.5‰ ± 2.5‰, in the original positions of TCE from which the products were formed (95% confidence intervals. A greater difference would be expected for a position-specific reaction (chloride would exclusively reflect a primary isotope effect. These results therefore suggest that both vicinal chlorine substituents of TCE were reactive (intramolecular competition. This finding puts new constraints on mechanistic scenarios and favours either nucleophilic addition by Co(I or single electron transfer as reductive dehalogenation mechanisms.

  8. Probing new light force-mediators by isotope shift spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berengut, Julian C.; Budker, Dmitry; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA; Delaunay, Cedric

    2017-04-01

    In this Letter we explore the potential of probing new light force-carriers, with spin-independent couplings to the electron and the neutron, using precision isotope shift spectroscopy. We develop a formalism to interpret linear King plots as bounds on new physics with minimal theory inputs. We focus only on bounding the new physics contributions that can be calculated independently of the Standard Model nuclear effects. We apply our method to existing Ca"+ data and project its sensitivity to possibly existing new bosons using narrow transitions in other atoms and ions (specifically, Sr and Yb). Future measurements are expected to improve the relative precision by five orders of magnitude, and can potentially lead to an unprecedented sensitivity for bosons within the 10 keV to 10 MeV mass range.

  9. Probing new light force-mediators by isotope shift spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berengut, Julian C. [New South Wales Univ., Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Physics; Budker, Dmitry [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Helmholtz-Inst. Mainz; California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Physics Dept.; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States). Nuclear Science Div.; Delaunay, Cedric [Savoie Mont Blanc Univ., Annecy-le-Vieux (France). Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique Theorique LAPTh; and others

    2017-04-15

    In this Letter we explore the potential of probing new light force-carriers, with spin-independent couplings to the electron and the neutron, using precision isotope shift spectroscopy. We develop a formalism to interpret linear King plots as bounds on new physics with minimal theory inputs. We focus only on bounding the new physics contributions that can be calculated independently of the Standard Model nuclear effects. We apply our method to existing Ca{sup +} data and project its sensitivity to possibly existing new bosons using narrow transitions in other atoms and ions (specifically, Sr and Yb). Future measurements are expected to improve the relative precision by five orders of magnitude, and can potentially lead to an unprecedented sensitivity for bosons within the 10 keV to 10 MeV mass range.

  10. Computational and Empirical Trans-hydrogen Bond Deuterium Isotope Shifts Suggest that N1-N3 A:U Hydrogen Bonds of RNA are Shorter than those of A:T Hydrogen Bonds of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Ick; Manalo, Marlon N.; Perez, Lisa M.; LiWang, Andy

    2006-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations of isolated Watson-Crick A:U and A:T base pairs predict that adenine 13 C2 trans-hydrogen bond deuterium isotope shifts due to isotopic substitution at the pyrimidine H3, 2h Δ 13 C2, are sensitive to the hydrogen-bond distance between the N1 of adenine and the N3 of uracil or thymine, which supports the notion that 2h Δ 13 C2 is sensitive to hydrogen-bond strength. Calculated 2h Δ 13 C2 values at a given N1-N3 distance are the same for isolated A:U and A:T base pairs. Replacing uridine residues in RNA with 5-methyl uridine and substituting deoxythymidines in DNA with deoxyuridines do not statistically shift empirical 2h Δ 13 C2 values. Thus, we show experimentally and computationally that the C7 methyl group of thymine has no measurable affect on 2h Δ 13 C2 values. Furthermore, 2h Δ 13 C2 values of modified and unmodified RNA are more negative than those of modified and unmodified DNA, which supports our hypothesis that RNA hydrogen bonds are stronger than those of DNA. It is also shown here that 2h Δ 13 C2 is context dependent and that this dependence is similar for RNA and DNA

  11. Probing new intra-atomic force with isotope shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikami, Kyoko; Tanaka, Minoru [Osaka University, Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Yasuhiro [Yonsei University, Department of Physics and IPAP, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-12-15

    In the development of atomic clocks, some atomic transition frequencies are measured with remarkable precision. These measured spectra may include the effects of a new force mediated by a weakly interacting boson. Such effects might be distilled out from possible violation of a linear relation in isotope shifts between two transitions, as known as King's linearity, with relatively suppressed theoretical uncertainties. We discuss the experimental sensitivity to a new force in the test of the linearity as well as the linearity violation owing to higher-order effects within the Standard Model. The sensitivity to new physics is limited by such effects. We have found that, for Yb{sup +}, the higher-order effect is in the reach of future experiments. The sensitivity to a heavy mediator is also discussed. It is analytically clarified that the sensitivity becomes weaker than that in the literature. Our numerical results of the sensitivity are compared with other weak force search experiments. (orig.)

  12. Optogalvanic measurement of isotope shifts of doubly ionized uranium (U III) made using natural-U samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piyakis, K.N.; Gagne, J.

    1989-01-01

    An efficient method of identifying 235 U III (in natural-U samples), with the help of the optogalvanic effect in a hollow-cathode discharge, is presented. The use of this method enabled us to carry out the measurement of isotope shifts and the preliminary investigation of hyperfine structures of U III. The 238 U-- 235 U shifts for the 591.313-, 586.045-, and 610.497-nm U III lines are found to be 921(3), 417(6), and 392(12) mK, respectively

  13. Laser spectroscopic studies along the Al isotopic chain and the isomer-shift of the self-conjugate $^{26}$Al nucleus

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to measure the isomer shift in the self-conjugate $^{26}$Al ($\\textit{N = Z}$ = 13) nucleus along with the isotope shifts of $^{24-33}$Al using bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy at the COLLAPS beam line at ISOLDE. These isomer and isotope shifts allow the extraction of precise mean-square charge radii, in particular the difference in charge radius between the $\\textit{I}$ = 5$^{+}$; $\\textit{T}$ = 0 ground state and $\\textit{I}$= 0$^{+}$;$\\textit{T}$= 1 isomer in $^{26}$Al. This charge radius difference, in comparison with the odd-even staggering in the Al-chain, is an excellent probe to study proton-neutron pairing correlations, as was previously illustrated for $^{38}_{19}$K$_{19}$. Furthermore, accurate knowledge of the mean-square charge radius in $^{26m}$Al is essential to reliably calculate its isospin-symmetry-breaking correction which is important to extract the CKM matrix element V$_{ud}$ from the 0$^{+}$ $\\rightarrow$ 0$^{+}$ super-allowed $\\beta$-decay data. Finally, the charge ...

  14. Isotope shift of 40,42,44,48Ca in the 4s 2S1/2 → 4p 2P3/2 transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorges, C.; Blaum, K.; Frömmgen, N.; Geppert, Ch; Hammen, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Krämer, J.; Krieger, A.; Neugart, R.; Sánchez, R.; Nörtershäuser, W.

    2015-12-01

    We report on improved isotope shift measurements of the isotopes {}{40,42,{44,48}}Ca in the 4{{s}}{ }2{{{S}}}1/2\\to 4{{p}}{ }2{{{P}}}3/2 (D2) transition using collinear laser spectroscopy. Accurately known isotope shifts in the 4{{s}}{ }2{{{S}}}1/2\\to 4{{p}}{ }2{{{P}}}1/2(D1) transition were used to calibrate the ion beam energy with an uncertainty of {{Δ }}U≈ +/- 0.25 {{V}}. The accuracy in the D2 transition was improved by a factor of 5-10. A King-plot analysis of the two transitions revealed that the field shift factor in the D2 line is about 1.8(13)% larger than in the D1 transition which is ascribed to relativistic contributions of the 4{{{p}}}1/2 wave function.

  15. On-line hyperfine structure and isotope shift measurements with diffuse light collection and photon burst detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassen, J.; Benck, E.C.; Schuessler, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    An experiment is presently being set up which combines collinear-fast-beam laser spectroscopy with photon burst spectroscopy. Selectivity is provided by the large kinetic isotope shifts together with the practically Doppler free linewidth of the fluorescence from the fast atom beam. The photon burst detection, based on photon correlations in the resonance fluorescence, increases the sensitivity, so that on-line optical isotope shift and hyperfine structure measurements on low intensity radioactive beams become feasible. In order to improve photon burst detection the solid angle of detection and the observation time have to be optimized. To this end a diffuse reflecting cavity has been designed and built, which collects fluorescence over a 45 cm length of the beam and covers the full solid angle. The light collection efficiency of the cavity is calculated to be about 45%. The cavity is being tested with a 11 keV beam of krypton atoms, probing the near infrared transitions in our apparatus at Texas A ampersand M University. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Isotope shift measurements in the 2s(1/2) -> 2p(3/2) transition of Be+ and extraction of the nuclear charge radii for Be-7,Be-10,Be-11

    CERN Document Server

    Zakova, M; Yordanov, D T; Lochmann, M; Drake, G W F; Yan, Z-C; Neugart, R; Kowalska, M; Blaum, K; Andjelkovic, Z; Kraemer, J; Bissell, M L; Neff, T; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Sanchez, R; Noertershaeuser, W; Geppert, Ch; Tiedemann, D; Zimmermann, C

    2010-01-01

    We have performed isotope shift measurements in the 2s(1/2) -> 2p(3/2) transition of Be+ ions using advanced collinear laser spectroscopy with two counter-propagating laser beams. Measurements involving a frequency comb for laser stabilization and absolute frequency determination allowed us to determine the isotope shifts with an accuracy of 2 MHz. From the isotope shifts between Be-9 and Be-7,Be-10,Be-11, high-accuracy mass shift calculations and the charge radius of the reference isotope Be-9 we determined nuclear charge radii for the isotopes Be-7,Be-10 and the one-neutron halo nucleus Be-11. The results are compared to nuclear-structure calculations using the fermionic molecular dynamics model which reproduce well the general trend of the radii. Decreasing charge radii from Be-7 to Be-10 are explained by the cluster structure of the nuclei. The increase from Be-10 to Be-11 is mainly caused by the halo neutron by which the Be-10 core moves relative to the center of mass. Polarization of the Be-10 core has ...

  17. Construction of a two-photon-laser spectrometer and determination of the hyperfine splitting and isotopic shift of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitschin, W.

    1977-01-01

    A sensitive two-photon-laser spectrometer was constructed, that allowed to measure atomic states with an energy from 31 000 up to 37500 cm -1 with about 2 MHz resolution. The large energy range and the high resolution were reached by using a wide-wavelength tunable, narrow-band dye-laser. With this spectrometer transitions could be detected at barium from the electron ground-state 6s 2 1 S 0 to 10 upper states in the 5 most common isotopes 138 Ba, 137 Ba, 136 Ba, 135 Ba and 134 Ba. The transitions could be measured precisely. It was possible to derive lower limits of the life-time of these states from the widths of the recorded resonance lines (typically several nsec), that should in fact not be smaller than the actual lifetimes. From the measured hyper-fine splitting of the 6 transitions with angular momentum J = 2 at the oddnumbered isotopes 137 Ba and 135 Ba the parameters of the hyper-fine splitting could be determined. Hereby an accuracy of about IMH 2 could be reached at the A-factor and about 5MHz at the B-factor. At the measured transitions the isotopic shifts of the particular isotope could be determined with an accuracy of a few MHz. There was only a simple theory of the isotopic shift with only few parameters worked out for the theoretical interpretation of the measured data, that describes the data even at the experimentally reached high accuracy. Two parameters of this theory depending only from atomic nucleus properties, could be determined with a 0.5 % error. (orig./WB) [de

  18. Trophic signatures of seabirds suggest shifts in oceanic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Tyler O.; Hyrenbach, K. David; Hagemann, Molly E.; Van Houtan, Kyle S.

    2018-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems are dynamic ocean regions whose immense natural capital is affected by climate change, pollution, and commercial fisheries. Trophic level–based indicators derived from fishery catch data may reveal the food web status of these systems, but the utility of these metrics has been debated because of targeting bias in fisheries catch. We analyze a unique, fishery-independent data set of North Pacific seabird tissues to inform ecosystem trends over 13 decades (1890s to 2010s). Trophic position declined broadly in five of eight species sampled, indicating a long-term shift from higher–trophic level to lower–trophic level prey. No species increased their trophic position. Given species prey preferences, Bayesian diet reconstructions suggest a shift from fishes to squids, a result consistent with both catch reports and ecosystem models. Machine learning models further reveal that trophic position trends have a complex set of drivers including climate, commercial fisheries, and ecomorphology. Our results show that multiple species of fish-consuming seabirds may track the complex changes occurring in marine ecosystems. PMID:29457134

  19. Stable isotope geochemistry of the Tongonan geothermal system, Leyte, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulston, J.R.; Stewart, M.K.

    1982-01-01

    Stable isotope and geochemical data on samples from natural features, shallow wells and deep wells collected over a number of years from the Tongonan area of Leyte have been evaluated. The variations in the isotopic compositions of the thermal waters are used to describe natural processes occurring within the system. The effect of the ''excess enthalpy'' of the deep wells on the isotope data is formulated. Water from the deep Tongonan wells shows an oxygen-18 shift of 5 per mille, which is larger than at Wairakei and Broadlands, probably in part because of the high temperatures at Tongonan. Recent measurements indicate that the deuterium shift is very much smaller than previously thought. Isotopic measurements of methane in the gases suggests differing flows from the Eastern and Central Philippine faults

  20. Macrophysical climate models and Holocene hunter-gatherer subsistence shifts in Central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, R. P.; Munoz, C.

    2013-12-01

    We use stable carbon isotopic values from bone collagen, as well as carbon values from carbonate extracted from bone apatite from 69 prehistoric human skeletal samples to investigate past resource use and climate relationships over the Middle and Late Holocene in Central Texas. Bone samples come from seven archaeological sites and samples date from 6,900 BP to the close of the prehistoric sequence at about 350 BP. Carbon isotopes from these samples suggest four broad dietary trends. From 6,900 through about 3,800 BP, carbon isotopes suggest a gradual increase in the consumption of resources that ultimately use a C3 photosynthetic pathway. A decline in δ13C in both collagen and carbonate values follows, suggesting a decrease in C3 resource use through roughly 2,900 BP. A variable, but once again increasing pattern on C3 resource use by prehistoric hunter-gatherers is indicated in bone isotopes through about 1,000 BP. After that date, a decrease in C3 resource dependence, with hints at greater subsistence diversity, is suggested through the close of the sequence at 350 BP. To assess the impact of climate shifts on this isotopic pattern, we developed a series of macrophysical climate models (MCM) for several locations in Central Texas focusing on fall, winter, and early spring precipitation. This fall-spring rainfall should closely determine C3 production. If subsistence shifts are responding to climate-induced changes in resource availability, then the measured hunter-gatherer carbon isotope trends summarized above should pattern with C3 production as monitored by the modeled fall-spring precipitation values. For the Middle Holocene portion of the sequence, the precipitation models suggest increasing C3 production, consistent with increasing C3 dependence shown in the isotopic data. A decline in C3 production between 3,900 and 3,000 BP in the models is also consistent with the isotopic decline at that point. After 3,000 BP, however, the coupling between fall

  1. Towards isotope shift and hyperfine structure measurements of the element nobelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhetri, Premaditya; Lautenschlaeger, Felix; Walther, Thomas [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, TU Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Laatiaoui, Mustapha [Helmholtz Institut Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Block, Michael; Hessberger, Fritz-Peter [Helmholtz Institut Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); GSI, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Lauth, Werner; Backe, Hartmut [Institut fuer Kernphysik, JGU Mainz, D-55122 Mainz (Germany); Kunz, Peter [TRIUMF, D-V6T2A3 Vancouver (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Laser spectroscopy on the heaviest elements is of great interest as it allows the study of the evolution of relativistic effects on their atomic structure. In our experiment we exploit the Radiation Detected Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy technique and use excimer-laser pumped dye lasers to search for the first time the {sup 1}P{sub 1} level in {sup 254}No. Etalons will be used in the forthcoming experiments at GSI, Darmstadt, to narrow down the bandwidth of the dye lasers to 0.04 cm{sup -1}, for the determination of the isotope shift and hyperfine splitting of {sup 253,} {sup 255}No. In this talk results from preparatory hyperfine structure studies in nat. ytterbium and the perspectives for future experiments of the heaviest elements are discussed.

  2. Biomineralization and the carbon isotope record

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degens, E.T.; Ittekkot, V.; Kazmierczak, J.

    1986-01-01

    The advent of biomineralization at the turn of the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary has been a major event in the Earth's evolutionary history. With this there has been a major shift from abiotic to biotic formation of minerals such as phosphates and carbonates and, subsequently, silica. The dominant factor which effected this shift is a change in ocean's chemistry with respect to its Ca 2+ and mineral nutrient contents. Mechanism controlling the biotic mineral formation is different from that controlling the abiotic one in that the former is enzymically controlled. It is suggested that this difference is also manifested in the stable carbon isotope fractionation between the two processes and has implication for the interpretation of stable carbon isotope record. (Author)

  3. Tracking the rise of eukaryotes to ecological dominance with zinc isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isson, Terry T; Love, Gordon D; Dupont, Christopher L; Reinhard, Christopher T; Zumberge, Alex J; Asael, Dan; Gueguen, Bleuenn; McCrow, John; Gill, Ben C; Owens, Jeremy; Rainbird, Robert H; Rooney, Alan D; Zhao, Ming-Yu; Stueeken, Eva E; Konhauser, Kurt O; John, Seth G; Lyons, Timothy W; Planavsky, Noah J

    2018-06-05

    The biogeochemical cycling of zinc (Zn) is intimately coupled with organic carbon in the ocean. Based on an extensive new sedimentary Zn isotope record across Earth's history, we provide evidence for a fundamental shift in the marine Zn cycle ~800 million years ago. We discuss a wide range of potential drivers for this transition and propose that, within available constraints, a restructuring of marine ecosystems is the most parsimonious explanation for this shift. Using a global isotope mass balance approach, we show that a change in the organic Zn/C ratio is required to account for observed Zn isotope trends through time. Given the higher affinity of eukaryotes for Zn relative to prokaryotes, we suggest that a shift toward a more eukaryote-rich ecosystem could have provided a means of more efficiently sequestering organic-derived Zn. Despite the much earlier appearance of eukaryotes in the microfossil record (~1700 to 1600 million years ago), our data suggest a delayed rise to ecological prominence during the Neoproterozoic, consistent with the currently accepted organic biomarker records. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Stable isotopes reveal diet shift from pre-extinction to reintroduced Przewalski's horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczensky, Petra; Burnik Šturm, Martina; Sablin, Mikhail V; Voigt, Christian C; Smith, Steve; Ganbaatar, Oyunsaikhan; Balint, Boglarka; Walzer, Chris; Spasskaya, Natalia N

    2017-07-20

    The Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), the only remaining wild horse within the equid family, is one of only a handful of species worldwide that went extinct in the wild, was saved by captive breeding, and has been successfully returned to the wild. However, concerns remain that after multiple generations in captivity the ecology of the Przewalski's horse and / or the ecological conditions in its former range have changed in a way compromising the species' long term survival. We analyzed stable isotope chronologies from tail hair of pre-extinction and reintroduced Przewalski's horses from the Dzungarian Gobi and detected a clear difference in the isotopic dietary composition. The direction of the dietary shift from being a mixed feeder in winter and a grazer in summer in the past, to a year-round grazer nowadays, is best explained by a release from human hunting pressure. A changed, positive societal attitude towards the species allows reintroduced Przewalski's horses to utilize the scarce, grass-dominated pastures of the Gobi alongside local people and their livestock whereas their historic conspecifics were forced into less productive habitats dominated by browse.

  5. Dietary shift after 3600 cal yr BP and its influencing factors in northwestern China: Evidence from stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Minmin; Dong, Guanghui; Jia, Xin; Wang, Hui; Cui, Yifu; Chen, Fahu

    2017-04-01

    :Human diets rely on natural resource availability and can reflect social and cultural values. When environments, societies, and cultures change, diets may also shift. This study traced the extent of dietary change and the factors influencing such change. Through stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of late Neolithic and early Bronze Age human and animal bone collagen, we found that significant shifts in human diets were closely associated with intercontinental cultural exchanges in Eurasia and climate change in northwestern China. The isotopic evidence indicated that human diets mainly consisted of C4 foodstuffs (presumably millet and/or animals fed with C4 foods) around 4000 calibrated years before the present (cal yr BP), corresponding to the flourishing of millet agriculture in the context of the optimal climate conditions of the mid-Holocene. Subsequently, more C3 foods (probably wheat, barley, and animals fed with C3 foods) were added to human diets post-3600 cal yr BP when the climate became cooler and drier. Such dietary variation is also consistent with the increasing intensity of long-distance exchange after 4000 cal yr BP. While many factors can lead to human dietary shifts (e.g. climate change, population growth, cultural factors, and human migration), climate may have been a key factor in Gansu and Qinghai.

  6. Iron isotope fractionation during pyrite formation in a sulfidic Precambrian ocean analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, John M.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Middag, Rob; Gault-Ringold, Melanie; George, Ejin; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.

    2018-04-01

    The chemical response of the Precambrian oceans to rising atmospheric O2 levels remains controversial. The iron isotope signature of sedimentary pyrite is widely used to trace the microbial and redox states of the ocean, yet the iron isotope fractionation accompanying pyrite formation in nature is difficult to constrain due to the complexity of the pyrite formation process, difficulties in translating the iron isotope systematics of experimental studies to natural settings, and insufficient iron isotope datasets for natural euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulfidic) marine basins where pyrite formation occurs. Herein we demonstrate, that a large, permil-level shift in the isotope composition of dissolved iron occurs in the Black Sea euxinic water column during syngenetic pyrite formation. Specifically, iron removal to syngenetic pyrite gives rise to an iron isotope fractionation factor between Fe(II) and FeS2 of 2.75 permil (‰), the largest yet reported for reactions under natural conditions that do not involve iron redox chemistry. These iron isotope systematics offer the potential to generate permil-level shifts in the sedimentary pyrite iron isotope record due to partial drawdown of the oceanic iron inventory. The implication is that the iron stable isotope signatures of sedimentary pyrites may record fundamental regime shifts between pyrite formation under sulfur-limited conditions and pyrite formation under iron-limited conditions. To this end, the iron isotope signatures of sedimentary pyrite may best represent the extent of euxinia in the past global ocean, rather than its oxygenation state. On this basis, the reinterpreted sedimentary pyrite Fe isotope record suggests a fundamental shift towards more sulfidic oceanic conditions coincident with the 'Great Oxidation Event' around 2.3 billion years ago. Importantly, this does not require the chemical state of the ocean to shift from mainly de-oxygenated to predominantly oxygenated in parallel with the permanent rise

  7. Mid- to late Holocene climate-driven regime shifts inferred from diatom, ostracod and stable isotope records from Lake Son Kol (Central Tian Shan, Kyrgyzstan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Anja; Turner, Falko; Lauterbach, Stefan; Plessen, Birgit; Krahn, Kim J.; Glodniok, Sven; Mischke, Steffen; Stebich, Martina; Witt, Roman; Mingram, Jens; Schwalb, Antje

    2017-12-01

    Arid Central Asia represents a key region for understanding climate variability and interactions in the Northern Hemisphere. Patterns and mechanisms of Holocene climate change in arid Central Asia are, however, only partially understood. Multi-proxy data combining diatom, ostracod, sedimentological, geochemical and stable isotope analyses from a ca. 6000-year-old lake sediment core from Son Kol (Central Kyrgyzstan) show distinct and repeated changes in species assemblages. Diatom- and ostracod-inferred conductivity shifts between meso-euhaline and freshwater conditions suggest water balance and regime shifts. Organism-derived data are corroborated by stable isotope, mineralogical and geochemical records, underlining that Son Kol was affected by strong lake level fluctuations of several meters. The δ13Ccarb/δ18Ocarb correlation shows repeated switchovers from a closed to an open lake system. From 6000 to 3800 and 3250 to 1950 cal. yr BP, Son Kol was a closed basin lake with higher conductivities, increased nutrient availability and a water level located below the modern outflow. Son Kol became again a hydrologically open lake at 3800 and 1950 cal. yr BP. Comparisons to other local and regional paleoclimate records indicate that these regime shifts were largely controlled by changing intensity and position of the Westerlies and the Siberian Anticyclone that triggered changes in the amount of winter precipitation. A strong influence of the Westerlies ca. 5000-4400, 3800-3250 and since 1950 cal. yr BP enhanced the amount of precipitation during spring, autumn and winter, whereas cold and dry winters prevailed during phases with a strong Siberian Anticyclone and southward shifted Westerlies at ca. 6000-5000, 4400-3800 and 3250-1950 cal. yr BP. Similarities between variations in winter precipitation at Son Kol and records of the predominant NAO-mode further suggest a teleconnection between wet (dry) winter climate in Central Asia and a positive (negative) NAO

  8. Stable isotopes suggest differences in diet between historic and reintroduced Przewalskís horses in the Gobi desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnik Šturm, Martina; Spasskaya, Natalia N.; Sablin, Mikhail V.; Voigt, Christian C.; Kaczensky, Petra

    2016-04-01

    In historic times, two wild equid species, the Przewalski᾽s horse (PH; Equus ferus przewalskii) and the Asiatic wild ass (khulan, KH; Equus hemionus), roamed the Eurasian steppes. By the end of the 1960s, PHs had been driven to extinction in the wild and the range of KHs became severely restricted to the least productive habitats. However, PHs survived in captivity and reintroductions since the 1990s have brought the species back to parts of its native range in Mongolia and northern China where they again overlap with KHs. Ecological research on PHs and KHs has increased in recent years, but very little information is available on the ecology of the original PHs prior to extinction in the wild. We applied stable isotope analysis (13C, 15N, and 2H) of segmentally cut tail hair of PHs and KHs, collected during expeditions in NW China and SW Mongolia in 1889-1899, to draw inferences about the species feeding ecology. We compared tail hair isotope patterns of historic individuals to those of their extant counterparts from the Mongolian Gobi. A previous study of isotopic tail hair signatures of extant PHs (N=6) and KHs (N=6) suggested species specific differences in diet, with PHs being year-round grazers, but KHs switching between being grazers in summer and mixed feeders in winter (Burnik Šturm et al., in prep.). The comparison of isotope patterns of extant with historic samples confirms diet seasonality in historic KHs (N=3), but detects the same seasonality in five out of six PHs, suggesting that historic PHs had a different isotopic dietary niche than extant PHs. While we are still unable to fully understand the underlying reasons for this change in PHs, our results clearly suggest that the isotopic dietary niche of PHs was wider in the past, suggesting a higher diet flexibility, and overlapped with that of KHs, suggesting a high competition potential over Gobi pastures between the two equid species in historic times. Reference: Burnik Šturm, M., Ganbaatar, O

  9. Stable isotopic mass balance in sandstone-shale couplets. An example from the Neogene Pannonian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyas, J.; Geologisches Institut.

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen isotopic ratios of carbonate cements in the Neogene sandstones of the Pannonian Basin show distinct variations: early calcites 3-6 per mille lighter than the late calcites from the same location and depth. This shift is thought to be related to the isotopically heavy oxygen released from the mixed-layer illite/smectite during illitisation. For sandstones dominated by compactional flow, closed system mass balance calculations predict an isotopic shift comparable to that deducted from petrographic and geochemical observations. The model suggests that variations of geothermal gradient has little effect on isotopic evolution; much more significant is the sandstone: shale ratio in the couplets. (author)

  10. Correlation of zero-point energy with molecular structure and molecular forces. 3. Approximation for H/D isotope shifts and linear frequency sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, T.; Ishida, T.

    1984-01-01

    The approximation methods for the zero-point energy (ZPE) previously developed using the Lanczo's tau method have been applied to the shifts in ZPE due to hydrogen isotope substitutions. Six types of approximation methods have been compared and analyzed on the basis of a weighing function Ω(lambda) varies as lambda/sup k/ and the actual eigenvalue shift spectra. The method generated by the most general optimzation treatment yields a predictable and generally satisfactory precision of the order of 1% or better. A linear frequency sum rule has been derived, which approximately holds for the sets of isotopic molecules which satisfy the second-order frequency sum rule. 19 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  11. Precision Isotope Shift Measurements in Calcium Ions Using Quantum Logic Detection Schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebert, Florian; Wan, Yong; Wolf, Fabian; Angstmann, Christopher N; Berengut, Julian C; Schmidt, Piet O

    2015-07-31

    We demonstrate an efficient high-precision optical spectroscopy technique for single trapped ions with nonclosed transitions. In a double-shelving technique, the absorption of a single photon is first amplified to several phonons of a normal motional mode shared with a cotrapped cooling ion of a different species, before being further amplified to thousands of fluorescence photons emitted by the cooling ion using the standard electron shelving technique. We employ this extension of the photon recoil spectroscopy technique to perform the first high precision absolute frequency measurement of the 2D(3/2)→2P(1/2) transition in calcium, resulting in a transition frequency of f=346 000 234 867(96)  kHz. Furthermore, we determine the isotope shift of this transition and the 2S(1/2)→2P(1/2) transition for 42Ca+, 44Ca+, and 48Ca+ ions relative to 40Ca+ with an accuracy below 100 kHz. Improved field and mass shift constants of these transitions as well as changes in mean square nuclear charge radii are extracted from this high resolution data.

  12. Inverse isotope effect in iron-based superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirage, Parasharam M.; Kihou, Kunihiro; Miyazawa, Kiichi; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kito, Hijiri; Yoshida, Yoshiyuki; Eisaki, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yasumoto; Iyo, Akira

    2010-01-01

    We have found that (Ba, K)Fe 2 As 2 superconductor (a transition temperature, T c ∼ 38 K) shows an inverse Iron isotope effect (α Fe = -0.18 ± 0.03, where T c ∼ M -αFe and M is the iron isotope mass), i.e. the sample containing the larger iron mass depicts higher T c . Systematic studies using three types of Fe-isotopes ( 54 Fe, natural Fe and 57 Fe) reveal a clear inverse shift on T c by measurements of temperature dependent magnetization and resistivity. The inverse isotope effect that is the first case in high-T c superconductors strongly suggests that superconducting mechanism of the iron-based system is not explained by conventional BCS theory mediated by phonons.

  13. Optical spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas for standoff isotopic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Brumfield, Brian E.; LaHaye, Nicole L.; Hartig, Kyle C.; Phillips, Mark C.

    2018-04-20

    This review article covers the present status of isotope detection through emission, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy of atoms and molecules in a laser-produced plasma formed from a solid sample. A description of the physics behind isotope shifts in atoms and molecules is presented, followed by the physics behind solid sampling of laser ablation plumes, optical methods for isotope measurements, the suitable physical conditions of laser-produced plasma plumes for isotopic analysis, and the current status. Finally, concluding remarks will be made on the existing gaps between previous works in the literature and suggestions for future work.

  14. Laser spectroscopy of gallium isotopes using the ISCOOL RFQ cooler

    CERN Multimedia

    Blaum, K; Kowalska, M; Ware, T; Procter, T J

    2007-01-01

    We propose to study the radioisotopes of gallium (Z=31) by collinear laser spectroscopy using the ISCOOL RFQ ion cooler. The proposed measurements on $^{62-83}$Ga will span both neutron-deficient and neutron-rich isotopes. Of key interest is the suggested development of a proton-skin in the neutron-deficient isotopes. The isotope shifts measured by laser spectroscopy will be uniquely sensitive to this feature. The measurements will also provide a wealth of new information on the gallium nuclear spins, static moments and nuclear charge radii.

  15. Quantitative analysis of deuterium using the isotopic effect on quaternary {sup 13}C NMR chemical shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Tamim A., E-mail: tamim.darwish@ansto.gov.au [National Deuteration Facility, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 21, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Yepuri, Nageshwar Rao; Holden, Peter J. [National Deuteration Facility, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Locked Bag 21, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); James, Michael [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2016-07-13

    Quantitative analysis of specifically deuterated compounds can be achieved by a number of conventional methods, such as mass spectroscopy, or by quantifying the residual {sup 1}H NMR signals compared to signals from internal standards. However, site specific quantification using these methods becomes challenging when dealing with non-specifically or randomly deuterated compounds that are produced by metal catalyzed hydrothermal reactions in D{sub 2}O, one of the most convenient deuteration methods. In this study, deuterium-induced NMR isotope shifts of quaternary {sup 13}C resonances neighboring deuterated sites have been utilized to quantify the degree of isotope labeling of molecular sites in non-specifically deuterated molecules. By probing {sup 13}C NMR signals while decoupling both proton and deuterium nuclei, it is possible to resolve {sup 13}C resonances of the different isotopologues based on the isotopic shifts and the degree of deuteration of the carbon atoms. We demonstrate that in different isotopologues, the same quaternary carbon, neighboring partially deuterated carbon atoms, are affected to an equal extent by relaxation. Decoupling both nuclei ({sup 1}H, {sup 2}H) resolves closely separated quaternary {sup 13}C signals of the different isotopologues, and allows their accurate integration and quantification under short relaxation delays (D1 = 1 s) and hence fast accumulative spectral acquisition. We have performed a number of approaches to quantify the deuterium content at different specific sites to demonstrate a convenient and generic analysis method for use in randomly deuterated molecules, or in cases of specifically deuterated molecules where back-exchange processes may take place during work up. - Graphical abstract: The relative intensities of quaternary {sup 13}C {"1H,"2H} resonances are equal despite the different relaxation delays, allowing the relative abundance of the different deuterated isotopologues to be calculated using NMR fast

  16. Charge distributions of barium isotopes from muonic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shera, E.B.; Wohlfahrt, H.D.; Hoehn, M.V.; Tanaka, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a muonic X-ray study of the charge radii of stable barium isotopes are presented and compared with optical isotope shifts. The isotope shifts Δ 2 > of a wide range of barium isotopes are found to be in good agreement with the droplet model and with IBA calculations. (orig.)

  17. A Computational Drug Metabolite Detection Using the Stable Isotopic Mass-Shift Filtering with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry in Pioglitazone and Flurbiprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Miyamoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of metabolites in drug discovery is important. At present, radioisotopes and mass spectrometry are both widely used. However, rapid and comprehensive identification is still laborious and difficult. In this study, we developed new analytical software and employed a stable isotope as a tool to identify drug metabolites using mass spectrometry. A deuterium-labeled compound and non-labeled compound were both metabolized in human liver microsomes and analyzed by liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS. We computationally aligned two different MS data sets and filtered ions having a specific mass-shift equal to masses of labeled isotopes between those data using our own software. For pioglitazone and flurbiprofen, eight and four metabolites, respectively, were identified with calculations of mass and formulas and chemical structural fragmentation analysis. With high resolution MS, the approach became more accurate. The approach detected two unexpected metabolites in pioglitazone, i.e., the hydroxypropanamide form and the aldehyde hydrolysis form, which other approaches such as metabolite-biotransformation list matching and mass defect filtering could not detect. We demonstrated that the approach using computational alignment and stable isotopic mass-shift filtering has the ability to identify drug metabolites and is useful in drug discovery.

  18. Differential concentration of plutonium isotopes in Rocky Flats Biota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Craig A.

    1978-01-01

    Data for 238 Pu and 239 Pu concentrations in samples from grassland biota and soil at Rocky Flats, Colorado, were studied to compare environmental behavior of these isotopes. Mean isotope ratios ( 239,240 Pu pCi/g / 238 Pu pCi/g) were lower for the small mammals and arthropods than for the soil, litter, and standing vegetation. The isotopic ratio was also found to be inversely related to soil sample depth. These results suggested that, relative to 239 Pu, 238 Pu was concentrating in small mammals and arthropods and moving downward into the soil at a faster rate. Further investigations, however, indicated that isotopic ratios were likely biased towards lower values of the ratio as the total plutonium concentration in a sample decreased. This bias can be understood as a leftward shift of the value of the most probable and mean ratio. This shift occurs when the frequency distribution of the numerator ( 239 Pu) and denominator ( 238 Pu) of the ratio are truncated (have their lower tail removed) by eliminating values below some detection limit. If, as in this example, the distribution of the denominator variable is of lower magnitude than the numerator and, therefore, nearer the detection limit and truncated to a larger degree, the resulting ratio frequency distribution is shifted to lower values compared to the ratio of two untruncated variables. (author)

  19. Penguin Proxies: Deciphering Millennial-Scale Antarctic Ecosystem Change using Amino Acid Stable Isotope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, C.; McMahon, K.; Emslie, S. D.; Patterson, W. P.; McCarthy, M. D.; Polito, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Ocean ecosystem is undergoing rapid environmental change due to ongoing and historic anthropogenic impacts such as climate change and marine mammal harvesting. These disturbances may have cascading effects through the Antarctic food webs, resulting in profound shifts in the sources and cycling of organic matter supporting higher-trophic organisms, such as penguins. For example, bulk stable isotope analyses of modern and ancient preserved penguin tissues suggest variations in penguin feeding ecology throughout the Holocene with dramatic isotopic shifts in the last 200 years. However, it is not clear whether these isotopic shifts resulted from changes at the base of the food web, dietary shifts in penguins, or some combination of both factors. Newly developed compound-specific stable nitrogen isotope analysis of individual amino acids (CSIA-AA) may provide a powerful new tool to tease apart these confounding variables. Stable nitrogen isotope values of trophic amino acids (e.g., glutamic acid) increase substantially with each trophic transfer in the food web, while source amino acid (e.g., phenylalanine) stable nitrogen isotope values remain relatively unchanged and reflect ecosystem baselines. As such, we can use this CSIA-AA approach to decipher between baseline and dietary shifts in penguins over time from modern and ancient eggshells of Pygoscelis penguins in the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea regions of Antarctica. In order to accurately apply this CSIA-AA approach, we first characterized the trophic fractionation factors of individual amino acids between diet and penguin consumers in a long-term controlled penguin feeding experiment. We then applied these values to modern and ancient eggshells from the Antarctic Peninsula and Ross Sea to evaluate shifts in penguin trophic dynamics as a function of climate and anthropogenic interaction throughout much of the Holocene. This work develops a cutting edge new molecular geochemistry approach

  20. Shifts in Ross Sea food web structure as indicated by δ15N and δ13C values of fossil Antarctic seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, A.; Brault, E.; McMahon, K.

    2013-12-01

    As climate change continues to mount, there is a growing need for understanding its effects on biological-physical interactions of marine ecosystems. Assessing the effects of anthropogenic activities on the coastal marine ecosystem involves understanding the underlying mechanisms driving these changes as well as establishing baselines of the natural system. Preliminary findings have indicated shifts in bulk carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotopic values of southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) samples, collected in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica in the Ross Sea region, over approximately the last 7,000 years. These shifts could result from 1) seals changing their foraging location and/or diet over this time, 2) climate change-induced shifts in the biogeochemistry at the base of the food web, or 3) some combination of both processes. We explored the patterns of long-term change in Ross Sea food web structure by examining the stable isotope values of three top predators in this system, Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii), leopard seals (Hydrurga leptonyx), and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus). Fossil seal samples were collected in the Dry Valleys during the austral summer of 2012/13 and then analyzed for bulk C and N isotopes via an elemental analyzer/isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (EA/IRMS). Our initial findings indicate that C isotopic values of fossil seal samples from Weddell, leopard, and crabeater seals were more enriched than isotopic values of modern seals of the same species (e.g., δ13C = -22.79 × 0.92 ‰ and -26.71 × 0.50 ‰ for fossil and modern crabeater seals, respectively). Given the relatively consistent diet of crabeater seals, these findings suggest a shift in baseline food web structure occurred over the last 10,000 years, either through changes in foraging location or local shifts in biogeochemistry. For all species, N isotopic values are widely variable (e.g., 7.28 to 16.0 δ15N ‰ for the Weddell seal), which may be a result of

  1. Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron Rich Bismuth Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %IS344 :\\\\ \\\\ The aim of the experiment is to measure the optical isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of bismuth isotopes across the N=126 shell closure in order to extract the change in mean square charge radii ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle$) and static moments. These include the first isotones of lead to be measured directly above the shell closure and will provide new information on the systematics of the kink ($\\delta\\langle r^{2}\\rangle)$ seen in the lead isotopic chain. After two very successful runs the programme has been extended to include the neutron deficient isotopes below $^{201}$Bi to study the systematics across the $i_{13/2}$ neutron sub-shell closure at N=118.\\\\ \\\\ During the initial 2 runs (9 shifts) the isotope shifts and hyperfine structures of three new isotopes, $ ^{210,212,213}$Bi and the 9$^{-}$ isomer of $^{210}$Bi have been measured. The accuracy of the previous measurements of $^{205,206,208}$Bi have been greatly improved. The samples of $ ^{208,210,210^{m}}$Bi were prepared by c...

  2. Human-Induced Long-Term Shifts in Gull Diet from Marine to Terrestrial Sources in North America's Coastal Pacific: More Evidence from More Isotopes (δ2H, δ34S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Keith A; Blight, Louise K; Arcese, Peter

    2015-09-15

    Measurements of naturally occurring stable isotopes in tissues of seabirds and their prey are a powerful tool for investigating long-term changes in marine foodwebs. Recent isotopic (δ(15)N, δ(13)C) evidence from feathers of Glaucous-winged Gulls (Larus glaucescens) has shown that over the last 150 years, this species shifted from a midtrophic marine diet to one including lower trophic marine prey and/or more terrestrial or freshwater foods. However, long-term isotopic patterns of δ(15)N and δ(13)C cannot distinguish between the relative importance of lower trophic-level marine foods and terrestrial sources. We examined 48 feather stable-hydrogen (δ(2)H) and -sulfur (δ(34)S) isotope values from this same 150-year feather set and found additional isotopic evidence supporting the hypothesis that gulls shifted to terrestrial and/or freshwater prey. Mean feather δ(2)H and δ(34)S values (± SD) declined from the earliest period (1860-1915; n = 12) from -2.5 ± 21.4 ‰ and 18.9 ± 2.7 ‰, respectively, to -35.5 ± 15.5 ‰ and 14.8 ± 2.4 ‰, respectively, for the period 1980-2009 (n = 12). We estimated a shift of ∼ 30% increase in dependence on terrestrial/freshwater sources. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that gulls increased terrestrial food inputs in response to declining forage fish availability.

  3. Errors of isotope conveyor weigher caused by profile variations and shift of material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machaj, B.

    1977-01-01

    Results of investigations of isotope conveyor weigher in transmission geometry and with long plastic scintillator as a detector are presented in the paper. The results indicate that errors caused by material shift across the conveyor belt can be decreased by forming probe sensitivity to incident radiation along its axis by means of additional radiation absorbents. The errors caused by material profile variations can effectively be diminished by increase of photon energy. Application of 60 Co instead of 137 Cs ensured more than three times lower errors caused by profile variation. Errors caused by vertical movements of the belt with material, decrease considerably, when single point source situated in the center of the measuring head is replaced at least by two point sources situated out of the center, above the edges of the belt. (author)

  4. Radiogenic Lead Isotopes and Time Stratigraphy in the Hudson River, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chillrud, Steven N.; Bopp, Richard F.; Ross, James M.; Chaky, Damon A.; Hemming, Sidney; Shuster, Edward L.; Simpson, H. James; Estabrooks, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide, radiogenic lead isotope and trace metal analyses on fine-grained sediment cores collected along 160 km of the upper and tidal Hudson River were used to examine temporal trends of contaminant loadings and to develop radiogenic lead isotopes both as a stratigraphic tool and as tracers for resolving decadal particle transport fluxes. Very large inputs of Cd, Sb, Pb, and Cr are evident in the sediment record, potentially from a single manufacturing facility. The total range in radiogenic lead isotope ratios observed in well-dated cores collected about 24 km downstream of the plant is large (e.g., maximum difference in 206 Pb/ 207 Pb is 10%), characterized by four major shifts occurring in the 1950s, 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. The upper Hudson signals in Cd and radiogenic lead isotopes were still evident in sediments collected 160 km downstream in the tidal Hudson. The large magnitude and abrupt shifts in radiogenic lead isotope ratios as a function of depth provide sensitive temporal constraints that complement information derived from radionuclide analyses to significantly improve the precision of dating assignments. Application of a simple dilution model to data from paired cores suggests much larger sediment inputs in one section of the river than previously reported, suggesting particle influxes to the Hudson have been underestimated

  5. Measurement of the isotope shift of the 63 P 1 ↔53 D 1 transition of ytterbium by using a diode oscillator fiber amplified laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L.; Park, H.; Ko, K.-H.; Jeong, D.-Y.

    2010-08-01

    We demonstrated a Diode Oscillator Fiber Amplification (DOFA) system in order to study the 63 P 1 ↔53 D 1 (1539 nm) transition line of a neutral ytterbium atom that is accessed by the stepwise excitation of the ground state. The frequency of the DOFA system was doubled by a MgO:PPLN crystal for the resonant excitation of the 61 S 0 ↔63 P 1 transition. The frequency of the second harmonic beam was stabilized to the 61 S 0 ↔63 P 1 transition of each isotope with the stability of about 2 MHz. We performed absorption spectroscopy on the 63 P 1 ↔53 D 1 (1539 nm) transition after the velocity selective excitation by the frequency-doubled beam. The isotope shifts in the 63 P 1 ↔53 D 1 (1539 nm) transition were directly measured for the first time. The relative isotope shifts from 174Yb were measured as -105.8 MHz and 109.7 MHz for 176Yb and 172Yb, respectively.

  6. Fossil mice and rats show isotopic evidence of niche partitioning and change in dental ecomorphology related to dietary shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L; Cerling, Thure E; Uno, Kevin T; Ferguson, Kurt M; Flynn, Lawrence J; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13)C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.

  7. Fossil Mice and Rats Show Isotopic Evidence of Niche Partitioning and Change in Dental Ecomorphology Related to Dietary Shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L.; Cerling, Thure E.; Uno, Kevin T.; Ferguson, Kurt M.; Flynn, Lawrence J.; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ13C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible. PMID:23936324

  8. Fossil mice and rats show isotopic evidence of niche partitioning and change in dental ecomorphology related to dietary shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Kimura

    Full Text Available Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13C with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.

  9. Combined stable isotope trajectories for water-rock interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lower Hutt

    1981-01-01

    The 'mixed' model of water-rock interaction (1980 Workshop) is explained in detail. Based on the magnitude of the oxygen isotope shifts of their recharge water, different geothermal systems can be placed in an evolutionary series, from incipient (large shift of water) to mature (small shift of water). Isotopes of different chemical elements may be combined, to yield a stringent test of whether or not a given change in rock composition may be ascribed to interaction with water (L-shaped trajectories). For the acidic eruptives of the Taupo Volcanic Zone, available strontium and oxygen isotope data practically rule out an origin by partial melting of greywacke basement

  10. Isotope Shifts and Hyperfine Structure in the[Xe]4f(7)5d 6s(2) D-2(J)->[Xe]4f(7)5d 6s 6p F-9(J+1) Transitions of Gadolinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaum, K.; Bushaw, Bruce A.; Diel, S; Geppert, Ch; Kuschnick, A; Muller, P.; Nortershauser, W.; Schmitt, A.; Wendt, K.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure isotope shifts and hyperfine structure in all[Xe] 4f 7 5d 6s2 9DJ ---[Xe] 4f 7 5d 6s 6p 9FJ+1 (J= 2-6) and the[Xe] 4f 7 5d 6s2 9D6---[Xe] 4f 7 5d 6s 6p 9D5 transitions of gadolinium (Gd I). Gadolinium atoms in an atomic beam were excited with a tunable single-frequency laser in the wavelength range of 422 - 429 nm. Resonant excitation was followed by photoionization with the 363.8 nm line of an argon ion laser and resulting ions were mass separated and detected with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Isotope shifts for all stable gadolinium isotopes in these transitions have been measured for the first time. Additionally, the hyperfine structure constants of the upper states have been derived for the isotopes 155, 157Gd and are compared with previous work. Using prior experimental values for the mean nuclear charge radii, derived from the combination of muonic atoms and electron scattering data, field shift a nd specific mass shift coefficients for the investigated transitions have been determined and nuclear charge parameters l for the minor isotopes 152, 154Gd have been calculated

  11. Collinear laser spectroscopy on In isotopes from heavy ion fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulm, G.

    1984-07-01

    Indium isotopes 107-111 were produced by 16 O-fusion reactions and investigated in a collinear laser geometry. The hyperfine structure and isotopic shifts are measured and the deduced magnetic dipole moments are in agreement with shell model calculations. The nuclear charge radii are determined from the isotopic shifts. (WL)

  12. Anomalous H/D isotope effect on 35Cl NQR frequencies and H/D isotope effect on 1H MAS NMR spectra in pyrrolidinium p-chlorobenzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Ryo; Honda, Hisashi; Nakata, Eiichi; Takamizawa, Satoshi; Noro, Sumiko; Kimura, Taiki; Kyo, Shin-shin; Ishimaru, Shin'ichi; Miyake, Ryosuke

    2010-01-01

    An anomalous isotope effect was observed in the 35 Cl NQR frequency of pyrrolidinium p-chlorobenzoate (C 4 H 8 NH 2 + ·ClC 6 H 4 COO - ) by deuterium substitution of hydrogen atoms which form two kinds of N-H...O type hydrogen bonds. Large negative frequency shifts of the 35 Cl resonance lines, reaching 309 kHz at 77 K and 267 kHz at 293 K, were obtained upon deuteration, although the Cl atom in the molecule formed no hydrogen bonds in the crystal. 1 H MAS NMR lines showed significant changes by the deuterium substitution, while in contrast, small shifts of 13 C CP/MAS NMR signals were obtained. Our measurements of 1 H NMR spin-lattice relaxation times (T 1 ) suggested that the H/D isotope shifts detected from the 35 Cl NQR frequencies and 1 H NMR spectra are due to structural changes rather than molecular dynamics. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements showed two remarkable H/D isotope differences in the molecular arrangements, (1) the N-H length along the crystallographic a axis became 1 pm shorter, and (2) the dihedral angle between benzene and the pyrrolidine ring changed by 1.1(2)deg upon deuteration. Using density functional theory estimations, the anomalous 35 Cl NQR frequency shifts and 1 H MAS NMR line-shape changes could be explained by the dihedral angle change rather than the N-H length difference. (author)

  13. Isotopic coherence of refractory inclusions from CV and CK meteorites: Evidence from multiple isotope systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shollenberger, Quinn R.; Borg, Lars E.; Render, Jan; Ebert, Samuel; Bischoff, Addi; Russell, Sara S.; Brennecka, Gregory A.

    2018-05-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the oldest dated materials in the Solar System and numerous previous studies have revealed nucleosynthetic anomalies relative to terrestrial rock standards in many isotopic systems. However, most of the isotopic data from CAIs has been limited to the Allende meteorite and a handful of other CV3 chondrites. To better constrain the isotopic composition of the CAI-forming region, we report the first Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopic compositions of two CAIs hosted in the CK3 desert meteorites NWA 4964 and NWA 6254 along with two CAIs from the CV3 desert meteorites NWA 6619 and NWA 6991. After consideration of neutron capture processes and the effects of hot-desert weathering, the Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm stable isotopic compositions of the samples show clearly resolvable nucleosynthetic anomalies that are in agreement with previous results from Allende and other CV meteorites. The extent of neutron capture, as manifested by shifts in the observed 149Sm-150Sm isotopic composition of the CAIs is used to estimate the neutron fluence experienced by some of these samples and ranges from 8.40 × 1013 to 2.11 × 1015 n/cm2. Overall, regardless of CAI type or host meteorite, CAIs from CV and CK chondrites have similar nucleosynthetic anomalies within analytical uncertainty. We suggest the region that CV and CK CAIs formed was largely uniform with respect to Sr, Mo, Ba, Nd, and Sm isotopes when CAIs condensed and that CAIs hosted in CV and CK meteorites are derived from the same isotopic reservoir.

  14. Theoretical analysis of geometry and NMR isotope shift in hydrogen-bonding center of photoactive yellow protein by combination of multicomponent quantum mechanics and ONIOM scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Yusuke; Tachikawa, Masanori [Quantum Chemistry Division, Yokohama City University, Seto 22-2, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0027 (Japan)

    2014-11-14

    Multicomponent quantum mechanical (MC-QM) calculation has been extended with ONIOM (our own N-layered integrated molecular orbital + molecular mechanics) scheme [ONIOM(MC-QM:MM)] to take account of both the nuclear quantum effect and the surrounding environment effect. The authors have demonstrated the first implementation and application of ONIOM(MC-QM:MM) method for the analysis of the geometry and the isotope shift in hydrogen-bonding center of photoactive yellow protein. ONIOM(MC-QM:MM) calculation for a model with deprotonated Arg52 reproduced the elongation of O–H bond of Glu46 observed by neutron diffraction crystallography. Among the unique isotope shifts in different conditions, the model with protonated Arg52 with solvent effect reasonably provided the best agreement with the corresponding experimental values from liquid NMR measurement. Our results implied the availability of ONIOM(MC-QM:MM) to distinguish the local environment around hydrogen bonds in a biomolecule.

  15. Experimental root mean square charge radii, isotope shifts, ground state magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of 1≤A≤ 239 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.

    1986-01-01

    A compilation of experimental root-mean square radii, isotope shifts, ground-state magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments of nuclei 1≤A≤239 is presented. Shell, sub-subshell closures and changes in nuclear deformations discernible from data are displayed graphically. The nuclear charge distribution, for 1≤A≤ 239 nuclei deduced from Coulomb displacement energies is shown for comparison

  16. Nitrogen isotopes suggest a change in nitrogen dynamics between the Late Pleistocene and modern time in Yukon, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaffe, Fred J.; Zazula, Grant

    2018-01-01

    A magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene terrestrial megafauna fossils is contained in ice-rich loess deposits of Alaska and Yukon, collectively eastern Beringia. The stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope compositions of bone collagen from these fossils are routinely used to determine paleodiet and reconstruct the paleoecosystem. This approach requires consideration of changes in C- and N-isotope dynamics over time and their effects on the terrestrial vegetation isotopic baseline. To test for such changes between the Late Pleistocene and modern time, we compared δ13C and δ15N for vegetation and bone collagen and structural carbonate of some modern, Yukon, arctic ground squirrels with vegetation and bones from Late Pleistocene fossil arctic ground squirrel nests preserved in Yukon loess deposits. The isotopic discrimination between arctic ground squirrel bone collagen and their diet was measured using modern samples, as were isotopic changes during plant decomposition; Over-wintering decomposition of typical vegetation following senescence resulted in a minor change (~0–1 ‰) in δ13C of modern Yukon grasses. A major change (~2–10 ‰) in δ15N was measured for decomposing Yukon grasses thinly covered by loess. As expected, the collagen-diet C-isotope discrimination measured for modern samples confirms that modern vegetation δ13C is a suitable proxy for the Late Pleistocene vegetation in Yukon Territory, after correction for the Suess effect. The N-isotope composition of vegetation from the fossil arctic ground squirrel nests, however, is determined to be ~2.8 ‰ higher than modern grasslands in the region, after correction for decomposition effects. This result suggests a change in N dynamics in this region between the Late Pleistocene and modern time. PMID:29447202

  17. Stable Isotope Systematics of Coalbed Gas during Desorption and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Niemann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The stable carbon isotope ratios of coalbed methane (CBM demonstrate diagnostic changes that systematically vary with production and desorption times. These shifts can provide decisive, predictive information on the behaviour and potential performance of CBM operations. Samples from producing CBM wells show a general depletion in 13C-methane with increasing production times and corresponding shifts in δ13C-CH4 up to 35.8‰. Samples from canister desorption experiments show mostly enrichment in 13C for methane with increasing desorption time and isotope shifts of up to 43.4‰. Also, 13C-depletion was observed in some samples with isotope shifts of up to 32.1‰. Overall, the magnitudes of the observed isotope shifts vary considerably between different sample sets, but also within samples from the same source. The δ13C-CH4 values do not have the anticipated signature of methane generated from coal. This indicates that secondary processes, including desorption and diffusion, can influence the values. It is also challenging to deconvolute these various secondary processes because their molecular and isotope effects can have similar directions and/or magnitudes. In some instances, significant alteration of CBM gases has to be considered as a combination of secondary alteration effects.

  18. Hyperfine structure and isotope shift of transitions in YbI using UV and deep-UV cw laser light and the angular distribution of fluorescence radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinkstok, R.T.; van Duijn, E.J.; Witte, S.; Hogervorst, W.

    2002-01-01

    Using the third harmonic of a cw titanium:sapphire laser, the hyperfine structure (HFS) and isotope shift (IS) of three deep-UV transitions of neutral Yb have been measured for the first time. By exploiting the angular distribution of fluorescence radiation, accurate and complete results are

  19. Isotopically varying spectral features of silicon-vacancy in diamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Andreas; Jahnke, Kay D; Binder, Jan M; Rogers, Lachlan J; Jelezko, Fedor; Teraji, Tokuyuki; Isoya, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    The silicon-vacancy centre (SiV − ) in diamond has exceptional spectral properties for single-emitter quantum information applications. Most of the fluorescence is concentrated in a strong zero phonon line (ZPL), with a weak phonon sideband extending for 100 nm that contains several clear features. We demonstrate that the ZPL position can be used to reliably identify the silicon isotope present in a single SiV − centre. This is of interest for quantum information applications since only the 29 Si isotope has nuclear spin. In addition, we show that the sharp 64 meV phonon peak is due to a local vibrational mode of the silicon atom. The presence of a local mode suggests a plausible origin of the measured isotopic shift of the ZPL. (paper)

  20. Laser spectroscopy of radioactive barium and strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    An atomic beam system and a high resolution computer controlled dye laser system were developed to perform isotope shift measurements on accelerator-produced radioactive isotopes. Two different techniques were used to transport the radioactive isotopes to the laser interaction region. The first technique was based on the thermalization and deionization of the nuclear reaction products in a helium buffer gas. The reaction products were subsequently transported in the gas to the laser beam along a capillary tube. This technique suffered from problems with chemical reactions between impurities in the buffer gas and the reaction products and proved to be unsuccessful. The second technique was based on the implantation of the reaction products into a metal lattice. Subsequent heating of the metal lattice released the implanted ions from which an atomic beam was formed. The photon burst technique was used to enable detection of the extremely weak atomic beams formed in this manner. Measurements were performed of the known isotope shifts of radioactive 128 Ba and 126 Ba to test the sensitivity of the system. The previously unmeasured isotope shift of radioactive 82 Sr also was determined, and the result obtained was compared to predictions using the droplet model

  1. Optical spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas for standoff isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harilal, S. S.; Brumfield, B. E.; LaHaye, N. L.; Hartig, K. C.; Phillips, M. C.

    2018-06-01

    lineshapes, as opposed to emission spectroscopy which requires higher plasma temperatures to be able to detect thermally excited emission. Improvements in laser and detection systems and spectroscopic techniques have allowed for isotopic measurements to be carried out at standoff distances under ambient atmospheric conditions, which have expanded the applicability of optical spectroscopy-based isotopic measurements to a variety of scientific fields. These technological advances offer an in-situ measurement capability that was previously not available. This review will focus on isotope detection through emission, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy of atoms and molecules in a laser-produced plasma formed from a solid sample. A description of the physics behind isotope shifts in atoms and molecules is presented, followed by the physics behind solid sampling of laser ablation plumes, optical methods for isotope measurements, the suitable physical conditions of laser-produced plasma plumes for isotopic analysis, and the current status. Finally, concluding remarks will be made on the existing knowledge/technological gaps identified from the current literature and suggestions for the future work.

  2. Calculation of isotope selective excitation of uranium isotopes using spectral simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hassanieh, O.

    2009-06-01

    Isotope ratio enhancement factor and isotope selectivity of 235 U in five excitation schemes (I: 0→10069 cm - 1 →IP, II: 0 →10081 cm - 1 →IP, III: 0 →25349 cm - 1→ IP, IV: 0→28650 cm - 1 →IP, V: 0→16900 cm - 1 →34659 cm - 1 →IP), were computed by a spectral simulation approach. The effect of laser bandwidth and Doppler width on the isotope ratio enhancement factor and isotope selectivity of 235 U has been studied. The photoionization scheme V gives the highest isotope ratio enhancement factor. The main factors which effect the separation possibility are the isotope shift and the relative intensity of the transitions between hyperfine levels. The isotope ratio enhancement factor decreases exponentially by increasing the Doppler width and the laser bandwidth, where the effect of Doppler width is much greater than the effect of the laser bandwidth. (author)

  3. Shifts in rotifer life history in response to stable isotope enrichment: testing theories of isotope effects on organismal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In ecology, stable isotope labelling is commonly used for tracing material transfer in trophic interactions, nutrient budgets and biogeochemical processes. The main assumption in this approach is that the enrichment with a heavy isotope has no effect on the organism growth and metabolism. This assumption is, however, challenged by theoretical considerations and experimental studies on kinetic isotope effects in vivo. Here, I demonstrate profound changes in life histories of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis fed 15N-enriched algae (0.4–5.0 at%); i.e. at the enrichment levels commonly used in ecological studies. These findings support theoretically predicted effects of heavy isotope enrichment on growth, metabolism and ageing in biological systems and underline the importance of accounting for such effects when using stable isotope labelling in experimental studies. PMID:28405367

  4. Detecting intraannual dietary variability in wild mountain gorillas by stable isotope analysis of feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Scott A; Chritz, Kendra L; Rothman, Jessica M; Cerling, Thure E

    2012-12-26

    We use stable isotope ratios in feces of wild mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) to test the hypothesis that diet shifts within a single year, as measured by dry mass intake, can be recovered. Isotopic separation of staple foods indicates that intraannual changes in the isotopic composition of feces reflect shifts in diet. Fruits are isotopically distinct compared with other staple foods, and peaks in fecal δ(13)C values are interpreted as periods of increased fruit feeding. Bayesian mixing model results demonstrate that, although the timing of these diet shifts match observational data, the modeled increase in proportional fruit feeding does not capture the full shift. Variation in the isotopic and nutritional composition of gorilla foods is largely independent, highlighting the difficulty for estimating nutritional intake with stable isotopes. Our results demonstrate the potential value of fecal sampling for quantifying short-term, intraindividual dietary variability in primates and other animals with high temporal resolution even when the diet is composed of C(3) plants.

  5. Mass-independent isotope effects in chemical exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Kazushige

    2000-01-01

    Isotope effects of some elements in chemical exchange reaction were investigated by use of liquid-liquid extraction, liquid membrane or chromatographic separation. Cyclic polyether was used for every method. All polyethers used in a series of the studies were made clear that they distinguished the isotopes not only by their nuclear masses but also by their nuclear sizes and shapes. Chromium isotopes, for example, were recognized to have enrichment factors being proportional to δ 2 > which is a parameter to show field shift or the nuclear size and shape of the isotope. It follows that the chromium isotopes are separated not by their masses but by their field shift effects. Nuclear spin also played a great role to separate odd mass number isotopes from even mass number isotopes in even atomic number elements. Contribution of the nuclear spin (I=3/2) of 53 Cr to total enrichment factor, ε 53/52 = -0.00028, for 53 Cr to 52 Cr was observed to be, ε spin = -0.0025. (author)

  6. Signal or noise? Separating grain size-dependent Nd isotope variability from provenance shifts in Indus delta sediments, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonell, T. N.; Li, Y.; Blusztajn, J.; Giosan, L.; Clift, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth element (REE) radioisotope systems, such as neodymium (Nd), have been traditionally used as powerful tracers of source provenance, chemical weathering intensity, and sedimentary processes over geologic timescales. More recently, the effects of physical fractionation (hydraulic sorting) of sediments during transport have called into question the utility of Nd isotopes as a provenance tool. Is source terrane Nd provenance resolvable if sediment transport strongly induces noise? Can grain-size sorting effects be quantified? This study works to address such questions by utilizing grain size analysis, trace element geochemistry, and Nd isotope geochemistry of bulk and grain-size fractions (Pakistan. Here we evaluate how grain size effects drive Nd isotope variability and further resolve the total uncertainties associated with Nd isotope compositions of bulk sediments. Results from the Indus delta indicate bulk sediment ɛNd compositions are most similar to the <63 µm fraction as a result of strong mineralogical control on bulk compositions by silt- to clay-sized monazite and/or allanite. Replicate analyses determine that the best reproducibility (± 0.15 ɛNd points) is observed in the 125-250 µm fraction. The bulk and finest fractions display the worst reproducibility (±0.3 ɛNd points). Standard deviations (2σ) indicate that bulk sediment uncertainties are no more than ±1.0 ɛNd points. This argues that excursions of ≥1.0 ɛNd points in any bulk Indus delta sediments must in part reflect an external shift in provenance irrespective of sample composition, grain size, and grain size distribution. Sample standard deviations (2s) estimate that any terrigenous bulk sediment composition should vary no greater than ±1.1 ɛNd points if provenance remains constant. Findings from this study indicate that although there are grain-size dependent Nd isotope effects, they are minimal in the Indus delta such that resolvable provenance-driven trends can be

  7. Stable water isotopes suggest sub-canopy water recycling in a northern forested catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. Green; Bethany K. Laursen; John L. Campbell; Kevin J. McGuire; Eric P. Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Stable water isotopes provide a means of tracing many hydrologic processes, including poorly understood dynamics like soil water interactions with the atmosphere. We present a four-year dataset of biweekly water isotope samples from eight fluxes and stores in a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, USA. We use Dansgaard's...

  8. Isotope effects in lithium hydride and lithium deuteride crystals by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammak, Hichem; Antoshchenkova, Ekaterina; Hayoun, Marc; Finocchi, Fabio

    2012-10-31

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to study isotope effects in lithium hydride and lithium deuteride crystals. Quantum effects on nuclear motion have been included through a quantum thermal bath (QTB). The interatomic forces were described either within the density functional theory (DFT) in the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) or by the phenomenological approach using the shell model. For both models, the isotopic shift in the lattice parameter can be successfully predicted by QTB-MD simulations. The slope of the experimental isotopic shift in pressure is satisfactorily reproduced by QTB-MD within DFT-GGA, in contrast to both density functional perturbation theory and QTB-MD with the shell model. We have analyzed the reasons for these discrepancies through the vibrational densities of states and the isotopic shifts in bulk modulus. The results illustrate the importance of anharmonic contributions to vibrations and to the isotopic pressure shift between LiH and LiD.

  9. A Case Study from Southwest Germany. Shifting of Groundwater Age During One Year Pumping Test and Comparison of Isotope Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, G. D.; Eichinger, L.; Heidinger, M.; Schneider, J. [Hydroisotop GmbH, Schweitenkirchen (Germany); Funk, E. [Buero fuer Hydrogeologie, Staufen (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    A two in one well in southwest Germany, separately tapping aquifers in the formations of Muschelkalk and Keuper, was tested in a one year pumping test. The waters were continuously analysed for chemical and isotopic composition (major ions, {sup 3}H, {sup 18}O, {sup 2}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C, {sup 85}Kr) and trace gases (CFC, SF{sub 6}). The analytical results of {sup 3}H and {sup 85}Kr showed a shift in the composition of 25% young, {sup 3}H-bearing water to a proportion of 50% young water after half a year of pumping. The residence time of the young water of about 10 to 20 years remained the same. The shift is also visible in the increasing contents of nitrate and chloride. Though the analytical results of SF{sub 6} showed the same shift, SF{sub 6} - most probably influenced by crystalline gravel - indicates a residence time of the young water of less than one year. The CFCs, on the other hand, point to lower proportions of young water as they are influenced by degradation processes and/or adsorption. Though both aquifers are effectively separated from each other, the same shifting of age structure can be observed. (author)

  10. Deuterium isotope effects on 13C and 15N chemical shifts of intramolecularly hydrogen-bonded enaminocarbonyl derivatives of Meldrum’s and Tetronic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saif; Zhang, Wei; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2010-07-01

    Secondary deuterium isotope effects on 13C and 15N nuclear shieldings in a series of cyclic enamino-diesters and enamino-esters and acyclic enaminones and enamino-esters have been examined and analysed using NMR and DFT (B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)) methods. One-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectra of enaminocarbonyl and their deuterated analogues were recorded in CDCl 3 and CD 2Cl 2 at variable temperatures and assigned. 1JNH coupling constants for the derivatives of Meldrum's and tetronic acids reveal that they exist at the NH-form. It was demonstrated that deuterium isotope effects, for the hydrogen bonded compounds, due to the deuterium substitution at the nitrogen nucleus lead to large one-bond isotope effects at nitrogen, 1Δ 15N(D), and two-bond isotope effects on carbon nuclei, 2ΔC(ND), respectively. A linear correlations exist between 2ΔC(ND) and 1Δ 15N(D) whereas the correlation with δNH is divided into two. A good agreement between the experimentally observed 2ΔC(ND) and calculated dσ 13C/dR NH was obtained. A very good correlation between calculated NH bond lengths and observed NH chemical shifts is found. The observed isotope effects are shown to depend strongly on Resonance Assisted Hydrogen bonding.

  11. Laser spectroscopy of neutron deficient gold and platinum isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savard, G.

    1988-03-01

    A new method for on-line laser spectroscopy of radioactive atoms based on the resonant ionization spectroscopy of laser-desorbed radioactive samples has been devised. An experimental setup has been installed on-line at the ISOCELE mass separator in Orsay (France) and experiments have been performed on the region of transitional nuclei around Z=79. Isotopic shift measurements on four new isotopes 194 Au, 196 Au, 198 Au, 199 Au have been performed on gold and results on the neutron deficient isotopes down to 186 Au have been obtained confirming the nuclear ground-state shape transition from oblate to prolate between 187 Au and 186 Au. The first isotopic shift measurements on radioactive platinum isotopes have been obtained on 186 Pt, 188 Pt, 189 Pt. Indications of a shape transition have been observed between 186 Pt and 188 Pt. The extracted experimental changes in mean square charge radii δ 2 > A,A' along isotopic chains are compared to self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus BCS calculations

  12. 100,000-year-long terrestrial record of millennial-scale linkage between eastern North American mid-latitude paleovegetation shifts and Greenland ice-core oxygen isotope trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Ronald J.; Smoot, Joseph P.; Pavich, Milan J.; Markewich, Helaine Walsh; Brook, George; Durika, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    We document frequent, rapid, strong, millennial-scale paleovegetation shifts throughout the late Pleistocene, within a 100,000+ yr interval (~ 115–15 ka) of terrestrial sediments from the mid-Atlantic Region (MAR) of North America. High-resolution analyses of fossil pollen from one core locality revealed a continuously shifting sequence of thermally dependent forest assemblages, ranging between two endmembers: subtropical oak-tupelo-bald cypress-gum forest and high boreal spruce-pine forest. Sedimentary textural evidence indicates fluvial, paludal, and loess deposition, and paleosol formation, representing sequential freshwater to subaerial environments in which this record was deposited. Its total age"depth model, based on radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence ages, ranges from terrestrial oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 6 to 1. The particular core sub-interval presented here is correlative in trend and timing to that portion of the oxygen isotope sequence common among several Greenland ice cores: interstades GI2 to GI24 (≈ OIS2–5 d). This site thus provides the first evidence for an essentially complete series of "Dansgaard"Oeschger" climate events in the MAR. These data reveal that the ~ 100,000 yr preceding the Late Glacial and Holocene in the MAR of North America were characterized by frequently and dynamically changing climate states, and by vegetation shifts that closely tracked the Greenland paleoclimate sequence.

  13. Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Audrey; Cherel, Yves

    2011-02-02

    A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator δ¹³C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO₂ in seawater, δ¹³C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while δ¹³C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic) penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather δ¹⁵N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins' diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment.

  14. Isotopic investigation of contemporary and historic changes in penguin trophic niches and carrying capacity of the southern Indian ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Jaeger

    Full Text Available A temperature-defined regime shift occurred in the 1970s in the southern Indian Ocean, with simultaneous severe decreases in many predator populations. We tested a possible biological link between the regime shift and predator declines by measuring historic and contemporary feather isotopic signatures of seven penguin species with contrasted foraging strategies and inhabiting a large latitudinal range. We first showed that contemporary penguin isotopic variations and chlorophyll a concentration were positively correlated, suggesting the usefulness of predator δ¹³C values to track temporal changes in the ecosystem carrying capacity and its associated coupling to consumers. Having controlled for the Suess effect and for increase CO₂ in seawater, δ¹³C values of Antarctic penguins and of king penguins did not change over time, while δ¹³C of other subantarctic and subtropical species were lower in the 1970s. The data therefore suggest a decrease in ecosystem carrying capacity of the southern Indian Ocean during the temperature regime-shift in subtropical and subantarctic waters but not in the vicinity of the Polar Front and in southward high-Antarctic waters. The resulting lower secondary productivity could be the main driving force explaining the decline of subtropical and subantarctic (but not Antarctic penguins that occurred in the 1970s. Feather δ¹⁵N values did not show a consistent temporal trend among species, suggesting no major change in penguins' diet. This study highlights the usefulness of developing long-term tissue sampling and data bases on isotopic signature of key marine organisms to track potential changes in their isotopic niches and in the carrying capacity of the environment.

  15. Deuterium isotope effects and fractionation factors of hydrogen-bonded A:T base pairs of DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakonakis, Ioannis; Salazar, Miguel; Kang, Mijeong; Dunbar, Kim R.; Li Wang, Andy C.

    2003-01-01

    Deuterium isotope effects and fractionation factors of N1...H3-N3 hydrogen bonded Watson-Crick A:T base pairs of two DNA dodecamers are presented here. Specifically, two-bond deuterium isotope effects on the chemical shifts of 13 C2 and 13 C4, 2 Δ 13 C2 and 2 Δ 13 C4, and equilibrium deuterium/protium fractionation factors of H3, Φ, were measured and seen to correlate with the chemical shift of the corresponding imino proton, δ H3 . Downfield-shifted imino protons associated with larger values of 2 Δ 13 C2 and 2 Δ 13 C4 and smaller Φ values, which together suggested that the effective H3-N3 vibrational potentials were more anharmonic in the stronger hydrogen bonds of these DNA molecules. We anticipate that 2 Δ 13 C2, 2 Δ 13 C4 and Φ values can be useful gauges of hydrogen bond strength of A:T base pairs

  16. Isotopic geochemistry at Wairakei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1985-12-01

    Deuterium measurements on geothermal water at Wairakei are consistent with the water being derived from rainfall which has percolated down from the surface. The oxygen-18 content, however, is enriched compared to average rainfall. This 18 O shift is due to isotopic exchange between water and rock at greater-than-explored depths. The magnitude of the shift implied that the mass ration (W/R) of water that has passed through the system (W) to the rock it has exchanged with (R) is about 1 assuming open (i.e. single-pass) conditions. (The ratio is about 2 if it has been a closed system, but this is thought to be less likely). The residence time of water underground cannot be determined from tritium and carbon-14 measurements at present, but arguments based on the argon isotope and deuterium contents suggest mean residence times of a few tens of thousand years. The water-rock ratio and large natural outflow of thermal water prior to exploitation are consistent with this. The 18 O content of the water has changed only slightly, and the D content not at all, during exploitation at Wairakei (measurements from 1963, 1974 and 1981). An initial tendency for the 18 O to increase because of steam loss (also shown more clearly by chloride), has been followed by decrease of 18 O (and chloride) because of dilution with infiltrating near-surface water in parts of the field

  17. Trans-Atlantic slavery: isotopic evidence for forced migration to Barbados.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Hannes; O'Connell, Tamsin C; Evans, Jane A; Shuler, Kristrina A; Hedges, Robert E M

    2009-08-01

    The question of the ultimate origin of African slaves is one of the most perplexing in the history of trans-Atlantic slavery. Here we present the results of a small, preliminary isotopic study that was conducted in order to determine the geographical origin of 25 enslaved Africans who were buried at the Newton plantation, Barbados, sometime between the late 17th and early 19th century. In order to gain a more nuanced understanding of the slaves' origin, we used a combination of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and strontium isotope analyses. Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were determined in bone and dentinal collagen; oxygen and strontium isotopes were measured in tooth enamel. Results suggest that the majority of individuals were born on the island, if not the estate itself. Seven individuals, however, yielded enamel oxygen and strontium ratios that are inconsistent with a Barbadian origin, which strongly suggests that we are dealing with first-generation captives who were brought to the island with the slave trade. This idea is also supported by the fact that their carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values differ markedly between their teeth and bones. These intra-skeletal shifts reflect major dietary changes that probably coincided with their enslavement and forced migration to Barbados. While it is impossible to determine their exact origins, the results clearly demonstrate that the slaves did not all grow up in the same part of Africa. Instead, the data seem to suggest that they originated from at least three different areas, possibly including the Gold Coast and the Senegambia.

  18. Isotopic signatures suggest important contributions from recycled gasoline, road dust and non-exhaust traffic sources for copper, zinc and lead in PM10 in London, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuofei; Ochoa Gonzalez, Raquel; Harrison, Roy M.; Green, David; North, Robin; Fowler, Geoff; Weiss, Dominik

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of what controls the isotope composition of Cu, Zn and Pb in particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment and to develop these isotope systems as possible source tracers. To this end, isotope ratios (Cu, Zn and Pb) and trace element concentrations (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Sb, Ba, Pb, Cr, Ni and V) were determined in PM10 collected at two road sites with contrasting traffic densities in central London, UK, during two weeks in summer 2010, and in potential sources, including non-combustion traffic emissions (tires and brakes), road furniture (road paint, manhole cover and road tarmac surface) and road dust. Iron, Ba and Sb were used as proxies for emissions derived from brake pads, and Ni, and V for emissions derived from fossil fuel oil. The isotopic composition of Pb (expressed using 206Pb/207Pb) ranged between 1.1137 and 1.1364. The isotope ratios of Cu and Zn expressed as δ65CuNIST976 and δ66ZnLyon ranged between -0.01‰ and +0.51‰ and between -0.21‰ and +0.33‰, respectively. We did not find significant differences in the isotope signatures in PM10 over the two weeks sampling period and between the two sites, suggesting similar sources for each metal at both sites despite their different traffic densities. The stable isotope composition of Pb suggests significant contribution from road dust resuspension and from recycled leaded gasoline. The Cu and Zn isotope signatures of tires, brakes and road dust overlap with those of PM10. The correlation between the enrichments of Sb, Cu, Ba and Fe in PM10 support the previously established hypothesis that Cu isotope ratios are controlled by non-exhaust traffic emission sources in urban environments (Ochoa Gonzalez et al., 2016). Analysis of the Zn isotope signatures in PM10 and possible sources at the two sites suggests significant contribution from tire wear. However, temporary additional sources, likely high temperature industrial emissions, need to be invoked

  19. Tellurium Stable Isotopes as a Paleoredox Proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, N.; Johnson, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Despite arguments for variably-oxygenated shallow waters and anoxic deep marine waters, which delayed animal development until the Neoproterozoic Oxidation Event, the magnitude of atmospheric oxygen during the Proterozoic is still uncertain [1]. The evidence for low pO2 (<0.1-1% PAL) is based on geochemical and isotopic proxies, which track the mobilization of Fe and Mn on the continents. For example, large chromium isotope shifts occur at the Neoproterozoic Oxidation Event due to the initiation of Cr redox cycling, but this proxy is insensitive to fluctuations in the lower-pO2 conditions at other times during the Proterozoic. Tellurium, a metalloid with a lower threshold to oxidation, may be sensitive to pO2 shifts in a lower range. In the reduced forms, Te(-II) and Te(0), the element is insoluble and immobile. However, in the more oxidized phases, Te(IV) and Te(VI), Te can form soluble oxyanions (though it tends to adsorb to Fe-oxyhydroxides and clays) [2]. Te stable isotopes have been shown to fractionate during abiotic or biologic reduction of Te(VI) or Te(IV) to elemental Te(0) [3, 4]. Utilizing hydride generation MC-ICP-MS, we are able to obtain high precision (2σ 0.04‰) measurements of δ128Te/125Te for natural samples containing < 10 ng of Te. A suite of Phanerozoic and Proterozoic ironstones show significant variation in δ128Te/125Te (<0.5‰), suggesting that the Te redox cycle was active during the Proterozoic. Future directions will include Te isotope measurements of Precambrian paleosols to determine natural isotope variation before the Great Oxidation Event and experiments to determine fractionation during adsorption to Fe-oxyhydroxides. [1] Planavsky et al. (2014) Science 346 (6209), pp. 635-638 [2] Qin et al. (2017) Environmental Science and Technology 51 (11), pp 6027-6035 [3] Baesman et al. (2007) Applied Environmental Microbiology 73 (7), pp 2135-2143 [4] Smithers and Krause (1968) Canadian Journal of Chemistry 46(4): pp 583-591

  20. Non - Adiabaticity and Novel Isotope Effect in the Doped Cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresin, V.; WOLF, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports a novel isotope effect which is due to a strong non-adiabaticity that manifests itself in the dependence of the carrier concentration on the isotopic mass. The critical temperature in turn depends on the carrier concentration giving rise to a unique and non-phononic isotope shift. (author)

  1. Ultrahigh-resolution (1+1) photoionization spectroscopy of Kr I: Hyperfine structures, isotope shifts, and lifetimes for the n = 5,6,7 4p5ns Rydberg levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trickl, T.; Vrakking, M.J.J.; Cromwell, E.; Lee, Y.T.; Kung, A.H.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution measurements of the hyperfine structures and isotope shifts are reported for Kr I n = 5,6,7 4p 5 ns Rydberg levels, obtained using an extreme-ultraviolet laser with a bandwidth of 210 MHz in a resonant two-photon-ionization scheme. Use of known I 2 frequencies yields an improved absolute calibration of the Kr energy levels by more than one order of magnitude. The nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structure indicates that the 4p 5 6s and 4p 5 7s states are described by a pure jj-coupling scheme, whereas the 4p 5 5s states depart from a pure jj-coupling scheme by 0.37(6)%. The magnetic hyperfine structure shows that the 4p 5 ns states are mixed with 4p 5 n'd states. The isotope shifts can be described as pure mass effects within the precision of our experiment. For the 4p 5 6s and 4p 5 7s states, lifetimes were determined that differ markedly from theoretical literature values

  2. Recent results on neutron rich tin isotopes by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J E; Essabaa, S; Fedosseev, V; Geithner, W; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Horn, R; Kappertz, S; Lassen, J; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Le Scornet, G; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Neugart, R; Obert, J; Oms, J; Ouchrif, A; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Ravn, H L; Sauvage, J; Verney, D

    2001-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron rich tin isotopes using the COMPLIS experimental setup. The nuclear charge radii of the even-even isotopes from A=108 to 132 are compared to the results of macroscopic and microscopic calculations. The improvements and optimizations needed to perform the isotope shift measurement on $^{134}$Sn are presented.

  3. Quantifying mercury isotope dynamics in captive Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Yun Kwon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analyses of mercury (Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues are used increasingly to infer sources and biogeochemical processes of Hg in natural aquatic ecosystems. Controlled experiments that can couple internal Hg isotope behavior with traditional isotope tracers (δ13C, δ15N can improve the applicability of Hg isotopes as natural ecological tracers. In this study, we investigated changes in Hg isotope ratios (δ202Hg, Δ199Hg during bioaccumulation of natural diets in the pelagic Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis; PBFT. Juvenile PBFT were fed a mixture of natural prey and a dietary supplement (60% Loligo opalescens, 31% Sardinops sagax, 9% gel supplement in captivity for 2914 days, and white muscle tissues were analyzed for Hg isotope ratios and compared to time in captivity and internal turnover of δ13C and δ15N. PBFT muscle tissues equilibrated to Hg isotope ratios of the dietary mixture within ∼700 days, after which we observed a cessation in further shifts in Δ199Hg, and small but significant negative δ202Hg shifts from the dietary mixture. The internal behavior of Δ199Hg is consistent with previous fish studies, which showed an absence of Δ199Hg fractionation during Hg bioaccumulation. The negative δ202Hg shifts can be attributed to either preferential excretion of Hg with higher δ202Hg values or individual variability in captive PBFT feeding preferences and/or consumption rates. The overall internal behavior of Hg isotopes is similar to that described for δ13C and δ15N, though observed Hg turnover was slower compared to carbon and nitrogen. This improved understanding of internal dynamics of Hg isotopes in relation to δ13C and δ15N enhances the applicability of Hg isotope ratios in fish tissues for tracing Hg sources in natural ecosystems.

  4. Oxygen isotopes from biogenic apatites suggest widespread endothermy in Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, Romain; Lécuyer, Christophe; Buffetaut, Eric; Escarguel, Gilles; Fluteau, Frédéric; Martineau, François

    2006-06-01

    The much debated question of dinosaur thermophysiology has not yet been conclusively solved despite numerous attempts. We used the temperature-dependent oxygen isotope fractionation between vertebrate body water (δ 18O body water) and phosphatic tissues (δ 18O p) to compare the thermophysiology of dinosaurs with that of non-dinosaurian ectothermic reptiles. Present-day δ 18O p values of vertebrate apatites show that ectotherms have higher δ 18O p values than endotherms at high latitudes due to their lower body temperature, and conversely lower δ 18O p values than endotherms at low latitudes. Using a data set of 80 new and 49 published δ 18O p values, we observed similar and systematic differences in δ 18O p values (Δ 18O) between four groups of Cretaceous dinosaurs (theropods, sauropods, ornithopods and ceratopsians) and associated fresh water crocodiles and turtles. Expressed in terms of body temperatures ( Tb), these Δ 18O values indicate that dinosaurs maintained rather constant Tb in the range of endotherms whatever ambient temperatures were. This implies that high metabolic rates were widespread among Cretaceous dinosaurs belonging to widely different taxonomic groups and suggest that endothermy may be a synapomorphy of dinosaurs, or may have been acquired convergently in the studied taxa.

  5. Carbon-13 isotope effects on 199Hg nuclear shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebald, Angelika; Wrackmeyer, Bernd

    1985-01-01

    Secondary 13 C/ 12 C isotope effects on 199 Hg nuclear shielding (Δdeltasup(i)( 199 Hg)) are of interest because of the unusual shift to high frequency which has been observed for a few alkyl mercury compounds. Continuing interest in the NMR parameters of mercury compounds prompted a search for the values Δdeltasup(i)( 199 Hg) in a greater variety of organomercurials. This should help to find out about the range of Δdeltasup(i)( 199 Hg) and to obtain a firmer basis for the discussion of the high-frequency shifts. The data and experimental conditions are given for chemical shifts delta 199 Hg, coupling constants sup(n)J( 199 Hg 13 C) and 13 C/ 12 C isotope shifts Δdeltasup(i)( 199 Hg) of fourteen 199 Hg organomercury compounds. The results are discussed. (author)

  6. Hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of geothermal waters in the southern hachimantai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubaya, Osamu; Etchu, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Teruo; Yoshida, Yutaka.

    1985-01-01

    Geothermal waters from the Matsukawa and Kakkonda Geothermal Plants, wells at Amihari-Motoyu, and Nyuto and Tazawako areas were isotopically studied. The geothermal waters from Mutsukawa, Kakkonda and Amihari-Motoyu have hydrogen isotope ratios similar to the local meteoric waters, while have higher oxygen isotope ratios than the local meteoric waters. This relationship of hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, that is called ''oxygen shift'', means that these geothermal waters are meteoric waters undergone the oxygen isotope exchange with rocks at high temperature of underground. The exygen shifts are 2 -- 3 per mil in Matsukawa and Kakkonda, and 7 per mil in Amihari-Motoyu. This difference may be important to understand the processe of water-rock interaction in this area. The geothermal waters at Nyuto and Tazawako areas also show 2 -- 3 per mil oxygen shift. The steam from the Tazawako-cho well and the hot spring water form the Tsurunoyu are estimated to be vapor and liquid phases separated form a single geothermal water of NaCl type, though the hot water from the Tsurunoyu is diluted with shallow meteoric water. (author)

  7. Long-Term Precipitation Isotope Ratios (δ18O, δ2H, d-excess) in the Northeast US Reflect Atlantic Ocean Warming and Shifts in Moisture Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puntsag, T.; Welker, J. M.; Mitchell, M. J.; Klein, E. S.; Campbell, J. L.; Likens, G.

    2014-12-01

    The global water cycle is exhibiting dramatic changes as global temperatures increase resulting in increases in: drought extremes, flooding, alterations in storm track patterns with protracted winter storms, and greater precipitation variability. The mechanisms driving these changes can be difficult to assess, but the spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation water isotopes (δ18O, δ2H, d-excess) provide a means to help understand these water cycle changes. However, extended temporal records of isotope ratios in precipitation are infrequent, especially in the US. In our study we analyzed precipitation isotope ratio data from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire that has the longest US precipitation isotope record, to determine: 1) the monthly composited averages and trends from 1967 to 2012 (45 years); ; 2) the relationships between abiotic properties such as local temperatures, precipitation type, storm tracks and isotope ratio changes; and 3) the influence of regional shifts in moisture sources and/or changes in N Atlantic Ocean water conditions on isotope values. The seasonal variability of Hubbard Brook precipitation isotope ratios is consistent with other studies, as average δ18O values are ~ -15‰ in January and ~ -5 ‰ in July. However, over the 45 year record there is a depletion trend in the δ 18O values (becoming isotopically lighter with a greater proportion of 16O), which coupled with less change in δ 2H leads to increases in d-excess values from ~ -10‰ around 1970 to greater than 10‰ in 2009. These changes occurred during a period of warming as opposed to cooling local temperatures indicating other processes besides temperature are controlling long-term water isotope traits in this region. We have evidence that these changes in precipitation isotope traits are controlled in large part by an increases in moisture being sourced from a warming N Atlantic Ocean that is providing evaporated, isotopically

  8. The evaporation pan technique revisited: Old theory and a new application for time-weighted synoptic tracing of the isotopic composition of atmospheric vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, J.J.; Edwards, T.W.D.

    1999-01-01

    Reliable and consistent characterization of the stable isotope composition of atmospheric water vapour and its temporal variability are important prerequisites to the wider application of isotope mass balance methods in atmospheric and water balance studies. A new approach is proposed which utilizes standard class-A evaporation pans, which have sufficient volume to buffer short-term transient variations in atmospheric conditions, justifying the assumption of constant kinetic isotopic fractionation effects in concert with precisely measured temperature and relative humidity to derive vapour isotopic composition. The results of the studies suggest that isotopic sampling of existing, conventionally operated class-A evaporation pans could offer a straightforward and cost-effective solution to the problem of documenting the shifting isotopic distribution in atmospheric moisture

  9. Construction of CARS Spectroscopy for Determination of Isotope shift of Hydrogen H2, D2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, M. D.; Jazmati, A.; Manni, A.

    2007-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectrometer has been built. It consists of Raman cell, which is filled with a H2 gas at 5 atm pressure, and a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser-pumped dye laser. The two beams are focused by means of a bi-convex 400 mm lens into the Raman cell. The anti-Stokes signal (CARS beam) is generated due to four-wave mixing process. The anti-Stokes signal is directed to a monochrometer entrance slit by prism to be detected by a photomultiplier, which is connected to a computer. The dye laser frequency has to be tuned to satisfy the energy difference between the V 1 beam (Nd:YAG laser beam) and the V 2 beam (the Stokes beam or the dye laser beam) that exactly corresponds to a vibrational or a rotational Raman resonance (E 2 -E 1 ) in the hydrogen molecule, then the anti-Stokes signal ( V 3 ) is generated. The spectra of the anti-Stokes signal has been recorded to determine the isotope shift between H 2 , and D 2 , which is 1161 cm -1 .

  10. Backbone dynamics of a model membrane protein: measurement of individual amide hydrogen-exchange rates in detergent-solubilized M13 coat protein using 13C NMR hydrogen/deuterium isotope shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, G.D.; Weiner, J.H.; Sykes, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogen-exchange rates have been measured for individual assigned amide protons in M13 coat protein, a 50-residue integral membrane protein, using a 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) equilibrium isotope shift technique. The locations of the more rapidly exchanging amides have been determined. In D 2 O solutions, a peptide carbonyl resonance undergoes a small upfield isotope shift (0.08-0.09 ppm) from its position in H 2 O solutions; in 1:1 H 2 O/D 2 O mixtures, the carbonyl line shape is determined by the exchange rate at the adjacent nitrogen atom. M13 coat protein was labeled biosynthetically with 13 C at the peptide carbonyls of alanine, glycine, phenylalanine, proline, and lysine, and the exchange rates of 12 assigned amide protons in the hydrophilic regions were measured as a function of pH by using the isotope shift method. This equilibrium technique is sensitive to the more rapidly exchanging protons which are difficult to measure by classical exchange-out experiments. In proteins, structural factors, notably H bonding, can decrease the exchange rate of an amide proton by many orders of magnitude from that observed in the freely exposed amides of model peptides such as poly(DL-alanine). With corrections for sequence-related inductive effects, the retardation of amide exchange in sodium dodecyl sulfate solubilized coat protein has been calculated with respect to poly(DL-alanine). The most rapidly exchanging protons, which are retarded very little or not at all, are shown to occur at the N- and C-termini of the molecule. A model of the detergent-solubilized coat protein is constructed from these H-exchange data which is consistent with circular dichroism and other NMR results

  11. Determination of the Tautomeric Equilibria of Pyridoyl Benzoyl -Diketones in the Liquid and Solid State through the use of Deuterium Isotope Effects on 1H and 13C NMR Chemical Shifts and Spin Coupling Constants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Borisov, Eugeny V.; Lindon, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The tautomeric equilibria for 2-pyridoyl-, 3-pyridoyl-, and 4-pyridoyl-benzoyl methane have been investigated using deuterium isotope effects on 1H and 13C chemical shifts both in the liquid and the solid state. Equilibria are established both in the liquid and the solid state. In addition......, in the solution state the 2-bond and 3-bond J(1H–13C) coupling constants have been used to confirm the equilibrium positions. The isotope effects due to deuteriation at the OH position are shown to be superior to chemical shift in determination of equilibrium positions of these almost symmetrical -pyridoyl......-benzoyl methanes. The assignments of the NMR spectra are supported by calculations of the chemical shifts at the DFT level. The equilibrium positions are shown to be different in the liquid and the solid state. In the liquid state the 4-pyridoyl derivative is at the B-form (C-1 is OH), whereas the 2-and 3-pyridoyl...

  12. Seasonal variation in kangaroo tooth enamel oxygen and carbon isotopes in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookman, Tom H.; Ambrose, Stanley H.

    2012-09-01

    Serial sampling of tooth enamel growth increments for carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses of Macropus (kangaroo) teeth was performed to assess the potential for reconstructing paleoseasonality. The carbon isotope composition of tooth enamel apatite carbonate reflects the proportional intake of C3 and C4 vegetation. The oxygen isotopic composition of enamel reflects that of ingested and metabolic water. Tooth enamel forms sequentially from the tip of the crown to the base, so dietary and environmental changes during the tooth's formation can be detected. δ13C and δ18O values were determined for a series of enamel samples drilled from the 3rd and 4th molars of kangaroos that were collected along a 900 km north-south transect in southern Australia. The serial sampling method did not yield pronounced seasonal isotopic variation patterns in Macropus enamel. The full extent of dietary isotopic variation may be obscured by attenuation of the isotopic signal during enamel mineralisation. Brachydont (low-crowned) Macropus teeth may be less sensitive to seasonal variation in isotopic composition due to time-averaging during mineralisation. However, geographic variations observed suggest that there may be potential for tracking latitudinal shifts in vegetation zones and seasonal environmental patterns in response to climate change.

  13. Hyperfine spectra of the radioactive isotopes 81Kr and 85Kr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, B.D.

    1993-01-01

    Isotope shifts and hyperfine constants are reported for the radioactive isotopes 81 Kr and 85 Kr and the stable isotope 83 Kr. The previously unreported nuclear moments of 81 Kr were determined to be μ I =-0.909(4) nuclear magneton and Q=+0.630(13) b from the hyperfine constants. This work increases the number of transitions for which 85 Kr hyperfine constants and isotope shifts have been measured from 1 to 4. The hyperfine anomaly for krypton reported in the previous measurement of 85 Kr hyperfine constants [H. Gerhardt et al., Hyperfine Interact. 9, 175 (1981)] is not supported by this work. The isotope shifts and hyperfine constants of 83 Kr measured in this work are in excellent agreement with previous work. Saturation spectroscopy was used to study transitions from krypton's metastable 1s 5 state to the 2p 9 , 2p 7 , and 2p 6 states. In saturation spectra, different line shapes were observed for the even- and odd-mass krypton isotopes. This even- versus odd-line-mass shape difference can be explained using the large cross section that has been reported for collisional transfer of the 1s 5 state excitation between krypton atoms. Two-color two-photon laser-induced fluorescence was used to measure the hyperfine spectra of the 1s 5- 4d 4 ' transition using the 2p 9 state as the intermediate state. This technique proved to be more sensitive than saturation spectroscopy

  14. Nuclear charge radii of light isotopes based on frequency comb measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakova, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Optical frequency comb technology has been used in this work for the first time to investigate the nuclear structure of light radioactive isotopes. Therefore, three laser systems were stabilized with different techniques to accurately known optical frequencies and used in two specialized experiments. Absolute transition frequency measurements of lithium and beryllium isotopes were performed with accuracy on the order of 10 -10 . Such a high accuracy is required for the light elements since the nuclear volume effect has only a 10 -9 contribution to the total transition frequency. For beryllium, the isotope shift was determined with an accuracy that is sufficient to extract information about the proton distribution inside the nucleus. A Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy on the stable lithium isotopes 6,7 Li was performed in order to determine the absolute frequency of the 2S → 3S transition. The achieved relative accuracy of 2 x 10 -10 is improved by one order of magnitude compared to previous measurements. The results provide an opportunity to determine the nuclear charge radius of the stable and short-lived isotopes in a pure optical way but this requires an improvement of the theoretical calculations by two orders of magnitude. The second experiment presented here was performed at ISOLDE/CERN, where the absolute transition frequencies of the D 1 and D 2 lines in beryllium ions for the isotopes 7,9,10,11 Be were measured with an accuracy of about 1 MHz. Therefore, an advanced collinear laser spectroscopy technique involving two counter-propagating frequency-stabilized laser beams with a known absolute frequency was developed. The extracted isotope shifts were combined with recent accurate mass shift calculations and the root-mean square nuclear charge radii of 7,10 Be and the one-neutron halo nucleus 11 Be were determined. Obtained charge radii are decreasing from 7 Be to 10 Be and increasing again for 11 Be. While the monotone decrease can be explained by a

  15. Isotope ratio in stellar atmospheres and nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbuy, B.L.S.

    1987-01-01

    The determination of isotopic ratios in stellar atmospheres is studied. The isotopic shift of atomic and molecular lines of different species of a certain element is examined. CH and MgH lines are observed in order to obtain the 12 C: 13 C and 24 Mg: 25 Mg: 26 Mg isotpic ratios. The formation of lines in stellar atmospheres is computed and the resulting synthetic spectra are employed to determine the isotopic abundances. The results obtained for the isotopic ratios are compared to predictions of nucleosynthesis theories. Finally, the concept of primary and secondary element is discussed, and these definitions are applied to the observed variations in the abundance of elements as a function of metallicity. (author) [pt

  16. Chemical shift imaging: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brateman, L.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical shift is the phenomenon that is seen when an isotope possessing a nuclear magnetic dipole moment resonates at a spectrum of resonance frequencies in a given magnetic field. These resonance frequencies, or chemical shifts, depend on the chemical environments of particular nuclei. Mapping the spatial distribution of nuclei associated with a particular chemical shift (e.g., hydrogen nuclei associated with water molecules or with lipid groups) is called chemical shift imaging. Several techniques of proton chemical shift imaging that have been applied in vivo are presented, and their clinical findings are reported and summarized. Acquiring high-resolution spectra for large numbers of volume elements in two or three dimensions may be prohibitive because of time constraints, but other methods of imaging lipid of water distributions (i.e., selective excitation, selective saturation, or variations in conventional magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences) can provide chemical shift information. These techniques require less time, but they lack spectral information. Since fat deposition seen by chemical shift imaging may not be demonstrated by conventional magnetic resonance imaging, certain applications of chemical shift imaging, such as in the determination of fatty liver disease, have greater diagnostic utility than conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, edge artifacts caused by chemical shift effects can be eliminated by certain selective methods of data acquisition employed in chemical shift imaging

  17. Isotopic Changes During Digestion: Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuross, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrient and hydrological inputs traverse a complicated route of pH, enzymatic and cellular processes in digestion in higher animals. The end products of digestion are the starting products for biosynthesis that are often used to interpret past life-ways. Using an artificial gut system, the isotopic changes (dD, d18O, d13C and d15N) of protein are documented. Three separate protein sources are subjected to the conditions, chemical and enzymatic, found in the stomach and upper small intestine with only a small shift in the oxygen isotopic composition of the proteins observed. Middle to lower small intestine parameters produced both greater isotopic effects and significantly lower molecular weight products. The role of the gastric enterocyte and the likely involvement of the internal milieu of this cell in the isotopic composition of amino acids that are transported to the liver are reported.

  18. Delayed Particle Study of Neutron Rich Lithium Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Marechal, F; Perrot, F

    2002-01-01

    We propose to make a systematic complete coincidence study of $\\beta$-delayed particles from the decay of neutron-rich lithium isotopes. The lithium isotopes with A=9,10,11 have proven to contain a vast information on nuclear structure and especially on the formation of halo nuclei. A mapping of the $\\beta$-strength at high energies in the daughter nucleus will make possible a detailed test of our understanding of their structure. An essential step is the comparison of $\\beta$-strength patterns in $^{11}$Li and the core nucleus $^{9}$Li, another is the full characterization of the break-up processes following the $\\beta$-decay. To enable such a measurement of the full decay process we will use a highly segmented detection system where energy and emission angles of both charged and neutral particles are detected in coincidence and with high efficiency and accuracy. We ask for a total of 30 shifts (21 shifts for $^{11}$Li, 9 shifts $^{9}$Li adding 5 shifts for setting up with stable beam) using a Ta-foil target...

  19. Isotope separation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Maas, E.T.

    1982-01-01

    Processes are disclosed for the separation of isotopes of an element comprising vaporizing uranyl compounds having the formula (UO2a2)n, where a is a monovalent anion and n in an integer from 2 to 4, the compounds having an isotopically shifted infrared absorption spectrum associated with uranyl ions containing said element which is to be separated, and then irradiating the uranyl compound with infrared radiation which is preferentially absorbed by a molecular vibration of uranyl ions of the compound containing a predetermined isotope of that element so that excited molecules of the compound are provided which are enriched in the molecules of the compound containing that predetermined isotope, thus enabling separation of these excited molecules. The processes disclosed include separation of the excited molecules by irradiating under conditions such that the excited molecules dissociate, and also separating the excited molecules by a discrete separation step. The latter includes irradiating the excited molecules by a second infrared laser in order to convert the excited molecules into a separable product, or also by chemically converting the excited molecules, preferably by reaction with a gaseous reactant

  20. Method and apparatus for separating isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope separation is achieved between species A and B having an absorption resonance separated by an isotopic shift by selectively exciting a portion of species A using a tunable photon source of narrow emission line with and subsequently causing collisions with an optically excited third species to selectively ionize the excited portion of species A. When ionized, species A is easily separated by any technique, using its ionized condition to distinguish it from species B. 18 claims, 3 drawing figures

  1. Macroevolutionary data suggest a role for reinforcement in pollination system shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niet, van der T.; Johnson, S.D.; Linder, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    Reproductive isolation can evolve either as a by-product of divergent selection or through reinforcement. We used the Cape flora of South Africa, known for its high level of pollination specialization, as a model system to test the potential role of shifts in pollination system in the speciation

  2. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Icelandic crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, K.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of hydrothermally altered basalts from depth of up to approx.3 km are reported from three localities in Iceland: International Research Drilling Project (IRDP) core at Reydarfjordur, eastern Iceland (Tertiary age); drill cuttings from Reykjavik (Plio-Pleistocene age); and Halocene drill cuttings from the active Krafla central volcano. Whole rock samples from these three localities have delta 18 O values averaging +3.9 +- 1.3, +2.4 +- 1.1, and -7.7 +- 2.4%, respectively. The observed values in the deeper samples from Krafla are as low as the values for any rocks previously reported. There seems to be a slight negative gradient in delta 18 O with depth at the former two localities and a more pronounced one at Krafla. Oxygen isotope fractionations between epidote and quartz and those between calcite and fluid suggests that the basalts were altered at temperatures of 300 0 --400 0 C. Low deltaD and delta 18 O of epidote and low delta 34 S of anhydrite indicate that the altering fluids in all three areas originated as meteoric waters and have undergone varied 'oxygen shifts'. Differences in the 18 O shift of the fluids are attributed to differences in hydrothermal systems; low water/rock ratios ( 5) at Krafla. The convective hydrothermal activity, which is probably driven by silicic magma beneath the central volcanoes, has caused strong subsolidus depletion of 18 O in the rocks. The primary-magnetic delta 18 O value of the rocks in the Tertiary IRDP core was about +3.9%, which is lower than that obtained for fresh basalt from other places. Such exceptionally low delta 18 O magmas are common in Iceland and may occur as the result of oxygen isotope exchange with or assimilation of altered rocks that form a thick sequence beneath the island due to isostatic subsidence

  3. Shape Evolution in Neutron-Rich Krypton Isotopes Beyond N=60: First Spectroscopy of ^{98,100}Kr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavigny, F; Doornenbal, P; Obertelli, A; Delaroche, J-P; Girod, M; Libert, J; Rodriguez, T R; Authelet, G; Baba, H; Calvet, D; Château, F; Chen, S; Corsi, A; Delbart, A; Gheller, J-M; Giganon, A; Gillibert, A; Lapoux, V; Motobayashi, T; Niikura, M; Paul, N; Roussé, J-Y; Sakurai, H; Santamaria, C; Steppenbeck, D; Taniuchi, R; Uesaka, T; Ando, T; Arici, T; Blazhev, A; Browne, F; Bruce, A; Carroll, R; Chung, L X; Cortés, M L; Dewald, M; Ding, B; Franchoo, S; Górska, M; Gottardo, A; Jungclaus, A; Lee, J; Lettmann, M; Linh, B D; Liu, J; Liu, Z; Lizarazo, C; Momiyama, S; Moschner, K; Nagamine, S; Nakatsuka, N; Nita, C; Nobs, C R; Olivier, L; Orlandi, R; Patel, Z; Podolyák, Zs; Rudigier, M; Saito, T; Shand, C; Söderström, P A; Stefan, I; Vaquero, V; Werner, V; Wimmer, K; Xu, Z

    2017-06-16

    We report on the first γ-ray spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-rich ^{98,100}Kr isotopes obtained from ^{99,101}Rb(p,2p) reactions at ∼220  MeV/nucleon. A reduction of the 2_{1}^{+} state energies beyond N=60 demonstrates a significant increase of deformation, shifted in neutron number compared to the sharper transition observed in strontium and zirconium isotopes. State-of-the-art beyond-mean-field calculations using the Gogny D1S interaction predict level energies in good agreement with experimental results. The identification of a low-lying (0_{2}^{+}, 2_{2}^{+}) state in ^{98}Kr provides the first experimental evidence of a competing configuration at low energy in neutron-rich krypton isotopes consistent with the oblate-prolate shape coexistence picture suggested by theory.

  4. Seawater calcium isotope ratios across the Eocene-Oligocene transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E.M.; Paytan, A.; Eisenhauer, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Thomas, E.

    2011-01-01

    During the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT, ca. 34 Ma), Earth's climate cooled significantly from a greenhouse to an icehouse climate, while the calcite (CaCO3) compensation depth (CCD) in the Pacific Ocean increased rapidly. Fluctuations in the CCD could result from various processes that create an imbalance between calcium (Ca) sources to, and sinks from, the ocean (e.g., weathering and CaCO3 deposition), with different effects on the isotopic composition of dissolved Ca in the oceans due to differences in the Ca isotopic composition of various inputs and outputs. We used Ca isotope ratios (??44/40Ca) of coeval pelagic marine barite and bulk carbonate to evaluate changes in the marine Ca cycle across the EOT. We show that the permanent deepening of the CCD was not accompanied by a pronounced change in seawater ??44/40Ca, whereas time intervals in the Neogene with smaller carbonate depositional changes are characterized by seawater ??44/40Ca shifts. This suggests that the response of seawater ??44/40Ca to changes in weathering fluxes and to imbalances in the oceanic alkalinity budget depends on the chemical composition of seawater. A minor and transient fluctuation in the Ca isotope ratio of bulk carbonate may reflect a change in isotopic fractionation associated with CaCO3 precipitation from seawater due to a combination of factors, including changes in temperature and/or in the assemblages of calcifying organisms. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  5. Isotope shift and configuration interaction in U I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    Recent calculations by Rajnak and Fred (J. Opt. Soc. Am.; 67:1314 (1977)) show that the transitions studied by Gagne et al (J. Opt. Soc. Am.; 66:1415 (1976)) have upper levels of mixed configurations. The amount of mixing and the probability of mass shifts due to 5f electrons is discussed. (author)

  6. Nuclear charge radii of light isotopes based on frequency comb measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakova, Monika

    2010-02-11

    Optical frequency comb technology has been used in this work for the first time to investigate the nuclear structure of light radioactive isotopes. Therefore, three laser systems were stabilized with different techniques to accurately known optical frequencies and used in two specialized experiments. Absolute transition frequency measurements of lithium and beryllium isotopes were performed with accuracy on the order of 10{sup -10}. Such a high accuracy is required for the light elements since the nuclear volume effect has only a 10{sup -9} contribution to the total transition frequency. For beryllium, the isotope shift was determined with an accuracy that is sufficient to extract information about the proton distribution inside the nucleus. A Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy on the stable lithium isotopes {sup 6,7}Li was performed in order to determine the absolute frequency of the 2S {yields} 3S transition. The achieved relative accuracy of 2 x 10{sup -10} is improved by one order of magnitude compared to previous measurements. The results provide an opportunity to determine the nuclear charge radius of the stable and short-lived isotopes in a pure optical way but this requires an improvement of the theoretical calculations by two orders of magnitude. The second experiment presented here was performed at ISOLDE/CERN, where the absolute transition frequencies of the D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} lines in beryllium ions for the isotopes {sup 7,9,10,11}Be were measured with an accuracy of about 1 MHz. Therefore, an advanced collinear laser spectroscopy technique involving two counter-propagating frequency-stabilized laser beams with a known absolute frequency was developed. The extracted isotope shifts were combined with recent accurate mass shift calculations and the root-mean square nuclear charge radii of {sup 7,10}Be and the one-neutron halo nucleus {sup 11}Be were determined. Obtained charge radii are decreasing from {sup 7}Be to {sup 10}Be and increasing again for

  7. Natural variations in calcium isotope composition as a monitor of bone mineral balance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulan, J.; Anbar, A.; Thomas, B.; Smith, S.

    2004-12-01

    The skeleton is the largest reservoir of calcium in the human body and is responsible for the short term control of blood levels of this element. Accurate measurement of changes in bone calcium balance is critical to understanding how calcium metabolism responds to physiological and environmental changes and, more specifically, to diagnosing and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis and other serious calcium-related disorders. It is very difficult to measure bone calcium balance using current techniques, however, because these techniques rely either on separate estimates of bone resorption and formation that are not quantitatively comparable, or on complex and expensive studies of calcium kinetics using administered isotopic tracers. This difficulty is even more apparent and more severe for measurements of short-term changes in bone calcium balance that do not produce detectable changes in bone mineral density. Calcium isotopes may provide a novel means of addressing this problem. The foundation of this isotope application is the ca. 1.3 per mil fractionation of calcium during bone formation, favoring light calcium in the bone. This fractionation results in a steady-state isotopic offset between calcium in bone and calcium in soft tissues, blood and urine. Perturbations to this steady state due to changes in the net formation or resorption of bone should be reflected in changes in the isotopic composition of soft tissues and fluids. Here we present evidence that easily detectable shifts in the natural calcium isotope composition of human urine rapidly reflect changes in bone calcium balance. Urine from subjects in a 17-week bed rest study was analyzed for calcium isotopic composition. Bed rest promotes net resorption of bone, shifting calcium from bone to soft tissues, blood and urine. The calcium isotope composition of patients in this study shifted toward lighter values during bed rest, consistent with net resorption of isotopically

  8. Isotope study in geothermal fields in Java Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandowo, Z.A.

    1995-01-01

    Study in two geothermal fields, Dieng and Kamojang, in Java island by utilizing isotope technique has been carried out. Isotopic data of wells, springs and other geothermal manifestations providing informations on the recharge area of precipitation contributed to geothermal resources, flow paths and origin of geothermal fluids. The data of oxygen shift has also provided information on the characteristic the fields. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Introduction to isotopic shifts and transmutations observed in LENR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Mahadeva

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a brief introduction to the topic of transmutation reactions which occur in a variety of LENR configurations wherein the 'host metal' nuclei (Pd, Ni, Ti, etc.) interact with the loaded deuterium or hydrogen nuclei, resulting in the formation of new stable elements or isotopes not present in the system prior to the experimental run. (author)

  10. Stable Isotopes of Precipitation During Tropical Sumatra Squalls in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shaoneng; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Kurita, Naoyuki; Wang, Xianfeng; Rubin, Charles Martin

    2018-04-01

    Sumatra Squalls, organized bands of thunderstorms, are the dominant mesoscale convective systems during the intermonsoon and southwest monsoon seasons in Singapore. To understand how they affect precipitation isotopes, we monitored the δ value of precipitation daily and continuously (every second and integrated over 30 s) during all squalls in 2015. We found that precipitation δ18O values mainly exhibit a "V"-shape pattern and less commonly a "W"-shape pattern. Variation in δ18O values during a single event is about 1 to 6‰ with the lowest values mostly observed in the stratiform zone, which agrees with previous observations and modeling simulations. Reevaporation can significantly affect δ values, especially in the last stage of the stratiform zone. Daily precipitation is characterized by periodic negative shifts in δ value, largely associated with the squalls rather than moisture source change. The shifts can be more than 10‰, larger than intraevent variation. Initial δ18O values of events are highly variable, and those with the lowest values also have the lowest initial values. Therefore, past convective activities in the upwind area can significantly affect the δ18O, and convection at the sampling site has limited contribution to isotopic variability. A significant correlation between precipitation δ18O value and regional outgoing longwave radiation and rainfall in the Asian monsoon region and western Pacific suggests that regional organized convection probably drives stable isotopic compositions of precipitation. A drop in the frequency of the squalls in 2015 is related to weak organized convection in the region caused by El Niño.

  11. Isotope separation using molecular gases and molecular lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetter, H.

    1975-01-01

    Isotope separation using molecular gas and molecular lasers offers several advantages over the alternative method which uses dye lasers and atomic vapour. These advantages are the easy handling of the raw material, the big isotopic shift in the IR, the good efficiency of the laser and the chemical extraction of the excited isotopes. In the case of uranium difficulties arise from the great number of superimposed lines in the absorption band of the UF 6 molecule. Several of these absorption bands were measured using laser spectrometers with ultra-high resolution. The conditions for selective excitation were estimated. (orig.) [de

  12. New techniques of laser spectroscopy on exotic isotopes of gallium and francium

    CERN Document Server

    Procter, Thomas John

    The neutron-deficient gallium isotopes down to ${N}$=32 have had their hyperfine structures and isotope shifts measured via collinear laser spectroscopy using the COLLAPS (COllinear LAser sPectroScopy) beam line. The ground-state spin of $^{63}$Ga has been determined as ${I}$ = 3/2 and its magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments were measured to be $\\mu$ = +1.469(5) $_{\\mu N}$ and ${ Q}$s = +0.212(14) b respectively. The nuclear moments of $^{70}$Ga were measured to be ${\\mu}$= +0.571(2) $_{\\mu}$ and ${Q}$s = +0.105(7) b. New isotope shift results were combined with previously measured values of the neutron-rich isotopes and the changes in mean-square charge radii of the entire gallium isotope chain were investigated. Analysis of the trend in the neutron-deficient charge radii demonstrated that there is no evidence of anomalous charge radii behaviour in gallium in the region of ${N}$=32. A sudden increase of the charge radii was observed at the ${N}$=50 shell gap and an inversion of the normal odd-eve...

  13. Optical isotype shifts of 146Sm and 151Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; England, J.G.; Grant, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the optical isotope shifts of 146 Sm and 151 Sm by laser resonance fluorescence. From these measurements the changes in the mean square nuclear radii are: delta 2 > (A=144 to 146)=0.266(10) fm 2 , and delta 2 > (A=151 to 152)=0.262(10) fm 2 . These results, together with those of the stable isotopes, show that the average nuclear expansion of samarium can be accounted for by the liquid drop model with deformations. (orig.)

  14. Stable lead isotopic analyses of historic and contemporary lead contamination of San Francisco Bay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritson, P.I.; Bouse, R.M.; Flegal, A.R.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Variations in stable lead isotopic composition (240Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) in three sediment cores from the San Francisco Bay estuary document temporal changes in sources of lead during the past two centuries. Sediment, with lead from natural geologic sources, and relatively homogeneous lead isotopic compositions are overlain by sediments whose isotopic compositions indicate change in the sources of lead associated with anthropogenic modification of the estuary. The first perturbations of lead isotopic composition in the cores occur in the late 1800s concordant with the beginning of industrialization around the estuary. Large isotopic shifts, toward lower 206Pb/207Pb, occur after the turn of the century in both Richardson and San Pablo Bays. A similar relationship among lead isotopic compositions and lead concentrations in both Bays suggest contamination from the same source (a lead smelter). The uppermost sediments (post 1980) of all cores also have a relatively homogenous lead isotopic composition distinct from pre-anthropogenic and recent aerosol signatures. Lead isotopic compositions of leachates from fourteen surface sediments and five marsh samples from the estuary were also analyzed. These analyses suggest that the lead isotopic signature identified in the upper horizons of the cores is spatially homogeneous among recently deposited sediments throughout the estuary. Current aerosol lead isotopic compositions [Smith, D.R., Niemeyer, S., Flegal, A.R., 1992. Lead sources to California sea otters: industrial inputs circumvent natural lead biodepletion mechanisms. Environmental Research 57, 163-175] are distinct from the isotopic compositions of the surface sediments, suggesting that the major source of lead is cycling of historically contaminated sediments back through the water column. Both the upper core sediments and surface sediments apparently derive their lead predominantly from sources internal to the estuary. These results support the idea that

  15. Methane Carbon Isotopic Composition Reveals Changing Production Pathways Across a Gradient of Permafrost Thaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocci, K.; Burke, S. A.; Clariza, P.; Malhotra, A.; McCalley, C. K.; Verbeke, B. A.; Werner, S. L.; Roulet, N. T.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    Methane (CH4) emission in areas of discontinuous permafrost may increase with warming temperatures resulting in a positive feedback to climate change. Characterizing the production pathways of CH4, which may be inferred by measuring carbon isotopes, can help determine underlying mechanistic changes. We studied CH4 flux and isotopic composition of porewater (δ13C-CH4) in a sub-arctic peatland in Abisko, Sweden to understand controls on these factors across a thaw gradient during four growing seasons. Methane chamber flux measurements and porewater samples were collected in July 2013, and over the growing seasons of 2014 to 2016. Samples were analyzed on a Gas Chromatograph with a Flame Ionization Detector for CH4 concentrations and a Quantum Cascade Laser for carbon isotopes. Increased emission rates and changing isotopic signatures were observed across the thaw gradient throughout the growing season. While CH4 flux increased with increases in temperature and shallower water table, δ13C-CH4 exhibited a seasonal pattern that did not correlate with measured environmental variables, suggesting dependence on other factors. The most significant controlling factor for both flux and isotopic signature was plant community composition, specifically, the presence of graminoid species. Graminoid cover increases with thaw stage so both CH4 emissions and δ13C-CH4 are likely to increase in a warmer world, suggesting a shift toward the acetoclastic pathway of methane production.

  16. A criticism of big bang cosmological models based on interpretation of the red shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierein, J.W. (Ball Aerospace Systems Div., Boulder, CO (USA))

    1988-08-01

    The interaction of light with the intergalactic plasma produces the Hubble red shift versus distance relationship. This interaction also produces an isotopic long wavelength background radiation from the plasma. Intrinsic red shifts in quasars and other objects are similarly explained, showing why they are exceptions to Hubble's law. Because the red shift is not doppler-shifted, big bang cosmological models should be replaced with static models. (author).

  17. Isomeric shift compensation when using resonance detectors in Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irkaev, S.M.; Semenkin, V.A.; Sokolov, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    Method for compensation of isomeric shift of lines observed during operation of resonance detectors being part of spectrometers of nuclear gamma resonance is suggested. A flowsheet of device permitting to realize the method described is given. The method is based on using the Doppler effect. A source of resonance radiation is moved at a constant velocity, which is choosen so as to compensate energy shift of lines of the source and convertors of the resonance detector. The absorber under investigation is put in motion with a constant acceleration. The resonance detector signals are amplified selected according to amplitude by a discriminator and come to the input of multichannel analyzer operating in the regime of subsequent scaling. Analysis of experimental spectra obtained at velocities of source movement from 0 to +3 mm/s shows that value of resonance absorption effect drops as increasing energy shift in the source-converter system. It is concluded that application of the method described will permit to considerably extend the field of application of resonance detectors in the Moessbauer spectroscopy and investigate in practice all the isotopes having converted transitions [ru

  18. [Hyperfine structure and isotope shift measurements of short lived elements by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine nuclear moments and charge distributions of short-lived isotopes produced both on-line and off-line to a nuclear facility. These measurements give detailed information on the nuclear force and are used to test current nuclear models. The small amounts of nuclei which can be produced off stability constitute the challenge in these experiments. Presently mainly neutron-rich isotopes are being studied by three ultrasensitive high-resolution laser techniques. These are collinear fast ion-beam laser spectroscopy, stored-ion laser spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. 5 figs

  19. Non-constant relative atomic masses due to varying isotopic abundance of polynuclidic elements and their effect on the accuracy of analytical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenberger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Alterations of actual relative atomic masses occur in natural samples by natural isotope ratio shifts of polynuclidic elements. Therefore, using nuclear properties for gaining a measuring signal, isotopic shifts of certain elements may lead to significant measuring errors

  20. 99 Tc NMR determination of the oxygen isotope content in 18 O-enriched water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, Valerii P; Kirakosyan, Gayana А; German, Konstantin E

    2018-03-01

    99 Tc NMR has been suggested as an original method of evaluating the content of oxygen isotopes in oxygen-18-enriched water, a precursor for the production of radioisotope fluorine-18 used in positron emission tomography. To this end, solutions of NH 4 TcO 4 or NaTcO 4 (up to 0.28 mol/L) with natural abundance of oxygen isotopes in virgin or recycled 18 O-enriched water have been studied by 99 Tc NMR. The method is based on 16 O/ 17 O/ 18 O intrinsic isotope effects in the 99 Tc NMR chemical shifts, and the statistical distribution of oxygen isotopes in the coordination sphere of TcO 4 - and makes it possible to quantify the composition of enriched water by measuring the relative intensities of the 99 Tc NMR signals of the Tc 16 O 4-n 18 O n - isotopologues. Because the oxygen exchange between TcO 4 - and enriched water in neutral and alkaline solutions is characterized by slow kinetics, gaseous HCl was bubbled through a solution for a few seconds to achieve the equilibrium distribution of oxygen isotopes in the Tc coordination sphere without distortion of the oxygen composition of the water. Pertechnetate ion was selected as a probe due to its high stability in solutions and the significant 99 Tc NMR shift induced by a single 16 O→ 18 O substitution (-0.43 ± 0.01 ppm) in TcO 4 - and spin coupling constant 1 J( 99 Tc- 17 O) (131.46 Hz) favourable for the observation of individual signals of Tc 16 O 4-n 18 O n - isotopologues. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Isotope Reanalysis for 20th century: Reproduction of isotopic time series in corals, tree-rings, and tropical ice cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, K.

    2012-04-01

    In the present study, an isotope-incorporated GCM simulation for AD1871 to AD2008 nudged toward the so-called "20th Century Reanalysis (20CR)" atmospheric fields is conducted. Beforehand the long-term integration, a method to downscale ensemble mean fields is proposed, since 20CR is a product of 56-member ensemble Kalman filtering data assimilation. The method applies a correction to one of the ensemble members in such a way that the seasonal mean is equal to that of the ensemble mean, and then the corrected member is inputted into the isotope-incorporated GCM (i.e., IsoGSM) with the global spectral nudging technique. Use of the method clearly improves the skill than the cases of using only a single member and of using the ensemble means; the skill becomes equivalent to when 3-6 members are directly used. By comparing with GNIP precipitation isotope database, it is confirmed that the 20C Isotope Reanalysis's performance for latter half of the 20th century is just comparable to the other latest studies. For more comparisons for older periods, proxy records including corals, tree-rings, and tropical ice cores are used. First for corals: the 20C Isotope Reanalysis successfully reproduced the δ18O in surface sea water recorded in the corals at many sites covering large parts of global tropical oceans. The comparison suggests that coral records represent past hydrologic balance information where interannual variability in precipitation is large. Secondly for tree-rings: δ18O of cellulose extracted from the annual rings of the long-lived Bristlecone Pine from White Mountain in Southern California is well reproduced by 20C Isotope Reanalysis. Similar good performance is obtained for Cambodia, too. However, the mechanisms driving the isotopic variations are different over California and Cambodia; for California, Hadley cell's expansion and consequent meridional shift of the submerging dry zone and changes in water vapor source is the dominant control, but in Cambodia

  2. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  3. Dual stable isotopes of CH 4 from Yellowstone hot-springs suggest hydrothermal processes involving magmatic CO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, James J.; Whitmore, Laura M.; Jay, Zackary J.; Jennings, Ryan deM.; Beam, Jacob P.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Inskeep, William P.

    2017-07-01

    Volcanism and post-magmatism contribute both significant annual CH4 fluxes to the atmosphere (on par with other natural sources such as forest fire and wild animal emissions) and have been implicated in past climate-change events. The Yellowstone hot spot is one of the largest volcanic systems on Earth and is known to emit methane in addition to other greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide) but the ultimate source of this methane flux has not been elucidated. Here we use dual stable isotope analysis (δ2H and δ13C) of CH4(g) sampled from ten high-temperature geothermal pools in Yellowstone National Park to show that the predominant flux of CH4(g) is abiotic. The average δ13C and δ2H values of CH4(g) emitted from hot springs (-26.7 (±2.4) and -236.9 (±12.0) ‰, respectively) are not consistent with biotic (microbial or thermogenic) methane sources, but are within previously reported ranges for abiotic methane production. Correlation between δ13CCH4 and δ13C-dissolved inorganic C (DIC) also suggests that CO2 is a parent C source for the observed CH4(g). Moreover, CH4-CO2 isotopic geothermometry was used to estimate CH4(g) formation temperatures ranging from ~ 250 - 350°C, which is just below the temperature estimated for the hydrothermal reservoir and consistent with the hypothesis that subsurface, rock-water interactions are responsible for large methane fluxes from this volcanic system. An understanding of conditions leading to the abiotic production of methane and associated isotopic signatures are central to understanding the evolutionary history of deep carbon sources on Earth.

  4. Trace isotope analysis using resonance ionization mass spectrometry based on isotope selection with doppler shift of laser ablated atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Yuki; Watanabe, Kenichi; Kawarabayashi, Jun; Iguchi, Tetsuo

    2005-01-01

    We have proposed a novel isotope selective Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (RIMS) concept, which can avoid the Doppler broadening on solid sample direct measurement based on laser ablation technique. We have succeeded in experimentally demonstrating the principle of our RIMS concept. Through comparison between the simulated and experimental results, we have validated the simulation model. It would be concluded from these results that we could achieve the isotope selectivity defined as the ratio of 41 Ca to 40 Ca sensitivity to be 4.5x10 10 by adopting the multi-step excitation scheme in the present method. As future works, we will try to experimentally perform the multi-step excitation scheme and improve the detection efficiency by modifying the ion extraction configuration. (author)

  5. Laser and radiofrequency spectroscopy of the 4d55s5Dsub(0,1,2,3,4) and 4d45s5p5Psub(1,2,3) states in Mo I: Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, T.; Fraenkel, L.; Lindgren, I.; Nyberg, A.; Robertsson, L.; Rosen, A.

    1986-01-01

    A series of experiments has been performed to determine the hyperfine structure in the metastable 4d 5 5s 5 Dsub(1,2,3,4) states of Mo I by means of the laser radiofrequency double-resonance technique. Furthermore, hyperfine structure splittings and isotope shifts in seven optical transitions connecting the 4d 5 5s 5 Dsub(0,1,2,3,4) and the 4d 4 5s5p 5 Psub(1,2,3) states were resolved with the high-resolution laser spectroscopy technique. Radial hyperfine structure parameters are deduced for the effective operator within the 5 D states using the configurations 4d 4 5s 2 , 4d 5 5s and 4d 6 as a model space. The isotope shifts are also discussed, utilizing an effective operator, with particular emphasis on the J dependence. (orig.)

  6. Molecular inferences suggest multiple host shifts of rabies viruses from bats to mesocarnivores in Arizona during 2001-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V Kuzmin

    Full Text Available In nature, rabies virus (RABV; genus Lyssavirus, family Rhabdoviridae represents an assemblage of phylogenetic lineages, associated with specific mammalian host species. Although it is generally accepted that RABV evolved originally in bats and further shifted to carnivores, mechanisms of such host shifts are poorly understood, and examples are rarely present in surveillance data. Outbreaks in carnivores caused by a RABV variant, associated with big brown bats, occurred repeatedly during 2001-2009 in the Flagstaff area of Arizona. After each outbreak, extensive control campaigns were undertaken, with no reports of further rabies cases in carnivores for the next several years. However, questions remained whether all outbreaks were caused by a single introduction and further perpetuation of bat RABV in carnivore populations, or each outbreak was caused by an independent introduction of a bat virus. Another question of concern was related to adaptive changes in the RABV genome associated with host shifts. To address these questions, we sequenced and analyzed 66 complete and 20 nearly complete RABV genomes, including those from the Flagstaff area and other similar outbreaks in carnivores, caused by bat RABVs, and representatives of the major RABV lineages circulating in North America and worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that each Flagstaff outbreak was caused by an independent introduction of bat RABV into populations of carnivores. Positive selection analysis confirmed the absence of post-shift changes in RABV genes. In contrast, convergent evolution analysis demonstrated several amino acids in the N, P, G and L proteins, which might be significant for pre-adaptation of bat viruses to cause effective infection in carnivores. The substitution S/T₂₄₂ in the viral glycoprotein is of particular merit, as a similar substitution was suggested for pathogenicity of Nishigahara RABV strain. Roles of the amino acid changes, detected in our

  7. Light-Shifts of an Integrated Filter-Cell Rubidium Atomic Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-25

    the light-shift coefficient for two different rf- discharge lamps (i.e., a pure 87Rb lamp and a lamp filled with the natural Rb isotope abundance...for the Galileo Rb clock under the assumption of a natural (or 85Rb isotopically enriched) rf- discharge lamp for the Galileo clock. I...satellites [14]. 6.8347… GHz 85Rb Filter Cell Cell Resonance Photodiode Microwave Cavity 87Rb Discharge Lamp 87Rb & N2 Rb & Xe, Kr Optical Pumping 87Rb

  8. Diagenetic fractionation of carbon isotopes in particulate and dissolved organic matter in sediments from Skan Bay, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alperin, M.J.; Reeburgh, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Isotope fractionation during organic matter diagenesis was investigated by measuring detailed depth distributions of stable carbon isotope ratios in sediment particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) reservoirs. The δ 13 C value of the POC shifted systematically from -19 per-thousand at the surface to -21 per-thousand at 10 cm. Significant trends were also apparent in the δ 13 C-DOC profile. Proceeding down-core, DOC became isotopically heavier between 0 and 5 cm and isotopically lighter at greater depths. Two mechanisms could account for the observed down-core shift in δ 13 C-POC: (a) temporal changes in the isotope ratios of deposited organic matter and (b) isotope fractionation associated with diagenesis. The δ 15 C-DOC depth distribution is sensitive to which mechanism controls the isotopic composition of the POC reservoir. A diagenetic model that couples POC and DOC reservoirs was used to discriminate between temporal changes and diagenetic alteration of the POC isotopic composition. The model indicated that observed trends in δ 13 C-POC and δ 13 C-DOC depth distributions are consistent with isotopic fractionation of POC during diagenesis

  9. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes of brines - comparing isotope ratio mass spectrometry and isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Christian; Koeniger, Paul; van Geldern, Robert; Stadler, Susanne

    2013-04-01

    Today's standard analytical methods for high precision stable isotope analysis of fluids are gas-water equilibration and high temperature pyrolysis coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS). In recent years, relatively new laser-based analytical instruments entered the market that are said to allow high isotope precision data on nearly every media. This optical technique is referred to as isotope ratio infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). The objective of this study is to evaluate the capability of this new instrument type for highly saline solutions and a comparison of the analytical results with traditional IRMS analysis. It has been shown for the equilibration method that the presence of salts influences the measured isotope values depending on the salt concentration (see Lécuyer et al, 2009; Martineau, 2012). This so-called 'isotope salt effect' depends on the salt type and salt concentration. These factors change the activity in the fluid and therefore shift the isotope ratios measured by the equilibration method. Consequently, correction factors have to be applied to these analytical data. Direct conversion techniques like pyrolysis or the new laser instruments allow the measurement of the water molecule from the sample directly and should therefore not suffer from the salt effect, i.e. no corrections of raw values are necessary. However, due to high salt concentrations this might cause technical problems with the analytical hardware and may require labor-intensive sample preparation (e.g. vacuum distillation). This study evaluates the salt isotope effect for the IRMS equilibration technique (Thermo Gasbench II coupled to Delta Plus XP) and the laser-based IRIS instruments with liquid injection (Picarro L2120-i). Synthetic salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, MgSO4, CaSO4) and natural brines collected from the Stassfurt Salt Anticline (Germany; Stadler et al., 2012) were analysed with both techniques. Salt concentrations ranged from seawater salinity

  10. Modeling of isotope fractionation at the catchment scale: How promising is compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) as a tool for analyzing diffuse pollution by agrochemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, S. R.; van Meerveld, H. J.; Waterloo, M. J.; Broers, H. P.; van Breukelen, B. M.

    2012-04-01

    Concentration measurements are indispensable for the assessment of subsurface and surface water pollution by agrochemicals such as pesticides. However, monitoring data is often ambiguous and easily misinterpreted as a decrease in concentration could be caused by transformation, dilution or changes in the application of the pesticide. In this context, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has recently emerged as a complementary monitoring technique. It is based on the measurement of the isotopic composition (e.g. δ13C and δ2H) of the contaminant. Since transformation processes are likely accompanied by isotope fractionation, thus a change in this composition, CSIA offers the opportunity to gain additional knowledge about transport and degradation processes as well as to track pollutants back to their sources. Isotopic techniques have not yet been applied in a comprehensive way in the analysis of catchment-wide organic pollution. We therefore incorporated fractionation processes associated with the fate of pesticides into the numerical flow and solute transport model HydroGeoSphere in order to assess the feasibility of CSIA within the context of catchment monitoring. The model was set up for a hypothetical hillslope transect which drains into a river. Reactive solute transport was driven by two pesticides applications within one year and actual data for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration from a meteorological station in the Netherlands. Degradation of the pesticide was assumed to take place at a higher rate under the prevailing oxic conditions in the topsoil than in deeper, anoxic subsurface layers. In terms of CSIA, these two degradation pathways were associated with different strengths of isotope fractionation for both hydrogen and carbon atoms. By simulating changes in δ13C and δ2H, the share of the oxic and the anoxic reaction on the overall degradation could be assessed. Model results suggest that CSIA is suitable for assessing degradation of

  11. Assessment of Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Environment by Analysis of Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Morasch, Barbara; Kaestner, Matthias; Vieth, Andrea; Richnow, Hans Hermann

    2002-01-01

    13 C/ 12 C stable carbon isotope fractionation was used to assess biodegradation in contaminated aquifers with toluene as a model compound. Different strains of anaerobic bacteria (Thauera aromatica, Geobacter metallireducens, and the sulfate-reducing strain TRM1) showed consistent 13 C/ 12 C carbon isotope fractionation with fractionation factors between αC = 1.0017 and 1.0018. In contrast, three cultures of aerobic organisms, using different mono- and dioxygenase enzyme systems to initiate toluene degradation, showed variable isotope fractionation factors of αC = 1.0027 (Pseudomonasputida strain mt-2), αC = 1.0011 (Ralstonia picketii), andαC = 1.0004 (Pseudomonas putida strain F1). The great variability of isotope fractionation between different aerobic bacterial strains suggests that interpretation of isotope data in oxic habitats can only be qualitative. A soil column was run as a model system for contaminated aquifers with toluene as the carbon source and sulfate as the electron acceptor and samples were taken at different ports along the column. Microbial toluene degradation was calculated based on the 13 C/ 12 C isotope fractionation factors of the batch culture experiments together with the observed 13 C/ 12 C isotope shifts of the residual toluene fractions. The calculated percentage of biodegradation, B, correlated well with the decreasing toluene concentrations at the sampling ports and indicated the increasing extent of biodegradation along the column. The theoretical toluene concentrations as calculated based on the isotope values matched the measured concentrations at the different sampling ports indicating that the Rayleigh equation can be used to calculate biodegradation in quasi closed systems based on measured isotope shifts. A similar attempt was performed to assess toluene degradation in a contaminated, anoxic aquifer. A transect of groundwater wells was monitored along the main direction of the groundwater flow and revealed decreasing

  12. Retrospective characterization of ontogenetic shifts in killer whale diets via δ13C and δ15N analysis of teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Seth D.; Etnier, Michael A.; Monson, Daniel H.; Fogel, Marilyn L.

    2009-01-01

    Metabolically inert, accretionary structures such as the dentin growth layers in teeth provide a life history record of individual diet with near-annual resolution. We constructed ontogenetic δ13C and δ15N profiles by analyzing tooth dentin growth layers from 13 individual killer whales Orcinus orca collected in the eastern northeast Pacific Ocean between 1961 and 2003. The individuals sampled were 6 to 52 yr old, representing 2 ecotypes—resident and transient—collected across ~25° of latitude. The average isotopic values of transient individuals (n = 10) are consistent with a reliance on mammalian prey, while the average isotopic values of residents (n = 3) are consistent with piscivory. Regardless of ecotype, most individuals show a decrease in δ15N values of ~2.5‰ through the first 3 yr of life, roughly equivalent to a decrease of one trophic level. We interpret this as evidence of gradual weaning, after which, ontogenetic shifts in isotopic values are highly variable. A few individuals (n = 2) maintained relatively stable δ15N and δ13C values throughout the remainder of their lives, whereas δ15N values of most (n = 11) increased by ~1.5‰, suggestive of an ontogenetic increase in trophic level. Significant differences in mean δ13C and δ15N values among transients collected off California suggest that individuality in prey preferences may be prevalent within this ecotype. Our approach provides retrospective individual life history and dietary information that cannot be obtained through traditional field observations of free-ranging and elusive species such as killer whales, including unique historic ecological information that pre-dates modern studies. By providing insights into individual diet composition, stable isotope analysis of teeth and/or bones may be the only means of evaluating a number of hypothesized historical dietary shifts in killer whales of the northeast Pacific Ocean

  13. Isotopic insights into microbial sulfur cycling in oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Hubbard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial sulfate reduction in oil reservoirs (biosouring is often associated with secondary oil production where seawater containing high sulfate concentrations (~28 mM is injected into a reservoir to maintain pressure and displace oil. The sulfide generated from biosouring can cause corrosion of infrastructure, health exposure risks, and higher production costs. Isotope monitoring is a promising approach for understanding microbial sulfur cycling in reservoirs, enabling early detection of biosouring, and understanding the impact of souring. Microbial sulfate reduction is known to result in large shifts in the sulfur and oxygen isotope compositions of the residual sulfate, which can be distinguished from other processes that may be occurring in oil reservoirs, such as precipitation of sulfate and sulfide minerals. Key to the success of this method is using the appropriate isotopic fractionation factors for the conditions and processes being monitored. For a set of batch incubation experiments using a mixed microbial culture with crude oil as the electron donor, we measured a sulfur fractionation factor for sulfate reduction of -30‰. We have incorporated this result into a simplified 1D reservoir reactive transport model to highlight how isotopes can help discriminate between biotic and abiotic processes affecting sulfate and sulfide concentrations. Modeling results suggest that monitoring sulfate isotopes can provide an early indication of souring for reservoirs with reactive iron minerals that can remove the produced sulfide, especially when sulfate reduction occurs in the mixing zone between formation waters containing elevated concentrations of volatile fatty acids and injection water containing elevated sulfate. In addition, we examine the role of reservoir thermal, geochemical, hydrological, operational and microbiological conditions in determining microbial souring dynamics and hence the anticipated isotopic signatures.

  14. Glucose metabolism during rotational shift-work in healthcare workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anu; Laurenti, Marcello C; Dalla Man, Chiara; Varghese, Ron T; Cobelli, Claudio; Rizza, Robert A; Matveyenko, Aleksey; Vella, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    Shift-work is associated with circadian rhythm disruption and an increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We sought to determine the effect of rotational shift-work on glucose metabolism in humans. We studied 12 otherwise healthy nurses performing rotational shift-work using a randomised crossover study design. On each occasion, participants underwent an isotope-labelled mixed meal test during a simulated day shift and a simulated night shift, enabling simultaneous measurement of glucose flux and beta cell function using the oral minimal model. We sought to determine differences in fasting and postprandial glucose metabolism during the day shift vs the night shift. Postprandial glycaemic excursion was higher during the night shift (381±33 vs 580±48 mmol/l per 5 h, pshift. While insulin action did not differ between study days, the beta cell responsivity to glucose (59±5 vs 44±4 × 10 -9  min -1 ; pshift. Impaired beta cell function during the night shift may result from normal circadian variation, the effect of rotational shift-work or a combination of both. As a consequence, higher postprandial glucose concentrations are observed during the night shift.

  15. Copper isotope fractionation by desert shrubs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Jesica U.; Viveros, Marian; Ellzey, Joanne T.; Borrok, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Copper has two naturally occurring stable isotopes of masses 63 and 65 which can undergo mass dependent fractionation during various biotic and abiotic chemical reactions. These interactions and their resulting Cu isotope fractionations can be used to determine the mechanisms involved in the cycling of Cu in natural systems. In this study, Cu isotope changes were investigated at the organismal level in the metal-accumulating desert plant, Prosopis pubescens. Initial results suggest that the lighter Cu isotope was preferentially incorporated into the leaves of the plant, which may suggest that Cu was actively transported via intracellular proteins. The roots and stems show a smaller degree of Cu isotope fractionation and the direction and magnitude of the fractionations was dependent upon the levels of Cu exposure. Based on this and previous work with bacteria and yeast, a trend is emerging that suggests the lighter Cu isotope is preferentially incorporated into biological components, while the heavier Cu isotope tends to become enriched in aqueous solutions. In bacteria, plants and animals, intracellular Cu concentrations are strictly regulated via dozens of enzymes that can bind, transport, and store Cu. Many of these enzymes reduce Cu(II) to Cu(I). These initial results seem to fit into a broader picture of Cu isotope cycling in natural systems where oxidation/reduction reactions are fundamental in controlling the distributions of Cu isotopes.

  16. Oxygen-isotope trends and seawater temperature changes across the Late Cambrian Steptoean positive carbon-isotope excursion (SPICE event)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrick, M.; Rieboldt, S.; Saltzman, M.; McKay, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The globally recognized Late Cambrian Steptoean positive C-isotope excursion (SPICE) is characterized by a 3???-5??? positive ??13C shift spanning SPICE represents a widespread ocean anoxic event leading to enhanced burial/preservation of organic matter (Corg) and pyrite. We analyzed ??18O values of apatitic inarticulate brachiopods from three Upper Cambrian successions across Laurentia to evaluate paleotemperatures during the SPICE. ??18O values range from ~12.5??? to 16.5???. Estimated seawater temperatures associated with the SPICE are unreasonably warm, suggesting that the brachiopod ??18O values were altered during early diagenesis. Despite this, all three localities show similar trends with respect to the SPICE ??13C curve, suggesting that the brachiopod apatite preserves a record of relative ??18O and temperature changes. The trends include relatively high ??18O values at the onset of the SPICE, decreasing and lowest values during the main event, and an increase in values at the end of the event. The higher ??18O values during the global extinction at the onset of the SPICE suggests seawater cooling and supports earlier hypotheses of upwelling of cool waters onto the shallow shelf. Decreasing and low ??18O values coincident with the rising limb of the SPICE support the hypothesis that seawater warming and associated reduced thermohaline circulation rates contributed to decreased dissolved O2 concentrations, which enhanced the preservation/burial of Corg causing the positive ??13C shift. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  17. Fractionation of Cu and Mo isotopes caused by vapor-liquid partitioning, evidence from the Dahutang W-Cu-Mo ore field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Junming; Mathur, Ryan; Sun, Weidong; Song, Weile; Chen, Huayong; Mutti, Laurence; Xiang, Xinkui; Luo, Xiaohong

    2016-05-01

    The study presents δ65Cu and δ97Mo isotope values from cogenetic chalcopyrite and molybdenite found in veins and breccias of the Dahutang W-Cu-Mo ore field in China. The samples span a 3-4 km range. Both isotopes show a significant degree of fractionation. Cu isotope values in the chalcopyrite range from -0.31‰ to +1.48‰, and Mo isotope values in the molybdenite range from -0.03‰ to +1.06‰. For the cogenetic sulfide veined samples, a negative slope relationship exists between δ65Cu and δ97Mo values, which suggest a similar fluid history. Rayleigh distillation models the vein samples' change in isotope values. The breccia samples do not fall on the trend, thus indicating a different source mineralization event. Measured fluid inclusion and δD and δ18O data from cogenetic quartz indicate changes in temperature, and mixing of fluids do not appear to cause the isotopic shifts measure. Related equilibrium processes associated with the partitioning of metal between the vapor-fluid in the hydrothermal system could be the probable cause for the relationship seen between the two isotope systems.

  18. Matrix effects in laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Staci, E-mail: staci.brown@cepast.famu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida A and M University, 2077 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Ford, Alan, E-mail: alan.ford@alakaidefense.com [Alakai Defense Systems, 197 Replacement Ave, Suite 102, Fort Leonard Wood, MO 65473 (United States); Akpovo, Charlemagne C., E-mail: charlemagne.akpovo@cepast.famu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida A and M University, 2077 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Martinez, Jorge, E-mail: jmartinez@cepast.famu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida A and M University, 2077 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Johnson, Lewis, E-mail: lewis@cepast.famu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida A and M University, 2077 E. Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) can be used for the detection of isotopes of elements via isotopic shifts in diatomic species in a technique known as laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry (LAMIS). While LAMIS works quite well for isotopic analysis of pure compounds under optimal conditions, it is desirable for it to be applicable for a variety of compounds and matrices. However, the LIBS plasma emission associated with LAMIS depends on several parameters, including the applied electric field of the laser pulse, the physical properties of the material being investigated, and the presence of additional elements other than the element of interest. In this paper, we address some of the pitfalls arising from these dependencies when using LAMIS for the determination of the relative isotopic abundance of boron-containing materials with varying chemical matrices. - Highlights: • LAMIS usually determines isotopic composition of boron compounds within 3 percent. • LaBO{sub 3} and some boron-containing mixtures yield inaccurate LAMIS results. • Higher laser energy reduces variability but does not remedy poor LAMIS outcomes.

  19. Solvent-dependent deuterium isotope effects in the 15N NMR spectra of an ammonium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielogorska, E.; Jackowski, K.

    2000-01-01

    Deuterium isotope effects on 15 N NMR chemical shifts and spin-spin coupling constants have been investigated for the 15 N enriched ammonium chloride (conc. 15 NH 4 + ion has been observed in water, methanol, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide, while the 15 ND 4 + has been monitored in the analogous deuterated liquids. It is shown that the isotope effect in nitrogen chemical shifts ( 1 Δ 15 N( 2/1 H)), significantly different in various solvents, changes from -1.392 ppm in dimethylsulfoxide to -0.071 ppm in ethanol. The 1 J(N,H) and 1 J(N,D) coupling constants have been measured for acidic solutions under conditions of slow proton (or deuterium) exchange. The reduced coupling constants have been estimated to present isotope effects in the spin-spin coupling constants. The latter isotope effects are fairly small. (author)

  20. Application of carbon isotope stratigraphy to late miocene shallow marine sediments, new zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutit, T S; Kennett, J P

    1979-06-15

    A distinct (0.5 per mil) carbon-13/carbon-12 isotopic shift in the light direction has been identified in a shallow marine sedimentary sequence of Late Miocene age at Blind River, New Zealand, and correlated with a similar shift in Late Miocene Deep Sea Drilling Project sequences throughout the Indo-Pacific. A dated piston core provides an age for the shift of 6.2 +/- 0.1 million years. Correlations based on the carbon isotopic change require a revision of the previously established magnetostratigraphy at Blind River. The carbon shift at Blind River occurs between 6.2 and 6.3 +/- 0.1 million years before present. A new chronology provides an age for the evolutionary first appearance datum of Globorotalia conomiozea at 6.1 +/- 0.1 million years, the beginning of a distinct latest Miocene cooling event associated with the Kapitean stage at 6.2 +/- 0.1 million years, and the beginning of a distinct shallowing of water depths at 6.1 +/- 0.1 million years. The Miocene-Pliocene boundary as recognized in New Zealand is now dated at 5.3 +/- 0.1 million years. Extension of carbon isotope stratigraphy to other shallow Late Miocene sequences should provide an important datum for international correlation of Late Miocene shallow and deep marine sequences.

  1. Absolute vibrational numbering from isotope shifts in fragmentary spectroscopic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashov, A.; Kowalczyk, P.; Jastrzebski, W.

    2018-05-01

    We discuss application of the isotope effect to establish the absolute vibrational numbering in electronic states of diatomic molecules. This is illustrated by examples of states with potential energy curves of both regular and irregular shape, with one or two potential minima. The minimum number of spectroscopic data (either term values or spectral line positions) necessary to provide a unique numbering is considered. We show that at favourable conditions just four term energies (or spectral lines) in one isotopologue and one term energy in the other suffice.

  2. Improvements in RIMS Isotopic Precision: Application to in situ atom-limited analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, J.; Stephan, T.; Savina, M.; Pellin, M.

    2009-01-01

    Resonance ionization mass spectrometry offers high sensitivity and elemental selectivity in microanalysis, but the isotopic precision attainable by this technique has been limited. Here we report instrumental modifications to improve the precision of RIMS isotope ratio measurements. Special attention must be paid to eliminating pulse-to-pulse variations in the time-of-flight mass spectrometer through which the photoions travel, and resonant excitation schemes must be chosen such that the resonance transitions can substantially power-broadened to cover the isotope shifts. We report resonance ionization measurements of chromium isotope ratios with statistics-limited precision better than 1%.

  3. Isotopic evidence for the past climates and vegetation of southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Vogel

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon can potentially provide evidence of past climates. The most detailed information has been obtained from variations in the oxygen-18 content of foraminifera from ocean floor cores, the analysis of which has produced a record of ocean temperature changes through the Quaternary and beyond. The use of isotope analysis of continental materials to reveal climatic change is more limited, but some advances have been made in recent years. One approach has been to utilize the variations in the isotopic composition of precipitation as recorded in ancient groundwater. Thus groundwater samples from a confined aquifer on the southern Cape coast show a marked rise in temperature since the Last Glacial maximum. The temperature changes during the Upper Pleistocene and Holocene are also reflected in the oxygen-18 content of stalagmites from the Cango caves in the same region. The widespread occurrence of C4 grasses in the warmer summer rainfall areas of southern Africa provides a novel possibility of observing temporal shifts of climatic boundaries. The distinctly high carbon-13 content of C4 plants is clearly reflected in the skeletons of grazers so that faunal material from suitably situated archaeological sites can be used to observe changes in the composition of the local grass-cover. The evidence thus far accumulated suggests only minor changes since the Upper Pleistocene. The combined evidence to date indicates that temperatures and also precipitation in southern Africa have changed since the Last Glacial maximum, about 18 000 years ago, but that shifts in the boundaries of the various veld-types were probably not very extensive.

  4. Sensing site-specific structural characteristics and chirality using vibrational circular dichroism of isotope labeled peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiderling, Timothy A

    2017-12-01

    Isotope labeling has a long history in chemistry as a tool for probing structure, offering enhanced sensitivity, or enabling site selection with a wide range of spectroscopic tools. Chirality sensitive methods such as electronic circular dichroism are global structural tools and have intrinsically low resolution. Consequently, they are generally insensitive to modifications to enhance site selectivity. The use of isotope labeling to modify vibrational spectra with unique resolvable frequency shifts can provide useful site-specific sensitivity, and these methods have been recently more widely expanded in biopolymer studies. While the spectral shifts resulting from changes in isotopic mass can provide resolution of modes from specific parts of the molecule and can allow detection of local change in structure with perturbation, these shifts alone do not directly indicate structure or chirality. With vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), the shifted bands and their resultant sign patterns can be used to indicate local conformations in labeled biopolymers, particularly if multiple labels are used and if their coupling is theoretically modeled. This mini-review discusses selected examples of the use of labeling specific amides in peptides to develop local structural insight with VCD spectra. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Nuclear radiation detected optical pumping of neutron deficient Hg isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonn, J.

    1975-01-01

    The extension of the Nuclear Radiation Detected Optical Pumping method to mass-separated samples of isotopes far off stability is presented for a series of light Hg isotopes produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The isotope under investigation is transferred by an automatic transfer system into the optical pumping apparatus. Zeeman scanning of an isotopically pure Hg spectral lamp is used to reach energetic coincidence with the hyperfine structure components of the 6s 2 1 S 0 -6s6p 3 P 1 (lambda = 2537 A) resonance line of the investigated isotope and the Hg lamp. The orientation build up by optical pumping is monitored via the asymmetry or anisotropy of the nuclear radiation. Nuclear spins, magnetic moments, electric quadrupole moments and isotopic shift are obtained for 181 Hg- 191 Hg using the β-asymmetry as detector. The extension of the method using the γ-anisotropy is discussed and measurements on 193 Hg are presented. (orig./HK)

  6. ZIRCONIUM—HAFNIUM ISOTOPE EVIDENCE FROM METEORITES FOR THE DECOUPLED SYNTHESIS OF LIGHT AND HEAVY NEUTRON-RICH NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akram, W.; Schönbächler, M. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Sprung, P. [Institut für Planetologie, Universität Münster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Vogel, N. [Institute for Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH, Clausiusstrasse 25, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2013-11-10

    Recent work based on analyses of meteorite and terrestrial whole-rock samples showed that the r- and s- process isotopes of Hf were homogeneously distributed throughout the inner solar system. We report new Hf isotope data for Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) of the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende, and novel high-precision Zr isotope data for these CAIs and three carbonaceous chondrites (CM, CO, CK). Our Zr data reveal enrichments in the neutron-rich isotope {sup 96}Zr (≤1ε in {sup 96}Zr/{sup 90}Zr) for bulk chondrites and CAIs (∼2ε). Potential isotope effects due to incomplete sample dissolution, galactic and cosmic ray spallation, and the nuclear field shift are assessed and excluded, leading to the conclusion that the {sup 96}Zr isotope variations are of nucleosynthetic origin. The {sup 96}Zr enrichments are coupled with {sup 50}Ti excesses suggesting that both nuclides were produced in the same astrophysical environment. The same CAIs also exhibit deficits in r-process Hf isotopes, which provides strong evidence for a decoupling between the nucleosynthetic processes that produce the light (A ≤ 130) and heavy (A > 130) neutron-rich isotopes. We propose that the light neutron-capture isotopes largely formed in Type II supernovae (SNeII) with higher mass progenitors than the supernovae that produced the heavy r-process isotopes. In the context of our model, the light isotopes (e.g. {sup 96}Zr) are predominantly synthesized via charged-particle reactions in a high entropy wind environment, in which Hf isotopes are not produced. Collectively, our data indicates that CAIs sampled an excess of materials produced in a normal mass (12-25 M{sub ☉}) SNII.

  7. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, S.; Buhl, D.; Schröder-Ritzrau, A.; Riechelmann, D. F. C.; Richter, D. K.; Vonhof, H. B.; Wassenburg, J. A.; Geske, A.; Spötl, C.; Immenhauser, A.

    2012-11-01

    Here we explore the potential of magnesium (δ26Mg) isotope time-series data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco), the warm-temperate (Germany), the equatorial-humid (Peru) and the cold-humid (Austria) climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are compared against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and disequilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rainwater or snow as well as soil and host rock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: -4.26 ± 0.07‰ and HK3: -4.17 ± 0.15‰), and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value of all stalagmites (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: -3.96 ± 0.04‰) but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is consistent with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: -4.01 ± 0.07‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: -4.20 ± 0.10‰) suggest changes in outside air temperature was the principal driver rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: -3.00 ± 0.73‰; SPA 59: -3.70 ± 0.43‰) are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature affecting soil zone activity and weathering balance. Several δ26Mg values of the Austrian and two

  8. Nuclear structure of light thallium isotopes as deduced from laser spectroscopy on a fast atom beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounds, J.A.

    1985-08-01

    After optimizing the system by experiments on /sup 201,203,205/Tl, the neutron-deficient isotopes 189-193 Tl have been studied using the collinear fast atom beam laser spectroscopy system at UNISOR on-line to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. A sensitive system for the measurements was developed since the light isotopes were available in mass-separated beams of only 7 x 10 4 to 4 x 10 5 atoms per second. By laser excitation of the 535 nm atomic transitions of atoms in the beam, the 6s 2 7s 2 S/sub 1/2/ and 6s 2 6s 2 P/sub 3/2/ hyperfine structures were measured, as were the isotope shifts of the 535 nm transitions. From these, the magnetic dipole moments, spectroscopic quadrupole moments and isotopic changes in mean-square charge radius were deduced. The magnetic dipole moments are consistent with previous data. The /sup 190,192/Tl isotopes show a considerable difference in quadrupole deformations as well as an anomalous isotope shift with respect to 194 Tl. A large isomer shift in 193 Tl is observed implying a larger deformation in the 9/2 - isomer than in the 1/2 + ground state. The /sup 189,191,193/Tl isomers show increasing deformation away from stability. A deformed shell model calculation indicates that this increase in deformation can account for the dropping of the 9/2 - band in these isotopes while an increase in neutron pairing correlations, having opposite and compensating effects on the rotational moment of inertia, maintains the 9/2 - strong-coupled band structure. 105 refs., 27 figs

  9. Assessment of Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Environment by Analysis of Stable Carbon Isotope Fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckenstock, Rainer U. [Eberhard-Karls University of Tuebingen, Center for Applied Geoscience (Germany)], E-mail: rainer.meckenstock@uni-tuebingen.de; Morasch, Barbara [University of Konstanz, Faculty of Biology (Germany); Kaestner, Matthias; Vieth, Andrea; Richnow, Hans Hermann [Center for Environmental Research, Department of Remediation Research (Germany)

    2002-05-15

    {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C stable carbon isotope fractionation was used to assess biodegradation in contaminated aquifers with toluene as a model compound. Different strains of anaerobic bacteria (Thauera aromatica, Geobacter metallireducens, and the sulfate-reducing strain TRM1) showed consistent {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C carbon isotope fractionation with fractionation factors between {alpha}C = 1.0017 and 1.0018. In contrast, three cultures of aerobic organisms, using different mono- and dioxygenase enzyme systems to initiate toluene degradation, showed variable isotope fractionation factors of {alpha}C = 1.0027 (Pseudomonasputida strain mt-2), {alpha}C = 1.0011 (Ralstonia picketii), and{alpha}C = 1.0004 (Pseudomonas putida strain F1). The great variability of isotope fractionation between different aerobic bacterial strains suggests that interpretation of isotope data in oxic habitats can only be qualitative. A soil column was run as a model system for contaminated aquifers with toluene as the carbon source and sulfate as the electron acceptor and samples were taken at different ports along the column. Microbial toluene degradation was calculated based on the {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotope fractionation factors of the batch culture experiments together with the observed {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotope shifts of the residual toluene fractions. The calculated percentage of biodegradation, B, correlated well with the decreasing toluene concentrations at the sampling ports and indicated the increasing extent of biodegradation along the column. The theoretical toluene concentrations as calculated based on the isotope values matched the measured concentrations at the different sampling ports indicating that the Rayleigh equation can be used to calculate biodegradation in quasi closed systems based on measured isotope shifts. A similar attempt was performed to assess toluene degradation in a contaminated, anoxic aquifer. A transect of groundwater wells was monitored along the main

  10. Microbial degradation of alpha-cypermethrin in soil by compound-specific stable isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zemin [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Shen, Xiaoli [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Quzhou University, Quzhou 324000 (China); Zhang, Xi-Chang [Laboratory for Teaching in Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Liu, Weiping [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Fangxing, E-mail: fxyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research – UFZ, Leipzig 04318 (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Alpha-cypermethrin (α-CP) can be degraded by microorganisms in soil. • Biodegradation of α-CP resulted in carbon isotope fractionation. • A relationship was found between carbon isotope ratios and concentrations of α-CP. • An enrichment factor ϵ of α-CP was determined as −1.87‰. • CSIA is applicable to assess biodegradation of α-CP. - Abstract: To assess microbial degradation of alpha-cypermethrin in soil, attenuation of alpha-cypermethrin was investigated by compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The variations of the residual concentrations and stable carbon isotope ratios of alpha-cypermethrin were detected in unsterilized and sterilized soils spiked with alpha-cypermethrin. After an 80 days’ incubation, the concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin decreased to 0.47 and 3.41 mg/kg in the unsterilized soils spiked with 2 and 10 mg/kg, while those decreased to 1.43 and 6.61 mg/kg in the sterilized soils. Meanwhile, the carbon isotope ratios shifted to −29.14 ± 0.22‰ and −29.86 ± 0.33‰ in the unsterilized soils spiked with 2 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. The results revealed that microbial degradation contributed to the attenuation of alpha-cypermethrin and induced the carbon isotope fractionation. In order to quantitatively assess microbial degradation, a relationship between carbon isotope ratios and residual concentrations of alpha-cypermethrin was established according to Rayleigh equation. An enrichment factor, ϵ = −1.87‰ was obtained, which can be employed to assess microbial degradation of alpha-cypermethrin. The significant carbon isotope fractionation during microbial degradation suggests that CSIA is a proper approach to qualitatively detect and quantitatively assess the biodegradation during attenuation process of alpha-cypermethrin in the field.

  11. Preliminary review on isotope separation of long life fission products. Application research of laser isotope separation to 135Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshita, Hironori; Ozawa, Masaki; Ishikawa, Makoto; Koyama, Shin'ichi; Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    2007-09-01

    Recently establishment of self consistent nuclear fuel cycle has been required with respect to economical efficiency, safety and reduction of the load to the environment. Especially 135 Cs included in spent fuel of nuclear power plants has extremely long half life (3.0x10 6 y) and its water solubility leads to the anxiety of exudation into ground water for geologic disposal. The conventional methods for isotope separation based on the mass difference of isotope could not gain large separation factors, which leads to the requirement of operational repetition and large equipment. Furthermore many elements of which the masses are near to that of the object isotope are included in spent fuel, which makes it difficult to expect high separation factor by the methods merely based on the mass difference. Recent technology development of laser e.g. dye laser or semi-conductor laser has come to make it possible in principle to excite a specific isotope and separate it from other isotopes making use of its intrinsic physical and chemical properties of the excited state. This laser isotope separation (LIS) technique is believed to be suitable for cesium because of its stable properties on light absorption and emission and many studies have come to be made. This document reviews the principle, application to the separation of 135 Cs and current status of LIS and reports the subjects to be solved and suggestions; especially laser induced chemical reactions expected as a low-cost and simple equipment isotope separation method. The resulting extracted subjects are 1) the specification of the excited states of cesium i.e. extra-nuclear electron configuration, life (or duration) and transition probability, 2) the factors that may effect on the isotope shift of cesium; the mean square radius of the nucleus, electric quadrupole moment and extra nuclear electron wave function at the nucleus, 3) the factors that may cause the disturbance of the selectivity; resonant energy transference

  12. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects in the 1,4-dimethylenecyclohexane boat cope rearrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajewski, J.J.; Jimenez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    In order to examine the extent of bond making in the boat-like 3,3-sigmatropic shift transition states, trans-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-dimethylenecyclohexane (T) and its exomethylene tetradeuteria derivative (TXD) were prepared. The 3,3-shift of TXD at 305 0 C results in interconversion of starting material, 5,5,6,6-tetradeuterio-trans-2,3-dimethyl-1,4-dimethylene-cyclohexane (TND), and 2,2,3,3-tetradeuterio-anti-1,4-diethylidenecyclohexane (AD). A kinetic analysis of the first-order rate equations for the three-component system in both protio and deuterio species by numerical integration of the data and simplex minimization of the rate constants with symmetry and the assumption of no equilibrium or kinetic isotope effect on the TND-AD reaction gives a bond making kinetic isotope effect of 1/1.04 (0.04). The equilibrium isotope effects observed are 1/1.16 (0.04) so that the extent of bond formation in this boat-like bicyclo[2.2.2]octyl transition state is roughly 25%, a value to be compared with ca. 67% in chair-like acyclic 3,3-shift transition states. This rules out significant intervention of a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1,4-diyl intermediate or transition state. 30 references, 6 figures, 4 tables

  13. Nuclear moments and the change of the mean square charge radius of neutron deficient thallium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, R.; Dinger, U.; Boos, N.; Huber, G.; Schroeder, S.

    1992-01-01

    The hyperfine structure, isotope and isomeric shifts in the atomic transition 6p 2 P 3/2 -7s 2 S 1/2 , λ=535 nm have been measured for the I=7 and I=2 states of 190,192,194,196 Tl, the I=1/2 and I=9/2 states of 191 Tl and the I=7 isomer of 188 Tl. The thallium isotopes were prepared as fast atomic beams at the GSI on-line mass separator following fusion reactions and - in some cases - subsequent β-decay. The nuclear dipole moments, electric quadrupole moments and the change in the nuclear mean square charge radius are evaluated. The uu-isotopes show an isomeric shift which changes sign between 192 Tl and 194 Tl. (orig.)

  14. Isotopic perturbation of degeneracy. Carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of dimethylcyclopentyl and dimethylnorbornyl cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, M.; Telkowski, L.; Kates, M.R.

    1977-01-01

    The large chemical shifts in 13 C NMR were used to measure the deuterium induced splittings and shifts in the 1 H NMR spectra of dimethylcyclopentyl and dimethylnorbornyl cations, where the deuterium perturbs the degenerate equilibrium. The isotope splitting obtained are tabulated

  15. Isotope laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report from the Dutch Ministry of Health is an advisory document concerned with isotope laboratories in hospitals, in connection with the Dutch laws for hospitals. It discusses which hospitals should have isotope laboratories and concludes that as many hospitals as possible should have small laboratories so that emergency cases can be dealt with. It divides the Netherlands into regions and suggests which hospitals should have these facilities. The questions of how big each lab. is to be, what equipment each has, how each lab. is organised, what therapeutic and diagnostic work should be carried out by each, etc. are discussed. The answers are provided by reports from working groups for in vivo diagnostics, in vitro diagnostics, therapy, and safety and their results form the criteria for the licences of isotope labs. The results of a questionnaire for isotope labs. already in the Netherlands are presented, and their activities outlined. (C.F.)

  16. NMR spectroscopic determination of an equilibrium isotope effect on the hydration of cobalt(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evilia, R.F.; Saunders, M.

    1985-01-01

    A recently reported NMR method for the measurement of deuterium equilibrium isotope effects is applied to the hydration of the paramagnetic cobalt(II) ion. An isotope effect of about 1.3% is measured. A substantial difference between the intrinsic shift of H 2 O and D 2 O when coordinated to cobalt is also measured

  17. Nuclear shape transition in light gold isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallmeroth, K.; Bollen, G.; Dohn, A.; Egelhof, P.; Kroenert, U.; Heyde, K.; Coster, C. de; Wood, J.L.; Kluge, H.J.; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva; European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva

    1989-01-01

    The hyperfine structure and isotope shifts of short-lived gold isotopes with 185≤A≤190 and the 11/2 - isomer of 189 Au have been investigated by application of on-line resonance ionization mass spectroscopy. A detection efficiency of ε=10 -8 for gold atoms was observed at a background of about one event per 1000 laser shots. The deduced charge radii show a drastic change between A=187 and A=186 which is interpreted as an onset of strong deformation (β 2 ≅ 0.25) in 186 Au and 185 Au due to the influence of the π1h 9/2 intruder orbital. (orig.)

  18. In-source laser spectroscopy of mercury isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    This proposal follows on from the Letter of Intent, I-153. The neutron-deficient mercury isotopes are one of the prime examples of shape coexistence anywhere in the nuclear chart. Wide-ranging and complementary experimental and theoretical approaches have been used to investigate their structure over the last few years, however mean-square charge radii are unknown for isotopes with $\\textit{A}$ < 181. It is proposed to measure the isotope shift (IS) and hyperfine structure (HFS) of the 253-nm transition in $^{177-182}$Hg in an attempt to study the propagation of the famous odd-even staggering behaviour. At the other end of the chain, no information exists on the optical spectroscopy of Hg isotopes beyond the $\\textit{N}$ = 126 shell closure. There is a well-known "kink" in mean-square charge radii beyond this point in the even $\\textit{Z}$ $\\geq$ 82 elements. It is proposed to measure the IS of $^{207,208}$Hg in order to provide the first information on this effect below $\\textit{Z}$ = 82.

  19. Isotopically Enriched C-13 Diamond Anvil as a Stress Sensor in High Pressure Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Yogesh; Qiu, Wei; Kondratyev, Andreiy; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Baker, Paul

    2004-03-01

    The conventional high pressure diamond anvils were modified by growing an isotopically pure C-13 diamond layer by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition using methane/hydrogen/oxygen chemistry. The isotopically pure C-13 nature of the culet of the diamond anvil was confirmed by the Raman spectroscopy measurements. This isotopically engineered diamond anvil was used against a natural abundance diamond anvil for high pressure experiments in a diamond anvil cell. Spatial resolved Raman spectroscopy was used to measure the stress induced shift in the C-13 layer as well as the undelying C-12 layer to ultra high pressures. The observed shift and splitiing of the diamond first order Raman spectrum was correlated with the stress distribution in the diamond anvil cell. The experimental results will be compared with the finite element modeling results using NIKE-2D software in order to create a mathematical relationship between sets of the following parameters: vertical (z axis) distance; horizontal (r axis) distance; max shear stress, and pressure. The isotopically enriched diamond anvils offer unique opportunities to measure stress distribution in the diamond anvil cell devices.

  20. Nuclear charge radius measurements of radioactive beryllium isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear charge radii of the beryllium isotopes $^{7,9,10}$Be and the one-neutron halo isotope $^{11}$Be using laser spectroscopy of trapped ions. Ions produced at ISOLDE and ionized with the laser ion source will be cooled and bunched in the radio-frequency buncher of the ISOLTRAP experiment and then transferred into a specially designed Paul trap. Here, they will be cooled to temperatures in the mK range employing sympathetic and direct laser cooling. Precision laser spectroscopy of the isotope shift on the cooled ensemble in combination with accurate atomic structure calculations will provide nuclear charge radii with a precision of better than 3%. This will be the first model-independent determination of a one-neutron halo nuclear charge radius.

  1. Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Flanagan, K T; Ruiz, R F Garcia; Budincevic, I; Procter, T J; Fedosseev, V N; Lynch, K M; Cocolios, T E; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Rossel, R E; Heylen, H; Billowes, J; Rothe, S; Bissell, M L; Wendt, K D A; de Groote, R P; De Schepper, S

    2013-01-01

    The magnetic moments and isotope shifts of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes Fr202-205 were measured at ISOLDE-CERN with use of collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. A production-to-detection efficiency of 1\\% was measured for Fr-202. The background from nonresonant and collisional ionization was maintained below one ion in 10(5) beam particles. Through a comparison of the measured charge radii with predictions from the spherical droplet model, it is concluded that the ground-state wave function remains spherical down to Fr-205, with a departure observed in Fr-203 (N = 116).

  2. Plutonium isotopic composition of high burnup spent fuel discharged from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yoshihiro; Okubo, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pu isotopic composition of fuel affects FBR core nuclear characteristics very much. → Spent fuel compositions of next generation LWRs with burnup of 70 GWd/t were obtained. → Pu isotopic composition and amount in the spent fuel with 70 GWd/t were evaluated. → Spectral shift rods of high burnup BWR increases the fissile Pu fraction of spent fuel. → Wide fuel rod pitch of high burnup PWR lowers the fissile Pu fraction of spent fuel. - Abstract: The isotopic composition and amount of plutonium (Pu) in spent fuel from a high burnup boiling water reactor (HB-BWR) and a high burnup pressurized water reactor (HB-PWR), each with an average discharge burnup of 70 GWd/t, were estimated, in order to evaluate fast breeder reactor (FBR) fuel composition in the transition period from LWRs to FBRs. The HB-BWR employs spectral shift rods and the neutron spectrum is shifted through the operation cycle. The weight fraction of fissile plutonium (Puf) isotopes to the total plutonium in HB-BWR spent fuel after 5 years cooling is 62%, which is larger than that of conventional BWRs with average burnup of 45 GWd/t, because of the spectral shift operation. The amount of Pu produced in the HB-BWR is also larger than that produced in a conventional BWR. The HB-PWR uses a wider pitch 17 x 17 fuel rod assembly to optimize neutron slowing down. The Puf fraction of HB-PWR spent fuel after 5 years cooling is 56%, which is smaller than that of conventional PWRs with average burnup of 49 GWd/t, mainly because of the wider pitch. The amount of Pu produced in the HB-PWR is also smaller than that in conventional PWRs.

  3. Continuation of Atomic Spectroscopy on Alkali Isotopes at ISOLDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Laser optical measurements on Rb, Cs and Fr have already been performed at ISOLDE in 1978-79. The hyperfine structure and isotope shift of |7|6|-|9|8Rb, |1|1|8|-|1|4|5Cs, |2|0|8|-|2|1|3Fr and 14 of their isomers have been studied. Among the wealth of information which has been obtained, the most important are the first observation of an optical transition of the element Fr, the evidence of the onset of nuclear deformation at N~=~60 for Rb isotopes and the shape isomerism isotopes. \\\\ \\\\ From both the atomic and nuclear physics point of view, new studies seem very promising: \\item - the search for new optical transitions in Fr; the shell effect in the rms charge radius at N~=~126 for Fr isotopes \\item - the study of a possible onset of deformation for Cs isotopes beyond |1|4|5Cs \\item - the study of a region of static deformation in neutron-deficient Rb isotopes. \\\\ \\\\ \\end{enumerate} A new apparatus has been built. The principle remains the same as used in our earlier experiments. The improvements concern ess...

  4. Hafnium isotope evidence for a transition in the dynamics of continental growth 3.2 Gyr ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Næraa, T; Scherstén, A; Rosing, M T; Kemp, A I S; Hoffmann, J E; Kokfelt, T F; Whitehouse, M J

    2012-05-30

    Earth's lithosphere probably experienced an evolution towards the modern plate tectonic regime, owing to secular changes in mantle temperature. Radiogenic isotope variations are interpreted as evidence for the declining rates of continental crustal growth over time, with some estimates suggesting that over 70% of the present continental crustal reservoir was extracted by the end of the Archaean eon. Patterns of crustal growth and reworking in rocks younger than three billion years (Gyr) are thought to reflect the assembly and break-up of supercontinents by Wilson cycle processes and mark an important change in lithosphere dynamics. In southern West Greenland numerous studies have, however, argued for subduction settings and crust growth by arc accretion back to 3.8 Gyr ago, suggesting that modern-day tectonic regimes operated during the formation of the earliest crustal rock record. Here we report in situ uranium-lead, hafnium and oxygen isotope data from zircons of basement rocks in southern West Greenland across the critical time period during which modern-like tectonic regimes could have initiated. Our data show pronounced differences in the hafnium isotope-time patterns across this interval, requiring changes in the characteristics of the magmatic protolith. The observations suggest that 3.9-3.5-Gyr-old rocks differentiated from a >3.9-Gyr-old source reservoir with a chondritic to slightly depleted hafnium isotope composition. In contrast, rocks formed after 3.2 Gyr ago register the first additions of juvenile depleted material (that is, new mantle-derived crust) since 3.9 Gyr ago, and are characterized by striking shifts in hafnium isotope ratios similar to those shown by Phanerozoic subduction-related orogens. These data suggest a transitional period 3.5-3.2 Gyr ago from an ancient (3.9-3.5 Gyr old) crustal evolutionary regime unlike that of modern plate tectonics to a geodynamic setting after 3.2 Gyr ago that involved juvenile crust generation by plate

  5. Investigation of reduced transition-strengths in neutron-rich chromium isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunroth, Thomas; Dewald, Alfred; Fransen, Christoph; Litzinger, Julia [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Iwasaki, Hironori [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, MSU (United States); Lemasson, Antoine [GANIL, Laboratoire Commun DSM/CEA (France); Lenzi, Silvia [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Italy)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron-rich nuclei close to N=40 are known for their rapid changes in nuclear structure. While {sup 68}Ni exhibits signatures of a shell closure, experimental data - e.g. excitation energies of the 2{sup +}{sub 1}-state and B(E2;2{sup +}{sub 1} → 0{sup +}{sub 1})-values - along the isotopic chains in even more exotic Fe and Cr-isotopes suggest a sudden rise in collective behaviour for N → 40. Lifetimes of low-lying yrast states in {sup 58,60,62}Cr were measured with the Recoil Distance Doppler-shift (RDDS) technique at NSCL, MSU (USA) to deduce model independent B(E2)-values. After fragmentation of a primary {sup 82}Se beam (E=140 AMeV) on a {sup 9}Be target and subsequent filtering with the A1900 fragment separator, high purity {sup 59,61,63}Mn-beams (E ∝ 95 AMeV) impinged on the {sup 9}Be plunger target, where excited states in the above mentioned Cr-isotopes were then populated in one proton knockout reactions. The S800 spectrograph allowed a clear recoil identification, which then lead to clean γ-spectra as measured by the Segmented Germanium Array (SeGA). Final results of this experiment will be shown and discussed in the context of state-of-the-art shell-model calculations.

  6. Rapidly Assessing Changes in Bone Mineral Balance Using Natural Stable Calcium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. L. L.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Skulan, J. L.; Smith, S. M.; Anbar, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that variations in the Ca isotope ratios in urine rapidly and quantitatively reflect changes in bone mineral balance. This variation occurs because bone formation depletes soft tissue of light Ca isotopes, while bone resorption releases that isotopically light Ca back into soft tissue. In a study of 12 individuals confined to bed rest, a condition known to induce bone resorption, we show that Ca isotope ratios shift in a direction consistent with net bone loss after just 7 days, long before detectible changes in bone density occur. Consistent with this interpretation, the Ca isotope variations track changes observed in N-teleopeptide, a bone resorption biomarker, while bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, a bone formation biomarker, is unchanged. Ca isotopes can in principle be used to quantify net changes in bone mass. Ca isotopes indicate an average loss of 0.62 +/- 0.16 % in bone mass over the course of this 30-day study. The Ca isotope technique should accelerate the pace of discovery of new treatments for bone disease and provide novel insights into the dynamics of bone metabolism.

  7. Anomalous H/D isotope effect on 35Cl NQR frequencies in piperidinium p-chlorobenzoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Ryo; Honda, Hisashi; Kimura, Taiki; Nakata, Eiichi; Takamizawa, Satoshi; Noro, Sumiko; Ishimaru, Shin'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Anomalous isotope effects were detected in the 35 Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) frequency of piperidinium p-chlrobenzoate (C 5 H 10 NH. ClC 6 H 4 COOH) by deuteration of hydrogen atoms. The atoms were determined to form two kinds of N-H...O type H-bonds in the crystal structure. Large frequency shifts of the 35 Cl resonance lines reaching 288 kHz at 77 K and 278 kHz at room temperature were caused upon deuteration, in spite of the fact that the Cl atoms in the molecule do not form hydrogen bonds in the crystal. Results of single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements and density-functional-theorem calculations suggest that a dihedral-angle change of 1.8 o between benzene and the piperidine ring contributes to 35 Cl NQR anomalous frequency shifts.

  8. Effect of isotopic substitution on the collisional quenching of vibronically excited CO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, D.H.; Welsh, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Rovibronic levels of the A 2 Pi/sub i/ state for 12 C 16 O + and 13 C 16 O + have been selectively excited by a pulsed, tunable dye laser and their time resolved fluorescence obtained as a function of helium pressure. These ions are formed by reaction of neutral carbon monoxide with helium metastable atoms created in a dc discharge. Since 13 CO + has essentially the same potential energy curves as 12 CO + , but differs primarily in its vibrational energy spacings, this experiment accentuates the role, in the collisional deactivation process, of the high lying ground state vibrational levels which are adjacent to the laser populated vibronic levels of the A 2 Pi/sub i/ state. Quenching rates are determined for the v' = 0, 1, and 2 levels which have relatively insignificant isotope shifts of a few wave numbers for the two isotopes. The difference in rates for the two isotopic ions demonstrates the importance of the positions for the high lying v'' = 10 and 11 ground state levels which have large isotope shifts of hundreds of wave numbers. A discussion of the deactivation process is given in terms of perturbations, Franck--Condon factors, energy gaps, and other considerations

  9. Isotope composition of bulk carbon in replicated Sphagnum peat cores from three central European high-elevation wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, Martin; Zemanova, Leona; Jackova, Iva; Buzek, Frantisek; Adamova, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Several processes may contribute to systematic downcore trends in δ 13 C of bulk Sphagnum peat. Whereas changes in water availability during C assimilation may change δ 13 C values in both a negative and positive direction, other processes would always cause a uni-directional shift in δ 13 C. Selective preservation of isotopically light lignin C may lead to more negative δ 13 C values with an increasing depth and age of peat. Anthropogenic change toward lower δ 13 C of atmospheric CO 2 due to massive coal burning since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution would result in lower δ 13 C of the youngest past layers, and in higher δ 13 C of older peat layers. Emissions of low-δ 13 C methane from wetlands should result in a progressive enrichment of the residual peat substrate in the heavier isotope 13 C. Consequently, deeper peat would have higher δ 13 C. In a specific peat profile, the downcore trend in δ 13 C will be the result of an interplay between all these isotope-sensitive processes. Most Central European wetlands studied previously show a 13 C enrichment (i.e., higher δ 13 C values) with an increasing depth and age. Here we focus on sites which showed lower δ 13 C with an increasing depth and age when a single peat core was taken. Replication did not confirm this negative downcore δ 13 C shift. A positive downcore δ 13 C shift is more widespread than previously believed. We suggest that decreasing δ 13 C of atmospheric CO 2 and emissions of low-δ 13 C methane belong to the main controls of the downcore δ 13 C trends in young peat substrate. (author)

  10. A biomarker stable isotope record of late Quaternary climate and organic matter export in Southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Q.; Hren, M. T.; Lin, A. T.; Eley, Y.; Yu, S. W.; Harris, G.

    2017-12-01

    We present new leaf wax n-alkane hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) isotopic data from a 36-m-long core from off-shore southwestern Taiwan to evaluate late Quaternary changes in climate and the source of organic matter exported from the landscape. The core (MD178-3291) is located on the flank of the Gaoping Submarine Canyon that connects with the Gaoping river catchment in southwestern Taiwan. The sediment deposition in this core spans the last 26 kyr, providing a unique record of glacial-interglacial changes in organic matter export from the Taiwan orogen. The δD and δ13C both show a shift in isotopic compositions at 15 kyr, that coincides with the shift in planktonic foraminifera δ18O record from the same core as well as the global sea level. We therefore interpret this dominant shift as affected by the global glacial to interglacial transition. Following by this transition and through the interglacial period, both biomarker δD and δ13C data record fluctuations that we suggest result from short timescale changes in the distribution of organic inputs to the offshore site. This change in source is most likely caused by increases in storm and landslide frequency or intensity during warmer intervals. This interpretation is supported by terrestrial records that show an increase in landslides in the Gaoping catchment and evidence for enhanced rainfall intensity and a corresponding increase in the frequency of turbidity currents.

  11. Laser fluorescence on radio-active isotopes produced in very low yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dancy, D.E.; Billowes, J.; Grant, I.S.; Evans, D.E.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Wells, S.A.; Eastham, D.A.; Groves, J.; Smith, J.R.H.; Tolfree, D.W.L.; Walker, P.M.

    1990-01-01

    Fast particle-photon coincidence techniques, developed at Daresbury with strontium isotopes, allow ultra-sensitive laser fluorescence spectroscopy of beams of radio-active isotopes which can only be produced in very low yields. The technique has now been applied to neutron-deficient barium isotopes down to 120 Ba. From measured hyperfine splitting and isotope shifts, nuclear moments and changes in mean square radii have been determined. The work has revealed an abrupt increase in the mean square radius for 121 Ba large enough to disrupt the systematic staggering of nuclear size seen for the series. In a recent experiment an isomeric state of 127 Ba with a half-life of about 2 seconds has been produced in a very low yield; nevertheless we have succeeded in obtaining a fluorescence spectrum. (orig.)

  12. Trophic shifts of a generalist consumer in response to resource pulses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Jen L Shaner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Trophic shifts of generalist consumers can have broad food-web and biodiversity consequences through altered trophic flows and vertical diversity. Previous studies have used trophic shifts as indicators of food-web responses to perturbations, such as species invasion, and spatial or temporal subsidies. Resource pulses, as a form of temporal subsidies, have been found to be quite common among various ecosystems, affecting organisms at multiple trophic levels. Although diet switching of generalist consumers in response to resource pulses is well documented, few studies have examined if the switch involves trophic shifts, and if so, the directions and magnitudes of the shifts. In this study, we used stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes with a Bayesian multi-source mixing model to estimate proportional contributions of three trophic groups (i.e. producer, consumer, and fungus-detritivore to the diets of the White-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus receiving an artificial seed pulse or a naturally-occurring cicadas pulse. Our results demonstrated that resource pulses can drive trophic shifts in the mice. Specifically, the producer contribution to the mouse diets was increased by 32% with the seed pulse at both sites examined. The consumer contribution to the mouse diets was also increased by 29% with the cicadas pulse in one of the two grids examined. However, the pattern was reversed in the second grid, with a 13% decrease in the consumer contribution with the cicadas pulse. These findings suggest that generalist consumers may play different functional roles in food webs under perturbations of resource pulses. This study provides one of the few highly quantitative descriptions on dietary and trophic shifts of a key consumer in forest food webs, which may help future studies to form specific predictions on changes in trophic interactions following resource pulses.

  13. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  14. The magnesium isotope record of cave carbonate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riechelmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we explore the potential of magnesium (δ26Mg isotope time-series data as continental climate proxies in speleothem calcite archives. For this purpose, a total of six Pleistocene and Holocene stalagmites from caves in Germany, Morocco and Peru and two flowstones from a cave in Austria were investigated. These caves represent the semi-arid to arid (Morocco, the warm-temperate (Germany, the equatorial-humid (Peru and the cold-humid (Austria climate zones. Changes in the calcite magnesium isotope signature with time are compared against carbon and oxygen isotope records from these speleothems. Similar to other proxies, the non-trivial interaction of a number of environmental, equilibrium and disequilibrium processes governs the δ26Mg fractionation in continental settings. These include the different sources of magnesium isotopes such as rainwater or snow as well as soil and host rock, soil zone biogenic activity, shifts in silicate versus carbonate weathering ratios and residence time of water in the soil and karst zone. Pleistocene stalagmites from Morocco show the lowest mean δ26Mg values (GDA: −4.26 ± 0.07‰ and HK3: −4.17 ± 0.15‰, and the data are well explained in terms of changes in aridity over time. The Pleistocene to Holocene stalagmites from Peru show the highest mean value of all stalagmites (NC-A and NC-B δ26Mg: −3.96 ± 0.04‰ but only minor variations in Mg-isotope composition, which is consistent with the rather stable equatorial climate at this site. Holocene stalagmites from Germany (AH-1 mean δ26Mg: −4.01 ± 0.07‰; BU 4 mean δ26Mg: −4.20 ± 0.10‰ suggest changes in outside air temperature was the principal driver rather than rainfall amount. The alpine Pleistocene flowstones from Austria (SPA 52: −3.00 ± 0.73‰; SPA 59: −3.70 ± 0.43‰ are affected by glacial versus interglacial climate change with outside air temperature

  15. Isotope effect on superconductivity and Raman phonons of Pyrochlore Cd2Re2O7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, F. S.; Hajialamdari, M.; Reedyk, M.; Kremer, R. K.

    2018-06-01

    Cd2Re2O7 is the only α-Pyrochlore exhibiting superconductivity with a transition temperature (Tc) of ∼ 1 K. In this study, we present the effect of oxygen isotope (18O) as well as combined 18O and cadmium isotope (116Cd) substitution on the superconductivity and Raman scattering spectrum of Cd2Re2O7. The change of Tc and the energy gap Δ(T) are reported using various techniques including point contact spectroscopy. The shift in Raman phonon frequencies upon isotope substitution will be compared with measurement of the isotope effect on the superconducting transition temperature.

  16. Shifting schedules: the health effects of reorganizing shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare L; Whitehead, Margaret M; Sowden, Amanda J; Akers, Joanne; Petticrew, Mark P

    2008-05-01

    Approximately one fifth of workers are engaged in some kind of shift work. The harmful effects of shift work on the health and work-life balance of employees are well known. A range of organizational interventions has been suggested to address these negative effects. This study undertook the systematic review (following Quality Of Reporting Of Meta [QUORUM] analyses guidelines) of experimental and quasi-experimental studies, from any country (in any language) that evaluated the effects on health and work-life balance of organizational-level interventions that redesign shift work schedules. Twenty-seven electronic databases (medical, social science, economic) were searched. Data extraction and quality appraisal were carried out by two independent reviewers. Narrative synthesis was performed. The review was conducted between October 2005 and November 2006. Twenty-six studies were found relating to a variety of organizational interventions. No one type of intervention was found to be consistently harmful to workers. However, three types were found to have beneficial effects on health and work-life balance: (1) switching from slow to fast rotation, (2) changing from backward to forward rotation, and (3) self-scheduling of shifts. Improvements were usually at little or no direct organizational cost. However, there were concerns about the generalizability of the evidence, and no studies reported on impacts on health inequalities. This review reinforces the findings of epidemiologic and laboratory-based research by suggesting that certain organizational-level interventions can improve the health of shift workers, their work-life balance, or both. This evidence could be useful when designing interventions to improve the experience of shift work.

  17. δ15N values of atmospheric N species simultaneously collected using sector-based samplers distant from sources - Isotopic inheritance and fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, Martine M.; Cole, Amanda; Smirnoff, Anna; Vet, Robert

    2017-08-01

    The nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of atmospheric N species are commonly suggested as indicators of N emission sources. Therefore, numerous research studies have developed analytical methodologies and characterized primary (gases) and secondary emission products (mostly precipitation and aerosols) from various emitters. These previous studies have generally collected either reduced or oxidized N forms, and sampled them separately prior to determining their δ15N values. Distinctive isotopic signals have been reported for emissions from various sources, and seasonality of the δ15N values has been frequently attributed to shifts in relative contributions from sources with different isotopic signals. However, theoretical concepts suggest that temperature effects on isotopic fractionation may also affect the δ15N values of atmospheric reaction products. Here we use a sector-based multi-stage filter system to simultaneously collect seven reduced and oxidized N species downwind from five different source types in Alberta, Canada. We report δ15N values obtained with a state-of-the-art gold-furnace pre-concentrator online with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) to provide representative results even for oxidized-N forms. We find that equilibrium isotope effects and their temperature dependence play significant roles in determining the δ15N values of the secondary emission products. In the end, seasonal δ15N changes here are mainly caused by temperature effects on fractionation, and the δ15N values of only two N species from one source type can be retained as potential fingerprints of emissions.

  18. Aragonite-Calcite Inversion During Biogenic Carbonate Sampling: Considerations for Interpreting Isotopic Measurements in Paleoclimate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, A. J.; Swart, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    As aragonite is the metastable polymorph of calcium carbonate, it lends itself to monotropic inversion to the more stable polymorph, calcite. This inversion is possible through an increase in the temperature and pressure conditions to which the sample is exposed and, although first noted nearly a century ago, has been primarily discussed in the context of sample roasting prior to analyses in paleoclimatological studies. Over the last several decades, however, researchers have found evidence to suggest that the friction associated with the sampling of biogenic carbonates via milling/drilling also induces inversion. Furthermore, this inversion may be associated with a shift in measured oxygen isotopic values and ultimately have significant implications for the interpretation of paleoclimatic reconstructions. Despite this, the isotopic heterogeneity of biogenic aragonite skeletons makes the effects of inversion challenging to test and the subject remains underrepresented in the literature. Here we present a first order study into the effects of milling on both the mineralogy and isotopic compositions measured in sclerosponges, corals, and molluscs. X-Ray diffraction analysis of samples hand ground with a mortar and pestle reveal 100% aragonitic skeletons. Conversely, samples milled with a computerized micromill show measurable inversion to calcite. On average, percent inversion of aragonite to calcite for individual specimens was 15% for sclerosponges, 16% for corals, and 9% for molluscs. Isotopic data from these specimens show that the higher the percentage of aragonite inverted to calcite, the more depleted the measured oxygen isotopic values. In the largest of the datasets (sclerosponges), it is evident that the range of oxygen isotope values from milled samples (-0.02 to +0.84%) exceeds the range in values for those samples which were hand ground and showed no inversion (+0.53 to +0.90%). This, coupled with the strong correlation between the two variables

  19. An experimental study of muonic X-ray transitions in mercury isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, A.A.; Miller, J.P.; Powers, R.J.; Zehnder, A.; Rushton, A.M.; Welsh, R.E.; Kunselman, A.R.; Roberson, P.; Walter, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    Muonic X-ray spectra have been measured for 198-202 204 Hg. These data have been interpreted in terms of a two parameter Fermi distribution for the charge density. The authors have inferred the spectroscopic quadrupole moments of some of the 2 + nuclear states. For 199 Hg they have determined the spectroscopic quadrupole moments of the first two excited states and the B(E2) connecting these states to the ground state. For 201 Hg the ground state quadrupole moment has been obtained as well as several other E2 moments but the interpretation of the data has been hampered by a possible incomplete knowledge of the nuclear scheme of this nucleus. The muonic isotope shifts have been measured and interpreted in terms of deltaRsub(k) and are compared to electronic X-ray and optical isotope shift measurements. (Auth.)

  20. Electrochemically controlled iron isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jay R.; Young, Edward D.; Kavner, Abby

    2010-02-01

    Variations in the stable isotope abundances of transition metals have been observed in the geologic record and trying to understand and reconstruct the physical/environmental conditions that produced these signatures is an area of active research. It is clear that changes in oxidation state lead to large fractionations of the stable isotopes of many transition metals such as iron, suggesting that transition metal stable isotope signatures could be used as a paleo-redox proxy. However, the factors contributing to these observed stable isotope variations are poorly understood. Here we investigate how the kinetics of iron redox electrochemistry generates isotope fractionation. Through a combination of electrodeposition experiments and modeling of electrochemical processes including mass-transport, we show that electron transfer reactions are the cause of a large isotope separation, while mass transport-limited supply of reactant to the electrode attenuates the observed isotopic fractionation. Furthermore, the stable isotope composition of electroplated transition metals can be tuned in the laboratory by controlling parameters such as solution chemistry, reaction overpotential, and solution convection. These methods are potentially useful for generating isotopically-marked metal surfaces for tracking and forensic purposes. In addition, our studies will help interpret stable isotope data in terms of identifying underlying electron transfer processes in laboratory and natural samples.

  1. Shifts in bryophyte carbon isotope ratio across an elevation × soil age matrix on Mauna Loa, Hawaii: do bryophytes behave like vascular plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Mashuri; Sack, Lawren

    2011-05-01

    The carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of vascular plant leaf tissue is determined by isotope discrimination, primarily mediated by stomatal and mesophyll diffusion resistances and by photosynthetic rate. These effects lead to predictable trends in leaf δ(13)C across natural gradients of elevation, irradiance and nutrient supply. Less is known about shifts in δ(13)C for bryophytes at landscape scale, as bryophytes lack stomata in the dominant gametophyte phase, and thus lack active control over CO(2) diffusion. Twelve bryophyte species were sampled across a matrix of elevation and soil ages on Mauna Loa, Hawaii Island. We tested hypotheses based on previous findings for vascular plants, which tend to have less negative δ(13)C at higher elevations or irradiances, and for leaves with higher leaf mass per area (LMA). Across the matrix, bryophytes spanned the range of δ(13)C values typical of C(3) vascular plants. Bryophytes were remarkably similar to vascular plants in exhibiting less negative δ(13)C with increasing elevation, and with lower overstory cover; additionally δ(13)C was related to bryophyte canopy projected mass per area, a trait analogous to LMA in vascular plants, also correlated negatively with overstory cover. The similarity of responses of δ(13)C in bryophytes and vascular plants to environmental factors, despite differing morphologies and diffusion pathways, points to a strong direct role of photosynthetic rate in determining δ(13)C variation at the landscape scale.

  2. A compressed shift schedule: dealing with some of the problems of shift work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J B [Victoria University, Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Public Administration

    1989-07-01

    This study examines some of the psychological and behavioural effects of a 12-hour compressed shift schedule on coal miners in two organisations in Western Canada. It suggests that young, married compressed shift workers are more satisfied with their family relationship. They spend less of their leisure time with spouses when working shifts, and do not spend any more time with them on their days off. They have less time available for many leisure activities on their workdays. The extra time on days off is not reallocated to the leisure activities they were unable to do on their workdays. Some extra leisure time on days off may be spent on personal hobbies. There is no suggestion that the compressed shift schedule has any negative effect on the individual's health. 38 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Separation and sampling technique of light element isotopes by chemical exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shunsaku; Oi, Kenta; Takagi, Norio; Hirotsu, Takafumi; Kano, Hirofumi; Sonoda, Akinari; Makita, Yoji

    2000-01-01

    Lithium and boron isotope separation technique were studied. Granulation of lithium isotope separation agent was carried out by cure covering in solution. Separation of lithium isotope was stepped up by ammonium carbonate used as elusion agent. Styrene and ester resin derived three kinds of agents such as 2-amino-1, 3-propanediol (1, 3-PD), 2-amino-2-methyl-1, 3-propanediol (Me-1,3-PD) and tris(2-hydroxyethyl)amine (Tris) were used as absorbent.The ester resin with Tris showed larger amount of adsorption (1.4 mmol/g) than other resins. However, all resins with agent indicated more large adsorption volume of boron than the objective value (0.5 mmol/g). Large isotope shift was shown by the unsymmetrical vibration mode of lithium ion on the basis of quantum chemical calculation of isotope effect on dehydration of hydrated lithium ion. (S.Y.)

  4. Use of stable isotope analysis to determine of the timing of ontogenic habitat shifts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SAIP funding for stable isotope research was provided in FY11 and FY13; the FY11 funding was for loggerhead turtles (described below) as opposed to green turtles in...

  5. Study of groundwater recharge in Rechna Doab using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.I.; Tasneem, M.A.; Ahmed, M.; Hussain, S.D.; Khan, I.H.; Akram, W.

    1992-04-01

    Isotopic studies were performed in the Rechna Doab area to understand the recharge mechanism, investigate the relative contributions from various sources such as rainfall, rivers and canal system and to estimate the turn over times and replenishment rate of groundwater. The isotopic data suggest that the groundwater in the project area can be divided into different zones each having its own characteristic isotopic composition. The enriched isotopic values show rain recharge and depleted isotopic values are associated with river/canal system while the intermediate isotopic values show a mixing of two or more sources of water. The major contribution, however, comes from canal system. The isotopic data suggest that there is no quick movement of groundwater in the area. 18 figs. (author)

  6. Tracing alteration of mantle peridotite in the Samail ophiolite using Mg isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Obeso, J. C.; Kelemen, P. B.; Higgins, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Magnesium is one of the main constituents of mantle peridotite ( 22.8 wt%), which has a homogeneous Mg isotopic composition (d26Mg = -0.25 ± 0.04 ‰ (2 sd) DSM3, Teng et al 2010 GCA). Mg isotopes are used as tracers of continental and oceanic weathering as they exhibit variable degrees of fractionation during alteration depending on the lithology. Here we report some of the first Mg isotopic compositions of the mantle section of the Samail ophiolite in Oman and its alteration products. The mantle section of the ophiolite is composed mainly of depleted harzburgites and dunites with mantle-like d26Mg (-0.25, -0.21 ‰). Mantle peridotite is far from equilibrium in near surface conditions leading to rapid, extensive serpentinization, carbonation and oxidation, as well as other geochemical changes. Our analyzed samples encompass most of the alteration of peridotite products observed in Oman including listvenites (completely carbonated peridotite) near the basal thrust of the ophiolite, massive magnesite veins within peridotite outcrops, and heavily altered harzburgites. Magnesite listvenites have d26Mg slightly below mantle values (-0.33, -0.33‰) while dolomite listvenites are significantly lighter (-1.46, -0.89‰). This suggests that heavy Mg isotopes were removed from the listvenites during ophiolite emplacement. Heavily altered peridotite from Wadi Fins exhibit alteration halos with drastic changes in composition. The most oxidized areas are enriched in Fe and depleted in Mg compared to the cores of the samples. These variations in Mg concentrations are complemented by a shift to heavy Mg isotopic compositions (0.74, 0.86‰), among the heaviest d26Mg values that have been reported in altered peridotite. Potential sinks for light isotopes removed from such alteration zones are massive magnesite veins with very light compositions (-3.39, -3.14‰). The fractionation of Mg isotopes observed in the mantle section of the ophiolite spans more than 50% of the known

  7. The magnetic epoch-6 carbon shift: a change in the ocean's 13C/12C ratio 6.2 million years ago

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, E.; Killingley, J.S.; Berger, W.H.

    1980-01-01

    Tropical Indian Ocean planktonic and benthic foraminifera have 13 C/ 12 C ratios which change abruptly within Magnetic Epoch 6 about 6.2 million years ago. All species analyzed in the Late Miocene section of DSDP Site 238 show a shift towards lighter values of delta 13 C by about 0.8 per thousand. The oxygen isotope signal indicates that the pre-shift period is climatically quiet while the post-shift period has strong fluctuations. The authors suggest that the shift reflects a sudden increase in the rate of supply of organic carbon from coastal lowlands and from shelves exposed by regression, as well as a change in deep circulation patterns and ocean fertility. The event marks the transition of the ocean-atmosphere system from a quiet Early and Middle Neogene climate regime toward a Late Neogene regime characterized by climatic amplifying mechanisms (albedo feedback, bottom water production) located around the northern North Atlantic. The beginning of this regime may have been strongly influenced by the isolation of the Mediterranean basin. (Auth.)

  8. Bulk and compound-specific isotope analysis of long-chain n-alkanes from a 85,000 year sediment core from Lake Peten Petén Itzá, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, J.; Brenner, M.; Curtis, J. H.; Curtis, K.; Hodell, D. A.; Correa-Metrio, A.; Escobar, J.; Dutton, A. L.; Zimmerman, A. R.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    Sediment core PI-6 from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala possesses an 85-ka record of climate from lowland Central America. Variations in sediment lithology suggest large, abrupt changes in precipitation during the last glacial and deglacial periods, and into the early Holocene. Study of cores from nearby Lake Quexil demonstrated the utility of using the carbon isotopic composition of leaf wax n-alkanes to infer changes in terrestrial vegetation (Huang et al. 2001). Forty-nine samples were taken from composite Petén Itzá core PI-6 to measure carbon isotopes of bulk organic carbon and long-chain n alkanes. Changes in δ13C values indicate shifts in the relative proportion of C3 to C4 biomass. The record shows largest δ13C variations are associated with Heinrich Events. Carbon isotope values in sediments deposited during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) indicate moderate precipitation and little rainfall fluctuation. The deglacial was a period of pronounced climate variability, e.g. the Bölling-Allerod and Younger Dryas. Arid times of the deglacial were inferred from samples with the greatest δ13C values in organic matter, reflecting the largest proportion of C4 plants. Such inferences are supported by stable isotope measurements on ostracod shells and analysis of pollen from the same sample depths in core PI-6. Carbon stable isotope measures on bulk organic carbon and n alkane compounds show similar trends throughout the record and the C:N ratio of Petén Itzá sediments indicates a predominantly allochthonous source for bulk organic matter. Hence, isotope measures on bulk organic carbon (δ13CTOC) in sediments from this lake are sufficient to infer climate-driven shifts in vegetation, making n-alkane extraction and isotope analysis superfluous.

  9. Isotopic Evidence for Multi-stage Cosmic-ray Exposure Histories of Lunar Meteorites: Long Residence on the Moon and Short Transition to the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Keisuke; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Yoneda, Shigekazu

    2017-01-01

    It is known that most lunar meteorites have complicated cosmic-ray exposure experiences on the Moon and in space. In this study, cosmic-ray irradiation histories of six lunar meteorites, Dhofar 489, Northwest Africa 032 (NWA 032), NWA 479, NWA 482, NWA 2995, and NWA 5000, were characterized from neutron-captured isotopic shifts of Sm and Gd, and from the abundances of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides like 10 Be, 26 Al, 36 Cl, and 41 Ca. Sm and Gd isotopic data of all of six meteorites show significant isotopic shifts of 149 Sm– 150 Sm and 157 Gd– 158 Gd caused by accumulation of neutron capture reactions due to cosmic-ray irradiation, corresponding to the neutron fluences of (1.3–9.6) × 10 16 n cm −2 . In particular, very large Sm and Gd isotopic shifts of NWA 482 are over those of a lunar regolith 70002, having the largest isotopic shifts among the Apollo regolith samples, corresponding to cosmic-ray exposure duration over 800 million years in the lunar surface (2 π irradiation). Meanwhile, the concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides for individual six meteorites show the short irradiation time less than one million years as their bodies in space (4 π irradiation). Our data also support the results of previous studies, revealing that most of lunar meteorites have long exposure ages at shallow depths on the Moon and short transit times from the Moon to the Earth.

  10. Laser-spectroscopic nuclear-structure studies on radioactive silver and indium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinger, U.

    1988-05-01

    Neutron-deficient silver and neutron-rich indium isotopes were studied by collinear laser spectroscopy. The neutron-deficient nuclei 101 , 103 , 104 , 105 , 105m , 106m Ag were produced as evaporation-residual nuclei in heavy-ion fusion reactions at the mass separator of the GSI in Darmstadt. The fourteen studied indium isotopes and isomers with even mass number in the range 112-126 In were produced by 600-MeV-proton induced fission of a uranium carbide target at the ISOLDE separator in Geneva. The mass-separated ion beam was subsequently deviated electrostatically, neutralized in a sodium vapor and superposed with a c w dye laser. A photon counting system detected the resonance fluorescence of the induced transitions. The hyperfine structure and the isotope shift of the 4d 9 5s 2 2 D 5/2 → 4d 10 6p 2 P 3/2 transition (λ=547.7 nm) in silver and the 5p 2 P 1/2,3/2 → 6s 2 s 1/2 transition (λ=410 respectively 451 nm) in indium were measured. While in indium for the analysis of the data earlier work could be referred to, in silver a detailed analysis of the isotope shift and hyperfine structure was performed by means of ab initio calculations and semi-empirical procedures. Thereby the configuration interactions were especially considered. The nuclear moments were discussed in the framework of existing nuclear models regarding nuclear-spectroscopic informations. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. Fluid heterogeneity during granulite facies metamorphism in the Adirondacks: stable isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The preservation of premetamorphic, whole-rock oxygen isotope ratios in Adirondack metasediments shows that neither these rocks nor adjacent anorthosites and gneisses have been penetrated by large amounts of externally derived, hot CO2-H2O fluids during granulite facies metamorphism. This conclusion is supported by calculations of the effect of fluid volatilization and exchange and is also independently supported by petrologic and phase equilibria considerations. The data suggest that these rocks were not an open system during metamorphism; that fluid/rock ratios were in many instances between 0.0 and 0.1; that externally derived fluids, as well as fluids derived by metamorphic volatilization, rose along localized channels and were not pervasive; and thus that no single generalization can be applied to metamorphic fluid conditions in the Adirondacks. Analyses of 3 to 4 coexisting minerals from Adirondack marbles show that isotopic equilibrium was attained at the peak of granulite and upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. Thus the isotopic compositions of metamorphic fluids can be inferred from analyses of carbonates and fluid budgets can be constructed. Carbonates from the granulite facies are on average, isotopically similar to those from lower grade or unmetamorphosed limestones of the same age showing that no large isotopic shifts accompanied high grade metamorphism. Equilibrium calculations indicate that small decreases in ??18O, averaging 1 permil, result from volatilization reactions for Adirondack rock compositions. Additional small differences between amphibolite and granulite facies marbles are due to systematic lithologie differences. The range of Adirondack carbonate ??18O values (12.3 to 27.2) can be explained by the highly variable isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed limestones in conjunction with minor 18O and 13C depletions caused by metamorphic volatilization suggesting that many (and possibly most) marbles have closely preserved their

  12. Evolution of the mantle source in an evolving arc-backarc system (Torres del Paine, Patagonia): Evidence from Hf isotopes in zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, T. A.; Muntener, O.; Leuthold, J.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Putlitz, B.; d'Abzac, F. X.; Chiaradia, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Miocene Torres del Paine intrusive complex (TPIC) in Patagonia is a transitional alkaline backarc intrusion1 emplaced on short timescales of 162 ± 11 ka2. It is subdivided into two units with distinct ages of ~12.6 Ma and ~12.45 Ma1. Smaller intrusive bodies in the area record a change in chemistry from calc-alkaline at ~16 Ma, to transitional alkaline at ~12.5 Ma. Zircons from ~16 Ma intrusives and the 12.6 Ma part of the TPIC have remarkably consistent, slightly enriched Hf isotope compositions with ɛHf(i) of -1 to +2. An abrupt shift towards more juvenile Hf isotope compositions is observed in the ~12.45 Ma part of the TPIC, with ɛHf(i) of +3 to +6. Bulk rock Nd and Sr isotopes for the TPIC show the same shift towards more juvenile compositions at this time1. The long-term consistency of ɛHf(i) from 16 to 12.6 Ma is surprising, given that in the same period the bulk rock chemistry changes from calc-alkaline to transitional alkaline. Conversely, the major shift in ɛHf(i) is not correlated with any change in bulk rock chemistry, which remains transitional alkaline from 12.6 to 12.45 Ma. The decoupling of major element chemical evolution and Hf isotope signatures suggests that the subsequent rapid influx of juvenile material recorded by our Hf isotope data must have occurred by renewed mantle melting. Subduction of the Chile ridge at ~12.5 Ma in this area caused arc magmatism to move westwards and back-arc extension to initiate. We propose that the first TPIC magmas (12.6 Ma) came from a mantle wedge with a residual subduction signature. Subsequent melting of more juvenile mantle, less contaminated by a subduction component, generated the 12.45 Ma TPIC magmas. These results demonstrate that magmatic complexes such as the TPIC may tap distinct mantle sources even on very short timescales, fingerprinting arc-backarc transition processes. 1Leuthold et al., 2013, JPET, 54: 273-303 2Leuthold et al., 2012, EPSL, 325: 85-92

  13. Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone Shifts During the Last Glacial Cycle Near the Line Islands Ridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimi Sipala, M. A.; Marcantonio, F.

    2015-12-01

    This research focuses on the shift in the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) during the last glacial cycle. Deep sea sediments from the Central Equatorial Pacific (CEP) are used to quantify and isolate the sources and sinks of atmospheric dust. Dust records and influences climate affecting a wide range of process from Earth's Albedo to carbon export. Our aim is to determine the provenance of windblown dust deposited in the CEP near the Line Islands Ridge using radiogenic Nd and Pb isotopes, and to infer the location of the ITCZ and the changes of atmospheric transport through ice-age climate transitions. We focus on three cores from the CEP, along a meridional transect at approximately 160° W --- 0° 28' N (ML1208-17PC), 4° 41' N (ML1208-31BB), and 7 ° 2'N (ML1208-31BB). Radiogenic isotopes (Sr, Nd, Pb) have been successfully used to distinguish between different potential dust sources in the aluminosilicates fractions of Pacific Sediments. Our preliminary data suggest that the equatorial core (17PC) predominantly receives its dust from South America and South American volcanics South America (206Pb/204Pb = 18.62, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.63, 208Pb/204Pb = 38.62; ; ɛNd = ~ -5). The middle core, which more closely reflects the modern position of the ITCZ, has varied dust provenance through time, at times consistent with Asian Loess (average ratios are 206Pb/204Pb = 18.88, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.69, 208Pb/204Pb = 39.06; ɛNd = ~ -7) and Asian Volcanics (ɛNd = ~-1) suggesting a shift in the ITCZ south of 4N before the LGM. Our results for the most northern core are forthcoming. Prior to Holocene time, the changes in Pb isotope ratios in both cores appear to be in anti-phase; the northern core becomes less radiogenic up to the LGM, while the southern core becomes more radiogenic. This is potentially due to a weakening of the ITCZ during glacial times. A secondary aim of this work is to determine if the ITCZ migrated further south than core 17PC during Heinrich stage II.

  14. Intracellular Cadmium Isotope Fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T. J.; Lee, R. B.; Henderson, G. M.; Rickaby, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent stable isotope studies into the biological utilization of transition metals (e.g. Cu, Fe, Zn, Cd) suggest several stepwise cellular processes can fractionate isotopes in both culture and nature. However, the determination of fractionation factors is often unsatisfactory, as significant variability can exist - even between different organisms with the same cellular functions. Thus, it has not been possible to adequately understand the source and mechanisms of metal isotopic fractionation. In order to address this problem, we investigated the biological fractionation of Cd isotopes within genetically-modified bacteria (E. coli). There is currently only one known biological use or requirement of Cd, a Cd/Zn carbonic anhydrase (CdCA, from the marine diatom T. weissfloggii), which we introduce into the E. coli genome. We have also developed a cleaning procedure that allows for the treating of bacteria so as to study the isotopic composition of different cellular components. We find that whole cells always exhibit a preference for uptake of the lighter isotopes of Cd. Notably, whole cells appear to have a similar Cd isotopic composition regardless of the expression of CdCA within the E. coli. However, isotopic fractionation can occur within the genetically modified E. coli during Cd use, such that Cd bound in CdCA can display a distinct isotopic composition compared to the cell as a whole. Thus, the externally observed fractionation is independent of the internal uses of Cd, with the largest Cd isotope fractionation occurring during cross-membrane transport. A general implication of these experiments is that trace metal isotopic fractionation most likely reflects metal transport into biological cells (either actively or passively), rather than relating to expression of specific physiological function and genetic expression of different metalloenzymes.

  15. Laser Spectroscopy Study on the Neutron-Rich and Neutron-Deficient Te Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to perform laser spectroscopy measurements on the Te isotopes. This will give access to fundamental properties of the ground and rather long-lived isomeric states such as the change in the mean square charge radius ($\\delta\\langle$r$^2_c\\rangle$) and the nuclear moments. For these medium-mass isotopes, at this moment the optical resolution obtained with RILIS is not high enough to perform isotope shift measurements. Thus we will use the COMPLIS experimental setup which allows Resonant Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS) on laser desorbed atoms. The 5p$^{4}$ $^{3}$P$_{2} \\rightarrow$ 5p$^{3}$ 6s $^{3}$S$_{1}$ and 5p$^{4}$ $^{3}$P$_{2} \\rightarrow$ 5p$^{3}$ 6s $^{5}$S$_{2}$ optical transitions have been used to perform, on the stable Te isotopes, the tests required by the INTC committee. For this purpose stable-ion sources have been built and Te isotopes have been delivered as stable beams by the injector coupled to the COMPLIS setup. ISOLDE offers the opportunity for studying the Te isotope series over a ...

  16. Stable isotope analysis indicates a lack of inter- and intra-specific dietary redundancy among ecologically important coral reef fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass-Johnson, J. G.; McQuaid, C. D.; Hill, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    Parrotfish are critical consumers on coral reefs, mediating the balance between algae and corals, and are often categorised into three functional groups based on adult morphology and feeding behaviour. We used stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N) to investigate size-related ontogenetic dietary changes in multiple species of parrotfish on coral reefs around Zanzibar. We compared signatures among species and functional groups (scrapers, excavators and browsers) as well as ontogenetic stages (immature, initial and terminal phase) within species. Stable isotope analysis suggests that ontogenetic dietary shifts occurred in seven of the nine species examined; larger individuals had enriched δ13C values, with no relationship between size and δ15N. The relationship between fish length and δ13C signature was maintained when species were categorised as scrapers and excavators, but was more pronounced for scrapers than excavators, indicating stronger ontogenetic changes. Isotopic mixing models classified the initial phase of both the most abundant excavator ( Chlorurus sordidus) as a scraper and the immature stage of the scraper Scarus ghobban (the largest species) as an excavator, indicating that diet relates to size rather than taxonomy. The results indicate that parrotfish may show similar intra-group changes in diet with length, but that their trophic ecology is more complex than suggested by morphology alone. Stable isotope analyses indicate that feeding ecology may differ among species within functional groups, and according to ontogenetic stage within a species.

  17. An IBM description of coexistence in the platinum isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, M.; Tang, K.T.; Van Isacker, P.

    1996-06-01

    The low-energy spectra of the platinum isotopes show evidence for the presence of two types of configurations: one which involves only excitations of the valence nucleons and another which includes proton excitations across the Z = 82 shell gap. A schematic description is presented of the coexistence and mixing of both configurations in the context of the interacting boson model and energies, electromagnetic transition rates and moments, and radii are studied. The analysis shows that a simultaneous description of both configurations puts constraints on the possible range of model parameters. Isotope and isomer shifts are shown to be sensitive to the mixing of both configurations. (author)

  18. Isotopic composition of steam samples from Lanzarote, Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, V. (CSIC, Madrid); Panichi, C.

    1974-12-01

    The isotopic analysis of the steam samples collected in the geothermal area of Lanzarote show that the values of delta D are practically constant, and those of delta /sup 18/O range in a shift of 17 /sup 0///sub 00/ reaching a maximum of +14.7 /sup 0///sub 00/ versus SMOW, this last value being the highest found in steam samples. This composition can be explained as a consequence of the isotopic exchange at high temperature between limestones and a mixture of marine and local meteoric waters. This interpretation agrees with previous geological and geophysical studies which consider that a promising geothermal field could exist in Lanzarote. (auth)

  19. Using stable isotopes to investigate individual diet specialization in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, S.D.; Tinker, M.T.; Monson, Daniel H.; Oftedal, O.T.; Ralls, K.; Staedler, M.M.; Fogel, M.L.; Estes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Differences in diet composition among conspecifics (dietary specialization) have been documented across a broad range of taxonomic groups and habitats, and such variation at the individual level is increasingly recognized as an important component of diversity in trophic interactions. Accurate identification of individual dietary specialization, however, requires longitudinal dietary records that are labor-intensive and cost-prohibitive to obtain for many species. Here we explore the use of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) as a promising technique for detecting and quantifying patterns of individual dietary specialization. Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) offer a unique opportunity for testing this approach because (1) they consume a wide variety of prey that span multiple trophic levels, habitats, and ecologically defined functional groups; and (2) individual diet specialization can be validated with existing observational data. We analyzed the isotopic composition of sea otter vibrissae (n = 31) in order to characterize inter- and intra-individual variation in sea otter diets at Monterey Bay, California, USA. At the population level, sea otters showed substantial variation in both δ13C and δ15N values, occupying nearly all of the “isotopic space” created by the diversity of isotopic signatures of potential prey taxa. Most of the variation in sea otter vibrissae was accounted for by differences between individuals, with much less contributed by within-individual variation. A majority of sea otters (∼80%) showed relatively little temporal variability in isotopic composition, suggesting that the proportional composition of most individuals' diets is relatively constant over time; a few individuals (∼20%) exhibited a high degree of intra-vibrissa isotopic variability, suggesting seasonal shifts in diet composition. These results and our interpretation of them were supported by long-term observational data on the diets of radio-tagged sea otters

  20. Isotope heterogeneity of Pre-Holocene groundwater in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsdóttir, Á.E.; Arnorsson, S.; Heinemeier, Jan

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that groundwater with a Pre-Holocene component is more common in the Icelandic bedrock than previously thought. Some of the Pre-Holocene water samples are more depleted in delta H-2 and delta O-18 than any mean annual precipitation in Iceland today due to the cold...... climate at that time. However, most often Pre-Holocene water components cannot be detected based on the water isotopes alone due to mixing with younger and isotopically heavier water. The Cl concentration in relation to the water isotopes in specific areas has proved to be a good indicator of a Pre......-Holocene component in the groundwater. The deuterium excess value may also help to identify water from a different climate regime, if no oxygen shift has occurred. The relative abundance of a Pre-Holocene water component of the Icelandic groundwater has led to the understanding that combined interpretation of water...

  1. RNA-Based Stable Isotope Probing Suggests Allobaculum spp. as Particularly Active Glucose Assimilators in a Complex Murine Microbiota Cultured In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Herrmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA-based stable isotope probing (RNA-SIP and metabolic profiling were used to detect actively glucose-consuming bacteria in a complex microbial community obtained from a murine model system. A faeces-derived microbiota was incubated under anaerobic conditions for 0, 2, and 4 h with 40 mM [U13C]glucose. Isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation and fractionation of isolated RNA into labeled and unlabeled fractions followed by 16S rRNA sequencing showed a quick adaptation of the bacterial community in response to the added sugar, which was dominated by unclassified Lachnospiraceae species. Inspection of distinct fractions of isotope-labeled RNA revealed Allobaculum spp. as particularly active glucose utilizers in the system, as the corresponding RNA showed significantly higher proportions among the labeled RNA. With time, the labeled sugar was used by a wider spectrum of faecal bacteria. Metabolic profiling indicated rapid fermentation of [U13C]glucose, with lactate, acetate, and propionate being the principal 13C-labeled fermentation products, and suggested that “cross-feeding” occurred in the system. RNA-SIP combined with metabolic profiling of 13C-labeled products allowed insights into the microbial assimilation of a general model substrate, demonstrating the appropriateness of this technology to study assimilation processes of nutritionally more relevant substrates, for example, prebiotic carbohydrates, in the gut microbiota of mice as a model system.

  2. Assessment of Hg Pollution Released from a WWII Submarine Wreck (U-864) by Hg Isotopic Analysis of Sediments and Cancer pagurus Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rua-Ibarz, Ana; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo; Maage, Amund; Frantzen, Sylvia; Valdersnes, Stig; Vanhaecke, Frank

    2016-10-04

    Hg pollution released from the U-864 submarine sunk during WWII and potential introduction of that Hg into the marine food chain have been studied by a combination of quantitative Hg and MeHg determination and Hg isotopic analysis via cold vapor generation multicollector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (CVG-MC-ICP-MS) in sediment and Cancer pagurus samples. The sediment pollution could be unequivocally linked with the metallic Hg present in the wreck. Crabs were collected at the wreck location and 4 nmi north and south, and their brown and claw meat were analyzed separately. For brown meat, the δ 202 Hg values of the individuals from the wreck location were shifted toward the isotopic signature of the sediment and, thus, the submarine Hg. Such differences were not found for claw meat. The isotope ratio results suggest direct ingestion of metallic Hg by C. pagurus but do not offer any proof for any other introduction of the submarine Hg into the marine food chain.

  3. Stable isotope and modelling evidence for CO2 as a driver of glacial–interglacial vegetation shifts in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Bragg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric CO2 concentration is hypothesized to influence vegetation distribution via tree–grass competition, with higher CO2 concentrations favouring trees. The stable carbon isotope (δ13C signature of vegetation is influenced by the relative importance of C4 plants (including most tropical grasses and C3 plants (including nearly all trees, and the degree of stomatal closure – a response to aridity – in C3 plants. Compound-specific δ13C analyses of leaf-wax biomarkers in sediment cores of an offshore South Atlantic transect are used here as a record of vegetation changes in subequatorial Africa. These data suggest a large increase in C3 relative to C4 plant dominance after the Last Glacial Maximum. Using a process-based biogeography model that explicitly simulates 13C discrimination, it is shown that precipitation and temperature changes cannot explain the observed shift in δ13C values. The physiological effect of increasing CO2 concentration is decisive, altering the C3/C4 balance and bringing the simulated and observed δ13C values into line. It is concluded that CO2 concentration itself was a key agent of vegetation change in tropical southern Africa during the last glacial–interglacial transition. Two additional inferences follow. First, long-term variations in terrestrial δ13Cvalues are not simply a proxy for regional rainfall, as has sometimes been assumed. Although precipitation and temperature changes have had major effects on vegetation in many regions of the world during the period between the Last Glacial Maximum and recent times, CO2 effects must also be taken into account, especially when reconstructing changes in climate between glacial and interglacial states. Second, rising CO2 concentration today is likely to be influencing tree–grass competition in a similar way, and thus contributing to the "woody thickening" observed in savannas worldwide. This second inference points to the importance of experiments to

  4. Anomalous H/D isotope effect on {sup 35}Cl NQR frequencies in piperidinium p-chlorobenzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Ryo; Honda, Hisashi, E-mail: hhonda@yokohama-cu.ac.jp [Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Integrated Science (Japan); Kimura, Taiki [Yokohama City University, Faculty of Science (Japan); Nakata, Eiichi; Takamizawa, Satoshi; Noro, Sumiko [Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Integrated Science (Japan); Ishimaru, Shin' ichi [Tokyo Denki University, Department of Green and Sustainable Chemistry (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Anomalous isotope effects were detected in the {sup 35}Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) frequency of piperidinium p-chlrobenzoate (C{sub 5}H{sub 10}NH. ClC{sub 6}H{sub 4}COOH) by deuteration of hydrogen atoms. The atoms were determined to form two kinds of N-H...O type H-bonds in the crystal structure. Large frequency shifts of the {sup 35}Cl resonance lines reaching 288 kHz at 77 K and 278 kHz at room temperature were caused upon deuteration, in spite of the fact that the Cl atoms in the molecule do not form hydrogen bonds in the crystal. Results of single crystal X-ray diffraction measurements and density-functional-theorem calculations suggest that a dihedral-angle change of 1.8{sup o} between benzene and the piperidine ring contributes to {sup 35}Cl NQR anomalous frequency shifts.

  5. Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic fingerprinting of transatlantic dust derived from North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wancang; Balsam, William; Williams, Earle; Long, Xiaoyong; Ji, Junfeng

    2018-03-01

    Long-range transport of African dust plays an important role in understanding dust-climate relationships including dust source areas, dust pathways and associated atmospheric and/or oceanic processes. Clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions can be used as geochemical fingerprints to constrain dust provenance and the pathways of long-range transported mineral dust. We investigated the clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic composition of surface samples along four transects bordering the Sahara Desert. The transects are from Mali, Niger/Benin/Togo, Egypt and Morocco. Our results show that the Mali transect on the West African Craton (WAC) produces lower εNd (εNd-mean = -16.38) and εHf (εHf-mean = -9.59) values than the other three transects. The Egyptian transect exhibits the lowest 87Sr/86Sr ratios (87Sr/86Srmean = 0.709842), the highest εHf (εHf-mean = -0.34) and εNd values of the four transects. Comparison of the clay-sized Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic values from our North African samples to transatlantic African dust collected in Barbados demonstrates that the dust's provenance is primarily the western Sahel and Sahara as well as the central Sahel. Summer emission dust is derived mainly from the western Sahel and Sahara regions. The source of transatlantic dust in spring and autumn is more varied than in the summer and includes dust not only from western areas, but also south central areas. Comparison of the Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic fingerprints between the source and sink of transatlantic dust also suggests that a northwestward shift in dust source occurs from the winter, through the spring and into the summer. The isotopic data we develop here provide another tool for discriminating changes in dust archives resulting from paleoenvironmental evolution of source regions.

  6. Lead isotope in mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date state-of-the-art review of lead isotopes in mineral exploration. Beginning with an historical review on suggested uses of lead isotopes in mineral exploration, the author then outlines the theoretical aspects of lead isotopes and illustrates that the method is based on well-known principles of radioactive decay, from which isotopic signatures for different styles of mineralization are derived. The varying isotopic signatures are then introduced. The major part of the book details over 40 case histories for base and precious metals, uranium and tin using sampling media such as sulfides, gossans, soils, weathered bedrock, vegetation and groundwaters. Advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Examples are given of the use of lead isotopes in testing conceptual models for exploration. The success rate and cost-effectiveness of the method are illustrated by actual exploration examples. Analytical advances which should lower the cost of the method and future uses are outlined. Many of the case histories use recently published or unpublished data, 27 tables of which are given in an appendix. Details of sampling, the methods for obtaining the isotope ratios, and a commercially-available integrated lead isotope service are also provided. (Auth.)

  7. Stable carbon isotope analysis of fluvial sediment fluxes over two contrasting C(4) -C(3) semi-arid vegetation transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttock, Alan; Dungait, Jennifer A J; Bol, Roland; Dixon, Elizabeth R; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2012-10-30

    Globally, many drylands are experiencing the encroachment of woody vegetation into grasslands. These changes in ecosystem structure and processes can result in increased sediment and nutrient fluxes due to fluvial erosion. As these changes are often accompanied by a shift from C(4) to C(3) vegetation with characteristic δ(13) C values, stable isotope analysis provides a promising mechanism for tracing these fluxes. Input vegetation, surface sediment and fluvially eroded sediment samples were collected across two contrasting C(4) -C(3) dryland vegetation transitions in New Mexico, USA. Isotope ratio mass spectrometric analyses were performed using a Carlo Erba NA2000 analyser interfaced to a SerCon 20-22 isotope ratio mass spectrometer to determine bulk δ(13) C values. Stable isotope analyses of contemporary input vegetation and surface sediments over the monitored transitions showed significant differences (p fluvially eroded sediment from each of the sites, with no significant variation between surface sediment and eroded sediment values. The significant differences in bulk δ(13) C values between sites were dependent on vegetation input. Importantly, these values were robustly expressed in fluvially eroded sediments, suggesting that stable isotope analysis is suitable for tracing sediment fluxes. Due to the prevalent nature of these dryland vegetation transitions in the USA and globally, further development of stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry has provided a valuable tool for enhanced understanding of functional changes in these ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Study of polonium isotopes ground state properties by simultaneous atomic- and nuclear-spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Koester, U H; Kalaninova, Z; Imai, N

    2007-01-01

    We propose to systematically study the ground state properties of neutron deficient $^{192-200}$Po isotopes by means of in-source laser spectroscopy using the ISOLDE laser ion source coupled with nuclear spectroscopy at the detection setup as successfully done before by this collaboration with neutron deficient lead isotopes. The study of the change in mean square charge radii along the polonium isotope chain will give an insight into shape coexistence above the mid-shell N = 104 and above the closed shell Z = 82. The hyperfine structure of the odd isotopes will also allow determination of the nuclear spin and the magnetic moment of the ground state and of any identifiable isomer state. For this study, a standard UC$_{x}$ target with the ISOLDE RILIS is required for 38 shifts.

  9. Titanium Isotopes Provide Clues to Lunar Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2012-05-01

    The idea that the Moon formed as the result of the giant impact of a Mars-sized impactor with the still-growing Earth explains two central facts about the Earth-Moon system: its total angular momentum (Earth's spin and the Moon's orbital motion), and the sizes of the metallic cores of the Earth (large) and Moon (tiny). This gives cosmochemists some confidence in the hypothesis, but they would greatly appreciate additional compositional tests. One undisputed point is the identical abundance of the three oxygen isotopes in Earth and Moon. Junjun Zhang and colleagues at the University of Chicago (USA) and the University of Bern (Switzerland) have added another isotopic system to the cosmochemical testing tool kit, titanium isotopes. They find that the ratio of titanium-50 to titanium-47 is identical in Earth and Moon to within four parts per million. In contrast, other solar system materials, such as carbonaceous chondrites, vary by considerably more than this-- up to 150 times as much. The identical oxygen and titanium isotopic compositions in Earth and Moon are surprising in light of what we think we know about planet formation and formation of the Moon after a giant impact. The variations in oxygen and titanium isotopes among meteorite types suggest that it is unlikely that the Moon-forming giant impactor would have had the same isotopic composition as the Earth. Simulations show that the Moon ends up constructed mostly (40-75%) from the impactor materials. Thus, the Moon ought to have different isotopic composition than does Earth. The isotopes might have exchanged in the complicated, messy proto-lunar disk (as has been suggested for oxygen isotopes), making them the same. However, Zhang and colleagues suggest that this exchange is unlikely for a refractory element like titanium. Could the impact simulations be greatly overestimating the contributions from the impactor? Was the mixing of building-block materials throughout the inner solar system much less than

  10. Josephson shift registers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  11. Tracing subduction zone fluid-rock interactions using trace element and Mg-Sr-Nd isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shui-Jiong; Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Shu-Guang; Zhang, Li-Fei; Du, Jin-Xue; He, Yong-Sheng; Niu, Yaoling

    2017-10-01

    , whereas high Pb* and 87Sr/86Sr eclogites have mantle-like δ26Mg values, suggesting that the two fluid components have diverse influences on the Mg isotopic systematics of these eclogites. The LILE-rich fluid component, possibly derived from mica-group minerals, contains a considerable amount of isotopically heavy Mg that has shifted the δ26Mg of the eclogites towards higher values. By contrast, the 87Sr/86Sr- and Pb-rich fluid component, most likely released from epidote-group minerals in metasediments, has little Mg so as not to modify the Mg isotopic composition of the eclogites. In addition, the influence of talc-derived fluid might be evident in a very few eclogites that have low Rb/Sr and Ba/Pb but slightly heavier Mg isotopic compositions. These findings represent an important step toward a broad understanding of the Mg isotope geochemistry in subduction zones, and contributing to understanding why island arc basalts have averagely heavier Mg isotopic compositions than the normal mantle.

  12. Uranium isotope separation in the solid state. Final report for period ending September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, E.R.

    1978-09-01

    The final results of an investigation on the isotope separation of uranium in the solid state are presented in this report. The feasibility of separating uranium isotopes using the proposed system based on uranium borohydride (borodeuteride) in a low temperature mixed crystal has been determined. The first section of the report summarizes the background material relating to this work which includes: a calculation of isotope shifts (borodeuteride), details on the two-step, two-photon spectroscopic isotope separation technique, and a brief overview of the method and equipment used for separating uranium isotopes in the solid state. The second section concerns the experimental details of the present work performed in the laboratory. Representative spectroscopic data obtained in this investigation are presented and discussed in the third section. Finally, the report is concluded with recommendations for further investigations on the uranium borohydride (borodeuteride) system for isotope separation

  13. Isotopic Evidence for Multi-stage Cosmic-ray Exposure Histories of Lunar Meteorites: Long Residence on the Moon and Short Transition to the Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidaka, Hiroshi; Sakuma, Keisuke [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Nagoya University Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Nishiizumi, Kunihiko [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Yoneda, Shigekazu, E-mail: hidaka@eps.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Science and Engineering, National Museum of Nature and Science Tsukuba 305-0005 (Japan)

    2017-06-01

    It is known that most lunar meteorites have complicated cosmic-ray exposure experiences on the Moon and in space. In this study, cosmic-ray irradiation histories of six lunar meteorites, Dhofar 489, Northwest Africa 032 (NWA 032), NWA 479, NWA 482, NWA 2995, and NWA 5000, were characterized from neutron-captured isotopic shifts of Sm and Gd, and from the abundances of long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides like {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 41}Ca. Sm and Gd isotopic data of all of six meteorites show significant isotopic shifts of {sup 149}Sm–{sup 150}Sm and {sup 157}Gd–{sup 158}Gd caused by accumulation of neutron capture reactions due to cosmic-ray irradiation, corresponding to the neutron fluences of (1.3–9.6) × 10{sup 16} n cm{sup −2}. In particular, very large Sm and Gd isotopic shifts of NWA 482 are over those of a lunar regolith 70002, having the largest isotopic shifts among the Apollo regolith samples, corresponding to cosmic-ray exposure duration over 800 million years in the lunar surface (2 π irradiation). Meanwhile, the concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides for individual six meteorites show the short irradiation time less than one million years as their bodies in space (4 π irradiation). Our data also support the results of previous studies, revealing that most of lunar meteorites have long exposure ages at shallow depths on the Moon and short transit times from the Moon to the Earth.

  14. Deflection of atomic beams with isotope separation by optical resonance radiation using stimulated emission and the ac stark effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorkholm, J.E.; Liao, P.F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Improved atomic beam deflection and improved isotope separation, even in vapors, is proposed by substituting the A.C. Stark effect for the baseband chirp of the pushing beam in the prior proposal by I. Nebenzahl et al., Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 25, page 327 (September 1974). The efficiency inherent in re-using the photons as in the Nebenzahl et al proposal is retained; but the external frequency chirpers are avoided. The entire process is performed by two pulses of monochromatic coherent light, thereby avoiding the complication of amplifying frequency-modulated light pulses. The A.C. Stark effect is provided by the second beam of coherent monochromatic light, which is sufficiently intense to chirp the energy levels of the atoms or isotopes of the atomic beam or vapor. Although, in general, the A.C. Stark effect will alter the isotope shift somewhat, it is not eliminated. In fact, the appropriate choice of frequencies of the pushing and chirping beams may even relax the requirements with respect to the isotope absorption line shift for effective separation. That is, it may make the isotope absorption lines more easily resolvable

  15. Changes in hydrogen isotope ratios in sequential plumage stages: an implication for the creation of isotope-base maps for tracking migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, J M; Holroyd, G L; Muehlenbachs, K

    2003-09-01

    Accurate reference maps are important in the use of stable-isotopes to track the movements of migratory birds. Reference maps created by the analysis of samples collected from young at the nest site are more accurate than simply referring to naturally occurring patterns of hydrogen isotope ratios created by precipitation cycles. Ratios of hydrogen isotopes in the nutrients incorporated early in the development of young birds can be derived from endogenous, maternal sources. Base-maps should be created with the analysis of tissue samples from hatchlings after local the isotopic signature of exogenous nutrients is dominant. Migratory species such as Peregrine Falcons are known to use endogenous sources in the creation of their eggs, therefore knowledge of what plumage stage best represents the local hydrogen ratios would assist in the planning of nest visits. We conducted diet manipulation experiments involving Japanese Quail and Peregrine Falcons to determine the plumage stage when hydrogen isotope ratios were indicative of a switch in their food source. The natal down of both the quail and falcons reflected the diet of breeding adult females. The hydrogen isotope ratios of a new food source were dominant in the juvenile down of the young falcons, although a further shift was detected in the final juvenile plumage. The juvenile plumage is grown during weeks 3-4 after hatch on Peregrine Falcons. Nest visits for the purpose of collecting feathers for isotope-base-map creation should be made around 4 weeks after the presumed hatch of the young falcons.

  16. Collinear laser spectroscopy on radioactive neutron-deficient lead and thallium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, R.

    1989-02-01

    The systematic study of the isotope shift in the neighbourhood of the closed shells was extended in this thesis to Z = 82. The elements lead and thallium were measured up to the mass 190 and 188 and the nuclear moments determined together with the change of the mean square charge radius. The accumulating of the recoil nuclei formed by heavy ion reactions in the bunched ion source of the GSI mass separator could be used in order to study the low-spin isomers with I = 2 of the neutron-deficient thallium isotopes up to A = 190. It is a clearly recognizable isomer shift against the I = 7 isomers shown which changes at A = 194 the sign. A phenomenon which also exists in the element mercury, but for which no sufficient explanation exists. The magnetic moments of the thallium isotopes complete the analysis of Ekstroem (1976) and confirm the choice of the sign of the magnetic moments of the I = 2 isomers. The application of the additivity rule to the odd-odd nuclei shows qualitatively good agreement with the experiment and confirms so the assignment of the configuration of the contributing nuclear states. The quadrupole moments show a slight oblate deformation of the 9/2 - intruder states. The moments of the lead isotopes show pronounced one-particle character and by this the nearly spherical shape of nuclei with closed proton shell. The deviation from the linear slope of the mean square radius of the lead isotopes onsetting at A = 194 cannot be explained by the mixing of the 0 1 + ground state with the deformed 0 2 + intruder state. The odd - even staggering and the buckling of the charge radii at the shell closure are very well reproduced by Hartree-Fock calculations which regard the 3- and 4-particle interactions in the nucleus. (orig.) [de

  17. Modern Deep-sea Sponges as Recorders of Bottom Water Silicon Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, K. R.; Georg, R. B.; Rickaby, R. E.; Robinson, L. F.; Halliday, A. N.

    2008-12-01

    Major zones of opal accumulation in the world oceans have experienced geographical shifts during the Cenozoic coincident with times of transition in oceanic circulation and climate. The global marine silica cycle is likely to respond to various large-scale changes including the distillation of Si and other nutrients in ocean basins; weathering and continental inputs; and biological productivity in surface waters. These processes could potentially be distinguished by their impact on the isotopic composition of dissolved silica in the world oceans. Although diatoms dominate uptake of silica in surface waters, box-modelling (de la Rocha and Bickle, 2005) suggests that sponges spicules have a greater potential to reflect whole ocean changes in the silica cycle, by recording deep-water silicon isotopes. Here, we introduce a new calibration study of modern deep- sea sponges collected on a transect cruise across the Drake Passage, in the Southern Ocean, from a range of depths and seawater silicic acid concentrations. Sponges were collected by benthic trawling, and dried immediately. The spicules were later isolated from cellular material and cleaned for surface contaminants, before dissolution and analysis by NuPlasma HR MC-ICP-MS in medium resolution mode. We discuss our preliminary data, the extent to which inter and intraspecies variations reflect environmental conditions, and the implications for palaeoreconstructions of the marine silicon cycle. de la Rocha, C. and M. Bickle (2005). Sensitivity of silicon isotopes to whole-ocean changes in the silica cycle. Marine Geology 217, 267-282.

  18. Isotopic evolution of Mauna Loa volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, M.D.; Kammer, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to understand the temporal helium isotopic variations in Mauna Loa volcano, we have measured helium, strontium and lead isotopes in a suite of Mauna Loa lavas that span most of the subaerial eruptive history of the volcano. The lavas range in age from historical flows to Ninole basalt which are thought to be several hundred thousand years old. Most of the samples younger than 30 ka in age (Kau Basalt) are radiocarbon-dated flows, while the samples older than 30 ka are stratigraphically controlled (Kahuku and Ninole Basalt). The data reveal a striking change in the geochemistry of the lavas approximately 10 ka before present. The lavas older than 10 ka are characterized by high 3 He/ 4 He (≅ 16-20 times atmospheric), higher 206 Pb/ 204 Pb (≅ 18.2), and lower 87 Sr/ 86 Sr(≅ 0.70365) ratios than the younger Kau samples (having He, Pb and Sr ratios of approximately 8.5 x atmospheric, 18.1 and 0.70390, respectively). The historical lavas are distinct in having intermediate Sr and Pb isotopic compositions with 3 He/ 4 He ratios similar to the other young Kau basalt (≅ 8.5 x atmospheric). The isotopic variations are on a shorter time scale (100 to 10,000 years) than has previously been observed for Hawaiian volcanoes, and demonstrate the importance of geochronology and stratigraphy to geochemical studies. The data show consistency between all three isotope systems, which suggests that the variations are not related to magma chamber degassing processes, and that helium is not decoupled from the other isotopes. However, the complex temporal evolution suggests that three distinct mantle sources are required to explain the isotopic data. Most of the Mauna Loa isotopic variations could be explained by mixing between a plume type source, similar to Loihi, and an asthenospheric source with helium isotopic composition close to MORB and elevated Sr isotopic values. (orig./WL)

  19. Application of environmental isotope tracing technology to geothermal geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yingnan

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent application and development of environmental isotope tracing technology to geothermal geochemistry in the following aspects: gas isotopes (He, C) tracing of warm springs; H, O isotope tracing on the origin and cause of geothermal water, environmental isotope dating of geothermal water, and the advantage of excess parameter of deuterium (d) in geothermal research. The author also suggests that isotope method should combine with other geological methods to expand its advantage. (authors)

  20. Low temperature isotope effects of hydrogen diffusion in metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, A.; Kronmueller, H.

    1989-01-01

    Snoek-like relaxation peaks of Hydrogen and Deuterium in amorphous Fe 80 B 20 , Fe 40 Ni 40 P 14 B 6 and Fe 91 Zr 9 are detected. At low H, D concentrations the peaks are near 200 K and show small isotope effects of the average activation energies (anti Q H ≅ 0.6 eV, anti Q D - anti Q H ≤ 10 meV). For higher H, D-contents the peaks shift to lower temperatures around to 120 K and show distinct isotope effects in the activation energies (anti Q H ≅ 0.3 eV, anti Q D - anti Q H ≅ 30 meV) and in the amplitude of the low temperature tails of the relaxation peaks. This points to isotope mass dependent deviations from the Arrhenius law due to nonthermal tunneling processes. (orig.)

  1. Intra-specific diet shift in manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) as revealed by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and fatty acid biomarker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Y.; Shin, K.

    2011-12-01

    Manila clams sampled in Seonjae Island, Korea with shell lengths (SL) below 19.76 mm in average showed a significantly depleted carbon and nitrogen isotope values (Pcultured in IFHRI. The result of fatty acid composition of manila clams in relation to size or growth rate suggests that fast growing clams would have rapid metabolism of fatty acids not required by the animals and an accumulation of the essential fatty acids (PUFA). In addition, their higher energy requirement and more active state of development would further diminish lipid reserve of the species.

  2. Geospatial modeling of plant stable isotope ratios - the development of isoscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J. B.; Ehleringer, J. R.; Hurley, J. M.; Cerling, T. E.

    2007-12-01

    Large-scale spatial variation in stable isotope ratios can yield critical insights into the spatio-temporal dynamics of biogeochemical cycles, animal movements, and shifts in climate, as well as anthropogenic activities such as commerce, resource utilization, and forensic investigation. Interpreting these signals requires that we understand and model the variation. We report progress in our development of plant stable isotope ratio landscapes (isoscapes). Our approach utilizes a GIS, gridded datasets, a range of modeling approaches, and spatially distributed observations. We synthesize findings from four studies to illustrate the general utility of the approach, its ability to represent observed spatio-temporal variability in plant stable isotope ratios, and also outline some specific areas of uncertainty. We also address two basic, but critical questions central to our ability to model plant stable isotope ratios using this approach: 1. Do the continuous precipitation isotope ratio grids represent reasonable proxies for plant source water?, and 2. Do continuous climate grids (as is or modified) represent a reasonable proxy for the climate experienced by plants? Plant components modeled include leaf water, grape water (extracted from wine), bulk leaf material ( Cannabis sativa; marijuana), and seed oil ( Ricinus communis; castor bean). Our approaches to modeling the isotope ratios of these components varied from highly sophisticated process models to simple one-step fractionation models to regression approaches. The leaf water isosocapes were produced using steady-state models of enrichment and continuous grids of annual average precipitation isotope ratios and climate. These were compared to other modeling efforts, as well as a relatively sparse, but geographically distributed dataset from the literature. The latitudinal distributions and global averages compared favorably to other modeling efforts and the observational data compared well to model predictions

  3. Study of the stability of the gallium isotopes beyond the N = 50 neutron shell closure

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the stability of the nuclear structure beyond N = 50 and Z = 28 with beams of neutron-rich gallium isotopes at the CRIS experiment at ISOLDE. The study of their hyperne structure and isotope shift will provide spins, magnetic dipole moments, electric quadrupole moments and changes in the mean-square charge radii. The $\\beta$-decay of $^{80}$Ga will be unambiguously measured using the technique of Laser Assisted Nuclear Decay Spectroscopy (LANDS). The half-lives of the very neutron-rich isotopes with N > 54 will be measured for their impact on the astrophysical ${r}$-process.

  4. Nuclear shape staggering in very neutron deficient Hg isotopes detected by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabkiewicz, P.; Duke, C.; Fischer, H.; Kuehl, T.; Kluge, H.-J.

    1978-01-01

    The isotope shift in the lambda = 2537 A line of the even isotopes 206 Hg, 190 Hg, 188 Hg, 186 Hg, 184 Hg as well as of the I = 13/2 isomers of 191 Hg, 189 Hg, 187 Hg, 185 Hg has been measured by use of a tunable dye laser at the on-line masseparator ISOLDE at CERN. The resulting delta 2 > values follow the line, extrapolated from the chain 205 Hg- 187 Hg which is known to have spherical nuclear shape at the heavy end changing smoothly to slight oblate deformation for the lighter isotopes. Previous measurements of the I = 1/2 groundstates of 181 Hg. 183 Hg and 185 Hg revealed a sharp shape transition to strong deformation. Combined with the new results the following effects can be proved for the first time from the model-independent quantity delta 2 >: 1) the existence of odd even-shape staggering, 2) the coexistence of very different shapes in one and the same nucleus as manifested by the huge isomer shift in 185 Hg, 3) the absence of mixing of the different shapes. (author)

  5. Application of atomic vapor laser isotope separation to the enrichment of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.; Erbert, G.; Paisner, J.; Chen, H.; Chiba, Z.; Beeler, R.; Combs, R.; Mostek, S.

    1986-09-01

    Workers at GTE/Sylvania have shown that the efficiency of fluorescent lighting may be markedly improved using mercury that has been enriched in the 196 Hg isotope. A 5% improvement in the efficiency of fluorescent lighting in the United States could provide a savings of $450 million dollars in the corresponding reduction of electrical power consumption. We discuss the results of recent work done at our laboratory to develop a process for enriching mercury. The discussion centers around the results of spectroscopic measurements of excited-state lifetimes, photoionization cross sections, and isotope shifts

  6. Identical and shifted identical bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodder, R.S; Jones, E.F.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous fission of 252 Cm was studied with 72 large Compton suppressed Ge detectors in Gamma sphere. New isotopes 160 Sm and 162 Gd were identified. Through X-ray-γ and γ-γ-γ) coincidence measurements, level energies were established to spins 14 + to 20 + in 152 , 154 156 60 Nd 92 94 96 , 156 , 158 , 160 62 Sm 94 , 96 , 98 , and 160 , 162 64 Gd 96 , 98 . These nuclei exhibit a remarkable variety of identical bands and bands where the energies and moments of inertia are shifted by the same constant amount for every spin state from 2 + to 12 + for various combinations of nuclei differing by 2n, 4n, 2p, 4p, and α

  7. Up-and-down shift in residence depth of slickheads (Alepocephalidae) revealed by otolith stable oxygen isotopic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, J C; Liu, E Y; Sui, T D

    2016-03-01

    Otolith δ(18)O profiles for four slickhead species (Alepocephalidae) suggested that Alepocephalus umbriceps, Talismania okinawensis and Rouleina watasei migrated hundreds of metres to shallower depths during the juvenile to young stages before returning to their original depth or even deeper waters. Xenodermichthys nodulosus gradually shifted residence depth from shallow to deeper water during their life. These migratory patterns indicated that the slickheads examined had allopatric residence depths at different life stages, which might enhance the pelagic survival and growth rates of the juvenile and young fishes. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Laser ablation molecular isotopic spectrometry of water for {sub 1}D{sup 2}/{sub 1}H{sup 1} ratio analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Arnab [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mao, Xianglei; Chan, George C.-Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Russo, Richard E., E-mail: rerusso@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (LAMIS) has been investigated for optical isotopic analysis of the deuterium to protium ratio in enriched water samples in ambient air at atmospheric pressure. Multivariate PLSR (Partial Least Squares Regression) based calibrations were carried out and validated using multiple statistical parameters. Comparisons of results are reported using two spectrometers having two orders of magnitude difference in spectral resolution. The accuracy and precision of isotopic analysis depends on the spectral resolution and the inherent isotope shift of the elements. The requirements for spectral resolution of the measurement system can be significantly relaxed when the isotopic abundance ratio is determined using chemometric processing of the spectra. Large isotopic shifts in the individual rotational branches of OH/OD molecular emission spectra were measured. Optimized temporal conditions for LAMIS measurements were established. Several sub-regions of spectra were used for PLSR calibration and the results demonstrate that both the emission intensity and degree of spectral differentiation affect the quality of the PLSR calibration. LAMIS results also were compared with traditional LIBS results obtained using PLSR and a spectral deconvolution method, demonstrating the advantages of LAMIS over LIBS with respect to isotopic composition determination. - Highlights: • D/H isotopic ratio in water over a large dynamic range was measured by LAMIS. • PLSR based multivariate calibration was used for construction of calibrations. • Region of interest significantly affects the analytical results of isotopic ratio. • LAMIS has improved results over LIBS irrespective of the spectrometer resolution. • The superiority is more prominent in the case using low resolution spectrometer.

  9. Mg and Ca isotope fractionation during CaCO3 biomineralisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Veronica T.-C.; Williams, R.J.P.; Makishima, Akio; Belshawl, Nick S.; O'Nions, R. Keith

    2004-01-01

    The natural variation of Mg and Ca stable isotopes of carbonates has been determined in carbonate skeletons of perforate foraminifera and reef coral together with Mg/Ca ratios to assess the influence of biomineralisation processes. The results for coral aragonite suggest its formation, in terms of stable isotope behaviour, approximates to inorganic precipitation from a seawater reservoir. In contrast, results for foraminifera calcite suggest a marked biological control on Mg isotope ratios presumably related to its low Mg content compared with seawater. The bearing of these observations on the use of Mg and Ca isotopes as proxies in paleoceanography is considered

  10. Ground state properties of neutron-rich Mg isotopes the "island of inversion" studied with laser and $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalska, M

    2006-01-01

    Studies in regions of the nuclear chart in which the model predictions of properties of nuclei fail can bring a better understanding of the strong interaction in the nuclear medium. To such regions belongs the so called "island of inversion" centered around Ne, Na and Mg isotopes with 20 neutrons in which unexpected ground-state spins, large deformations and dense low-energy spectra appear. This is a strong argument that the magic N=20 is not a closed shell in this area. In this thesis investigations of isotope shifts of stable $^{24-26}$Mg, as well as spins and magnetic moments of short-lived $^{29,31}$Mg are presented. The successful studies were performed at the ISOLDE facility at CERN using collinear laser and $\\beta$-NMR spectroscopy techniques. The isotopes were investigated as single-charged ions in the 280 nm transition from the atomic ground state $^2\\!$S$_{1/2}$ to one of the two lowest excited states $^2\\!$P$_{1/2 ,\\,3/2}$ using continuous wave laser beams. The isotope-shift measurements with fluor...

  11. Exploring the Potential of Laser Ablation Carbon Isotope Analysis for Examining Ecology during the Ontogeny of Middle Pleistocene Hominins from Sima de los Huesos (Northern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nuria; Feranec, Robert S; Passey, Benjamin H; Cerling, Thure E; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation of tooth enamel was used to analyze stable carbon isotope compositions of teeth of hominins, red deer, and bears from middle Pleistocene sites in the Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain, to investigate the possibility that this technique could be used as an additional tool to identify periods of physiological change that are not detectable as changes in tooth morphology. Most of the specimens were found to have minimal intra-tooth variation in carbon isotopes (< 2.3‰), suggesting isotopically uniform diets through time and revealing no obvious periods of physiological change. However, one of the two sampled hominin teeth displayed a temporal carbon isotope shift (3.2‰) that was significantly greater than observed for co-occurring specimens. The δ13C value of this individual averaged about -16‰ early in life, and -13‰ later in life. This isotopic change occurred on the canine crown about 4.2 mm from the root, which corresponds to an approximate age of two to four years old in modern humans. Our dataset is perforce small owing to the precious nature of hominid teeth, but it demonstrates the potential utility of the intra-tooth isotope profile method for extracting ontogenetic histories of human ancestors.

  12. Isotope effect with energy-dependent density of states and impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.J.; Carbotte, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    We have calculated the total isotope coefficient β in a model where there is energy-dependent structure in the electronic density of states. We model the structure with a simple Lorentzian. In our calculation, doping has the effect of shifting the Fermi level and broadening the structure in the density of states. We have treated the dopants both as normal and as magnetic impurities. The asymmetry observed in the experimental data is found in our results. However, the complete range of values observed is difficult to reproduce. We question also whether the shifts in Fermi level required in such models are reasonable

  13. Recent progress of hydrogen isotope behavior studies for neutron or heavy ion damaged W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Hatano, Yuji; Shimada, Masashi; Buchenauer, Dean; Kolasinski, Robert; Merrill, Brad; Kondo, Sosuke; Hinoki, Tatsuya; Alimov, Vladimir Kh.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reviews recent results pertaining to hydrogen isotope behavior in neutron and heavy ion damaged W. • Accumulation of damage in W creates stable trapping sites for hydrogen isotopes, thereby changing the observed desorption behavior. • The distribution of defects throughout the sample also changes the shape of TDS spectrum. • Experimental results show that production of Re by nuclear reaction of W with neutrons reduces the density of trapping sites, though no remarkable retention enhancement is observed. - Abstract: This paper reviews recent results pertaining to hydrogen isotope behavior in neutron and heavy ion damaged W. Accumulation of damage in W creates stable trapping sites for hydrogen isotopes, thereby changing the observed desorption behavior. In particular, the desorption temperature shifts higher as the defect concentration increases. In addition, the distribution of defects throughout the sample also changes the shape of TDS spectrum. Even if low energy traps were distributed in the bulk region, the D diffusion toward the surface requires additional time for trapping/detrapping during surface-to-bulk transport, contributing to a shift of desorption peaks toward higher temperatures. It can be said that both of distribution of damage (e.g. hydrogen isotope trapping sites) and their stabilities would have a large impact on desorption. In addition, transmutation effects should be also considered for an actual fusion environment. Experimental results show that production of Re by nuclear reaction of W with neutrons reduces the density of trapping sites, though no remarkable retention enhancement is observed.

  14. Recent progress of hydrogen isotope behavior studies for neutron or heavy ion damaged W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Yasuhisa, E-mail: syoya@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Hatano, Yuji [University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 939-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Masashi [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Buchenauer, Dean; Kolasinski, Robert [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Merrill, Brad [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Kondo, Sosuke; Hinoki, Tatsuya [Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji 611-0011 (Japan); Alimov, Vladimir Kh. [University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 939-8555 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • This paper reviews recent results pertaining to hydrogen isotope behavior in neutron and heavy ion damaged W. • Accumulation of damage in W creates stable trapping sites for hydrogen isotopes, thereby changing the observed desorption behavior. • The distribution of defects throughout the sample also changes the shape of TDS spectrum. • Experimental results show that production of Re by nuclear reaction of W with neutrons reduces the density of trapping sites, though no remarkable retention enhancement is observed. - Abstract: This paper reviews recent results pertaining to hydrogen isotope behavior in neutron and heavy ion damaged W. Accumulation of damage in W creates stable trapping sites for hydrogen isotopes, thereby changing the observed desorption behavior. In particular, the desorption temperature shifts higher as the defect concentration increases. In addition, the distribution of defects throughout the sample also changes the shape of TDS spectrum. Even if low energy traps were distributed in the bulk region, the D diffusion toward the surface requires additional time for trapping/detrapping during surface-to-bulk transport, contributing to a shift of desorption peaks toward higher temperatures. It can be said that both of distribution of damage (e.g. hydrogen isotope trapping sites) and their stabilities would have a large impact on desorption. In addition, transmutation effects should be also considered for an actual fusion environment. Experimental results show that production of Re by nuclear reaction of W with neutrons reduces the density of trapping sites, though no remarkable retention enhancement is observed.

  15. Dietary habits in New France during the 17th and 18th centuries: An isotopic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigeant, J; Ribot, I; Hélie, J-F

    2017-03-01

    Little attention has been given, so far, to the early colonial diet in New France from an isotopic perspective. Historical records that compare France to New France suggest a shift toward a more diverse diet, including a higher protein intake due to an improvement in living conditions in the New World, despite the retention of ancestral dietary habits. This hypothesis will be explored here. Stable carbon (organic and mineral) and nitrogen isotopes were measured on 43 individuals from Notre Dame cemetery (first Catholic parish church cemetery in Montreal, 1683-1803) as well as 13 French compatriots from La Rochelle, France (Protestant Hospital Cemetery, 1765-1792). Intragroup variation (age at death, sex, and/or burial location) was investigated and compared to compiled data from various northeastern North American sites (N = 99). The Notre Dame sample means are as follows: -19.6‰ versus VPDB for δ 13 C collagen , -12.22‰ versus VPDB for δ 13 C carbonate , and 11.5‰ versus AIR for δ 15 N. They are significantly lower than both La Rochelle (-18.4‰, -11.67‰, and 12.7‰, respectively, p ≤ .005) and the northeastern North American groups used for this comparison (p = .000). The isotopic values obtained from Notre Dame cemetery suggest that the diet was mainly based on C 3 resources with limited C 4 resources. Although different from all comparable contemporary sites, colonial Montreal's diet remains most similar to La Rochelle, France. This study agrees with historians who have suggested that French dietary traditions seem to have been retained among the early colonial inhabitants of Montreal. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evidence for mass-independent and mass-dependent fractionation of the stable isotopes of mercury by natural processes in aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Togwell A.; Whittle, D. Michael; Evans, Marlene S.; Muir, Derek C.G.

    2008-01-01

    Isotopic and chemical analyses were performed on crustaceans, forage fish, top predator fish, and sediment cores from Lake Ontario and two boreal forest lakes to investigate fractionation of the stable isotopes of Hg in aquatic ecosystems. Multicollector inductively coupled mass spectrometry was used to determine Hg isotope abundances. The Hg isotope data for all three lakes showed mass-independent variation in the organisms but only mass-dependent variation in the sediments. The mass-independent isotope effect was characterised by (1) selective enrichment in isotopes of odd mass number ( 199 Hg and 201 Hg), (2) enrichment in 201 Hg relative to 199 Hg, (3) an inverse relationship between isotopes of odd and even mass number in fish, and (4) a positive correlation with methylHg (CH 3 Hg + ) concentration, and hence with trophic level (although lake whitefish were consistently anomalous, possibly owing to biochemical demethylation). Isotope signatures of species at the same trophic level varied with habitat and diet, differentiating between planktonic and benthic crustaceans and their predators, and between fish that frequent deep, cold water and fish of similar diet that prefer warmer, shallower water, because of corresponding differences in CH 3 Hg + and inorganic Hg content. Isotopic analysis of CH 3 Hg + and inorganic Hg extracted from lake trout proved that the mass-independent isotope effect was due to anomalously high abundances of 199 Hg and 201 Hg in CH 3 Hg + , as implied by the data for whole organisms, suggesting mass-independent fractionation during microbial methylation of Hg. The purely mass-dependent variation in the sediments is attributable to the fact that Hg in sediments is mostly inorganic. The mass-independent fractionation of Hg isotopes can be explained by effects of nuclear spin or nuclear field shift, or both, and penetration of the inner electron shells of Hg by valence electrons of Hg-binding ligands. The results of the research

  17. Stable isotopes as a tool to differentiate eggs laid by caged, barn, free range, and organic hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2009-05-27

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of whole yolk, delipidized yolk, albumen, and egg membrane were analyzed from 18 different brands of chicken eggs laid under caged, barn, free range, and organic farming regimes. In general, free range and organic egg components showed enrichment of (15)N values up to 4‰ relative to caged and barn laid eggs, suggesting a higher animal protein (trophic) contribution to the chicken's diet than pure plant-based foods and/or that the feed was organically manufactured. One sample of free range and two samples of organic eggs had δ(15)N values within the range of caged or barn laid eggs, suggesting either that these eggs were mislabeled (the hens were raised under "battery" or "barn" conditions, and not permitted to forage outside) or that there was insufficient animal protein gained by foraging to shift the δ(15)N values of their primary food source. δ(13)C values of potential food sources are discussed with respect to dietary intake and contribution to the isotopic signature of the eggs to determine mixing of C(3) and C(4) diets, although they did not elucidate laying regimen. The study finds that stable nitrogen isotope analysis of egg components is potentially a useful technique to unravel dietary differences between caged or barn hens and free range hens (both conventional and organic) and could be further developed as an authentication tool in the egg industry.

  18. Assessing diet in savanna herbivores using stable carbon isotope ratios of faeces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Codron

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In African savannas, browse-based resources (@3 plants are isotopically distinct from grasses (@4 plants. The carbon isotopic composition of the basic plant diet is recorded in animal tissues. Mammal faeces are a readily accessible, non-invasive, sample material for temporally resolved dietary reconstructions. Faeces, however, include both undigested plant matter and waste, hence accuracy of dietary calculations could potentially be compromised by shifts in plant isotopic values related to seasonal or spatial differences, or by variability in the isotopic differences between faeces and diet. A controlled feeding study of four ungulate species showed a small, consistent difference between diet and faeces of-0.9 o, irrespective of whether the diet was @3 or C4-based. Results from faeces oftaxa known to be pure grazers, pure browsers, and mixed-feeders from the Kruger National Park were entirely consistent with their diets, but the accuracy of dietary reconstructions is enhanced with data from local plant communities.

  19. Isotope techniques in groundwater hydrology 1974, Vol. I. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This symposium, held in Vienna on 11-15 March, 1974, was the fourth on the subject of isotope hydrology organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency. However, this one was limited to groundwater hydrology in view of the general increase of interest and activity in isotope hydrology since the previous meeting in 1970. The proceedings of this symposium are a good indicator of the present world status of these techniques. Thus one notes that many of the studies are in the developing areas of the world. Furthermore, there has been a shift to using these techniques as an additional applied tool in specific problems of development of water resources. Examples of such applications also give evidence of the closer collaboration between isotope specialists, who originally developed the methods, and hydrogeologists and geochemists. It is hoped that these proceedings will contribute to a wider appreciation of the potential use of isotope techniques to hydrological problems associated with the development of groundwater for agriculture, community water supply and industry

  20. Nuclear charge radii of proton-rich strontium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Walker, P.M.; Smith, J.R.H.; Warner, D.D.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Evans, D.E.; Wells, S.A.; Fawcett, M.J.; Grant, I.S.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique of atom-photon coincidence laser spectroscopy has been developed and used to study the isotope shifts of /sup 78-84/Sr. The results show that neither the droplet model nor existing interacting boson model calculations can adequately describe the rapid onset of nuclear deformation below N = 50. The odd-even staggering of the charge radius is found to be opposite to that normally encountered, indicating the possible existence of permanent octupole distortions

  1. Barium isotopes in cold-water corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsing, Freya; Hsieh, Yu-Te; Bridgestock, Luke; Spooner, Peter T.; Robinson, Laura F.; Frank, Norbert; Henderson, Gideon M.

    2018-06-01

    Recent studies have introduced stable Ba isotopes (δ 138 / 134Ba) as a novel tracer for ocean processes. Ba isotopes could potentially provide insight into the oceanic Ba cycle, the ocean's biological pump, water-mass provenance in the deep ocean, changes in activity of hydrothermal vents, and land-sea interactions including tracing riverine inputs. Here, we show that aragonite skeletons of various colonial and solitary cold-water coral (CWC) taxa record the seawater (SW) Ba isotope composition. Thirty-six corals of eight different taxa from three oceanic regions were analysed and compared to δ 138 / 134Ba measurements of co-located seawater samples. Sites were chosen to cover a wide range of temperature, salinity, Ba concentrations and Ba isotope compositions. Seawater samples at the three sites exhibit the well-established anti-correlation between Ba concentration and δ 138 / 134Ba. Furthermore, our data set suggests that Ba/Ca values in CWCs are linearly correlated with dissolved [Ba] in ambient seawater, with an average partition coefficient of DCWC/SW = 1.8 ± 0.4 (2SD). The mean isotope fractionation of Ba between seawater and CWCs Δ138/134BaCWC-SW is -0.21 ± 0.08‰ (2SD), indicating that CWC aragonite preferentially incorporates the lighter isotopes. This fractionation likely does not depend on temperature or other environmental variables, suggesting that aragonite CWCs could be used to trace the Ba isotope composition in ambient seawater. Coupled [Ba] and δ 138 / 134Ba analysis on fossil CWCs has the potential to provide new information about past changes in the local and global relationship between [Ba] and δ 138 / 134Ba and hence about the operation of the past global oceanic Ba cycle in different climate regimes.

  2. Finite nuclear size and Lamb shift of p-wave atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milstein, A.I.; Sushkov, O.P.; Terekhov, I.S.

    2003-01-01

    We consider corrections to the Lamb shift of the p-wave atomic states due to the finite nuclear size (FNS). In other words, these are radiative corrections to the atomic isotope shift related to the FNS. It is shown that the structure of the corrections is qualitatively different to that for the s-wave states. The perturbation theory expansion for the relative correction for a p 1/2 state starts with a α ln(1/Zα) term, while for the s 1/2 states it starts with a Zα 2 term. Here, α is the fine-structure constant and Z is the nuclear charge. In the present work, we calculate the α terms for that 2p states, the result for the 2p 1/2 state reads (8α/9π){ln[1/(Zα) 2 ]+0.710}. Even more interesting are the p 3/2 states. In this case the 'correction' is several orders of magnitude larger than the 'leading' FNS shift. However, absolute values of energy shifts related to these corrections are very small

  3. Magnesium isotopic composition of the Earth and chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fang-Zhen; Li, Wang-Ye; Ke, Shan; Marty, Bernard; Dauphas, Nicolas; Huang, Shichun; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Pourmand, Ali

    2010-07-01

    To constrain further the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth and chondrites, and investigate the behavior of Mg isotopes during planetary formation and magmatic processes, we report high-precision (±0.06‰ on δ 25Mg and ±0.07‰ on δ 26Mg, 2SD) analyses of Mg isotopes for (1) 47 mid-ocean ridge basalts covering global major ridge segments and spanning a broad range in latitudes, geochemical and radiogenic isotopic compositions; (2) 63 ocean island basalts from Hawaii (Kilauea, Koolau and Loihi) and French Polynesia (Society Island and Cook-Austral chain); (3) 29 peridotite xenoliths from Australia, China, France, Tanzania and USA; and (4) 38 carbonaceous, ordinary and enstatite chondrites including 9 chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CV, L, LL, H, EH and EL). Oceanic basalts and peridotite xenoliths have similar Mg isotopic compositions, with average values of δ 25Mg = -0.13 ± 0.05 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.26 ± 0.07 (2SD) for global oceanic basalts ( n = 110) and δ 25Mg = -0.13 ± 0.03 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.25 ± 0.04 (2SD) for global peridotite xenoliths ( n = 29). The identical Mg isotopic compositions in oceanic basalts and peridotites suggest that equilibrium Mg isotope fractionation during partial melting of peridotite mantle and magmatic differentiation of basaltic magma is negligible. Thirty-eight chondrites have indistinguishable Mg isotopic compositions, with δ 25Mg = -0.15 ± 0.04 (2SD) and δ 26Mg = -0.28 ± 0.06 (2SD). The constancy of Mg isotopic compositions in all major types of chondrites suggest that primary and secondary processes that affected the chemical and oxygen isotopic compositions of chondrites did not significantly fractionate Mg isotopes. Collectively, the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth's mantle, based on oceanic basalts and peridotites, is estimated to be -0.13 ± 0.04 for δ 25Mg and -0.25 ± 0.07 for δ 26Mg (2SD, n = 139). The Mg isotopic composition of the Earth, as represented by the mantle, is similar to chondrites

  4. Dolomite clumped isotope constraints on the oxygen isotope composition of the Phanerozoic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, U.; Eiler, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    The δ18O value of the Phanerozoic Sea has been debated several decades, largely motivated by an 8‰ increase in δ18O of sedimentary carbonates between the Cambrian and the present. Some previous studies have interpreted this increase to be a primary depositional signal, resulting from an increase in the 18O content of ocean water over time, or from a decrease in ocean temperature increasing the oxygen isotope fractionation between seawater and carbonates. In contrast, other studies have interpreted lower δ18O compositions as the products of diagenetic alteration at elevated burial temperatures. Here, we show that the Phanerozoic dolomite δ18O record overlaps with that of well-preserved calcite fossils, and use carbonate clumped isotope measurements of Cambrian to Pleistocene dolomites to calculate their formation temperatures and the isotopic compositions of their parent-waters. The observed variation in dolomite δ18O is largely explained by dolomite formation at burial temperatures of up to 158°C. The δ18O values of dolomite parent-waters range -2 to +12‰ and are correlated with formation temperatures. Such correlation is consistent with the modification of seawater (0±2‰, VSMOW) toward isotopically heavier compositions through water-rock reactions at elevated burial temperatures. The similarity between the dolomite and calcite δ18O records, and published clumped isotope-based calculations of water compositions, suggests that like dolomite, temporal variations of the calcite δ18O record may also be largely driven by diagenetic alteration. Finally, the relationship we observe between temperature of dolomitization and d18O of dolomite suggests platform carbonates generally undergo dolomitization through reaction with modified marine waters, and that there is no evidence those waters were ever significantly lower in d18O than the modern ocean.

  5. Improved repetition rate mixed isotope CO{sub 2} TEA laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, D. B., E-mail: dbctechnology@earthlink.net [DBC Technology Corp., 4221 Mesa St, Torrance, California 90505 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A compact CO{sub 2} TEA laser has been developed for remote chemical detection that operates at a repetition rate of 250 Hz. It emits 700 mJ/pulse at 10.6 μm in a multimode beam with the {sup 12}C{sup 16}O{sub 2} isotope. With mixed {sup 12}C{sup 16}O{sub 2} plus {sup 13}C{sup 16}O{sub 2} isotopes it emits multiple lines in both isotope manifolds to improve detection of a broad range of chemicals. In particular, output pulse energies are 110 mJ/pulse at 9.77 μm, 250 mJ/pulse at 10 μm, and 550 mJ/pulse at 11.15 μm, useful for detection of the chemical agents Sarin, Tabun, and VX. Related work shows capability for long term sealed operation with a catalyst and an agile tuner at a wavelength shift rate of 200 Hz.

  6. The ruthenium isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-09-01

    The approximately chondritic relative, and comparatively high absolute mantle abundances of the highly siderophile elements (HSE), suggest that their concentrations in the bulk silicate Earth were primarily established during a final ∼0.5 to 1% of ;late accretion; to the mantle, following the cessation of core segregation. Consequently, the isotopic composition of the HSE Ru in the mantle reflects an amalgamation of the isotopic compositions of late accretionary contributions to the silicate portion of the Earth. Among cosmochemical materials, Ru is characterized by considerable mass-independent isotopic variability, making it a powerful genetic tracer of Earth's late accretionary building blocks. To define the Ru isotopic composition of the oceanic mantle, the largest portion of the accessible mantle, we report Ru isotopic data for materials from one Archean and seven Phanerozoic oceanic mantle domains. A sample from a continental lithospheric mantle domain is also examined. All samples have identical Ru isotopic compositions, within analytical uncertainties, indicating that Ru isotopes are well mixed in the oceanic mantle, defining a μ100Ru value of 1.2 ± 7.2 (2SD). The only known meteorites with the same Ru isotopic composition are enstatite chondrites and, when corrected for the effects of cosmic ray exposure, members of the Main Group and sLL subgroup of the IAB iron meteorite complex which have a collective CRE corrected μ100Ru value of 0.9 ± 3.0. This suggests that materials from the region(s) of the solar nebula sampled by these meteorites likely contributed the dominant portion of late accreted materials to Earth's mantle.

  7. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Xu, Zemin; Zhang, Xichang; Yang, Fangxing

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions. The half-lives of lambda-cyhalothrin were determined to be 49 and 161 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 2mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin and 84 and 154 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 10mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from -29.0‰ to -26.5‰ in soil spiked with 2mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, and to -27.5‰ with 10mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin. A relationship was established between the stable carbon isotope fraction and the residual concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin by the Rayleigh equation in which the carbon isotope enrichment factor ε of the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the soil was calculated as -2.53‰. This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Installation of an isotope separator in Debrecen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacsi, Z.; Gulyas, J.; Vitez, A.; Csige, L.; Krasznahorkay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. An isotope separator named OSIRIS was decommissioned in Studsvik, Sweden last July. Researchers there offered this equipment to us for dismantling and moving it over to ATOMKI in Debrecen for installation at the cyclotron lab and save and use it in nuclear physics and other sciences where stable and radioactive isotopes are used extensively for fundamental and applied research. Since the separator was used to separate radioactive isotopes, the ion source with its beam extracting, shaping, and transporting accessories, as well as the lining inside the bending magnet, furthermore the beam diagnostic and shaping elements in the 'switchyard' part of the separator had to stay in Studsvik because of the high radioactive contamination. In order to operate this equipment, first we have to design and manufacture these parts together with a new endstation for the collection and handling of the separated isotopes. Parallel with the installation, we also concentrate on different applications of an isotope separator, including separation of stable isotopes for labelling special compounds used in many branches of sciences, medical care, and industry, and on studying single ion implantation possibilities, as well as on the production of special targets for nuclear physics research. First we want to separate stable isotopes, and then, when we overcome all technical pitfalls, we will consider using this equipment to separate radioactive isotopes as well. Our intention is to have this equipment available to anyone at ATOMKI and elsewhere interested in using its capabilities in their own research fields. Consequently, all comments, suggestion, and ideas are welcome now and continuously, since the design and manufacture of parts can then be oriented by taking into account all the suggestions as much as possible. (author)

  9. Transient competitive complexation in biological kinetic isotope fractionation explains nonsteady isotopic effects: Theory and application to denitrification in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Federico; Riley, William J.

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical formulation of biological kinetic isotope fractionation often assumes first-order or Michaelis-Menten kinetics, the latter solved under the quasi-steady state assumption. Both formulations lead to a constant isotope fractionation factor, therefore they may return incorrect estimations of isotopic effects and misleading interpretations of isotopic signatures when fractionation is not a steady process. We have analyzed the isotopic signature of denitrification in biogeochemical soil systems by Menyailo and Hungate (2006) in which high and variable 15N-N2O enrichment during N2O production and inverse isotope fractionation during N2O consumption could not be explained with first-order kinetics and the Rayleigh equation, or with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. When Michaelis-Menten kinetics were coupled to Monod kinetics to describe biomass and enzyme dynamics, and the quasi-steady state assumption was relaxed, transient Michaelis-Menten-Monod kinetics accurately reproduced the observed concentrations, and variable and inverse isotope fractionations. These results imply a substantial revision in modeling isotopic effects, suggesting that steady state kinetics such as first-order, Rayleigh, and classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics should be superseded by transient kinetics in conjunction with biomass and enzyme dynamics.

  10. Studies on separation of lithium isotopes by solvent extraction: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yaohuan; Yan Jinying; Wu Fubing

    1987-01-01

    The separation effects of lithium isotopes on the extraction with Sudan I(1-phenylazo-2-naphthol)-neutral ligand synergetic extraction systems are reported in this paper. Different separation effects are observed when different kinds of neutral ligands are used. Among them, the separation coefficient (α) of Sudan I-TOPO-xylene/LiCl-LiOH is found to be 1.009 ± 0.001. The heavy isotope 7 Li is enriched in the organic phase. The contributions of different structural chelating agents, synergetic agents and diluents to the separation effect are discussed. It is shown that the chelating agent played an important role in the separation effect, and the synergetic agent also exhibited obvious effect, while the shift of diluent didn't affect the separation coefficient significantly. The rates of extraction and isotope exchange equilibrium are high and these systems are shown to be diffusion-controlled ones

  11. Weathering During Glacial-Interglacial Cycles Based on Pb Isotopes at Orphan Knoll, NW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, S. N.; Martin, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    Seawater Pb isotopes extracted from FeMn oxyhydroxide coatings on deep sea sediments preserve a record of regional variations in continental weathering intensity. Crocket et al. (2012) documented a distinct increase in seawater Pb isotopes across Termination I (TI) at IODP Sites U1302/03 on Orphan Knoll in the NW Atlantic which they attributed to an increase in weathering intensity associated with ice sheet retreat. Deglaciation during Termination II (TII) was more rapid than TI due to higher insolation forcing and elevated CO2 levels. This rapid warming followed Heinrich Stadial 11 (HS11) cooling and circulation changes, but was not interrupted by a Younger Dryas-type reversal in warming. In this study, Pb isotopic data from leachates of the Sites U1302/03 are used to test whether changes in weathering are a feature of terminations and whether differences in the character of the termination translate to differences in the weathering response. We analyzed the clay/silt fraction to minimize preformed FeMn oxyhydroxides associated with IRD. All three Pb isotopic systems display similar patterns. Seawater 206Pb/204Pb values are 19.5 during MIS 6, reach a minimum of 18.7 during HS11, increase in < 1 ky to 20.6 in MIS 5e, and then vary between 19.9 - 20.5 across MIS 5e-d. In comparison to the TI study (Crocket et al., 2009), the TII HS is defined by a minimum in Pb isotopes that suggests suppressed chemical weathering during cooling and ice sheet advance. The increase in 206Pb/204Pb during TII indicates a rapid increase in weathering at high latitudes following glacial retreat. This result is consistent with a negative shift in ɛNd values during TII observed farther south on Bermuda Rise and interpreted as increased weathering of old continental material (Deaney et al. 2017). Future research on TII at Orphan Knoll includes analyses of detrital Pb isotopes to isolate the impact of changes in source material versus weathering intensity on seawater Pb isotopes, and

  12. Isotope-selective dissociation of the OsO4 molecule by two pulses of infrared radiation at different frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambartzumian, R.V.; Furzikov, N.P.; Gorokhov, Y.A.; Letokhov, V.S.; Makarov, G.N.; Puretzky, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The dissociation of the OsO 4 molecule in a two-frequency infrared laser field has been investigated. A twentyfold increase in the dissociation rate was obtained when the dissociation frequency was shifted to the ''red'' side of the linear absorption spectrum of OsO 4 . Osmium isotope separation was carried out by this two-frequency method. Optimal conditions for a scalable isotope separation process have been formulated

  13. Stable isotopes as signposts of fluid throughput in Rotokawa and other geothermal fields, and the difficulty of identifying magmatic fingerprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattner, P.; Woldemichael, S.; Auckland Univ.; Browne, P.R.L.; Auckland Univ.

    1994-01-01

    We present a background for water-rock interaction generally, and new data on the Rotokawa geothermal field. The oxygen isotope shift of total rock samples allow the deduction of past flowpaths and total fluid throughput. Estimates of any input true exsolved magmatic water are difficult as the lithosphere can act as an effective isotopic screen. (authors). 1 fig., 6 refs

  14. Multiple sulfur-isotopic evidence for a shallowly stratified ocean following the Triassic-Jurassic boundary mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Genming; Richoz, Sylvain; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Algeo, Thomas J.; Xie, Shucheng; Ono, Shuhei; Summons, Roger E.

    2018-06-01

    The cause of the Triassic-Jurassic (Tr-J) boundary biotic crisis, one of the 'Big Five' mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic, remains controversial. In this study, we analyzed multiple sulfur-isotope compositions (δ33S, δ34S and δ36S) of pyrite and Spy/TOC ratios in two Tr-J successions (Mariental, Mingolsheim) from the European Epicontinental Seaway (EES) in order to better document ocean-redox variations during the Tr-J transition. Our results show that upper Rhaetian strata are characterized by 34S-enriched pyrite, low Spy/TOC ratios, and values of Δ33Spy (i.e., the deviation from the mass-dependent array) lower than that estimated for contemporaneous seawater sulfate, suggesting an oxic-suboxic depositional environment punctuated by brief anoxic events. The overlying Hettangian strata exhibit relatively 34S-depleted pyrite, high Δ33Spy, and Spy/TOC values, and the presence of green sulfur bacterial biomarkers indicate a shift toward to euxinic conditions. The local development of intense marine anoxia thus postdated the Tr-J mass extinction, which does not provide support for the hypothesis that euxinia was the main killing agent at the Tr-J transition. Sulfur and organic carbon isotopic records that reveal a water-depth gradient (i.e., more 34S-, 13C-depleted with depth) in combination with Spy/TOC data suggest that the earliest Jurassic EES was strongly stratified, with a chemocline located at shallow depths just below storm wave base. Shallow oceanic stratification may have been a factor for widespread deposition of black shales, a large positive shift in carbonate δ13C values, and a delay in the recovery of marine ecosystems following the Tr-J boundary crisis.

  15. Silicon isotope fractionation during silica precipitation from hot-spring waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geilert, Sonja; Vroon, Pieter; Keller, Nicole; Gudbrnadsson, Snorri; Stefánsson, Andri; van Bergen, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Hot-spring systems in the Geysir geothermal area, Iceland, have been studied to explore silicon isotope fractionation in a natural setting where sinter deposits are actively formed over a temperature interval between 20° and 100° C. The SiO2(aq)concentrations in spring and stream waters range between 290 and 560ppm and stay relatively constant along downstream trajectories, irrespective of significant cooling gradients. The waters are predominantly oversaturated in amorphous silica at the temperatures measured in the field. Correlations between the saturation indices, temperature and amounts of evaporative water loss suggest that cooling and evaporation are the main causes of subaqueous silica precipitation. The δ30Si values of dissolved silica in spring water and outflowing streams average around +1o probably due to the small quantities of instantaneously precipitating silica relative to the dissolved amount. Siliceous sinters, in contrast, range between -0.1o to -4.0o consistent with a preferred incorporation of the light silicon isotope and with values for precipitated silica becoming more negative with downstream decreasing temperatures. Larger fractionation magnitudes are inversely correlated with the precipitation rate, which itself is dependent on temperature, saturation state and the extent of a system. The resulting magnitudes of solid-fluid isotopic fractionation generally decline from -3.5o at 10° C to -2.0o at 90° C. These values confirm a similar relationship between fractionation magnitude and temperature that we found in laboratory-controlled silica-precipitation experiments. However, a relatively constant offset of ca. -2.9o between field and experimental fractionation values indicates that temperature alone cannot be responsible for the observed shifts. We infer that precipitation kinetics are a prominent control of silicon isotope fractionation in aqueous environments, whereby the influence of the extent of the system on the precipitation

  16. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes

  17. National uses and needs for separated stable isotopes in physics, chemistry, and geoscience research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zisman, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Present uses of separated stable isotopes in the fields of physics, chemistry, and the geosciences have been surveyed to identify current supply problems and to determine future needs. Demand for separated isotopes remains strong, with 220 different nuclides having been used in the past three years. The largest needs, in terms of both quantity and variety of isotopes, are found in nuclear physics research. Current problems include a lack of availability of many nuclides, unsatisfactory enrichment of rare species, and prohibitively high costs for certain important isotopes. It is expected that demands for separated isotopes will remain roughly at present levels, although there will be a shift toward more requests for highly enriched rare isotopes. Significantly greater use will be made of neutron-rich nuclides below A = 100 for producing exotic ion beams at various accelerators. Use of transition metal nuclei for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy will expand. In addition, calibration standards will be required for the newer techniques of radiological dating, such as the Sm/Nd and Lu/Hf methods, but in relatively small quantities. Most members of the research community would be willing to pay considerably more than they do now to maintain adequate supplies of stable isotopes.

  18. A determination of elementary separation factors of isotopes 235U and 238U in the ionic exchange process and of eluents in the water-glycerine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murgulescu, S.E.

    1977-01-01

    In the experiments focused on uranium isotope separation by ion and chemical exchange, the water-glycerine system was employed. The principle of the method consists in shifting a uranium band along an ion-exchange resin column by means of an eluent. The isotope effect of reactions determining the band heading into the column where complex bands between the metal ion and the ligand form and break up under the resin influence, is determined by the difference in affinity between the two isotopes as against the eluent. The isotope effect in question determines a unit deviation of the equilibrium constant for the classical isotope exchange reaction. Starting from the experimental results obtained, it was concluded that the ion and chemical exchange between the IV and VI valence forms of uranium can be applied to isotope separation in terms of the separation unit. As against the methods that have been applied at present (gaseous scattering, hydro-extracting and the nozzle method), for which every new stage corresponds to a separation elementary factor, several separation elementary factors can be cumulated into a single stage in a chemical and ion exchange unit, by the optimization of the shifting band and length. (author)

  19. Climatic signals in multiple highly resolved stable isotope records from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Bo Møllesøe; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Johnsen, Sigfus Johann

    2010-01-01

    are found to correspond better with winter stable isotope data than with summer or annual average stable isotope data it is suggested that a strong local Greenland temperature signal can be extracted from the winter stable isotope data even on centennial to millennial time scales. Udgivelsesdato: Feb....

  20. Assessing connectivity of estuarine fishes based on stable isotope ratio analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzka, Sharon Z.

    2005-07-01

    Assessing connectivity is fundamental to understanding the population dynamics of fishes. I propose that isotopic analyses can greatly contribute to studies of connectivity in estuarine fishes due to the high diversity of isotopic signatures found among estuarine habitats and the fact that variations in isotopic composition at the base of a food web are reflected in the tissues of consumers. Isotopic analysis can be used for identifying nursery habitats and estimating their contribution to adult populations. If movement to a new habitat is accompanied by a shift to foods of distinct isotopic composition, recent immigrants and residents can be distinguished based on their isotopic ratios. Movement patterns thus can be reconstructed based on information obtained from individuals. A key consideration is the rate of isotopic turnover, which determines the length of time that an immigrant to a given habitat will be distinguishable from a longtime resident. A literature survey indicated that few studies have measured turnover rates in fishes and that these have focused on larvae and juveniles. These studies reveal that biomass gain is the primary process driving turnover rates, while metabolic turnover is either minimal or undetectable. Using a simple dilution model and biomass-specific growth rates, I estimated that young fishes with fast growth rates will reflect the isotopic composition of a new diet within days or weeks. Older or slower-growing individuals may take years or never fully equilibrate. Future studies should evaluate the factors that influence turnover rates in fishes during various stages of the life cycle and in different tissues, as well as explore the potential for combining stable isotope and otolith microstructure analyses to examine the relationship between demographic parameters, movement and connectivity.

  1. Detecting influences on California drought intervals using isotopes in tree-ring cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanner, L. C.; Buenning, N. H.; Stott, L. D.; Stahle, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-decadal drought events have characterized climate variability in California over the last century. However, the causes of interannual precipitation variability and the origins of multi-decadal drought in California remain unclear. We utilize the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of tree-ring cellulose in combination with previously developed ring-width measurements to trace the delivery of moisture to the region and investigate ocean-atmosphere patterns that might generate prolonged drought. Of the 36 Quercus douglasii (blue oak) sites in the California central valley, we have focused our work at two locations - one north of Los Angeles (34.74°N, 120°W, 1036 masl) and the other east of San Francisco (37.88°N 121.97°W, 182 masl). Using cores from at least five different trees at each location, tree-ring cellulose δ18O was measured for each year of growth from 1954 to 2004. The δ18O values of tree-ring cellulose range from 29‰ to 34‰ (VSMOW) at both sites and exhibit shared interannual variance (r = 0.43, p shifts in the moisture source region are of primary importance because moisture from high latitude sources has a lower isotopic composition compared to subtropical regions. Using NCAR reanalysis data, wind field anomalies suggest that moisture is derived from the north during dry years (low δ18O) and from the subtropics during wet years (high δ18O). Additional processes such as condensation height and post-condensation effects may also be important in controlling isotopic variability.

  2. Isotope analysis of water trapped in fluid inclusions in deep sea corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonhof, Hubert; Reijmer, John; Feenstra, Eline; Mienis, Furu

    2015-04-01

    Extant Lophelia pertusa deep sea coral specimens from the Loachev mound region in the North Atlantic Ocean contain water filled fluid inclusions in their skeleton. This fluid inclusion water was extracted with a crushing device, and its hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios analysed. The resulting data span a wide range of isotope values which are remarkably different from the seawater isotope composition of the sites studied. Comparison with food source isotope signatures suggests that coral inclusion water contains a high, but variable proportion of metabolic water. The isotope composition of the inclusion water appears to vary with the position on the deep see coral reef, and shows a correlation with the stable isotope composition of the coral aragonite. This correlation seems to suggest that growth rate and other ecological factors play an important role in determining the isotope composition of fluids trapped in the coral skeleton, which can potentially be developed as a proxy for non-equilibrium isotope fractionation observed in the aragonite skeleton of many of the common deep sea coral species.

  3. Deuterium isotope composition of palaeoinfiltration water trapped in speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.

    1987-05-01

    Analytical and methodological aspects of combined isotope investigations of carbonate cave deposits are thoroughly discussed in the report. Weight is put on isotope analyses of fluid inclusions (D and 18 O content) extracted from speleothems of known age. Dating was done by the 230 Th/ 234 U ratio method. Isotopic analyses of speleothems originating from European caves allowed some important conclusions to be formulated regarding past climatic and environmental conditions prevailing over the European continent during the last 300,000 yrs: a) δD values of fluid inclusions suggest a remarkable constancy of the heavy-isotope content of European palaeoinfiltration waters recharged during interglacial periods, b) a climate-induced, long-term changes in isotopic composition of precipitation and surface air temperature over Europe can be characterized by the deuterium gradient of ca.1 4 deg./oo/deg. C, c) an apparent constancy of the continental gradient in deuterium content of European palaeoinfiltration waters as judged from the fluid inclusion data suggests that atmospheric circulation over Europe did not undergo substantial changes for at least 300,000 years

  4. A study of oxygen isotopic fractionation during bio-induced calcite precipitation in eutrophic Baldeggersee, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teranes, J.L.; McKenzie, J.A.; Bernasconi, S.M.; Lotter, A.F.; Sturm, M.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract—In order to better understand environmental factors controlling oxygen isotope shifts in autochthonous lacustrine carbonate sequences, we undertook an extensive one-year study (March, 1995 to February, 1996) of water-column chemistry and daily sediment trap material from a small lake in

  5. Stable isotope stratigraphy of Latest Miocene sequences in northwest Morocco: The Bou Regreg section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodell, David A.; Benson, Richard H.; Kennett, James P.; Rakic-El Bied, Kruna

    1989-08-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios of foraminifers were measured from outcrop and drill core sequences from the Bou Regreg Section, northwest Morocco. This composite section was located at the western end of the Rifian Corridor during the late Miocene and thus potentially contains a record of water exchange between the Atlantic and Mediterranean during the late Tortonian and Messinian stages. Here we correlate isotopic and sedimentologic events in the Bou Regreg Section with Mediterranean and deep-sea sequences during the time leading up to and including the deposition of the Messinian evaporites. The late Miocene chron 6 carbon shift was identified in two Moroccan sequences, providing a valuable 6.3-Ma datum level. In both sections, the carbon shift coincides with the first occurrence of Globorotalia conomiozea and the Tortonian/Messinian boundary. Near this boundary, a major faunal turnover occurred in ostracod, planktonic foraminiferal, and nannofossil assemblages that indicates a cooling of surface and deep water in the Rifian Corridor. At 6.1 Ma, just above the Tortonian/Messinian boundary, mean ∂18O values of benthic foraminifers increased by 0.4-0.5‰ suggesting decreased temperature and/or increased continental ice volume. The faunal and isotopic changes are interpreted as reflecting a reversal in the direction of deep water flow through the Rifian Corridor that occurred between 6.3 and 6.1 Ma. At this time, cold, nutrient-rich waters filled the Mediterranean basins from intermediate depths of the Atlantic, and the production of Mediterranean Outflow Water ceased. The upwelling of nutrient-rich Atlantic intermediate water stimulated productivity in the Mediterranean, which led to the deposition of organic-rich strata such as those found in the Tripoli Formation. At ˜5.5 Ma, coincident with a coiling shift in Neogloboquadrina acostaensis, the variability of the benthic ∂18O signal increased markedly, and strong color variations appeared in the sediments

  6. From wetland specialist to hand-fed generalist: shifts in diet and condition with provisioning for a recently urbanized wading bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Maureen H; Kidd, Anjelika D; Curry, Shannon E; Hepinstall-Cymerman, Jeffrey; Yabsley, Michael J; Adams, Henry C; Ellison, Taylor; Welch, Catharine N; Hernandez, Sonia M

    2018-05-05

    Many wildlife species shift their diets to use novel resources in urban areas. The consequences of these shifts are not well known, and consumption of reliable-but low quality-anthropogenic food may present important trade-offs for wildlife health. This may be especially true for carnivorous species such as the American white ibis ( Eudocimus albus ), a nomadic wading bird which has been increasingly observed in urban parks in South Florida, USA. We tested the effects of anthropogenic provisioning on consumer nutrition (i.e. dietary protein), body condition and ectoparasite burdens along an urban gradient using stable isotope analysis, scaled mass index values and GPS transmitter data. Ibises that assimilated more provisioned food were captured at more urban sites, used more urban habitat, had lower mass-length residuals, lower ectoparasite scores, assimilated less δ 15N and had smaller dietary isotopic ellipses. Our results suggest that ibises in urban areas are heavily provisioned with anthropogenic food, which appears to offer a trade-off by providing low-quality, but easily accessible, calories that may not support high mass but may increase time available for anti-parasite behaviours such as preening. Understanding such trade-offs is important for investigating the effects of provisioning on infection risk and the conservation of wildlife in human-modified habitats.This article is part of the theme issue 'Anthropogenic resource subsidies and host-parasite dynamics in wildlife'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  7. Amino acid stable isotope applications to deep-sea corals: A molecular geochemistry approach to reconstructing past ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, K.; McCarthy, M. D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Sherwood, O.; Williams, B.; Larsen, T.; Glynn, D. S.

    2017-12-01

    Future climate change is predicted to alter ocean productivity, food web dynamics, biogeochemical cycling, and the efficacy of the biological pump. Proteinaceous deep-sea corals act as "living sediment traps," providing long-term, high-resolution records of exported surface ocean production and a window into past changes in ocean condition as a historical context for potential future changes. Here, we present recent work developing the application of compound-specific stable isotope analysis of individual amino acids to proteinaceous deep-sea corals to reconstruct past changes in phytoplankton community composition and biogeochemical cycling. We present new calibrations for molecular isotope comparisons between metabolically active coral polyp tissue and bioarchival proteinaceous skeleton. We then applied these techniques to deep-sea corals from the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre (NPSG) to reconstruct centennial to millennial time scale changes in phytoplankton community composition and biogeochemical cycling as a function of regional climate change. This work suggests that the NPSG has undergone multiple major phytoplankton regime shifts over the last millennium between prokaryotic and eukaryotic phytoplankton communities and associated sources of nitrogen fueling production. The most recent regime, which started around the end of the Little Ice Age and the onset of the Industrial era, is unprecedented in the last 1000 years and resulted in a 30-50% increase in diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribution to export production and an associated 17-27% increase in N2-fixation in the NPSG over last century. By offering the first direct phylogenetic context for long-term shifts in isotopic records of exported particulate organic matter, our data represent a major step forward in understanding the evolution of marine plankton community dynamics, food web architecture, biogeochemical cycling, and the climate feedback loops through the biological pump.

  8. Optimal laser control of molecular wave packet dynamics under the influence of dissipation: possibility of isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuki, Yukiyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Possibility of fs-laser-pulse isotope separation is numerically investigated using optimal control theory. Optimal pulses that separate the 1:1 mixture of 79 Br 2 and 28 1 Br 2 are calculated. Quantum interferences induced by the optimally designed fs pulse efficiently enhance the isotope shifts through multiple electronic transitions, which results in a high enrichment factor. When utilizing vibrational multi-photon transitions (a virtual model), an optimal pulse can transfer the two isotopes to specified different vibrational states with almost 100% probability. In the presence of colored noises, the optimal pulse achieves the control with minimum loss of product yields within the bath correlation time. (author)

  9. Theoretical Study of H/D Isotope Effects on Nuclear Magnetic Shieldings Using an ab initio Multi-Component Molecular Orbital Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Tachikawa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We have theoretically analyzed the nuclear quantum effect on the nuclear magnetic shieldings for the intramolecular hydrogen-bonded systems of σ-hydroxy acyl aromatic species using the gauge-including atomic orbital technique combined with our multi-component density functional theory. The effect of H/D quantum nature for geometry and nuclear magnetic shielding changes are analyzed. Our study clearly demonstrated that the geometrical changes of hydrogen-bonds induced by H/D isotope effect (called geometrical isotope effect: GIE is the dominant factor of deuterium isotope effect on 13C chemical shift.

  10. Age differences in strategy shift: retrieval avoidance or general shift reluctance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David J; Touron, Dayna R; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults' demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch's (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attending to only that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions that promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults' strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits.

  11. Age Differences in Strategy Shift: Retrieval Avoidance or General Shift Reluctance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David J.; Touron, Dayna R.; Hertzog, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of metacognitive age differences in skill acquisition strategies have relied exclusively on tasks with a processing shift from an algorithm to retrieval strategy. Older adults’ demonstrated reluctance to shift strategies in such tasks could reflect either a specific aversion to a memory retrieval strategy or a general, inertial resistance to strategy change. Haider and Frensch’s (1999) alphabet verification task (AVT) affords a non-retrieval-based strategy shift. Participants verify the continuation of alphabet strings such as D E F G [4] L, with the bracketed digit indicating a number of letters to be skipped. When all deviations are restricted to the letter-digit-letter portion, participants can speed their responses by selectively attend only to that part of the stimulus. We adapted the AVT to include conditions which promoted shift to a retrieval strategy, a selective attention strategy, or both strategies. Item-level strategy reports were validated by eye movement data. Older adults shifted more slowly to the retrieval strategy but more quickly to the selective attention strategy than young adults, indicating a retrieval-strategy avoidance. Strategy confidence and perceived strategy difficulty correlated with shift to the two strategies in both age groups. Perceived speed of responses with each strategy specifically correlated with older adults’ strategy choices, suggesting that some older adults avoid retrieval because they do not appreciate its efficiency benefits. PMID:23088195

  12. McCall Glacier record of Arctic climate change: Interpreting a northern Alaska ice core with regional water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, E. S.; Nolan, M.; McConnell, J.; Sigl, M.; Cherry, J.; Young, J.; Welker, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored modern precipitation and ice core isotope ratios to better understand both modern and paleo climate in the Arctic. Paleoclimate reconstructions require an understanding of how modern synoptic climate influences proxies used in those reconstructions, such as water isotopes. Therefore we measured periodic precipitation samples at Toolik Lake Field Station (Toolik) in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range in the Alaskan Arctic to determine δ18O and δ2H. We applied this multi-decadal local precipitation δ18O/temperature regression to ∼65 years of McCall Glacier (also in the Brooks Range) ice core isotope measurements and found an increase in reconstructed temperatures over the late-20th and early-21st centuries. We also show that the McCall Glacier δ18O isotope record is negatively correlated with the winter bidecadal North Pacific Index (NPI) climate oscillation. McCall Glacier deuterium excess (d-excess, δ2H - 8*δ18O) values display a bidecadal periodicity coherent with the NPI and suggest shifts from more southwestern Bering Sea moisture sources with less sea ice (lower d-excess values) to more northern Arctic Ocean moisture sources with more sea ice (higher d-excess values). Northern ice covered Arctic Ocean McCall Glacier moisture sources are associated with weak Aleutian Low (AL) circulation patterns and the southern moisture sources with strong AL patterns. Ice core d-excess values significantly decrease over the record, coincident with warmer temperatures and a significant reduction in Alaska sea ice concentration, which suggests that ice free northern ocean waters are increasingly serving as terrestrial precipitation moisture sources; a concept recently proposed by modeling studies and also present in Greenland ice core d-excess values during previous transitions to warm periods. This study also shows the efficacy and importance of using ice cores from Arctic valley glaciers in paleoclimate reconstructions.

  13. Amalgam-chromatographic separation of magnesium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinskij, G.D.; Levkin, A.V.; Ivanov, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Separation of magnesium isotopes within Mg(Hg)-MgI 2 system (in dimethylformamide) is conducted under amalgam-chromatographic conditions. Separation maximal degree, that is (1.09), for 24 Mg and 26 Mg and separation coefficient (α = 1.0089±0.006) are determined. Light isotopes are found to concentrate in the amalgam. Technique of thermal conversion of flows within amalgam-dimethylformamide system is suggested on the basis of reversible reaction of Ca-Mg element exchange

  14. Seasonal Cyclicity in Trace Elements and Stable Isotopes of Modern Horse Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Niels J; Snoeck, Christophe; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar. When plotted on this age model, the trace element ratios from horse tooth enamel show a seasonal pattern with a small shift in phase compared to stable oxygen isotope ratios. While stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in tooth enamel are forced respectively by the state of the hydrological cycle and the animal's diet, we argue that the seasonal signal in trace elements reflects seasonal changes in dust intake and diet of the animal. The latter explanation is in agreement with seasonal changes observed in carbon isotopes of the same teeth. This external forcing of trace element composition in mammal tooth enamel implies that trace element ratios may be used as proxies for seasonal changes in paleo-environment and paleo-diet.

  15. Nutrient variations and isotopic evidences of particulate organic matter provenance in fringing reefs, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Di; Cao, Wenzhi; Liang, Ying; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is considered to be one of the causes of coral decline. Increase in traditional fishing in the Xuwen National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (XW) and tourism around the Sanya National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (SY) are causing this coral decline. This study reviews the current state of knowledge of the nutrient status of coastal fringing reefs in South China and evaluates the primary sources of nutrients using stable isotope method. Surveys of seawater nutrients showed that the seawater remained clean in both the XW and SY coastal coral reef areas. Based on the isotopic differences between anthropogenic sewage and naturally occurring aquatic nutrients, the isotopic values of particulate organic matter (POM) and the C/N ratios were successfully used to identify the presence of anthropogenic nutrients in aquatic environments. The δ"1"3C, δ"1"5N and C/N compositions of POM from XW and SY (− 21.18 ± 2.11‰, 10.30 ± 5.54‰, and 5.35 ± 0.69 and − 20.80 ± 1.34‰, 7.06 ± 3.95‰, and 5.77 ± 2.15, respectively) showed statistically significant variations with the season. The δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N values of POM suggest marine and terrestrial-derived nutrient sources. Organic carbon is a mixture of marine phytoplankton, marine benthic algae and terrestrial-derived plants. The δ"1"5N values suggest terrestrial-derived sewage and upwelling-dominated nitrogen sources. In the presence of natural upwelling and coastal currents, coastal coral reef areas are more vulnerable to the increasing anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Anthropogenic activities might lead to large increases in the nutrient concentrations and could trigger the shift from coral- to macroalgae-dominated ecosystems, which would ultimately result in the degradation of the coastal coral reef ecosystem. These results provide some understanding of the declining coral reef ecosystem and the importance of conservation areas and coastal coral reef resource management. - Highlights: • The

  16. Nutrient variations and isotopic evidences of particulate organic matter provenance in fringing reefs, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Di; Cao, Wenzhi, E-mail: wzcao@xmu.edu.cn; Liang, Ying; Huang, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is considered to be one of the causes of coral decline. Increase in traditional fishing in the Xuwen National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (XW) and tourism around the Sanya National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (SY) are causing this coral decline. This study reviews the current state of knowledge of the nutrient status of coastal fringing reefs in South China and evaluates the primary sources of nutrients using stable isotope method. Surveys of seawater nutrients showed that the seawater remained clean in both the XW and SY coastal coral reef areas. Based on the isotopic differences between anthropogenic sewage and naturally occurring aquatic nutrients, the isotopic values of particulate organic matter (POM) and the C/N ratios were successfully used to identify the presence of anthropogenic nutrients in aquatic environments. The δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and C/N compositions of POM from XW and SY (− 21.18 ± 2.11‰, 10.30 ± 5.54‰, and 5.35 ± 0.69 and − 20.80 ± 1.34‰, 7.06 ± 3.95‰, and 5.77 ± 2.15, respectively) showed statistically significant variations with the season. The δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of POM suggest marine and terrestrial-derived nutrient sources. Organic carbon is a mixture of marine phytoplankton, marine benthic algae and terrestrial-derived plants. The δ{sup 15}N values suggest terrestrial-derived sewage and upwelling-dominated nitrogen sources. In the presence of natural upwelling and coastal currents, coastal coral reef areas are more vulnerable to the increasing anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Anthropogenic activities might lead to large increases in the nutrient concentrations and could trigger the shift from coral- to macroalgae-dominated ecosystems, which would ultimately result in the degradation of the coastal coral reef ecosystem. These results provide some understanding of the declining coral reef ecosystem and the importance of conservation areas and coastal coral reef resource management

  17. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF 0 Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, 180 Pb and 184 Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF 0 functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF 0 functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron-rich lead isotopes undergo

  18. Work shift duration: a review comparing eight hour and 12 hour shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L; Folkard, S; Tucker, P; Macdonald, I

    1998-04-01

    Shiftwork is now a major feature of working life across a broad range of industries. The features of the shift systems operated can impact on the wellbeing, performance, and sleep of shiftworkers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge on one major characteristic of shift rotas-namely, shift duration. Evidence comparing the relative effects of eight hour and 12 hour shifts on fatigue and job performance, safety, sleep, and physical and psychological health are considered. At the organisational level, factors such as the mode of system implementation, attitudes towards shift rotas, sickness absence and turnover, overtime, and moonlighting are discussed. Manual and electronic searches of the shiftwork research literature were conducted to obtain information on comparisons between eight hour and 12 hour shifts. The research findings are largely equivocal. The bulk of the evidence suggests few differences between eight and 12 hour shifts in the way they affect people. There may even be advantages to 12 hour shifts in terms of lower stress levels, better physical and psychological wellbeing, improved durations and quality of off duty sleep as well as improvements in family relations. On the negative side, the main concerns are fatigue and safety. It is noted that a 12 hour shift does not equate with being active for only 12 hours. There can be considerable extension of the person's time awake either side of the shift. However, the effects of longer term exposure to extended work days have been relatively uncharted in any systematic way. Longitudinal comparative research into the chronic impact of the compressed working week is needed.

  19. Anthropogenic influences on Pb/Al and lead isotope signature in annually layered Holocene Maar lake sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettler, G.; Romer, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Annually laminated sediments from two Maar lakes in the West Eifel volcanic field (Germany) show anomalously high Pb within sections deposited during the first centuries A.D. exceeding the local geological background 8.5-fold in Lake Meerfelder Maar (MFM) and 4-fold in Lake Schalkenmehrener Maar (SMM). These Pb anomalies are associated with a distinct shift in the Pb isotope signature to less radiogenic compositions. The excess Pb causing the anomaly has the same isotopic composition as galena deposits 60 km to the NW of the Maar lakes. It is suggested that this component was transported airborne into the Maar lakes and originates from regional Roman Pb refinement and cupellation of argentiferous Pb. Varve chronostratigraphy of correlated cores indicates that significant Roman Pb input lasted for about 230 a. SMM does not get fluviatile input. Its sedimentary record is more sensitive to variations in airborne input than that of MFM, which had an inflow. SMM sediment sections deposited during periods of low soil erosion (early Holocene, Dark Ages) with comparably high Pb/Al values also show little radiogenic Pb. This is caused by airborne minerogenic matter from a geochemically and isotopically distinct remote source that becomes apparent only in sedimentation periods of very restricted local allochthonous input. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Leaf water stable isotopes and water transport outside the xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, M M; Farquhar, G D; Buckley, T N

    2017-06-01

    How water moves through leaves, and where the phase change from liquid to vapour occurs within leaves, remain largely mysterious. Some time ago, we suggested that the stable isotope composition of leaf water may contain information on transport pathways beyond the xylem, through differences in the development of gradients in enrichment within the various pathways. Subsequent testing of this suggestion provided ambiguous results and even questioned the existence of gradients in enrichment within the mesophyll. In this review, we bring together recent theoretical developments in understanding leaf water transport pathways and stable isotope theory to map a path for future work into understanding pathways of water transport and leaf water stable isotope composition. We emphasize the need for a spatially, anatomically and isotopically explicit model of leaf water transport. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Isotope shift of the 590-cm-1 Raman feature in underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, K. C.; Wang, N. L.; Irwin, J. C.; Pooke, D. M.; Pantoja, A. E.; Trodahl, H. J.

    1999-10-01

    Raman-scattering studies have been performed on underdoped Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. In single crystals underdoped by oxygen removal, a 590-cm-1 peak is observed in the B1g spectrum. The feature is observed to soften in frequency by 3.8% with isotopic exchange of 16O by 18O. In contrast, the 590-cm-1 peak is not observed in crystals underdoped by Y substitution which suggests that it is a vibrational mode activated by oxygen deficency. We have also found that underdoping leads to a depletion of low-energy spectral weight from regions of the Fermi surface located near the Brillouin-zone axes.

  2. Isotopic geochemistry of Fernando de Noronha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, D.C.; Stormer, J.C. Jr.; Mueller, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    Volcanic and hybabyssal rocks ranging in age from 12 to 3 Ma from the Fernando de Noronha archipelago in the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean can generally be devided into two age-compositional groups that have variable and distinct isotopic compositions. Predominantly older alkali basalts and trachytes are generally characterized by more radiogenic Sr-isotopic ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr=0.70457-0.70485) compositions and less radiogenic Nd-isotopic ( 143 Nd/ 144 Nd=0.51271-0.51281) and Pb-isotopic ( 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=19.132-19.282) compositions relative to the generally younger, more alkaline Si-undersaturated rocks which include nephelinites, ankaratrites, and melilitites ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr=0.70365-0.70418, 143 Nd/ 144 Nd=0.51277-0.51290, 206 Pb/ 204 Pb=19.317-19.565). These variations suggest the influence of at least two separate components in the source(s) of both series. One component is characterized by high Rb/Sr and low μ, possibly derived from delaminated subcontinental lithosphere, whereas the other has high μ and low Rb/Sr similar to the source of St. Helena lavas. A third component is suggested by correlated compositions in the latest alkaline, Si-undersaturated lavas, and this component may be derived from depleted mantle. These isotopic variations in conjunction with the generally increasing degree of alkalinity with time are consistent with the temporal depletion of a low-μ, high Rb/Sr component and increasing contributions from a high-μ component in the source of the volcanic rocks of Fernando de Noronha. (orig.)

  3. Plutonium isotope ratios in polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to recent reports that suggest that terrestrial and aquatic organisms may preferentially take up 238 Pu compared with sup(239+240)Pu. It is stated that although kinetic isotope effects are known to occur in biological systems for low mass number elements, such as H, C and N, such effects are generally discounted with higher mass numbers, and differences in the biological 'uptake' of isotopes of high mass number elements, such as those of Pu, are normally attributable to differences in the chemical or physical forms of the isotopes or to different quantities of isotopes available to organisms. This has been applied to explain differential Pu isotope behaviour in animals under controlled laboratory conditions, but it is not certain that it can be applied to explain anomalies of Pu isotope behaviour in organisms contaminated by nuclear test debris or by wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Geochemical weathering may also have an effect. Described here are experiments in which it was found that deposit feeding marine worms living in sediments contaminated in different ways with Pu isotopes did not show preferential accumulation of 238 Pu. The worms had been exposed to different chemical and physical forms of the isotopes, including exposure to laboratory-labelled sediment, sediment collected from a former weapons test site, and sediment contaminated by wastes from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The worms were allowed to accumulate Pu for times of 5 to 40 days. Isotope ratios were determined by α-spectrometric techniques. It is considered that the results are important for environmental samples where Pu activity levels are low. (U.K.)

  4. Temporal variations of isotopes in arid rain storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adar, E.M.; Dodi, A.; Geyh, M.A.; Yair, A.

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of isotopes in rainfall has long been used to elaborate on hydrological systems. Both isotopic composition of stable isotopes (oxygen-18 and deuterium) and tritium content are used to illuminate on sources of groundwater recharge and as tracers upon which groundwater fluxes are assessed. As runoff is concerned, stable isotopes have been used to identify flow paths and the precise location of the rain storm which produced the floods. Analyses of stable isotopes in arid storms in the Negev desert revealed clear discrepancy between the spatial isotopic composition in floods versus the spatial and temporal isotopic composition in rainfall. In addition, simple water balance revealed that the entire flood volume is equivalent to a very small portion of the rain storm, suggesting that a specific flood is produced by a very short and intensive portion of the rainfall. Therefore, knowledge of the weighted isotopic average of a rainfall can not serve as an adequate input function for modeling of desert floods. Since in arid environment, floods are considered as major source of groundwater recharge it also can not be used as input function for modeling of groundwater systems. This paper summarizes detailed isotopic study of short segments (∼2 mm each) of desert rainstorms as sampled in the Negev desert, Israel

  5. Use of Isotopic Data to Determine Influence of Seasonal Effects in Rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, R. L. [US Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Aggarwal, P. K.; Araguas Araguas, L.; Newman, B.; Kurttas, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    In 2002 the International atomic energy agency and its Member states initiated a programme for the collection and measurement of isotopes (stable isotopes of water and tritium) in river waters. The purpose of this programme is to establish a long term database (GNIR) similar to the global database currently available for precipitation. These isotopic data provide a baseline for studying parameters in hydrologic basins that can be used to monitor any changes in the basin response due to shifts in future climatic or land use factors. Below, selected {sup 18}O and tritium data sets where measurements from several years of routine sampling are available are analysed. A ratio of the average monthly isotopic concentration divided by the average yearly concentration is used to normalize data and makes it possible to compare data from different sites. In general, high flow periods are strongly influenced by younger water whereas baseflow is primarily composed of water of greater age (probably decadal). Using this approach and flow rates, it should be possible to estimate the isotopic concentrations of baseflow. This data set will make it possible to track changes in baseflow concentrations occurring due to future changes in climate or land use. (author)

  6. Tin isotope fractionation during magmatic processes and the isotope composition of the bulk silicate Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueying; Amet, Quentin; Fitoussi, Caroline; Bourdon, Bernard

    2018-05-01

    Tin is a moderately volatile element whose isotope composition can be used to investigate Earth and planet differentiation and the early history of the Solar System. Although the Sn stable isotope composition of several geological and archaeological samples has been reported, there is currently scarce information about the effect of igneous processes on Sn isotopes. In this study, high-precision Sn isotope measurements of peridotites and basalts were obtained by MC-ICP-MS with a double-spike technique. The basalt samples display small variations in δ124/116Sn ranging from -0.01 ± 0.11 to 0.27 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.d.) relative to NIST SRM 3161a standard solution, while peridotites have more dispersed and more negative δ124Sn values ranging from -1.04 ± 0.11 to -0.07 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.d.). Overall, basalts are enriched in heavy Sn isotopes relative to peridotites. In addition, δ124Sn in peridotites become more negative with increasing degrees of melt depletion. These results can be explained by different partitioning behavior of Sn4+ and Sn2+ during partial melting. Sn4+ is overall more incompatible than Sn2+ during partial melting, resulting in Sn4+-rich silicate melt and Sn2+-rich residue. As Sn4+ has been shown experimentally to be enriched in heavy isotopes relative to Sn2+, the effect of melting is to enrich residual peridotites in relatively more compatible Sn2+, which results in isotopically lighter peridotites and isotopically heavier mantle-derived melts. This picture can be disturbed partly by the effect of refertilization. Similarly, the presence of enriched components such as recycled oceanic crust or sediments could explain part of the variations in Sn isotopes in oceanic basalts. The most primitive peridotite analyzed in this study was used for estimating the Sn isotope composition of the BSE, with δ124Sn = -0.08 ± 0.11‰ (2 s.d.) relative to the Sn NIST SRM 3161a standard solution. Altogether, this suggests that Sn isotopes may be a powerful probe of

  7. Lead isotopic studies of the Samail ophiolite, Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.H.; Pallister, J.S.

    1981-04-10

    The isotopic composition of Pb and the concentrations of U, Th, and Pb have been determined for samples from various lithologic units and massive sulfides of the Samail ophiolite. The observed /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios range from 17.90 to 19.06, /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios from 15.43 to 15.63, and /sup 208/Pb//sup 204/Pb from 37.66 to 38.78. In Pb isotopic evolution diagrams, the initial Pb isotopic compositions of most of the samples from the Samail ophiolite plot within the field of oceanic basalt, clearly distinct from island arc data, and define some of the least radiogenic Pb observed from oceanic rocks. Lead data from the Samail are compatible with a model involving magma generation from an oceanic mantle source and formation of the ophiolite at an oceanic spreading center. U--Th--Pb isotopic systematics demonstrate that vertical heterogeneity in the oceanic crust can be created through differential concentration of U, Th, and Pb during crystal fractionation and alteration at, or near, the spreading ridge. Calcite form amygdules in the ophiolite basalt has similar Pb isotopic composition to the igneous rocks, suggesting precipitation of the calcite from seawater which contained Pb derived mostly from the oceanic crust. Lead isotopic data on Fe--Cu sulfides are also similar to the results from the igneous suite suggesting that the source of the sulfides is predominently from the oceanic crust. Lead data from serpentinized peridotite and a galena sample from below the ophiolite suggest that part of the serpentinization process and the formation of galena could involve addition of radiogenic Pb from either a continental source or from oceanic sediments.

  8. Coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations of HIMU oceanic island basalts from Mangaia, Cook-Austral islands, suggest an Archean source component in the mantle transition zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Oliver; Arculus, Richard J.; van Westrenen, Wim; Woodhead, Jon D.; Jenner, Frances E.; Nebel-Jacobsen, Yona J.; Wille, Martin; Eggins, Stephen M.

    2013-07-01

    Although it is widely accepted that oceanic island basalts (OIB) sample geochemically distinct mantle reservoirs including recycled oceanic crust, the composition, age, and locus of these reservoirs remain uncertain. OIB with highly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures are grouped as HIMU (high-μ, with μ = 238U/204Pb), and exhibit unique Hf-Nd isotopic characteristics, defined as ΔɛHf, deviant from a terrestrial igneous rock array that includes all other OIB types. Here we combine new Hf isotope data with previous Nd-Pb isotope measurements to assess the coupled, time-integrated Hf-Nd-Pb isotope evolution of the most extreme HIMU location (Mangaia, French Polynesia). In comparison with global MORB and other OIB types, Mangaia samples define a unique trend in coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations (expressed in 207Pb/206Pb vs. ΔɛHf). In a model employing subducted, dehydrated oceanic crust, mixing between present-day depleted MORB mantle (DMM) and small proportions (˜5%) of a HIMU mantle endmember can re-produce the Hf-Nd-Pb isotope systematics of global HIMU basalts (sensu stricto; i.e., without EM-1/EM-2/FOZO components). An age range of 3.5 to 3 Gyr and implies that OIB chemistry can be used to test geodynamic models.

  9. Isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors in mantis shrimp crustaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya S deVries

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0-1 ‰ and 3-4 ‰, respectively. Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days. In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively. We compared the mantis shrimps' incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals.

  10. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaoli [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Environmental Engineering, Quzhou University, Quzhou 324000 (China); Xu, Zemin [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Xichang [Laboratory for Teaching in Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Fangxing, E-mail: fxyang@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Effect-Directed Analysis, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research — UFZ, Leipzig 04318 (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions. The half-lives of lambda-cyhalothrin were determined to be 49 and 161 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin and 84 and 154 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from − 29.0‰ to − 26.5‰ in soil spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, and to − 27.5‰ with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin. A relationship was established between the stable carbon isotope fraction and the residual concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin by the Rayleigh equation in which the carbon isotope enrichment factor ε of the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the soil was calculated as − 2.53‰. This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. - Highlights: • Abiotic and biotic degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin were observed in soil. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin was evaluated by CSIA. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin leads to carbon isotope fractionation. • An enrichment factor ε of lambda-cyhalothrin was determined as − 2.53‰.

  11. Stable carbon isotope fractionation during the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Xu, Zemin; Zhang, Xichang; Yang, Fangxing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil was investigated using compound-specific stable isotope analysis. The results revealed that lambda-cyhalothrin was biodegraded in soil under laboratory conditions. The half-lives of lambda-cyhalothrin were determined to be 49 and 161 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin and 84 and 154 days in non-sterile and sterile soils spiked with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, respectively. The biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin resulted in carbon isotope fractionation, which shifted from − 29.0‰ to − 26.5‰ in soil spiked with 2 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin, and to − 27.5‰ with 10 mg/kg lambda-cyhalothrin. A relationship was established between the stable carbon isotope fraction and the residual concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin by the Rayleigh equation in which the carbon isotope enrichment factor ε of the microbial degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in the soil was calculated as − 2.53‰. This study provides an approach to quantitatively evaluate the biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin in soil in field studies. - Highlights: • Abiotic and biotic degradation of lambda-cyhalothrin were observed in soil. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin was evaluated by CSIA. • Biodegradation of lambda-cyhalothrin leads to carbon isotope fractionation. • An enrichment factor ε of lambda-cyhalothrin was determined as − 2.53‰

  12. Application of the isotopic index in isotope geochemical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuetze, H.

    1982-06-01

    A method is described which allows to calculate approximately isotope exchange equilibria between different crystalline silicates. The algorithm uses a newly introduced isotopic index. It is defined using isotopic increments of the variant types of silicatic bonds. This isotopic index gives a quantitative measure of the ability to enrich 18 O or 30 Si, respectively. The dependence of isotopic fractionations on temperature can be calculated approximately by means of the isotopic index, too. On this theoretical base some problems of magmatism and two varieties of an isotope geochemical model of the evolution of the Earth's crust are treated. Finally, the possibility is demonstrated to give prognostic statements about the likelihood of ore bearing of different granites. (author)

  13. Mechanistic studies on the bovine liver mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase using kinetic deuterium isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, V.; Johnston, M.

    1989-01-01

    Dihydroorotates deuteriated at both C 5 and C 6 have been prepared and used to probe the mechanism of the bovine liver mitochondrial dihydroorotate dehydrogenase. Primary deuterium isotope effects on k cat are observed with both (6RS)-[5(S)- 2 H]- and (6RS)-[6- 2 H]dihydroorotates (3 and 6, respectively); these effects are maximal at low pH. At pH 6.6, D V = 3.4 for the C 5 -deuteriated dihydroorotate (3), and D V = 2.3 for the C 6 -deuteriated compound (6). The isotope effects approach unity at pH 8.8. Analysis of the pH dependence of the isotope effects on k cat reveals a shift in the rate-determining step of the enzyme mechanism as a function of pH. Dihydroorotate oxidation appears to require general base catalysis; this step is completely rate-determining at low pH and isotopically sensitive. Reduction of the cosubstrate, coenzyme Q 6 , is rate-limiting at high pH and is isotopically insensitive; this step appears to require general acid catalysis. The results of double isotope substitution studies and analysis for substrate isotope exchange with solvent point toward a concerted mechanism for oxidation of dihydroorotate. This finding serves to distinguish further the mammalian dehydrogenase from its parasitic cognate, which catalyzes a stepwise oxidation reaction

  14. The isotopic contamination in electromagnetic isotope separators; La contagion isotopique dans les separateurs electromagnetiques d'isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassignol, Ch [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In the early years of isotope separation, and in particular electromagnetic isotope separation, needs for rapid results have conducted to empiric research. This paper describes fundamental research on the electromagnetic isotope separation to a better understanding of isotope separators as well as improving the performances. Focus has been made on the study of the principle of isotope contamination and the remedial action on the separator to improve the isotope separation ratio. In a first part, the author come back to the functioning of an electromagnetic separator and generalities on isotope contamination. Secondly, it describes the two stages separation method with two dispersive apparatus, an electromagnetic separation stage followed by an electrostatic separation stage, both separated by a diaphragm. The specifications of the electrostatic stage are given and its different settings and their consequences on isotope separation are investigated. In a third part, mechanisms and contamination factors in the isotope separation are discussed: natural isotope contamination, contamination by rebounding on the collector, contamination because of a low resolution, contamination by chromatism and diffusion effect, breakdown of condenser voltage. Analysis of experimental results shows the diffusion as the most important contamination factor in electromagnetic isotope separation. As contamination factors are dependent on geometric parameters, sector angle, radius of curvature in the magnetic field and clearance height are discussed in a fourth part. The better understanding of the mechanism of the different contamination factors and the study of influential parameters as pressure and geometric parameters lead to define a global scheme of isotope contamination and determinate optima separator design and experimental parameters. Finally, the global scheme of isotope contamination and hypothesis on optima specifications and experimental parameters has been checked during a

  15. Isotopic diversity in nebular dust: The distribution of Ti isotopic anomalies in carbonaceous chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1988-01-01

    Average Ti isotopic patterns are derived for each class of carbonaceous chondrite from a chemically characterized suite of whole-rock samples. There is a well-resolved excess of 50 Ti in a subset of CI meteorites. Mean values of the 50 Ti excess for the four classes span a range of only 2 ε-units, with an apparent positive correlation with Al content. Previous evidence for anomalies in chondrules is augmented here by demonstrating that: (1) the more pristine Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in Efremovka show the same isotopic pattern as the typical Allende CAI; and, (2) CM and CV matrix carry 50 Ti excesses of about 2 ε-units. The distribution of Ti isotopic anomalies among matrix, chondrules, and CAIs suggests a model in which all three constituents formed from precursor-assemblages in which some chemical memories were still intact; the isotopic differences reflect fractionations among the carrier phases of the different isotopic components. Chondrules formed by a mostly closed-system melting of their precursors, and thus provide a recording of the extent of nebular heterogeneity on the mg-size scale. The larger anomalies in CAIs, compared to matrix and most (but not all) chondrules, are attributed primarily to an open- rather than closed-system processing of the CAI precursors. Precursors of both FUN and normal CAIs experienced an episode of intense processing, perhaps partial melting, that created the FUN characteristics, but for normal CAIs the FUN effects were erased by subsequent isotopic equilibration and exchange

  16. Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. II. Isotopic effects and wavelength dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berhanu, Tesfaye A.; Erbland, Joseph; Savarino, Joël [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l’Environnement, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LGGE, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Meusinger, Carl; Johnson, Matthew S. [Copenhagen Center for Atmospheric Research (CCAR), Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jost, Rémy [Laboratoire de Interdisciplinaire de Physique (LIPHY) Univ. de Grenoble, Grenoble (France); Bhattacharya, S. K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Nangang, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)

    2014-06-28

    Atmospheric nitrate is preserved in Antarctic snow firn and ice. However, at low snow accumulation sites, post-depositional processes induced by sunlight obscure its interpretation. The goal of these studies (see also Paper I by Meusinger et al. [“Laboratory study of nitrate photolysis in Antarctic snow. I. Observed quantum yield, domain of photolysis, and secondary chemistry,” J. Chem. Phys. 140, 244305 (2014)]) is to characterize nitrate photochemistry and improve the interpretation of the nitrate ice core record. Naturally occurring stable isotopes in nitrate ({sup 15}N, {sup 17}O, and {sup 18}O) provide additional information concerning post-depositional processes. Here, we present results from studies of the wavelength-dependent isotope effects from photolysis of nitrate in a matrix of natural snow. Snow from Dome C, Antarctica was irradiated in selected wavelength regions using a Xe UV lamp and filters. The irradiated snow was sampled and analyzed for nitrate concentration and isotopic composition (δ{sup 15}N, δ{sup 18}O, and Δ{sup 17}O). From these measurements an average photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}ε = (−15 ± 1.2)‰ was found for broadband Xe lamp photolysis. These results are due in part to excitation of the intense absorption band of nitrate around 200 nm in addition to the weaker band centered at 305 nm followed by photodissociation. An experiment with a filter blocking wavelengths shorter than 320 nm, approximating the actinic flux spectrum at Dome C, yielded a photolytic isotopic fractionation of {sup 15}ε = (−47.9 ± 6.8)‰, in good agreement with fractionations determined by previous studies for the East Antarctic Plateau which range from −40 to −74.3‰. We describe a new semi-empirical zero point energy shift model used to derive the absorption cross sections of {sup 14}NO{sub 3}{sup −} and {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup −} in snow at a chosen temperature. The nitrogen isotopic fractionations obtained by applying

  17. Isotopically modified compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuruc, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter the nomenclature of isotopically modified compounds in Slovak language is described. This chapter consists of following parts: (1) Isotopically substituted compounds; (2) Specifically isotopically labelled compounds; (3) Selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (4) Non-selectively isotopically labelled compounds; (5) Isotopically deficient compounds.

  18. Experimental study of muonic x-ray transitions in mercury isotopes. [Fermi distribution, B(E2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, A.A.; Miller, J.P.; Powers, R.J.; Zehnder, A.; Rushton, A.M.; Welsh, R.E.; Kunselman, A.R.; Roberson, P.; Walter, H.K.

    1978-01-01

    Muonic x-ray spectra were measured for /sup 198/ /sup 199/ /sup 200/ /sup 201/ /sup 202/ and /sup 204/Hg. These data were interpreted in terms of a two parameter Fermi distribution for the charge density. The spectroscopic quadrupole moments (Q/sub s/) of some of the 2/sup +/ nuclear states were inferred. For /sup 199/Hg the spectroscopic quadrupole moments of the first two excited states and the B(E2)'s connecting these states to the ground state were determined. For /sup 201/Hg the ground state quadrupole moment was obtained as well as several other E2 moments but the interpretation of the data was hampered by a possible incomplete knowledge of the nuclear scheme of this nucleus. The muonic isotope shifts were measured and interpreted in terms of deltaR/sub k/ and are compared to electronic x-ray and optical isotope shift measurements. 41 references

  19. The chlorine isotope fingerprint of the lunar magma ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Jeremy W; Treiman, Allan H; Guan, Yunbin; Ma, Chi; Eiler, John M; Gross, Juliane; Greenwood, James P; Stolper, Edward M

    2015-09-01

    The Moon contains chlorine that is isotopically unlike that of any other body yet studied in the Solar System, an observation that has been interpreted to support traditional models of the formation of a nominally hydrogen-free ("dry") Moon. We have analyzed abundances and isotopic compositions of Cl and H in lunar mare basalts, and find little evidence that anhydrous lava outgassing was important in generating chlorine isotope anomalies, because (37)Cl/(35)Cl ratios are not related to Cl abundance, H abundance, or D/H ratios in a manner consistent with the lava-outgassing hypothesis. Instead, (37)Cl/(35)Cl correlates positively with Cl abundance in apatite, as well as with whole-rock Th abundances and La/Lu ratios, suggesting that the high (37)Cl/(35)Cl in lunar basalts is inherited from urKREEP, the last dregs of the lunar magma ocean. These new data suggest that the high chlorine isotope ratios of lunar basalts result not from the degassing of their lavas but from degassing of the lunar magma ocean early in the Moon's history. Chlorine isotope variability is therefore an indicator of planetary magma ocean degassing, an important stage in the formation of terrestrial planets.

  20. Hydroclimate variability of High Arctic Svalbard during the Holocene inferred from hydrogen isotopes of leaf waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balascio, Nicholas L.; D'Andrea, William J.; Gjerde, Marthe; Bakke, Jostein

    2018-03-01

    The response of the Arctic hydrologic cycle to global warming includes changes in precipitation patterns and moisture availability associated with variable sea ice extent and modes of atmospheric circulation. Reconstructions of past hydroclimate changes help constrain the natural range of these systems, identify the manners in which they respond to different forcing mechanisms, and reveal their connections to other components of the climate system, all of which lead to a better understanding of present and future changes. Here we examine hydroclimate changes during the Holocene in the High Arctic archipelago of Svalbard by reconstructing the isotopic composition of precipitation. We measured the hydrogen isotopic composition (δD values) of leaf wax compounds (n-alkanes; C25-C31) in a sediment core from Lake Hakluytvatnet on the island of Amsterdamøya, northwest Spitsbergen. We interpret δD values of mid-chain (C25) and long-chain (C29, C31) length n-alkanes to represent changes in the isotopic composition of lake water and precipitation over the last 12.9 ka. After deglaciation of the catchment, water supply became restricted and the lake experienced significant evaporative isotopic enrichment indicating warmer conditions from 12.8 to 7.5 ka. The isotope values suggest an increase in the delivery of moisture from warmer sub-polar air masses between 12.8 and 9.5 ka, followed by generally warm, but unstable conditions between 9.5 and 7.5 ka, possibly indicating a response to meltwater forcing. Sedimentary evidence indicates a hiatus in deposition c. 7.5-5.0 ka, likely as a result of desiccation of the lake. At c. 5.0 ka lacustrine sedimentation resumed and over the last 5 ka there was a progressive increase in the influence of polar air masses and colder conditions, which culminated in an abrupt shift to colder conditions at c. 1.8 ka. This late Holocene cooling ended c. 0.18 ka, when isotopic data indicate warmer conditions and greater influence of moisture

  1. Isotope effect and isotope separation. A chemist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takanobu

    2002-01-01

    What causes the isotope effects (IE)? This presentation will be centered around the equilibrium isotope effects due to the differences in the nuclear masses. The occurrence of the equilibrium constant, K, of isotope exchange reactions which differ from the values predicted by the classical theory of statistical mechanics, K cl , is explored. The non-classical K corresponds to the unit-stage separation factor, α, that is different from unity and forms a basis of an isotope separation process involving the chemical exchange reaction. Here, the word 'chemical exchange' includes not only the isotope exchange chemical reactions between two or more chemical species but also the isotope exchanges involving the equilibria between liquid and vapor phases and liquid-gas, liquid solution-gas, liquid-liquid, and solid-liquid phases. In Section I, origins of the isotope effect phenomena will be explored and, in the process, various quantities used in discussions of isotope effect that have often caused confusions will be unambiguously defined. This Section will also correlate equilibrium constant with separation factor. In Section II, various forms of temperature-dependence of IE and separation factor will be discussed. (author)

  2. What Affects the Isotopic Composition of Precipitation - A New Interpretation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dody, A. [Nuclear Research Center, Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2013-07-15

    Rainfall events were sampled in high resolution for stable isotope analyses during four rainy seasons in the central negev of Israel. Each sample is equivalent to 1-2 mm of rain. High variability in the isotopic composition was found in fractions of rain during storms. Two modes of isotopic distribution were found. The first is a wave shaped distribution, where isotopic compositions showed enriched to depleted graded changes and vice versa. The second mode is a step function where each rain cell displayed a constant {delta}{sup 18}O value, but varied greatly from the other rain cells. New interpretation suggests that during the transport of the air parcel system three processes can occur. The first process is a complete blending among the rain cells. The second is a partial isotopic mixing between the rain cells. Finally the third case is when each rain cell maintains its own isotopic values separate from the other rain cells. The third case of no mixing showed unexpected results due to the high air turbulence, vertically and horizontally. There was no evidence of complete mixing among the rain cells of identical air parcel systems. The processes in the air parcel trajectory itself suggested here is put forward as a new way to explain the changes in the isotopic composition during the rain. (author)

  3. Copper isotope fractionation between aqueous compounds relevant to low temperature geochemistry and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Moynier, Frédéric; Abe, Minori; Nemoto, Keisuke; Albarède, Francis

    2013-06-01

    Isotope fractionation between the common Cu species present in solution (Cu+, Cu2+, hydroxide, chloride, sulfide, carbonate, oxalate, and ascorbate) has been investigated using both ab initio methods and experimental solvent extraction techniques. In order to establish unambiguously the existence of equilibrium isotope fractionation (as opposed to kinetic isotope fractionation), we first performed laboratory-scale liquid-liquid distribution experiments. Upon exchange between HCl medium and a macrocyclic complex, the 65Cu/63Cu ratio fractionated by -1.06‰ to -0.39‰. The acidity dependence of the fractionation was appropriately explained by ligand exchange reactions between hydrated H2O and Cl- via intramolecular vibrations. The magnitude of the Cu isotope fractionation among important Cu ligands was also estimated by ab initio methods. The magnitude of the nuclear field shift effect to the Cu isotope fractionation represents only ˜3% of the mass-dependent fractionation. The theoretical estimation was expanded to chlorides, hydroxides, sulfides, sulfates, and carbonates under different conditions of pH. Copper isotope fractionation of up to 2‰ is expected for different forms of Cu present in seawater and for different sediments (carbonates, hydroxides, and sulfides). We found that Cu in dissolved carbonates and sulfates is isotopically much heavier (+0.6‰) than free Cu. Isotope fractionation of Cu in hydroxide is minimal. The relevance of these new results to the understanding of metabolic processes was also discussed. Copper is an essential element used by a large number of proteins for electron transfer. Further theoretical estimates of δ65Cu in hydrated Cu(I) and Cu(II) ions, Cu(II) ascorbates, and Cu(II) oxalate predict Cu isotope fractionation during the breakdown of ascorbate into oxalate and account for the isotopically heavy Cu found in animal kidneys.

  4. Diode laser based resonance ionization mass spectrometry for spectroscopy and trace analysis of uranium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakimi, Amin

    2013-01-01

    In this doctoral thesis, the upgrade and optimization of a diode laser system for high-resolution resonance ionization mass spectrometry is described. A frequency-control system, based on a double-interferometric approach, allowing for absolute stabilization down to 1 MHz as well as frequency detunings of several GHz within a second for up to three lasers in parallel was optimized. This laser system was used for spectroscopic studies on uranium isotopes, yielding precise and unambiguous level energies, total angular momenta, hyperfine constants and isotope shifts. Furthermore, an efficient excitation scheme which can be operated with commercial diode lasers was developed. The performance of the complete laser mass spectrometer was optimized and characterized for the ultra-trace analysis of the uranium isotope 236 U, which serves as a neutron flux dosimeter and tracer for radioactive anthropogenic contaminations in the environment. Using synthetic samples, an isotope selectivity of ( 236 U)/( 238 U) = 4.5(1.5) . 10 -9 was demonstrated.

  5. Uncovering trophic positions and food resources of soil animals using bulk natural stable isotope composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapov, Anton M; Tiunov, Alexei V; Scheu, Stefan

    2018-06-19

    Despite the major importance of soil biota in nutrient and energy fluxes, interactions in soil food webs are poorly understood. Here we provide an overview of recent advances in uncovering the trophic structure of soil food webs using natural variations in stable isotope ratios. We discuss approaches of application, normalization and interpretation of stable isotope ratios along with methodological pitfalls. Analysis of published data from temperate forest ecosystems is used to outline emerging concepts and perspectives in soil food web research. In contrast to aboveground and aquatic food webs, trophic fractionation at the basal level of detrital food webs is large for carbon and small for nitrogen stable isotopes. Virtually all soil animals are enriched in 13 C as compared to plant litter. This 'detrital shift' likely reflects preferential uptake of 13 C-enriched microbial biomass and underlines the importance of microorganisms, in contrast to dead plant material, as a major food resource for the soil animal community. Soil organic matter is enriched in 15 N and 13 C relative to leaf litter. Decomposers inhabiting mineral soil layers therefore might be enriched in 15 N resulting in overlap in isotope ratios between soil-dwelling detritivores and litter-dwelling predators. By contrast, 13 C content varies little between detritivores in upper litter and in mineral soil, suggesting that they rely on similar basal resources, i.e. little decomposed organic matter. Comparing vertical isotope gradients in animals and in basal resources can be a valuable tool to assess trophic interactions and dynamics of organic matter in soil. As indicated by stable isotope composition, direct feeding on living plant material as well as on mycorrhizal fungi is likely rare among soil invertebrates. Plant carbon is taken up predominantly by saprotrophic microorganisms and channelled to higher trophic levels of the soil food web. However, feeding on photoautotrophic microorganisms and non

  6. Long-term feeding ecology and habitat use in harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from Scandinavian waters inferred from trace elements and stable isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobert Sylvie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the feeding ecology and habitat use of 32 harbour porpoises by-caught in 4 localities along the Scandinavian coast from the North Sea to the Barents Sea using time-integrative markers: stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N and trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, total Hg and Cd, in relation to habitat characteristics (bathymetry and geographic position (latitude. Results Among the trace elements analysed, only Cd, with an oceanic specific food origin, was found to be useful as an ecological tracer. All other trace elements studied were not useful, most likely because of physiological regulation and/or few specific sources in the food web. The δ13C, δ15N signatures and Cd levels were highly correlated with each other, as well as with local bathymetry and geographic position (latitude. Variation in the isotopic ratios indicated a shift in harbour porpoise's feeding habits from pelagic prey species in deep northern waters to more coastal and/or demersal prey in the relatively shallow North Sea and Skagerrak waters. This result is consistent with stomach content analyses found in the literature. This shift was associated with a northward Cd-enrichment which provides further support to the Cd 'anomaly' previously reported in polar waters and suggests that porpoises in deep northern waters include Cd-contaminated prey in their diet, such as oceanic cephalopods. Conclusion As stable isotopes and Cd provide information in the medium and the long term respectively, the spatial variation found, shows that harbour porpoises experience different ecological regimes during the year along the Scandinavian coasts, adapting their feeding habits to local oceanographic conditions, without performing extensive migration.

  7. Long-term feeding ecology and habitat use in harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from Scandinavian waters inferred from trace elements and stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Michaël C; Tolley, Krystal A; Siebert, Ursula; Gobert, Sylvie; Lepoint, Gilles; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Das, Krishna

    2007-01-17

    We investigated the feeding ecology and habitat use of 32 harbour porpoises by-caught in 4 localities along the Scandinavian coast from the North Sea to the Barents Sea using time-integrative markers: stable isotopes (delta13C, delta15N) and trace elements (Zn, Cu, Fe, Se, total Hg and Cd), in relation to habitat characteristics (bathymetry) and geographic position (latitude). Among the trace elements analysed, only Cd, with an oceanic specific food origin, was found to be useful as an ecological tracer. All other trace elements studied were not useful, most likely because of physiological regulation and/or few specific sources in the food web. The delta13C, delta15N signatures and Cd levels were highly correlated with each other, as well as with local bathymetry and geographic position (latitude). Variation in the isotopic ratios indicated a shift in harbour porpoise's feeding habits from pelagic prey species in deep northern waters to more coastal and/or demersal prey in the relatively shallow North Sea and Skagerrak waters. This result is consistent with stomach content analyses found in the literature. This shift was associated with a northward Cd-enrichment which provides further support to the Cd 'anomaly' previously reported in polar waters and suggests that porpoises in deep northern waters include Cd-contaminated prey in their diet, such as oceanic cephalopods. As stable isotopes and Cd provide information in the medium and the long term respectively, the spatial variation found, shows that harbour porpoises experience different ecological regimes during the year along the Scandinavian coasts, adapting their feeding habits to local oceanographic conditions, without performing extensive migration.

  8. Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (δ18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The δ18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present δ18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that δ18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

  9. Seasonal Cyclicity in Trace Elements and Stable Isotopes of Modern Horse Enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels J de Winter

    Full Text Available The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar. When plotted on this age model, the trace element ratios from horse tooth enamel show a seasonal pattern with a small shift in phase compared to stable oxygen isotope ratios. While stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in tooth enamel are forced respectively by the state of the hydrological cycle and the animal's diet, we argue that the seasonal signal in trace elements reflects seasonal changes in dust intake and diet of the animal. The latter explanation is in agreement with seasonal changes observed in carbon isotopes of the same teeth. This external forcing of trace element composition in mammal tooth enamel implies that trace element ratios may be used as proxies for seasonal changes in paleo-environment and paleo-diet.

  10. Declining Atmospheric pCO2 During the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene: New Insights from Paired Alkenone and Coccolith Stable Isotope Barometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, S. R.; Polissar, P. J.; deMenocal, P. B.; Swann, J. P.; Guo, M. Y.; Stoll, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between atmospheric CO2 concentrations and climate is broadly understood for the Cenozoic era: warmer periods are associated with higher atmospheric carbon dioxide. This understanding is supported by atmospheric samples of the past 800,000 years from ice cores, which suggest CO2 levels play a key role in regulating global climate on glacial interglacial timescales as well. In this context, the late Miocene poses a challenge: sea-surface temperatures indicate substantial global warmth, though existing data suggest atmospheric CO2 concentrations were lower than pre-industrial values. Recent work using the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of coccolith calcite has demonstrated these organisms began actively diverting inorganic carbon away from calcification and to the site of photosynthesis during the late Miocene. This process occurs in culture experiments in response to low aqueous CO2 concentrations, and suggests decreasing atmospheric pCO2 values during the late Miocene. Here we present new data from ODP Site 806 in the western equatorial Pacific Ocean that supports declining atmospheric CO2 across the late Miocene. Carbon isotope values of coccolith calcite from Site 806 demonstrate carbon limitation and re-allocation of inorganic carbon to photosynthesis starting between ~8 and 6 Ma. The timing of this limitation at Site 806 precedes shifts at other ODP sites, reflecting the higher mixed layer temperature and resultant lower CO2 solubility at Site 806. New measurements of carbon isotope values from alkenones at Site 806 show an increase in photosynthetic carbon fractionation (ɛp) accompanied the carbon limitation evident from coccolith calcite stable isotope data. While higher ɛp is typically interpreted as higher CO2 concentrations, at Site 806, our data suggest it reflects enhancement of chloroplast CO2 from active carbon transport by the coccolithophore algae in response to lower CO2 concentrations. Our new data from ODP Site

  11. Key drivers of precipitation isotopes in Windhoek, Namibia (2012-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseke, K. F.; Wang, L.; Wanke, H.

    2017-12-01

    Southern African climate is characterized by large variability with precipitation model estimates varying by as much as 70% during summer. This difference between model estimates is partly because most models associate precipitation over Southern Africa with moisture inputs from the Indian Ocean while excluding inputs from the Atlantic Ocean. However, growing evidence suggests that the Atlantic Ocean may also contribute significant amounts of moisture to the region. This four-year (2012-2016) study investigates the isotopic composition (δ18O, δ2H and δ17O) of event-scale precipitation events, the key drivers of isotope variations and the origins of precipitation experienced in Windhoek, Namibia. Results indicate large storm-to-storm isotopic variability δ18O (25‰), δ2H (180‰) and δ17O (13‰) over the study period. Univariate analysis showed significant correlations between event precipitation isotopes and local meteorological parameters; lifted condensation level, relative humidity (RH), precipitation amount, average wind speed, surface and air temperature (p < 0.05). The number of significant correlations between local meteorological parameters and monthly isotopes was much lower suggesting loss of information through data aggregation. Nonetheless, the most significant isotope driver at both event and monthly scales was RH, consistent with the semi-arid classification of the site. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested RH, precipitation amount and air temperature were the most significant local drivers of precipitation isotopes accounting for about 50% of the variation implying that about 50% could be attributed to source origins. HYSLPIT trajectories indicated that 78% of precipitation originated from the Indian Ocean while 21% originated from the Atlantic Ocean. Given that three of the four study years were droughts while two of the three drought years were El Niño related, our data also suggests that δ'17O-δ'18O could be a useful tool to

  12. Ore-lead isotopes and Grenville plate tectonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, R.M.; Fletcher, I.R.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances in the 'whole earth' modelling of evolutionary processes of Pb isotopes shed light upon the origin of the metals found in various types of ore deposits. On the bases of these models and several recently published data sets, we believe that the ore deposits formed in various plate tectonic environments may carry 'isotopic fingerprints' which, when used with other characteristics such as mineral assemblages, may identify the depositional environments of many ore bodies. In the present study Pb-isotopic measurements have been made of a number of Precambrain mineralization types and localities throughout the Central Metasedimentary Belt of the Grenville Province. The data for individual deposits are at best ambiguous, but fall into two groups sufficiently distinctive to allow some degree of 'fingerprint' identification. Comparisons with data from other areas suggest that the major periods of sedimentation within the Central Metasedimentary Belt accompanied plate rifting and/or island arc tectonic activity, with most of the mineralized lead being derived from mantle sources. Detailed comparisons between the Grenville and other regions are uncertain, mainly because there are few detailed high-accuracy data sets from younger, tectonically unambiguous mineral occurrences. We suggest that once these data sets are availble, isotopic fingerprinting may become diagnostic for deposits ranging well back into the Precambrain

  13. Paleoecologies and paleoclimates of late cenozoic mammals from Southwest China: Evidence from stable carbon and oxygen isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasatti, Dana; Wang, Yang; Gao, Feng; Xu, Yingfeng; Flynn, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    increased significantly after ˜3.5 Ma. The oxygen isotope results from Yuanmou (Xiaohe Formation) show a positive shift after ˜8.5 Ma, which is similar in timing and magnitude to δ 18O shifts observed in horses and rhinos from the Linxia Basin and in fossils and paleosols from Pakistan and Nepal, suggesting a shift toward a drier climate at the northeast, southeast, and southern borders of the Tibetan Plateau during the late Miocene. Taken together, the carbon and oxygen isotope data indicate a general drying of the local climate over time and a change from a largely dense-forest environment at ˜8 Ma to a more open environment with a mosaic of forests and grasslands after 3-4 Ma in the Yuanmou region. Intra-tooth δ 13C and δ 18O variations within individual fossil teeth from Yuanmou suggest a stronger seasonality of rainfall at ˜1.7 Ma than in the late Miocene. The spatial and temporal δ 13C and δ 18O variations observed in mammalian teeth from Yunnan likely reflect changes in regional climate and/or tectonics, but more data are needed to fully explore the significance of the regional patterns in the δ 18O and δ 13C data in relation to climate and tectonic evolution of the region.

  14. The Lamb-shift experiment in Muonic helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebel, T., E-mail: tbn@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (Germany); Amaro, F. D. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Antognini, A. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik (Switzerland); Biraben, F. [CNRS and Universite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure (France); Cardoso, J. M. R. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Covita, D. S. [Universidade de Aveiro, I3N, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Dax, A. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Fernandes, L. M. P.; Gouvea, A. L. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); Graf, T. [Universitaet Stuttgart, Institut fuer Strahlwerkzeuge (Germany); Haensch, T. W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (Germany); Hildebrandt, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut (Switzerland); Indelicato, P.; Julien, L. [CNRS and Universite P. et M. Curie, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Superieure (France); Kirch, K.; Kottmann, F. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik (Switzerland); Liu, Y.-W. [National Tsing Hua University, Physics Department (China); Monteiro, C. M. B. [Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica (Portugal); and others

    2012-12-15

    We propose to measure several transition frequencies between the 2S and the 2P states (Lamb shift) in muonic helium ions ({mu}{sup 4}He{sup + } and {mu}{sup 3}He{sup + }) by means of laser spectroscopy, in order to determine the alpha-particle and helion root-mean-square (rms) charge radius. In addition, the fine and hyperfine structure components will be revealed, and the magnetic moment distribution radius will be determined. The contribution of the finite size effect to the Lamb shift (2S - 2P energy difference) in {mu}He{sup + } is as high as 20 %. Therefore a measurement of the transition frequencies with a moderate (for laser spectroscopy) precision of 50 ppm (corresponding to 1/20 of the linewidth) will lead to a determination of the nuclear rms charge radii with a relative accuracy of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup - 4} (equivalent to 0.0005 fm). The limiting factor for the extraction of the radii from the Lamb shift measurements is given by the uncertainty of the nuclear polarizability contribution. Combined with an ongoing experiment at MPQ aiming to measure the 1S - 2S transition frequency in the helium ion, the Lamb shift measurement in {mu}He{sup + } will lead to a sensitive test of problematic and challenging bound-state QED terms. This measurement will also help to clarify the discrepancy found in our previous {mu}{sub p} experiment. Additionally, a precise knowledge of the absolute nuclear radii of the He isotopes and the hyperfine splitting of {mu}{sup 3}He{sup + } provide a relevant test of few-nucleon theories.

  15. Titanium isotopic anomalies in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Lugmair, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    High-precision analyses of Ti are reported for samples from a variety of meteorite classes. The expanded data base for Allende inclusions still shows Ti isotope anomalies in every inclusion. All the coarse-grained inclusions give quite similar patterns, but fine-grained inclusions show more variable, and sometimes larger, anomalies. One inclusion, 3675A, was analyzed because others identified it as a possible 'FUN' inclusion due to its mass-fractionated Mg. This designation is supported by the significantly more complex Ti isotopic pattern for 3675A compared to all our other Allende inclusions. Available data fail to suggest that any particular Allende mineral phase, including a chromite-carbon fraction from an acid residue, is especially rich in anomalous Ti. We also find anomalous Ti in a bulk sample of a C1 chondrite and in matrix separates from C2 chondrites. The excesses of 50 Ti are smaller than for Allende inclusions, and subtle differences in Ti isotopic patterns tentatively suggest that parent materials for C1-C2 matrix and Allende inclusions are not directly related. Analyses of chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites did not yield clear evidence for anomalous Ti, but some 'larger than usual' deficits at 50/46 give encouragement for future work in this direction. (author)

  16. Ferropericlase inclusions in ultradeep diamonds from Sao Luiz (Brazil): high Li abundances and diverse Li-isotope and trace element compositions suggest an origin from a subduction mélange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Hans-Michael; Brey, Gerhard P.; Harris, Jeffrey W.; Durali-Müller, Soodabeh; Ludwig, Thomas; Höfer, Heidi E.

    2018-05-01

    The most remarkable feature of the inclusion suite in ultradeep alluvial and kimberlitic diamonds from Sao Luiz (Juina area in Brazil) is the enormous range in Mg# [100xMg/(Mg + Fe)] of the ferropericlases (fper). The Mg-richer ferropericlases are from the boundary to the lower mantle or from the lower mantle itself when they coexist with ringwoodite or Mg- perovskite (bridgmanite). This, however, is not an explanation for the more Fe-rich members and a lowermost mantle or a "D" layer origin has been proposed for them. Such a suggested ultra-deep origin separates the Fe-rich fper-bearing diamonds from the rest of the Sao Luiz ultradeep diamond inclusion suite, which also contains Ca-rich phases. These are now thought to have an origin in the uppermost lower mantle and in the transition zone and to belong either to a peridotitic or mafic (subducted oceanic crust) protolith lithology. We analysed a new set of more Fe-rich ferropericlase inclusions from 10 Sao Luiz ultradeep alluvial diamonds for their Li isotope composition by solution MC-ICP-MS (multi collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), their major and minor elements by EPMA (electron probe micro-analyser) and their Li-contents by SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry), with the aim to understand the origin of the ferropericlase protoliths. Our new data confirm the wide range of ferropericlase Mg# that were reported before and augment the known lack of correlation between major and minor elements. Four pooled ferropericlase inclusions from four diamonds provided sufficient material to determine for the first time their Li isotope composition, which ranges from δ7Li + 9.6 ‰ to -3.9 ‰. This wide Li isotopic range encompasses that of serpentinized ocean floor peridotites including rodingites and ophicarbonates, fresh and altered MORB (mid ocean ridge basalt), seafloor sediments and of eclogites. This large range in Li isotopic composition, up to 5 times higher than `primitive upper mantle' Li

  17. Silicon isotope ratio measurements by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry for alteration studies of nuclear waste glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis; Ducasse, Thomas; Barker, Evelyne; Jollivet, Patrick; Gin, Stéphane; Bassot, Sylvain; Cazala, Charlotte

    2017-02-15

    High-level, long-lived nuclear waste arising from spent fuel reprocessing is vitrified in silicate glasses for final disposal in deep geologic formations. In order to better understand the mechanisms driving glass dissolution, glass alteration studies, based on silicon isotope ratio monitoring of 29 Si-doped aqueous solutions, were carried out in laboratories. This work explores the capabilities of the new type of quadrupole-based ICP-MS, the Agilent 8800 tandem quadrupole ICP-MS/MS, for accurate silicon isotope ratio determination for alteration studies of nuclear waste glasses. In order to avoid silicon polyatomic interferences, a new analytical method was developed using O 2 as the reaction gas in the Octopole Reaction System (ORS), and silicon isotopes were measured in mass-shift mode. A careful analysis of the potential polyatomic interferences on SiO + and SiO 2 + ion species was performed, and we found that SiO + ion species suffer from important polyatomic interferences coming from the matrix of sample and standard solutions (0.5M HNO 3 ). For SiO 2 + , no interferences were detected, and thus, these ion species were chosen for silicon isotope ratio determination. A number of key settings for accurate isotope ratio analysis like, detector dead time, integration time, number of sweeps, wait time offset, memory blank and instrumental mass fractionation, were considered and optimized. Particular attention was paid to the optimization of abundance sensitivity of the quadrupole mass filter before the ORS. We showed that poor abundance sensitivity leads to a significant shift of the data away from the Exponential Mass Fractionation Law (EMFL) due to the spectral overlaps of silicon isotopes combined with different oxygen isotopes (i.e. 28 Si 16 O 18 O + , 30 Si 16 O 16 O + ). The developed method was validated by measuring a series of reference solutions with different 29 Si enrichment. Isotope ratio trueness, uncertainty and repeatability were found to be

  18. The isotopic contamination in electromagnetic isotope separators; La contagion isotopique dans les separateurs electromagnetiques d'isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassignol, Ch. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    In the early years of isotope separation, and in particular electromagnetic isotope separation, needs for rapid results have conducted to empiric research. This paper describes fundamental research on the electromagnetic isotope separation to a better understanding of isotope separators as well as improving the performances. Focus has been made on the study of the principle of isotope contamination and the remedial action on the separator to improve the isotope separation ratio. In a first part, the author come back to the functioning of an electromagnetic separator and generalities on isotope contamination. Secondly, it describes the two stages separation method with two dispersive apparatus, an electromagnetic separation stage followed by an electrostatic separation stage, both separated by a diaphragm. The specifications of the electrostatic stage are given and its different settings and their consequences on isotope separation are investigated. In a third part, mechanisms and contamination factors in the isotope separation are discussed: natural isotope contamination, contamination by rebounding on the collector, contamination because of a low resolution, contamination by chromatism and diffusion effect, breakdown of condenser voltage. Analysis of experimental results shows the diffusion as the most important contamination factor in electromagnetic isotope separation. As contamination factors are dependent on geometric parameters, sector angle, radius of curvature in the magnetic field and clearance height are discussed in a fourth part. The better understanding of the mechanism of the different contamination factors and the study of influential parameters as pressure and geometric parameters lead to define a global scheme of isotope contamination and determinate optima separator design and experimental parameters. Finally, the global scheme of isotope contamination and hypothesis on optima specifications and experimental parameters has been checked during a

  19. Tracing low-temperature aqueous metal migration in mineralized watersheds with Cu isotope fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, R.; Munk, L.A.; Townley, B.; Gou, K.Y.; Gómez Miguélez, N.; Titley, S.; Chen, G.G.; Song, S.; Reich, M.; Tornos, F.; Ruiz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cu isotope fractionation of ores and waters identifies copper sulfide weathering. • Redox reactions cause isotopic shift measured in areas of sulfide weathering. • Consistent isotope signature in different deposit, climate, or concentration. - Abstract: Copper isotope signatures in waters emanating from mineralized watersheds provide evidence for the source aqueous copper in solution. Low-temperature aqueous oxidation of Cu sulfide minerals produces significant copper isotopic fractionation between solutions and residues. Abiotic experimental data of fractionation (defined as Δ liquid–solid ‰ = δ 65 Cu liquid − δ 65 Cu solid ) are on the order of 1–3‰ and are unique for copper rich-sulfide minerals. Data presented here from ores and waters within defined boundaries of porphyry copper, massive sulfide, skarn, and epithermal ore deposits mimic abiotic experiments. Thus, the oxidation of sulfide minerals appears to cause the signatures in the waters although significant biological, temperature, and pH variations exist in the fluids. Regardless of the deposit type, water type, concentration of Cu in solution, or location, the data provide a means to trace sources of metals in solutions. This relationship allows for tracking sources and degree of metal migration in low temperature aqueous systems and has direct application to exploration geology and environmental geochemistry

  20. Accounting for cyanide and its degradation products at three Nevada gold mines; constraints from stable C- and N-isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.A.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

    1998-01-01

    An understanding of the fate of cyanide (CN-) in mine process waters is important for addressing environmental concerns and for taking steps to minimize reagent costs. The utility of stable isotope methods in identifying cyanide loss pathways has been investigated in case studies at three Nevada gold mines. Freshly prepared barren solutions at the mines have cyanide d15N and d13C values averaging -4 ? and -36 ?, respectively, reflecting the nitrogen and carbon sources used by commercial manufacturers, air and natural gas methane. Pregnant solutions returning from ore heaps display small isotopic shifts to lower d15N and d13C values. The shifts are similar to those observed in laboratory experiments where cyanide was progressively precipitated as a cyanometallic compound, and are opposite in sign and much smaller in magnitude than the shifts observed in experiments where HCN was offgassed. Offgassing is inferred to be a minor cyanide loss mechanism in the heap leach operations at the three mines, and precipitation as cyanometallic compounds, and possibly coprecipitation with ferric oxides, is inferred to be an important loss mechanism. Isotopic analysis of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) shows that uptake of high d13C air CO2 has been important in many barren and pregnant solutions. However, DIC in reclaim pond waters at all three mines has low d13C values of -28 to -34 ? indicating cyanide breakdown either by hydrolysis or by other chemical pathways that break the C-N bond. Isotope mass balance calculations indicate that about 40 % of the DIC load in the ponds, at a minimum, was derived from cyanide breakdown. This level of cyanide hydrolysis accounts for 14-100 % of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen species present in the ponds. Overall, isotope data provide quantitative evidence that only minor amounts of cyanide are lost via offgassing and that significant amounts are destroyed via hydrolysis and related pathways. The data also highlight the possibility that

  1. How the oxygen isotope ratio of rain water influences the isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gregory; Grimes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The stable oxygen isotope ratio of chicken eggshell carbonate was analysed from chicken eggs laid under free range, and organic farming regimes from across the UK. The eggshell carbonate oxygen isotope data shows a clear depletion in delta18O distribution from the southwest to the northeast. Although consistently offset by around 1 permil, the same isotopic distribution as that seen in eggshell carbonate is observed in the delta18O ratio of rainfall and groundwater from across the UK. This distribution is related to the Rayleigh distillation of rainfall driven by westerly winds across the UK landmass. The clear relationship observed between eggshell delta18O values and that of rainwater presumably reflects the nature of free range chickens which must be drinking locally derived rainwater and supplementing their diet and water intake with locally derived food. These results suggest that the oxygen isotope value of chicken eggshells can be used as a forensic tool to identify the locality that free range and organic eggs were laid within the UK. Furthermore, if suitable material is preserved in the archaeological and geological record then such a relationship can potentially be used to establish the oxygen isotope value of rainwater from which ancient and / or ancestral birds lived.

  2. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E., E-mail: saper43-7@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    -rich lead isotopes undergo deformations, but the size of this region is substantially different for the different functionals being considered. Once again, it is maximal for the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals, is substantially narrower for the FaNDF{sup 0} functional, and is still narrower for the SKM* and SLy4 functionals. The two-neutron drip line proved to be A{sub drip}{sup 2n} = 266 for all of the EDF versions considered here, with the exception of SKM*, for which it is shifted to A{sub drip}{sup 2n}(SKM*) = 272.

  3. 2ΔH(D) and 1ΔN(D) isotope effects on nuclear shielding of ammonium ions in complexes with crown ethers and cryptands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, P.E.; Hansen, Aa.E.; Lycka, A.; Buvari-Barcza, A.

    1993-01-01

    One-bond deuterium isotope effects on nitrogen nuclear shielding, 1 ΔN(D) and two-bond isotope effects at 1 H nuclear shielding, 2 ΔH(D), have been investigated in a series of inclusion complexes. The hosts comprise, SC-24, [2.2.2], [2.2.1], [2.2.1] D, [2.2] DD, K5, 18-crown-6 and 18-crown-6 tetracarboxylic acid. The structure of the host [2.2.1] is discussed based on isotope effects and 1 H chemical shifts, and an interesting exchange reaction is observed between CDCl 3 and ammonium ions in the [2.2.1] complex. The counterion dependence is shown to be zero for ammonium ions fully included in cages such as SC-24 and [2.2.2] and for 18-C-6(COOH) 4 . For cryptands and podands such as [2.2.1] and K5 a weak counterion dependence of 2 ΔH(D) opposite to that found for ammonium ions in water is observed, while 1 ΔN(D) and 15 N chemical shifts depend very strongly on the counterions, as also found for ammonium ions in water solution. The anilinium ion shows effects similar to those observed for the ammonium ion. 1 ΔN(D) isotope effects correlate well with δN and 2 ΔH(D) correlate with δNH. The correlation between 1 ΔN(D) and 2 ΔH(D) is different for ammonium ions in water and ions included in crowns, cryptands or podands. This shows that different mechanisms are operating. The 2 ΔH(D) isotope effects and δNH chemical shifts depend on the distance to the nearest acceptor (oxygen or nitrogen), and they also depend on the type of acceptor. 2 ΔH(D) isotope effects are found to be a good gauge of N ... N or N ... O distances of the inclusion complexes. The 2 ΔH(D) isotope effects vary with temperature, but the dramatic changes in the 1 H NMR spectra of the host are not reflected in the isotope effects. The one-bond couplings, 1 J(N,H), correlate with 2 ΔH(D). The variations are much larger for the cryptands than found in water solutions. (au) (50 refs.)

  4. A stable isotope-based approach to tropical dendroclimatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael N.; Schrag, Daniel P.

    2004-08-01

    We describe a strategy for development of chronological control in tropical trees lacking demonstrably annual ring formation, using high resolution δ 18O measurements in tropical wood. The approach applies existing models of the oxygen isotopic composition of alpha-cellulose (Roden et al., 2000), a rapid method for cellulose extraction from raw wood (Brendel et al., 2000), and continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (Brenna et al., 1998) to develop proxy chronological, rainfall and growth rate estimates from tropical trees lacking visible annual ring structure. Consistent with model predictions, pilot datasets from the temperate US and Costa Rica having independent chronological control suggest that observed cyclic isotopic signatures of several permil (SMOW) represent the annual cycle of local rainfall and relative humidity. Additional data from a plantation tree of known age from ENSO-sensitive northwestern coastal Peru suggests that the 1997-8 ENSO warm phase event was recorded as an 8‰ anomaly in the δ 18O of α-cellulose. The results demonstrate reproducibility of the stable isotopic chronometer over decades, two different climatic zones, and three tropical tree genera, and point to future applications in paleoclimatology.

  5. Freezing and fractionation: effects of preservation on carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of some limnetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J Marshall; Johnson, Brett; Silver, Douglas; Pate, William; Christianson, Kyle

    2016-03-15

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen have become important natural tracers for studying food-web structure and function. Considerable research has demonstrated that chemical preservatives and fixatives shift the isotopic ratios of aquatic organisms. Much less is known about the effects of freezing as a preservation method although this technique is commonly used. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of freezing (-10 °C) and flash freezing (–79 °C) on the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of zooplankton (Cladocera), Mysis diluviana and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Subsamples (~0.5 mg) of dried material were analyzed for percentage carbon, percentage nitrogen, and the relative abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N values) using a Carlo Erba NC2500 elemental analyzer interfaced to a ThermoFinnigan MAT Delta Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The effects of freezing were taxon-dependent. Freezing had no effect on the isotopic or elemental values of Rainbow Trout muscle. Effects on the δ13C and δ15N values of zooplankton and Mysis were statistically significant but small relative to typical values of trophic fractionation. The treatment-control offsets had larger absolute values for Mysis (δ13C: ≤0.76 ± 0.41‰, δ15N: ≤0.37 ± 0.16‰) than for zooplankton (δ13C: ≤0.12 ± 0.06‰, δ15N: ≤0.30 ± 0.27‰). The effects of freezing were more variable for the δ13C values of Mysis, and more variable for the δ15N values of zooplankton. Generally, both freezing methods reduced the carbon content of zooplankton and Mysis, but freezing had a negative effect on the %N of zooplankton and a positive effect on the %N of Mysis. The species-dependencies and variability of freezing effects on aquatic organisms suggest that more research is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for freezing-related fractionation before standardized protocols for freezing as a preservation method can be adopted.

  6. A preliminary carbon and nitrogen isotopic investigation of bone collagen from skeletal remains recovered from a Pre-Columbian burial site, Matanzas Province, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhay, W.M.; Chinique de Armas, Y.; Rodriguez Suárez, R.; Arredondo, C.; Smith, D.G.; Armstrong, S.D.; Roksandic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Collagen isotope (carbon and nitrogen) based reconstruction of paleodiets. ► Human remains recovered from Canimar Abajo, Matanzas Province, Cuba. ► Individuals consumed marine resource diets supplemented with terrestrial plants. ► Trophic level and isotope shifts for breastfed and weaned infant/juveniles (I/J). ► I/J evidence of weaning through distinct δ 15 N enrichments and δ 13 C depletions. - Abstract: This preliminary study investigates the diet of a population of humans (n = 28) recovered from a shell-matrix site of Canimar Abajo on the Canimar River, Matanzas Province, Cuba. The site is characterized by two cemetery levels separated by a layer of occupation/ritual/midden activity that lasted 1.5 ka. Stable C (δ 13 C) and N (δ 15 N) isotope analysis of human bone collagen samples obtained from individuals (7 infant/juveniles, and 21 adults) from both cemetery levels was conducted in order to reconstruct the diet of these two populations, investigate the relative importance of marine vs. terrestrial resources, and reveal any sex- and age-related distinctions in their food sources. Initial indications suggest that individuals from both cemetery levels consumed diets that were marine resource intensive but also supplemented with varied additions of terrestrial (mostly plant) resources. This supplementation is particularly evident in the later cemetery population. Though there are no significant differences in diet according to sex, there is a trophic level and terrestrial-based shift for breastfed and weaning infant/juveniles. The infant/juveniles showed evidence of being weaned through distinct δ 15 N enrichments and δ 13 C depletions over adult females

  7. Isotopic hydrological studies carried out on the Karst water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longinelli, A.

    1988-03-01

    The isotopic composition and temperature of many karst springs in the area of Trieste (Italy) have been measured for about three and a half years. During the same period the isotopic composition of precipitation has also been systematically studied. The isotopic composition of springs generally shows variations which are markedly shifted in time with respect to those of precipitation. In most of the springs the heavy isotope contents of winter samples are the highest of the whole year. On the contrary, summer samples normally show quite negative δ-values, the most negative of which often refer to the last summer months. The data obtained are explained in terms of variable mixing of waters from two main reservoirs. The less negative reservoir (in terms of δ) is recharged by ''local'' meteoric waters falling on the westernmost section of the karst area whose mean elevation is about 400 m a.s.l. The most negative reservoir is probably recharged by meteoric waters falling on the Slovenian section of the karst, whose mean elevation is about 800-900 m a.s.l. At least in the case of some of the northernmost karst springs, it is likely that a third water system, basically fed by the Isonzo river, flowing north of the karst area, could interfere with the previously mentioned reservoirs, partially controlling the outflow of some springs. 6 figs

  8. Traceability technique of isotopic application in food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Boli; Wei Yimin; Pan Jiarong

    2006-01-01

    Epidemics such as BSE, mouth and foot disease, avian influenza have brought new pressure to food safety management, constituted a extreme threat to people health, and caused serious economic loss and social scare to countries with outbreaks of above diseases. Isotopic tracing technology is an effect tool for tracing food origin and implementing the preservation of production premise in the world at present, and it is promising in the field of food safety traceability, so some developed countries have put a lot of effort on establishment of isotopic technology for food traceability. In this paper, the basic principles of isotopic tracing technology and the recent research advancement were be expounded, and the differentiate and connection was be compared between isotopic tracing technology and others. Furthermore, the suggestion about study of isotopic tracing technology in China was put forward. The aim of the paper is to promote the establishment and improvement of food traceability system, and ensure the consumer health. (authors)

  9. Giant Lamb shift in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuehua; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Gu Benyuan

    2004-01-01

    We obtain a general result for the Lamb shift of excited states of multilevel atoms in inhomogeneous electromagnetic structures and apply it to study atomic hydrogen in inverse-opal photonic crystals. We find that the photonic-crystal environment can lead to very large values of the Lamb shift, as compared to the case of vacuum. We also suggest that the position-dependent Lamb shift should extend from a single level to a miniband for an assembly of atoms with random distribution in space, similar to the velocity-dependent Doppler effect in atomic/molecular gases

  10. Stable Isotope Systematics of Martian Perchlorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P.; Farley, K. A.; Archer, D., Jr.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Fairen, A.; Franz, H. B.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Malespin, C.; Ming, D. W.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Sutter, B.

    2015-12-01

    Chlorine isotopic compositions in HCl released during evolved gas analysis (EGA) runs have been detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Curiosity rover ranging from approximately -9‰ to -50‰ δ37Cl, with two spatially and isotopically separated groups of samples averaging -15‰ and -45‰. These extremely low values are the first such detection of any known natural material; common terrestrial values very rarely exceed ±5‰, and the most extreme isotopic signature yet detected elsewhere in the solar system are values of around +24‰ on the Moon. The only other known location in the solar system with large negative chlorine isotopes is the Atacama Desert, where perchlorate with -14‰ δ37Cl has been detected. The Atacama perchlorate has unusual Δ17O signatures associated with it, indicating a formation mechanism involving O3, which suggests an atmospheric origin of the perchlorate and associated large isotopic anomalies. Identification of non-zero positive Δ17O signatures in the O2 released during EGA runs would allow definitive evidence for a similar process having occurred on Mars. Perchlorate is thought to be the most likely source of HCl in EGA runs due to the simultaneous onset of O2 release. If perchlorate is indeed the HCl source, atmospheric chemistry could be responsible for the observed isotopic anomalies, with variable extents of perchlorate production producing the isotopic variability. However, chloride salts have also been observed to release HCl upon heating; if the timing of O2 release is merely coincidental, observed HCl could be coming from chlorides. At thermodynamic equilibrium, the fractionation factor of perchlorate reduction is 0.93, meaning that differing amounts of post-deposition reduction of isotopically normal perchlorate to chloride could account for the highly variable Cl isotopes. Additionally, post-deposition reduction could account for the difference between the two Cl isotopic groups if perchlorate

  11. Establishing the potential of Ca isotopes as proxy for consumption of dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, N.-C.; Henderson, Gideon M.; Belshaw, Nick S.; Hedges, Robert E.M.

    2006-01-01

    A procedure has been developed which allows precise determination of Ca isotope ratios in natural and organic samples such as bones, milk and other biological materials. In this study the procedure is used to determine Ca isotope ratios in modern dietary systems and to establish the potential of Ca isotopes as a paleodiet tracer by analysis of bones. Multi-sampling across a 5 cm portion of a red deer jawbone shows invariant Ca isotope ratios and suggests negligible isotopic effect during bone remodelling. The difference between Ca isotopes in red deer diet and bones from one location was 0.65 per mille , in agreement with a previous study of diet/bone offsets. Similar values for modern deer-bone δ 44/42 Ca from four geographically diverse populations demonstrate that geological/environmental conditions do not cause large variability and suggest that diet is the major cause for variations in bone δ 44/42 Ca. δ 44/42 Ca of herbivore milk is found to be ∼0.5 to 0.6 higher than the corresponding diet. Modern human milk has a δ 44/42 Ca of -1.15 (n = 4) and is isotopically the lightest material reported in this study. This suggests that, for these samples, a significant portion of Ca intake was from dairy sources, and that human milk has Ca which is, again, ∼0.6 per mille isotopically lighter than dietary Ca intake. Finally, Ca isotope ratios are presented from a variety of samples formed during fermentation processes (e.g., curds, whey, etc.) which indicate that these processes do not fractionate Ca isotopes significantly. Together, the data in this paper indicate that, because milk is an important dietary source of Ca with a distinctive signature, Ca isotope ratios should provide a tracer for past dairy consumption. A simplified model is outlined to demonstrate the ability to quantify dairy consumption by the analysis of Ca isotopes in bones

  12. Isotopic Resonance Hypothesis: Experimental Verification by Escherichia coli Growth Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xueshu; Zubarev, Roman A.

    2015-03-01

    Isotopic composition of reactants affects the rates of chemical and biochemical reactions. As a rule, enrichment of heavy stable isotopes leads to progressively slower reactions. But the recent isotopic resonance hypothesis suggests that the dependence of the reaction rate upon the enrichment degree is not monotonous. Instead, at some ``resonance'' isotopic compositions, the kinetics increases, while at ``off-resonance'' compositions the same reactions progress slower. To test the predictions of this hypothesis for the elements C, H, N and O, we designed a precise (standard error +/-0.05%) experiment that measures the parameters of bacterial growth in minimal media with varying isotopic composition. A number of predicted resonance conditions were tested, with significant enhancements in kinetics discovered at these conditions. The combined statistics extremely strongly supports the validity of the isotopic resonance phenomenon (p biotechnology, medicine, chemistry and other areas.

  13. Nuclear moments and isotopic variation of the mean square charge radii of strontium nuclei by atomic beam laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongkum, S.

    1987-10-01

    Hyperfine structure and optical isotope shift measurements have been performed on a series of stable and radioactive strontium isotopes (A = 80 to 90), including two isomers 85m and 87m. The spectroscopy applied continuous wave dye laser induced fluorescence of free atoms at λ=293.2 nm in a well collimated atomic beam. The 293.2 nm ultraviolet light was generated by frequency doubling the output of a dye laser in either a temperature tuned Ammonium Dihydrogen Arsenate (ADA) crystal or an angle tuned Lithium Iodate crystal. A special radio frequency (rf) technique was used to tune the dye laser frequency with long term stability. Radioactive Sr isotopes were produced either by neutron capture of stable strontium or by (α,xn) reactions from krypton gas. The samples were purified by an electromagnetic mass separator and their sizes were of order 100 pg, which corresponds to 10 11 atoms. The observed results of the hyperfine structure components are evaluated in terms of nuclear magnetic dipole moments and electric quadrupole moments. Changes in mean square charge radii of strontium nuclei which were extracted from the isotope shift measurements, exhibit a distinct shell effect at the neutron magic number N=50. The experimental data are analysed and compared with some theoretical nuclear model predictions. The strong increase of the nuclear charge radii with decreasing neutron number of isotopes below N=50 is in agreement with the variation of the mean square deformation extracted from measured B(E2) values. (orig.) [de

  14. Study of oxalic acid effect on equilibrium and kinetics of isotopic exchange between penta- and hexavalent neptunium in nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitenko, S.I.; Ionnikova, N.I.

    1989-01-01

    Spectrophotometry at 25 deg C and ionic force μ=1.0 mol/l (KNO 3 +HNO 3 ) was used to show that at HNO 3 concentration 0.1-1.0 mol/l H 2 C 2 O 4 introduction to nitric acid solutions of Np 5+ in the presence of nitrite-ion resulted in the shift of equilibrium between Np 5+ and Np 6+ to the side of Np 6+ accumulation. The presence of H 2 C 2 O 4 at HNO 3 concentration > 1.0 mol/l doesn't affect the equilibrium position. The values of nominal equilibrium constant at different HNO 3 and H 2 C 2 O 4 concentrations were calculated. It was found that isotope exchange ( 239 Np/ 237 Np) between Np 5+ and Np 6+ in oxalate solutions proceeded more slowly than in oxalate absence. Rate constants of isotope exchange calculated at 9 deg C, μ=1.0 mol/l (KNO 3 ), H 2 C 2 O 4 concentration 0.01 mol/l and pH=2.2 and 3.5 are equal to 0.49x10 3 and 0.67x10 2 l/mol·min respectively. Mechanism of isotope exchange including electron transport between Np 5+ and Np 6+ oxalate complexes is suggested

  15. Early onset of ground-state deformation in the neutron-deficient polonium isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Cocolios, T E; Seliverstov, M D; Andreyev, A N; Antalic, S; Barzakh, A E; Bastin, B; Buscher, J; Darby, I G; Fedorov, D V; Fedosseyev, V N; Flanagan, K T; Franchoo, S; Fritzsche, S; Huber, G; Huyse, M; Keupers, M; Koster, U; Kudryavtsev, Yu; Mane, E; Marsh, B A; Molkanov, P L; Page, R D; Sjoedin, A M; Stefan, I; Van de Walle, J; Van Duppen, P; Venhart, M; Zemlyanoy, S G; Bender, M; Heenen, P H; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.106.052503

    2011-01-01

    In-source resonant ionization laser spectroscopy of the even-$A$ polonium isotopes $^{192-210,216,218}$Po has been performed using the $6p^37s$ $^5S_2$ to $6p^37p$ $^5P_2$ ($\\lambda=843.38$ nm) transition in the polonium atom (Po-I) at the CERN ISOLDE facility. The comparison of the measured isotope shifts in $^{200-210}$Po with a previous data set allows to test for the first time recent large-scale atomic calculations that are essential to extract the changes in the mean-square charge radius of the atomic nucleus. When going to lighter masses, a surprisingly large and early departure from sphericity is observed, which is only partly reproduced by Beyond Mean Field calculations.

  16. Pb isotopic composition of the atmosphere of the Sao Paulo city, Brazil, and isotopic characterization of some pollutant sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aily, C.; Babinski, M.; Ruiz, I.R.; Sato, K

    2001-01-01

    Lead isotopes are known to be good tools for surveying lead origin in atmospheric samples (Chow et al., 1975). Lead has four naturally occurring stable isotopes: 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 Pb and 204 Pb. The first three isotopes are end products of radioactive decay chains from 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, respectively, and the last one is non-radiogenic. Therefore, their abundance and the ratios among the four isotopes gradually change with time. Lead in the atmosphere comes from various sources, such as leaded gasoline, industrial emissions and coal combustion. Thus, lead isotope ratios different from those of the mother rock in the region are often observed in the atmosphere (Tatsumoto and Patterson, 1963). Lead is emitted to the atmosphere in fine particles, which can be transported within air masses for very long distances, e. g. from mid latitude regions to the Artic and Antarctica (Sturges and Barrie, 1989). Lead isotopes have been used to trace the pollutant sources in many cities of the world. However, a systematic study using this methodology has not been done in any Brazilian city. The main purpose of the present work is to characterize the Pb isotope composition in the atmosphere in Sao Paulo city, and suggest the possible pollutant sources. For our study lead isotopes were measured in different samples: aerosols and rainwater which would yield the Pb isotope composition of the atmosphere. Samples of gasoline and ethanol, gutter sweepings, soot from vehicle exhaust pipes, and filters containing particulate material from industrial emissions were also analyzed, since they were considered potential pollutant sources of the atmosphere. In order to obtain the local geogenic Pb isotopic composition we also analyzed rock and K-feldspar samples. Lead concentrations were only determined on aerosols and rainwater samples (au)

  17. The transport of oxygen isotopes in hydrothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibbin, R.; Absar, A.; Blattner, P.

    1986-01-01

    As groundwater passes through porous rocks, exchange of oxygen between the fluid and the solid matrix causes a change in the oxygen isotope concentrations in both water and rock. If the rate at which the exchange takes place can be estimated (as a function of the isotope concentrations and temperature) then the time taken for a rock/water system to come to equilibrium with respect to isotope concentration might be calculated. In this paper, the equation for isotope transport is derived using conservation laws, and a simple equation to describe the rate of isotope exchange is proposed. These are combined with the equations for fluid flow in a porous medium, to produce a general set of equations describing isotope transport in a hydrothermal system. These equations are solved numerically, using typical parameters, for the one-dimensional case. Oxygen isotope data from the basement rocks underlying Kawerau geothermal field are modelled. The results indicate that the time taken for exchange of 18 O to present-day values is less than the postulated age of hydrothermal alteration in that field. This suggests that, although controlled by similar parameters, oxygen isotope exchange, in felsic rocks at least, is much faster than hydrothermal alteration. This conclusion is consistent with the petrographic observations from the Kawerau system as well as other geothermal fields

  18. Stable isotope tracing of Ni and Cu pollution in North-East Norway: Potentials and drawbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šillerová, Hana; Chrastný, Vladislav; Vítková, Martina; Francová, Anna; Jehlička, Jan; Gutsch, Marissa R; Kocourková, Jana; Aspholm, Paul E; Nilsson, Lars O; Berglen, Tore F; Jensen, Henning K B; Komárek, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The use of Ni and Cu isotopes for tracing contamination sources in the environment remains a challenging task due to the limited information about the influence of various biogeochemical processes influencing stable isotope fractionation. This work focuses on a relatively simple system in north-east Norway with two possible endmembers (smelter-bedrock) and various environmental samples (snow, soil, lichens, PM 10 ). In general, the whole area is enriched in heavy Ni and Cu isotopes highlighting the impact of the smelting activity. However, the environmental samples exhibit a large range of δ 60 Ni (-0.01 ± 0.03‰ to 1.71 ± 0.02‰) and δ 65 Cu (-0.06 ± 0.06‰ to -3.94 ± 0.3‰) values which exceeds the range of δ 60 Ni and δ 65 Cu values determined in the smelter, i.e. in feeding material and slag (δ 60 Ni from 0.56 ± 0.06‰ to 1.00 ± 0.06‰ and δ 65 Cu from -1.67 ± 0.04‰ to -1.68 ± 0.15‰). The shift toward heavier Ni and Cu δ values was the most significant in organic rich topsoil samples in the case of Ni (δ 60 Ni up to 1.71 ± 0.02‰) and in lichens and snow in the case of Cu (δ 65 Cu up to -0.06 ± 0.06‰ and -0.24 ± 0.04‰, respectively). These data suggest an important biological and biochemical fractionation (microorganisms and/or metal uptake by higher plants, organo-complexation etc.) of Ni and Cu isotopes, which should be quantified separately for each process and taken into account when using the stable isotopes for tracing contamination in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Combined oxygen- and carbon-isotope records through the Early Jurassic: multiple global events and two modes of carbon-cycle/temperature coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Korte, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    , to the extent that meaningful comparisons between these events can begin to be made. Here we present new carbon and oxygen isotope data from mollusks (bivalves and belemnites) and brachiopods collected through the marine Early Jurassic succession of NE England, including the Sinemurian-Plienbachian boundary...... GSSP. All materials have been screened by chemical analysis and scanning electron microscopy to check for diagenetic alteration. Analysis of carbon isotopes from marine calcite is supplemented by analysis of carbon-isotope values from fossil wood collected through the same section. It is demonstrated...... that both long-term and short-term carbon-isotope shifts from the UK Early Jurassic represent global changes in carbon cycle balances. The Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary event is an event of global significance and shows several similarities to the Toarcian OAE (relative sea-level change, carbon-isotope...

  20. Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP (Medical Isotopes Producer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mon, G. H.; O, S. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary economic feasibility study of MIP (Medical Isotopes Producer), which is used liquid nuclear fuel to produce medical isotopes of Mo-99 and Sr-89, was performed. To do this, this study was estimated the IRR(Internal Rate of Return) and PBP(Pay-back Period) about optimistic and pessimistic cases for market penetration of Asia and U.S.A. isotope markets. And sensitivity analysis is also performed about capital cost and price of Mo-99 and Sr-89. According to the results, IRR was between 14.9% and 24.3%, and PBP was between 4.8 years and 7.8 years. These suggest that MIP has economic merits. MIP can produce other medical isotopes such as Sr-90, I-131, Xe-133, Cs-137. So, it is necessary to do cost-benefit analysis considering production of these other isotopes

  1. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  2. Shift Work, Chronotype, and Melatonin Patterns among Female Hospital Employees on Day and Night Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Michael; Tranmer, Joan; Hung, Eleanor; Korsiak, Jill; Day, Andrew G; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    Shift work-related carcinogenesis is hypothesized to be mediated by melatonin; however, few studies have considered the potential effect modification of this underlying pathway by chronotype or specific aspects of shift work such as the number of consecutive nights in a rotation. In this study, we examined melatonin patterns in relation to shift status, stratified by chronotype and number of consecutive night shifts, and cumulative lifetime exposure to shift work. Melatonin patterns of 261 female personnel (147 fixed-day and 114 on rotations, including nights) at Kingston General Hospital were analyzed using cosinor analysis. Urine samples were collected from all voids over a 48-hour specimen collection period for measurement of 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations using the Buhlmann ELISA Kit. Chronotypes were assessed using mid-sleep time (MSF) derived from the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ). Sociodemographic, health, and occupational information were collected by questionnaire. Rotational shift nurses working nights had a lower mesor and an earlier time of peak melatonin production compared to day-only workers. More pronounced differences in mesor and acrophase were seen among later chronotypes, and shift workers working ≥3 consecutive nights. Among nurses, cumulative shift work was associated with a reduction in mesor. These results suggest that evening-types and/or shift workers working ≥3 consecutive nights are more susceptible to adverse light-at-night effects, whereas long-term shift work may also chronically reduce melatonin levels. Cumulative and current exposure to shift work, including nights, affects level and timing of melatonin production, which may be related to carcinogenesis and cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(5); 830-8. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. Study of medical isotope production facility stack emissions and noble gas isotopic signature using automatic gamma-spectra analysis platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihua; Hoffmann, Emmy; Ungar, Kurt; Dolinar, George; Miley, Harry; Mekarski, Pawel; Schrom, Brian; Hoffman, Ian; Lawrie, Ryan; Loosz, Tom

    2013-04-01

    ratios showed distinct differences between the closed CANDU primary coolant system and radiopharmaceutical production releases. According to the concept proposed by Kalinowski and Pistner (2006), the relationship between different isotopic activity ratios based on three or four radioxenon isotopes was plotted in a log-log diagram for source characterisation (civil vs. nuclear test). The multiple isotopic activity ratios were distributed in three distinct areas: HC atmospheric monitoring ratios extended to far left; the CANDU primary coolant system ratios lay in the middle; and 99Mo stack monitoring ratios for ANSTO and CRL were located on the right. The closed CANDU primary coolant has the lowest logarithmic mean ratio that represents the nuclear power reactor operation. The HC atmospheric monitoring exhibited a broad range of ratios spreading over several orders of magnitude. In contrast, the ANSTO and CRL stack emissions showed the smallest range of ratios but the results indicate at least two processes involved in the 99Mo productions. Overall, most measurements were found to be shifted towards the reactor domain. The hypothesis is that this is due to an accumulation of the isotope 131mXe in the stack or atmospheric background as it has the longest half-life and extra 131mXe emissions from the decay of 131I. The contribution of older 131mXe to a fresh release shifts the ratio of 133mXe/131mXe to the left. It was also very interesting to note that there were some situations where isotopic ratios from 99Mo production emissions fell within the nuclear test domain. This is due to operational variability, such as shorter target irradiation times. Martin B. Kalinowski and Christoph Pistner, (2006), Isotopic signature of atmospheric xenon released from light water reactors, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 88, 215-235.

  4. Silicon isotope ratio measurements by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry for alteration studies of nuclear waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourgiotis, Alkiviadis, E-mail: alkiviadis.gourgiotis@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-DGE/SRTG/LT2S, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Ducasse, Thomas [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Barker, Evelyne [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-DGE/SRTG/LT2S, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Jollivet, Patrick; Gin, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Cèze (France); Bassot, Sylvain; Cazala, Charlotte [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), PRP-DGE/SRTG/LT2S, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2017-02-15

    High-level, long-lived nuclear waste arising from spent fuel reprocessing is vitrified in silicate glasses for final disposal in deep geologic formations. In order to better understand the mechanisms driving glass dissolution, glass alteration studies, based on silicon isotope ratio monitoring of {sup 29}Si-doped aqueous solutions, were carried out in laboratories. This work explores the capabilities of the new type of quadrupole-based ICP-MS, the Agilent 8800 tandem quadrupole ICP-MS/MS, for accurate silicon isotope ratio determination for alteration studies of nuclear waste glasses. In order to avoid silicon polyatomic interferences, a new analytical method was developed using O{sub 2} as the reaction gas in the Octopole Reaction System (ORS), and silicon isotopes were measured in mass-shift mode. A careful analysis of the potential polyatomic interferences on SiO{sup +} and SiO{sub 2}{sup +} ion species was performed, and we found that SiO{sup +} ion species suffer from important polyatomic interferences coming from the matrix of sample and standard solutions (0.5M HNO{sub 3}). For SiO{sub 2}{sup +}, no interferences were detected, and thus, these ion species were chosen for silicon isotope ratio determination. A number of key settings for accurate isotope ratio analysis like, detector dead time, integration time, number of sweeps, wait time offset, memory blank and instrumental mass fractionation, were considered and optimized. Particular attention was paid to the optimization of abundance sensitivity of the quadrupole mass filter before the ORS. We showed that poor abundance sensitivity leads to a significant shift of the data away from the Exponential Mass Fractionation Law (EMFL) due to the spectral overlaps of silicon isotopes combined with different oxygen isotopes (i.e. {sup 28}Si{sup 16}O{sup 18}O{sup +}, {sup 30}Si{sup 16}O{sup 16}O{sup +}). The developed method was validated by measuring a series of reference solutions with different {sup 29}Si

  5. Evolution of Single Particle and Collective properties in the Neutron-Rich Mg Isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Reiter, P; Wiens, A; Fitting, J; Lauer, M; Van duppen, P L E; Finke, F

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the single particle and collective properties of the neutron-rich Mg isotopes in transfer reactions and Coulomb excitation using REX-ISOLDE and MINIBALL. From the Coulomb excitation measurement precise and largely model independent B( E2 ; 0$^{+}_{g.s.}\\rightarrow$ 2$^{+}_{1}$ ) will be determined for the even-even isotopes. For the odd isotopes the distribution of the E2 strength over a few low-lying states will be measured. The sign of the M1/E2 mixing ratio, extracted from angular distributions, is characteristic of the sign of the deformation, as is the resulting level scheme. The neutron-pickup channel in the transfer reactions will allow for a determination of the single particle properties (spin, parity, spectroscopic factors) of these nuclei. This information will give new insights in changes of nuclear structure in the vicinity of the island of deformation around $^{32}$Mg. A total of 24 shifts of REX beam time is requested.

  6. Uranium Isotopic Analysis with the FRAM Isotopic Analysis Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.T.; Sampson, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    FRAM is the acronym for Fixed-Energy Response-Function Analysis with Multiple efficiency. This software was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory originally for plutonium isotopic analysis. Later, it was adapted for uranium isotopic analysis in addition to plutonium. It is a code based on a self-calibration using several gamma-ray peaks for determining the isotopic ratios. The versatile-parameter database structure governs all facets of the data analysis. User editing of the parameter sets allows great flexibility in handling data with different isotopic distributions, interfering isotopes, and different acquisition parameters such as energy calibration and detector type

  7. Isotope enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbuny, M.

    1979-01-01

    The invention discloses a method for deriving, from a starting material including an element having a plurality of isotopes, derived material enriched in one isotope of the element. The starting material is deposited on a substrate at less than a critical submonatomic surface density, typically less than 10 16 atoms per square centimeter. The deposit is then selectively irradiated by a laser (maser or electronic oscillator) beam with monochromatic coherent radiation resonant with the one isotope causing the material including the one istope to escape from the substrate. The escaping enriched material is then collected. Where the element has two isotopes, one of which is to be collected, the deposit may be irradiated with radiation resonant with the other isotope and the residual material enriched in the one isotope may be evaporated from the substrate and collected

  8. Nuclear moments and charge radii of magnesium isotopes from N=8 up to (and beyond) N=20

    CERN Multimedia

    Mattolat, C F; Mallion, S N; Himpe, P

    2002-01-01

    We propose to measure the nuclear monopole, dipole and quadrupole moments of magnesium isotopes from the neutron deficient nuclei near the N=8 shell closure ($^{21}$Mg), up to the neutron rich Mg nuclei beyond N=20 ($^{33}$Mg). The physics issues that will be addressed in this project are related to: \\begin{itemize} \\item The properties of mirror nuclei (e.g. $^{21}$Mg - $^{21}$F being members of a T=3/2 multiplet) \\item The evolution of shell structure and deformation with isospin. \\item Changes in the shell structure in the "island of inversion" around $^{32}$Mg and along the N=9 isotones. \\end{itemize} Radioactive beams of Mg isotopes will be produced by the RILlS ion source. The Mg isotopes will be resonantly polarized at the COLLAPS set-up. With $\\beta$-NMR techniques, precision measurements of g-factors and quadrupole moments of the radioactive $^{21,23}$Mg and $^{29,31,33}$Mg isotopes will be performed. Isotope shifts, thus changes in mean square charge radii, will be deduced from hyperfine spectra mea...

  9. Temperature and isotope effects on the shape of the optical absorption spectrum of solvated electrons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, F.Y.; Freeman, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of solvated electrons in H 2 O and D 2 O have been measured at 274, 298, 340, and 380 K. All the spectra were fitted very well with the Gaussian and Lorentzian shape functions at the low- and high-energy sides of the absorption maximum, respectively, excluding the high-energy tail. The spectrum does not shift uniformly with temperature. The temperature coefficient of absorption decreases rapidly with increasing energy on the low-energy side of the absorption maximum, while it changes only slightly on the high-energy side. When the temperature increases the Lorentzian width remains constant, the Gaussian width varies proportionally to T/sup 1/2/, and the spectrum becomes more symmetrical. On going from H 2 O to D 2 O we found that the spectrum at a given A/A/sub max/ shows a shift of +0.05 eV in the low-energy wing. The shift decreases with increasing energy, reaching 0.03 eV at the absorption maximum. On the high-energy side of the band the shift becomes negative at hν > 2.2 eV. The shift on the low-energy side seems to be related to the difference of the zero-point energies of the inter- and intramolecular vibrations. The wavelength dependence of the temperature and isotope effects is consistent with the model that different types of excitation occur on the low- and high-energy sides of the absorption band. The temperature and isotopic dependence of the low-energy side are consistent with its width being due to phonon interactions

  10. Pollution and Climate Effects on Tree-Ring Nitrogen Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Marion, J.; Smirnoff, A.

    2009-04-01

    BACKGROUND Monitoring of nitrous oxide concentration only started during the last 30 years in North America, but anthropogenic atmospheric nitrogen has been significantly emitted over the last 150 years. Can geochemical characteristics of tree rings be used to infer past changes in the nitrogen cycle of temperate regions? To address this question we use nitrogen stable isotopes in 125 years-long ring series from beech specimens (Fagus grandifolia) of the Georgian Bay Islands National Park (eastern Ontario), and pine (Pinus strobus) and beech trees of the Arboretum Morgan near Montreal (western Quebec). To evaluate the reliability of the N stable isotopes in wood treated for removal of soluble materials, we tested both tree species from the Montreal area. The reproducibility from tree to tree was excellent for both pine and beech trees, the isotopic trends were strongly concordant, and they were not influenced by the heartwood-sapwood transition zone. The coherence of changes of the isotopic series observed for the two species suggests that their tree-ring N isotopic values can serve as environmental indicator. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION In Montreal and Georgian Bay, the N isotopes show strong and similar parallel agreement (Gleichlaufigkeit test) with the climatic parameters. So in fact, the short-term isotopic fluctuations correlate directly with summer precipitation and inversely with summer and spring temperature. A long-term decreasing isotope trend in Montreal indicates progressive changes in soil chemistry after 1951. A pedochemical change is also inferred for the Georgian Bay site on the basis of a positive N isotopic trend initiated after 1971. At both sites, the long-term ^15N series correlate with a proxy for NOx emissions (Pearson correlation), and carbon-isotope ring series suggest that the same trees have been impacted by phytotoxic pollutants (Savard et al., 2009a). We propose that the contrasted long-term nitrogen-isotope changes of Montreal and

  11. Pyrite sulfur isotopes reveal glacial-interglacial environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Virgil; Sansjofre, Pierre; Rabineau, Marina; Revillon, Sidonie; Houghton, Jennifer; Fike, David A.

    2017-06-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle plays a key role in regulating Earth’s surface redox through diverse abiotic and biological reactions that have distinctive stable isotopic fractionations. As such, variations in the sulfur isotopic composition (δ34S) of sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases over Earth history can be used to infer substantive changes to the Earth’s surface environment, including the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Such inferences assume that individual δ34S records reflect temporal changes in the global sulfur cycle; this assumption may be well grounded for sulfate-bearing minerals but is less well established for pyrite-based records. Here, we investigate alternative controls on the sedimentary sulfur isotopic composition of marine pyrite by examining a 300-m drill core of Mediterranean sediments deposited over the past 500,000 y and spanning the last five glacial-interglacial periods. Because this interval is far shorter than the residence time of marine sulfate, any change in the sulfur isotopic record preserved in pyrite (δ34Spyr) necessarily corresponds to local environmental changes. The stratigraphic variations (>76‰) in the isotopic data reported here are among the largest ever observed in pyrite, and are in phase with glacial-interglacial sea level and temperature changes. In this case, the dominant control appears to be glacial-interglacial variations in sedimentation rates. These results suggest that there exist important but previously overlooked depositional controls on sedimentary sulfur isotope records, especially associated with intervals of substantial sea level change. This work provides an important perspective on the origin of variability in such records and suggests meaningful paleoenvironmental information can be derived from pyrite δ34S records.

  12. Neodymium isotopic variations in Northwest Pacific waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Nozaki, Yoshiyuki; Alibo, Dia Sotto; Zhang, Jing; Fukugawa, Kiyotaka; Nagai, Hisao

    2004-02-01

    Four vertical profiles of the concentration and isotopic composition of Nd in seawater were obtained in the western North Pacific. Two profiles from the Kuroshio Current regime showed congruently that although the Nd concentration increases gradually with depth, its isotopic composition varies significantly with depth depending upon the water mass occupying the water column. The high-salinity Kuroshio waters originating from the North Pacific Tropical Water (NPTW) carry the least radiogenic Nd (ɛ Nd = -7.4 to -8.7) to this region at ˜250 m from the western margin continental shelves, most likely from the East China Sea. The Nd isotopic compositions in the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) that occurs at 600 to 1000 m in the subtropical region are fairly uniform at ɛ Nd = -3.7. The profile data from the ˜38° to 40°N Kuroshio/Oyashio mixed water region off Sanriku of Honshu, Japan, also suggest that the newest NPIW with ɛ Nd = -3.2 is formed there by the mixing of various source waters, and the radiogenic component of Nd is derived mainly from the Oyashio waters. In the Pacific Deep Water (PDW) below ˜1000 m, the Nd isotopic composition is neither vertically nor horizontally homogeneous, suggesting that it serves as a useful tracer for sluggish deep water circulation as well. Two profiles from the Izu-Ogasawara Trench showed a minimum ɛ Nd value at ˜2000 m, suggesting that there exists a horizontal advective flow in the vicinity of Honshu, Japan. There is some evidence from other chemical properties to support this observation. The waters below 4000 m including those within the trench in the subtropical region have ɛ Nd values of around -5, suggesting that the deep waters are fed from the south along the western boundary, ultimately from the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the South Pacific. This extends up to ˜40°N along the Japanese Islands. In the subarctic region (>˜42°N), the waters have more radiogenic Nd with ɛ Nd > -4.0 throughout the

  13. Magnesium isotopic composition of the mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, F.; Li, W.; Ke, S.; Marty, B.; Huang, S.; Dauphas, N.; Wu, F.; Helz, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Studies of Mg isotopic composition of the Earth not only are important for understanding its geochemistry but also can shed light on the accretion history of the Earth as well as the evolution of the Earth-Moon system. However, to date, the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth is still poorly constrained and highly debated. There is uncertainty in the magnitude of Mg isotope fractionation at mantle temperatures and whether the Earth has a chondritic Mg isotopic composition or not. To constrain further the Mg isotopic composition of the mantle and investigate the behavior of Mg isotopes during igneous differentiation, we report >200 high-precision (δ26Mg French Polynesian volcanoes (Society island and Cook Austral chain); 3) olivine grains from Hawaiian volcanoes (Kilauea, Koolau and Loihi) and 4) peridotite xenoliths from Australia, China, France, Tanzania and USA. Global oceanic basalts and peridotite xenoliths have a limited (<0.2 ‰) variation in Mg isotopic composition, with an average δ26Mg = -0.25 relative to DSM3. Olivines from Hawaiian lavas have δ26Mg ranging from -0.43 to +0.03, with most having compositions identical to basalts and peridotites. Therefore, the mantle’s δ26Mg value is estimated to be ~ -0.25 ± 0.1 (2SD), different from that reported by Wiechert and Halliday (2007; δ26Mg = ~ 0) but similar to more recent studies (δ26Mg = -0.27 to -0.33) (Teng et al. 2007; Handler et al. 2009; Yang et al., 2009). Moreover, we suggest the Earth, as represented by the mantle, has a Mg isotopic composition similar to chondrites (δ26Mg = ~-0.33). The need for a model such as that of Wiechert and Halliday (2007) that involves sorting of chondrules and calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in the proto planetary disc is thus not required to explain the Mg isotopic composition of the Earth.

  14. Novel shifts in memory research and their impact on the legal process: introduction to the special issue on memory formation and suggestibility in the legal process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Sauerland, Melanie; Petrila, John P

    2013-01-01

    The functioning and frailties of memory are frequently at the centerpiece of much expert testimony about the reliability of eyewitness accounts. Although we have much knowledge about how false memories and suggestibility can affect testimonies, the contributions in this special issue show that when using a sound theoretical framework, novel directions in this field can surface. The papers in this issue can broadly be divided into contributions that are related to: (1) the exact determinants of false memory and suggestibility; (2) new paradigms in legal psychology; (3) positive consequences of memory illusions; and (4) developmental false memory research. Collectively, these contributions have the potential to provide novel shifts in memory research and push this field beyond its current boundaries. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaka, M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to elucidate the isotope anomalies in oxygen isotope exchange equilibrium systems, according to the calculations of the equilibrium constants for oxygen isotopic exchange reactions, and the calculations of the oxygen isotope separation factors between two phases. The equilibrium constants (K65, K67, K68 and K69) of 16 O- 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O exchange reactions between diatomic oxides were calculated in a wide temperature range on the basis of quantum statistical mechanics. Many equilibrium constants showed the anomalous mass effects, and then had the crossover temperatures and the mass independent fractionation (MIF) temperatures which held K67 = K65, K67 = K68, or K67 = K69, etc. For example, the equilibrium constants for the reactions between OH and the other diatomic oxides (MO) showed the anomalous mass effects, when M was Li, Na, Mg, K, Fe, Al, Ge, Zr, Pt, etc. The 16 O 15 O, 16 O 17 O, 16 O- 18 O, and 16 O- 19 O oxygen isotope separation factors (S65, S67, S68 and S69) between two phases were calculated, when OH and CO were in the first phase, and SiO was in the second phase. Although the oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria in the two phases had no MIF and crossover temperatures, the separation factors showed the anomalous mass effects and had the temperatures. According to what is called the normal mass effects for the equilibrium constant of isotopic exchange reaction, the value of InK68/InK67 is 1.885. Therefore, the value of InS68/InS67 should be 1.885 too. The value calculated, however, widely changed. It can be concluded from the results obtained in the present work that some oxygen isotopic exchange equilibria cause the anomalous mass effects, the anomalous oxygen isotope separation factors, and then isotope anomalies

  16. Stable Isotope Identification of Nitrogen Sources for United ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used natural abundance stable isotope data to evaluate nitrogen sources to U.S. west coast estuaries. We collected δ15N of macroalgae data and supplemented this with available data from the literature for estuaries from Mexico to Alaska. Stable isotope ratios of green macroalgae were compared to δ15N of dissolved inorganic nitrogen of oceanic and watershed end members. There was a latitudinal gradient in δ15N of macroalgae with southern estuaries being 7 per mil heavier than northern estuaries. Gradients in isotope data were compared to nitrogen sources estimated by the USGS using the SPARROW model. In California estuaries, the elevation of isotope data appeared to be related to anthropogenic nitrogen sources. In Oregon systems, the nitrogen levels of streams flowing into the estuaries are related to forest cover, rather than to developed land classes. In addition, the δ15N of macroalgae suggested that the ocean and nitrogen-fixing trees in the watersheds were the dominant nitrogen sources. There was also a strong gradient in δ15N of macroalgae with heavier sites located near the estuary mouth. In some Oregon estuaries, there was an elevation an elevation of δ15N above marine end members in the vicinity of wastewater treatment facility discharge locations, suggesting isotopes may be useful for distinguishing inputs along an estuarine gradient. Nutrients are the leading cause of water quality impairments in the United States, and as a result too

  17. Isotopic composition of water in precipitation in a region or place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.P.

    2013-01-01

    Stable isotopes of water molecules in hydrology, the water cycle and Craig's global meteoric water line (GMWL) relating δ 18 O and δ 2 H are well established with a slope of around 8 and an intercept of around 10. However, in many situations the slope is less than 8 and the intercept is smaller or even negative. These observations need to be understood and a method is suggested to correlate with the global meteoric water line (GMWL). How to find the isotopic composition of water at a particular place is also suggested. - Highlights: ► A best fit line is drawn between slopes of plots on δ 18 O and δ 2 H line versus intercept of the measurement in a region. ► A new approach is suggested to understand this experimental best fit line. ► The new method is suggested to achieve the isotopic composition of meteoric water in region or a place

  18. Methane stable isotope distribution at a Carex dominated fen in North Central Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Trevor J.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Whiting, Gary J.; Grant, Nick

    1999-12-01

    The methane stable isotope distribution was characterized at a Carex dominated fen in boreal Alberta, Canada, over three growing seasons to examine methane production, oxidation, and transport to the atmosphere; processes which are strongly tied to emergent vegetation and the influence of the rhizosphere (upper 20 cm of peat in this system]. At times when standing floodwater was present, δ13C values of emitted methane averaged -63.6 ± 2.3, -66.3 ± 1.6, and -65.4 ± 1.3‰ for the 1994, 1995, and 1996 seasons, respectively. These emissions were significantly 13C depleted relative to the belowground methane dissolved in rhizospheric pore waters, indicating that gas transport in Carex is dominated by passive diffusion. The rhizosphere was 13CH4 enriched relative to depths below the rhizosphere, consistent with the occurrence of root associated methane oxidation, preferential mobilization of 13CH4, and a relatively greater role of acetate fermentation type methane production. Dual isotope tracers, δ13C and δD, help qualify the role of each of these processes and aid in describing the distribution of production pathways, CO2 reduction, and acetate fermentation. Inverse trends in δ13C-CH4 and δD-CH4 depth profiles are consistent with an interpretation suggesting an evolution toward methane production by CO2 reduction with increasing depth. A shift in production mechanisms appears to be the dominate process affecting the stable isotope distribution below 10 cm in the peat column, while oxidation and transport isotope effects are dominant above 10 cm. To test several hypotheses regarding the effects of transport, oxidation, and production on methane isotope distributions, we also present measurements from sites fertilized and sites devegetated (continually clipped) over the 3 year period. Removal of vegetation quickly halted rhizospheric methane oxidation and gas transport while gradually increasing the relative role of CO2 reduction in net methane production as

  19. Pb concentrations and isotope ratios of soil O and C horizons in Nord-Trøndelag, central Norway: Anthropogenic or natural sources?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, C.; Fabian, K.; Flem, B.; Schilling, J.; Roberts, D.; Englmaier, P.

    2016-01-01

    Soil O and C horizon samples (N = 752) were collected at a sample density of 1 site/36 km"2 in Nord-Trøndelag and parts of Sør-Trøndelag (c. 25,000 km"2), and analysed for Pb and three of the four naturally occurring Pb isotopes ("2"0"6Pb, "2"0"7Pb and "2"0"8Pb) in a HNO_3/HCl extraction. Soil O and C horizons are decoupled in terms of both Pb concentrations and Pb isotope ratios. In the soil C horizon the Grong-Olden Culmination, a continuous exposure of the Precambrian crystalline basement across the general grain of the Caledonian orogen, is marked by a distinct "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio anomaly. No clear regional or even local patterns are detected when mapping the Pb isotope ratios in the soil O horizon samples. Variation in the isotope ratios declines significantly from the soil C to the O horizon. On average, Pb concentrations in the O horizon are four times higher and the "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio is shifted towards a median of 1.15 in comparison to 1.27 in the C horizon. It is demonstrated that natural processes like weathering in combination with plant uptake need to be taken into account in order to distinguish anthropogenic input from natural influences on Pb concentration and the "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio in the soil O horizon. - Highlights: • Lead concentrations are on average higher by a factor of 4 in the soil O than in the C horizon. • The "2"0"6Pb/"2"0"7Pb isotope ratio is considerably lower in the soil O than in the C horizon. • The observed shifts are in conflict with exclusive anthropogenic input of Pb. • The hypothesis of natural Pb-isotope invariance can not be hold.

  20. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrissey, Christy A. [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom); Elliott, John E. [Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Environment Canada, 5421 Robertson Road, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Ormerod, Stephen J., E-mail: ormerod@cf.ac.u [Catchment Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in delta{sup 13}C (C. cinclus) or delta{sup 15}N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  1. Diet shifts during egg laying: Implications for measuring contaminants in bird eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, Christy A.; Elliott, John E.; Ormerod, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    We combined stable isotope tracers of blood plasma, blood cells and egg contents with faecal analysis during pre-breeding and egg laying phases in two dipper species Cinclus cinclus and Cinclus mexicanus to determine the occurrence of dietary shifts during egg production and to assess consequences for egg contaminant loads. In both species, changes in δ 13 C (C. cinclus) or δ 15 N (C. mexicanus) in female plasma relative to red blood cells indicated a dietary shift during laying that was not observed in males. Eurasian dippers increased prey consumption as breeding approached, shifting from primarily trichopteran insect larvae to ephemeropterans and plecopterans. In American dippers, egg-laying females switched to feeding at a higher trophic level by consuming more fish. Eggs derived from higher trophic level diets contained more mercury (American dipper), polychlorinated biphenyls and some organochlorines, especially DDT metabolites. The results demonstrate how dietary changes during egg laying accompany the demands for egg production with consequences for contaminant deposition in avian eggs. - Changes in laying diet influences contaminant deposition in bird eggs.

  2. Gallium isotope fractionation during Ga adsorption on calcite and goethite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Saldi, Giuseppe D.; Chen, JiuBin; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino; Birck, Jean-Louis; Liu, Yujie; Schott, Jacques

    2018-02-01

    Gallium (Ga) isotopic fractionation during its adsorption on calcite and goethite was investigated at 20 °C as a function of the solution pH, Ga aqueous concentration and speciation, and the solid to solution ratio. In all experiments Ga was found to be enriched in light isotopes at the solid surface with isotope fractionation △71Gasolid-solution up to -1.27‰ and -0.89‰ for calcite and goethite, respectively. Comparison of Ga isotopic data of this study with predictions for 'closed system' equilibrium and 'Rayleigh fractionation' models indicates that the experimental data are consistent with a 'closed system' equilibrium exchange between the fluid and the solid. The results of this study can be interpreted based on Ga aqueous speciation and the structure of Ga complexes formed at the solid surfaces. For calcite, Ga isotope fractionation is mainly triggered by increased Ga coordination and Ga-O bond length, which vary respectively from 4 and 1.84 Å in Ga(OH)4- to 6 and 1.94 Å in the >Ca-O-GaOH(OH2)4+ surface complex. For goethite, despite the formation of Ga hexa-coordinated >FeOGa(OH)20 surface complexes (Ga-O distances of 1.96-1.98 Å) both at acid and alkaline pH, a similar extent of isotope fractionation was found at acid and alkaline pH, suggesting that Ga(OH)4- is preferentially adsorbed on goethite for all investigated pH conditions. In addition, the observed decrease of Ga isotope fractionation magnitude observed with increasing Ga surface coverage for both calcite and goethite is likely related to the formation of Ga surface polymers and/or hydroxides with reduced Ga-O distances. This first study of Ga isotope fractionation during solid-fluid interactions suggests that the adsorption of Ga by oxides, carbonates or clay minerals could yield significant Ga isotope fractionation between secondary minerals and surficial fluids including seawater. Ga isotopes thus should help to better characterize the surficial biogeochemical cycles of gallium and its

  3. Positional isotope exchange studies on enzyme using NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, T.O.

    1987-01-01

    The isotopically enriched compounds, 18 O-β,γ-ATP and 18 O bridge-labeled pyrophosphate, synthesized previously in this laboratory, were used to investigate and measure the exchange vs. turnover of substrates and products from their central complexes in four selected enzyme systems. Using hi-field 31 P NMR, we were able to differentiate between 18 O labeled in the bridge vs. the non-bridge positions by virtue of the isotope shift upon the phosphorus nuclei. The bridge to non-bridge scrambling of the label was quantitated and the exchange vs. turnover ratios under a variety of conditions was determined. Using the substrate inhibitor carboxycreatinine, PIX experiments with 18 O-β,γ-ATP and creatine kinase were conducted. It was shown that carboxycreatinine and creatine kinase promoted exchange of the 18 O label as determined by NMR. We have concluded that carboxycreatinine is either a substrate that catalyzes very slow turnover or it catalyzes exchange by a dissociative (SN 1 /sub P/) type of mechanism

  4. Methane clumped isotopes: Progress and potential for a new isotopic tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, Peter M. J.; Stolper, Daniel A.; Eiler, John M.; Sessions, Alex L.; Lawson, Michael; Shuai, Yanhua; Bishop, Andrew; Podlaha, Olaf G.; Ferreira, Alexandre A.; Santos Neto, Eugenio V.; Niemann, Martin; Steen, Arne S.; Huang, Ling; Chimiak, Laura; Valentine, David L.; Fiebig, Jens; Luhmann, Andrew J.; Seyfried, William E.; Etiope, Giuseppe; Schoell, Martin; Inskeep, William P.; Moran, James J.; Kitchen, Nami

    2017-11-01

    The isotopic composition of methane is of longstanding geochemical interest, with important implications for understanding hydrocarbon systems, atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the global carbon cycle, and life in extreme environments. Recent analytical developments focusing on multiply substituted isotopologues (‘clumped isotopes’) are opening a potentially valuable new window into methane geochemistry. When methane forms in internal isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotopes can provide a direct record of formation temperature, making this property particularly valuable for identifying different methane origins. However, it has also become clear that in certain settings methane clumped isotope measurements record kinetic rather than equilibrium isotope effects. Here we present a substantially expanded dataset of methane clumped isotope analyses, and provide a synthesis of the current interpretive framework for this parameter. We review different processes affecting methane clumped isotope compositions, describe the relationships between conventional isotope and clumped isotope data, and summarize the types of information that this measurement can provide in different Earth and planetary environments.

  5. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerkens, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method of isotope separation is described which involves the use of a laser photon beam to selectively induce energy level transitions of an isotope molecule containing the isotope to be separated. The use of the technique for 235 U enrichment is demonstrated. (UK)

  6. Pupillary correlates of covert shifts of attention during working memory maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Robison, Matthew K

    2017-04-01

    The pupillary light reflex (PLR) was used to track covert shifts of attention to items maintained in visual working memory (VWM). In three experiments, participants performed a change detection task in which rectangles appeared on either side of fixation and at test participants indicated if the cued rectangle changed its orientation. Prior to presentation or during the delay, participants were cued to the light or dark side of the screen. When cued to the light side, the pupil constricted, and when cued to the dark side, the pupil dilated, suggesting that the PLR tracked covert shifts of attention. Similar covert shifts of attention were seen when the target stimuli remained onscreen and during a blank delay period, suggesting similar effects for attention to perceptual stimuli and attention to stimuli maintained in VWM. Furthermore, similar effects were demonstrated when participants were pre-cued or retro-cued to the prioritized location, suggesting that shifts of covert attention can occur both before and after target presentation. These results are consistent with prior research, suggesting an important role of covert shifts of attention during VWM maintenance and that the PLR can be used to track these covert shifts of attention.

  7. Millennial-scale interaction between ice sheets and ocean circulation during marine isotope stage 100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao eOhno

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Waxing/waning of the ice sheets and the associated change in thermohaline circulation have played an important role in global climate change since major continental ice sheets appeared in the northern hemisphere about 2.75 million years ago. In the earliest glacial stages, however, establishment of the linkage between ice sheet development and ocean circulation remain largely unclear. Here we show new high-resolution records of marine isotope stage 100 recovered from deep-sea sediments on the Gardar Drift, in the subpolar North Atlantic. Results of a wide range of analyses clearly reveal the influence of millennial-scale variability in iceberg discharge on ocean surface condition and bottom current variability in the subpolar North Atlantic during marine isotope stage 100. We identified eight events of ice-rafted debris, which occurred mostly with decreases in sea surface temperature and in current components indicating North Atlantic Deep Water. These decreases are interpreted by weakened deep water formation linked to iceberg discharge, similarly to observations from the last glacial period. Dolomite fraction of the ice-rafted events in early MIS 100 like the last glacial Heinrich events suggests massive collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet in North America. At the same time, our early glacial data suggest differences from the last glacial period: absence of 1470-year periodicity in the interactions between ice sheets and ocean, and northerly shift of the ice-rafted debris belt. Our high-resolution data largely improve the picture of ice-sheet/ocean interactions on millennial time scales in the early glacial period after major Northern Hemisphere glaciation.

  8. The molecular physics of photolytic fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in planetary atmospheres (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Schmidt, J. A.; Hattori, S.; Danielache, S.; Meusinger, C.; Schinke, R.; Ueno, Y.; Nanbu, S.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Yoshida, N.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric photochemistry is able to produce large mass independent anomalies in atmospheric trace gases that can be found in geological and cryospheric records. This talk will present theoretical and experimental investigations of the molecular mechanisms producing photolytic fractionation of isotopes with special attention to sulfur and oxygen. The zero point vibrational energy (ZPE) shift and reflection principle theories are starting points for estimating isotopic fractionation, but these models ignore effects arising from isotope-dependent changes in couplings between surfaces, excited state dynamics, line densities and hot band populations. The isotope-dependent absorption spectra of the isotopologues of HCl, N2O, OCS, CO2 and SO2 have been examined in a series of papers and these results are compared with experiment and ZPE/reflection principle models. Isotopic fractionation in planetary atmospheres has many interesting applications. The UV absorption of CO2 is the basis of photochemistry in the CO2-rich atmospheres of the ancient Earth, and of Mars and Venus. For the first time we present accurate temperature and isotope dependent CO2 absorption cross sections with important implications for photolysis rates of SO2 and H2O, and the production of a mass independent anomaly in the Ox reservoir. Experimental and theoretical results for OCS have implications for the modern stratospheric sulfur budget. The absorption bands of SO2 are complex with rich structure producing isotopic fractionation in photolysis and photoexcitation.

  9. Betaproteobacteria dominance and diversity shifts in the bacterial community of a PAH-contaminated soil exposed to phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Florence; Torelli, Stéphane; Le Paslier, Denis; Barbance, Agnès; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Bru, David; Geremia, Roberto; Blake, Gérard; Jouanneau, Yves

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the PAH-degrading bacteria of a constructed wetland collecting road runoff has been studied through DNA stable isotope probing. Microcosms were spiked with 13 C-phenanthrene at 34 or 337 ppm, and bacterial diversity was monitored over a 14-day period. At 337 ppm, PAH degraders became dominated after 5 days by Betaproteobacteria, including novel Acidovorax, Rhodoferax and Hydrogenophaga members, and unknown bacteria related to Rhodocyclaceae. The prevalence of Betaproteobacteria was further demonstrated by phylum-specific quantitative PCR, and was correlated with a burst of phenanthrene mineralization. Striking shifts in the population of degraders were observed after most of the phenanthrene had been removed. Soil exposed to 34 ppm phenanthrene showed a similar population of degraders, albeit only after 14 days. Results demonstrate that specific Betaproteobacteria are involved in the main response to soil PAH contamination, and illustrate the potential of SIP approaches to investigate PAH biodegradation in soil. - Highlights: ► We explored PAH-degrading bacteria on a chronically polluted site by stable isotope probing. ► Betaproteobacteria appeared as the main phenanthrene degraders in soil. ► Most soil PAH degraders were poorly related to bacteria isolated so far. ► Diversity shifts occurred in the community of degraders when the PAH became less available. - On a site collecting road runoff, implementation of stable isotope probing to identify soil bacteria responsible for phenanthrene degradation, led to the discovery of new Betaproteobacteria distantly related to known PAH degraders.

  10. Natural isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    14 C dates between 600 and 900 AD were obtained for early Iron Age sites in Natal, and from 1300 to 1450 AD for rock engraving sites in Bushmanland. Palaeoenvironmental data derived from the dating of samples related to sedimentary and geomorphic features in the central and northern Namib Desert enabled the production of a tentative graph for the changes in humidity in the region over the past 40000 years. These results suggest that relatively humid conditions came to an end in the Namib at ±25000 BP (before present). The increased precision of the SIRA mass spectrometer enabled the remeasurement of 13 C and 18 O in the Cango stalagmite. This data confirmed that the environmental temperatures in the Southern Cape remained constant to within ±1 o C during the past 5500 years. Techniques and applications for environmental isotopes in hydrology were developed to determine the origin and movement of ground water. Isotopic fractionation effects in light elements in nature were investigated. The 15 N/ 14 N ratio in bones of animals and humans increases in proportion to the aridity of the environment. This suggests that 15 N in bone from dated archaeological sites could be used to detect changes in past climatic conditions as naturally formed nitrate minerals are higly soluble and are only preserved in special, very dry environments. The sources and sinks of CO 2 on the South African subcontinent were also determined. The 13 C/ 12 C ratios of air CO 2 obtained suggest that the vegetation provides the major proportion of respired CO 2 . 9 refs., 1 fig

  11. Charge and transition densities of samarium isotopes in the interacting Boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinester, M.A.; Alster, J.; Dieperink, A.E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The interacting boson approximation (IBA) model has been used to interpret the ground-state charge distributions and lowest 2 + transition charge densities of the even samarium isotopes for A = 144-154. Phenomenological boson transition densities associated with the nucleons comprising the s-and d-bosons of the IBA were determined via a least squares fit analysis of charge and transition densities in the Sm isotopes. The application of these boson trasition densities to higher excited 0 + and 2 + states of Sm, and to 0 + and 2 + transitions in neighboring nuclei, such as Nd and Gd, is described. IBA predictions for the transition densities of the three lowest 2 + levels of 154 Gd are given and compared to theoretical transition densities based on Hartree-Fock calculations. The deduced quadrupole boson transition densities are in fair agreement with densities derived previously from 150 Nd data. It is also shown how certain moments of the best fit boson transition densities can simply and sucessfully describe rms radii, isomer shifts, B(E2) strengths, and transition radii for the Sm isotopes. (orig.)

  12. Performance and sleepiness in nurses working 12-h day shifts or night shifts in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Marian; Permito, Regan; English, Ashley; Albritton, Sandra; Coogle, Carlana; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2017-10-05

    Hospitals are around-the-clock operations and nurses are required to care for patients night and day. The nursing shortage and desire for a more balanced work-to-home life has popularized 12-h shifts for nurses. The present study investigated sleep/wake cycles and fatigue levels in 22 nurses working 12-h shifts, comparing day versus night shifts. Nurses (11day shift and 11 night shift) were recruited from a suburban acute-care medical center. Participants wore a wrist activity monitor and kept a diary to track their sleep/wake cycles for 2 weeks. They also completed a fatigue test battery, which included the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), at the beginning, middle and end of 4 duty shifts. Daily sleep duration was 7.1h on average. No overall difference in mean daily sleep duration was found between nurses working day shifts versus night shifts. Objective performance on the PVT remained relatively good and stable at the start, middle, and end of duty shifts in day shift workers, but gradually degraded across duty time in night shift workers. Compared to day shift workers, night shift workers also exhibited more performance variability among measurement days and between participants at each testing time point. The same pattern was observed for subjective sleepiness on the KSS. However, congruence between objective and subjective measures of fatigue was poor. Our findings suggest a need for organizations to evaluate practices and policies to mitigate the inevitable fatigue that occurs during long night shifts, in order to improve patient and healthcare worker safety. Examination of alternative shift lengths or sanctioned workplace napping may be strategies to consider. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Are leaf physiological traits related to leaf water isotopic enrichment in restinga woody species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO H.P. ROSADO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During plant-transpiration, water molecules having the lighter stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen evaporate and diffuse at a faster rate through the stomata than molecules having the heavier isotopes, which cause isotopic enrichment of leaf water. Although previous models have assumed that leaf water is well-mixed and isotopically uniform, non-uniform stomatal closure, promoting different enrichments between cells, and different pools of water within leaves, due to morpho-physiological traits, might lead to inaccuracies in isotopic models predicting leaf water enrichment. We evaluate the role of leaf morpho-physiological traits on leaf water isotopic enrichment in woody species occurring in a coastal vegetation of Brazil known as restinga. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope values of soil, plant stem and leaf water and leaf traits were measured in six species from restinga vegetation during a drought and a wet period. Leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water was more homogeneous among species during the drought in contrast to the wet period suggesting convergent responses to deal to temporal heterogeneity in water availability. Average leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water during the drought period was highly correlated with relative apoplastic water content. We discuss this observation in the context of current models of leaf water isotopic enrichment as a function of the Péclet effect. We suggest that future studies should include relative apoplastic water content in isotopic models.

  14. Are leaf physiological traits related to leaf water isotopic enrichment in restinga woody species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Bruno H P; De Mattos, Eduardo A; Sternberg, Leonel Da S L

    2013-09-01

    During plant-transpiration, water molecules having the lighter stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen evaporate and diffuse at a faster rate through the stomata than molecules having the heavier isotopes, which cause isotopic enrichment of leaf water. Although previous models have assumed that leaf water is well-mixed and isotopically uniform, non-uniform stomatal closure, promoting different enrichments between cells, and different pools of water within leaves, due to morpho-physiological traits, might lead to inaccuracies in isotopic models predicting leaf water enrichment. We evaluate the role of leaf morpho-physiological traits on leaf water isotopic enrichment in woody species occurring in a coastal vegetation of Brazil known as restinga. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope values of soil, plant stem and leaf water and leaf traits were measured in six species from restinga vegetation during a drought and a wet period. Leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water was more homogeneous among species during the drought in contrast to the wet period suggesting convergent responses to deal to temporal heterogeneity in water availability. Average leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water during the drought period was highly correlated with relative apoplastic water content. We discuss this observation in the context of current models of leaf water isotopic enrichment as a function of the Péclet effect. We suggest that future studies should include relative apoplastic water content in isotopic models.

  15. Sources of Holocene variability of oxygen isotopes in paleoclimate archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. LeGrande

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Variability in water isotopes has been captured in numerous archives and used to infer past climate changes. Here we examine water isotope variability over the course of the Holocene using the water-isotope enabled, coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model, GISS ModelE-R. Eight Holocene time slices, ~1000 years apart are simulated and driven by estimated changes in orbital configuration, greenhouse gases, and ice sheet extent. We find that simulated water isotope archives match well with those seen in ice cores, ocean sediment cores, and speleothems. The climate changes associated with the water isotope changes, however, are more complex than simple modern spatial slope interpretations might suggest. In particular, water isotope variability in Asian speleothems is linked to alterations in landward water vapor transport, not local precipitation, and ice sheet changes over North America lead to the masking of temperature signals in Summit, Greenland. Salinity-seawater isotope variability is complicated by inter-ocean basin exchanges of water vapor. Water isotopes do reflect variability in the hydrology, but are better interpreted in terms of regional hydrological cycle changes rather than as indicators of local climate.

  16. Isotopic fingerprints of anthropogenic molybdenum in lake sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappaz, Anthony; Lyons, Timothy W; Gordon, Gwyneth W; Anbar, Ariel D

    2012-10-16

    We measured the molybdenum isotope compositions (δ(98)Mo) of well-dated sediment cores from two lakes in eastern Canada in an effort to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic contributions to these freshwater aquatic systems. Previously, Chappaz et al. (1) ascribed pronounced 20th-century Mo concentration enrichments in these lakes to anthropogenic inputs. δ(98)Mo values in the deeper sediments (reflecting predominantly natural Mo sources) differ dramatically between the two lakes: -0.32 ± 0.17‰ for oxic Lake Tantare and +0.64 ± 0.09‰ for anoxic Lake Vose. Sediment layers previously identified as enriched in anthropogenic Mo, however, reveal significant δ(98)Mo shifts of ± 0.3‰, resulting in isotopically heavier values of +0.05 ± 0.18‰ in Lake Tantare and lighter values of +0.31 ± 0.03‰ in Lake Vose. We argue that anthropogenic Mo modifies the isotopic composition of the recent sediments, and we determine δ(98)Mo(anthropogenic) values of 0.1 ± 0.1‰ (Lake Vose) and 0.2 ± 0.2‰ (Lake Tantare). These calculated inputs are consistent with the δ(98)Mo of molybdenite (MoS(2)) likely delivered to the lakes via smelting of porphyry copper deposits (Lake Vose) or through combustion of coal and oil also containing Mo (Lake Tantare). Our results confirm the utility of Mo isotopes as a promising fingerprint of human impacts and perhaps the specific sources of contamination. Importantly, the magnitudes of the anthropogenic inputs are large enough, relative to the natural Mo cycles in each lake, to have an impact on the microbiological communities.

  17. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, P.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to molecular and atomic isotope separation and is particularly applicable to the separation of 235 U from other uranium isotopes including 238 U. In the method described a desired isotope is separated mechanically from an atomic or molecular beam formed from an isotope mixture utilising the isotropic recoil momenta resulting from selective excitation of the desired isotope species by radiation, followed by ionization or dissociation by radiation or electron attachment. By forming a matrix of UF 6 molecules in HBr molecules so as to collapse the V 3 vibrational mode of the UF 6 molecule the 235 UF 6 molecules are selectively excited to promote reduction of UF 6 molecules containing 235 U and facilitate separation. (UK)

  18. Experimental investigation of nitrogen isotopic effects associated with ammonia degassing at 0-70 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yuying; Li, Yingzhou; Li, Long

    2018-04-01

    Ammonia degassing is a common process in natural alkaline waters and in the atmosphere. To quantitatively assess the nitrogen cycle in these systems, the essential parameter of nitrogen isotope fractionation factors associated with ammonia degassing is required, but still not constrained yet. In this study, we carried out laboratory experiments to examine the nitrogen isotope behavior during ammonia degassing in alkaline conditions. The experiments started with ammonium sulfate solution with excess sodium hydroxide. The reaction can be described as: NH4+ + OH- (excess) → NH3·nH2O → NH3 (g)↑. Two sets of experiments, one with ammonia degassing under static conditions and the other with ammonia degassing by bubbling of N2 gas, were carried out at 2, 21, 50, and 70 °C. The results indicate that kinetic isotopic effects are dominated during efficient degassing of ammonia in the bubbling experiments, which yielded kinetic nitrogen isotope fractionation factors αNH3(g)-NH3(aq) of 0.9898 at 2 °C, 0.9918 at 21 °C, 0.9935 at 50 °C and 0.9948 at 70 °C. These values show a good relationship with temperature as 103lnαNH3(g)-NH3(aq) = 14.6 - 6.8 × 1000/T. In contrast, isotopic effects during less efficient degassing of ammonia in the static experiments are more complicated. The results do not match either kinetic isotope fractionation or equilibrium isotope fractionation but sit between these two. The most likely cause is that back dissolution of the degassed ammonia occurred in these experiments and consequently shifted kinetic isotope fractionation toward equilibrium isotope fractionation. Our experimental results highlight complicated isotopic effects may occur in natural environments, and need to be fully considered in the interpretation of field data.

  19. Human baby hair amino acid natural abundance 15N-isotope values are not related to the 15N-isotope values of amino acids in mother's breast milk protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romek, Katarzyna M; Julien, Maxime; Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Tea, Illa; Antheaume, Ingrid; Hankard, Régis; Robins, Richard J

    2013-12-01

    Since exclusively breast-suckled infants obtain their nutrient only from their mother's milk, it might be anticipated that a correlation will exist between the (15)N/(14)N isotope ratios of amino acids of protein of young infants and those supplied by their mother. The work presented here aimed to determine whether amino nitrogen transfer from human milk to infant hair protein synthesized within the first month of life conserves the maternal isotopic signature or whether post-ingestion fractionation dominates the nitrogen isotope spectrum. The study was conducted at 1 month post-birth on 100 mother-infant pairs. Isotope ratios (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C were measured using isotope ratio measurement by Mass Spectrometry (irm-MS) for whole maternal milk, and infant hair and (15)N/(14)N ratios were also measured by GC-irm-MS for the N-pivaloyl-O-isopropyl esters of amino acids obtained from the hydrolysis of milk and hair proteins. The δ(15)N and δ(13)C (‰) were found to be significantly higher in infant hair than in breast milk (δ(15)N, P amino acids in infant hair was also significantly higher than that in maternal milk (P < 0.001). By calculation, the observed shift in isotope ratio was shown not to be accounted for by the amino acid composition of hair and milk proteins, indicating that it is not simply due to differences in the composition in the proteins present. Rather, it would appear that each pool-mother and infant-turns over independently, and that fractionation in infant N-metabolism even in the first month of life dominates over the nutrient N-content.

  20. Historical changes of the anthropogenic impact in a coastal lagoon: Pb isotopes and trace elements on mussel's fleshes and shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labonne, M.; Othman, D.B.; Luck, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Molluscs are known to concentrate metals and are used as bioindicators in many programs of coastal survey. The aims of this study were: (1) to better understand the spatial and temporal variations of metals in a greatly anthropized lagoon (Thau, S France) by using concentrations and Pb isotopes in mussel flesh; (2) to compare present and past environment and the different sources of local Pb in recent mussel shells and ones from the Roman empire. Young mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the sea were introduced at various locations in the lagoon. The ancient shells came from a Roman villa on the lagoon coast. We compare their isotopic compositions to different sources present on the watershed such as rocks, road, harbour, ancient lead castings or Spanish and English ingots. Concentrations of trace metals were determined directly by ICP-MS after proper dilution and the isotopic compositions was determined on a VG Sector mass spectrometer. The Pb concentration variations are difficult to separate from weight variations so we use isotopic compositions for determination of lead sources. The Pb isotopic composition of the flesh define nice alignments in 207 Pb/ 204 Pb vs 206 Pb/ 204 Pb diagram with season, which can be explained by two-component mixtures. However, while one end-member remains quite stable and influenced by road network, the other one shifts to more radiogenic values indicating either a variable origin, or varying proportions of a third component. The ancient shells have more radiogenic isotopes than the current shells but shift towards ancient lead castings and ingots signature. Variations of Pb ratios in the ancient shells can be roughly correlated with age and the evolution of population density around the lagoon over the centuries

  1. Application of heavy stable isotopes in forensic isotope geochemistry: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Jugdeep; Habicht-Mauche, Judith; Juarez, Chelsey

    2008-01-01

    Light stable isotopes have been used for many years to characterize the source and transport of materials. More recently heavy isotope systems such as Sr, Nd and Pb have been added to this list in order to aid source identification. With the advent of multiple collector ICP-MS, the range of isotopic tools now available has increased considerably, however, until the isotope systematics of these new non-traditional isotope systems have become better understood, they will not be as useful in characterizing material source and transportation. Applications using heavy metal stable isotopes (mostly traditional heavy isotopes) have reached most avenues in science, including earth sciences, archaeology, anthropology, animal physiology, ecology and toxicology. This field will continue to grow as new applications are developed and techniques become simpler and quicker. This paper provides a review of how this field has grown and presents two new applications using Pb and Sr isotopes in glazes to determine the source of ore used in glazes, and using Sr isotopes to determine the origin of undocumented deceased Mexican border crossers

  2. Application of heavy stable isotopes in forensic isotope geochemistry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Jugdeep [W.M. Keck Isotope Laboratory, Department of Earth Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)], E-mail: jaggarwal@pmc.ucsc.edu; Habicht-Mauche, Judith; Juarez, Chelsey [Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Light stable isotopes have been used for many years to characterize the source and transport of materials. More recently heavy isotope systems such as Sr, Nd and Pb have been added to this list in order to aid source identification. With the advent of multiple collector ICP-MS, the range of isotopic tools now available has increased considerably, however, until the isotope systematics of these new non-traditional isotope systems have become better understood, they will not be as useful in characterizing material source and transportation. Applications using heavy metal stable isotopes (mostly traditional heavy isotopes) have reached most avenues in science, including earth sciences, archaeology, anthropology, animal physiology, ecology and toxicology. This field will continue to grow as new applications are developed and techniques become simpler and quicker. This paper provides a review of how this field has grown and presents two new applications using Pb and Sr isotopes in glazes to determine the source of ore used in glazes, and using Sr isotopes to determine the origin of undocumented deceased Mexican border crossers.

  3. Stable Ca Isotopes in Tamarix aphylla Tree Rings, Death Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Depaolo, D. J.; Ingram, B. L.; Owens, T. L.

    2008-12-01

    significant depletion of soil Ca due to plant uptake. Thus the Ca isotopic fractionation between trunk and source (ΔCa = -2 permil) is clearly defined by the data. By analogy to the results of Page et al., the Ca fractionation between root and source may be larger (ΔCa ~ -3 permil). This biological Ca isotope fractionation is no doubt due to transport processes during root uptake of Ca, but the magnitude is significantly larger than that observed for inorganic processes such as mineral precipitation or aqueous diffusion. The slight increase in δ44Ca in drought conditions suggests that when the tree is stressed there may be less Ca isotope fractionation, either because the Ca is held more tightly in small pores in the soil, or because the available Ca pool shrinks such that the soil Ca starts to shift to more positive δ44Ca values due to depletion of light Ca by the plant. The slowly accumulating database on Ca isotopes in plants continues to suggest that systematic Ca isotope studies may be fruitful for understanding cation transport in plants, and soil ecological conditions in general.

  4. Groundwater regimes and isotopic studies, Ranger mine area, Northern Territory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M; Green, D C

    1986-12-01

    Three types of groundwater occur in the area of the Ranger mine. Type A groundwater occurs in the loose sands and gravels occupying the present day stream channels, Type B in the weathering profile and Type C occurs in relatively fresh fractured bedrock occupying open fractures and other cavities. The three types of groundwater can be distinguished both chemically and isotopically. Light stable isotope data suggest that most early rains are lost by evapotranspiration and have no imprint on the groundwater. Later in the wet season, the ground is saturated and groundwater recharge occurs on a regional scale. This younger groundwater sits on the older waters. Mixing is probably minimal as before any large scale mixing could occur, most younger waters are lost by evapotranspiration. Stable isotope data suggest that Type B groundwater in certain areas has some connection with evaporated surface water bodies. Stable isotope measurements for the pollution monitoring bores around the tailings dam do not indicate any connection with the polluted pond waters at the time of sample collection.

  5. Oxygen isotope geochemistry of The Geysers reservoir rocks, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunderson, Richard P.; Moore, Joseph N.

    1994-01-20

    Whole-rock oxygen isotopic compositions of Late Mesozoic graywacke, the dominant host rock at The Geysers, record evidence of a large liquid-dominated hydrothermal system that extended beyond the limits of the present steam reservoir. The graywackes show vertical and lateral isotopic variations that resulted from gradients in temperature, permeability, and fluid composition during this early liquid-dominated system. All of these effects are interpreted to have resulted from the emplacement of the granitic "felsite" intrusion 1-2 million years ago. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of the graywacke are strongly zoned around a northwest-southeast trending low located near the center of and similar in shape to the present steam system. Vertical isotopic gradients show a close relationship to the felsite intrusion. The {delta}{sup 18}O values of the graywacke decrease from approximately 15 per mil near the surface to 4-7 per mil 300 to 600 m above the intrusive contact. The {delta}{sup 18}O values then increase downward to 8-10 per mil at the felsite contact, thereafter remaining nearly constant within the intrusion itself. The large downward decrease in {delta}{sup 18}O values are interpreted to be controlled by variations in temperature during the intrusive event, ranging from 150{degree}C near the surface to about 425{degree}C near the intrusive contact. The upswing in {delta}{sup 18}O values near the intrusive contact appears to have been caused by lower rock permeability and/or heavier fluid isotopic composition there. Lateral variations in the isotopic distributions suggests that the effects of temperature were further modified by variations in rock permeability and/or fluid-isotopic composition. Time-integrated water:rock ratios are thought to have been highest within the central isotopic low where the greatest isotopic depletions are observed. We suggest that this region of the field was an area of high permeability within the main upflow zone of the liquid

  6. Authentication and traceability of Italian extra-virgin olive oils by means of stable isotopes techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portarena, S; Gavrichkova, O; Lauteri, M; Brugnoli, E

    2014-12-01

    Authentication of food origin is relevant to avoid food fraud. This work aimed to explore the variation of isotopic compositions (δ(13)C, δ(18)O) of extra-virgin olive oils from Italy growing in different environmental conditions. A total of 387 oil samples from nine different regions (from North to South), produced on 2009, 2010 and 2011, were analysed. Statistical analysis showed correlations among oil isotope compositions and latitude, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and xerothermic index. No correlation was found comparing isotope compositions with elevation and longitude. An observed shift of the oil δ(18)O per centigrade degree of the mean annual temperature is congruent with literature. The year effect was significant for both δ(18)O and δ(13)C. Samples from Sicilia and Sardegna were higher in (13)C and (18)O than oils from northern regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenological shifts conserve thermal niches in North American birds and reshape expectations for climate-driven range shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolar, Jacob B; Epanchin, Peter N; Beissinger, Steven R; Tingley, Morgan W

    2017-12-05

    Species respond to climate change in two dominant ways: range shifts in latitude or elevation and phenological shifts of life-history events. Range shifts are widely viewed as the principal mechanism for thermal niche tracking, and phenological shifts in birds and other consumers are widely understood as the principal mechanism for tracking temporal peaks in biotic resources. However, phenological and range shifts each present simultaneous opportunities for temperature and resource tracking, although the possible role for phenological shifts in thermal niche tracking has been widely overlooked. Using a canonical dataset of Californian bird surveys and a detectability-based approach for quantifying phenological signal, we show that Californian bird communities advanced their breeding phenology by 5-12 d over the last century. This phenological shift might track shifting resource peaks, but it also reduces average temperatures during nesting by over 1 °C, approximately the same magnitude that average temperatures have warmed over the same period. We further show that early-summer temperature anomalies are correlated with nest success in a continental-scale database of bird nests, suggesting avian thermal niches might be broadly limited by temperatures during nesting. These findings outline an adaptation surface where geographic range and breeding phenology respond jointly to constraints imposed by temperature and resource phenology. By stabilizing temperatures during nesting, phenological shifts might mitigate the need for range shifts. Global change ecology will benefit from further exploring phenological adjustment as a potential mechanism for thermal niche tracking and vice versa.

  8. Iron Isotopic Compositions of Troilite (FeS) Inclusions from Iron Meteorites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, David L.; Schönbächler, Maria, E-mail: david.cook@erdw.ethz.ch [Institut für Geochemie und Petrologie, ETH Zürich, Clausiusstrasse 25, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2017-10-01

    We report non-mass-dependent Fe isotopic data for troilite (FeS) inclusions from 10 iron meteorites, representing both non-magmatic (IAB) and magmatic groups (IIAB, IIIAB, IVA). No resolvable variations are present in the most neutron-rich isotope ({sup 58}Fe), but small deficits (≈−0.1 ε ) in {sup 56}Fe were observed in several inclusions. With the exception of several Ca–Al-rich inclusions in primitive meteorites, these are the first reported non-mass-dependent variations in Fe isotopes for material formed in the early solar system. Nucleosynthetic variations in Ni isotopes were previously reported in these same samples. The effects in Fe isotopes are not correlated with those in Ni, which suggests that the origins of the isotopic variations are decoupled from one another. The {sup 56}Fe deficits may represent incomplete mixing of the precursor dust in the protoplanetary disk. Alternatively, a parent body process (e.g., irradiation by galactic cosmic rays) may have modified the Fe isotopic compositions of some inclusions, which initially had homogeneous Fe isotopic compositions.

  9. Theory of Mind, Inhibitory Control, and Preschool-Age Children's Suggestibility in Different Interviewing Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullin, Matthew H.; Bonner, Karri

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the relations among 3- to 5-year-olds' theory of mind, inhibitory control, and three measures of suggestibility: yielding to suggestive questions (yield), shifting answers in response to negative feedback (shift), and accuracy in response to misleading questions during a pressured interview about a live event. Theory of…

  10. Li Isotope Studies of Olivine in Mantle Xenoliths by SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, D. R.; Hervig, R. L.; Buseck, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    Variations in the ratio of the stable isotopes of Li are a potentially powerful tracer of processes in planetary and nebular environments [1]. Large differences in the 7Li/6Li ratio between the terrestrial upper mantle and various crustal materials make Li isotope composition a potentially powerful tracer of crustal recycling processes on Earth [2]. Recent SIMS studies of terrestrial mantle and Martian meteorite samples report intra-mineral Li isotope zoning [3-5]. Substantial Li isotope heterogeneity also exists within and between the components of chondritic meteorites [6,7]. Experimental studies of Li diffusion suggest the potential for rapid isotope exchange at elevated temperatures [8]. Large variations in 7Li, exceeding the range of unaltered basalts, occur in terrestrial mantle-derived xenoliths from individual localities [9]. The origins of these variations are not fully understood.

  11. Isotopic labelling studies for a gold-catalysed skeletal rearrangement of alkynyl aziridines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Spencer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic labelling studies were performed to probe a proposed 1,2-aryl shift in the gold-catalysed cycloisomerisation of alkynyl aziridines into 2,4-disubstituted pyrroles. Two isotopomers of the expected skeletal rearrangement product were identified using 13C-labelling and led to a revised mechanism featuring two distinct skeletal rearrangements. The mechanistic proposal has been rationalised against the reaction of a range of 13C- and deuterium-labelled substrates.

  12. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  13. The impact of shift work on the psychological and physical health of nurses in a general hospital: a comparison between rotating night shifts and day shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Paola; Guadi, Matteo; Marcheselli, Luigi; Balduzzi, Sara; Magnani, Daniela; Di Lorenzo, Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Shift work is considered necessary to ensure continuity of care in hospitals and residential facilities. In particular, the night shift is one of the most frequent reasons for the disruption of circadian rhythms, causing significant alterations of sleep and biological functions that can affect physical and psychological well-being and negatively impact work performance. The aim of this study was to highlight if shift work with nights, as compared with day work only, is associated with risk factors predisposing nurses to poorer health conditions and lower job satisfaction. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 in 17 wards of a general hospital and a residential facility of a northern Italian city. This study involved 213 nurses working in rotating night shifts and 65 in day shifts. The instrument used for data collection was the "Standard Shift Work Index," validated in Italian. Data were statistically analyzed. The response rate was 86%. The nurses engaged in rotating night shifts were statistically significantly younger, more frequently single, and had Bachelors and Masters degrees in nursing. They reported the lowest mean score in the items of job satisfaction, quality and quantity of sleep, with more frequent chronic fatigue, psychological, and cardiovascular symptoms in comparison with the day shift workers, in a statistically significant way. Our results suggest that nurses with rotating night schedule need special attention due to the higher risk for both job dissatisfaction and undesirable health effects.

  14. Analysis of Atmospheric Nitrate Deposition in Lake Tahoe Using Multiple Oxygen Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, J. R.; Michalski, G. M.; Hernandez, L. P.; Thiemens, M. H.; Taylor, K.; Kendall, C.; Wankel, S. D.

    2002-12-01

    Lake Tahoe in the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range is world renown for its depth and water clarity bringing 2.2 million visitors per year resulting in annual revenue of \\1.6 billion from tourism. In past decades the lake has suffered from decreased water clarity (from 32 m plate depth to less than 20), which is believed to be largely the result of algae growth initiated by increased nutrient loading. Lake nutrients have also seen a shift from a nitrogen limited to a phosphorous limited system indicating a large increase in the flux of fixed nitrogen. Several sources of fixed nitrogen of have been suggested including surface runoff, septic tank seepage from ground water and deposition from the atmosphere. Bio-available nitrogen in the form of nitrate (NO_{3}$-) is a main component of this system. Recent studies have estimated that approximately 50% of the nitrogen input into the lake is of atmospheric origin (Allison et al. 2000). However, the impact and magnitude of atmospheric deposition is still one of the least understood aspects of the relationship between air and water quality in the Basin (TRPA Threshold Assessment 2002). The utility of stable isotopes as tracers of nitrate reservoirs has been shown in several studies (Bohlke et al. 1997, Kendall and McDonnell 1998, Durka et al. 1994). Stable nitrogen (δ15N) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes have been implemented in a dual isotope approach to characterize the various nitrate sources to an ecosystem. While δ18O distinguishes between atmospheric and soil sources of nitrate, processes such as denitrification can enrich the residual nitrate in δ18O leaving a misleading atmospheric signature. The benefit of δ15N as a tracer for NO3- sources is the ability to differentiate natural soil, fertilizer, and animal or septic waste, which contain equivalent δ18O values. The recent implementation of multiple oxygen isotopes to measure Δ17O in nitrate has proven to be a more sensitive tracer of atmospheric deposition. The

  15. Optimization of the isotope separation in columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminskij, V.A.; Vetsko, V.M.; Tevzadze, G.A.; Devdariani, O.A.; Sulaberidze, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The general method for the multi-parameter optimization of cascade plants of packed columns is proposed. As an optimization effectiveness function a netcost of the isotopic product is selected. The net cost is comprehensively characterizing the sum total of capital costs for manufacturing the products as well as determining the choice of the most effective directions for capital investments and rational limits of improvement of the products quality. The method is based on main representations of the cascade theory, such as the ideal flow profile and form efficiency as well as mathematical model of the packed column specifying the bonds between its geometric and operating parameters. As a result, the isotopic products cost function could be bound with such parameters as the equilibrium stage height, ultimate packing capacity, its element dimensions, column diameter. It is concluded that the suggested approach to the optimization of isotope separation processes is rather a general one. It permits to solve a number of special problems, such as estimation of advisability of using heat-pump circuits and determining the rational automation level. Besides, by means of the method suggested one can optimize the process conditions with regard to temperature and pressure

  16. Raman scattering method and apparatus for measuring isotope ratios and isotopic abundances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harney, R.C.; Bloom, S.D.

    1978-01-01

    Raman scattering is used to measure isotope ratios and/or isotopic abundances. A beam of quasi-monochromatic photons is directed onto the sample to be analyzed, and the resulting Raman-scattered photons are detected and counted for each isotopic species of interest. These photon counts are treated mathematically to yield the desired isotope ratios or isotopic abundances

  17. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A.; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J.; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K.; Kohn, Matthew J.; Cerling, Thure E.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Eiler, John M.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ~6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  18. Isotopic ordering in eggshells reflects body temperatures and suggests differing thermophysiology in two Cretaceous dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Robert A; Enriquez, Marcus; Grellet-Tinner, Gerald; Pérez-Huerta, Alberto; Hu, David; Tütken, Thomas; Montanari, Shaena; Loyd, Sean J; Ramirez, Pedro; Tripati, Aradhna K; Kohn, Matthew J; Cerling, Thure E; Chiappe, Luis M; Eiler, John M

    2015-10-13

    Our understanding of the evolutionary transitions leading to the modern endothermic state of birds and mammals is incomplete, partly because tools available to study the thermophysiology of extinct vertebrates are limited. Here we show that clumped isotope analysis of eggshells can be used to determine body temperatures of females during periods of ovulation. Late Cretaceous titanosaurid eggshells yield temperatures similar to large modern endotherms. In contrast, oviraptorid eggshells yield temperatures lower than most modern endotherms but ∼ 6 °C higher than co-occurring abiogenic carbonates, implying that this taxon did not have thermoregulation comparable to modern birds, but was able to elevate its body temperature above environmental temperatures. Therefore, we observe no strong evidence for end-member ectothermy or endothermy in the species examined. Body temperatures for these two species indicate that variable thermoregulation likely existed among the non-avian dinosaurs and that not all dinosaurs had body temperatures in the range of that seen in modern birds.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF STABLE ISOTOPE OF 18O AND 2H IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER FROM KARAWANG AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ristin Pujiindiyati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Karawang area is well known as an agriculture area and 2% area is utilized for industries. Clean water demands increase due to developing industry development and population increasement. The origin of groundwater is necessary to keep the sustainability of water resources in this area. Stable isotopes such as 18O and 2H can be used as a parameter to trace the ground water origin. The methods used were Epstein-Mayeda and Zinc reduction for analysis 18O and 2H, respectively. Sampling period was conducted in major dry season in year 2002. The result showed that evaporation effect had influenced to the content of both isotopes in its shallow groundwater that caused a slope shift from its local meteoric line. The origin of its shallow groundwater was from rainwater infiltrating directly in less than 10 m altitude. Citarum River showed more depleted values in both isotopes compared to shallow groundwater and it indicated that its water might originate from spring at the altitude of 600 m.     Keywords: oxygene-18, deuterium, groundwater, isotope

  20. Isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, R.J.; Morrey, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for separating gas molecules containing one isotope of an element from gas molecules containing other isotopes of the same element in which all of the molecules of the gas are at the same electronic state in their ground state. Gas molecules in a gas stream containing one of the isotopes are selectively excited to a different electronic state while leaving the other gas molecules in their original ground state. Gas molecules containing one of the isotopes are then deflected from the other gas molecules in the stream and thus physically separated

  1. Visual attention shifting in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Annette E; Lajiness-O'Neill, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal visual attention has been frequently observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Abnormal shifting of visual attention is related to abnormal development of social cognition and has been identified as a key neuropsychological finding in ASD. Better characterizing attention shifting in ASD and its relationship with social functioning may help to identify new targets for intervention and improving social communication in these disorders. Thus, the current study investigated deficits in attention shifting in ASD as well as relationships between attention shifting and social communication in ASD and neurotypicals (NT). To investigate deficits in visual attention shifting in ASD, 20 ASD and 20 age- and gender-matched NT completed visual search (VS) and Navon tasks with attention-shifting demands as well as a set-shifting task. VS was a feature search task with targets defined in one of two dimensions; Navon required identification of a target letter presented at the global or local level. Psychomotor and processing speed were entered as covariates. Relationships between visual attention shifting, set shifting, and social functioning were also examined. ASD and NT showed comparable costs of shifting attention. However, psychomotor and processing speed were slower in ASD than in NT, and psychomotor and processing speed were positively correlated with attention-shifting costs on Navon and VS, respectively, for both groups. Attention shifting on VS and Navon were correlated among NT, while attention shifting on Navon was correlated with set shifting among ASD. Attention-shifting costs on Navon were positively correlated with restricted and repetitive behaviors among ASD. Relationships between attention shifting and psychomotor and processing speed, as well as relationships between measures of different aspects of visual attention shifting, suggest inefficient top-down influences over preattentive visual processing in ASD. Inefficient attention shifting may be

  2. Laser Spectroscopic Analysis of Liquid Water Samples for Stable Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen are tracers of choice for water cycle processes in hydrological, atmospheric and ecological studies. The use of isotopes has been limited to some extent because of the relatively high cost of isotope ratio mass spectrometers and the need for specialized operational skills. Here, the results of performance testing of a recently developed laser spectroscopic instrument for measuring stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of water samples are described, along with a procedure for instrument installation and operation. Over the last four years, the IAEA Water Resources Programme conducted prototype and production model testing of these instruments and this publication is the outcome of those efforts. One of the main missions of the IAEA is to promote the use of peaceful applications of isotope and nuclear methods in Member States and this publication is intended to facilitate the use of laser absorption based instruments for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analyses of liquid water samples for hydrological and other studies. The instrument uses off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy to measure absolute abundances of 2 HHO, HH 18 O, and HHO via laser absorption. Test results using a number of natural and synthetic water standards and samples with a large range of isotope values demonstrate adequate precision and accuracy (e.g. precisions of 1 per mille for δ 2 H and 0.2 per mille for δ 18 O). The laser instrument has much lower initial and maintenance costs than mass spectrometers and is substantially easier to operate. Thus, these instruments have the potential to bring about a paradigm shift in isotope applications by enabling researchers in all fields to measure isotope ratios by themselves. The appendix contains a detailed procedure for the installation and operation of the instrument. Using the procedure, new users should be able to install the instrument in less than two hours. It also provides step

  3. Isotopic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.L.

    1979-01-01

    Isotopic species in an isotopic mixture including a first species having a first isotope and a second species having a second isotope are separated by selectively exciting the first species in preference to the second species and then reacting the selectively excited first species with an additional preselected radiation, an electron or another chemical species so as to form a product having a mass different from the original species and separating the product from the balance of the mixture in a centrifugal separating device such as centrifuge or aerodynamic nozzle. In the centrifuge the isotopic mixture is passed into a rotor where it is irradiated through a window. Heavier and lighter components can be withdrawn. The irradiated mixture experiences a large centrifugal force and is separated in a deflection area into lighter and heavier components. (UK)

  4. On the problems of separation work unit for the laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lijun

    2008-01-01

    The concept of separation power or separation work, which is widely used in Uranium isotope separation industry is introduced historically for the weak separating machine and so-called 'ideal cascade'. Therefore, when this concept is applied to a laser isotope separation facility, which is deeply different from a cascade in structure and in mechanism of separation, some confusions may occur. By comparison the costs of SWU of laser isotope separation facility and an ideal cascade we come to a conclusion: the concept of separation work is not applicable for laser isotope separation. In order to compare the economics of laser isotope separation technique with diffusion or centrifugation techniques an equivalent cost of SWU is suggested in this paper. (author)

  5. On the odd-even effect in the charge radii of isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talmi, I.

    1984-01-01

    Core polarization by valence neutrons is suggested as a possible mechanism for producing odd-even variation in the charge radii of isotopes. The nuclei considered have closed proton shells and neutrons in states with lowest seniority or generalized seniority. Simple expressions are derived for jsup(n) neutron configurations and various multipole terms of the pn interaction. The resulting expressions give a good fit to the radii of calcium isotopes and also of lead isotopes for which these expressions are only approximate. (orig.)

  6. Rotating shift work associated with obesity in men from northeastern Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Grundy; Michelle Cotterchio; Victoria A. Kirsh; Victoria Nadalin; Nancy Lightfoot; Nancy Kreiger

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: While some studies have suggested associations between shift work and obesity, few have been population-based or considered multiple shift schedules. Since obesity is linked with several chronic health conditions, understanding which types of shift work influence obesity is important and additional work with more detailed exposure assessment of shift work is warranted. Methods: Using multivariate polytomous logistic regression, we investigated the associations between shift work...

  7. Determination of the interchangeable heavy-metal fraction in soils by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaebler, H.E.; Bahr, A.; Mieke, B.

    1999-01-01

    An isotope dilution technique using enriched stable isotopes is applied to determine the interchangeable heavy-metal fraction in soils. Metals in two soil samples are extracted at constant pH, with water, NH 4 NO 3 , and EDTA. A spike of enriched stable isotopes is added to the suspension of sample and eluant at the beginning of the extraction. The heavy-metal fraction which exchanges with the added spike during the extraction is called the interchangeable fraction. The extractable heavy-metal fractions are obtained from the heavy-metal concentrations in the eluates. Isotope ratios and concentrations are determined by HR-ICP-MS. The isotope dilution technique described enables both the extractable and the interchangeable heavy-metal fractions to be determined in the same experiment. The combination of both results gives additional information on elemental availability under different conditions that cannot be obtained by analyzing the extractable heavy-metal fractions alone. It is demonstrated that in some cases different eluants just shift the distribution of the interchangeable fraction of an element between the solid and liquid phases (e.g., Pb and Cd in a topsoil sample) while the amount of the interchangeable fraction itself remains constant. For other elements, as Ni, Zn, and Cr, the use of different eluants (different pH, complexing agents) sometimes enlarges the interchangeable fraction. (orig.)

  8. Investigation of regional geohydrology south of Great Slave Lake, Canada, utilizing natural sulphur and hydrogen isotope variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyer, K.U.; Horwood, W.C.; Krouse, H.R.

    1979-01-01

    The well-defined topographic, geological, and orographic setting in the area south of Great Slave Lake, in Canada's North-West Territory (N.W.T.), is favourable for a meaningful investigation of the local and regional groundwater flow sysems in the area of the Mississippi Valley type lead-zinc deposits at Pine Point. Chemical and isotope (delta 34 S, deltaD) investigations have provided supporting evidence for conceptual models of groundwater flow. The range of the deltaD values encountered (-111 to -205 per mille SMOW) indicates that the hydrodynamic systems convey meteoric waters. Differences in deltaD values of water samples were used to elucidate the hydrological relationship between groundwater and a major river in a karst area. The ore bodies at Pine Point are engulfed in a reducing hydrosphere. Sulphur species, derived from gypsum layers by regional groundwater flow, are instrumental in maintaining the reducing conditions. There is evidence that the reduction of sulphate to sulphide is caused by bacteria. Microbiological sulphate reduction, rather than isotopic exchange processes, is also responsible for shifts of measured delta 34 S values in dissolved sulphates. After correction for those shifts, four different sources for dissolved sulphate were identified. In addition to supporting the conceptual model of regional groundwater flow in this area, the isotopic data also help to delineate hydrological features on a more local scale. (author)

  9. Changes in nurses' decision making during a 12-h day shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, L E; Switzer, F S; Pilcher, J J

    2013-01-01

    Although shift work is necessary in many health-care settings, research suggests that it can have detrimental effects on performance in health-care providers. To determine if a change in decision-making occurred across a 12-h day shift in a sample of registered nurses. The participants were nurses working a 12-h day shift (7 a.m.-7 p.m.) at a large hospital in the south-eastern USA. Participants completed a policy-capturing questionnaire, examining their likelihood of calling a physician in response to specific patient symptoms, at the beginning and end of the shift. They also completed self-report surveys on alertness, stress and sleepiness. Sixty-five nurses completed the study, an overall response rate of 41%. Participants significantly changed their decision-making policies from the beginning to the end of the work shift and also became significantly less alert and more stressed. However, there was no correlation between decision-making and reported alertness and stress. These results suggest that medical judgment in registered nurses changed from the beginning to the end of a 12-h day shift. One possible underlying mechanism responsible for the changes seen across the shift could be the ability to maintain attention, as suggested by the Controlled Attention Model. The current results expand upon previous research, indicating there are a variety of negative outcomes associated with shift work.

  10. Charge radii of magnesium isotopes by laser spectroscopy a structural study over the $sd$ shell

    CERN Multimedia

    Schug, M; Krieger, A R

    We propose to study the evolution of nuclear sizes and shapes over the magnesium chain by measuring the root-mean-square charge radii of $^{21 - 32}$Mg, essentially covering the entire $\\textit{sd}$ shell. Our goal is to detect the structural changes, which in the neutron-deficient isotopes may originate from clustering, in a way similar to neon, and on the neutron-rich side would characterize the transition to the "island of inversion". We will combine, for the first time, the sensitive $\\beta$-detection technique with traditional fluorescence spectroscopy for isotope-shift measurements and in such a way gain access to the exotic species near the ${N}$ = 8 and ${N}$ = 20 shell closures.

  11. No evidence of reduced collectivity in Coulomb-excited Sn isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Saxena, M.; Doornenbal, P.; Jhingan, A.; Banerjee, A.; Bhowmik, R. K.; Dutt, S.; Garg, R.; Joshi, C.; Mishra, V.; Napiorkowski, P. J.; Prajapati, S.; Söderström, P.-A.; Kumar, N.; Wollersheim, H.-J.

    2017-11-01

    In a series of Coulomb excitation experiments the first excited 2+ states in semimagic Sn 112 ,116 ,118 ,120 ,122 ,124 isotopes were excited using a 58Ni beam at safe Coulomb energy. The B (E 2 ; 0+→2+) values were determined with high precision (˜3 %) relative to 58Ni projectile excitation. These results disagree with previously reported B (E 2 ↑) values [A. Jungclaus et al., Phys. Lett. B 695, 110 (2011)., 10.1016/j.physletb.2010.11.012] extracted from Doppler-shift attenuation lifetime measurements, whereas the reported mass dependence of B (E 2 ↑) values is very similar to a recent Coulomb excitation study [J. M. Allmond et al., Phys. Rev. C 92, 041303(R) (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevC.92.041303]. The stable Sn isotopes, key nuclei in nuclear structure, show no evidence of reduced collectivity and we, thus, reconfirm the nonsymmetric behavior of reduced transition probabilities with respect to the midshell A =116 .

  12. Chromium isotope variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary

    the δ53Cr value of continental runoff into the ocean. The major findings were that river water is characterised by heavy δ53Cr values (+0.1‰ to +1.6‰), while soils are characterised by light δ53Cr values (-0.3‰), relative to the catchment bedrock (-0.17‰ to -0.21‰), indicating that Cr isotopes......, and the quantification the Cr isotope composition of major Cr fluxes into and out of ocean. This thesis adds to the current knowledge of the Cr isotope system and is divided into two studies. The focus of the first study was to determine what processes control the Cr isotopic compositionof river water and to quantify......Chromium (Cr) stable isotopes are a useful tracer of changes in redox conditions because changes in its oxidation state are accompanied by an isotopic fractionation. For this reason the Cr isotope system is being developed as a potential tool for paleo-redox reconstruction. Dissolved Cr in seawater...

  13. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  14. Room temperature Sieving of Hydrogen Isotopes Using 2-D Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Colon-Mercado, H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Krentz, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Serkiz, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Velten, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Xiao, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-28

    Hydrogen isotope separation is critical to the DOE’s mission in environmental remediation and nuclear nonproliferation. Isotope separation is also a critical technology for the NNSA, and the ability to perform the separations at room temperature with a relatively small amount of power and space would be a major advancement for their respective missions. Recent work has shown that 2-D materials such as graphene and hexagonal boron nitride can act as an isotopic sieve at room temperature; efficiently separating hydrogen isotopes in water with reported separation ratios of 10:1 for hydrogen: deuterium separation for a single pass. The work performed here suggests that this technique has merit, and furthermore, we are investigating optimization and scale up of the required 2-D material based membranes.

  15. Environmental isotope hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    Environmental isotope hydrology is a relatively new field of investigation based on isotopic variations observed in natural waters. These isotopic characteristics have been established over a broad space and time scale. They cannot be controlled by man, but can be observed and interpreted to gain valuable regional information on the origin, turnover and transit time of water in the system which often cannot be obtained by other techniques. The cost of such investigations is usually relatively small in comparison with the cost of classical hydrological studies. The main environmental isotopes of hydrological interest are the stable isotopes deuterium (hydrogen-2), carbon-13, oxygen-18, and the radioactive isotopes tritium (hydrogen-3) and carbon-14. Isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen are ideal geochemical tracers of water because their concentrations are usually not subject to change by interaction with the aquifer material. On the other hand, carbon compounds in groundwater may interact with the aquifer material, complicating the interpretation of carbon-14 data. A few other environmental isotopes such as 32 Si and 238 U/ 234 U have been proposed recently for hydrological purposes but their use has been quite limited until now and they will not be discussed here. (author)

  16. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and carbon in an aquatic food web recently invaded by Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.J.; Mills, E.L.; Idrisi, N.; Michener, R.

    1996-01-01

    The carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) of major abiotic and biotic constituents were determined in Oneida Lake, New York. This lake was invaded by the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in 1990 and there have been concomitant changes in various biotic and abiotic lake properties. The C (46-49%) and N (12%) concentrations and C:N ratios (3.9-4) of zebra mussel flesh were similar to those reported for other lakes. Trophic positions were reflected in the δ 15 N values for which walleye > gizzard shad and yellow perch > Daphnia spp. and zebra mussel flesh > seston and sediment. There was an average increase of 3.6% 0 15 N per trophic transfer. Results from the δ 13 C analysis suggest that Daphnia spp. were using a distinct source of organic carbon whereas zebra mussel were using the entire seston resource. Only yellow perch showed a significant shift in δ 13 C values (1.1% 0 ), possibly reflecting a shift in a food source and diet from 1992 to 1993. (author). 48 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  17. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  18. Studies of carbon--isotope fractionation. Annual progress report, December 1, 1974--November 30, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1975-01-01

    The vapor pressure isotope effect of 13 C/ 12 C-substitution in CClF 3 was measured at temperatures between 169 0 and 206 0 K by means of cryogenic distillation. The 13 C/ 12 C-vapor pressure isotope effect in CHF 3 was also studied at temperatures between 161 0 and 205 0 K by a similar method. The construction of a cryostat has progressed as scheduled. The investigation of carbon isotope exchange equilibria between carbon dioxide and various carbamates dissolved in various organic solvents has continued. The five-stage system of Taylor-Ghate design was improved to shorten the transient time. A single stage apparatus was designed, built, and tested. These systems are used to measure the equilibrium constants and various phase equilibria involved in the carbon dioxide--carbamate system. The investigation of the explicit method of total isotope effect has made progress. A satisfactory approximation was found for the classical partition function of a Morse oscillator. The method gives a reasonable result at rho identical with 1 / 2 √(u/sub e//x/sub e/) greater than 1.5. The medium cluster approach was applied to isotopic methanes to investigate the effects of intermolecular distance and mutual orientations of molecules in the liquid upon vapor pressure isotope effect. It was found that all geometrical effects studied tend to vanish as the size of clusters is increased. Isotope effect in the zero-point energy shifts on condensation was calculated on the basis of London dispersion forces in liquid and a semi-empirical molecular orbital theory, and was favorably compared with experimental results

  19. Paradox of the peak-PCIM (Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maxima; ~57.8Ma) and Abrupt Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, D. T.; Hoenisch, B.; Zachos, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Paleocene Carbon Isotope Maxima (PCIM; ~57.8Ma) represents a major transition in global δ13C during the late Paleocene, when the long-term positive trend in δ13C reversed from positive to negative. The peak-PCIM (~57.7Ma) has been tightly resolved in new high-resolution, astronomically-tuned benthic isotope records from IODP Sites 1209 (Pacific) and 1262 (Atlantic), which show the final phase of δ13C enrichment as abrupt (~1‰ in paradox as any rapid carbon release to the atmosphere should, in theory, create a negative excursion because all of the major carbon sources are isotopically light, whether volcanic outgassing, weathering/oxidation of organic carbon, or methane release [Dunkley-Jones et al., Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2010]. If global, there are several testable mechanisms that may explain the shift including increase in burial flux of light carbon, a reduction in heavy carbon burial flux, or a large-scale circulation change perhaps associated with the transition of a major oceanic gateway. Using trace metal (B/Ca and Mg/Ca) and stable isotope (δ11B, δ18O, and δ13C) geochemistry, here we establish the nature of the peak-PCIM at sites from 3 different ocean basins (IODP Sites 690, 1209, and 1262) and begin to test several of the possible mechanisms for change. Mg/Ca in mixed-layer planktonic foraminifera show 2-3°C of sea surface warming coinciding with, and abrupt as, the benthic carbon isotope enrichment at all sites. Bottom water Δ[CO32-], as indicated by B/Ca in benthic foraminifera, abruptly increases by 30-40µmol/kgsw. While this may indicate a change in bottom water circulation, surface B-based proxies also respond with a positive shift during the peak-PCIM indicating a slight increase in surface pH and highlighting the global nature of the event.

  20. Carbon and oxygen isotope analysis of leaf biomass reveals contrasting photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2 near geologic vents in Yellowstone National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Williams

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we explore the use of natural CO2 emissions in Yellowstone National Park (YNP in Wyoming, USA to study responses of natural vegetation to elevated CO2 levels. Radiocarbon (14C analysis of leaf biomass from a conifer (Pinus contortus; lodgepole pine and an invasive, non-native herb (Linaria dalmatica; Dalmation toadflax was used to trace the inputs of vent CO2 and quantify assimilation-weighted CO2 concentrations experienced by individual plants near vents and in comparable locations with no geologic CO2 exposure. The carbon and oxygen isotopic composition and nitrogen percent of leaf biomass from the same plants was used to investigate photosynthetic responses of these plants to naturally elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The coupled shifts in carbon and oxygen isotope values suggest that dalmation toadflax responded to elevated CO2 exposure by increasing stomatal conductance with no change in photosynthetic capacity and lodgepole pine apparently responded by decreasing stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity. Lodgepole pine saplings exposed to elevated levels of CO2 likewise had reduced leaf nitrogen concentrations compared to plants with no enhanced CO2 exposure, further suggesting widespread and dominant conifer down-regulated photosynthetic capacity under elevated CO2 levels near geologic vents.

  1. What is the evidence for less shift work tolerance in older workers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, M.M.; Looze, M.P.de

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the suggestion that older people would be less tolerant to shift work. Field studies on age-shift work interaction effects on sleep, fatigue, performance, accidents and health were reviewed. Studies on age-shift (morning, afternoon, night) and age-shift system (roster)

  2. Using stable isotopes of albacore tuna and predictive models to characterize bioregions and examine ecological change in the SW Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethybridge, Heidi R.; Young, Jock W.; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Farley, Jessica H.

    2015-05-01

    Broad-scale food web inferences of 534 albacore tuna, Thunnus alalunga, in the south-west Pacific Ocean in 2009 and 2010 were made using bulk nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotopes. Condition was also examined for the same fish using C:N ratios. A Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM) approach was used to analyze spatio-temporal, biological and environmental drivers that impact the distribution of tuna isotopes and to create oceanographic maps. Based on model formulations, five bioregions with distinct isotopic signatures were identified and were related to known biological, nutrient cycling and oceanographic (temperature, primary productivity and eddy) features associated with the East Australian Current. δ15N values showed a large-scale, uniform latitudinal gradient decreasing from the south to north, in a region encompassing oligotrophic waters in the Coral Sea. In contrast, δ13C values were lower in the nutrient rich Tasman Sea waters and offshore East Australia. C:N ratios suggested that albacore occupying southern and offshore waters were in better condition. Ontogenetic trends in all three biochemical parameters were identified and related to differences in size distribution. Regional-specific temporal variations were detected including similar monthly changes for both isotopes and significantly less enriched δ13C (by 1.9‰) than in previous work undertaken in 2006, potentially signifying a substantial shift in the carbon cycle that supports food webs off central east Australia. Our results showed that isotopic measurements in tuna and the GAM framework provide powerful tools to assess ecosystem functioning and change by linking sources of nutrients and organic matter to local food web assembly. Such knowledge is vital to support an ecosystem based approach to fisheries management including biogeochemical whole-of-ecosystem models and monitoring programs at regional and landscape-scales.

  3. Addressing national priorities through nuclear technology: Application of stable isotope techniques in evaluating nutritional intervention programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwangi, C.; Ndemwa, P.

    2008-01-01

    The concept is a new concept in Kenya that need driven technology. A paradigm shift from the conventional methods of measuring breast milk intake by means of weighing infants before and after feeding. A validation tool against anthropometrical measures of body fat through body density and skin-fold measurements. A reliable, accurate and non-invasive tool for monitoring lean body mass changes in clinical assessments.Isotopes Techniques in Body composition assessment.Technique-based Parameters of efficacy and/or effect are: Isotope (deuterium) dose given orally to subject (about 30 grams),Saliva (or urine) samples collected after 3-4 hrs, Concentration of isotope in saliva is measured using Fourier Transformed Infra-red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), Concentration gives the Total Body Water (TBW) component in the body, TBW = 73% Fat Free Mass (FFM), Calculate FFM (kg) from equation and subtract from Total Body Weight (kg) to get value of Fat Mass (kg)

  4. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  5. Isotope hydrology and its impact in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, B.Th.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water has increasingly taken its place in the provision of safe, potable supply in the developing world. Large investments have been made in infrastructural development for rural ground water supply schemes, but far too little attention has been given to assess the sustainability of these supplies. Overexploitation of aquifers, evident in failing boreholes and deteriorating water quality, has become a world-wide concern. Developments in physics half a century ago established the basis of isotope hydrology. Radioactive isotopes give information on ground water dynamics and recharge rates whilst non-radioactive - or stable - isotopes indicate origins of ground water and delineate ground water bodies. Environmental isotope hydrology is increasingly seen as a powerful discipline in assessing ground water systems. This is particularly important in developing environments, where historical data is rarely available. Brief examples are presented of isotope applications to collaborative ground water studies conducted at the University of the Witwatersrand. Recharge estimates based on isotope 'snapshot' data conform well with results from subsequent long-term water level observations in the Kalahari of Botswana. The importance is demonstrated of irrigation return flow and pollution hazard to the Lomagundi dolomite of Zimbabwe. Isotopes suggest the source of high nitrate concentrations to an important ground water supply in Tanzania. Mechanisms of the release of arsenic into millions of tube wells in Bangladesh are put into perspective. Isotope hydrology as appropriate technology is highlighted in terms of its cost-effectiveness and the investigative empowerment of local investigators. (author)

  6. The molecular mechanism of Mo