Sample records for isoproterenol infusions provide

  1. Global ejection fraction and phase analysis assessed by radionuclide angiography during exercise and after isoproterenol infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righetti, A.; Ratib, O.; Merier, G.; Widmann, T.; Donath, A.


    Radionuclide angiography obtained during and following Isoproterenol infusion is a new approach for detecting latent myocardial ischemia. It is very sensitive and could be considered as an alternative to conventional exercice radionuclide angiography. The data presented show that phase analysis assessment of regional systolic wall motion is a better indicator than global ejection fraction for quantifying left ventricular dysfunction

  2. Noradrenaline and isoproterenol kinetics in diabetic patients with and without autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, Anders; Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J


    Noradrenaline and isoproterenol kinetics using intravenous infusion of L-3H-NA and of 3H-isoproterenol were investigated in eight Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients without neuropathy and in eight Type 1 diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy matched for age, sex and duration...... with autonomic failure (p less than 0.01). The disappearance of L-3H-noradrenaline from plasma after the infusion of L-3H-noradrenaline had been stopped was not different in patients with and without neuropathy. The metabolic clearance of isoproterenol was not influenced by the presence of autonomic failure...

  3. The Influence of a High Salt Diet on a Rat Model of Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure (United States)

    Rat models of heart failure (HF) show varied pathology and time to disease outcome, dependent on induction method. We found that subchronic (4 weeks) isoproterenol (ISO) infusion exacerbated cardiomyopathy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats. Others have shown...

  4. Effects of isoproterenol on myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, M.E.; Lieber, J.G.; Budinger, T.F.


    In the course of autoradiographic studies designed to localize 14 C-taurine within the cells of the rat myocardium, severe tissue damage was noted after stimulation by very low levels of isoproterenol. This β-adrenergic agonist had previously been shown by others to modulate taurine uptake by what appeared to be a very specific mechanism, but our studies have led to a different mechanism. Within four hours after injection of isoproterenol at all concentrations used, pronounced edema of myocytes in the subendocardium was noted; this was followed by an inflammatory reation and degeneration of mitochondria and myofilaments

  5. Effects of isoproterenol on distribution of perfusion in embolized dog lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, J.W. Jr.; Hauer, D.; Sgroi, V.; Moser, K.M.


    In 19 mechanically ventilated, anesthetized dogs, autologous venous thrombi were formed in the inferior vena cava and subsequently released. Serial perfusion lung scintigrams revealed the postembolic distribution of pulmonary blood flow before, during, and after the infusion of isoproterenol at 2.2 μg/min. Isoproterenol failed to restore perfusion to embolically occluded regions. When reperfusion occurred it was attributable to clot resolution. Gas exchange and hemodynamic measurements obtained in seven thromboembolized animals showed no scan evidence of reperfusion during the isoproterenol infusion. After embolization, cardiac output increased from 1.7 to 2.6 liter/min (p 2 from 38.0 to 45.3 mm Hg (p 2 to 50.7 mm Hg, along with a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance from the postembolic mean of 448 to 246 -5 (p < 0.05). Perfusion defects following acute pulmonary thromboembolization are not altered by the infusion of the potent pulmonary vasodilator, isoproterenol. Infusion of this drug following thromboembolization may have potential therapeutic benefit by reducing pulmonary vascular resistance, increasing cardiac output, and elevating the mixed-venous oxygen tension


    Rat models of heart failure (HF) show varied pathology and time to disease outcome, dependent on induction method. We found that subchronic (4wk) isoproterenol (ISO) infusion in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats caused cardiac injury with minimal hypertrophy. O...

  7. Dexmedetomidine infusion during middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia to provide oligaemic surgical field: A prospective study

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    Kumkum Gupta


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Middle ear surgery requires bloodless surgical field for better operating conditions, deep level of anaesthesia and rapid emergence. Recent studies suggest that α2 agonists could provide desired surgical field, sedation and analgesia. The present study was aimed to evaluate the clinical effects of dexmedetomidine infusion as anaesthetic adjuvant during middle ear surgery using operating microscope. Methods: Sixty four adult patients aged 18-58 years, American Society of Anaesthesiologists Grades I and II, of both gender were randomised into two comparable equal groups of 32 patients each for middle ear surgery under general anaesthesia with standard anaesthetic technique. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients of Group I were given dexmedetomidine infusion of 0.5 μg/kg/h and patients of Group II were given placebo infusion of normal saline. Isoflurane concentration was titrated to achieve a systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline value. All patients were assessed intra-operatively for bleeding at surgical field, haemodynamic changes, awakening time and post-operative recovery. Results: Statistically significant reduction was observed in the required percentage of isoflurane (0.8 ± 0.6% to maintain the systolic blood pressure 30% below the baseline values in patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion when compared to those receiving placebo infusion (1.6 ± 0.7%. Patients receiving dexmedetomidine infusion had statistically significant lesser bleeding at surgical field (P < 0.05. The mean awakening time and recovery from anaesthesia did not show any significant difference between the groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine infusion can be safely used to provide oligaemic surgical field for better visualization using operating microscope for middle ear surgery.

  8. Is isoproterenol really required during electrophysiological study in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome? (United States)

    Pauriah, Maheshwar; Cismaru, Gabriel; Sellal, Jean-Marc; De Chillou, Christian; Brembilla-Perrot, Béatrice


    We have studied the results of electrophysiological study (EPS) in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) and spontaneous adverse clinical presentation and determined whether isoproterenol added incremental value. EPS was performed in 63 patients with WPW and adverse clinical presentation at baseline. EPS was repeated after infusion of isoproterenol in 37 patients, including 25 without criteria for a malignant form at baseline. Atrioventricular orthodromic tachycardia was induced 44%, antidromic tachycardia in 11%, atrial fibrillation (AF) in 68% at baseline. At baseline EPS, criteria for a malignant form (AF induction and shortest CL <250 ms) were noted in 60%; tachycardia was not inducible in 16%. All the patients met the criteria for a malignant form after isoproterenol. EPS at baseline missed 16% of patients at risk of life-threatening arrhythmias who had no inducible tachyarrhythmia and 40% without classical criteria for malignant form. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of isoproterenol, phenylephrine, and sodium nitroprusside on fundus pulsations in healthy volunteers. (United States)

    Schmetterer, L; Wolzt, M; Salomon, A; Rheinberger, A; Unfried, C; Zanaschka, G; Fercher, A F


    Recently a laser interferometric method for topical measurement of fundus pulsations has been developed. Fundus pulsations in the macular region are caused by the inflow and outflow of blood into the choroid. The purpose of this work was to study the influence of a peripheral vasoconstricting (the alpha 1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine), a predominantly positive inotropic (the non-specific beta adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol), and a non-specific vasodilating (sodium nitroprusside) model drug on ocular fundus pulsations to determine reproducibility and sensitivity of the method. In a double masked randomised crossover study the drugs were administered in stepwise increasing doses to 10 male and nine female healthy volunteers. Systemic haemodynamic variables and fundus pulsations were measured at all infusion steps. Fundus pulsation increased during infusion of isoproterenol with statistical significance versus baseline at the lowest dose of 0.1 microgram/min. Neither peripheral vasoconstriction nor peripheral vasodilatation affected the ocular fundus pulsations. Measurements of fundus pulsations is a highly reproducible method in healthy subjects with low ametropy. Changes of local pulsatile ocular blood flow were detectable with our method following the infusion of isoproterenol. As systemic pharmacological vasodilatation or vasoconstriction did not change fundus pulsations, further experimental work has to be done to evaluate the sensitivity of the laser interferometric fundus pulsation measurement in various eye diseases.

  10. Isoproterenol Increases Uncoupling, Glycolysis, and Markers of Beiging in Mature 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colette N Miller

    Full Text Available Beta-adrenergic activation stimulates uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1, enhancing metabolic rate. In vitro, most work has studied brown adipocytes, however, few have investigated more established adipocyte lines such as the murine 3T3-L1 line. To assess the effect of beta-adrenergic activation, mature 3T3-L1s were treated for 6 or 48 hours with or without isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM following standard differentiation supplemented with thyroid hormone (T3; 1 nM. The highest dose of isoproterenol increased lipid content following 48 hours of treatment. This concentration enhanced UCP1 mRNA and protein expression. The increase in UCP1 following 48 hours of isoproterenol increased oxygen consumption rate. Further, coupling efficiency of the electron transport chain was disturbed and an enhancement of glycolytic rate was measured alongside this, indicating an attempt to meet the energy demands of the cell. Lastly, markers of beige adipocytes (protein content of CD137 and gene transcript of CITED1 were also found to be upregulated at 48 hours of isoproterenol treatment. This data indicates that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes are responsive to isoproterenol and induce UCP1 expression and activity. Further, this finding provides a model for further pharmaceutical and nutraceutical investigation of UCP1 in 3T3-L1s.

  11. Assessment of the dynamics of atrial signals and local atrial period series during atrial fibrillation: effects of isoproterenol administration

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    Mantica Massimo


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The autonomic nervous system (ANS plays an important role in the genesis and maintenance of atrial fibrillation (AF, but quantification of its electrophysiologic effects is extremely complex and difficult. Aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of linear and non-linear indexes to capture the fine changing dynamics of atrial signals and local atrial period (LAP series during adrenergic activation induced by isoproterenol (a sympathomimetic drug infusion. Methods Nine patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF (aged 60 ± 6 underwent electrophysiological study in which isoproterenol was administered to patients. Atrial electrograms were acquired during i sinus rhythm (SR; ii sinus rhythm during isoproterenol (SRISO administration; iii atrial fibrillation (AF and iv atrial fibrillation during isoproterenol (AFISO administration. The level of organization between two electrograms was assessed by the synchronization index (S, whereas the degree of recurrence of a pattern in a signal was defined by the regularity index (R. In addition, the level of predictability (LP and regularity of LAP series were computed. Results LAP series analysis shows a reduction of both LP and R index during isoproterenol infusion in SR and AF (RSR = 0.75 ± 0.07 RSRISO = 0.69 ± 0.10, p AF = 0.31 ± 0.08 RAFISO = 0.26 ± 0.09, p SR = 99.99 ± 0.001 LPSRISO = 99.97 ± 0.03, p AF = 69.46 ± 21.55 LPAFISO = 55 ± 24.75; p SR = 0.49 ± 0.08 RSRISO = 0.46 ± 0.09 p AF = 0.29 ± 0.09 RAFISO = 0.28 ± 0.08 n.s.. Conclusions The proposed parameters succeeded in discriminating the subtle changes due to isoproterenol infusion during both the rhythms especially when considering LAP series analysis. The reduced value of analyzed parameters after isoproterenol administration could reflect an important pro-arrhythmic influence of adrenergic activation on favoring maintenance of AF.

  12. Use of Flumazenil to Provide Adequate Recovery Time Post-Midazolom Infusion in a General Intensive Care Unit

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    Full Text Available Sedation permits patients to tolerate the various treatment modalities to which they are subjected. However it may sometimes cause prolonged sedation in critically ill patients. Flumazenil, a benzo¬diazepine antagonist, reverses midazolam-induced sedation and amnesia. We prospectively designed a double-blind randomized study to evaluate the effects of flumazenil on thirty (30 Iranian General Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients. They were requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 12 hours and they were sedated by midazolam infusions. Sedation levels were measured hourly during the infusion, at the end of the infusion, and at 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after cessation of the mida¬zolam infusion. Reversal of sedation was observed in all patients who received flumazenil, and re-sedation occurred in seven of these patients. Reversal was not seen in any of the patients who receiv-ed placebo.

  13. Isoproterenol stress thallium scintigraphy for detecting coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Masuoka, Takeshi; Iida, Kaname; Sugishita, Yasuro; Ito, Iwao; Takeda, Tohru; Toyama, Hinako; Akisada, Masayoshi


    The present study was undertaken to assess the diagnostic value of isoproterenol (ISP) thallium scintigraphy. The findings were compared with those of ISP-ECG and exercise thallium scintigraphy. The study population consisted of 24 patients who had a history of chest pain without previous myocardial infarction. ISP was given at increasing doses of 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 μg/mg/min at 3-minutes intervals, and was terminated for any of the following reasons: angina, significant arrhythmia, significant ST segment depression, or target heart rate. Thallium scintigrams were obtained immediately after terminating ISP infusion, and after a 3-hour delay, redistribution scans were obtained. Scintigrams were considered positive when a reversible defect was present. After stress tests, coronary angiography was performed. According to the presence or absence of significant coronary artery stenosis, the patients were divided into coronary artery disease (CAD) group (n=12) and so-called normal coronary (NC) group (n=12). Among 12 patients in the CAD group, ISP induced anginal pain in six (50%), and ISP-ECT and ISP thallium scintigraphy were positive in 10 (83%) and in 11 (92%), compared with four(33%), four(33%) and two (17%) in the NC group. These data indicate that ISP-ECG had a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 67%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 75%; and the corresponding figures for ISP thallium scintigraphy were 92%, 83%, and 88%. Among nine patients who underwent both ISP thallium scintgraphy and exercise thallium scintigraphy, all patients, except for one false negative case on ISP thallium scintigraphy, were correctly diagnosed. No serious complications occurred in association with the ISP infusion test. ISP thallium scintigraphy was considered to be a safe, sensitive, and specific method for diagnosing CAD when exercise tests were intolerable. (N.K.)

  14. [Isoproterenol stress test for the evaluation of the residual stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract]. (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Fukuda, T; Kashima, I; Sato, M; Miura, M; Ueda, H; Yoshiba, S


    Hemodynamic changes of the right side of the heart during isoproterenol stress test were assessed and analyzed in 36 patients who underwent definitive repair of tetralogy of Fallot or double outlet right ventricle with pulmonary stenosis. Patients having atresia of the pulmonary artery were excluded from the study. 24 of the patients had previously undergone reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) with preserving the pulmonary valvar annulus (group N), whilst the remaining 12 patients had undergone transannular enlargement of RVOT with a patch (group T). Preservation of the pulmonary valvar annulus was determined when the intra-operative measurement of diameter of the pulmonary valvar annulus showed values greater than 90% of normal. In both groups, the isoproterenol infusion increased the right to left ventricular peak pressure (RVP/LVP) ratio, pressure gradient between the right ventricle and main pulmonary artery (RV-mPAP), and pressure gradient between the main pulmonary artery and peripheral pulmonary artery (m-pPAP). These values were significantly higher than those measured at rest. When comparisons were made between groups, RV-mPAP of group N was significantly higher than that of group T, both at rest and during stress test. By contrast, m-pPAP of group T was significantly higher than that of group N, both at rest and during stress test. Although no significant difference was found between the groups in RVP/LVP at rest and during stress test, RVP/LVP of both groups increased to the level of more than 0.6 after the isoproterenol infusion. These results led us to conclude that preservation of the pulmonary valvar annulus was better to be applied only to the patients who fulfilled our criterions. Additionally, in the setting of patch reconstruction of the pulmonary artery, every effort should be made so as not to leave the residual stenosis of the peripheral pulmonary artery.

  15. Infusion Extractor (United States)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.


    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  16. Genetic Dissection of Cardiac Remodeling in an Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure Mouse Model.

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    Jessica Jen-Chu Wang


    Full Text Available We aimed to understand the genetic control of cardiac remodeling using an isoproterenol-induced heart failure model in mice, which allowed control of confounding factors in an experimental setting. We characterized the changes in cardiac structure and function in response to chronic isoproterenol infusion using echocardiography in a panel of 104 inbred mouse strains. We showed that cardiac structure and function, whether under normal or stress conditions, has a strong genetic component, with heritability estimates of left ventricular mass between 61% and 81%. Association analyses of cardiac remodeling traits, corrected for population structure, body size and heart rate, revealed 17 genome-wide significant loci, including several loci containing previously implicated genes. Cardiac tissue gene expression profiling, expression quantitative trait loci, expression-phenotype correlation, and coding sequence variation analyses were performed to prioritize candidate genes and to generate hypotheses for downstream mechanistic studies. Using this approach, we have validated a novel gene, Myh14, as a negative regulator of ISO-induced left ventricular mass hypertrophy in an in vivo mouse model and demonstrated the up-regulation of immediate early gene Myc, fetal gene Nppb, and fibrosis gene Lgals3 in ISO-treated Myh14 deficient hearts compared to controls.

  17. Islet Transplantation Provides Superior Glycemic Control With Less Hypoglycemia Compared With Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion or Multiple Daily Insulin Injections. (United States)

    Holmes-Walker, Deborah Jane; Gunton, Jenny E; Hawthorne, Wayne; Payk, Marlene; Anderson, Patricia; Donath, Susan; Loudovaris, Tom; Ward, Glenn M; Kay, Thomas Wh; OʼConnell, Philip J


    The aim was to compare efficacy of multiple daily injections (MDI), continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and islet transplantation to reduce hypoglycemia and glycemic variability in type 1 diabetes subjects with severe hypoglycemia. This was a within-subject, paired comparison of MDI and CSII and CSII with 12 months postislet transplantation in 10 type 1 diabetes subjects referred with severe hypoglycemia, suitable for islet transplantation. Individuals were assessed with HbA1c, Edmonton Hypoglycemia Score (HYPOscore), continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and in 8 subjects measurements of glucose variability using standard deviation of glucose (SD glucose) from CGM and continuous overlapping net glycemic action using a 4 hour interval (CONGA4). After changing from MDI to CSII before transplantation, 10 subjects reduced median HYPOscore from 2028 to 1085 (P transplantation, there were significant reductions in all baseline parameters versus CSII, respectively, HbA1c (6.4% cf 8.2%), median HYPOscore (0 cf 1085), mean glucose (7.1 cf 8.6 mmol L), SD glucose (1.7 cf 3.2 mmol/L), and CONGA4 (1.6 cf 3.0). In subjects with severe hypoglycemia suitable for islet transplantation, CSII decreased hypoglycemia frequency and glycemic variability compared with MDI whereas islet transplantation resolved hypoglycemia and further improved glycemic variability regardless of insulin independence.

  18. Infusion cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaes, B.; Rootwelt, K.; Sjaastad, O.


    A source of error in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) infusion tests is leakage at the dural puncture site. The addition of a bolus of radionuclide to the infusion fluid was helpful in detecting the existence of leakage as shown by increased infusion pressure in six of eight patients studied with and without scintigraphic evidence of leakage. Comparison of CSF dynamics in 26 patients studied by infusion cisternography and conventional cisternography showed similar patterns, suggesting no alteration of CSF dynamics by the artificial CSF infusion. Combining the two tests, therefore, resulted in simple identification of the leakage and saved the patient time and discomfort

  19. Hemodynamic and regional blood flow distribution responses to dextran, hydralazine, isoproterenol and amrinone during experimental cardiac tamponade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, R.W.; Fowler, N.O.; Gabel, M.


    Four different interventions were examined in dogs with cardiac tamponade. Infusion of 216 to 288 ml saline solution into the pericardium reduced cardiac output from 3.5 +/- 0.3 to 1.7 +/- 0.2 liters/min as systemic vascular resistance increased from 4,110 +/- 281 to 6,370 +/- 424 dynes . s . cm-5. Left ventricular epicardial and endocardial blood flows were 178 +/- 13 and 220 +/- 12 ml/min per 100 g, respectively, and decreased to 72 +/- 14 and 78 +/- 11 ml/min per 100 g with tamponade. Reductions of 25 to 65% occurred in visceral and brain blood flows and in a composite brain sample. Cardiac output during tamponade was significantly increased by isoproterenol, 0.5 microgram/kg per min intravenously; hydralazine, 40 mg intravenously; dextran infusion or combined hydralazine and dextran, but not by amrinone. Total systemic vascular resistance was reduced by all interventions. Left ventricular epicardial flow was increased by isoproterenol, hydralazine and the hydralazine-dextran combination. Endocardial flow was increased by amrinone and the combination of hydralazine and dextran. Right ventricular myocardial blood flow increased with all interventions except dextran. Kidney cortical and composite brain blood flows were increased by both dextran alone and by the hydralazine-dextran combinations. Blood flow to small intestine was increased by all interventions as was that to large intestine by all except amrinone and hydralazine. Liver blood flow response was variable. The most pronounced hemodynamic and tissue perfusion improvements during cardiac tamponade were effected by combined vasodilation-blood volume expansion with a hydralazine-dextran combination. Isoproterenol had as dramatic an effect but it was short-lived. Amrinone was the least effective intervention

  20. Isoproterenol Increases RANKL Expression in a ATF4/NFATc1-Dependent Manner in Mouse Osteoblastic Cells

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    Kyunghwa Baek


    Full Text Available Sympathetic nervous system stimulation-induced β-adrenergic signal transduction is known to induce bone loss and increase of osteoclast activity. Although isoproterenol, a nonspecific β-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been shown to increase receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, the details of the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT in isoproterenol-induced RANKL expression in C2C12 and in primary cultured mouse calvarial cells. Isoproterenol increased nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1 and RANKL expressions at both mRNA and protein levels and increased NFAT reporter activity. NFATc1 knockdown blocked isoproterenol-mediated RANKL expression. Isoproterenol also promoted cAMP response element-binding protein 1 (CREB1 and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 phosphorylation. Isoproterenol-mediated transcriptional activation of NFAT was blocked by protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor H89. Isoproterenol-induced CREB1, ATF4, NFATc1, and RANKL expressions were suppressed by H89. Mutations in cAMP response element-like or NFAT-binding element suppressed isoproterenol-induced RANKL promoter activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that isoproterenol increased NFAT-binding and ATF4-binding activities on the mouse RANKL promoter, but did not increase CREB1-binding activity. Association of NFATc1 and ATF4 was not observed in a co-immunoprecipitation study. ATF4 knockdown suppressed isoproterenol-induced NFAT binding to the RANKL promoter, whereas NFATc1 knockdown did not suppress isoproterenol-induced ATF4 binding to the RANKL promoter. ATF4 knockdown suppressed isoproterenol-induced expressions of NFATc1 and RANKL. These results suggest that isoproterenol increases RANKL expression in an ATF4/NFATc1-dependent manner.

  1. Transcriptional profile of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy and comparison to exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy and human cardiac failure

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    McIver Lauren J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice has been used in a number of studies to model human cardiac disease. In this study, we compared the transcriptional response of the heart in this model to other animal models of heart failure, as well as to the transcriptional response of human hearts suffering heart failure. Results We performed microarray analyses on RNA from mice with isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and mice with exercise-induced physiological hypertrophy and identified 865 and 2,534 genes that were significantly altered in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy models, respectively. We compared our results to 18 different microarray data sets (318 individual arrays representing various other animal models and four human cardiac diseases and identified a canonical set of 64 genes that are generally altered in failing hearts. We also produced a pairwise similarity matrix to illustrate relatedness of animal models with human heart disease and identified ischemia as the human condition that most resembles isoproterenol treatment. Conclusion The overall patterns of gene expression are consistent with observed structural and molecular differences between normal and maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and support a role for the immune system (or immune cell infiltration in the pathology of stress-induced hypertrophy. Cross-study comparisons such as the results presented here provide targets for further research of cardiac disease that might generally apply to maladaptive cardiac stresses and are also a means of identifying which animal models best recapitulate human disease at the transcriptional level.

  2. Isoproterenol attenuates high vascular pressure-induced permeability increases in isolated rat lungs. (United States)

    Parker, J C; Ivey, C L


    To separate the contributions of cellular and basement membrane components of the alveolar capillary barrier to the increased microvascular permeability induced by high pulmonary venous pressures (Ppv), we subjected isolated rat lungs to increases in Ppv, which increased capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) without significant hemorrhage (31 cmH2O) and with obvious extravasation of red blood cells (43 cmH2O). Isoproterenol (20 microM) was infused in one group (Iso) to identify a reversible cellular component of injury, and residual blood volumes were measured to assess extravasation of red blood cells through ruptured basement membranes. In untreated lungs (High Ppv group), Kfc increased 6.2 +/- 1.3 and 38.3 +/- 15.2 times baseline during the 31 and 43 cmH2O Ppv states. In Iso lungs, Kfc was 36.2% (P Kfc increases at moderate Ppv, possibly because of an endothelial effect, but it did not affect red cell extravasation at higher vascular pressures.

  3. Infusion's greenfield subsidiary in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, C.; van Eerde, W.; The, D.


    The president of Infusion Development Corporation was reviewing the progress of the new subsidiary the company had set up 15 months earlier in Krakow, Poland. The purpose of the subsidiary was to work with other Infusion offices around the world to provide innovative software development services to

  4. Acid-base balance and cardiac index in SO2-bronchitic, papaine-emphysematous and paraquat-fibrotic rats after isoproterenol treatment. (United States)

    Vértes, K; Debreczeni, L A


    SO2-bronchitis, papaine-emphysema and paraquat fibrosis were induced in Wistar rats. Blood pressure, cardiac index, total peripheral resistance, arterial blood gas values, parameters of acid-base balance were determined. Effects of 0.1 and 0.3 microgram.-1.min-1 isoproterenol iv. infusion were examined. Morphologic alterations of the lungs were verified by histopathological examinations. All the parameters investigated were found to be normal in the control rats. The treated groups differed from the normal ones: an increased blood pressure was observed in emphysema and fibrosis. A decreased cardiac index was characteristic of chronic bronchitis, high cardiac index of emphysema, high TPR of bronchitis and arterial hypoxaemy of fibrosis. The groups reacted differently to beta adrenergic stimulation: in bronchitic and fibrotic rats the cardiac index was augmented, whereas in emphysematous ones the increase proved to be smaller. The effects of isoproterenol infusion can be related to the altered beta-receptor function in the various experimental pulmonary diseases.

  5. The difference in endolymphatic hydrostatic pressure elevation induced by isoproterenol between the ampulla and the cochlea. (United States)

    Inamoto, Ryuhei; Miyashita, Takenori; Matsubara, Ai; Hoshikawa, Hiroshi; Mori, Nozomu


    The purpose of the study was to investigate the difference in the responses of endolymphatic hydrostatic pressure to isoproterenol, β-adrenergic receptor agonist, between pars superior and pars inferior. The hydrostatic pressure of endolymph and perilymph and endolymphatic potential in the ampulla and the cochlea during the intravenous administration of isoproterenol were recorded using a servo-null system in guinea pigs. The hydrostatic pressure of endolymph and perilymph in the ampulla and cochlea was similar in magnitude. Isoproterenol significantly increased hydrostatic pressure of ampullar and cochlear endolymph and perilymph with no change in the ampullar endolymphatic potential and endocochlear potential, respectively. The isoproterenol-induced maximum change of endolymphatic hydrostatic pressure in ampulla was significantly (phydrostatic pressure in the ampulla disappeared like that in the cochlea. Isoproterenol elevates endolymphatic hydrostatic pressure in different manner between the vestibule and the cochlea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Endoluminal isoproterenol reduces renal pelvic pressure during semirigid ureterorenoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jørn S; Jung, Helene U; Gramsbergen, Jan B


    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects on the pressure-flow relation of renal pelvic pressure during semirigid ureterorenoscopy and endoluminal perfusion of isoproterenol (ISO) 0.1 microg/mL, with emphasis on local effects and cardiovascular side-effects, as topically administered ISO effectively...... and dose-dependently causes relaxation of the upper urinary tract in pigs with no concomitant cardiovascular side-effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS In anaesthetized female pigs (60 kg), 16 macroscopically normal upper urinary tract systems were subjected to ureterorenoscopy. Via a subcostal incision a 6-F...... catheter was placed in the renal pelvis for pressure measurements, and a semirigid ureteroscope (7.8 F) was inserted retrogradely in the renal pelvis, through which the pelvis was perfused. The blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. The increase in renal pelvic pressure was examined with increasing...

  7. Curcumin attenuates lipolysis stimulated by tumor necrosis factor-α or isoproterenol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (United States)

    Xie, Xiao-yun; Kong, Po-Ren; Wu, Jin-feng; Li, Ying; Li, Yan-xiang


    Curcumin, an active component derived from dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been demonstrated antihyperglycemic, antiinflammatory and hypocholesterolemic activities in obesity and diabetes. These effects are associated with decreased level of circulating free fatty acids (FFA), however the mechanism has not yet been elucidated. The flux of FFA and glycerol from adipose tissue to the blood stream primarily depends on the lipolysis of triacylglycerols in the adipocytes. Adipocyte lipolysis is physiologically stimulated by catecholamine hormones. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) stimulates chronic lipolysis in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we examined the role of curcumin in inhibiting lipolytic action upon various stimulations in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Glycerol release from TNFα or isoproterenol-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes in the absence or presence of curcumin was determined using a colorimetric assay (GPO-Trinder). Western blotting was used to investigate the TNFα-induced phosphorylation of MAPK and perilipin expression. Fatcake and cytosolic fractions were prepared to examine the isoproterenol-stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase translocation. Treatment with curcumin attenuated TNFα-mediated lipolysis by suppressing phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and reversing the downregulation of perilipin protein in TNFα-stimulated adipocytes (p<0.05). The acute lipolytic response to adrenergic stimulation of isoproterenol was also restricted by curcumin (10-20 μM, p<0.05), which was compatible with reduced perilipin phosphorylation(29%, p<0.05) and hormone-sensitive lipase translocation(20%, p<0.05). This study provides evidence that curcumin acts on adipocytes to suppress the lipolysis response to TNFα and catecholamines. The antilipolytic effect could be a cellular basis for curcumin decreasing plasma FFA levels and improving insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Infusion volume control and calculation using metronome and drop counter based intravenous infusion therapy helper. (United States)

    Park, Kyungnam; Lee, Jangyoung; Kim, Soo-Young; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Insoo; Choi, Seung Pill; Jeong, Sikyung; Hong, Sungyoup


    This study assessed the method of fluid infusion control using an IntraVenous Infusion Controller (IVIC). Four methods of infusion control (dial flow controller, IV set without correction, IV set with correction and IVIC correction) were used to measure the volume of each technique at two infusion rates. The infused fluid volume with a dial flow controller was significantly larger than other methods. The infused fluid volume was significantly smaller with an IV set without correction over time. Regarding the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of infused fluid volume in relation to a target volume, IVIC correction was shown to have the highest level of agreement. The flow rate measured in check mode showed a good agreement with the volume of collected fluid after passing through the IV system. Thus, an IVIC could assist in providing an accurate infusion control. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Andrographis paniculata extract protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury by mitigating cardiac dysfunction and oxidative injury in rats. (United States)

    Ojha, Shreesh; Bharti, Saurabh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Sharma, Ashok K; Rani, Neha; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh


    Present study evaluated the cardioprotective effect of Andrographis paniculata (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg) against isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, b.w.)-induced cardiotoxicity referred as myocardial infarction in rats. Isoproterenol significantly (p paniculata favorably restored hemodynamic parameters and left ventricular function and significantly (p paniculata pretreatment in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity depicted the cardioprotective effect of A. paniculata. Results showed that A. paniculata protected heart against cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol by boosting endogenous antioxidant network, restoring ventricular function and maintaining structural integrity of heart.

  10. Infusing PDA technology into nursing education. (United States)

    White, Ann; Allen, Patricia; Goodwin, Linda; Breckinridge, Daya; Dowell, Jeffery; Garvy, Ryan


    Use of the personal digital assistant (PDA) has been infused into the accelerated baccalaureate program at Duke University to help prepare nursing students for professional practice. The authors provide an overview of the use of PDAs in the classroom, laboratory, and clinical setting. Technical aspects of PDA infusion and steps to ensure regulatory compliance are explored. Benefits of PDA use by both faculty and students in the program and challenges met with the infusion of this technology are also described.

  11. Cardioprotective effect of Erythrina stricta leaves on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asokkumar Kuppusamy


    Full Text Available The cardioprotective activity of Erythrina stricta leaves against isoproterenol- induced myocardial infarction was studied. Wistar albino rats were pretreated with leaf extract (200 mg/kg daily for 28 days. After treatment, isoproterenol (8.5 mg/kg body weight, orally was injected to rats at an interval of 24 hours for two days to induce myocardial injury. Cardioprotection was investigated by estimating the activities of serum aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were determined. The activities of serum marker enzymes were increased significantly (p<0.05 in isoproterenol-induced rats. E. stricta leaf extract showed a decrease in serum enzyme levels and increase of antioxidant status. The results were confirmed by histopathological evidences. The present study concludes that E. stricta leaf extract has a prophylactic value in myocardial infarction.

  12. Cardioprotective effect of Erythrina stricta leaves on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divia Chirakkan


    Full Text Available The cardioprotective activity of Erythrina stricta leaves against isoproterenol- induced myocardial infarction was studied. Wistar albino rats were pretreated with leaf extract (200 mg/kg daily for 28 days. After treatment, isoproterenol (8.5 mg/kg body weight, orally was injected to rats at an interval of 24 hours for two days to induce myocardial injury. Cardioprotection was investigated by estimating the activities of serum aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase. Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were determined. The activities of serum marker enzymes were increased significantly (p<0.05 in isoproterenol-induced rats. E. stricta leaf extract showed a decrease in serum enzyme levels and increase of antioxidant status. The results were confirmed by histopathological evidences. The present study concludes that E. stricta leaf extract has a prophylactic value in myocardial infarction.

  13. Shikonin ameliorates isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial damage through suppressing fibrosis, inflammation, apoptosis and ER stress. (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Dong-Lin


    Shikonin, isolated from the roots of herbal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, is a naphthoquinone. It has been reported to exert beneficial anti-inflammatory effects and anti-oxidant properties in various diseases. Isoproterenol (ISO) has been widely used to establish cardiac injury in vivo and in vitro. However, shikonin function in ISO-induced cardiac injury remains uncertain. In our study, we attempted to investigate the efficiency and possible molecular mechanism of shikonin in cardiac injury treatment induced by ISO. In vivo, C57BL6 mice were subcutaneously injected with 5mg/kg ISO to induce heart failure. And mice were given a gavage of shikonin (2 or 4mg/kg/d, for four weeks). Cardiac function, fibrosis indices, inflammation response, apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were calculated. Pathological alterations, fibrosis-, inflammation-, apoptosis- and ER stress-related molecules were examined. In ISO-induced cardiac injury, shikonin significantly ameliorated heart function, decreased myocardial fibrosis, suppressed inflammation, attenuated apoptosis and ER stress through impeding collagen accumulation, Toll like receptor 4/nuclear transcription factor κB (TLR4/NF-κB), Caspase-3 and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) signaling pathways activity, relieving heart failure in vivo. Also, in vitro, shikonin attenuated ISO-induced cardiac muscle cells by reducing fibrosis, inflammation, apoptosis and ER stress. Our findings indicated that shikonin treatment attenuated ISO-induced heart injury, providing an effective therapeutic strategy for heart failure treatment for future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. The U.S. home infusion market. (United States)

    Monk-Tutor, M R


    Medicare legislation stimulated the development of home care services but also resulted in fragmentation of service components. In the 1980s, prospective pricing and diagnosis-related groups, and resulting pressures to reduce inpatient length of stay, prompted additional growth of the industry. Even so, in 1995 home care represented only 3% of total national expenditures on health care. The annual growth rate of the home infusion industry dropped from 64% in 1982-86 to 24% in 1986-93. While revenue per patient for home infusion is expected to decrease under managed care, an increasing number of patients will support continued market growth. The home infusion market is highly competitive, with only a few large national providers and many small local providers. In 1996, 29% of acute care hospitals provided or were developing a home care program. Community pharmacists' options in the home infusion area include independent services, partnerships, joint ventures, contracts with hospitals, and franchises. The home infusion market is being integrated into alternative sites, such as ambulatory infusion centers (AICs), as providers attempt to diversify to maintain managed care contracts. AICs provide infusion therapy and nursing to noninstitutionalized, nonhome-bound patients. Untapped sources for future growth of the infusion market include long-term-care facilities. More consistent studies of the home care market are needed. Despite slowed growth in recent years, home care has a strong market in the United States.

  15. Enalaprilato na prevenção da hipertrofia ventricular esquerda induzida pelo isoproterenol Enalaprilat prevents the left ventricular hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. S. Costa


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se o enalaprilato, droga inibidora da enzima de conversão da angiotensina I, previne a hipertrofia ventricular esquerda (HVE induzida pelo isoproterenol. MÉTODOS: Foram divididos em 4 grupos, 72 ratos Wistar-EPM: CON controle; ENA, tratados com enalaprilato (1mg/kg via subcutânea (sc por 8 dias; ISO, tratados com isoproterenol (0,3mg/kg via sc/8 dias e ENA+ISO, tratados simultaneamente com ambas as drogas. Em 10 animais de cada grupo foram determinadas a freqüência cardíaca (FC e a pressão arterial (PA e verificado o peso de ventrículo esquerdo (VE. Em 8 animais de cada grupo, fragmento do VE foi corado com hematoxilina-eosina e picro-sírius e preparado para estudo morfométrico e ultra-estrutural, respectivamente, com microscópio de luz e eletrônico. RESULTADOS: Nos grupos estudados (CON, ENA, ISO e ISO+ENA não ocorreram variações na PA. Os grupos ISO e ISO+ENA exibiram aumentos significantes na FC. O grupo ISO apresentou aumento significativo do peso do VE (PU= 0,821g e PS= 0,204g, quando comparado ao grupo CON. O grupo ENA não exibiu modificação de peso do VE quando comparado ao grupo CON (PU= 0,590g e PS= 0,139g. No grupo ENA+ISO (PU= 0,737g e PS= 0,177g constatou-se diferença de peso ao ser comparado aos grupos ISO e CON. A análise morfométrica e ultra-estrutural mostraram que o ISO induziu hipertrofia dos cardiomiócitos e aumento do tecido conjuntivo com depósito de fibras colágenas do tipo I. O enalaprilato associado com isoproterenol atenuou importantemente aquela manifestação. CONCLUSÃO: O enalaprilato inibiu a ação do isoproterenol sobre os cardiomiócitos, evitando parcialmente, na dose utilizada, a HVE e diminuindo também a quantidade de fibras colágenas.PURPOSE: To evaluate whether the enalaprilat, angiotensin I enzyme conversion inhibitor, could prevent the left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH induced by isoproterenol. METHODS: Seventy two adult Wistar-EPM rats were divided into four

  16. Modelo experimental de infarto do miocárdio induzido por isoproterenol em ratos Experimental model of myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraldo Guedis Lobo Filho


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e validar, em nosso meio, o modelo de infarto do miocárdio induzido por isoproterenol em ratos por meio de análises de parâmetros hematológicos, bioquímicos, de marcadores do estresse oxidativo e histopatológicos. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos jovens, machos, da linhagem Wistar (145 a 230 g, foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo Simulado, submetido à falsa indução de infarto do miocárdio, e grupo Infarto, submetido à indução do infarto do miocárdio com isoproterenol. As aplicações, para indução do infarto, foram realizadas durante dois dias consecutivos, com intervalo de 24 horas entre elas. Após 24 horas da última aplicação, os ratos de ambos os grupos foram anestesiados e sacrificados para realização de coleta de sangue para hemograma e análise bioquímica (TGO, TGP, troponina I, ureia e creatinina e coleta de fragmento do miocárdio para avaliação de marcadores do estresse oxidativo (atividade da catalase e concentração de glutationa e exame histopatológico. RESULTADOS: Não houve mortalidade no grupo Simulado, enquanto a mortalidade no grupo Infarto foi de 25%. A indução do infarto do miocárdio com isoproterenol causou elevação das contagens de leucócitos e neutrófilos, dos níveis de TGO, troponina I e ureia, reduziu a atividade da catalase e os níveis teciduais de glutationa e causou alterações histopatológicas. Não acarretou alterações nas concentrações de hemoglobina, TGP e creatinina. CONCLUSÕES: O modelo de infarto do miocárdio induzido por isoproterenol em ratos foi adequadamente reproduzido em nosso laboratório, acarretando alterações em parâmetros hematológicos, bioquímicos, de marcadores de estresse oxidativo e histopatológicos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and validate, in our laboratory, the essay of myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats by means of analysis of hematological, biochemical, oxidative stress markers and histopathological

  17. Intracoronary infusion of catecholamines causes focal arrhythmias in pigs. (United States)

    Doppalapudi, Harish; Jin, Qi; Dosdall, Derek J; Qin, Hao; Walcott, Gregory P; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E; Huang, Jian


    Acute ischemia causes myriad changes including increased catecholamines. We tested the hypothesis that elevated catecholamines alone are arrhythmogenic. A 504 electrode sock was placed over both ventricles in six open-chest pigs. During control infusion of saline through a catheter in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), no sustained arrhythmias occurred, and the refractory period estimated by the activation recovery interval (ARI) was 175 +/- 14 ms in the LAD bed below the catheter. After infusion of isoproterenol at 0.1 microg/kg/min through the catheter, the ARI in this bed was significantly reduced to 109 +/- 10 ms. A sharp gradient of refractoriness of 43 +/- 10 ms was at the border of the perfused bed. Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia occurred after drug infusion in the perfused bed or near its boundary in all animals with a cycle length of 329 +/- 26 ms and a focal origin. The maximum slope of the ARI restitution curve at the focal origins of the tachyarrhythmias was always <1 (0.62 +/- 0.15). Similar results with a focal arrhythmia origin occurred in two additional pigs in which intramural mapping was performed with 36 plunge needle electrodes in the left ventricular perfused bed. Regional elevation of a catecholamine, which is one of the alterations produced by acute ischemia, can by itself cause tachyarrhythmias. These arrhythmias are closely associated with a shortened refractory period and a large gradient of the spatial distribution of refractoriness but not with a steep restitution curve.

  18. Isoproterenol potentiation of methyl mercury effects in vivo cardiac ATPasees and 3H-dopamine uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahammad-Sahib, K.I.; Moorthy, K.S.; Cameron, J.A.; Desaiah, D.


    Isoproterenol, a potent B-adrenergic receptor agonist, has been known to produce infarct-like myocardial lesions in rats characterized by swelling of endoplasmic reticulum. The swelling of this system is interpreted as an influx of large amount of extracellular fluid into myocardial cells by disturbances of the electrolyte metabolism. Isoproterenol is employed clinically as a bronchodilator in respiratory disorders and as a stimulant in heart block and cardiogenic shocks. In spite of its clinical use, possible drug-chemical interactions leading to adverse health effects are obvious when individuals on a regular isoproterenol treatment are exposed to an environmental contaminant such as methyl mercury. Consumption of fish and fish products is by far the most significant route of exposure to environmental mercury. In spite of such a possibility, little is know about isoproterenol-methyl mercury interaction. The present study forms the first of this kind to report such interactions and their effects on cardiac membrane bound enzymes such as Na + -K + and Ca 2+ -ATPases. Since Na + -K + ATPase has been implicated in uptake and release processes of catecholamines, the effects were also studied on 3 H-dopamine uptake by sarcoplasmic reticulum. As a prelude to these proposed long-term chronic studies with non-lethal doses in the present report only single and sub-lethal doses were used for a shorter (48h) duration

  19. Financial analysis for the infusion alliance. (United States)

    Perucca, Roxanne


    Providing high-quality, cost-efficient care is a major strategic initiative of every health care organization. Today's health care environment is transparent; very competitive; and focused upon providing exceptional service, safety, and quality. Establishing an infusion alliance facilitates the achievement of organizational strategic initiatives, that is, increases patient throughput, decreases length of stay, prevents the occurrence of infusion-related complications, enhances customer satisfaction, and provides greater cost-efficiency. This article will discuss how to develop a financial analysis that promotes value and enhances the financial outcomes of an infusion alliance.

  20. Functional desensitization to isoproterenol without reducing cAMP production in canine failing cardiocytes. (United States)

    Laurent, C E; Cardinal, R; Rousseau, G; Vermeulen, M; Bouchard, C; Wilkinson, M; Armour, J A; Bouvier, M


    To corroborate alterations in the functional responses to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) stimulation with changes in beta-AR signaling in failing cardiomyocytes, contractile and L-type Ca(2+) current responses to isoproterenol along with stimulated cAMP generation were compared among cardiomyocytes isolated from canines with tachycardia-induced heart failure or healthy hearts. The magnitude of shortening of failing cardiomyocytes was significantly depressed (by 22 +/- 4.4%) under basal conditions, and the maximal response to isoproterenol was significantly reduced (by 45 +/- 18%). Similar results were obtained when the responses in the rate of contraction and rate of relaxation to isoproterenol were considered. The L-type Ca(2+) current amplitude measured in failing cardiomyocytes under basal conditions was unchanged, but the responses to isoproterenol were significantly reduced compared with healthy cells. Isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP generation was similar in sarcolemmal membranes derived from the homogenates of failing (45 +/- 6.8) and healthy cardiomyocytes (52 +/- 8.5 pmol cAMP. mg protein(-1). min(-1)). However, stimulated cAMP generation was found to be significantly reduced when the membranes were derived from the homogenates of whole tissue (failing: 67 +/- 8.1 vs. healthy: 140 +/- 27.8 pmol cAMP. mg protein(-1). min(-1)). Total beta-AR density was not reduced in membranes derived from either whole tissue or isolated cardiomyocyte homogenates, but the beta(1)/beta(2) ratio was significantly reduced in the former (failing: 45/55 vs. healthy: 72/28) without being altered in the latter (failing: 72/28, healthy: 77/23). We thus conclude that, in tachycardia-induced heart failure, reduction in the functional responses of isolated cardiomyocytes to beta-AR stimulation may be attributed to alterations in the excitation-contraction machinery rather than to limitation of cAMP generation.

  1. Skeletal muscle beta-receptors and isoproterenol-stimulated vasodilation in canine heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, M.J.; Lanoce, V.; Molinoff, P.B.; Wilson, J.R.


    To investigate whether heart failure alters beta-adrenergic receptors on skeletal muscle and its associated vasculature, the density of beta-adrenergic receptors, isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, and coupling of the guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein were compared in 18 control dogs and 16 dogs with heart failure induced by 5-8 wk of ventricular pacing at 260 beats/min. Hindlimb vascular responses to isoproterenol were compared in eight controls and eight of the dogs with heart failure. In dogs with heart failure, the density of beta-receptors on skeletal muscle was reduced in both gastrocnemius (control: 50 +/- 5; heart failure: 33 +/- 8 fmol/mg of protein) and semitendinosus muscle (control: 43 +/- 9; heart failure: 27 +/- 9 fmol/mg of protein, both P less than 0.05). Receptor coupling to the ternary complex, as determined by isoproterenol competition curves with and without guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP), was unchanged. Isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was significantly decreased in semitendinosus muscle (control: 52.4 +/- 4.6; heart failure: 36.5 +/- 9.5; P less than 0.05) and tended to be decreased in gastrocnemius muscle (control: 40.1 +/- 8.5; heart failure: 33.5 +/- 4.5; P = NS). Isoproterenol-induced hindlimb vasodilation was not significantly different in controls and in dogs with heart failure. These findings suggest that heart failure causes downregulation of skeletal muscle beta-adrenergic receptors, probably due to receptor exposure to elevated catecholamine levels, but does not reduce beta-receptor-mediated vasodilation in muscle

  2. Cardioprotective potential of Punica granatum extract in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. (United States)

    Mohan, Mahalaxmi; Patankar, Pankaj; Ghadi, Prakash; Kasture, Sanjay


    To determine the protective role of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) seed juice extract and its butanolic fraction on heart rate, electrocardiographic patterns, vascular reactivity to catecholamines, cardiac marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes together with morphologic and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. The effects of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and butanolic fraction of Punica granatum seed juice extract (100 mg/kg., p.o.) on cardiac parameters were studied. Isoproterenol hydrochloride was used to induce myocardial infarction in Wistar rats. At the end of the experiment, heart rate, ECG, pressure rate index and cardiac marker enzyme levels were assessed. Rats treated with isoproterenol (85 mg/kg, administered subcutaneously twice at an interval of 24 h) showed a significant increase in heart rate, ST elevation in ECG, pressure rate index and a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes- lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine kinase in serum. Isoproterenol significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and increased vascular reactivity to various catecholamines. Pretreatment with PJ (100 mg/kg, p.o. and 300 mg/kg, p.o.) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) for a period of 21 days significantly inhibited the effects of ISO on heart rate, PRI, ECG patterns, levels of LDH, CK, SOD, CAT, and vascular reactivity changes. Treatment with PJ (100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) and B-PJ (100 mg/kg., p.o.) alone did not alter any of the parameters as compared to vehicle-treated Wistar rats. Punica granatum-treated animals showed a lesser degree of cellular infiltration in histopathological studies. Punica granatum ameliorates cardiotoxic effects of isoproterenol and may be of value in the treatment of MI.

  3. Usefulness of isoproterenol stress thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Masuoka, Takeshi


    Twenty patients complaining of chest pain were referred for isoproterenol stress thallium-201 myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (ISO-SPECT). The findings were compared with those obtained from isoproterenol stress ECG testing (ISO-ECG) and exercise SPECT (EX-SPECT). Isoproterenol was iv injected in a dose of 0.02 μg/kg/min. The amount was continuously increased until limited by chest pain, ST depression, and/or determined heart rate criteria. The patients were scanned immediately and three hours after giving isoproterenol. Transient hypoperfusion was regarded as myocardial ischemia. Washout rate, obtained from circumferential profile analysis on the short axis SPECT images, was expressed by Bull's eye display. Fifteen patients with angiographically significant stenosis of 75% or greater were diagnosed as having coronary artery disease (CAD). The other five patients had normal coronary artery (NC). In diagnosing CAD, ISO-ECG and ISO-SPECT had a sensitivity of 80% and 92%, respectively. Because the NC group had negative findings for redistribution on ISO-SPECT, the specificy of ISO-SPECT seemed to be high. For multi-vessel disease, redistribution on ISO-SPECT tended to underestimate coronary lesions. The underestimation was, however, corrected by calculating washout rate. For evaluable 11 patients undergoing concurrent EX-SPECT, ISP-SPECT was equivalent or superior to EX-SPECT in diagnostic sensitivity. None of the patients had severe side effects of isoproterenol, except for some having arrhythmia. The results indicated that ISO-SPECT is a safe, high sensitive diagnostic approach that is comparable to Ex-SPECT. (N.K.)

  4. The metabolic disturbances of isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats based on a tissue targeted metabonomics. (United States)

    Liu, Yue-tao; Jia, Hong-mei; Chang, Xing; Ding, Gang; Zhang, Hong-wu; Zou, Zhong-Mei


    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality but the precise mechanism of its pathogenesis remains obscure. To achieve the most comprehensive screening of the entire metabolome related to isoproterenol (ISO) induced-MI, we present a tissue targeted metabonomic study using an integrated approach of ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). Twenty-two metabolites were detected as potential biomarkers related to the formation of MI, and the levels of pantothenic acid (), lysoPC(18:0) (), PC(18:4(6Z,9Z,12Z,15Z)/18:0) (), taurine (), lysoPC(20:3(8Z,11Z,14Z)) (), threonine (), alanine (), creatine (), phosphocreatine (), glucose 1-phosphate (), glycine (), xanthosine (), creatinine () and glucose () were decreased significantly, while the concentrations of histamine (), L-palmitoylcarnitine (), GSSG (), inosine (), arachidonic acid (), linoelaidic acid (), 3-methylhistamine () and glycylproline () were increased significantly in the MI rats compared with the control group. The identified potential biomarkers were involved in twelve metabolic pathways and achieved the most entire metabolome contributing to the injury of the myocardial tissue. Five pathways, including taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, glycolysis, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism and histidine metabolism, were significantly influenced by ISO-treatment according to MetPA analysis and suggested that the most prominent changes included inflammation, interference of calcium dynamics, as well as alterations of energy metabolism in the pathophysiologic process of MI. These findings provided a unique perspective on localized metabolic information of ISO induced-MI, which gave us new insights into the pathogenesis of MI, discovery of targets for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  5. An audit of hospital based outpatient infusions and a pilot program of community-based monoclonal antibody infusions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doran, J-P


    INTRODUCTION: Infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody to tumour necrosis factor alpha, is administered as an intravenous infusion requiring a costly hospital day case or inpatient admission. METHODS: An audit of all current therapies given by intravenous infusions in an outpatient setting in St Vincent\\'s University Hospital (SVUH) was undertaken. Furthermore, in conjunction with TCP homecare, we established in a general practise health clinic, the first Irish community infusion centre for the administration of infliximab in August 2006. RESULTS: All outpatient departments indicated that they would favour a centralized hospital infusion unit. There were no adverse events and the mean global satisfaction improved in the community infliximab infusion pilot programme of seven patients. CONCLUSION: This study suggests efficiencies in providing centralized infusion facilities, while the community based infusion of infliximab is feasible and safe in this small cohort and identifies the community infusion unit as a viable and cost efficient alternative for administration of infliximab.

  6. Continuous-infusion adriamycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, R.S.; Chawla, S.P.; Ewer, M.S.; Hortobagyi, G.N.


    This chapter discusses the diminished cardiotoxicity as well as diminished nausea and vomiting with continuous infusions of adriamycin to patients undergoing radiation therapy, particularly with infusions of 48 hours or longer, and best with 96-hour infusions, the longest duration that has been studied systematically. In breast cancer, data show that more adriamycin is better, but only for a selected subgroup of patients: those with complete remission. The diminished cardiotoxicity makes the use of adriamycin more attractive in the adjuvant situation, where increased safety will decrease the chances of long-term complications and make retreatment easy for cured patients who develop second malignancies

  7. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J A; Bendtzen, K; Tonnesen, E


    Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery.......Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery....

  8. [Correction of isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury with magnesium salts in magnesium-deficient rats]. (United States)

    Kharitonova, M V; Zheltova, A A; Spasov, A A; Smirnov, A V; Pan'shin, N G; Iezhitsa, I N


    The effect of Mg L-asparaginate (Mg-L-Asp), Mg chloride (MgCl2) and Mg sulfate (MgSO4) on the severity of isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury in Mg-deficient rats has been evaluated. To induce Mg deficiency, twenty-eight rats were placed on a low Mg diet (Mg content water for 10 weeks. Twelve control rats were fed a basal control diet (Mg content = 500 mg/kg) and water (with Mg content 20 mg/l) for equal duration. On day 49 of low Mg diet, Mg-deficient rats were randomly divided into four groups: 1) group that continued to receive low Mg diet; 2) low Mg diet plus oral MgSO4; 3) low Mg diet plus oral Mg-L-Asp and 4) low Mg diet plus oral MgCl2 (50 mg of Mg per kg of body weight). Isoproterenol was injected subcutaneously (30 mg/kg BW, twice, at an interval of 24 hours) on the day 70 of the study, when plasma and erythrocyte Mg level in rats fed a low Mg diet were significantly decreased by 47% and 45% compared to intact animals. Twenty-four hours after second injection of isoproterenol, tests for activities of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were run and histopathological study was carried out. Administration of isoproterenol to rats resulted in significantly elevated plasma CK, LDH and AST, however analyses in Mg deficient group demonstrated more dramatically increased activity of CK and AST compared to control rats (3,06 and 4,67 fold in Mg-deficient group vs. 1,91 and 3,92 fold in intact group). Increased leakage of cardiac injury markers was concomitant to increased volume of fuchsinophilic cardiomyocytes (54.2 +/- 1.7% in Mg-deficient group and 38.9 +/- 1.9% in intact group, p < 0.05). However, pretreatment with of MgCl2, MgSO4 and Mg-L-Asp during 21 days favorably decreased sensitivity of myocardium to isoproterenol-induced ischemic injury. All evaluated salts significantly decreased myocyte marker enzymes as well as protected myocardium against isoproterenol-induced histopathological perturbations.

  9. Effect of skin temperature on cutaneous vasodilator response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. (United States)

    Hodges, Gary J; Kellogg, Dean L; Johnson, John M


    The vascular response to local skin cooling is dependent in part on a cold-induced translocation of α2C-receptors and an increased α-adrenoreceptor function. To discover whether β-adrenergic function might contribute, we examined whether β-receptor sensitivity to the β-agonist isoproterenol was affected by local skin temperature. In seven healthy volunteers, skin blood flow was measured from the forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry and blood pressure was measured by finger photoplethysmography. Data were expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial blood pressure). Pharmacological agents were administered via intradermal microdialysis. We prepared four skin sites: one site was maintained at a thermoneutral temperature of 34°C (32 ± 10%CVCmax) one site was heated to 39°C (38 ± 11%CVCmax); and two sites were cooled, one to 29°C (22 ± 7%CVCmax) and the other 24°C (16 ± 4%CVCmax). After 20 min at these temperatures to allow stabilization of skin blood flow, isoproterenol was perfused in concentrations of 10, 30, 100, and 300 μM. Each concentration was perfused for 15 min. Relative to the CVC responses to isoproterenol at the thermoneutral skin temperature (34°C) (+21 ± 10%max), low skin temperatures reduced (at 29°C) (+17 ± 6%max) or abolished (at 24°C) (+1 ± 5%max) the vasodilator response, and warm (39°C) skin temperatures enhanced the vasodilator response (+40 ± 9%max) to isoproterenol. These data indicate that β-adrenergic function was influenced by local skin temperature. This finding raises the possibility that a part of the vasoconstrictor response to direct skin cooling could include reduced background β-receptor mediated vasodilation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Effect of skin temperature on cutaneous vasodilator response to the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol


    Hodges, Gary J.; Kellogg, Dean L.; Johnson, John M.


    The vascular response to local skin cooling is dependent in part on a cold-induced translocation of α2C-receptors and an increased α-adrenoreceptor function. To discover whether β-adrenergic function might contribute, we examined whether β-receptor sensitivity to the β-agonist isoproterenol was affected by local skin temperature. In seven healthy volunteers, skin blood flow was measured from the forearm by laser-Doppler flowmetry and blood pressure was measured by finger photoplethysmography....

  11. Effect of isoproterenol, phenylephrine, and sodium nitroprusside on fundus pulsations in healthy volunteers.


    Schmetterer, L; Wolzt, M; Salomon, A; Rheinberger, A; Unfried, C; Zanaschka, G; Fercher, A F


    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Recently a laser interferometric method for topical measurement of fundus pulsations has been developed. Fundus pulsations in the macular region are caused by the inflow and outflow of blood into the choroid. The purpose of this work was to study the influence of a peripheral vasoconstricting (the alpha 1 adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine), a predominantly positive inotropic (the non-specific beta adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol), and a non-specific vasodilating (sodium n...

  12. Desmodium gangeticum root extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth in rats.


    Divya Hitler; Parthasarathy Arumugam; Mathivanan Narayanasamy; Elangovan Vellaichamy


    Context: Desmodium gangeticum (L) DC (Fabaceae; DG), a medicinal plant that grows in tropical habitats, is widely used to treat various ailments including digestive and inflammatory disorders. Aims: To investigate the possible cardioprotective activity of a DG root extract against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH) in adult Wistar rats. Methods: Daily intraperitoneal administration of ISO (10 mg/kg body weight, single injection) for 7 days induced LVH...

  13. Myocardial potency of Bio-tea against Isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats. (United States)

    Lobo, Reema Orison; Shenoy, Chandrakala K


    Kombucha (Bio-tea) is a beverage produced by the fermentation of sugared black tea using a symbiotic association of bacteria and yeasts. Traditional claims about Kombucha report beneficial effects such as antibiotic properties, gastric regulation, relief from joint rheumatism and positive influence on the cholesterol level, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, and aging problems. The present investigation was carried out to understand the preventive effect of Kombucha on heart weight, blood glucose, total protein, lipid profile and cardiac markers in rats with myocardial damage induced using Isoproterenol. As Bio-tea is produced by fermenting tea, the parameters were compared in rats pre-treated with normal black tea and Bio-tea for 30 days followed by subcutaneous injection of Isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight). Normal rats as well as Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats were also used, which served as controls. Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted control rats showed a significant increase in heart weight, blood glucose and cardiac markers and a decrease in plasma protein. Increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipids (LDL) and very low density lipids (VLDL) were also observed, while the high density lipid (HDL) content decreased. Bio-tea showed a higher preventive effect against myocardial infarction when compared to tea, as was observed by the significant reduction in heart weight, and blood glucose and increase in plasma albumin levels. Bio-tea significantly decreased cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL while simultaneously increasing the levels of HDL. Similarly a decrease in leakage of cardiac markers from the myocardium was also observed.

  14. Screening of cardioprotective activity of leaves of Andrographis paniculata against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipendra Kumar Sah


    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the cardioprotective effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Andrographis paniculata against Isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats.Method: The rats were divided into five experimental groups viz., Normal control, ISO-treated (Disease control, Propranolol (10 mg/kg + ISO, Andrographis paniculata (100 mg/kg +ISO and Andrographis paniculata (200 mg/kg + ISO. Myocardial infarction in rats was induced by the administration of isoproterenol at a dose of 85mg/kg i.p., the rats in group IV and group V were pretreated with methanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in the dose of 100mg/kg b.w. and 200mg/kg b.w. through oral route. Cardiac marker enzymes, lipid profile and antioxidant enzymes as biomarker of cardiotoxicity were determined in experimental animals.Result: Animals treated with flavonoid of leaves of Andrographis paniculata showed significant decrease in LDL-Cholesterol, total cholesterol, Triglycerides, AST, ALT, ALP, antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase, catalase LPO and increase in HDL-Cholesterol and further was confirmed by histopathological study.Conclusion: The results of the study demonstrate that Andrographis paniculata strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidant activities.

  15. Cardioprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Tecoma stans flowers against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmukha Ittagi


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the cardioprotective effect of 70% ethanolic extract of Tecoma stans (T. stans flowers against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat myocardium. Methods: Wister rats were pretreated with 70% ethanolic extract of T. stans flowers (250 and 500 mg/kg orally for 14 d and then intoxicated with isoproterenol [200 mg/(kg · day, s.c.] for 2 consecutive d. The biochemical markers for myocardial infarction such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins were determined. In addition the antioxidant status on heart tissue is also evaluated by testing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase. Results: The results indicated that pretreatment with 70% ethanolic extract of T. stans flowers prevented fall in antioxidants and retarded elevation of cardiac damage markers in isoproterenol treated rats, significantly. In addition, these findings were evidently supported by the remarkable protection revealed in the histopathological studies, even GC-MS analysis data also substantiated out investigation. Conclusions: It was concluded that, in addition to poly phenolics, some of the phyto fragments found during GC-MS analysis might also contributed to the cardiac protection offered by the extract.

  16. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion. (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L


    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer (26)Al. (26)Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous (27)Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentration x time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F=0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F=0.1-0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F=0.1%). Time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability x daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water.

  17. The Tolerability and Efficacy of Rapid Infliximab Infusions in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. (United States)

    Qazi, Taha; Shah, Bhavesh; El-Dib, Mohammed; Farraye, Francis A


    Few studies have assessed the loss of efficacy or patient and caregiver satisfaction with rapid infliximab infusions. The aim of this study is to assess the tolerability, loss of efficacy and to describe the impact on resource utilization and patient satisfaction in rapid infliximab infusions. Subjects with inflammatory bowel disease receiving rapid infliximab infusions were included in the study. Subjects received maintenance infusions from June 2011 to June 2013. Incidence of adverse reactions and the total number of rapid infliximab infusions were recorded. Efficacy was compared to published studies evaluating the long-term efficacy of infliximab infusions. Patient satisfaction was addressed through a survey following the implementation of the rapid infusion protocol. Seventy-five subjects with IBD were included in the study. Five hundred and twenty-two rapid infliximab infusions were provided to patients. There were no acute or delayed infusion reactions. Ten subjects (13 %) required either a dose escalation or interval adjustment between infliximab infusions. A majority of patients reported increased satisfaction with 1-h infliximab infusions, and 97 % of surveyed patients opted to continue rapid infusions. The rapid infliximab infusion protocol increased infusion unit efficiency by increasing capacity by 15 %. Cost savings in the elimination of nursing time translated to approximately $108,150 savings at our institution. Rapid infliximab infusions do not appear to increase the risk of loss of response compared to historical studies of long-term infliximab efficiency. A rapid infliximab infusion protocol improved efficiency in our infusion unit and increased patient and nursing satisfaction.

  18. Isoproterenol effects evaluated in heart slices of human and rat in comparison to rat heart in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, Julia E.; Heale, Jason; Bieraugel, Mike; Ramos, Meg; Fisher, Robyn L.; Vickers, Alison E.M.


    Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury was evaluated by gene and protein pathway changes in human heart slices, and compared to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. Isoproterenol (10 and 100 μM) altered human and rat heart slice markers of oxidative stress (ATP and GSH) at 24 h. In this in vivo rat study (0.5 mg/kg), serum troponin concentrations increased with lesion severity, minimal to mild necrosis at 24 and 48 h. In the rat and the human heart, isoproterenol altered pathways for apoptosis/necrosis, stress/energy, inflammation, and remodeling/fibrosis. The rat and human heart slices were in an apoptotic phase, while the in vivo rat heart exhibited necrosis histologically and further progression of tissue remodeling. In human heart slices genes for several heat shock 70 kD members were altered, indicative of stress to mitigate apoptosis. The stress response included alterations in energy utilization, fatty acid processing, and the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, a marker of increased oxidative stress in both species. Inflammation markers linked with remodeling included IL-1α, Il-1β, IL-6 and TNFα in both species. Tissue remodeling changes in both species included increases in the TIMP proteins, inhibitors of matrix degradation, the gene/protein of IL-4 linked with cardiac fibrosis, and the gene Ccl7 a chemokine that induces collagen synthesis, and Reg3b a growth factor for cardiac repair. This study demonstrates that the initial human heart slice response to isoproterenol cardiac injury results in apoptosis, stress/energy status, inflammation and tissue remodeling at concentrations similar to that in rat heart slices. - Highlights: • Human response to isoproterenol induced cardiac injury evaluated in heart slices. • Isoproterenol altered apoptosis, energy, inflammation and remodeling pathways. • Human model verified by comparison to rat heart slices and rat heart in vivo. • Human and rat respond to isoproterenol

  19. Understanding Infusion Pumps. (United States)

    Mandel, Jeff E


    Infusion systems are complicated electromechanical systems that are used to deliver anesthetic drugs with moderate precision. Four types of systems are described-gravity feed, in-line piston, peristaltic, and syringe. These systems are subject to a number of failure modes-occlusion, disconnection, siphoning, infiltration, and air bubbles. The relative advantages of the various systems and some of the monitoring capabilities are discussed. A brief example of the use of an infusion system during anesthetic induction is presented. With understanding of the functioning of these systems, users may develop greater comfort.

  20. Infusion Nursing: An Evidence-Based Approach - Third edition Alexander Mary Infusion Nursing: An Evidence-Based Approach - Third edition 625pp Elsevier 9781416064107 1416064109 [Formula: see text]. (United States)


    This book considers all aspects of infusion therapy and provides a solid evidence base. Its 30 chapters are well organised into six sections covering physiological considerations, infusion therapies and nursing practice.



    Patel Jignasa S; Setty Seema K; Chakraborty Manodeep; Kamath Jagadish V


    This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective activity of poly herbal formulation Medohar vati in isoproterenol (ISO)- induced myocardial necrosis in rats. Animals were treated with Medohar vati (150 and 300 mg/kg for 21 days) and Carvedilol (10mg/kg for 7 days) to the rats treated with ISO (85 mg/kg, sc) on the 22th and 23rd days. The group only treated with ISO demonstrated elevated level of Lactate dehydrogenasa (LDH), Creatine kinase (CK-MB) and CK- NAC in serum which was r...

  2. In vivo pretreatment of Eudrilus eugeniae powder attenuates β-adrenoceptor toxicity mediated by isoproterenol in rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaganathan Anitha


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to discover the potential cardioprotective function of earthworm powder (EWP extracted from Eudrilus eugeniae on isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups, with six rats in each group. Certain rats were pretreated with EWP (200 mg/kg bwt (Group III, and a myocardial infarction was then induced by subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bwt (Group II. Oral pretreatment of 200 mg/kg bwt of EWP for 28 days significantly (p > 0.05 improved the blood profile levels, including (a the lipid profile of total cholesterol (TC, free fatty acids (FFA, and triglycerides (TG; (b low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, and protein; and (c A/G ratio, glucose and uric acid levels. The electrophoretic pattern of elevated lactose dehydrogenase (LDH levels was recovered by EWP treatment as evidenced by comparison with ISO-induced rats with cardiac damage. The above results indicate that EWP (200 mg/kg bwt provides a cardioprotective effect by attenuating the blood profile, lipid profile, biochemical levels, and LDH patterns in rats that experienced an ISO-induced myocardial infarction.

  3. Infusion of adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists into the locus coeruleus and ventricular system of the brain. Effects on swim-motivated and spontaneous motor activity. (United States)

    Weiss, J M; Simson, P G; Hoffman, L J; Ambrose, M J; Cooper, S; Webster, A


    These studies examined how pharmacological stimulation and blockade of alpha receptors would affect active motor behavior in rats. In experiment I, alpha-2 receptor antagonists (piperoxane, yohimbine) and agonists [clonidine, norepinephrine (NE)] were infused into various locations in the ventricular system of the brain, including the locus coeruleus region, and motor activity was measured. Activity was measured principally in a swim test but spontaneous (ambulatory) activity was also recorded while drugs were being infused. When infused into the locus coeruleus region, small doses of the antagonists piperoxane and yohimbine depressed activity in the swim test while infusion of the agonists clonidine and NE had the opposite effect of stimulating activity. These effects were highly specific to the region of the locus coeruleus, since infusions of these drugs into other nearby locations in the ventricular system or use of larger doses had different, often opposite effects. This was especially true of clonidine and NE which profoundly depressed activity when infused posterior to the locus coeruleus, particularly over the dorsal vagal complex. Infusion of small doses of these drugs into the lateral ventricle had effects similar to infusion into the locus coeruleus region, though less pronounced. Changes in spontaneous motor activity were also observed, but this measure differentiated the groups less well than did the swim test. In experiment II, the predominantly postsynaptic receptor agonists isoproterenol (beta agonist) and phenylephrine (alpha-1 agonist) were infused into the ventricular system. Since infusions of piperoxane and yohimbine into the locus coeruleus that decreased activity in experiment I increase the release of NE by blocking alpha-2 inhibitory receptors on cell bodies and dendrites of the locus coeruleus, experiment II tested whether ventricular infusion of predominantly postsynaptic receptor agonists would also decrease activity in the swim test

  4. Attenuation of abnormalities in the lipid metabolism during experimental myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol in rats: beneficial effect of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid. (United States)

    Yogeeta, Surinder Kumar; Hanumantra, Rao Balaji Raghavendran; Gnanapragasam, Arunachalam; Senthilkumar, Subramanian; Subhashini, Rajakannu; Devaki, Thiruvengadam


    The present study aims at evaluating the effect of the combination of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid on isoproterenol-induced abnormalities in lipid metabolism. The rats were divided into eight groups: Control, isoproterenol, ferulic acid alone, ascorbic acid alone, ferulic acid+ascorbic acid, ferulic acid+isoproterenol, ascorbic acid+isoproterenol and ferulic acid+ascorbic acid+isoproterenol. Ferulic acid (20 mg/kg b.w.t.) and ascorbic acid (80 mg/kg b.w.t.) both alone and in combination was administered orally for 6 days and on the fifth and the sixth day, isoproterenol (150 mg/kg b.w.t.) was injected intraperitoneally to induce myocardial injury to rats. Induction of rats with isoproterenol resulted in a significant increase in the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, free and ester cholesterol in both serum and cardiac tissue. A rise in the levels of phospholipids, lipid peroxides, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol was also observed in the serum of isoproterenol-intoxicated rats. Further, a decrease in the level of high density lipoprotein in serum and in the phospholipid levels, in the heart of isoproterenol-intoxicated rats was observed, which was paralleled by abnormal activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes: total lipase, cholesterol ester synthase, lipoprotein lipase and lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase. Pre-cotreatment with the combination of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels to near normal when compared to individual treatment groups. Histopathological observations were also in correlation with the biochemical parameters. These findings indicate the synergistic protective effect of ferulic acid and ascorbic acid on isoproterenol-induced abnormalities in lipid metabolism.

  5. Assessment of implantable infusion pumps for continuous infusion of human insulin in rats: potential for group housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vivi Flou Hjorth; Molck, Anne-Marie; Martensson, Martin


    compound in these studies, and a comparator model of persistent exposure by HI infusion from external pumps has recently been developed to support toxicological evaluation of long-acting insulin analogues. However, this model requires single housing of the animals. Developing an insulin-infusion model...... which allows group housing would therefore greatly improve animal welfare. The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of implantable infusion pumps for HI infusion in group-housed rats. Group housing of rats implanted with a battery-driven pump proved to be possible. Intravenous...... infusion of HI lowered blood glucose levels persistently for two weeks, providing a comparator model for use in two-week repeated-dose toxicity studies with new long-acting insulin analogues, which allows group housing, and thereby increasing animal welfare compared with an external infusion model....

  6. Acute isoproterenol induces anxiety-like behavior in rats and increases plasma content of extracellular vesicles. (United States)

    Leo, Giuseppina; Guescini, Michele; Genedani, Susanna; Stocchi, Vilberto; Carone, Chiara; Filaferro, Monica; Sisti, Davide; Marcoli, Manuela; Maura, Guido; Cortelli, Pietro; Guidolin, Diego; Fuxe, Kjell; Agnati, Luigi Francesco


    Several clinical observations have demonstrated a link between heart rate and anxiety or panic disorders. In these patients, β-adrenergic receptor function was altered. This prompted us to investigate whether the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol, at a dose that stimulates peripheral β-adrenergic system but has no effects at the central nervous system, can induce anxiety-like behavior in rats. Moreover, some possible messengers involved in the peripheral to brain communication were investigated. Our results showed that isoproterenol (5 mg kg(-1) i.p.) increased heart rate, evoked anxiety-like behavior, did not result in motor impairments and increased extracellular vesicle content in the blood. Plasma corticosterone level was unmodified as well as vesicular Hsp70 content. Vesicular miR-208 was also unmodified indicating a source of increased extracellular vesicles different from cardiomyocytes. We can hypothesize that peripheral extracellular vesicles might contribute to the β-adrenergic receptor-evoked anxiety-like behavior, acting as peripheral signals in modulating the mental state. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Subcutaneous infusion in palliative care: a focus on the neria soft 90 infusion set. (United States)

    Gabriel, Janice


    Subcutaneous administration of medications and/or fluids can play a crucial part in supporting patients at home and thereby avoiding the need for hospitalisation. It is an area of patient care that has received little attention compared with other types of parenteral therapies. However, it is an effective and safe route for continuous administration for individuals requiring palliative care. Technological advancements have led to improved subcutaneous infusion devices, such as fine-gauge cannulae with integral sharps protection, as well as integral hypoallergenic dressings. These design features not only help to increase patient comfort but also minimise the potential for needlestick injuries, as well as providing the health professional with one sterile package containing all of the components needed to establish subcutaneous infusion. However, technological developments alone are insufficient to improve patient outcomes. Knowledge of the individual patient, together with their diagnosis and intended treatment, will influence the choice of subcutaneous infusion device, with the overall aim of minimising the potential for complications and improving comfort. This paper provides an overview of subcutaneous infusion, including the importance of patient assessment and the education and training needs of health professionals, and then focuses on one specific subcutaneous infusion device: the neria soft 90 infusion set.

  8. Home Healthcare Medical Devices: Infusion Therapy - Getting the Most Out of Your Pump (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures Home Health and Consumer Devices Brochure - Home Healthcare Medical Devices: Infusion Therapy - Getting the Most ... if needed. What is the role of your home healthcare provider and supplier in your infusion therapy? ...

  9. Bupivacaine constant continuous surgical wound infusion versus continuous epidural infusion for post cesarean section pain, randomized placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam A. ELShamaa


    Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that bupivacaine administered by continuous epidural infusion provided a significantly lower pain scores with mobilization, and hence better analgesia for post cesarean section pain in the first postoperative day compared to continuous bupivacaine wound infusion through fenestrated catheter using the constant flow PainFusor system.

  10. Using miniature osmotic infusion pumps to maintain tritiated thymidine exposure to cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, J.E.; Hake, D.A.


    To provide a constant level of tracer doses of tritiated thymidine to cultured cells during continuous infusion, miniature osmotic infusion pumps were used to provide replacement thymidine. By determining the loss of isotope from the media during nonreplacement, the rate of constant infusion replacement to maintain thymidine levels was calculated. The replacement rates were similar for the three cell lines examined and allowed a standard osmotic pump infusion

  11. Thallium-201 infusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazraki, N.; Kralios, A.; Wooten, W.W.


    To test the accuracy of Thallium-201 coronary artery infusion imaging of the earth during rapid changes in blood flow through a major coronary artery, the author performed a study in dogs correlating electromagnetic flow probe recordings with 201 Tl scintillation camera acquisitions. Hyperemic vascular response was produced experimentally in a major coronary artery by occlusion and release interventions which altered flow from baseline to zero during occlusion (20 seconds), followed by rapid flow increases approaching three times baseline immediately upon release of the occlusion. Flow returned to the baseline level within 60 seconds following release. Flow was also altered in a controlled fashion by other interventions. Recordings of Thallium uptake in the myocardium were displayed as a time histogram (counts per second squared vs time) which correlated very closely with electromagnetic flow probe recordings of flow (R=o.82-0.97). These experiments demonstrate a high degree of accuracy in Thallium infusion imaging to detect rapid changes in flow through a major coronary artery

  12. Irrigation with isoproterenol diminishes increases in pelvic pressure without side-effects during ureterorenoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, H U; Jakobsen, J S; Mortensen, J


    Objective. Recently, we showed that endoluminally administered isoproterenol (ISO) inhibits muscle function of the pyeloureter in swine. This may be of value in managing increases in pelvic pressure during upper urinary tract endoscopy. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect...... groups: p=0.425 and p=0.166, respectively. Conclusions. ISO (0.1 microg/ml) added to irrigation fluid significantly reduces the increase in pelvic pressure during ureterorenoscopy in pigs, without concomitant side-effects....... of endoluminally administered ISO on increases in pelvic pressure and cardiovascular function during flexible ureterorenoscopy. Material and methods. The study was performed in anaesthetized female pigs. In terms of endoscopic procedures, the pigs were randomized as follows: Group 1, irrigation with 0.1 microg...

  13. Is continuous infusion of imipenem always the best choice? (United States)

    Suchánková, Hana; Lipš, Michal; Urbánek, Karel; Neely, Michael N; Strojil, Jan


    Monte Carlo simulations allow prediction and comparison of concentration-time profiles arising from different dosing regimens in a defined population, provided a population pharmacokinetic model has been established. The aims of this study were to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of imipenem in critically ill patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and to assess the probability of target attainment (PTA) and cumulative fraction of response (CFR) using EUCAST data. A two-compartment model based on a data set of 19 subjects was employed. Various dosage regimens at 0.5-h and 3-h infusion rates and as continuous infusion were evaluated against the pharmacodynamic targets of 20%fT >MIC , 40%fT >MIC and 100%fT >MIC . For the target of 40%fT >MIC , all 0.5-h infusion regimens achieved optimal exposures (CFR ≥ 90%) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, with nearly optimal exposure against Klebsiella pneumoniae (CFR ≥ 89.4%). The 3-h infusions and continuous infusion exceeded 97% CFR against all pathogens with the exception of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., where the maximum CFRs were 85.5% and 88.4%, respectively. For the 100%fT >MIC target, only continuous infusion was associated with nearly optimal exposures. Higher PTAs for the targets of 40%fT >MIC and 100%fT >MIC were achieved with 3-h infusions and continuous infusion in comparison with 0.5-h infusions; however, continuous infusion carries a risk of not reaching the MIC of less susceptible pathogens in a higher proportion of patients. In critically ill patients with HAP with risk factors for Gram-negative non-fermenting bacteria, maximum doses administered as extended infusions may be necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Renal Denervation Findings on Cardiac and Renal Fibrosis in Rats with Isoproterenol Induced Cardiomyopathy (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Kai; Wang, Shengchan; Lu, Dasheng; Li, Zhenzhen; Geng, Jie; Fang, Ping; Wang, Ying; Shan, Qijun


    Cardio-renal fibrosis plays key roles in heart failure and chronic kidney disease. We sought to determine the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on cardiac and renal fibrosis in rats with isoproterenol induced cardiomyopathy. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to Control (n = 10) and isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiomyopathy group (n = 50). At week 5, 31 survival ISO-induced cardiomyopathy rats were randomized to RDN (n = 15) and Sham group (n = 16). Compared with Control group, ejection fraction was decreased, diastolic interventricular septal thickness and left atrial dimension were increased in ISO-induced cardiomyopathy group at 5 week. After 10 weeks, cardio-renal pathophysiologic results demonstrated that the collagen volume fraction of left atrio-ventricular and kidney tissues reduced significantly in RDN group compared with Sham group. Moreover the pro-fibrosis factors (TGF-β1, MMP2 and Collagen I), inflammatory cytokines (CRP and TNF-α), and collagen synthesis biomarkers (PICP, PINP and PIIINP) concentration significantly decreased in RDN group. Compared with Sham group, RDN group showed that release of noradrenaline and aldosterone were reduced, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)/angiotensin II (Ang II)/angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) axis was downregulated. Meanwhile, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin-1-7 (Ang-(1-7))/mas receptor (Mas-R) axis was upregulated. RDN inhibits cardio-renal fibrogenesis through multiple pathways, including reducing SNS over-activity, rebalancing RAAS axis.

  15. Isoproterenol reduces ischemia-reperfusion lung injury despite beta-blockade. (United States)

    Takashima, Seiki; Schlidt, Scott A; Koukoulis, Giovanna; Sevala, Mayura; Egan, Thomas M


    If lungs could be retrieved from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs), the shortage of lungs for transplantation could be alleviated. The use of lungs from NHBDs is associated with a mandatory warm ischemic interval, which results in ischemia-reperfusion injury upon reperfusion. In an earlier study, rat lungs retrieved 2-h postmortem from NHBDs had reduced capillary leak measured by filtration coefficient (Kfc) when reperfused with isoproterenol (iso), associated with an increase in lung tissue levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). The objective was to determine if this decrease in Kfc was because of beta-stimulation, or would persist despite beta-blockade. Donor rats were treated intraperitoneally with beta-blockade (propranolol or pindolol) or carrier, sacrificed, and lungs were retrieved immediately or 2 h postmortem. The lungs were reperfused with or without iso and the beta-blockers in the reperfusate. Outcome measures were Kfc, wet:dry weight ratio (W/D), lung levels of adenine nucleotides and cAMP. Lungs retrieved immediately after death had normal Kfc and W/D. After 2 h of ischemia, Kfc and W/D were markedly elevated in controls (no drug) and lungs reperfused with beta-blockers alone. Isoproterenol-reperfusion decreased Kfc and W/D significantly (P < 0.01) even in the presence of beta-blockade. Lung cAMP levels were increased only with iso in the absence of beta-blockade. The attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury because of iso occurs even in the presence of beta-blockade, and may not be a result of beta-stimulated increased cAMP.

  16. Canadian Palliative Community Milrinone Infusions: A Case Series. (United States)

    Reimche, Ruthanne; Salcedo, Daniel


    Abstract Symptom managementfor end-of-life heartfailure (HF) patients is a significant concern. Currently, Canadian practice does not support community milrinone therapy in end-of-life HF patients. Two patients had severe HF that was unresponsive to optimal medications. Further optimization and furosemide infusions were ineffective for symptom management. Both patients' symptoms were better controlled with optimal medication, furosemide, and milrinone infusions. A tailored discharge plan was developed to assist with community milrinone infusions. We discuss the challenges and successes of transitioning two patients to the community. By providing symptom management and meaningful patient and family experience, both patients were able to die in a setting of their choosing. Milrinone infusions as a bridge to end of life may improve symptoms and quality of life. Select patients may benefit from milrinone infusions with resources put in place; these end-of-life HF patients can be supported in the community.

  17. Infusion MR arteriography during hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. Evaluation of clinical usefulness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchino, Minako; Takizawa, Kenji


    We developed a new method of infusion MR arteriography (IMRA) via an implantable port system using an infusion pump for the evaluation of drug distribution during hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. The purposes of this study were to optimize the method and evaluate its clinical usefulness. We used 3D-T1 turbo field echo (TFE) as the most suitable sequence for IMRA according to the results of a phantom model experiment. We examined 33 cases of liver cancer that had been treated by arterial infusion chemotherapy via the port system. The following investigations were performed: degree of tumor enhancement, intra- and extra- hepatic perfusion abnormality, and related toxicity. The evaluation of images was performed separately by two radiologists. IMRA provided good images of contrast enhancement, to reveal the perfusion patterns. The treatment response rate in the tumor group with well enhancement was higher than that of the group with poor enhancement (p<0.0001). Extrahepatic perfusion was well visualized and was correlated with toxicity (p<0.0001). IMRA is a useful method to evaluate drug perfusion for the optimization of arterial infusion chemotherapy. (author)

  18. Hemodynamic changes in systolic and diastolic function during isoproterenol challenge predicts symptomatic response to myectomy in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with labile obstruction. (United States)

    Prasad, Megha; Geske, Jeffrey B; Sorajja, Paul; Ommen, Steve R; Schaff, Hartzell V; Gersh, Bernard J; Nishimura, Rick A


    We aimed to assess the utility of changes in systolic and diastolic function by isoproterenol challenge in predicting symptom resolution post-myectomy in selected patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and labile obstruction. In a subset of symptomatic HCM patients without resting/provocable obstruction on noninvasive assessment, isoproterenol challenge during hemodynamic catheterization may elicit labile left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, and demonstrate the effect of obstruction on diastolic function. These changes may determine whether patients achieve complete symptom resolution post-myectomy. Between February 2003 and April 2009, 18 symptomatic HCM patients without LVOT obstruction on noninvasive testing underwent isoproterenol provocation and septal myectomy due to presence of provocable gradient and were followed for 4 (IQR 3-7) years. Thirteen (72.2%) had complete symptom resolution, while 5 (27.8%) had improved, but persistent symptoms. Those with provoked gradient >100 mm Hg or increase in left atrial pressure (LAP) with isoproterenol had symptom resolution. Symptomatic HCM patients without LVOT gradient on noninvasive testing may demonstrate labile obstruction with isoproterenol. With isoproterenol, patients with high LVOT gradient or increase in LAP concomitant with an increase in gradient achieved complete symptom resolution post-myectomy. Thus, improved diastolic filling as well as outflow gradient production in patients with HCM may predict symptom response to myectomy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Study of Fetal Rat Model of Intra-Amniotic Isoproterenol Injection Induced Heart Dysfunction and Phenotypic Switch of Contractile Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Li


    Full Text Available To establish a reliable isoproterenol induced heart dysfunction fetal rat model and understand the switches of contractile proteins, 45 pregnant rats were divided into 15 mg/kg-once, 15 mg/kg-twice, sham-operated once, sham-operated twice, and control groups. And 18 adult rats were divided into isoproterenol-treated and control groups. H&E staining, Masson staining, and transmission electron microscope were performed. Apoptotic rate assessed by TUNEL analysis and expressions of ANP, BNP, MMP-2, and CTGF of hearts were measured. Intra-amniotic injections of isoproterenol were supplied on E14.5 and E15.5 for fetuses and 7-day continuous intraperitoneal injections were performed for adults. Then echocardiography was performed with M-mode view assessment on E18.5 and 6 weeks later, respectively. Isoproterenol twice treated fetuses exhibited significant changes in histological evaluation, and mitochondrial damages were significantly severe with increased apoptotic rate. ANP and BNP increased and that of MMP-2 increased in isoproterenol twice treated group compared to control group, without CTGF. The isoforms transition of troponin I and myosin heavy chain of fetal heart dysfunction were opposite to adult procedure. The administration of intra-amniotic isoproterenol to fetal rats could induce heart dysfunction and the regulation of contractile proteins of fetuses was different from adult procedure.

  20. Cardioprotective Effects of Essential Oil of Lavandula angustifolia on Isoproterenol-induced Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rat (United States)

    Ziaee, Mojtaba; Khorrami, Arash; Ebrahimi, Maryam; Nourafcan, Hassan; Amiraslanzadeh, Masoumeh; Rameshrad, Maryam; Garjani, Mehraveh; Garjani, Alireza


    Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common presentation of the ischemic heart disease. Lavandula angustifolia is an herbaceous plant with antioxidative effects. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of lavandula angustifolia essential oil against isoproterenol-induced MI in rats. The dried sample was subjected to hydrodistillation by using a Clevenger and the oils were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4. Male Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of control, sham, isoproterenol and treatment with 5, 10, 20 mg/Kg of the essential oil. MI was induced by subcutaneous injection of Isoproterenol (100 mg/Kg) for 3 consecutive days at an interval of 24 h. The essential oil was given intraperitoneally every 24 h started at MI induction. Following anesthesia, hemodynamic parameters were measured. After sacrificing the animals, the hearts were removed to measure the heart to body weight ratio and histopathological examination. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in heart tissues for evaluating the activity of neutrophils and lipid peroxidation, respectively. The essential oil amended ECG pattern by suppressing ST-segment elevation and increasing R-amplitude. 10 mg/Kg of the essential oil significantly decreased heart to body weight ratio (P<0.001) and the elevation of MDA and MPO in myocardium, it also increased dp/dtmax from 2793 ± 210 to 4488 ± 253 mmHg/sec (P<0.001), and 20 mg/Kg of it significantly lowered LVEDP from 14 ± 3.43 to 4.3 ± 0.83 mmHg (P<0.001).The results demonstrated that L. angustifolia protects myocardium against isoproterenol-induced MI that it could be related to its antioxidant properties. PMID:25561934

  1. Myocardial scintigraphy with 16 123I hexadecene-9 oic acid. Study of the influence of isoproterenol, propranolol, dipyridamole and isoptine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comet, M.; Wolf, J.E.; Pilichowski, P.; Busquet, G.; Dubois, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Pernin, C.; Riche, F.; Vidal, M.


    After I.V. injection of 123 I hexadecene-9 oic acid to dogs, the decreasing part of the myocardial activity curve is fitted with an exponential which period is calculated. Tacking the anesthetized dogs as his own reference, we study the influence of isoproterenol, propranolol, dipyridamole and isoptine on value of the period. None of the drugs modify significatively the period. Nevertheless, propranolol and isoptine and to a lesser extent dipyridamole have a tendancy to increase the value of the period [fr

  2. The effect of isoproterenol on some aspects of the anaerobic metabolism of carbohydrates in mouse submandibular gland. (United States)

    Sassaki, K T; Nicolau, J


    1. The effect of isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic drug, on some aspects of the anaerobic metabolism of carbohydrates in the submandibular salivary glands of mice was studied. 2. Alterations in enzymatic activities and in the concentrations of some metabolites were observed in groups of animals killed at various times after the stimulation. 3. The potential capacity of the pentose phosphate cycle was greater than that of glycolysis up to 20 hr after the stimulation.



    Khatib N.A; Patel Jignesh; Medi Swathi


    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Punica granatum flower (PG) against isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats by studying cardiac markers and electrocardiographic changes. MI was induced in rats by subcutaneous injection of ISO (150mg/kg b.w) at an interval of 24 hours for 2 days. ISO treated rats showed significant increase in cardiac markers such as Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Creatine kinase (CK-MB), Alanine aminotransfer...

  4. Electrocatalytic and simultaneous determination of isoproterenol, uric acid and folic acid at molybdenum (VI) complex-carbon nanotube paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitollahi, Hadi; Sheikhshoaie, Iran


    Highlights: → A molybdenum (VI) complex-carbon nanotube paste electrode have been fabricated. → This electrode reduced the oxidation potential of isoproterenol by about 175 mV. → It resolved the voltammetric waves of isoproterenol, uric acid and folic acid. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, electrochemical characterization and utilization of a novel modified molybdenum (VI) complex-carbon nanotube paste electrode for the electrocatalytic determination of isoproterenol (IP). The electrochemical profile of the proposed modified electrode was analyzed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) that showed a shift of the oxidation peak potential of IP at 175 mV to less positive value, compared with an unmodified carbon paste electrode. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at pH 7.0 was performed to determine IP in the range from 0.7 to 600.0 μM, with a detection limit of 35.0 nM. Then the modified electrode was used to determine IP in an excess of uric acid (UA) and folic acid (FA) by DPV. Finally, this method was used for the determination of IP in some real samples.

  5. Advancing medication infusion safety through the clinical integration of technology. (United States)

    Gerhart, Donald; O'Shea, Kristen; Muller, Sharon


    Adverse drug events resulting from errors in prescribing or administering medications are preventable. Within a hospital system, numerous technologies are employed to address the common sources of medication error, including the use of electronic medical records, physician order entry, smart infusion pumps, and barcode medication administration systems. Infusion safety is inherently risky because of the high-risk medications administered and the lack of integration among the stand-alone systems in most institutions. Intravenous clinical integration (IVCI) is a technology that connects electronic medical records, physician order entry, smart infusion pumps, and barcode medication administration systems. It combines the safety features of an automatically programmed infusion pump (drug, concentration, infusion rate, and patient weight, all auto-programmed into the device) with software that provides visibility to real-time clinical infusion data. Our article describes the characteristics of IVCI at WellSpan Health and its impact on patient safety. The integrated infusion system has the capability of reducing medication errors, improving patient care, reducing in-facility costs, and supporting asset management. It can enhance continuous quality improvement efforts and efficiency of clinical work flow. After implementing IVCI, the institution realized a safer patient environment and a more streamlined work flow for pharmacy and nursing.

  6. Cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb extract against isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in rats. (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Ansarullah; Karn, Sanjay S; Shah, Jigar D; Patel, Dipak K; Salunke, Sunita P; Padate, Geeta S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V


    The present study investigates cardioprotective effect of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb (SR) extract on heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and membrane bound ATPases against isoproterenol (IP) induced myocardial necrosis (MN) in rats. Rats treated with IP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) recorded significant (p<0.05) increment in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activity levels of Ca(+2) ATPase whereas there was significant (p<0.05) decrease in plasma HDL, cardiac endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Mg(+2) ATPase. Pre-treatment with SR extract (400 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 30 consecutive days followed by IP injections on days 29th and 30th, showed significant (p<0.05) decrease in heart weight, plasma lipid profile, plasma marker enzymes of cardiac damage, cardiac lipid peroxidation, Ca(+2) ATPase and significant increase in plasma HDL, cardiac endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase and Mg(+2) ATPase compared to IP treated group. Hence, this study is the first scientific report on cardioprotective effect of SR against IP induced MN in rats. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of the Protective Effect of Kefir against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats (United States)

    Mert, Handan; Yılmaz, Hikmet; Irak, Kıvanç; Yıldırım, Serkan; Mert, Nihat


    Abstract This study aims to investigate the protective effects of kefir against myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol (ISO). The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, each group consisting of 8 rats. The control group, the kefir group (5 mL/kg/d kefir administered to rats as intra-gastric gavage for 60 d), the ISO group (100 mg/kg ISO was administered to rats, s.c. on 61. and 62. d), and kefir+ISO group (5 mL/kg/d kefir was administered to rats intra gastric gavage for 60 days prior to ISO, 100 mg/kg in two doses on day 61 and 62). 12 h after the last ISO dose, all rats were decapitated and their blood samples were collected. Cardiac tissue was reserved for histopathological examination. creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, total cholesterol,very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and glucose were measured by autoanalyzer, whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels were measured spectrophotometrically. It was determined that in the group of kefir+ISO, the levels of AST (pkefir in myocardial infarction induced by ISO can protect the heart with its antioxidant characteristic and minimize the toxic damage created by ISO. PMID:29805276

  8. Sarcospan Regulates Cardiac Isoproterenol Response and Prevents Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy-Associated Cardiomyopathy. (United States)

    Parvatiyar, Michelle S; Marshall, Jamie L; Nguyen, Reginald T; Jordan, Maria C; Richardson, Vanitra A; Roos, Kenneth P; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H


    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a fatal cardiac and skeletal muscle disease resulting from mutations in the dystrophin gene. We have previously demonstrated that a dystrophin-associated protein, sarcospan (SSPN), ameliorated Duchenne muscular dystrophy skeletal muscle degeneration by activating compensatory pathways that regulate muscle cell adhesion (laminin-binding) to the extracellular matrix. Conversely, loss of SSPN destabilized skeletal muscle adhesion, hampered muscle regeneration, and reduced force properties. Given the importance of SSPN to skeletal muscle, we investigated the consequences of SSPN ablation in cardiac muscle and determined whether overexpression of SSPN into mdx mice ameliorates cardiac disease symptoms associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy cardiomyopathy. SSPN-null mice exhibited cardiac enlargement, exacerbated cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, and increased fibrosis in response to β-adrenergic challenge (isoproterenol; 0.8 mg/day per 2 weeks). Biochemical analysis of SSPN-null cardiac muscle revealed reduced sarcolemma localization of many proteins with a known role in cardiomyopathy pathogenesis: dystrophin, the sarcoglycans (α-, δ-, and γ-subunits), and β1D integrin. Transgenic overexpression of SSPN in Duchenne muscular dystrophy mice (mdx(TG)) improved cardiomyofiber cell adhesion, sarcolemma integrity, cardiac functional parameters, as well as increased expression of compensatory transmembrane proteins that mediate attachment to the extracellular matrix. SSPN regulates sarcolemmal expression of laminin-binding complexes that are critical to cardiac muscle function and protects against transient and chronic injury, including inherited cardiomyopathy. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  9. Downregulation of β-Adrenoceptors in Isoproterenol-Induced Cardiac Remodeling through HuR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yin

    Full Text Available β-adrenergic receptors (β-ARs play an important role in cardiac remodeling, which is the key pathological process in various heart diseases and leads to heart failure. However, the regulation of β-AR expression in remodeling hearts is still unclear. This study aims to clarify the possible mechanisms underlying the regulation of β1- and β2-AR expression in cardiac remodeling. The rat model of cardiac remodeling was established by subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol(ISO at the dose of 0.25 mg·kg(-1·d(-1 for 7 days. We found that the expression of β1- and β2-ARs decreased in the remodeling heart. The mechanisms may include the inhibition of DNA transcription and the increase of mRNA degradation. cAMP-response element binding protein(CREB is a well-known transcription factor of β-AR. However, the expression and activation of CREB was not changed in the remodeling heart. Further, human Antigen-R (HuR, a RNA binding protein, which binds to the 3'-untranslated region of the β-AR mRNA and promotes RNA degradation, was increased in the remodeling model. And in vitro, HuR deficiency reversed the reduction of β-AR mRNA induced by ISO. Therefore, the present findings indicate that HuR, but not CREB, is responsible for the reduction of β-AR expression in ISO induced cardiac remodeling.

  10. Beneficial Effects of Isoproterenol and Quinidine in the Treatment of Ventricular Fibrillation in Brugada Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Dakkak


    Full Text Available The use of an implantable cardiac defibrillator has been advocated as the only effective treatment for the management of ventricular fibrillation (VF in patients with Brugada Syndrome (BrS. However, this device is only useful for terminating VF. Intermittent and/or recalcitrant VF for which lifesaving cardioversion occurs is a problematic situation in this patient population. The immediate use of appropriate antiarrhythmics in the acute setting has proven to be lifesaving. Quinidine has been well established as an effective antiarrhythmic in BrS, while isoproterenol (ISP has had some recognition as well. The addition of drug therapy to prevent the induction of these arrhythmias has been shown to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with BrS. It was proven to be especially effective in the presence of early repolarization, evidenced by the reduction or normalization of the early repolarization pattern on ECG. Thus, for the prophylactic management and long term suppression of VF in BrS, further prospective studies should be performed to determine the effectiveness of quinidine and ISP in this patient population.

  11. Uptake of /sup 67/Ga in the heart of rats treated with isoproterenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T; Kojima, S; Kubodera, A


    Gallium-67 citrate (/sup 67/Ga) accumulation and various enzyme activities during the repair of rat heart with infarct-like lesions induced by isoproterenol (ISP) treatment were measured for 10 days after treatment. Serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities were increased immediately after ISP treatment, reaching maximum levels of activity of 545+-64 U/ml and 542+-94 KU/ml, respectively, within 12 h. Uptake of /sup 67/Ga in the rat heart was elevated 12 h after ISP treatment, reaching a maximum on day 1 (0.267+-0.020% dose/g heart). This pattern was essentially similar to the pattern of uronic acid content in the 1.2 M NaCl fraction, which contained mainly heparan sulfate (HS). The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), a marker enzyme for fibrogenesis of damaged tissues, was also elevated 12 h after the ISP treatment, reaching a maximum of approximately 2.47 times that of the control heart on day 1. On the other hand, there were no significant changes in the /sup 67/Ga uptake and uronic acid content in any of the fractions of the liver and kidneys. These findings suggested that HS might be an acceptor for /sup 67/Ga accumulation during the repair of rat heart with infarct-like lesions, in accord with our previous results on CCl/sub 4/-damaged rat liver.

  12. Cardioprotective effect of vitamin D2 on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in diabetic rats. (United States)

    El Agaty, Sahar M


    To assess the effect of vitamin D 2 and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms on acute myocardial injury induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in diabetic rats. Rats were divided into control rats, diabetic rats (DM), diabetic rats received ISO (DM-ISO), and diabetic rats pretreated with vitamin D 2 and received ISO (DM-D 2 -ISO). Vitamin D 2 pretreatment significantly decreased fasting glucose and myocardial malondialdehyde, associated with increased insulin, myocardial glutathione and superoxide dismutase in DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. The serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL were significantly decreased, along with increased HDL and adiponectin. Poly-ADP ribose polymerase, cyclooxygenase-2, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, caspase-3, BAX, and p53 were significantly downregulated in myocardium of DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. Histological studies showed diminished inflammatory cells infiltration in myocardium of DM-D 2 -ISO versus DM-ISO. Vitamin D 2 ameliorates hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, redox imbalance, inflammatory and apoptotic processes, protecting the myocardium of diabetic rats against acute myocardial infarction.

  13. Uptake of 67Ga in the heart of rats treated with isoproterenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T.; Kojima, S.; Kubodera, A.


    Gallium-67 citrate ( 67 Ga) accumulation and various enzyme activities during the repair of rat heart with infarct-like lesions induced by isoproterenol (ISP) treatment were measured for 10 days after treatment. Serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) activities were increased immediately after ISP treatment, reaching maximum levels of activity of 545+-64 U/ml and 542+-94 KU/ml, respectively, within 12 h. Uptake of 67 Ga in the rat heart was elevated 12 h after ISP treatment, reaching a maximum on day 1 (0.267+-0.020% dose/g heart). This pattern was essentially similar to the pattern of uronic acid content in the 1.2 M NaCl fraction, which contained mainly heparan sulfate (HS). The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), a marker enzyme for fibrogenesis of damaged tissues, was also elevated 12 h after the ISP treatment, reaching a maximum of approximately 2.47 times that of the control heart on day 1. On the other hand, there were no significant changes in the 67 Ga uptake and uronic acid content in any of the fractions of the liver and kidneys. These findings suggested that HS might be an acceptor for 67 Ga accumulation during the repair of rat heart with infarct-like lesions, in accord with our previous results on CCl 4 -damaged rat liver. (orig.)

  14. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor, Allopurinol, Prevented Oxidative Stress, Fibrosis, and Myocardial Damage in Isoproterenol Induced Aged Rats. (United States)

    Sagor, Md Abu Taher; Tabassum, Nabila; Potol, Md Abdullah; Alam, Md Ashraful


    We evaluated the preventive effect of allopurinol on isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial infarction in aged rats. Twelve- to fourteen-month-old male Long Evans rats were divided into three groups: control, ISO, and ISO + allopurinol. At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed for blood and organ sample collection to evaluate biochemical parameters and oxidative stress markers analyses. Histopathological examinations were also conducted to assess inflammatory cell infiltration and fibrosis in heart and kidneys. Our investigation revealed that the levels of oxidative stress markers were significantly increased while the level of cellular antioxidants, catalase activity, and glutathione concentration in ISO induced rats decreased. Treatment with allopurinol to ISO induced rats prevented the elevated activities of AST, ALT, and ALP enzymes, and the levels of lipid peroxidation products and increased reduced glutathione concentration. ISO induced rats also showed massive inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in heart and kidneys. Furthermore, allopurinol treatment prevented the inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis in ISO induced rats. In conclusion, the results of our study suggest that allopurinol treatment is capable of protecting heart of ISO induced myocardial infarction in rats probably by preventing oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis.

  15. Time-dependent responses of rat troponin I and cardiac injury following isoproterenol administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaheta Hasić


    Full Text Available Aim To develop a rat model of myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol (ISO. We investigated a type of histological myocardial changes and cardiac troponin I (TnI kinetic. Methods The study has used adult, male, Wistar strain rats. Rats were distributed in ISO and control groups. Rats treated with ISO were divided into groups according to the time of cTnI and myocardial lesion analyses: ISO I (30’, ISO II (60’, ISO III (120’ and ISO IV (240’. We determined cTnI (Life Diagnostics Inc. West Chester PA, USA in the serum by ELISA method. We performed histological analysis on the specimens of left ventricular wall stained by hematoxillin-eosin (HE method. Results The irst statistically signiicant rise of cTnI was noted 30 minutes after the ISO administration. There was no statistically signiicant difference between cTnI mean values among the ISO groups. Observed myocardial histological changes were time dependent. Conclusions This model can be suitable for cardioprotective and cardiotoxicity supstance investigations followed by cTnI measurement in blood. The similarity between induced myocardial lesion on animal model in our study and human myocardial lesion in ischemia give us suficient impulse for further preclinical researches of new cardiac markers.

  16. Effects of Repeated Administration of Pilocarpine and Isoproterenol on Aquaporin-5 Expression in Rat Salivary Glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susa, Taketo; Sawai, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Takeo; Iizuka-Kogo, Akiko; Kogo, Hiroshi; Negishi, Akihide; Yokoo, Satoshi; Takata, Kuniaki; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki


    Aquaporins are water channel proteins which enable rapid water movement across the plasma membrane. Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is the major aquaporin and is expressed on the apical membrane of salivary gland acinar cells. We examined the effects of repeated administration of pilocarpine, a clinically useful stimulant for salivary fluid secretion, and isoproterenol (IPR), a stimulant for salivary protein secretion, on the abundance of AQP5 protein in rat salivary glands by immunofluorescence microscopy and semi-quantitative immunoblotting. Unexpectedly AQP5 was decreased in pilocarpine-administered salivary glands, in which fluid secretion must be highly stimulated, implying that AQP5 might not be required for fluid secretion at least in pilocarpine-administered state. The abundance of AQP5, on the other hand, was found to be significantly increased in IPR-administered submandibular and parotid glands. To address the possible mechanism of the elevation of AQP5 abundance in IPR-administered animals, changes of AQP5 level in fasting animals, in which the exocytotic events are reduced, were examined. AQP5 was found to be decreased in fasting animals as expected. These results suggested that the elevation of cAMP and/or frequent exocytotic events could increase AQP5 protein. AQP5 expression seems to be easily changed by salivary stimulants, although these changes do not always reflect the ability in salivary fluid secretion

  17. Reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury with isoproterenol in non-heart-beating donor lungs. (United States)

    Jones, D R; Hoffmann, S C; Sellars, M; Egan, T M


    Transplantation of lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors could expand the donor pool. Recent studies suggest that the ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) to the lung can be attenuated by increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IRI on capillary permeability, as measured by Kfc, in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors and reperfused with or without isoproterenol (iso). Using an in situ isolated perfused lung model, lungs were retrieved from non-heart-beating donor rats ventilated with O2 or not at varying intervals after death. The lungs were reperfused with or without iso (10 microM). Kfc, lung viability, and pulmonary hemodynamics were measured, and tissue levels of adenine nucleotides and cAMP were measured by HPLC. Iso-reperfusion decreased Kfc significantly (P Kfc in non-iso-reperfused (r = 0.65) and iso-perfused (r = 0.84) lungs. cAMP levels increased significantly with iso-reperfusion. cAMP levels correlated with Kfc (r = 0.87) in iso-reperfused lungs. Iso-reperfusion of lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donor rats results in decreased capillary permeability and increased lung tissue cAMP levels. Pharmacologic augmentation of tissue TAN and cAMP levels may further ameliorate the increased capillary permeability seen in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors.

  18. Attribute based selection of thermoplastic resin for vacuum infusion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabhakaran, R.T. Durai; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom


    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... for different engineering applications, and few of those are available in a not yet polymerised form suitable for resin infusion. The proper selection of a new resin system among these thermoplastic polymers is a concern for manufactures in the current scenario and a special mathematical tool would...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...

  19. Infusion phlebitis assessment measures: a systematic review. (United States)

    Ray-Barruel, Gillian; Polit, Denise F; Murfield, Jenny E; Rickard, Claire M


    Phlebitis is a common and painful complication of peripheral intravenous cannulation. The aim of this review was to identify the measures used in infusion phlebitis assessment and evaluate evidence regarding their reliability, validity, responsiveness and feasibility. We conducted a systematic literature review of the Cochrane library, Ovid MEDLINE and EBSCO CINAHL until September 2013. All English-language studies (randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort and cross-sectional) that used an infusion phlebitis scale were retrieved and analysed to determine which symptoms were included in each scale and how these were measured. We evaluated studies that reported testing the psychometric properties of phlebitis assessment scales using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines. Infusion phlebitis was the primary outcome measure in 233 studies. Fifty-three (23%) of these provided no actual definition of phlebitis. Of the 180 studies that reported measuring phlebitis incidence and/or severity, 101 (56%) used a scale and 79 (44%) used a definition alone. We identified 71 different phlebitis assessment scales. Three scales had undergone some psychometric analyses, but no scale had been rigorously tested. Many phlebitis scales exist, but none has been thoroughly validated for use in clinical practice. A lack of consensus on phlebitis measures has likely contributed to disparities in reported phlebitis incidence, precluding meaningful comparison of phlebitis rates. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. In vitro effects of oxytocin, acepromazine, detomidine, xylazine, butorphanol, terbutaline, isoproterenol, and dantrolene on smooth and skeletal muscles of the equine esophagus. (United States)

    Wooldridge, Anne A; Eades, Susan C; Hosgood, Giselle L; Moore, Rustin M


    To characterize the in vitro effects of oxytocin, acepromazine, xylazine, butorphanol, detomidine, dantrolene, isoproterenol, and terbutaline on skeletal and smooth muscle from the equine esophagus. 14 adult horses without digestive tract disease. Circular and longitudinal strips from the skeletal and smooth muscle of the esophagus were suspended in tissue baths, connected to force-displacement transducers interfaced with a physiograph, and electrical field stimulation was applied. Cumulative concentration-response curves were generated for oxytocin, acepromazine, xylazine, detomidine, butorphanol, isoproterenol, terbutaline, and dantrolene. Mean maximum twitch amplitude for 3 contractions/min was recorded and compared with predrug-vehicle values for the skeletal muscle segments, and area under the curve (AUC) for 3 contractions/min was compared with predrug-vehicle values for the smooth muscle segments. No drugs caused a significant change in skeletal muscle response. In smooth muscle, isoproterenol, terbutaline, and oxytocin significantly reduced AUC in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximum reduction in AUC was 69% at 10(-4) M for isoproterenol, 63% at 10(-6) M for terbutaline, and 64% at 10(-4) M for oxytocin. Isoproterenol, terbutaline, and oxytocin cause relaxation of the smooth muscle portion of the esophagus. The clinical relaxant effects on the proximal portion of the esophagus reported of drugs such as oxytocin, detomidine, and acepromazine may be the result of centrally mediated mechanisms.

  1. [Effect of edaravone on oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis induced by isoproterenol in rats]. (United States)

    Wang, Shixiang; Lu, Zhifeng; Xu, Wei; Chen, Youquan; Chen, Ximing


    To investigate the effect of edaravone on oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis induced by isoproterenol in rats. Fifty male SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups, including a control group, a myocardial fibrosis model (established by injections of isopropyl adrenaline for 10 days) group, and 3 edaravone groups with edaravone treatment at low, medium, or high doses for 14 days. After the treatments, the rats were examined for the degree of myocardial fibrosis, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), collagen volume fraction (CVF), and myocardial contents of collagen I (Col I), collage III (Col III), hydroxyproline (Hyp), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO); The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in the myocardial tissues was examined by immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. Compared with the control rats, the rat models of myocardial fibrosis showed significantly increased CVF and LVMI (P=0.000), which were lowered by edaravone treatments in a dose-dependent manner (Pedaravone; the contents of MDA was higher (P=0.000) and SOD and NO were lower in the model group (P=0.000), and edaravone treatments obviously increased SOD and NO contents (Pedaravone treatments (P=0.000). The myocardial content of MDA was positively correlated while SOD and NO were negatively with LVMI, CVF, Col I, Col III and Hyp; TGF-β1 was positively correlated with LVMI, CVF, Col I, Col III, Hyp and MDA but negatively with SOD and NO. Edaravone can relieve oxidative stress and inhibit TGF-β1 activation to ameliorate myocardial fibrosis in rats.

  2. Investigation of the Protective Effect of Kefir against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats. (United States)

    Mert, Handan; Yılmaz, Hikmet; Irak, Kıvanç; Yıldırım, Serkan; Mert, Nihat


    This study aims to investigate the protective effects of kefir against myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol (ISO). The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, each group consisting of 8 rats. The control group, the kefir group (5 mL/kg/d kefir administered to rats as intra-gastric gavage for 60 d), the ISO group (100 mg/kg ISO was administered to rats, s.c. on 61. and 62. d), and kefir+ISO group (5 mL/kg/d kefir was administered to rats intra gastric gavage for 60 days prior to ISO, 100 mg/kg in two doses on day 61 and 62). 12 h after the last ISO dose, all rats were decapitated and their blood samples were collected. Cardiac tissue was reserved for histopathological examination. creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, total cholesterol,very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and glucose were measured by autoanalyzer, whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and plasma advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels were measured spectrophotometrically. It was determined that in the group of kefir+ISO, the levels of AST ( p <0.001), CK ( p <0.001), LDH ( p <0.001), MDA ( p <0.001) and AOPP ( p <0.001) were decreased, while the GSH ( p <0.05) increased, compared to ISO group. There were no significant changes in lipid profile and glucose levels between these two groups. In conclusion, by examining cardiac enzymes and histopathological changes in cardiac tissue, it can be concluded that the administration of kefir in myocardial infarction induced by ISO can protect the heart with its antioxidant characteristic and minimize the toxic damage created by ISO.

  3. Desmodium gangeticum root extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Hitler


    Full Text Available Context: Desmodium gangeticum (L DC (Fabaceae; DG, a medicinal plant that grows in tropical habitats, is widely used to treat various ailments including digestive and inflammatory disorders. Aims: To investigate the possible cardioprotective activity of a DG root extract against isoproterenol (ISO-induced left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH in adult Wistar rats. Methods: Daily intraperitoneal administration of ISO (10 mg/kg body weight, single injection for 7 days induced LVH in rats. The LVH rats were post-treated orally with DG (100 mg/kg body weight for a period of 30 days. Thereafter, changes in heart weight (HW and body weight (BW, HW/BW ratio, percent of hypertrophy, collagen accumulation, activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -2 and -9, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzymes, and the level of an oxidative stress marker, lipid peroxide (LPO, were determined. Results: HW/BW ratio, an indicator of hypertrophic growth, was significantly reduced in DG root post-treated LVH rats as compared with that for the non-treated LVH rats. The altered levels of ventricular LPO, collagen, MMPs-2 and -9, and antioxidant enzymes in the ISO-treated animals reverted back to near normal upon DG treatment. Further, the anti-hypertrophic activity of DG was comparable to that of the standard drug losartan (10 mg/kg. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the aqueous root extract of DG exhibited anti-hypertrophic activity in-vivo by inhibiting ISO-induced ROS generation and MMP activities.

  4. [A Case of HPN, In Which QOL Improvement Was Achieved by Combining Continuous Infusion with Once-Weekly Intermittent Infusion - Contribution of Pharmacists to Health Promotion among Home Patients Receiving Infusion Therapy]. (United States)

    Takeda, Namihiro; Hamana, Tomoko; Oka, Toyoka; Hirohara, Masayoshi; Kushida, Kazuki


    Patients receiving parenteral nutrition at home have the following two options: 24-h continuous or intermittent infusion. To date, for patients with impaired glucose tolerance and/or other metabolic disorders or for those with decreased cardiac/ pulmonary/renal function, it is desirable to opt for continuous infusion to minimize the variance in the body's metabolic rate as much as possible. Furthermore, it should be noted that continuous infusion evokes a stronger feeling among patients of being constrained because it restricts their everyday activities. This case witnesses collaborations among the patient's doctor, dispensary's pharmacy, and patient's family. Because ofthe use ofintermittent infusion more or less once per week in addition to continuous infusion, significant improvement in quality of life was achieved, and the patient was able to enjoy taking a short trip. To assist a home patient receiving infusion therapy, it is essential that the pharmacist be equipped with skills to manage risks associated with infusion therapy and have knowledge about insurance to cover incidents concerning infusion fluids or medical materials. It will certainly depend on the degree ofindependence ofpatients and the level ofcare their families can provide; however, should we manage to use a similar medical procedure in at least a few cases in the future, we may be able to contribute to "joie de vivre" in home patients receiving infusion therapy.

  5. intravenous infusion of chlorimipramine (anafranil)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the already extensive outpatient facilities at Johannesburg. Hospital as well as the Tara Neuro-Psychiatric Hospital for long-term therapy. Technique of Chlorimipramine Infusion. Initially 1 ampoule of chlorimipramine 25 mg in 250 mg of 5°~ dextrose saline was administered intravenously at the rate of 60 drops per minute.

  6. Infusion of radionuclides throughout pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford-Lister, P.G.; Lambert, B.E.; Milner, A.C.; Kang, X.Z.


    This work is part of a long-term study to examine the cancer incidence in the offspring of mice exposed to 239 Pu or 147 Pm throughout pregnancy. The need to model the human intake scenario and the possibility of a critical period during uterine development necessitates constant availability of radionuclides throughout pregnancy. Various methods (multiple daily injections, infusion by external cannula and infusion by indwelling osmotic pump) have been examined and osmotic infusion pumps chosen. These pumps result in a near-constant blood concentration for up to 21 days. Part of the study is the estimation of dose to the critical haemopoietic tissues of the pup from a knowledge of the radionuclide distribution and kinetics. At present the distribution has been followed from birth to 180 days. Activity in the suckling pups at 7 days old is around 1 percent of the infused activity, though most of this is accounted for by the contents of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract. The liver and femur account for around 0.025 percent and 0.012 percent respectively per pup. Activity increases in both liver and femur during lactation after which both concentration and activity fall with time. Long-term studies with the pups of dams exposed to a range of 239 Pu concentrations between 0-70 kBq/kg are underway. Correlation of average organ dose with tumour incidence will be determined at completion of the life-span study. (Author) 39 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  7. The production of coagulation factor VII by adipocytes is enhanced by tumor necrosis factor-α or isoproterenol. (United States)

    Takahashi, N; Yoshizaki, T; Hiranaka, N; Kumano, O; Suzuki, T; Akanuma, M; Yui, T; Kanazawa, K; Yoshida, M; Naito, S; Fujiya, M; Kohgo, Y; Ieko, M


    A relationship has been reported between blood concentrations of coagulation factor VII (FVII) and obesity. In addition to its role in coagulation, FVII has been shown to inhibit insulin signals in adipocytes. However, the production of FVII by adipocytes remains unclear. We herein investigated the production and secretion of FVII by adipocytes, especially in relation to obesity-related conditions including adipose inflammation and sympathetic nerve activation. C57Bl/6J mice were fed a low- or high-fat diet and the expression of FVII messenger RNA (mRNA) was then examined in adipose tissue. 3T3-L1 cells were used as an adipocyte model for in vitro experiments in which these cells were treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or isoproterenol. The expression and secretion of FVII were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The expression of FVII mRNA in the adipose tissue of mice fed with high-fat diet was significantly higher than that in mice fed with low-fat diet. Expression of the FVII gene and protein was induced during adipogenesis and maintained in mature adipocytes. The expression and secretion of FVII mRNA were increased in the culture medium of 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with TNF-α, and these effects were blocked when these cells were exposed to inhibitors of mitogen-activated kinases or NF-κB activation. The β-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol stimulated the secretion of FVII from mature adipocytes via the cyclic AMP/protein kinase A pathway. Blockade of secreted FVII with the anti-FVII antibody did not affect the phosphorylation of Akt in the isoproterenol-stimulated adipocytes. Obese adipose tissue produced FVII. The production and secretion of FVII by adipocytes was enhanced by TNF-α or isoproterenol via different mechanisms. These results indicate that FVII is an adipokine that plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  8. Differential effects of isoproterenol on the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme in the rat heart and aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busatto V.C.W.


    Full Text Available The excessive stimulation of beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart induces myocardial hypertrophy. There are several experimental data suggesting that this hypertrophy may also depend, at least partially, on the increase of local production of angiotensin II secondary to the activation of the cardiac renin-angiotensin system. In this study we investigated the effects of isoproterenol on the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE in the heart and also in the aorta and plasma. Male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 305 g were treated with a dose of (±-isoproterenol (0.3 mg kg-1 day-1, N = 8 sufficient to produce cardiac hypertrophy without deleterious effects on the pumping capacity of the heart. Control rats (N = 7 were treated with vehicle (corn oil. The animals were killed one week later. ACE activity was determined in vitro in the four cardiac chambers, aorta and plasma by a fluorimetric assay. A significant hypertrophy was observed in both ventricular chambers. ACE activity in the atria remained constant after isoproterenol treatment. There was a significant increase (P<0.05 of ACE activity in the right ventricle (6.9 ± 0.9 to 8.2 ± 0.6 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 and in the left ventricle (6.4 ± 1.1 to 8.9 ± 0.8 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1. In the aorta, however, ACE activity decreased (P<0.01 after isoproterenol (41 ± 3 to 27 ± 2 nmol His-Leu g-1 min-1 while it remained unchanged in the plasma. These data suggest that ACE expression in the heart can be increased by stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors. However, this effect is not observed on other local renin-angiotensin systems, such as the aorta. Our data also suggest that the increased sympathetic discharge and the elevated plasma concentration of catecholamines may contribute to the upregulation of ACE expression in the heart after myocardial infarction and heart failure.

  9. In vivo pretreatment of Eudrilus eugeniae powder attenuates β-adrenoceptor toxicity mediated by isoproterenol in rat model


    Jaganathan Anitha; Kadarkarai Murugan; Akon Higuchi; Abdullah A. Alarfaj; Murugan A. Munusamy; Giovanni Benelli


    The present study was designed to discover the potential cardioprotective function of earthworm powder (EWP) extracted from Eudrilus eugeniae on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups, with six rats in each group. Certain rats were pretreated with EWP (200 mg/kg bwt) (Group III), and a myocardial infarction was then induced by subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bwt) (Group II). Oral pretreatment of 200 mg/kg bwt of EW...

  10. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats (United States)


    Background and the purpose of the study The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil) on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI). Methods The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normal control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day) for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI. Results Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36%) and flavonoids (1.86%). Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in the serum and the myocardium. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities. PMID:23351503

  11. Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of Cardioprotective Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Ocimum Basilicum L. (Basil Against Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Soraya


    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI.Methods: The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normalcontrol, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI.Results: Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36% and flavonoids (1.86%.Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both inthe serum and the myocardium.Conclusion: The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities.

  12. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cardioprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathiazad Fatemeh


    Full Text Available Abstract Background and the purpose of the study The objectives of the present study were phytochemical screening and study of the effects of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum (basil on cardiac functions and histopathological changes in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction (MI. Methods The leaves of the plant were extracted with ethanol by maceration and subjected to colorimetry to determine flavonoids and phenolic compounds. High-performance TLC analysis and subsequent CAMAG's TLC scanning were performed to quantify rosmarinic acid content. Wistar rats were assigned to 6 groups of normal control, sham, isoproterenol, and treatment with 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of the extract two times per day concurrent with MI induction. A subcutaneous injection of isoproterenol (100 mg/kg/day for 2 consecutive days was used to induce MI. Results Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds (5.36% and flavonoids (1.86%. Rosmarinic acid was the principal phenolic compound with a 15.74% existence. The ST-segment elevation induced by isoproterenol was significantly suppressed by all doses of the extract. A severe myocardial necrosis and fibrosis with a sharp reduction in left ventricular contractility and a marked increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure were seen in the isoproterenol group, all of which were significantly improved by the extract treatment. In addition to in-vitro antioxidant activity, the extract significantly suppressed the elevation of malondialdehyde levels both in the serum and the myocardium. Conclusion The results of the study demonstrate that Ocimum basilicum strongly protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced infarction and suggest that the cardioprotective effects could be related to antioxidative activities.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiyanto Iqbal Nugroho


    Penelitian ini menghasilkan suatu alat monitoring tetesan infus yang dapat memberikan informasi mengenai laju kecepatan tetesan dan kondisi cairan pada infus. Sistem yang secara realtime dimonitoring oleh perawat ini dapat mengurangi permasalahan yang timbul karena kelalaian petugas. Sehingga perawat tidak secara manual dalam mengatur kecepatan tetesan infus dan meningkatkan pelayanan kepada pasien.

  14. 21 CFR 880.5725 - Infusion pump. (United States)


    ... Infusion pump. (a) Identification. An infusion pump is a device used in a health care facility to pump fluids into a patient in a controlled manner. The device may use a piston pump, a roller pump, or a... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Infusion pump. 880.5725 Section 880.5725 Food and...

  15. Protective effect of Azolla microphylla on biochemical, histopathological and molecular changes induced by isoproterenol in rats. (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Sreenath Kunnathupara; Kannappan, Poornima


    Azolla microphylla is an important fast-growing aquatic plant trusted for its agronomic, nutritious and therapeutic uses. The present work is undertaken to investigate the protective effect of the ethanolic extract of Azolla microphylla (EAM) against the Isoproterenol (ISO) induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Rats were pre-treated with EAM (250 and 500mg/kg b.w.) for 28 days along with ISO (85mg/kg; s.c.) on the 29th and 30th days. ISO-induced rats displayed significant diminution in cardiac antioxidant enzymes activities, increased lipid peroxidation and alteration in cardiac marker enzymes. The same group also displayed an increase in levels of serum lipid profiles and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) accompanied with a significant reduction in the anti-inflammatory cytokine levels (IL-10). Moreover, the histopathological investigations in the heart tissue of ISO-induced group exhibited myocardial necrosis and inflammation, which correlated with the increased immunoreactivity for Bax/iNOS, whereas an absence of reactivity for Bcl-2 proteins. However, in EAM pre-treated rats, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, cardiac marker enzymes, membrane-bound ATPases together with the levels of lipid profile, non-enzymatic antioxidants, pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines were maintained at normalcy that was further supported by improving histopathological changes and myocardial architecture. The IHC results of EAM pre-treated rats indicate up-regulated and down-regulated expressions of Bcl-2 and Bax/iNOS proteins, respectively. Thus, the present study reveals that A. microphylla alleviates myocardial damage in ISO-induced cardiac injury and demonstrates cardioprotective potential which could be attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. A possible mechanism for the protective effect is the elevated expression of endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes, anti-inflammatory cytokines, degraded lipid peroxidation products and improved

  16. Planetary Science Technology Infusion Study: Findings and Recommendations Status (United States)

    Anderson, David J.; Sandifer, Carl E., II; Sarver-Verhey, Timothy R.; Vento, Daniel M.; Zakrajsek, June F.


    The Planetary Science Division (PSD) within the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Science Mission Directorate (SMD) at NASA Headquarters sought to understand how to better realize a scientific return on spacecraft system technology investments currently being funded. In order to achieve this objective, a team at NASA Glenn Research Center was tasked with surveying the science and mission communities to collect their insight on technology infusion and additionally sought inputs from industry, universities, and other organizations involved with proposing for future PSD missions. This survey was undertaken by issuing a Request for Information (RFI) activity that requested input from the proposing community on present technology infusion efforts. The Technology Infusion Study was initiated in March 2013 with the release of the RFI request. The evaluation team compiled and assessed this input in order to provide PSD with recommendations on how to effectively infuse new spacecraft systems technologies that it develops into future competed missions enabling increased scientific discoveries, lower mission cost, or both. This team is comprised of personnel from the Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program and the In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Program staff.The RFI survey covered two aspects of technology infusion: 1) General Insight, including: their assessment of barriers to technology infusion as related to infusion approach; technology readiness; information and documentation products; communication; integration considerations; interaction with technology development areas; cost-capped mission areas; risk considerations; system level impacts and implementation; and mission pull. 2) Specific technologies from the most recent PSD Announcements of Opportunities (AOs): The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), aerocapture and aeroshell hardware technologies, the NASA Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) ion propulsion system, and the

  17. Attribute Based Selection of Thermoplastic Resin for Vacuum Infusion Process: A Decision Making Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavalu Thirumalai, Durai Prabhakaran; Lystrup, Aage; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom


    The composite industry looks toward a new material system (resins) based on thermoplastic polymers for the vacuum infusion process, similar to the infusion process using thermosetting polymers. A large number of thermoplastics are available in the market with a variety of properties suitable...... be beneficial. In this paper, the authors introduce a new decision making tool for resin selection based on significant attributes. This article provides a broad overview of suitable thermoplastic material systems for vacuum infusion process available in today’s market. An illustrative example—resin selection...... for vacuum infused of a wind turbine blade—is shown to demonstrate the intricacies involved in the proposed methodology for resin selection....

  18. Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from periparturient dairy cows and cows with clinical ketosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Drift, S. G. A.; Everts, R. R.; Houweling, M.; van Leengoed, L. A. M. G.; Stegeman, J. A.; Tielens, A. G. M.; Jorritsma, R.

    An in vitro model was used to investigate effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol (beta-adrenergic receptor agonist) on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from late pregnant and recently calved dairy cows (n = 5) and cows with clinical ketosis (n =3). Incubation with 3.0 mmol/L

  19. Diltiazem Reduces Mortality and Breakdown of ATP in Red Blood Cell Induced by Isoproterenol in a Freely Moving Rat Model in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollen K.F. Yeung


    Full Text Available The benefit of calcium channel blockers for cardiovascular prevention against heart attack and stroke has not been firmly supported. We investigated the possible cardiovascular protective effect of diltiazem (DTZ against injury induced by isoproterenol using a freely moving rat model in vivo. Sprague Dawley rats were injected subcutaneously (sc with either 5 or 10 mg/kg of DTZ, or saline as control, twice daily for five doses. One hour after the last injection, a single dose of isoproterenol (30 mg/kg was injected sc to each rat. Blood samples were collected serially for 6 h for measurement of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP in red blood cell (RBC by a validated HPLC. The study has shown isoproterenol induced 50% mortality and also increased RBC concentrations of AMP from 0.04 ± 0.02 to 0.29 ± 0.21 mM at the end of the experiment (p < 0.05. Treatment with 10 mg/kg of DTZ reduced mortality from 50% to <20% and attenuated the increase of RBC concentrations of AMP from +0.25 ± 0.22 in the control rats to +0.072 ± 0.092 mM (p < 0.05. The study concluded that 10 mg/kg of DTZ reduced mortality and breakdown of ATP induced by isoproterenol in rats.

  20. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølsen-Petersen, Jens Aage; Bendtzen, Klaus; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine


    with the other groups (Peffect on the postoperative concentration of selected plasma cytokines and the hormonal stress......BACKGROUND: Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery. METHODS: Sixty-two women undergoing abdominal hysterectomy were randomized...

  1. Curriculum Infusion as College Student Mental Health Promotion Strategy (United States)

    Mitchell, Sharon L.; Darrow, Sherri A.; Haggerty, Melinda; Neill, Thomas; Carvalho, Amana; Uschold, Carissa


    This article describes efforts to increase faculty involvement in suicide prevention and mental health promotion via curriculum infusion. The participants were faculty, staff, and 659 students enrolled in classes of a large eastern university from Fall 2007-Spring 2011. Counselors, health educators, and medical providers recruited faculty from a…

  2. Infusing Adlerian Theory into an Introductory Marriage and Family Course. (United States)

    LaFountain, Rebecca M.; Mustaine, Beverly L.


    Important contributions of "Individual Psychology" to marriage and family counseling are examined. Through "open forum family counseling," a framework is provided for infusing these ideas into training family practitioners. Key concepts, assessment techniques, strategies to help individuals understand their own family of…

  3. pH dependence of the isoproterenol-induced /sup 45/Ca net uptake into the ventricular myocardium of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, R


    Infarction-like or disseminated myocardial necroses can be produced in rats by high doses of isoprotenerol which stimulates the decomposition of energy-rich phosphates to a maximum. The paper shows that acidoses of different genesis (peroral administration of NH/sub 4/Cl, artificial respiration with CO/sub 2/) induced experimentally can inhibit the isoproterenol-induced /sup 45/Ca net uptake and the production of necroses. The findings suggest that Ca/sup + +/ ions play a key role in the production of myocardial necroses which has not been recognized until now - that increased Ca/sup + +/ uptake into damaged myocardial fibres is a result or, at the most, an accompanying symptom of necrosis production - should therefore be discarded.

  4. Angiotensin type 1 receptors in the subfornical organ mediate the drinking and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to systemic isoproterenol. (United States)

    Krause, Eric G; Melhorn, Susan J; Davis, Jon F; Scott, Karen A; Ma, Li Y; de Kloet, Annette D; Benoit, Stephen C; Woods, Stephen C; Sakai, Randall R


    Circulating angiotensin II (ANGII) elicits water intake and activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by stimulating angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1Rs) within circumventricular organs. The subfornical organ (SFO) and the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) are circumventricular organs that express AT1Rs that bind blood-borne ANGII and stimulate integrative and effector regions of the brain. The goal of these studies was to determine the contribution of AT1Rs within the SFO and OVLT to the water intake and HPA response to increased circulating ANGII. Antisense oligonucleotides directed against the AT1R [AT1R antisense (AT1R AS)] were administered into the OVLT or SFO. Quantitative receptor autoradiography confirmed that AT1R AS decreased ANGII binding in the SFO and OVLT compared with the scrambled sequence control but did not affect AT1R binding in other nuclei. Subsequently, water intake, ACTH, and corticosterone (CORT) were assessed after administration of isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist that decreases blood pressure and elevates circulating ANGII. Delivery of AT1R AS into the SFO attenuated water intake, ACTH, and CORT after isoproterenol, whereas similar treatment in the OVLT had no effect. To determine the specificity of this blunted drinking and HPA response, the same parameters were measured after treatment with hypertonic saline, a stimulus that induces drinking independently of ANGII. Delivery of AT1R AS into the SFO or OVLT had no effect on water intake, ACTH, or CORT after hypertonic saline. The results imply that AT1R within the SFO mediate drinking and HPA responses to stimuli that increase circulating ANGII.

  5. Infusing Systems Thinking into Career Counseling (United States)

    Ryan, Charles W.; Tomlin, James H.


    This study examined the role of career counselors in infusing systems thinking into occupational advising. The authors conducted a qualitative review and analysis of selected literature on systems thinking and analyzed trends for adaptation to career counseling practice. This analysis suggests that career counselors need to infuse systems…

  6. The History of Target-Controlled Infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struys, Michel M. R. F.; De Smet, Tom; Glen, John (Iain) B.; Vereecke, Hugo E. M.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Schnider, Thomas W.

    Target-controlled infusion (TCI) is a technique of infusing IV drugs to achieve a user-defined predicted (target) drug concentration in a specific body compartment or tissue of interest. In this review, we describe the pharmacokinetic principles of TCI, the development of TCI systems, and technical

  7. Measuring the influence of blood component infusion rate on recipient vital signs. (United States)

    Gehrie, E A; Hendrickson, J E; Tormey, C A


    One of the challenges surrounding blood component administration is the determination of an appropriate rate of infusion. There are very few evidence-based guidelines available to guide healthcare providers looking for a 'standard' infusion rate for red blood cells (RBCs), plasma or platelets (PLTs). Our objective was to determine the extent to which blood component infusion rates were associated with changes in transfusion recipient vital signs. We retrospectively examined records of 3496 component infusions (RBCs, n = 2359; PLTs, n = 478; plasma, n = 659) over a 1-year period at a 362-bed multispecialty hospital. The following data were collected for each transfusion: blood product volume and infusion time, recipient pre- and post-transfusion temperature, blood pressure and pulse rate, and hospital ward where transfusion occurred. Plasma (median 10.4 ml/min) was infused faster than PLTs (median 7.2 ml/min, P 20 ml/min) and clinically significant reported changes in vital signs. There does not appear to be a strong correlation between infusion rate and significant changes in recipient temperature, blood pressure or pulse rate. Based on these data, a reasonable rate for routine transfusion is 2-3 ml/min for RBCs and 7-10 ml/min for plasma and PLTs. Faster infusion rates (>20 ml/min) likely can be applied with close patient monitoring if there is a more urgent need for transfusion. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  8. Safe and tolerable one-hour pamidronate infusion for multiple myeloma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Chantzichristos


    Full Text Available Dimitrios Chantzichristos, Andréasson Björn, Johansson PeterDepartment of Internal Medicine, Uddevalla Hospital, Uddevalla, SwedenBackground: Once a month, patients with multiple myeloma received an infusion of bisphosphonates, principally to reduce osteoclastic bone resorption. Recommended infusion time for pamidronate is 2 hours in the US and 4 hours in Europe because of its potential nephrotoxicity. From 2003, a 90 mg infusion of pamidronate was provided over 1 hour to patients with no pre-existing renal impairment, in the Daily Care Unit at Uddevalla Hospital.Method: Retrospective analysis of the renal deterioration, serum calcium, and adverse effects in patients with multiple myeloma treated with 1-hour pamidronate 90 mg infusion from January 2003 to April 2007.Results: Seventy-nine patients provided valuable data. A total number of 846 infusions were given and the median number of infusion to each patient was 11. Significant creatinine elevation was seen in 7 patients (8.9%, after 19 infusions (2.2%. Renal deterioration occurred in 5 of these 7 patients, which was related to progress of the myeloma or opportunistic infections. Prevalence of infusion-related events was 0.8% and the mean total S-Ca was 0.05 mmol/L lower than the baseline.Conclusion: Few events of renal deterioration, hypocalcemia, or other adverse effects resulted from a 1-hour pamidronate 90 mg infusion for multiple myeloma patients with no pre-existing renal impairment.Keywords: bisphosphonates, pamidronate, multiple myeloma, infusion time

  9. Technology Infusion Challenges from a Decision Support Perspective (United States)

    Adumitroaie, V.; Weisbin, C. R.


    In a restricted science budget environment and increasingly numerous required technology developments, the technology investment decisions within NASA are objectively more and more difficult to make such that the end results are satisfying the technical objectives and all the organizational constraints. Under these conditions it is rationally desirable to build an investment portfolio, which has the highest possible technology infusion rate. Arguably the path to infusion is subject to many influencing factors, but here only the challenges associated with the very initial stages are addressed: defining the needs and the subsequent investment decision-support process. It is conceivable that decision consistency and possibly its quality suffer when the decision-making process has limited or no traceability. This paper presents a structured decision-support framework aiming to provide traceable, auditable, infusion- driven recommendations towards a selection process in which these recommendations are used as reference points in further discussions among stakeholders. In this framework addressing well-defined requirements, different measures of success can be defined based on traceability to specific selection criteria. As a direct result, even by using simplified decision models the likelihood of infusion can be probed and consequently improved.

  10. Antioxidant and Astroprotective Effects of a Pulicaria incisa Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Elmann


    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Astrocytes, the most abundant glial cells in the brain, protect neurons from reactive oxygen species (ROS and provide them with trophic support, such as glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF. Thus, any damage to astrocytes will affect neuronal survival. In the present study, an infusion prepared from the desert plant Pulicaria incisa (Pi was tested for its protective and antioxidant effects on astrocytes subjected to oxidative stress. The Pi infusion attenuated the intracellular accumulation of ROS following treatment with hydrogen peroxide and zinc and prevented the H2O2-induced death of astrocytes. The Pi infusion also exhibited an antioxidant effect in vitro and induced GDNF transcription in astrocytes. It is proposed that this Pi infusion be further evaluated for use as a functional beverage for the prevention and/or treatment of brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases in which oxidative stress plays a role.

  11. Myocardial scintigraphy with 16 /sup 123/I hexadecene-9 oic acid. Study of the influence of isoproterenol, propranolol, dipyridamole and isoptine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comet, M.; Wolf, J.E.; Pilichowski, P.; Busquet, G.; Dubois, F.; Mathieu, J.P.; Pernin, C.; Riche, F.; Vidal, M. ( Grenoble Universite, 38 - (France))


    After I.V. injection of /sup 123/I hexadecene-9 oic acid to dogs, the decreasing part of the myocardial activity curve is fitted with an exponential which period is calculated. Taking the anesthetized dog as reference, we study the influence of isoproterenol, propranolol, dipyridamole and isoptine on value of the period. None of the drugs modify significantly the period. Nevertheless, propranolol and isoptine and to a lesser extent dipyridamole have a tendancy to increase the value of the period.

  12. Strontium-rubidium infusion pump with in-line dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, S.L.; Loberg, M.D.


    A strontium-rubidium infusion system is described which consists of: (a) means for generating rubidium 82 in a solution which can be infused into a patient; (b) means for infusing the solution into a patient; (c) means for measuring the radioactivity present in the solution as it is infused into the patient; and (d) means for controlling the means for infusing in response to the amount of radioactivity which has been infused into the patient

  13. Differential expression of isoproterenol-induced salivary polypeptides in two mouse strains that are congenic for the H-2 histocompatibility gene complex. (United States)

    López Solís, Remigio O; Weis, Ulrike Kemmerling; Ceballos, Alicia Ramos; Salas, Gustavo Hoecker


    Two inbred mouse strains, A/Snell and A.Swiss, which were produced as congenic with regard to the H-2 histocompatibility gene complex, are homozygous for two different groups of isoproterenol-induced salivary polypeptides (IISP). These polypeptides, which have been considered as markers of the hypertrophic growth of the parotid acinar cells, are members of the complex family of salivary proline-rich proteins (PRP) on the basis of both their massive accumulation in the parotid acinar cells in response to chronic isoproterenol, secretory character, high solubility in trichloroacetic acid and metachromatic staining by Coomassie blue. IISP expressed in both mouse strains were identified by unidimensional SDS-polyacrylamide electrophoresis and Coomassie blue staining both in parotid gland homogenates and in whole salivas obtained from mice repeatedly stimulated at 24-h intervals with isoproterenol. Parotid glands from 40 mice (20 A/Snell and 20 A.Swiss) and salivas from 270 mice (200 A/Snell and 70 A.Swiss) were analyzed. One of the congenic strains (A/Snell) expressed five IISP (Mr 65, 61, 51.5, 38, and 37 kDa) and the other strain (A.Swiss) expressed six IISP (Mr 59, 57, 54.5, 46, 36, and 34 kDa). No inter-individual intra-strain variations were observed, thus defining strain-associated patterns of IISP (PRP). Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and toxicology of continuously infused nitroimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eifel, P.J.; Brown, J.M.


    The pharmacokinetics and toxicology of misonidazole (MISO) and SR-2508 given by continuous intraperitoneal infusion were studied in female C 3 H mice. The survival (time to death) of animals receiving continuous infusions of SR-2508 and MISO was compared and related to plasma concentration, rate of infusion and total amount of drug delivered. Brain and plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC. For SR-2508, plasma concentration was directly proportional to the infusion rate. However, as the infusion rate of MISO was doubled, the plasma concentration of MISO increased approximately 6-fold, reflecting a substantial increase in the apparent half-life. The brain/plasma concentration ratio in animals infused for up to 6 days with SR-2508 remained constant, at approximately 0.09. At plasma concentrations of 0.08-1.5 mM, animals receiving SR-2508 survived approximately 3 times as long as animals exposed to a comparable plasma concentration of MISO. Even at the lowest infusion rates employed in this study, the survival of mice receiving SR-2508 was much shorter than would have been predicted if the toxicity of these two drugs were solely related to the integral brain exposure. The low brain/plasma concentration ratio of SR-2508 was maintained throughout long continuous exposures

  15. The effect of glucagon on infusion cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.F.; Whitehouse, G.H.


    An assessment has been made of the effects of glucagon on biliary tract opacification during intravenous cholangiography. Two series of infusion cholangiograms were obtained at two investigating centres designated A and B. In series A, 41 patients had ioglycamide infusions at a rate of 0.2833 g min -1 over 1 h. In series B, 31 patients had ioglycamide infusions at a rate of 0.3886 g min -1 over 30 min. Radiographs were taken in both series immediately at the end of the infusion, 10 min later and 30 min after the infusion. Two mg of intravenous glucagon was injected into alternate cases in both series A and B immediately after the first radiograph was taken at the completion of the ioglycamide infusion. Two observers in each series then assessed the radiographic opacification of the biliary system without prior knowledge of which patients had received the glucagon. Delineation of the biliary system was considered better in both series in those patients who received glucagon when compared with the controls. Gallbladder opacification was definitely increased in series A in those receiving glucagon, and a similar tendency was shown in series B. The amount of contrast in the upper intestine was increased in series A in the glucagon group, but not in series B. It is concluded that glucagon improves visualisation of the biliary tract, especially the gallbladder at infusion cholangiography. (author)

  16. Thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic cerebral stroke: intraarterial urokinase infusion vs. intravenous heparin and urokinase infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Gi Young; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Jae Hong; Kim, Jun Hyoung; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Lee, Myoung Chong


    To evaluate the efficacy and limitation of intra-arterial urokinase (IAUK) infusion for treatment of acute cerebral stroke. Twenty-seven acute cerebral stroke patients treated with IAUK infusion within six hours of stroke onset were reviewed. All patients showed normal initial brain findings on CT. In 21 patients, urokinase(5-15 x 10 5 IU) was administered through a microcatheter placed into or proximal to occluded segment. Mechanical disruption of thrombus by guidewire was performed in 17 patients. Angiographic and clinical responses and complications after IAUK infusion, were evaluated and the results were compared with those of intravenous heparin(N=19) and urokinase infusion(N=19). Complete or partial angiographic recanalization of occluded segment was found in 18 patients (67%), and neurologic improvement was followed in 14 patients(52%). The degree of improvement on the stroke scale score after IAUK infusion was statistically more significant(p<0.05) than that shown after intravenous heparin and urokinase infusion. Complications after IAUK infusion were large(15%) and small amount intracerebral hemorrhage(15%), contrast leakage into brain parenchyma(11%), and gastrointestinal bleeding(4%). Between the IAVK and the intravenous urokinase infusion group, differences in extent and types of complications were statistically insignificant, but were significantly higher in those two groups than in the intravenous heparin infusion group. IAUK infusion may be effective for the treatment of acute cerebral stroke

  17. Krypton 81m infusion studies. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, E.; Mayron, L.W.; Friedman, A.M.; Gindler, J.E.


    A technique is described to give a continuous, constant-rate, intravascular infusion of 81 Krsup(m). Modifications of earlier generators included production of sodium-free 81 Rb, the use of a solution of commercial sterile isotonic non-ionic 5% dextrose-in-water as an eluant, the incorporation of a constant-rate infusion pump, and the miniaturization of the generator column and catheter system. Results are presented of studies of 81 Krsup(m) distribution in dogs, using both intravenous and intra-arterial infusion. (author)

  18. Low-dose factor VIII infusion in Chinese adult haemophilia A patients: pharmacokinetics evidence that daily infusion results in higher trough level than with every-other-day infusion with similar factor VIII consumption. (United States)

    Hua, B; Lee, A; Fan, L; Li, K; Zhang, Y; Poon, M-C; Zhao, Y


    Pharmacokinetics (PK) modelling suggests improvement of trough levels are achieved by using more frequent infusion strategy. However, no clinical study data exists to confirm or quantify improvement in trough level, particularly for low-dose prophylaxis in patients with haemophilia A. To provide evidence that low dose daily (ED) prophylaxis can increase trough levels without increasing FVIII consumption compared to every-other-day (EOD) infusion. A cross-over study on 5 IU kg -1 FVIII daily vs. 10 IU kg -1 EOD infusions, each for 14 days was conducted at the PUMCH-HTC. On the ED schedule, trough (immediate prior to infusion), and peak FVIII:C levels (30 min after infusion) were measured on days 1-5; and trough levels alone on days 7, 9, 11 and 13. For the EOD schedule, troughs, peaks and 4-h postinfusion were measured on day 1; troughs and peaks on days 3, 5, and 7; troughs alone on days 9, 11 and 13 and 24-h postinfusion on days 2, 4 and 6. FVIII inhibitors were assessed on days 0 and 14 during both infusion schedules. Six patients were enrolled. PK evidence showed that daily prophylaxis achieved higher (~2 times) steady-state FVIII trough levels compared to EOD with the same total factor consumption. The daily prophylaxis had good acceptability among patients and reduced chronic pain in the joints in some patients. Our PK study shows low-dose factor VIII daily infusion results in higher trough level than with EOD infusion with similar factor VIII consumption in Chinese adult haemophilia A patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Combined effects of x-irradiation and bleomycin on the proliferation of isoproterenol-stimulated mouse parotid glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoju, Masumi


    Effects of x-irradiation and bleomycin (BLM) on DNA synthesis in isoproterenol (IPR)-stimulated mouse parotid glands were investigated. The incorporation of thymidine- 3 H into DNA in parotid glands increased remarkably in 16 hours with a peak at 22 hours after the injection of IPR. When x-irradiation (250 rads) was given at 1 hour after IPR (early G 1 phase), the stimulation of DNA synthesis was inhibited by about 50%, and the beginning of DNA synthesis was delayed nearly 6 hours. BLM injected in the early G 1 phase was also effective in inhibiting DNA synthesis. However, the injection of BLM in the late G 1 or S phase did not interfere with DNA synthesis. Combined x-irradiation and BLM inhibited DNA synthesis and delayed the beginning of the S phase far more strikingly than did x-irradiation alone. When BLM was injected at various intervals before and after x-irradiation, the greatest inhibition was found just after irradiation. Therefore, a longer interval between x-irradiation and BLM injection had a tendency to decrease the rate of inhibiting DNA synthesis. These findings were confirmed by measuring the labeling index and the mitotic index in the acinar cells of the mouse parotid gland. These results suggest that simultaneous application of x-irradiation and BLM has the greatest effect. (Evans, J.)

  20. Alterations in NO/ROS ratio and expression of Trx1 and Prdx2 in isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Su; Marco Pistolozzi; Xingjuan Shi; Xiaoou Sun; Wen Tan


    The development of cardiac hypertrophy is a complicated process,which undergoes a transition from compensatory hypertrophy to heart failure,and the identification of new biomarkers and targets for this disease is greatly needed.Here we investigated the development of isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in an in vitro experimental model.After the induction of hypertrophy with ISO treatment in H9c2 cells,cell surface area,cell viability,cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS),and nitric oxide (NO) levels were tested.Our data showed that the cell viability,mitochondrial membrane potential,and NO/ROS balance varied during the development of cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cells.It was also found that the expression of thioredoxin1 (Trx1) and peroxiredoxin2 (Prdx2) was decreased during the cardiac hypertrophy of H9c2 cells.These results suggest a critical role for Trx1 and Prdx2 in the cardiac hypertrophy of H9c2 cells and in the transition from compensated hypertrophy to de-compensated hypertrophy in H9c2 cells,and our findings may have important implications for the management of this disease.

  1. Release of LHRH-activity from human fetal membranes upon exposure to PGE/sub 2/, oxytocin and isoproterenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poisner, A.M.; Poisner, R.; Becca, C.R.; Conn, P.M.


    The authors have previously reported that superfused chorion laeve (fetal membranes) release LHRH-like immunoreactivity upon exposure to angiotensin II. They have now studied the effects of other agonists on the release of LHRH-activity and something of its chemical nature. Fetal membranes were obtained from placentas delivered by cesarean section, the amnion stripped from the chorion, and the chorion superfused in an Amicon thin-channel device with the maternal surface facing up. The whole device was submerged in a 37 C water bath and perfused with a modified Locke's solution at 0.4 - 1.0 ml/min. LHRH-activity was measured by radioimmunoassay using three different antisera against LHRH. The release of LHRH-activity was stimulated by 6-10 min exposure to PGE/sub 2/, oxytocin, and isoproterenol. Extracts of chorion were studied using gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and ultrafiltration with Amicon PM-10 filters. The bulk of the LHRH-activity appeared as a higher molecular weight form (about 70,000 daltons). Since oxytocin has been reported to release PGE/sub 2/ from chorion, it may release LHRH-activity by virtue of liberating endogenous PGE/sub 2/. The chemical nature of the LHRH-activity is presently under investigation.

  2. Effects of chronic isoproterenol administration of β1-adrenoceptors and growth of pancreas of young and adult rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneyer, C.A.; Humphreys-Beher, M.


    [ 3 H]Dihydroalprenolol (DHA) binding of membranes of adult pancreas differed from that of pancreas of young rats, and the DHA binding in the presence of atenolol or butoxamine also was different in the two age groups. The adult pancreas had 93% β 2 - and 7% β 1 -adrenoceptors and did not exhibit an increased incorporation of [ 3 H]thymidine into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) following 2 days of DL-isoproterenol (ISO) administration; in contrast, pancreas of the 20-day-old rat had 71% β 2 -adrenoceptors and 27% β 1 -adrenoceptors and exhibited a 34-fold increase over that of adult, and a 6-fold increase over that of the control 20-day-old pancreas. Acinar cell differentiation was also accelerated by a 7-day regimen of ISO administration from 13 to 20 days of age. These growth responses to ISO appear to be β 1 mediated. The lack of β 1 -adrenoceptors in the adult may account for the failure of the adult pancreas to exhibit a growth response to ISO

  3. Integrating Quality and Safety Competencies to Improve Outcomes: Application in Infusion Therapy Practice. (United States)

    Sherwood, Gwen; Nickel, Barbara

    Despite intense scrutiny and process improvement initiatives, patient harm continues to occur in health care with alarming frequency. The Quality and Safety Education for Nursing (QSEN) project provides a roadmap to transform nursing by integrating 6 competencies: patient-centered care, teamwork and collaboration, evidence-based practice, quality improvement, safety, and informatics. As front-line caregivers, nurses encounter inherent risks in their daily work. Infusion therapy is high risk with multiple potential risks for patient harm. This study examines individual and system application of the QSEN competencies and the Infusion Nurses Society's 2016 Infusion Therapy Standards of Practice in the improvement of patient outcomes.

  4. A new infusion pathway intactness monitoring system. (United States)

    Ogawa, Hidekuni; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Maki, Hiromichi; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sata, Koji; Hamada, Shingo; Caldwell, W Morton


    A new infusion pathway monitoring system has been developed for hospital and home use. The system consists of linear integrated circuits and a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer which constantly monitors the infusion pathway intactness. An AC (alternating current) voltage is induced on the patient's body by electrostatic coupling from the normal 100 volt, 60 Hz AC power line wiring field in the patient's room. The induced AC voltage can be recorded by a main electrode wrapped around the infusion polyvinyl chloride tube. A reference electrode is wrapped on the electrode to monitor the AC voltage around the main electrode. If the injection needle or infusion tube becomes detached, then the system detects changes in the induced AC voltages and alerts the nursing station, via the nurse call system or PHS (personal handy phone system).

  5. Effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine infusion on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ahmed G. Yacout


    Dec 17, 2011 ... a Anaesthesia and Surgical Intensive Care Department, Faculty of Medicine, ... idine infusion in patients undergoing major abdominal surgery on stress .... the spinal cord, where drug activity attenuates nociceptive sig-.

  6. Carbon Nanotube Infused Launch Vehicle Structures (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For the past 5 years Orbital ATK has been investing in, prototyping, and testing carbon nanotube infused composite structures to evaluate their impact on launch...

  7. Infusion Antihypoxants in Children with Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Aleksandrovich


    Full Text Available Hypoxia and mitochondrial damage are a key component of the pathogenesis and tanatogenesis of a critical condition, suggesting the need for its prevention and maximally rapid elimination. Objective: to analyze the efficacy and safety of infusion antihypoxants used in critically ill children from the results of researches. Materials and methods. Available investigations dealing with infusion therapy in children and papers on the use of infusion antihypoxants in adults in 2005 to 2013 were sought in the medical databases PubMed and Cochrane Library with their free availability and analyzed. Results. The analysis included 70 trials. The pathophysiology and pathobiochemistry of hypoxia in critically ill children are given; the current principles of its correction by infusion therapy are considered in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on trials evaluating the efficacy and safety of succinic acid solutions in children. Main indications for and contraindications to their use are demonstrated. Conclusion. The use of Krebs cycle substrate-based infusion antihypoxants (malate, succinate is an effective and promising procedure for the intensive therapy and correction of hypoxia in both adults and children with critical conditions. Considering the fact that papers on the use of infusion antihypoxants in children are scanty, there is a need for further investigations. 

  8. Choice of infusion-sampling mode for tracer studies of free fatty acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Rogers, P.J.; Ellman, M.G.; Miles, J.M.


    To determine the preferred infusion-sampling mode for isotopic studies of free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism, tracer [( 14 C]palmitate) was infused into the left ventricle of five anesthetized dogs, and tracee ([ 3 H]palmitate) was infused into three separate peripheral veins of each dog. The [ 14 C]palmitate specific activity (SA) was lower in mixed venous than arterial blood, and [ 3 H]palmitate SA was equal in both sites. The actual infusion rate of [ 3 H]palmitate [2.15 +/- 0.31 X 10(5) disintegrations/min (dpm).kg-1.min-1] could be accurately predicted (2.14 +/- 0.32 X 10(5) using the known [ 14 C]palmitate infusion rate and the arterial plasma [ 14 C]-to-[ 3 H]palmitate ratio. In contrast, the mixed venous [ 14 C]-to-[ 3 H]palmitate ratio resulted in overestimates (P less than 0.05) of the actual [ 3 H]palmitate infusion rate. In summary, venous tracer infusion with arterial blood sampling for FFA tracer studies provides the most accurate estimates of tracee rate of appearance

  9. Retrospective analysis of detomidine infusion for standing chemical restraint in 51 horses. (United States)

    Wilson, D V; Bohart, G V; Evans, A T; Robertson, S; Rondenay, Y


    To assess the effectiveness of a detomidine infusion technique to provide standing chemical restraint in the horse. Retrospective study. Fifty-one adult horses aged 9.5 ± 6.9 years (range 1-23 years) and weighing 575 ± 290.3 kg. Records of horses presented to our clinic over a 3-year period in which a detomidine infusion was used to provide standing chemical restraint were reviewed. Information relating to the types of procedure performed, duration of infusion, drug dosages and adjunct drugs administered was retrieved. Detomidine was administered as an initial bolus loading dose (mean ± SD) of 7.5 ± 1.87 μg kg -1 . The initial infusion rate was 0.6 μg kg -1 minute -1 , and this was halved every 15 minutes. The duration of the infusion ranged from 20 to 135 minutes. Twenty horses received additional detomidine or butorphanol during the procedure. All horses undergoing surgery received local anesthesia or epidural analgesia in addition to the detomidine infusion. A wide variety of procedures were performed in these horses. Detomidine administered by infusion provides prolonged periods of chemical restraint in standing horses. Supplemental sedatives or analgesics may be needed in horses undergoing surgery. An effective method that provides prolonged periods of chemical restraint in standing horses is described. The infusion alone did not provide sufficient analgesia for surgery and a significant proportion of animals required supplemental sedatives and analgesics. Copyright © 2002 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Intravenous lignocaine infusion for intractable pain in Ewing's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivedita Page


    Full Text Available A 23-year-old female presented to our palliative care center with Ewing's sarcoma of the humerus with lung metastases. Pain in her arm was unrelieved by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, neuropathic medication as well as morphine. She could not tolerate any further increase in opioid dose but was so distraught due to the pain that she wanted to die. An intravenous lignocaine infusion in a dose of 2 mg/kg was given over an hour for three successive days. This successfully relieved her pain after which she was settled with her original medication. We feel that in palliative care settings, where intractable pain and tolerance to morphine are so common, intravenous lignocaine infusions could provide a safe and effective tool for pain relief.

  11. Subcutaneous insulin infusion: change in basal infusion rate has no immediate effect on insulin absorption rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, P.; Birch, K.; Jensen, B.M.; Kuehl, C.


    Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were simultaneously given subcutaneous infusions (1.12 IU/h each) of 125 I-labeled Actrapid insulin in each side of the abdominal wall. After 24 h of infusion, the size of the infused insulin depots was measured by external counting for 5 h. The basal infusion rate was then doubled in one side and halved in the other for the next 4 h. Finally, 1.12 IU/h of insulin was given in both sides of the abdominal wall for an additional 3 h. The changes in the size of the depots were measured, and the absorption rates for each hour were calculated. During the first 5 h of infusion, the depot size was almost constant (approximately 5 IU) with an absorption rate that equaled the infusion rate. Doubling the infusion rate led to a significant increase in depot size, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h, and only thereafter was a significant increase seen. When the infusion rate was reduced to the initial 1.12 IU/h, the absorption rate remained elevated during the next 3 h. Correspondingly, when the infusion rate was decreased, the depot size also decreased, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h. The results show that a change in the basal insulin infusion rate does not lead to any immediate change in the insulin absorption rate. This should be considered when planning an insulin-infusion program that includes alteration(s) in the basal-rate setting

  12. Microsurgical training on an in vitro chicken wing infusion model. (United States)

    Olabe, Jon; Olabe, Javier


    Microneurovascular anastomosis and aneurysm clipping require extensive training before mastering the technique and are a surgical challenge. We developed the "infused chicken wing method" to provide a simple but realistic training method minimizing animal use and need for special facilities for animal care and anesthesia. Fresh chicken wings were used in this model. The main brachial artery was cannulated, and water was infused at 140 mm Hg followed by anatomical neurovascular dissection. Multiple microsurgical training exercises were performed under microscope vision including terminoterminal, lateroterminal, laterolateral vascular anastomosis, and nerve anastomosis. Different complexity aneurysms were created using venous patches, clipping, rupture, and vascular reconstruction techniques were performed. This novel training model is inexpensive, easily obtainable, and no live animals are required. The diameter and characteristics of arteries and veins used are similar to those of the human brain. Great microsurgical technique progress may be obtained. The infused chicken wing artery model presents a realistic microvascular training method. It is inexpensive and easy to set up. Such simplicity provides the adequate environment for developing microsurgical technique. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Outlook Analgesic Infusion Pumps Market Size - Trends and Opportunity Forecast to 2023




    Analgesic infusion pumps are instruments used to carry analgesic drugs directly into patient’s body directly for pain management. Analgesic drugs provide relief from chronic disorders, including complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), failed back syndrome pain, myocardial infarction, pneumonia, myocardial ischemia, post-operative pain, and hypertension. Lidocaine, phenol and morphine are some of the common medicines used in analgesic infusion pumps. Explore Report At: https://www.psmarket...

  14. Effect of Piper betle on cardiac function, marker enzymes, and oxidative stress in isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. (United States)

    Arya, Dharamvir Singh; Arora, Sachin; Malik, Salma; Nepal, Saroj; Kumari, Santosh; Ojha, Shreesh


    The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective potential of Piper betle (P. betle) against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced myocardial infarction in rats. Rats were randomly divided into eight groups viz. control, ISP, P. betle (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) and P. betle (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) + ISP treated group. P. betle leaf extract (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg) or saline was orally administered for 30 days. ISP (85 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered at an interval of 24 h on the 28(th) and 29(th) day and on day 30 the functional and biochemical parameters were measured. ISP administration showed a significant decrease in systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP, MAP), heart rate (HR), contractility (+LVdP/dt), and relaxation (-LVdP/dt) and increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). ISP also caused significant decrease in myocardial antioxidants; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), and myocyte injury marker enzymes; creatine phosphokinase-MB (CK-MB) isoenzyme and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) along with enhanced lipid peroxidation; thiobarbituric acid reacting species (TBARS) in heart. Pre-treatment with P. betle favorably modulated hemodynamic (SAP, DAP, and MAP) and ventricular function parameters (-LVdP/dt and LVEDP). P. betle pre-treatment also restored SOD, CAT, GSH, and GPx, reduced the leakage of CK-MB isoenzyme and LDH along with decreased lipid peroxidation in the heart. Taken together, the biochemical and functional parameters indicate that P. betle 150 and 300 mg/kg has a significant cardioprotective effect against ISP-induced myocardial infarction. Results of the present study suggest the cardioprotective potential of P. betle.

  15. Isoproterenol induces vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction via a Giα-coupled β2-adrenoceptor signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana P Davel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Sustained β-adrenergic stimulation is a hallmark of sympathetic hyperactivity in cardiovascular diseases. It is associated with oxidative stress and altered vasoconstrictor tone. This study investigated the β-adrenoceptor subtype and the signaling pathways implicated in the vascular effects of β-adrenoceptor overactivation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice lacking the β1- or β2-adrenoceptor subtype (β1KO, β2KO and wild-type (WT were treated with isoproterenol (ISO, 15 μg.g(-1 x day(-1, 7 days. ISO significantly enhanced the maximal vasoconstrictor response (Emax of the aorta to phenylephrine in WT (+34% and β1KO mice (+35% but not in β2KO mice. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor L-NAME abolished the differences in phenylephrine response between the groups, suggesting that ISO impaired basal NO availability in the aorta of WT and β1KO mice. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, pertussis toxin (PTx or PD 98,059 (p-ERK 1/2 inhibitor incubation reversed the hypercontractility of aortic rings from ISO-treated WT mice; aortic contraction of ISO-treated β2KO mice was not altered. Immunoblotting revealed increased aortic expression of Giα-3 protein (+50% and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (+90% and decreased eNOS dimer/monomer ratio in ISO-treated WT mice. ISO enhanced the fluorescence response to dihydroethidium (+100% in aortas from WT mice, indicating oxidative stress that was normalized by SOD, PTx and L-NAME. The ISO effects were abolished in β2KO mice. CONCLUSIONS: The β2-adrenoceptor/Giα signaling pathway is implicated in the enhanced vasoconstrictor response and eNOS uncoupling-mediated oxidative stress due to ISO treatment. Thus, long-term β2-AR activation might results in endothelial dysfunction.

  16. Vocal fold submucosal infusion technique in phonomicrosurgery. (United States)

    Kass, E S; Hillman, R E; Zeitels, S M


    Phonomicrosurgery is optimized by maximally preserving the vocal fold's layered microstructure (laminae propriae). The technique of submucosal infusion of saline and epinephrine into the superficial lamina propria (SLP) was examined to delineate how, when, and why it was helpful toward this surgical goal. A retrospective review revealed that the submucosal infusion technique was used to enhance the surgery in 75 of 152 vocal fold procedures that were performed over the last 2 years. The vocal fold epithelium was noted to be adherent to the vocal ligament in 29 of the 75 cases: 19 from previous surgical scarring, 4 from cancer, 3 from sulcus vocalis, 2 from chronic hemorrhage, and 1 from radiotherapy. The submucosal infusion technique was most helpful when the vocal fold epithelium required resection and/or when extensive dissection in the SLP was necessary. The infusion enhanced the surgery by vasoconstriction of the microvasculature in the SLP, which improved visualization during cold-instrument tangential dissection. Improved visualization facilitated maximal preservation of the SLP, which is necessary for optimal pliability of the overlying epithelium. The infusion also improved the placement of incisions at the perimeter of benign, premalignant, and malignant lesions, and thereby helped preserve epithelium uninvolved by the disorder.

  17. Rocuronium: automatic infusion versus manual administration with TOF monitorisation. (United States)

    Ozturk Arikan, Fatma Gulcin; Turan, Guldem; Ozgultekin, Asu; Sivrikaya, Zubeyir; Cosar, Bekir Cem; Onder, Dondu Nisa


    TOF (train-of-four) monitoring provides objective data in application of neuromuscular blocking agent. Thus, applicator-based differences are eliminated and optimum muscle relaxation is maintained during operation. In the present study, we aimed to compare the effects of target-controlled infusion system and standard TOF monitoring, on use of rocuronium. ASA I-II patients, who were aged between 18 and 75 years and scheduled for elective abdominal surgery at Haydarpaşa Numune Training and Research Hospital, were enrolled in the study. In order to evaluate neuromuscular blockade, the patients in Group 1 were connected to the acceleromyography device of the target-controlled infusion pump (Veryark-CLMRIS-I-China) while the ones in Group 2 were connected to the routinely used acceleromyography device (TOF Watch SX). There was no significant difference between groups regarding patient characteristics, the durations of anaesthesia and surgery, quality of intubation, time to extubation and time to recovery (TOF ratio of 0.9). Intubation time was significantly longer in Group 1 (Automated group) as compared to Group 2 (Control group) (p rocuronium amount used in Group 1 was found to be significantly higher than the amount used in Group 2 (p rocuronium was administered via automatical infusion pump during anaesthesia.

  18. Liquid infused porous surfaces for mineral fouling mitigation. (United States)

    Charpentier, Thibaut V J; Neville, Anne; Baudin, Sophie; Smith, Margaret J; Euvrard, Myriam; Bell, Ashley; Wang, Chun; Barker, Richard


    Prevention of mineral fouling, known as scale, is a long-standing problem in a wide variety of industrial applications, such as oil production, water treatment, and many others. The build-up of inorganic scale such as calcium carbonate on surfaces and facilities is undesirable as it can result in safety risks and associated flow assurance issues. To date the overwhelming amount of research has mainly focused on chemical inhibition of scale bulk precipitation and little attention has been paid to deposition onto surfaces. The development of novel more environmentally-friendly strategies to control mineral fouling will most probably necessitate a multifunctional approach including surface engineering. In this study, we demonstrate that liquid infused porous surfaces provide an appealing strategy for surface modification to reduce mineral scale deposition. Microporous polypyrrole (PPy) coatings were fabricated onto stainless steel substrates by electrodeposition in potentiostatic mode. Subsequent infusion of low surface energy lubricants (fluorinated oil Fluorinert FC-70 and ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMIm)) into the porous coatings results in liquid-repellent slippery surfaces. To assess their ability to reduce surface scaling the coatings were subjected to a calcium carbonate scaling environment and the scale on the surface was quantified using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). PPy surfaces infused with BMIm (and Fluorinert to a lesser extent) exhibit remarkable antifouling properties with the calcium carbonate deposition reduced by 18 times in comparison to untreated stainless steel. These scaling tests suggest a correlation between the stability of the liquid infused surfaces in artificial brines and fouling reduction efficiency. The current work shows the great potential of such novel coatings for the management of mineral scale fouling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights



    Palanivel Karthika; Murugan Rajadurai; Palanisamy Ganapathy; Ganesan Kanchana


    This study evaluates the cardioprotective effect of esculetin on isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Rats were pretreated with esculetin (10 and 20 mg/kg) orally for a period of 21 days. After the treatment period ISO (85 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to rats at an interval of 24 h for 2 days. ISO-induced rats showed a significant increase in the activities of marker enzymes such as creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB), aspartate transaminase (...

  20. A new venous infusion pathway monitoring system. (United States)

    Maki, Hiromichi; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sata, Koji; Hamada, Shingo; Caldwell, W Morton


    A new infusion catheter pathway monitoring system employing linear integrated circuits and a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer has been developed for hospital and home use. The sensor consists of coaxial three-layer conductive tapes wrapped around the polyvinyl chloride infusion tube. The inner tape is the main electrode, which records an AC (alternating current) voltage induced on the patient's body by electrostatic coupling from the normal 100 volt, 60 Hz AC power line wiring field in the patient's room. The outside tape layer is a reference electrode to monitor the AC voltage around the main electrode. The center tape layer is connected to system ground and functions as a shield. The microcomputer calculates the ratio of the induced AC voltages recorded by the main and reference electrodes and if the ratio indicates a detached infusion, alerts the nursing station, via the nurse call system or low transmitting power mobile phone.

  1. Design of Infusion Schemes for Neuroreceptor Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling; Svarer, Claus; Madsen, Karine


    for bolus infusion (BI) or programmed infusion (PI) experiments. Steady-state quantitative measurements can be made with one short scan and venous blood samples. The GABAA receptor ligand [(11)C]Flumazenil (FMZ) was chosen for this purpose, as it lacks a suitable reference region. Methods. Five bolus [(11)C...... state was attained within 40 min, which was 8 min earlier than the optimal BI (B/I ratio = 55 min). Conclusions. The system can design both BI and PI schemes to attain steady state rapidly. For example, subjects can be [(11)C]FMZ-PET scanned after 40 min of tracer infusion for 40 min with venous...

  2. Forearm metabolism during infusion of adrenaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Stefl, B; Bülow, J


    Human skeletal muscle metabolism is often investigated by measurements of substrate fluxes across the forearm. To evaluate whether the two forearms give the same metabolic information, nine healthy subjects were studied in the fasted state and during infusion of adrenaline. Both arms were...... catheterized in a cubital vein in the retrograde direction. A femoral artery was catheterized for blood sampling, and a femoral vein for infusion of adrenaline. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. Forearm subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow was measured...... by the local 133Xe washout method. Metabolic fluxes were calculated as the product of forearm blood flow and a-v differences of metabolite concentrations. After baseline measurements, adrenaline was infused at a rate of 0.3 nmol kg-1 min-1. No difference in the metabolic information obtained in the fasting...

  3. Effect of steel and teflon infusion catheters on subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow and infusion counter pressure in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Skov-Jensen, Camilla; Kaastrup, Peter


    BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous tissue is an important target for drug deposition or infusion. A local trauma may induce alterations in local microcirculation and diffusion barriers with consequences for drug bioavailability. We examined the influence of infusion catheters' wear time on local...... microcirculation and infusion counter pressure. METHODS: One steel catheter and one Teflon (Dupont, Wilmington, DE) catheter were inserted in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue (SCAAT) in 10 healthy, lean men. The catheters were infused with isotonic saline at a rate of 10 microL/h for 48 h. Another steel...... catheter and a Teflon catheter were inserted contralateral to the previous catheters after 48 h. The infusion counter pressure was measured during a basal infusion rate followed by a bolus infusion. The measurements during a basal rate infusion were repeated after the bolus infusion. Adipose tissue blood...

  4. Intraosseous infusion in elective and emergency pediatric anesthesia: when should we use it? (United States)

    Neuhaus, Diego


    Difficulties to establish a venous access may also occur in routine pediatric anesthesia and lead to hazardous situations. Intraosseous infusion is a well tolerated and reliable but rarely used alternative technique in this setting. According to recent surveys, severe complications of intraosseous infusion stay a rare event. Minor complications and problems in getting an intraosseous infusion started on the other side seem to be more common than generally announced. The EZ-IO intraosseous infusion system has received expanded EU CE mark approval for an extended dwell time of up to 72 h and for insertion in pediatric patients in the distal femur. Key values of blood samples for laboratory analysis can be obtained with only 2 ml of blood/marrow waste and do also offer reliable values using an I-Stat point-of-care analyzer. Most problems in using an intraosseous infusion are provider-dependent. In pediatric anesthesia, the perioperative setting should further contribute to reduce these problems. Nevertheless, regular training, thorough anatomical knowledge and prompt availability especially in the pediatric age group are paramount to get a seldom used technique work properly under pressure. More longitudinal data on large cohorts were preferable to further support the safety of the intraosseous infusion technique in pediatric patients.

  5. Subanesthetic, Subcutaneous Ketamine Infusion Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Nonmalignant Pain. (United States)

    Zekry, Olfat; Gibson, Stephen B; Aggarwal, Arun


    This study was designed to describe the efficacy and toxicity of subcutaneous ketamine infusions and sublingual ketamine lozenges for the treatment of chronic nonmalignant pain. Data were collected prospectively on 70 subjects managed in an academic, tertiary care hospital between 2007 and 2012 who received between 3 and 7 days of subanesthetic, subcutaneous ketamine infusion. Data were analyzed for efficacy, adverse effects, and reduction in use of opioid medication. We also analyzed whether subsequent treatment with sublingual ketamine lozenges resulted in longer-term efficacy of the beneficial effects of the initial ketamine infusion. There was a significant reduction in pain intensity measured by numerical rating scale (NRS) from mean of 6.38 before ketamine to 4.60 after ketamine (P ketamine infusion from a mean morphine equivalent dose (MMED) of 216 mg/day before ketamine to 89 mg/day after ketamine (P ketamine infusion was 59%. No subjects increased their use of opioids during their hospitalization for the ketamine infusion. A small proportion of subjects who responded to the infusion were continued on ketamine lozenges. This group was followed for between 3 months and 2 years. The use of ketamine lozenges after the infusion resulted in 31% of these subjects being able to cease their use of opioids compared with only 6% who did not receive ketamine lozenges. Eleven percent of subjects who received lozenges subsequently increased their opioid usage. Adverse effects were fairly common, but only mild, with 46% of patients experiencing light-headedness and dizziness, 25% tiredness and sedation, 12% headaches, 12% hallucinations, and 8% vivid dreams. Adverse effects were easily managed by reducing the rate of the ketamine infusion. The administration of subanesthetic, subcutaneous ketamine infusion was well tolerated, with mostly mild adverse effects and no serious adverse effects. The infusion provided significant pain relief in subjects who had failed a wide

  6. Propofol Infusion Syndrome Heralded by ECG Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mijzen, Elsbeth J.; Jacobs, Bram; Aslan, Adnan; Rodgers, Michael G. G.


    Propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) is well known, often associated with, lethal complication of sedation with propofol. PRIS seems to be associated with young age, traumatic brain injury (TBI), higher cumulative doses of propofol, and the concomitant use of catecholamines. Known manifestations of

  7. Comparison of infusion pumps calibration methods (United States)

    Batista, Elsa; Godinho, Isabel; do Céu Ferreira, Maria; Furtado, Andreia; Lucas, Peter; Silva, Claudia


    Nowadays, several types of infusion pump are commonly used for drug delivery, such as syringe pumps and peristaltic pumps. These instruments present different measuring features and capacities according to their use and therapeutic application. In order to ensure the metrological traceability of these flow and volume measuring equipment, it is necessary to use suitable calibration methods and standards. Two different calibration methods can be used to determine the flow error of infusion pumps. One is the gravimetric method, considered as a primary method, commonly used by National Metrology Institutes. The other calibration method, a secondary method, relies on an infusion device analyser (IDA) and is typically used by hospital maintenance offices. The suitability of the IDA calibration method was assessed by testing several infusion instruments at different flow rates using the gravimetric method. In addition, a measurement comparison between Portuguese Accredited Laboratories and hospital maintenance offices was performed under the coordination of the Portuguese Institute for Quality, the National Metrology Institute. The obtained results were directly related to the used calibration method and are presented in this paper. This work has been developed in the framework of the EURAMET projects EMRP MeDD and EMPIR 15SIP03.

  8. Infusing Functional Law into the Classroom. (United States)

    Frieman, Barry B.; Fine, Bobbie

    The court system touches the lives of many children in the school system, some through divorce, and others through their own illegal behavior. Principals and administrators need to infuse a functional knowledge of the legal system so that these children will be better able to cope and deal with life events that cause them to be placed in contact…

  9. Reaction between infusion water and methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettinger, I L


    This paper discusses the effect of infused water on the initial gas emission rate and on the pore structure of the coal. Water traps methane in micro-pores, so that lengthy periods are needed for the methane to penetrate large voids and cavities.

  10. Routine saline infusion sonohysterography prior to assisted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    53.85%), 8 (30.77%) and 4 (15.38%) respectively. The average duration of the procedure was 6 minutes with a range of 4-9 minutes. Saline infusion sonohysterography is a reliable, cost effective and safe diagnostic tool in the evaluation of the ...

  11. Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract ameliorates lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarcted rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Althaf Hussain Shaik


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract (TpFE on lipids, lipoproteins, lipid metabolism marker enzymes and paraoxonase (PON in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial infarcted rats. PON is an excellent serum antioxidant enzyme which involves in the protection of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C from the process of oxidation for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. ISO caused a significant increase in the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and lipid peroxidation whereas significant decrease in the concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. ISO administration also significantly decreased the activities of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase, PON and lipoprotein lipase whereas significantly increased the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase. Oral pretreatment of TpFE at doses 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight (bw and gallic acid (15 mg/kg bw for 30 days challenged with concurrent injection of ISO (85 mg/kg bw on 29th and 30th day significantly attenuated these alterations and restored the levels of lipids, lipoproteins and the activities of lipid metabolizing enzymes. Also TpFE significantly elevated the serum antioxidant enzyme PON. This is the first report revealed that pretreatment with TPFE ameliorated lipid metabolic marker enzymes and increased the antioxidant PON in ISO treated male albino Wistar rats. Keywords: Terminalia pallida fruit, Gallic acid, Isoproterenol, Lipid metabolism marker enzymes, Paraoxonase, Myocardial infarction

  12. 3H-thymidine autoradiographic study of cell proliferation and the influence of isoproterenol and kallikrein in various cell populations of the gastrointestinal tract in animal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, S.


    Morphological studies were carried out with the aim of studying cell proliferation in various tissues (stable and epithelial tissues) of the gastrointestinal tract. The cells were studied by 3 H thymidine autoradiography in the normal age cycle and under the influence of kallikrein or isoproterenol. Epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells of the forestomach, stomach, small intestine and colon were investigated and, in the case of the stomach, also connective-tissue cells of the mucotic stroma. Counts across the total epithelial thickness yielded similar results for the oesophagus and the forestomach. A count of 1000 cells per animal was found to yield representative information on a defined type of cell. Kallikrein was not found to have a constant mitosis-promoting effect. Isoproterenol caused the labelling index to increase or to decrease; in higher concentrations, it increased the proliferation rate in all cell types. In male animals, the labelling indices of connective-tissue cells of the gastric mucosa were significantly higher than in female animals. (orig./MG) [de

  13. Hepatic beta-oxidation and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in neonatal pigs after dietary treatments of clofibric acid, isoproterenol, and medium-chain triglycerides. (United States)

    Peffer, Pasha Lyvers; Lin, Xi; Odle, Jack


    A suckling piglet model was used to study nutritional and pharmacologic means of stimulating hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation. Newborn pigs were fed milk diets containing either long- or medium-chain triglycerides (LCT or MCT). The long-chain control diet was supplemented further with clofibric acid (0.5%) or isoproterenol (40 ppm), and growth was monitored for 10-12 days. Clofibrate increased rates of hepatic peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation of [1-(14)C]-palmitate by 60 and 186%, respectively. Furthermore, malonyl-CoA sensitive carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) activity increased 64% (P clofibrate. Increased CPT I activity was not congruent with changes in message, as elevated abundance of CPT I mRNA was not detected (P = 0.16) when assessed by qRT-PCR. Neither rates of beta-oxidation nor CPT activities were affected by dietary MCT or by isoproterenol treatment (P > 0.1). Collectively, these findings indicate that clofibrate effectively induced hepatic CPT activity concomitant with increased fatty acid beta-oxidation.

  14. Effects of β-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from periparturient dairy cows and cows with clinical ketosis. (United States)

    van der Drift, S G A; Everts, R R; Houweling, M; van Leengoed, L A M G; Stegeman, J A; Tielens, A G M; Jorritsma, R


    An in vitro model was used to investigate effects of β-hydroxybutyrate and isoproterenol (β-adrenergic receptor agonist) on lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from late pregnant and recently calved dairy cows (n=5) and cows with clinical ketosis (n=3). Incubation with 3.0 mmol/L β-hydroxybutyrate reduced lipolysis in isolated adipocytes. This inhibitory effect was lower in the first lactation week (47%±16%) compared with late pregnancy (71%±6.5%). Incubation with 0.3 μmol/L isoproterenol stimulated lipolysis in isolated adipocytes from periparturient dairy cows. Basal lipolysis resulted in non-esterified fatty acid to glycerol ratios in the incubation media of 2.0±0.23 in prepartum samples, 2.1±0.23 in the first lactation week and 2.2±0.09 in cows with clinical ketosis. β-Hydroxybutyrate reduced lipolysis by 45%±9.6% in isolated adipocytes from cows with clinical ketosis, indicating that impaired feedback of β-hydroxybutyrate may not play a role in the disease etiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electrocatalytic properties of functionalized carbon nanotubes with titanium dioxide and benzofuran derivative/ionic liquid for simultaneous determination of isoproterenol and serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazloum-Ardakani, Mohammad; Khoshroo, Alireza


    Highlights: • TiO 2 and benzofuran derivative were uniformly deposited onto carbon nanotubes • This nanocomposite can be used as a sensor in isoproterenol detection • This sensor shows a great enhancement in sensitivity, selectivity and stability - Abstract: In this paper we report synthesis and application of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO 2 ), 9-(1,3-dithiolan-2-yl)-6,7-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydrodibenzo[b,d] furan-1(2H)-one (benzofuran derivative (DDF)) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL) as high sensitive sensors for simultaneous determination of isoproterenol (IP) and serotonin (5-HT) using glassy carbon electrode. The modified electrode was characterized by different methods including a scanning electron microscope (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and voltammetry. A pair of well-defined redox peaks of DDF was obtained at the modified glassy carbon electrode by direct electron transfer between the DDF and the electrode. Dramatically enhanced electrocatalytic activity was exemplified at the modified electrode, as an electrochemical sensor to study the electro oxidation of IP and 5-HT. The differential pulse voltammetry data showed that the obtained anodic peak currents were linearly dependent on the IP and 5-HT concentrations in the range of 0.1–1300.0 and 1.0–650.0 μM, respectively. The applicability of the modified electrode was demonstrated by simultaneous determination of IP and 5-HT in human serum

  16. Bronchial arterial infusion versus bronchial combined pulmonary arterial infusion for pulmonary metastatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Sheng; Dong Weihua; Jia Ningyang; Zhang Dianbo; Xiao Xiangsheng


    Objective: To evaluate the pulmonary metastatic tumor response to different ways of transcatheter arterial infusion. Methods: Thirty-five patients with pulmonary metastatic tumors were randomized divided into two groups: 15 patients with 49 lesions treated with bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and 20 patients with 65 lesions treated with bronchial arterial infusion (BM)combined with pulmonary arterial infusion (PAI). The therapeutic response was assessed by the WHO evaluation criteria. Results: The total effective rate(CR + PR) of BAI was 65.3% (32/49), PAI + BAI was 61.5%(40/65) showing no statistical difference. The median survival time of BAI was 9 mo, BAI + PAI was 11.5 mo, demonstrating no statistical significance. Conclusions: BAI should be the primary treatment for pulmonary metastatic tumor. (authors)

  17. 75 FR 21641 - Infusion Pumps; Public Meeting; Request for Comments (United States)


    ...] Infusion Pumps; Public Meeting; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... announcing a public meeting regarding external infusion pumps. The purpose of the meeting is to inform the public about current problems associated with external infusion pump use, to help the agency identify...

  18. Continuous infusion of chemotherapy: focus on 5-fluorouracil and fluorodeoxyuridine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, R. L.; Bakker, P. J.; Veenhof, C. H.


    Continuous infusion of chemotherapy is one of the developments to try to improve the treatment of metastatic cancer. There is a sound theoretical rationale to deliver cytotoxic drugs as a continuous infusion. Furthermore, the development of reliable venous access devices and portable infusion pumps

  19. Comparative analytics of infusion pump data across multiple hospital systems. (United States)

    Catlin, Ann Christine; Malloy, William X; Arthur, Karen J; Gaston, Cindy; Young, James; Fernando, Sudheera; Fernando, Ruchith


    A Web-based analytics system for conducting inhouse evaluations and cross-facility comparisons of alert data generated by smart infusion pumps is described. The Infusion Pump Informatics (IPI) project, a collaborative effort led by research scientists at Purdue University, was launched in 2009 to provide advanced analytics and tools for workflow analyses to assist hospitals in determining the significance of smart-pump alerts and reducing nuisance alerts. The IPI system allows facility-specific analyses of alert patterns and trends, as well as cross-facility comparisons of alert data uploaded by more than 55 participating institutions using different types of smart pumps. Tools accessible through the IPI portal include (1) charts displaying aggregated or breakout data on the top drugs associated with alerts, numbers of alerts per device or care area, and override-to-alert ratios, (2) investigative reports that can be used to characterize and analyze pump-programming errors in a variety of ways (e.g., by drug, by infusion type, by time of day), and (3) "drill-down" workflow analytics enabling users to evaluate alert patterns—both internally and in relation to patterns at other hospitals—in a quick and efficient stepwise fashion. The formation of the IPI analytics system to support a community of hospitals has been successful in providing sophisticated tools for member facilities to review, investigate, and efficiently analyze smart-pump alert data, not only within a member facility but also across other member facilities, to further enhance smart pump drug library design. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How to use current practice, risk analysis and standards to define hospital-wide policies on the safe use of infusion technology. (United States)

    Timmerman, Annemoon M; Oliveira-Martens, Suzanne M; Snijder, Roland A; Nieman, Anders K; Egberts, Toine C


    Infusion therapy is widely used in hospitals. It is well known that medication errors constitute one of the highest risks to patient safety, leading to numerous adverse events concerning incorrect application of infusion technology. Both clinical practice and in vitro studies show that infusion of multiple medications via one access point induces unwanted phenomena such as backflow and an incorrect system response to interventions. Within the Metrology for Drug Delivery project, we addressed the role of infusion devices in drug delivery. We surveyed current practices for application in hospitals to provide input to standards and quality norms for the materials used in infusion technology. Furthermore, we organized meetings with clinicians and other relevant stakeholders to set up a risk analysis-based infusion policy, accompanied by easy to access operating procedures on infusion technology. It was found difficult to establish clear-cut infusion safety guidelines based on quantitative data because of the many different application areas and stakeholders. However, both the expert team and the survey indicated the value of multidisciplinary qualitative discussion for defining best practices. We advise to incorporate specific requirements on infusion devices in protocols and standards, adjusted to specific applications, to ensure safe use of infusion technology.

  1. Safety and feasibility of long-term intravenous sodium nitrite infusion in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard M Pluta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infusion of sodium nitrite could provide sustained therapeutic concentrations of nitric oxide (NO for the treatment of a variety of vascular disorders. The study was developed to determine the safety and feasibility of prolonged sodium nitrite infusion. METHODOLOGY: Healthy volunteers, aged 21 to 60 years old, were candidates for the study performed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH; protocol 05-N-0075 between July 2007 and August 2008. All subjects provided written consent to participate. Twelve subjects (5 males, 7 females; mean age, 38.8±9.2 years (range, 21-56 years were intravenously infused with increasing doses of sodium nitrite for 48 hours (starting dose at 4.2 µg/kg/hr; maximal dose of 533.8 µg/kg/hr. Clinical, physiologic and laboratory data before, during and after infusion were analyzed. FINDINGS: The maximal tolerated dose for intravenous infusion of sodium nitrite was 267 µg/kg/hr. Dose limiting toxicity occurred at 446 µg/kg/hr. Toxicity included a transient asymptomatic decrease of mean arterial blood pressure (more than 15 mmHg and/or an asymptomatic increase of methemoglobin level above 5%. Nitrite, nitrate, S-nitrosothiols concentrations in plasma and whole blood increased in all subjects and returned to preinfusion baseline values within 12 hours after cessation of the infusion. The mean half-life of nitrite estimated at maximal tolerated dose was 45.3 minutes for plasma and 51.4 minutes for whole blood. CONCLUSION: Sodium nitrite can be safely infused intravenously at defined concentrations for prolonged intervals. These results should be valuable for developing studies to investigate new NO treatment paradigms for a variety of clinical disorders, including cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ischemia of the heart, liver, kidney and brain, as well as organ transplants, blood-brain barrier modulation and pulmonary hypertension. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION INFORMATION: http

  2. Software Engineering Technology Infusion Within NASA (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Marvin V.


    Abstract technology transfer is of crucial concern to both government and industry today. In this paper, several software engineering technologies used within NASA are studied, and the mechanisms, schedules, and efforts at transferring these technologies are investigated. The goals of this study are: 1) to understand the difference between technology transfer (the adoption of a new method by large segments of an industry) as an industry-wide phenomenon and the adoption of a new technology by an individual organization (called technology infusion); and 2) to see if software engineering technology transfer differs from other engineering disciplines. While there is great interest today in developing technology transfer models for industry, it is the technology infusion process that actually causes changes in the current state of the practice.

  3. Anaphylaxis after intravenous infusion of dexketoprofen trometamol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Guler


    Full Text Available Dexketoprofen trometamol (DT, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is a highly water-soluble salt and active enantiomer of rac-ketoprofen. Its parenteral form is commonly used for acute pain management in emergency departments of our country. Side effects such as diarrhea, indigestion, nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting may be seen after the use of DT. Anaphylactic shock (AS secondary to infusion of DT is very rare and, to our knowledge, it is the first case report describing this side effect. This case report was presented to emphasize that AS may be seen after the use of DT. Keywords: Anaphylactic shock, Dexketoprofen trometamol, Intravenous infusion (MeSH database


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almakaeva L.G.


    Full Text Available The intravenous form of paracetamol compared with oral more reliably supports effective drug concentration in blood plasma that promotes a higher therapeutic effect. Recent studies have confirmed that the use of the intravenous form of paracetamol to deal with postoperative pain multimodal analgesia modes results in reducing the frequency and quantity of opioids administered , and, as a consequence, its associated side effects. The drug Paracetamol , infusion solution 10 mg / ml to 100 ml glass bottles is a drug - generic . His qualitative and quantitative composition is developed from the study of literature data about the drug - similar to " Perfalhan , 10 mg / ml solution for infusion in 100 mL " company Bristol - Myers Squibb, France and experimental work. The aim of our study is development and support of the national composition of the infusion of the drug on the basis of paracetamol, selection of excipients that provide stability of the active substances. Materials and methods. The object of the study was the substance of paracetamol manufactured by Zhejiang Kangle Pharmaceutical Co. , Ltd, China. During the work conducted qualitative and quantitative monitoring sample preparation for indicators of stability: pH content of the active ingredient , transparency, color, impurities , contamination by the methods described in the SFU [and nor- ral documentation to the drug . One potential factor of instability is the effect of paracetamol oxygen, due to the presence in the molecule of paracetamol and -NH possibility of oxidation. Results and Discussion. Paracetamol is derived atsetamina . Substance acetylation are p - aminophenol with acetic anhydride . Saturated aqueous solution has a pH of paracetamol - ment about 6 . Paracetamol is a crystalline white powder , sparingly soluble in water, soluble in 96% alcohol, very slightly soluble in metilenhloride . . Active substance enters in comparison drug in the concentration of 10 mg/ml. Stable

  5. Infusion phlebitis assessment measures: a systematic review


    Ray-Barruel, Gillian; Polit, Denise F; Murfield, Jenny E; Rickard, Claire M


    Rationale, aims and objectives Phlebitis is a common and painful complication of peripheral intravenous cannulation. The aim of this review was to identify the measures used in infusion phlebitis assessment and evaluate evidence regarding their reliability, validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Method We conducted a systematic literature review of the Cochrane library, Ovid MEDLINE and EBSCO CINAHL until September 2013. All English-language studies (randomized controlled trials, prospecti...

  6. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber


    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  7. Scavenged body heat powered infusion pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Alexander; Ehringer, William D; McNamara, Shamus


    An infusion pump powered by body heat is investigated in this paper, with the goal of addressing the needs of dermal wound healing. The infusion pump incorporates a Knudsen gas pump, a type of thermally driven pump, to pneumatic push the pharmaceutical agent from a reservoir. Two designs are considered: an integrated pump and reservoir, and a design with cascaded pump and reservoir. Thermal models are developed for both pumps, and the simulations agree well with the experimental results. The integrated pump and reservoir design uses hydrophobic materials to prevent a flow from occurring unless the infusion pump is placed on a human body. Flow rates in the µL min −1 range for the integrated pump and reservoir, and approximately 70 µL min −1 for the cascaded pump were obtained. The dynamic behavior of the cascaded pump is described based on the thermal models. Multiple copies of the cascaded pump are easily made in series or parallel, to increase either the pressure or the flow rate. The flow rate of multiple pumps in series does not change, and the pressure of multiple pumps in parallel does not change. (paper)

  8. The flow Rate Accuracy of Elastomeric Infusion Pumps After Repeated Filling. (United States)

    Mohseni, Masood; Ebneshahidi, Amin


    One of the frequent applications of elastomeric infusion pumps is postoperative pain management. In daily practice, the disposable pumps get refilled with modified medication combinations in the successive days; although, the accuracy of infusion rates is unknown to clinicians. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of repeated filling on the delivery rate accuracy of an elastomeric pump available in our market. We examined 10 elastomeric infusion pumps (BOT-802, Nanchang Biotek Medical Device Company, China) with 100 mL capacity and nominal flow of 5 mL/h. Each pump was filled for three times, accounting for 30 series of experiments. A microset scaled in mL was used to measure the pump deliveries. Flow profile and reliability of infusion rate were analyzed after repeated use. The mean flow rate in the three series of measurements showed a gradual increase; however, the difference was not statistically significant (5.01 ± 0.07 vs. 5.03 ± 0.06 vs. 5.06 ± 0.08 mL/h; P = 0.81). The percentage of the flow rate error (deviation from 5 mL/h ± 15%) was 100% in the first and second hours of infusion, 96% in the third hour, 60% in the 20th hour and zero percent in the rest of the infusion time. This study indicated that the delivery rate accuracy of elastomeric infusion pumps is preserved after repeated usage. These laboratory findings suggested that elastomeric pumps could be safely refilled in the successive days to provide postoperative analgesia.

  9. Effect of Insulin Infusion on Liver Protein Synthesis during Hemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, Mark; Frystyk, Jan; Jespersen, Bente


    Background Hemodialysis (HD) is a catabolic procedure that may contribute to the high frequency of protein-energy wasting among patients receiving maintenance HD. The present study investigated the additional effect of glucose and glucose-insulin infusion on liver protein synthesis during HD...... compared with a meal alone. Methods In a randomized cross-over study with three arms, 11 non-diabetic HD patients were assigned to receive a conventional HD session with either: • no treatment (NT) • IV infusion of glucose (G) • IV infusion of glucose-insulin (GI) During infusions blood glucose levels were...... maintained at 8.0-10.0 mmol/L by additional glucose infusion. Glucose and glucose-insulin infusions were commenced 2 h prior to HD and continued throughout the HD session. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline before infusion and followed by the only meal allowed during the study. Results Blood...

  10. The Case for Infusing Quantitative Literacy into Introductory Geoscience Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Wenner


    Full Text Available We present the case for introductory geoscience courses as model venues for increasing the quantitative literacy (QL of large numbers of the college-educated population. The geosciences provide meaningful context for a number of fundamental mathematical concepts that are revisited several times in a single course. Using some best practices from the mathematics education community surrounding problem solving, calculus reform, pre-college mathematics and five geoscience/math workshops, geoscience and mathematics faculty have identified five pedagogical ideas to increase the QL of the students who populate introductory geoscience courses. These five ideas include techniques such as: place mathematical concepts in context, use multiple representations, use technology appropriately, work in groups, and do multiple-day, in-depth problems that place quantitative skills in multiple contexts. We discuss the pedagogical underpinnings of these five ideas and illustrate some ways that the geosciences represent ideal places to use these techniques. However, the inclusion of QL in introductory courses is often met with resistance at all levels. Faculty who wish to include quantitative content must use creative means to break down barriers of public perception of geoscience as qualitative, administrative worry that enrollments will drop and faculty resistance to change. Novel ways to infuse QL into geoscience classrooms include use of web-based resources, shadow courses, setting clear expectations, and promoting quantitative geoscience to the general public. In order to help faculty increase the QL of geoscience students, a community-built faculty-centered web resource (Teaching Quantitative Skills in the Geosciences houses multiple examples that implement the five best practices of QL throughout the geoscience curriculum. We direct faculty to three portions of the web resource: Teaching Quantitative Literacy, QL activities, and the 2006 workshop website

  11. Cellular and Ionic Mechanisms Underlying Effects of Cilostazol, Milrinone and Isoproterenol to Suppress Arrhythmogenesis in an Experimental Model of Early Repolarization Syndrome (United States)

    Patocskai, Bence; Barajas-Martinez, Hector; Hu, Dan; Gurabi, Zsolt; Koncz, István; Antzelevitch, Charles


    Background Early Repolarization Syndrome (ERS) is associated with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT) and fibrillation (VF), leading to sudden cardiac death. Objective The present study tests the hypothesis that the Ito-blocking effect of phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE-3) inhibitors plays a role in reversing repolarization heterogeneities responsible for arrhythmogenesis in experimental models of ERS. Methods Transmembrane action potentials (AP) were simultaneously recorded from epicardial and endocardial regions of coronary-perfused canine left-ventricular (LV) wedge preparations, together with a transmural pseudo-ECG. The Ito-agonist NS5806 (7–15 μM) and ICa-blocker verapamil (2–3 uM) were used to induce an ER pattern and PVT. Results Following stable induction of arrhythmogenesis, the PDE-3 inhibitors cilostazol and milrinone or isoproterenol were added to the coronary perfusate. All were effective in restoring the AP dome in the LV epicardium, thus abolishing the repolarization defects responsible for phase-2-reentry (P2R) and PVT. Arrhythmic activity was suppressed in 7/8 preparations by cilostazol (10 μM), 6/7 by milrinone (2.5 μM) and 7/8 by isoproterenol (0.1–1μM). Using voltage clamp techniques applied to LV epicardial myocytes, both cilostazol (10 μM) and milrinone (2.5 μM) were found to reduce Ito by 44.4% and 40.4%, respectively, in addition to their known effects to augment ICa. Conclusions Our findings suggest that PDE-3 inhibitors exert an ameliorative effect in the setting of ERS by producing an inward shift in the balance of current in the early phases of the epicardial AP via inhibition of Ito as well as augmentation of ICa, thus reversing the repolarization defects underlying development of P2R and VT/VF. PMID:26820510

  12. Cellular and ionic mechanisms underlying the effects of cilostazol, milrinone, and isoproterenol to suppress arrhythmogenesis in an experimental model of early repolarization syndrome. (United States)

    Patocskai, Bence; Barajas-Martinez, Hector; Hu, Dan; Gurabi, Zsolt; Koncz, István; Antzelevitch, Charles


    Early repolarization syndrome (ERS) is associated with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (PVT) and ventricular fibrillation, leading to sudden cardiac death. The present study tests the hypothesis that the transient outward potassium current (Ito)-blocking effect of phosphodiesterase-3 (PDE-3) inhibitors plays a role in reversing repolarization heterogeneities responsible for arrhythmogenesis in experimental models of ERS. Transmembrane action potentials (APs) were simultaneously recorded from epicardial and endocardial regions of coronary-perfused canine left ventricular (LV) wedge preparations, together with a transmural pseudo-electrocardiogram. The Ito agonist NS5806 (7-15 μM) and L-type calcium current (ICa) blocker verapamil (2-3 μM) were used to induce an early repolarization pattern and PVT. After stable induction of arrhythmogenesis, the PDE-3 inhibitors cilostazol and milrinone or isoproterenol were added to the coronary perfusate. All were effective in restoring the AP dome in the LV epicardium, thus abolishing the repolarization defects responsible for phase 2 reentry and PVT. Arrhythmic activity was suppressed in 7 of 8 preparations by cilostazol (10 μM), 6 of 7 by milrinone (2.5 μM), and 7 of 8 by isoproterenol (0.1-1 μM). Using voltage clamp techniques applied to LV epicardial myocytes, both cilostazol (10 μM) and milrinone (2.5 μM) were found to reduce Ito by 44.4% and 40.4%, respectively, in addition to their known effects to augment ICa. Our findings suggest that PDE-3 inhibitors exert an ameliorative effect in the setting of ERS by producing an inward shift in the balance of current during the early phases of the epicardial AP via inhibition of Ito as well as augmentation of ICa, thus reversing the repolarization defects underlying the development of phase 2 reentry and ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An analytical model for nanoparticles concentration resulting from infusion into poroelastic brain tissue. (United States)

    Pizzichelli, G; Di Michele, F; Sinibaldi, E


    We consider the infusion of a diluted suspension of nanoparticles (NPs) into poroelastic brain tissue, in view of relevant biomedical applications such as intratumoral thermotherapy. Indeed, the high impact of the related pathologies motivates the development of advanced therapeutic approaches, whose design also benefits from theoretical models. This study provides an analytical expression for the time-dependent NPs concentration during the infusion into poroelastic brain tissue, which also accounts for particle binding onto cells (by recalling relevant results from the colloid filtration theory). Our model is computationally inexpensive and, compared to fully numerical approaches, permits to explicitly elucidate the role of the involved physical aspects (tissue poroelasticity, infusion parameters, NPs physico-chemical properties, NP-tissue interactions underlying binding). We also present illustrative results based on parameters taken from the literature, by considering clinically relevant ranges for the infusion parameters. Moreover, we thoroughly assess the model working assumptions besides discussing its limitations. While not laying any claims of generality, our model can be used to support the development of more ambitious numerical approaches, towards the preliminary design of novel therapies based on NPs infusion into brain tissue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Extended infusion versus intermittent infusion of imipenem in the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Tammam, Tarek Fouad; Ebaed, Mohy El Deen; Sarhan, Hatem A; Gad, Gamal F; Hussein, Amal K


    Mechanical ventilation support can be the main source of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP is a serious infection that may be associated with dangerous gram-negative bacteria mainly, and it leads to an increase in the mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Imipenem is one of the strongest antibiotics now available for treating VAP which is associated with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, and it belongs to beta-lactam antibiotic group (carbapenem). This study tried to investigate the efficacy of imipenem against VAP when it was infused within 180 min versus the efficacy when it was infused within 30-60 min. This study was conducted in main ICU in general hospital which consists of surgical and medical beds within 2 years. One hundred and eighty-seven patients were enrolled on it. This study is a retrospective cohort which was conducted within 2 years. The efficacy of imipenem which was administered by intermittent infusion (30-60 min) within first year was compared with the efficacy of imipenem which was administered by extended infusion (180 min) within second year in the field of VAP curing and cost reduction. All data were collected retrospectively from patient medical files and were statistically analyzed by SPSS version 20. The study was designed to measure clinical and cost reduction outcomes, mortality and hospital stay. The results indicated that there is a significant decrease in mortality, number of recurrent infection, and ICU stay length, and the number of mechanical ventilator days was associated with extended imipenem infusion during the second year of the study. The use of imipenem with extended infusion over 3 hours enhances its clinical outcomes in the treatment of VAP.

  15. Fabrication and Mechanical Characterization of Hydrogel Infused Network Silk Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshminath Kundanati


    Full Text Available Development and characterization of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is of great importance. In recent times, silk scaffolds were developed and successfully tested in tissue engineering and drug release applications. We developed a novel composite scaffold by mechanical infusion of silk hydrogel matrix into a highly porous network silk scaffold. The mechanical behaviour of these scaffolds was thoroughly examined for their possible use in load bearing applications. Firstly, unconfined compression experiments show that the denser composite scaffolds displayed significant enhancement in the elastic modulus as compared to either of the components. This effect was examined and further explained with the help of foam mechanics principles. Secondly, results from confined compression experiments that resemble loading of cartilage in confinement, showed nonlinear material responses for all scaffolds. Finally, the confined creep experiments were performed to calculate the hydraulic permeability of the scaffolds using soil mechanics principles. Our results show that composite scaffolds with some modifications can be a potential candidate for use of cartilage like applications. We hope such approaches help in developing novel scaffolds for tissue engineering by providing an understanding of the mechanics and can further be used to develop graded scaffolds by targeted infusion in specific regions.

  16. Green Propellant Infusion Mission Program Development and Technology Maturation (United States)

    McLean, Christopher H.; Deininger, William D.; Joniatis, John; Aggarwal, Pravin K.; Spores, Ronald A.; Deans, Matthew; Yim, John T.; Bury, Kristen; Martinez, Jonathan; Cardiff, Eric H.; hide


    The NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate's (STMD) Green Propellant Infusion Mission (GPIM) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) is comprised of a cross-cutting team of domestic spacecraft propulsion and storable green propellant technology experts. This TDM is led by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. (BATC), who will use their BCP- 100 spacecraft to carry a propulsion system payload consisting of one 22 N thruster for primary divert (DeltaV) maneuvers and four 1 N thrusters for attitude control, in a flight demonstration of the AF-M315E technology. The GPIM project has technology infusion team members from all three major market sectors: Industry, NASA, and the Department of Defense (DoD). The GPIM project team includes BATC, includes Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR), Air Force Research Laboratory, Aerospace Systems Directorate, Edwards AFB (AFRL), NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). STMD programmatic and technology oversight is provided by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The GPIM project shall fly an operational AF-M315E green propulsion subsystem on a Ball-built BCP-100 spacecraft.

  17. Promoting Active Learning in Technology-Infused TILE Classrooms at the University of Iowa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Van Horne


    Full Text Available In this case study, the authors describe the successful implementation of technology-infused TILE classrooms at the University of Iowa. A successful collaboration among campus units devoted to instructional technologies and teacher development, the TILE Initiative has provided instructors with a new set of tools to support active learning. The authors detail the implementation of the TILE classrooms, the process of training instructors to design effective instruction for these classrooms, and an assessment project that helps improve the process of ensuring faculty can successfully facilitate learning activities in a technology-infused learning environment.

  18. Exercise and IL-6 infusion inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starkie, Rebecca; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Jauffred, Sune


    and atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we performed three experiments in which eight healthy males either rested (CON), rode a bicycle for 3 h (EX), or were infused with recombinant human IL-6 (rhIL-6) for 3 h while they rested. After 2.5 h, the volunteers received a bolus of Escherichia coli...... exercise and rhIL-6 infusion at physiological concentrations inhibit endotoxin-induced TNF-alpha production in humans. Hence, these data provide the first experimental evidence that physical activity mediates antiinflammatory activity and suggest that the mechanism include IL-6, which is produced...

  19. Anaphylaxis after intravenous infusion of dexketoprofen trometamol. (United States)

    Guler, Sertac; Ertok, Ilyas; Sahin, Nurdan Yilmaz; Ramadan, Hayri; Katirci, Yavuz


    Dexketoprofen trometamol (DT), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is a highly water-soluble salt and active enantiomer of rac-ketoprofen. Its parenteral form is commonly used for acute pain management in emergency departments of our country. Side effects such as diarrhea, indigestion, nausea, stomach pain, and vomiting may be seen after the use of DT. Anaphylactic shock (AS) secondary to infusion of DT is very rare and, to our knowledge, it is the first case report describing this side effect. This case report was presented to emphasize that AS may be seen after the use of DT.

  20. Promoting Active Learning in Technology-Infused TILE Classrooms at the University of Iowa (United States)

    Van Horne, Sam; Murniati, Cecilia; Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Jesse, Maggie


    In this case study, the authors describe the successful implementation of technology-infused TILE classrooms at the University of Iowa. A successful collaboration among campus units devoted to instructional technologies and teacher development, the TILE Initiative has provided instructors with a new set of tools to support active learning. The…

  1. Developing a System for Integraded Automatic Control of Mutiple Infusion Pumps : The Multiplex infusion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, Frank


    Most errors in ICUs are related to intravenous (IV) therapy. Previous studies suggested that hard to operate infusion pumps and the high cognitive workload for ICU nurses contribute to these errors. Conventional IV therapy requires separate lumens for incompatible IV drugs. This often requires the

  2. Tolerance to continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion can be reversed by pulsatile bolus infusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heetla, H. W.; Staal, M. J.; van Laar, T.

    Study design: Pilot study. Objective: To study the effect of pulsatile bolus infusion of intrathecal baclofen (ITB) on daily ITB dose, in patients showing dose increases, probably due to tolerance. Setting: Department of neurology and neurosurgery, University Medical Center Groningen, the

  3. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Young; Shim, Chun Sik; Sturtevant, Caleb; Kim, Dave (Dae-Wook); Song, Ha Cheol


    Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties

  4. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sang-Young


    Full Text Available Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties

  5. Mechanical properties and production quality of hand-layup and vacuum infusion processed hybrid composite materials for GFRP marine structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Young Kim


    Full Text Available Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP structures are primarily manufactured using hand lay-up or vacuum infusion techniques, which are cost-effective for the construction of marine vessels. This paper aims to investigate the mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of the hybrid GFRP composites, formed by applying the hand lay-up processed exterior and the vacuum infusion processed interior layups, providing benefits for structural performance and ease of manufacturing. The hybrid GFRP composites contain one, two, and three vacuum infusion processed layer sets with consistent sets of hand lay-up processed layers. Mechanical properties assessed in this study include tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties. Hybrid composites with three sets of vacuum infusion layers showed the highest tensile mechanical properties while those with two sets had the highest mechanical properties in compression. The batch homogeneity, for the GFRP fabrication processes, is evaluated using the experimentally obtained mechanical properties.

  6. Swelling and infusion of tea in tea bags. (United States)

    Yadav, Geeta U; Joshi, Bhushan S; Patwardhan, Ashwin W; Singh, Gurmeet


    The present study deals with swelling and infusion kinetics of tea granules in tea bags. The swelling and infusion kinetics of tea bags differing in tea loading and tea bag shapes were compared with loose tea. Increment in temperature and dipping frequency of tea bag in hot water increased the infusion kinetics of tea bags. Reduction in particle size enhanced the swelling and infusion kinetics of tea in a tea bag. The effects of tea particle size, tea bag dipping rate, loading of tea granules in tea bag and tea bag shapes on infusion kinetics were investigated. Increase in tea loading in tea bags resulted in reduced infusion kinetics. Double chambered tea bag showed the highest swelling (30%) and infusion kinetics (8.30% Gallic acid equivalence) while single chambered tea bags showed the lowest kinetics, amongst the various bags studied. The swelling and infusion kinetics of loose tea was always faster and higher than that of tea bags. It was found that overall effect of percentage filling of tea granules and height of tea bed in a tea bag affects tea infusion kinetics the most. Weibull model was found to be in good agreement with the swelling data.

  7. Pulsatile versus steady infusions for hepatic artery chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, E.E.; Haynie, T.P.; Wright, K.C.; Chaynsangavej, C.; Gianturco, C.; Lamki, L.; Wallace, S.


    Hepatic artery chemotherapy for unresectable liver tumors requires an even distribution of the drugs in the tumor or vascular bed. This cannot be determined angiographically because the drugs are infused at a much lower rate than the contrast media. It is easy, however, to determine the quality of the perfusion by injecting a small volume of Tc-99m MAA in one of the side ports while chemotherapeutic agent is being infused at the same rate. Usually this shows a uniform, satisfactory distribution of isotope. Occasionally, however, some areas fail to receive Tc-99m in spite of what appears to be a good position of the catheter tip. Since ''streaming'' of the infused drugs has been blamed for their uneven distribution, the authors decided to compare the usual steady flow infusions with infusions made pulsatile by the addition of a pulsing device (Gianturco Pump) attached to the infusion tubing. Eighty-three patients were studied with steady as well as pulsatile infusions. In 16 of these patients the perfusion pattern was definitely changed by the pulsatile infusion. In one patient the pulsatile mode resulted in an unwanted gastric perfusion. In 5 patients the distribution was improved in one hepatic lobe and in 10 patients it was improved in both lobes. These results show that hepatic artery perfusions can occasionally be improved by pulsing the infusate. However, pulsing can produce the unwanted perfusion of extra-hepatic areas

  8. Clinical applications of continuous infusion chemotherapy ahd concomitant radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, C.J.; Rotman, M.


    This book presents information on the following topics: theoretical basis and clinical applications of 5-FU as a radiosensitizer; treatment of hepatic metastases from gastro intestingal primaries with split course radiation therapy; combined modality therapy with 5-FU, Mitomycin-C and radiation therapy for sqamous cell cancers; treatment of bladder carcinoma with concomitant infusion chemotherapy and irradiation; a treatment of invasiv bladder cancer by the XRT/5FU protocol; concomitant radiation therapy and doxorubicin by continuous infusion in advanced malignancies; cis platin by continuous infusion with concurrent radiation therapy in malignant tumors; combination of radiation with concomitant continuous adriamycin infusion in a patient with partially excised pleomorphic soft tissue sarcoma of the lower extremeity; treatment of recurrent carcinoma of the paranasal sinuses using concomitant infusion cis-platinum and radiation therapy; hepatic artery infusion for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation; study of simultaneous radiation therapy, continuous infusion, 5FU and bolus mitomycin-C; cancer of the esophagus; continuous infusion VP-16, bolus cis-platinum and simultaneous radiation therapy as salvage therapy in small cell bronchogenic carcinoma; and concomitant radiation, mitomycin-C and 5-FU infusion in gastro intestinal cancer

  9. Combined enteral infusion of glutamine, carbohydrates, and antioxidants modulates gut protein metabolism in humans. (United States)

    Coëffier, Moïse; Claeyssens, Sophie; Lecleire, Stéphane; Leblond, Jonathan; Coquard, Aude; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; Lavoinne, Alain; Ducrotté, Philippe; Déchelotte, Pierre


    Available data suggest that nutrients can affect intestinal protein metabolism, which contributes to the regulation of gut barrier function. We aimed to assess whether an oral nutritional supplement (ONS) containing glutamine (as the dipeptide Ala-Gln), carbohydrates, and antioxidants would modulate duodenal protein metabolism in healthy humans. Thirty healthy control subjects were included and, over a period of 5 h, received by nasogastric tube either saline or ONS providing 11.7 kcal/kg as 0.877 g Ala-Gln/kg, 3.9 g carbohydrates/kg, and antioxidants (29.25 mg vitamin C/kg, 9.75 mg vitamin E/kg, 195 microg beta-carotene/kg, 5.85 mg Se/kg, and 390 microg Zn/kg) or glutamine (0.585 g/kg, 2.34 kcal/kg). Simultaneously, a continuous intravenous infusion of l-[1-(13)C]-leucine was done until endoscopy. Leucine enrichment was assessed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, and mucosal fractional synthesis rate was calculated by using intracellular amino acid enrichment as precursor. Mucosal proteolytic pathways were also evaluated. ONS infusion resulted in a doubling increase (P < 0.01) of duodenal fractional synthesis rate and a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in cathepsin D-mediated proteolysis compared with saline, whereas proteasome and Ca(2+)-dependent activities were unaffected. ONS infusion significantly (P < 0.01) decreased duodenal glutathione but not glutathione disulfide concentrations or the ratio of glutathione to glutathione disulfide. Insulinemia increased after ONS infusion, whereas plasma essential amino acids decreased. Infusion of glutamine alone did not reproduce ONS effects. ONS infusion improves duodenal protein balance in healthy humans. Further investigations are needed to study the origin of these effects and to evaluate ONS supply in stressed persons.

  10. Determination of 24-hour insulin infusion pattern by an artificial endocrine pancreas for intravenous insulin infusion with a miniature pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølendorf, K; Christiansen, J S; Bojsen, J


    UNLABELLED: Intravenous insulin infusion with a glucose controlled insulin infusion system (GCIIS) is known to restore glucose homeostasis. A simpler approach to improve blood glucose regulation is preprogrammed intravenous insulin infusion with portable pumps without sensor-mediated feedback. We...... report a study designed to evaluate whether the preprogrammed insulin infusion pattern to be used in the miniature insulin infusion pump (MIIP) could be optimized by concomitant employment of the GCIIS for blood glucose control. Six juvenile-onset insulin-dependent diabetics (mean age 31 yrs) were...... studied. Mean blood glucose (MBG) was 6.2 mmol/l +/- 0.5 (SD) during glucose controlled infusion and 5.3 +/- 0.6 during the combined MIIP + GCIIS-day. The insulin requirements calculated from the s.c. regimen (56 U +/- 10 SD) were identical to the GCIIS-measured (51 U +/- 14) and to the amounts delivered...

  11. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  12. Infusing gerontology into grades 7-12 social studies curricula. (United States)

    Krout, John A; Wasyliw, Zenon


    This paper describes a model process to increase the exposure of middle and high school students to information on aging so they better understand the implications of an aging population and the stereotypes of older adults. A college Gerontology Institute, a social studies teacher education faculty member, and middle/high school social studies teachers collaborated on a program to develop and implement lesson plans that incorporate information on aging into existing courses. Institute staff provided expertise on gerontology and student teachers assisted in writing lesson plan objectives. Teachers developed about a dozen lessons covering from one class to two weeks in subjects such as global history, participation in government, Western civilizations, economics, and government. This experience suggests a number of issues that should be addressed when developing a gerontology infusion initiative with school teachers. Information on aging can be successfully incorporated into existing school curricula within the constraints of mandated learning objectives.

  13. Low-Dose Ketamine Infusion for Emergency Department Patients with Severe Pain. (United States)

    Ahern, Terence L; Herring, Andrew A; Miller, Steve; Frazee, Bradley W


    Use of low-dose ketamine infusions in the emergency department (ED) has not previously been described, despite routine use in perioperative and other settings. Our hypothesis was that a low-dose ketamine bolus followed by continuous infusion would 1) provide clinically significant and sustained pain relief; 2) be well tolerated; and 3) be feasible in the ED. We prospectively administered 15 mg intravenous ketamine followed immediately by continuous ketamine infusion at 20 mg/h for 1 hour. Optional morphine (4 mg) was offered at 20, 40, and 60 minutes. Pain intensity, vitals signs, level of sedation, and adverse reactions were assessed for 120 minutes. A total of 38 patients were included with a median initial numerical rating scale (NRS) pain score of 9. At 10 minutes, the median reduction in pain score was 4, with 7 patients reporting a score of 0. At 60 and 120 minutes, 25 and 26 patients, respectively, reported clinically significant pain reduction (decrease NRS score > 3). Heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation remained stable. Mild or moderate side effects including dizziness, fatigue, and headache were common. Patient satisfaction was high; 85% reported they would have this medication again for similar pain. A low-dose ketamine infusion protocol provided significant pain relief with mostly mild side effects and no severe adverse events. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Caracterização funcional da hipertrofia miocárdica induzida pelo isoproterenol e de sua regressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neif Murad


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as disfunções da hipertrofia miocárdica induzida pelo isoproterenol e de sua regressão. Corações isolados hipertrofiados por isoproterenol (ISO (8 dias e após 22 dias de sua suspensão (regressão foram distendidos. MÉTODOS: Até pressão de repouso (Pr de 60mmHg, analisaram-se: pressão desenvolvida máxima (PDmáx.; estresse sistólico (sigmamáx; inclinação da reta estresses/deformações; constante de relaxamento; rigidez da câmara e rigidez miocárdica. RESULTADOS: Nos corações hipertrofiados (H as variações de volume (deltaV necessárias para Pr=60mmHg foram heterogêneas. Em alguns (H1; n=10 deltaV equivaleu à dos controle (C enquanto em outros (H2; n=10 foi inferior, e também diferiram quanto ao peso seco, complacência ventricular, rigidez miocárdica, constante de relaxamento,e sigmamáx. PDmáx dos grupos H1 e H2 foram superiores às de C (n=8 e Regressão (R (n=8. Contudo, sigmamáx de H2 foi menor que C, H1 e R. O mecanismo de Frank-Starling foi deprimido nos corações hipertrofiados. A constante de relaxamento de H2 indicou retardo no decaimento da pressão associado a menor complacência ventricular e rigidez miocárdica acentuada. CONCLUSÃO: Hipertrofia miocárdica induzida pelo ISO não é homogênea. Alguns corações têm alterações pouco expressivas; outros têm comprometimento das funções sistólica e diastólica. A hipertrofia miocárdica reduz a capacidade de gerar força e aprimora a capacidade em variar pressão por aumento da relação massa/volume. Há, também, comprometimento da complacência ventricular e da rigidez muscular.

  15. Dextrose boluses versus burette dextrose infusions in prevention of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypoglycemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among preterm infants and its management remains a challenge in resource limited settings. Use of dextrose infusion by the recommended infusion pumps is not feasible in our environment due to their high costs and yet the current use of mini dextrose ...

  16. Inhibition of endogenous lactate turnover with lactate infusion in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, G.L.; Feingold, K.R.; Hsu, F.S.; Clark, O.H.; Gertz, E.W.; Stanley, W.C.


    The extent to which lactate infusion may inhibit endogenous lactate production, though previously considered, has never been critically assessed. To examine this proposition, single injection tracer methodology (U- 14 C Lactate) has been used for the estimation of lactate kinetics in 12 human subjects under basal conditions and with the infusion of sodium lactate. The basal rate of lactate turnover was measured on a day before the study with lactate infusion, and averaged 63.7 + 5.5 mg/kg/h. Six of these individuals received a stable lactate infusion at an approximate rate of 160 mg/kg/h, while the remaining six individuals were infused at the approximate rate of 100 mg/kg/h. It has been found that stable lactate infused at rates approximating 160 mg/kg/h consistently produced a complete inhibition of endogenous lactate production. Infusion of lactate at 100 mg/kg/h caused a lesser and more variable inhibition of endogenous lactate production (12% to 64%). In conclusion, lactate infusion significantly inhibits endogenous lactate production

  17. Differential effects of insulin injections and insulin infusions on levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that while injections of insulin cause an increase in fat mass, infusions of insulin increase fat mass. The aim of this paper was to test the hypothesis that if an increase in glycogen is an indicator of an impending increase in adipose mass, then insulin infusions should not increase glycogen, while insulin ...

  18. ArtsIN: Arts Integration and Infusion Framework (United States)

    Hartle, Lynn C.; Pinciotti, Patricia; Gorton, Rebecca L.


    Teaching to meet the diverse learning needs of twenty-first century, global learners can be challenging, yet a growing body of research points to the proved successes of arts-infused and integrated curricula, especially for building capacity for learning and motivation. This article presents the ArtsIN: Arts Integration and Infusion framework, a…

  19. Effect of serotonin infusions on the mean plasma concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk samples were assayed for protein, fat and lactose constituents. The daily amounts of milk were determined throughout the experiment. Infusions of 1 ng 5HT did not change the plasma concentrations of the T3, T4 and GH throughout the experiment period. Infusions of 4 and 8 ng 5HT significantly (p<0.01) increased the ...

  20. Perisciatic infusion of ropivacaine and analgesia after hallux valgus repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaric, D; Jørgensen, B G; Laigaard, F


    Moderate to severe pain after hallux valgus repair can be successfully treated with a continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block in ambulatory patients. Different anesthesiologists use various infusion rates for this purpose. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of two infusion...

  1. Haemolytic anaemia as a complication to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvardsen, Lars Høj; Harbo, Thomas; Christiansen, Ingelise

    performed before and two weeks after infusion of IVIg. Following treatment blood haemoglobin declined from 8.6±0.8 to 8.1±1.3mmol/l, p... naive patients are susceptible to develop haemolysis. Haemolytic anaemia is a severe side effect that seems to be more frequent after immunoglobulin infusions than previously recognized....

  2. Effect of perioperative insulin infusion on surgical morbidity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandhi, Gunjan Y; Murad, M Hassan; Flynn, Errol David


    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of perioperative insulin infusion on outcomes important to patients.......To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of perioperative insulin infusion on outcomes important to patients....

  3. Superselective intraarterial infusion therapy for head and neck carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Hiroaki; Sawada, Shoichi; Takeda, Taizo


    We report the results of superselective intraarterial cisplatin (CDDP) infusion therapy combined with irradiation for 23 patients, mainly advanced head and neck carcinoma. All patients received intraarterial CDDP infusions with intravenous sodium thiosulfate (STS) neutralization. CDDP infusion was performed by the Seldinger's technique in 16 patients and by the implanted intraarterial reservoir system in 7 patients. STS was also infused by the reservoir system implanted at the forearm in most patients. An overall response was observed in 21 of the 23 (91.3%) patients. Complete and partial responses were achieved in 16 (69.6%) and 5 (21.7%) patients, respectively. There were no patients with worse than grade III complications. We concluded that superselective intraarterial infusion therapy with a high dose of CDDP and STS was very effective for the management of advanced head and neck carcinomas and we recommend the implantable reservoir system for both CDDP and STS administration as an easy and low-invasive method. (author)

  4. Efficacy of peritoneal dialysis during infusion and drainage procedures. (United States)

    Baczyski, Daniel; Antosiewicz, Stefan; Waniewski, Jacek; Nowak, Zbigniew; Wakowicz, Zofia


    Inadequate dialysis is still a major cause of technique failure in peritoneal dialysis (PD). Mathematical models provide the possibility of direct and precise assessment of peritoneal transport of urea and creatinine throughout the dwell and allow calculation of optimal schedules, dwell times, and predicted adequacy of a prescribed regimen. Kinetic modeling is particularly important for automated PD. If the effectiveness of uremic toxin removal that takes place during infusion and drainage of dialysis fluid is not taken into account, the predicted adequacy of the whole PD session may be underestimated. ♢ To estimate the efficacy of urea and creatinine removal during the dialysis fluid exchange procedure. ♢ 17 patients treated with PD were included in the study. PD effectiveness during dialysate exchange was defined as the quotient k of removed amount of creatinine/BUN during the infusion and drainage of dialysate and during a dwell of the same duration as the dialysate exchange. ♢ The effectiveness of creatinine and urea removal was reduced during the exchange procedure (k(creat) = 0.68 ± 0.43 and k(BUN) = 0.87 ± 0.44) and differed between these 2 solutes (p = 0.0009). The k coefficients for urea and creatinine were well correlated (R(2) = 0.83). ♢ The effectiveness of peritoneal transport of creatinine and BUN during the inflow/outflow phase was relatively high compared to that during the same dwell time (68% and 87% respectively). This real effectiveness of the dialysate exchange procedure should be taken into account in the process of planning automated PD sessions, otherwise the predicted overall efficacy of creatinine and urea removal throughout the session may be underestimated. This underestimation is proportional to the number of dwells per day.

  5. Process Optimization of Bismaleimide (BMI) Resin Infused Carbon Fiber Composite (United States)

    Ehrlich, Joshua W.; Tate, LaNetra C.; Cox, Sarah B.; Taylor, Brian J.; Wright, M. Clara; Caraccio, Anne J.; Sampson, Jeffery W.


    Bismaleimide (BMI) resins are an attractive new addition to world-wide composite applications. This type of thermosetting polyimide provides several unique characteristics such as excellent physical property retention at elevated temperatures and in wet environments, constant electrical properties over a vast array of temperature settings, and nonflammability properties as well. This makes BMI a popular choice in advance composites and electronics applications [I]. Bismaleimide-2 (BMI-2) resin was used to infuse intermediate modulus 7 (IM7) based carbon fiber. Two panel configurations consisting of 4 plies with [+45deg, 90deg]2 and [0deg]4 orientations were fabricated. For tensile testing, a [90deg]4 configuration was tested by rotating the [0deg]4 configirration to lie orthogonal with the load direction of the test fixture. Curing of the BMI-2/IM7 system utilized an optimal infusion process which focused on the integration of the manufacturer-recommended ramp rates,. hold times, and cure temperatures. Completion of the cure cycle for the BMI-2/IM7 composite yielded a product with multiple surface voids determined through visual and metallographic observation. Although the curing cycle was the same for the three panellayups, the surface voids that remained within the material post-cure were different in abundance, shape, and size. For tensile testing, the [0deg]4 layup had a 19.9% and 21.7% greater average tensile strain performance compared to the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45degg] layups, respectively, at failure. For tensile stress performance, the [0deg]4 layup had a 5.8% and 34.0% greater average performance% than the [90deg]4 and [+45deg, 90deg, 90deg,-45deg] layups.

  6. Early mechanism of action of arterially infused ethanol: an experimental study on the influence of infusion speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Joon Koo


    Abdominal aortography and histopathologic examination after absolute ethanol infusion at fast (0.4cc/sec) and slow speed (0.04cc/sec) were performed on 16 rats (2 controls. 7 fast infusion group. 7 slow infusion group). Angiographic and histopathologic findings were correlated and the findings of slow and fast infusion groups were studied. The results are as follows: 1. Histopathologic findings of the fast infusion group revealed wide area of glomerular and tubular collapses, obliteration of the free space between the Bowmann's capsule and glomerulus, sloughing and loss of the endothelium, fresh thrombi attached to the wall, and cleavage of the muscle layer of the arteries. 2. Angiographic findings of the fast infusion group revealed luminal irregularity, early obstruction of the aorta and the renal arteries, and delayed circulation time. 3. Histopathologic findings of the slow infusion group revealed degenerated, coalesced red blood cell packed in the glomeruli, focal areas of severe glomerular and tubular damage on relatively normal background, endothelial and muscular damage of the arteries. 4. Angiographic findings of the slow infusion group revealed focal perfusion defect of the kidney, delayed circulation time, and mild luminal irregularity, but there was no obstruction of the major arteries. 5. In conclusion, author believes that endothelial damage and thrombus formation from the damaged vessel wall, as well as direct cytotoxicity and in situ emboli formation play a significant role in the embolic effect of absolute ethanol.

  7. Continuous indomethacin infusion may be less effective than bolus infusions for ductal closure in very low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, NKS; Jagroep, FK; Jaarsma, AS; Elzenga, NJ; Bos, AF

    The effectiveness of continuous indomethacin (INDO) infusion versus bolus infusions for closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was investigated. The study design was an open-label case series (continuous INDO) with historic controls matched for gestational age (bolus INDO). Ductal closure rates

  8. Direct infusion-SIM as fast and robust method for absolute protein quantification in complex samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Looße


    Full Text Available Relative and absolute quantification of proteins in biological and clinical samples are common approaches in proteomics. Until now, targeted protein quantification is mainly performed using a combination of HPLC-based peptide separation and selected reaction monitoring on triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. Here, we show for the first time the potential of absolute quantification using a direct infusion strategy combined with single ion monitoring (SIM on a Q Exactive mass spectrometer. By using complex membrane fractions of Escherichia coli, we absolutely quantified the recombinant expressed heterologous human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 3A4 (CYP3A4 comparing direct infusion-SIM with conventional HPLC-SIM. Direct-infusion SIM revealed only 14.7% (±4.1 (s.e.m. deviation on average, compared to HPLC-SIM and a decreased processing and analysis time of 4.5 min (that could be further decreased to 30 s for a single sample in contrast to 65 min by the LC–MS method. Summarized, our simplified workflow using direct infusion-SIM provides a fast and robust method for quantification of proteins in complex protein mixtures.

  9. Gallic acid prevents isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis through regulation of JNK2 signaling and Smad3 binding activity (United States)

    Ryu, Yuhee; Jin, Li; Kee, Hae Jin; Piao, Zhe Hao; Cho, Jae Yeong; Kim, Gwi Ran; Choi, Sin Young; Lin, Ming Quan; Jeong, Myung Ho


    Gallic acid, a type of phenolic acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects in inflammation, vascular calcification, and metabolic diseases. The present study was aimed at determining the effect and regulatory mechanism of gallic acid in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by isoproterenol (ISP) in mice and primary neonatal cardiomyocytes. Gallic acid pretreatment attenuated concentric cardiac hypertrophy. It downregulated the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and beta-myosin heavy chain in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, it prevented interstitial collagen deposition and expression of fibrosis-associated genes. Upregulation of collagen type I by Smad3 overexpression was observed in cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells but not in cardiac fibroblasts. Gallic acid reduced the DNA binding activity of phosphorylated Smad3 in Smad binding sites of collagen type I promoter in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Furthermore, it decreased the ISP-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) protein in mice. JNK2 overexpression reduced collagen type I and Smad3 expression as well as GATA4 expression in H9c2 cells and cardiac fibroblasts. Gallic acid might be a novel therapeutic agent for the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis by regulating the JNK2 and Smad3 signaling pathway. PMID:27703224

  10. Consecutive Isoproterenol and Adenosine Treatment Confers Marked Protection against Reperfusion Injury in Adult but Not in Immature Heart: A Role for Glycogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lewis


    Full Text Available Consecutive treatment of adult rat heart with isoproterenol and adenosine (Iso/Aden, known to consecutively activate PKA/PKC signaling, is cardioprotective against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R. Whether this is cardioprotective in an immature heart is unknown. Langendorff–perfused hearts from adult and immature (60 and 14 days old male Wistar rats were exposed to 30 min ischemia and 120 min reperfusion, with or without prior perfusion with 5 nM Iso for 3 min followed by 30 μM Aden for 5 min. Changes in hemodynamics (developed pressure and coronary flow and cardiac injury (Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH release and infarct size were measured. Additional hearts were used to measure glycogen content. Iso induced a similar inotropic response in both age groups. Treatment with Iso/Aden resulted in a significant reduction in time to the onset of ischemic contracture in both age groups whilst time to peak contracture was significantly shorter only in immature hearts. Upon reperfusion, the intervention reduced cardiac injury and functional impairment in adults with no protection of immature heart. Immature hearts have significantly less glycogen content compared to adult. This work shows that Iso/Aden perfusion confers protection in an adult heart but not in an immature heart. It is likely that metabolic differences including glycogen content contribute to this difference.

  11. Early events of secretory granule formation in the rat parotid acinar cell under the influence of isoproterenol. An ultrastructural and lectin cytochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F D’Amico


    Full Text Available The events involved in the maturation process of acinar secretory granules of rat parotid gland were investigated ultrastructurally and cytochemically by using a battery of four lectins [Triticum vulgaris agglutinin (WGA, Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I, Glycine max agglutinin (SBA, Arachys hypogaea agglutinin (PNA]. In order to facilitate the study, parotid glands were chronically stimulated with isoproterenol to induce secretion. Specimens were embedded in the Lowicryl K4M resin. The trans-Golgi network (TGN derived secretory granules, which we refer to as immature secretory granules, were found to be intermediate structures in the biogenesis process of the secretory granules in the rat parotid acinar cell. These early structures do not seem to be the immediate precursor of the mature secretory granules: in fact, a subsequent interaction process between these early immature granule forms and TGN elements seems to occur, leading, finally, to the mature granules. These findings could explain the origin of the polymorphic subpopulations of the secretory granules in the normal acinar cells of the rat parotid gland. The lectin staining patterns were characteristic of each lectin. Immature and mature secretory gran- ules were labelled with WGA, SBA, PNA, and lightly with UEA-I. Cis and intermediate cisternae of the Golgi apparatus were labelled with WGA, and trans cisternae with WGA and SBA.

  12. Trace Element Determination and Cardioprotection of Terminalia pallida Fruit Ethanolic Extract in Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarcted Rats by ICP-MS. (United States)

    Althaf Hussain, Shaik; Kareem, Mohammed Abdul; Rasool, Shaik Nayab; Al Omar, Suliman Yousef; Saleh, Alwasel; Al-Fwuaires, Manal Abdulrahman; Daddam, Jayasimha Rayalu; Devi, Kodidhela Lakshmi


    The trace elements and minerals in Terminalia pallida fruit ethanolic extract (TpFE) were determined by the instrument inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and the cardioprotection of TpFE against isoproterenol (ISO)-administered rats was studied. Rats were pretreated with TpFE (100, 300, and 500 mg/kg bw) for 30 days, with concurrent administration of ISO (85 mg/kg bw) for two consecutive days. The levels of trace elements and minerals in TpFE were below the permitted limits of World Health Organization standards. ISO administration significantly increased the heart weight and cardiac marker enzymes in serum, xanthine oxidase, sodium, and calcium in the heart, whereas significantly decreased body weight, reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase, and potassium in the heart. Oral pretreatment of TpFE significantly prevented the ISO-induced alterations. This is the first report that revealed the determination of trace elements and mineral nutrients of TpFE by ICP-MS which plays a principal role in the herbal drug discovery for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Chronic postthoracotomy pain and perioperative ketamine infusion. (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Liao, Qin; Zhang, Fan; Tong, Jianbin; Ouyang, Wen


    The objectives of this study were to investigate whether continuous intravenous ketamine during the first 72 hours after thoracotomy could reduce the incidence and intensity of chronic postthoracotomy pain (CPTP) and to define the incidence and risk factors of CPTP. Seventy-eight patients receiving thoracotomy for lung tumor (benign or malignant) were randomly divided into two groups: ketamine group (n = 31) and control groups (n = 47). Patients in the ketamine group received intravenous ketamine 1 mg/kg before incision, followed by 2 μg/kg/minute infusion for 72 hours plus sufentanil patient-controlled intravenous analgesia after thoracotomy. Patients in the control group received intravenous a 0.9% normal saline and infusion plus sufentanil patient-controlled intravenous analgesia. The solutions patients received were blinded. The numerical rating scale (NRS) pain scores and the incidence and risk factors of CPTP were recorded during the first 6 months after surgery. Compared with control group, the incidence of chronic pain in the ketamine group did not decrease at 2 months (χ(2) = 1.599, P = .206) and 6 months (χ(2) = 0.368, P = .544) after surgery. Postoperative pain scores in the ketamine group were not significantly different from those of the control group patients at 2 months (U = 677.5, P = .593) and 6 months (U = 690.5, P = .680). The incidence of CPTP was 78.2% (61/78) at 2 months and 53.8% (42/78) at 6 months after surgery. Retractor used time (OR = 5.811, P = .002), inadequate acute pain control (NRS ≥ 5) (OR = 5.425, P = .048), and chemotherapy (OR = 3.784, P = .056) were independent risk factors for chronic postthoracotomy pain. The authors conclude that continuous intravenous ketamine (2 μg/kg/min) during the first 72 hours after thoracotomy was not beneficial to prevent chronic postthoracotomy pain. The independent risk factors for chronic postthoracotomy pain were retractor used time, inadequate acute pain control, and chemotherapy.

  14. The impact of grape skin bioactive functionality information on the acceptability of tea infusions made from wine by-products. (United States)

    Cheng, Vern Jou; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Sedcole, Richard; Hamid, Nazimah


    The effect of information on the health benefits of bio-active compounds on the acceptability of 5 tea infusions made from grape skins generated from wine processing waste (from Vitis vinifera var. Pinot Noir and Pinot Gris) was investigated. Samples of tea infusions with natural additives (PNHGT25 and PGGT50) and without additives (control PN, control PG, and PNPG50) were evaluated by 45 in-home consumer panels (30 female, 15 male) before and after information on the health benefits of grape skins were provided. Information significantly increased the overall acceptability, overall aroma, flavor, and aftertaste of the infusions. The results obtained showed a clear tendency toward increased purchase intention (by 29%) when information on the health benefits of the tea infusion samples was provided to consumers. Interactions existed between gender/infusion samples and stage of information on the purchase intention. Females recorded a significant increase (by 53%) in purchase intention, whereas no change in the males' purchase intention was found after information was provided.

  15. Intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Yasuaki; Kido, Choichiro


    Some techniques of the most recent interventional radiology are very useful for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer and changing the style of hepatic infusion chemotherapy. This report shows our latest results and methods of hepatic infusion chemotherapy for metastatic liver cancer. 1. For the catheter placement, a new catheterization route via the left subclavian artery into the hepatic artery was developed and performed in 132 cases. Superselective catheterization succeeded in 123 cases (93.2 %). This procedure is less invasive than laparotomy and less troublesome than other percutaneous routes. 2. For useful infusion system, an implantable injection port ''Reservoir'' was developed and it was used in 87 cases. This method makes arterial infusion chemotherapy easy, and imploves their quality of life. 3. To acquire adequate drug delivery, arterial redistribution by steel coils was done, and 109 arteries in 80 cases were occluded. This method is very useful to make multiple hepatic artery single and it is important to avoid gasroduodenal complications. 4. Now, using these techniques, the phase II study of 5FU, ADM, MMC combined hepatic infusion in patients with non-resectable metastatic liver cancer is done. Up to this time, such a phase study on arterial infusion chemotherapy was difficult because of technical problems, but these new techniques make it possible. In conclusion, these new methods change the style and conception of hepatic infusion, and these make much progress on the treatment of patients with metastatic liver cancer. (author)

  16. Should we use closed or open infusion containers for prevention of bloodstream infections? (United States)

    Rangel-Frausto, Manuel S; Higuera-Ramirez, Francisco; Martinez-Soto, Jose; Rosenthal, Victor D


    Hospitalized patients in critical care settings are at risk for bloodstream infections (BSI). Most BSIs originate from a central line (CL), and they increase length of stay, cost, and mortality. Open infusion containers may increase the risk of contamination and administration-related (CLAB) because they allow the entry of air into the system, thereby also providing an opportunity for microbial entry. Closed infusion containers were designed to overcome this flaw. However, open infusion containers are still widely used throughout the world.The objective of the study was to determine the effect of switching from open (glass, burettes, and semi-rigid) infusion containers to closed, fully collapsible, plastic infusion containers (Viaflex) on the rate and time to onset of central line-associated bloodstream infections CLABs. An open label, prospective cohort, active healthcare-associated infection surveillance, sequential study was conducted in four ICUs in Mexico. Centers for Disease Control National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Systems definitions were used to define device-associated infections. A total of 1,096 adult patients who had a central line in place for >24 hours were enrolled. The CLAB rate was significantly higher during the open versus the closed container period (16.1 versus 3.2 CLAB/1000 central line days; RR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.11-0.36, P container period (1.4% Days 2-4 to 0.5% Days 8-10), but increased in the open container period (4.9% Days 2-4 to 5.4% Days 8-10). The chance of acquiring a CLAB was significantly decreased (81%) in the closed container period (Cox proportional hazard ratio 0.19, P container period (23.4% versus 16.1%; RR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.54-0.88, P containers significantly reduced CLAB rate, the probability of acquiring CLAB, and mortality.

  17. Operant licking for intragastric sugar infusions: differential reinforcing actions of glucose, sucrose and fructose in mice (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen


    Intragastric (IG) flavor conditioning studies in rodents indicate that isocaloric sugar infusions differ in their reinforcing actions, with glucose and sucrose more potent than fructose. Here we determined if the sugars also differ in their ability to maintain operant self-administration by licking an empty spout for IG infusions. Food-restricted C57BL/6J mice were trained 1 h/day to lick a food-baited spout, which triggered IG infusions of 16% sucrose. In testing, the mice licked an empty spout, which triggered IG infusions of different sugars. Mice shifted from sucrose to 16% glucose increased dry licking, whereas mice shifted to 16% fructose rapidly reduced licking to low levels. Other mice shifted from sucrose to IG water reduced licking more slowly but reached the same low levels. Thus IG fructose, like water, is not reinforcing to hungry mice. The more rapid decline in licking induced by fructose may be due to the sugar's satiating effects. Further tests revealed that the Glucose mice increased their dry licking when shifted from 16% to 8% glucose, and reduced their dry licking when shifted to 32% glucose. This may reflect caloric regulation and/or differences in satiation. The Glucose mice did not maintain caloric intake when tested with different sugars. They self-infused less sugar when shifted from 16% glucose to 16% sucrose, and even more so when shifted to 16% fructose. Reduced sucrose self-administration may occur because the fructose component of the disaccharide reduces its reinforcing potency. FVB mice also reduced operant licking when tested with 16% fructose, yet learned to prefer a flavor paired with IG fructose. These data indicate that sugars differ substantially in their ability to support IG self-administration and flavor preference learning. The same post-oral reinforcement process appears to mediate operant licking and flavor learning, although flavor learning provides a more sensitive measure of sugar reinforcement. PMID:26485294

  18. Hippocampal infusions of glucose reverse memory deficits produced by co-infusions of a GABA receptor agonist. (United States)

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B


    Although septal infusions of glucose typically have positive effects on memory, we have shown repeatedly that this treatment exacerbates memory deficits produced by co-infusions of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonists. The present experiments tested whether this negative interaction between glucose and GABA in the medial septum would be observed in the hippocampus, a brain region where glucose typically has positive effects on memory. Specifically, we determined whether hippocampal infusions of glucose would reverse or exacerbate memory deficits produced by hippocampal co-infusions of the GABA receptor agonist muscimol. Fifteen minutes prior to either assessing spontaneous alternation (SA) or continuous multiple trial inhibitory avoidance (CMIA) training, male Sprague-Dawley-derived rats were given bilateral hippocampal infusions of vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], 1 microl/2 min), glucose (33 or 50 nmol), muscimol (0.3 or 0.4 microg, SA or 3 microg, CMIA) or muscimol and glucose combined in one solution. The results indicated that hippocampal infusions of muscimol alone decreased SA scores and CMIA retention latencies. More importantly, hippocampal infusions of glucose, at doses that had no effect when infused alone, attenuated (33 nmol) or reversed (50 nmol) the muscimol-induced memory deficits. Thus, although co-infusions of glucose with muscimol into the medial septum impair memory, the present findings show that an opposite effect is observed in the hippocampus. Collectively, these findings suggest that the memory-impairing interaction between glucose and GABA in the medial septum is not a general property of the brain, but rather is brain region-dependent.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro M. Boichuk


    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of the research sources, methodology and main findings of the research of a higher educational institution organizational culture and technology-infused management correlation. Based on the recent research, the authors provided the definition of the organizational culture concept. The research revealed that the current organizational culture of the Lutsk Pedagogical College is more like market culture. The respondents in the present study defined the adhocracy culture as the desirable organizational culture in the College. Notably, the results of the in-depth interview based on expert assessment method indicated that teachers were moderately satisfied with the level of competence of the administrative staff to meet challenges of technology-infused management at their higher educational institution.

  20. Insulin appearance of subcutaneously infused insulin: influence of the basal rate pulse interval of the infusion pump. (United States)

    Birch, K; Hildebrandt, P; Jensen, B M; Kühl, C; Brange, J


    To compare the metabolic control and the pharmacokinetics of infused insulin using an insulin pump (Auto-Syringe AS 6C) which provides the basal rate in pulses every 2-10 min with a pump (Medix Syringe Driver 209) providing the basal rate in pulses every 15-60 min, 6 C-peptide negative diabetic patients received, in random order, identical, but individual, insulin treatment during one 4-day period using the Auto-Syringe pump and another 4-day period using the Medix pump. On the fourth day of each period, blood glucose and plasma-free insulin were estimated every 30 min for 7 hr and every 5 min for the next hour. Plasma-free insulin was significantly higher on 3 time points out of the 26 possible when using the Medix pump, but this was not reflected in the blood glucose concentrations which were similar in the 2 periods. The results indicate that, from a metabolic and pharmacokinetic point of view, insulin pumps working with larger intervals between the basal rate pulses are just as good as the more technically advanced and hence often more expensive pumps which provide the basal rate in more and smaller pulses.

  1. [Beta lactam antibiotics and the question of dose regimen for severe infection. Prolonged infusion theoretically appealing--yet no evidence of clinical benefit]. (United States)

    Leander, Gunilla; Eliasson, Erik; Hanberger, Håkan; Giske, Christian


    Patients with severe sepsis/septic shock have a high mortality. Beta-lactam antibiotics are normally first line treatment. This antimicrobial class has been associated with time-dependent efficacy. It is therefore plausible that administration as prolonged infusion will increase the therapeutic effect, as compared to short term bolus injections, which is the most common practice today. We have reviewed 14 randomized controlled studies to investigate whether prolonged infusion provides lower mortality and/or increased clinical cure. In summary, convincing advantages with prolonged infusion could not be found, however randomized studies are heterogeneous, and it cannot be excluded that some subgroups of critically ill patients could benefit from such treatment.

  2. A new infusion pathway monitoring system utilizing electrostatic induced potential. (United States)

    Maki, Hiromichi; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Ninomiya, Ishio; Sada, Kouji; Hamada, Shingo; Hahn, Alien W; Caldwell, W Morton


    We have developed a new infusion pathway monitoring system employing linear integrated circuits and a low-power 8-bit single chip microcomputer. The system is available for hospital and home use and it constantly monitors the intactness of the pathway. The sensor is an electro-conductive polymer electrode wrapped around the infusion polyvinyl chloride infusion tube. This records an AC (alternating current) voltage induced on the patient's body by electrostatic coupling from the normal 100 volt, 60 Hz AC power line wiring field in the patient's room. If the injection needle or infusion tube becomes detached, then the system detects changes in the induced AC voltage and alerts the nursing station, via the nurse call system or PHS (personal handy phone System).

  3. Effects of dexmedetomidine infusion during spinal anesthesia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ebru Tarıkçı Kılıç


    Feb 19, 2018 ... administered in cases with high scores on the visual analog scale. ... dexmedetomidine infusion had a hemodynamic depressant effect intraoperatively whereas it had no ..... ety depresses the relevant centers in the brain and.

  4. Resin Infusion Rigidized Inflatable Concept Development and Demonstration (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A novel concept utilizing resin infusion to rigidize inflatable structures was developed at JSC ES. This ICA project intends to complete manufacturing of a prototype...

  5. Infusing Social Responsibility into the Curriculum and Cocurriculum: Campus Examples (United States)

    Reason, Robert D.


    This chapter highlights good practices and lessons learned for infusing social responsibility--contributing to the larger community and taking seriously the perspectives of others--as outcomes of college.

  6. Effect of insulin pump infusion on comprehensive stress state of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of insulin pump infusion on comprehensive stress state of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis. ... Relevant diabetes-associated serum indices, oxidative stress and stress hormone levels were compared between the ... from 32 Countries:.

  7. Vacuum Infusion of Low-Cost Aerospce Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Labordus, Maarten


    This report results from a contract tasking TNO Industrie as follows: A mold system will be designed in which the hydrostatic pressure can be measured in the resin during the vacuum infusion process...

  8. Osmotic Drying and Nutrient Infusion of Fruits and Vegetables

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Joseph


    .... Initially, six commercial fruit products were chosen for long-term storage. Two representative products, mango-flavored apple cubes and cherries, were then prepared with infused vitamins and minerals...

  9. Intravitreal methotrexate infusion for proliferative vitreoretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaka A


    Full Text Available Ama Sadaka,1 Robert A Sisk,1–3 James M Osher,1,3 Okan Toygar,4 Melinda K Duncan,5 Christopher D Riemann1,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 2Department of Opthalmology, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, 3Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Bahcesehir University Medical Faculty, Istanbul, Turkey; 5Department of Biological Sciences, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intravitreal methotrexate infusion (IMI during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV for retinal detachment in patients with high risk for the development of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR.Methods: Patients presenting with severe recurrent PVR with tractional retinal detachment and/or a history of severe ocular inflammation were treated with IMI. Clinical outcomes were determined from a retrospective medical chart review.Results: Twenty-nine eyes presenting with either tractional retinal detachment and recurrent PVR (n=22 or a history of severe inflammation associated with high PVR risk (n=7 received IMI during PPV. Best-corrected visual acuity at 6 months was ≥20/200 in 19 of 29 eyes (66% and remained stable or improved compared with initial presentation in 24 of 29 eyes (83%. At the last follow-up examination, the retinas of 26 of 29 eyes (90% remained attached after IMI while three eyes required another reattachment procedure. Three additional eyes (10% developed recurrent limited PVR without recurrent RD and were observed. No complications attributable to IMI occurred during a mean follow-up of 27 months.Conclusion: Eyes at high risk for PVR development due to a history of prior PVR or intraocular inflammation had a low incidence of PVR following IMI at the time of PPV for RD repair. No significant safety issues from IMI were observed in this series. Keywords: tractional retinal detachment, recurrent retinal detachment, pars

  10. Infusing Software Engineering Technology into Practice at NASA (United States)

    Pressburger, Thomas; Feather, Martin S.; Hinchey, Michael; Markosia, Lawrence


    We present an ongoing effort of the NASA Software Engineering Initiative to encourage the use of advanced software engineering technology on NASA projects. Technology infusion is in general a difficult process yet this effort seems to have found a modest approach that is successful for some types of technologies. We outline the process and describe the experience of the technology infusions that occurred over a two year period. We also present some lessons from the experiences.

  11. Infusion of iloprost without a peristaltic pump: Safety and tolerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Faggioli


    Full Text Available Introduction: Iloprost is a potent prostacyclin (PGI2 analogue that is effective in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease, vasculitis, pulmonary hypertension, and secondary Raynaud’s phenomenon. Intravenous infusions are generally administered with the aid of a peristaltic pump to reduce the risk of adverse reactions caused by unintentional increases in the infusion rate. This increases the cost of care in terms of equipment and personnel and may limit the use of this drug. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 18,432 iloprost infusions administered between 1999 and 2009 to 272 patients with systemic sclerosis (n = 253 and 19 with peripheral arterial disease (n = 19. All infusions were administered in the day hospital over 6 h with a normal IV set-up with a roller flow regulator. Flow rates were set to deliver iloprost at 1-2 ng/kg/min. Rates were verified by direct drop counts during the first 15-20 minutes of the infusion and at each subsequent check. Results: There were no adverse events that were fatal, life-threatening, or associated with prolongation of hospitalization and very few events requiring intensive care or continuous monitoring. The latter included 4 cases of tachycardia/arrhythmia (extrasystoles in most cases, 3 cases of hypotension (systolic pressure < 80 mmHg, and 2 cases of hypertension (BP > 170/100 mmHg. All other adverse reactions were mild, reversible, and similar to those seen with iloprost infusion with peristaltic pump. Only one patient had to be switched to another prostanoid (due to intolerance. Discussion: Iloprost infusion administered with a normal IV flow regulator appears to be as safe, well tolerated, and effective as traditional infusion with a peristaltic pump.

  12. Prepreg and infusion processes for modern wind turbine blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shennan, C. [Hexcel, Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    The different elements of wind turbine blades have been analyzed for their main function, performance requirements and drivers. Key drivers can be simplified to either performance or cost. The use of prepreg and infusion to make these blade elements has then been compared and shows, from a comparison of test laminates, that prepreg typically delivers higher mechanical performance on both glass and carbon. One of the main process differences, cure temperature, has been overcome with the introduction of M79 which cures at 70 deg. - 80 deg. C. M79 combines this low cure temperature with a much lower reaction enthalpy allowing shorter cure cycles. This means that prepregs can now be cured in the same molds, at the same temperatures and with the same foam as used in a conventional infusion process. Although prepreg and infusion are usually used separately for making blade elements, they may also be used in combination: co-infused and co-cured using prepregs for the hard to infuse unidirectional load-carrying elements and infusion for the other elements. This can thus simplify the production process. The conclusion is that unidirectional prepregs are ideally suited for the performance driven parts of the blade such as in load carrying elements. (Author)

  13. Tracer studies with aortic infusion result in improper tracer distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisneski, J.A.; Brooks, G.A.; Neese, R.A.; Stanley, W.C.; Morris, D.L.; Gertz, E.W.


    It has been suggested that lactate turnover can be accurately assessed by infusing radioactive lactate tracer into the aorta and sampling blood in the vena cava. However, there may be streaming of newly infused tracer in the aorta, resulting in a nonuniform arterial specific activity (SA). Furthermore vena caval blood may not be representative of mixed venous blood. The authors examined this problem in 7 anesthetized dogs with sampling catheters in the pulmonary (PA), carotid (CA), and femoral (FA) arteries, and the superior (SVC) and inferior (IVC) vena cavi. [1- 14 C]lactate was continuously infused into the left ventricle through a catheter introduced through the femoral artery. The same SA (dpm/μmol) was found in the CA and FA, indicating adequate mixing of newly infused tracer with trace. Three dogs showed differences between SVC, IVC and PA, suggesting a mixed venous sample can not be obtained from the VC. When the catheter was moved into the aorta, wide differences in SA appeared between the CA and FA, clearly reflecting streaming of tracer. These differences also appeared in the SVC and IVC. In conclusion, adequate mixing does not occur between tracer and trace in arterial blood with aortic infusion. Further, VC sampling will not give a consistent mixed venous SA. Therefore, for practical reasons, aortic tracer infusion with vena caval sampling will lead to erroneous turnover values

  14. Lipolytic response to glucose infusion in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.; Peters, E.J.


    The authors have determined the effect of various rates of glucose infusion on the rates of release of glycerol (R/sub a/ glycerol), free fatty acids (R/sub a/ FFA), and on energy metabolism in normal human volunteers. Plasma kinetics were determined with use of the stable isotopic tracers D-5-glycerol and [1- 13 C]palmitate, and energy metabolism was determined by indirect calorimetry. The effect of glucose infusion on R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA was dose-dependent. At 4 mg x kg -1 x min -1 , both R/sub a/ glycerol and R/sub a/ FFA were suppressed; at 8 mg x kg -1 x min -1 , R/sub a/ FFA was even more depressed, but R/sub a/ glycerol was similar to the value during the 4 mg x kg -1 x min -1 infusion. At all infusion rates tested, the amount of potential energy available from the sum of the glucose infusion and endogenously mobilized fat was always greater than when no glucose was infused. Glucose decreased fat mobilization by both inhibiting lipolysis and stimulating reesterification, thus causing a significant increase in triglyceride-fatty acid substrate cycling within the adipose tissue. Plasma insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay

  15. Edaravone, a potent free radical scavenger and a calcium channel blocker attenuate isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction by suppressing oxidative stress, apoptotic signaling and ultrastructural damage. (United States)

    Hassan, Md Quamrul; Akhtar, Md Sayeed; Akhtar, Mohd; Ali, Javed; Haque, Syed Ehtaishamul; Najmi, Abul Kalam


    In the present study, we investigated whether combination therapy of low-dose benidipine with the potent free radical scavenger edaravone has a cardioprotective effect against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI) in Wistar rats. Rats were pretreated with concurrent doses of benidipine and edaravone (1 μg/kg/day + 1 mg/kg/day and 3 μg/kg/day + 3 mg/kg/day) by intravenous (i.v.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes respectively for 28 days, followed by MI induction using ISO (85 mg/kg) by subcutaneous route for two days at 24 h intervals. After the treatment period, blood was withdrawn and the heart was preserved for biochemical estimations. The activities of the cardiac biomarkers (lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase-MB), and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) significantly increased, while antioxidant markers (reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxidase dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase) were significantly decreased in the ISO intoxicated group compared with the control group. Moreover, the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and Caspase-3 activity significantly increased in ISO-intoxicated group. An ultrastructure study was also carried out. Pretreatment with a combination of benidipine and edaravone significantly attenuated the activities of the cardiac biomarkers and the level of MDA, and significantly increased the antioxidant markers compared with the ISO-intoxicated group. Furthermore, pretreatment with the combination of benidipine and edaravone significantly decreased the level of CRP and Caspase-3 activity as compared to the ISO-treated group. The ultrastructure study of myocardium revealed that pretreated groups preserved the mitochondrial shape, the membrane and its internal structures. Taken together these results suggest that the combination of benidipine and edaravone showed significant protective effect in ISO-induced MI. © The Author(s), 2016.

  16. Evaluation of cellular viability by quantitative autoradiographic study of myocardial uptake of a fatty acid analogue in isoproterenol-induced focal rat heart necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humbert, T.; Luu-Duc, C.; Comet, M.; Demenge, P.


    Previous studies led us to hypothesize that a fatty acid analogue, 15-p-iodophenyl-β-methyl pentadecanoic acid (IMPPA or BMIPP), which is taken up but not quickly metabolized by heart cells, would be a more suitable tracer of cellular viability that 201 Tl. Biodistribution studies of 1- 14 C-IMPPA in conscious, freely moving rats showed that the concentration ratio of radioactivity in the heart with respect to the blood was about 8 for at least 60 min after intravenous administration, permitting its use as a putative tracer in these conscious, freely moving rats. Thereafter, the myocardial uptake of 14 C-IMPPA was studied in isoproterenol-treated rats (daily treatment for 10 days in order to induce cardiac hypertrophy and necrotic foci) with respect to control ones. Comparison of myocardial localizations by quantitative autoradiography of the uptake of 201 Tl and 14 C-IMPPA with that of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining enabled comparative evaluation of nutritional blood flow, localization and uptake of 14 C-IMPPA and necrotic foci size. Distributions of 14 C-IMPPA and 201 Tl in control rats' hearts were homogenous, like TTC staining. In infarcted hearts, areas of decreased 14 C-IMPPA uptake were nearly the same (100%±5%) as those unstained by TTC. These areas were larger than those showing a decrease in thallium uptake (about 70%±5% of the total scar size). Therefore, IMPPA seems to be a more accurate and sensitive indicator of necrosis localization compared with thallium. It may be a useful agent for assessment of myocardial viability by single photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. (orig.)

  17. Dwindling of cardio damaging effect of isoproterenol by Punica granatum L. peel extract involve activation of nitric oxide-mediated Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway and apoptosis inhibition. (United States)

    Gupta, Mahesh; Sharma, Pallavi; Mazumder, Arindam Ghosh; Patial, Vikram; Singh, Damanpreet


    Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae) peel is often considered as a food waste in-spite of its high bioactive metabolite composition. Primarily it is rich in therapeutically active phenolics that act on multiple cellular sites, through diverse mechanisms. Hence, the present study was envisaged to investigate the effect of standardised peel extract of P. granatum against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial infarction (MI). ISO administration at a dose of 150 mg/kg; s.c., twice at 24 h interval resulted in electrocardiographic abnormalities with increased heart weight and myocardial tissue damage signifying MI. Pretreatment with the extract at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg; p.o., for 21 days prior to ISO intoxication (30 min prior to intoxication on day 22 and 23) attenuated the observed changes, along with increased myocardial tissue superoxide dismutase activity, reduced glutathione and nitrite levels, and decreased lipid peroxidation. The extract treated groups also showed reduced serum marker enzymes of MI, showing maximum effect at highest tested dose. Immunohistochemical studies revealed increased myocardial expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and Bcl-2 proteins in the extract treated groups with decreased Bax expression. From the results it can be concluded that the extract pretreatment prevents ISO-induced MI through increased myocardial expression of eNOS, leading to nitric oxide-mediated Nrf2 activation, thus upregulating antioxidant mechanisms, along with inhibition of apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Insulin Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1 Causes Overproduction of IL-8, an Angiogenic Cytokine and Stimulates Neovascularization in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja Haleagrahara


    Full Text Available Angiogenesis factors are produced in response to hypoxic or ischemic insult at the site of pathology, which will cause neovascularization. Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 exerts potent proliferative, angiogenic and anti-apoptotic effects in target tissues. The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of IGF-1 on circulating level of angiogenic cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, in experimentally-induced myocardial ischemia in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control, IGF-1 treated (2 µg/kg/day subcutaneously, for 5 and 10 days, isoproterenol (ISO treated (85 mg/kg, subcutaneously for two days and ISO with IGF-1 treated (for 5 and 10 days. Heart weight, serum IGF-1, IL-8 and cardiac marker enzymes (CK-MB and LDH were recorded after 5 and 10 days of treatment. Histopathological analyses of the myocardium were also done. There was a significant increase in serum cardiac markers with ISO treatment indicating myocardial infarction in rats. IGF-1 level increased significantly in ISO treated groups and the level of IGF-1 was significantly higher after 10 days of treatment. IL-8 level increased significantly after ISO treatment after 5 and 10 days and IGF-1 concurrent treatment to ISO rats had significantly increased IL-8 levels. Histopathologically, myocyte necrosis and nuclear pyknosis were reduced significantly in IGF-1 treated group and there were numerous areas of capillary sprouting suggestive of neovascularization in the myocardium. Thus, IGF-1 protects the ischemic myocardium with increased production of circulating angiogenic cytokine, IL-8 and increased angiogenesis.

  19. Comparative Studies on Bioactive Constituents in Hawk Tea Infusions with Different Maturity Degree and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yuan


    Full Text Available Hawk tea (Litsea coreana var. lanuginose is a very popular herbal tea in the southwest of China. According to the maturity degree of raw materials, Hawk tea can usually be divided into three types: Hawk bud tea (HB, Hawk primary leaf tea (HP, and Hawk mature leaf tea (HM. In this study, some of the bioactive constituents and antioxidant properties of the three kinds of Hawk tea infusions were comparatively investigated. The results showed that the contents of total flavonoids, vitamin C, and carbohydrates in Hawk bud tea infusion (HBI were higher than those in Hawk primary leaf tea infusion (HPI and Hawk mature leaf tea infusion (HMI. HPI had higher contents of total polyphenols and exhibited better DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing activity power. HBI could provide more effective protection against erythrocyte hemolysis. As age is going from bud to mature leaf, the ability to inhibit the formation of low density lipoprotein (LDL conjugated diene and the loss of tryptophan fluorescence decreased. The bioactive constituents and antioxidant activities of Hawk tea infusions were significantly affected by the maturity degree of the raw material.

  20. Intravenous lidocaine infusion--a new treatment of chronic painful diabetic neuropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Petersen, P; Dejgård, A


    after lidocaine infusion compared to after saline infusion (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.02, respectively). The duration of the individual effect ranged from 3 to 21 days. Lidocaine infusion had no effect on the objective measurements of neuropathy. Intravenous lidocaine infusion seems to be a new...

  1. Time factor of BSH from intravenous infusion to neutron irradiation for BNCT in patients with glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageji, T.; Nagahiro, S.; Kitamura, K.; Nakagawa, Y.; Hatanaka, H.; Haritz, D.; Grochulla, F.; Haselsberger, K.; Gabel, D.


    The present report evaluates the time factor of BSH from infusion to irradiation in patients with glioblastoma as a cooperative study in Europe and Japan. For BNCT with BSH after intravenous infusion, this work confirms that the planned neutron irradiation after intravenous BSH infusion appears to be optimal around 12-19 hours after the infusion. (author)

  2. Platelet transfusion in chemotherapy patients: comparison of the effect of intravenous infusion pumps versus gravity transfusion. (United States)

    Meess, A


    Platelet concentrates are given to patients suffering with severe thrombocytopenia usually by a gravity transfusion procedure. Increasing patient numbers that are in need of this treatment increase the pressure on hospital staff and space. In order to combat time issues, the use of medical devices such as intravenous infusion pumps are thought to be beneficial for time and simultaneously for safety in transfusion practices. By using infusion pumps, platelet concentrates can be transfused in less time and provide accurate volume measurements. Manufacturers of infusion pumps claim that these devices are safe to be used for blood products including platelet concentrates. However, published studies were performed on older models and newer devices are on the market now. The purpose of this study is to evaluate infusion pumps, which are claimed to be suitable for blood products and to investigate the impact the pumps had on platelets. Furthermore, the study revealed if the intravenous infusion pumps are safe to be used for platelet transfusion as claimed by manufacturers. A simulated transfusion was performed using the Carefusion Alaris GP Plus volumetric pump and Fresenius Kabi Volumat Agilia infusion pump. Samples were taken from expired platelet concentrates before and after passage through the pump. All samples were investigated for full blood count that included platelet count, mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW) and a plateletcrit (PCT). The samples were then centrifuged to achieve platelet-poor plasma and then tested for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). A power calculation performed on the statistical power analysis program G*power indicated a requirement of 82 samples for a power of 80%. Statistical analysis was performed with the IBM SPSS statistic software. A paired sample t-test was used to calculate mean, standard deviation and P values for the infusion pumps used. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used to evaluate results that had a non

  3. Ionic-Liquid-Infused Nanostructures as Repellent Surfaces. (United States)

    Galvan, Yaraset; Phillips, Katherine R; Haumann, Marco; Wasserscheid, Peter; Zarraga, Ramon; Vogel, Nicolas


    In order to prepare lubricant-infused repellent coatings on silica nanostructures using low vapor pressure ionic liquids as lubricants, we study the wetting behavior of a set of imidazolium-based ionic liquids with different alkyl side chains as a function of the applied surface functionalities. We take advantage of the structural color of inverse opals prepared from a colloidal coassembly technique to study the infiltration of ionic liquids into these nanoporous structures. We find that the more hydrophobic ionic liquids with butyl and hexyl side chains can completely infiltrate inverse opals functionalized with mixed self-assembled monolayers composed of imidazole groups and aliphatic hydrocarbon chains, which we introduce via silane chemistry. These molecular species reflect the chemical nature of the ionic liquid, thereby increasing the affinity between the liquid and solid surface. The mixed surface chemistry provides sufficiently small contact angles with the ionic liquid to infiltrate the nanopores while maximizing the contact angle with water. As a result, the mixed monolayers enable the design of a stable ionic liquid/solid interface that is able to repel water as a test liquid. Our results underline the importance of matching chemical affinities to predict and control the wetting behavior in complex, multiphase systems.

  4. Regional CAR-T cell infusions for peritoneal carcinomatosis are superior to systemic delivery. (United States)

    Katz, S C; Point, G R; Cunetta, M; Thorn, M; Guha, P; Espat, N J; Boutros, C; Hanna, N; Junghans, R P


    Metastatic spread of colorectal cancer (CRC) to the peritoneal cavity is common and difficult to treat, with many patients dying from malignant bowel obstruction. Chimeric antigen receptor T cell (CAR-T) immunotherapy has shown great promise, and we previously reported murine and phase I clinical studies on regional intrahepatic CAR-T infusion for CRC liver metastases. We are now studying intraperitoneal (IP) delivery of CAR-Ts for peritoneal carcinomatosis. Regional IP infusion of CAR-T resulted in superior protection against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA+) peritoneal tumors, when compared with systemically infused CAR-Ts. IP CAR-Ts also provided prolonged protection against IP tumor re-challenges and demonstrated an increase in effector memory phenotype over time. IP CAR-Ts provided protection against tumor growth at distant subcutaneous (SC) sites in association with increases in serum IFNγ levels. Given the challenges posed by immunoinhibitory pathways in solid tumors, we combined IP CAR-T treatment with suppressor cell targeting. High frequencies of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and regulatory T cells (Treg) were found within the IP tumors, with MDSC expressing high levels of immunosuppressive PD-L1. Combinatorial IP CAR-T treatment with depleting antibodies against MDSC and Treg further improved efficacy against peritoneal metastases. Our data support further development of combinatorial IP CAR-T immunotherapy for peritoneal malignancies.

  5. Modeling the effect of continuous infusion DTPA therapy on the retention and dosimetry of inhaled actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.


    A biokinetic model of the treatment of dogs that inhaled 241 AmO 2 aerosols with continuously infused DTPA has been adapted from a model previously published by Mewhinney and Griffith. This model simulated both the tissue retention and excretion of 241 Am, and was used to estimate the cumulative radiation doses to tissues at risk from 241 Am alpha radiation. The results showed that at 64 days after exposure, the liver dose of the DTPA-treated animals was 3% that of the corresponding controls, the skeletal dose was 2%, the kidney dose was 4%, and the lung dose was 67% of controls. This paper describes a biokinetic and dosimetric model that was adapted from a previously published model. It was developed to provide a means of estimating radiation doses for cases where continuously infused DTPA therapy is used to reduce radiation dose. The model was formulated for the case of 241 Am0 2 inhalation, a physicochemical form of Am that is moderately soluble in vivo, and one to which people have been exposed. Because adequate human data, particularly tissue data, are not available from cases of accidental human exposure to 241 Am, two published data sets from experiments in which Beagle dogs inhaled 241 Am0 2 aerosols have been used to obtain parameter estimates for the model. The model simulations were then used to provide dose estimates with and without infused-DTPA therapy. (author)

  6. Continuous intravenous infusions of bromodeoxyuridine as a clinical radiosensitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsella, T.J.; Mitchell, J.B.; Russo, A.; Aiken, M.; Morstyn, G.; Hsu, S.M.; Rowland, J.; Glatstein, E.


    Twelve patients were treated with continuous intravenous (24-hour) infusions of bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) at 650 or 1000 mg/m2/d for up to two weeks. Myelosuppression, especially thrombocytopenia, was the major systemic toxicity and limited the infusion period to nine to 14 days. However, bone marrow recovery occurred within seven to ten days, allowing for a second infusion in most patients. Local toxicity (within the radiation field) was minimal, with the exception of one of four patients, who underwent abdominal irradiation. Pharmacology studies revealed a steady-state arterial plasma level of 6 x 10(-7) mol/L and 1 x 10(-6) mol/L during infusion of 650 and 1000 mg/m2/d, respectively. In vivo BUdR uptake into normal bone marrow was evaluated in two patients by comparison of preinfusion and postinfusion in vitro radiation survival curves of marrow CFUc with enhancement ratios (D0-pre/D0-post) of 1.8 (with 650 mg/m2/d) and 2.5 (with 1000 mg/m2/d). In vivo BUdR incorporation into normal skin and tumor cells using an anti-BUdR monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemistry was demonstrated in biopsies from three patients revealing substantially less cellular incorporation into normal skin (less than 10%) compared with tumor (up to 50% to 70%). The authors conclude that local and systemic toxicity of continuous infusion of BUdR at 1000 mg/m2/d for approximately two weeks is tolerable. The observed normal tissue toxicity is comparable with previous clinical experience with intermittent (12 hours every day for two weeks) infusions of BUdR. Theoretically, a constant infusion should allow for greater incorporation of BUdR into cycling tumor cells and thus, for further enhancement of radiosensitization

  7. Liquid-liquid displacement in slippery liquid-infused membranes (SLIMs)


    Bazyar, Hanieh; Lv, Pengyu; Wood, Jeffery A.; Porada, Slawomir; Lohse, Detlef; Lammertink, Rob G. H.


    Liquid-infused membranes inspired by slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces (SLIPS) have been recently introduced to membrane technology. The gating mechanism of these membranes is expected to give rise to anti-fouling properties and multi-phase transport capabilities. However, the long-term retention of the infusion liquid has not yet been explored. To address this issue, we investigate the retention of the infusion liquid in slippery liquid-infused membranes (SLIMs) via liquid-liquid displ...

  8. Organizational, Cultural, and Psychological Determinants of Smart Infusion Pump Work Arounds: A Study of 3 U.S. Health Systems. (United States)

    Dunford, Benjamin B; Perrigino, Matthew; Tucker, Sharon J; Gaston, Cynthia L; Young, Jim; Vermace, Beverly J; Walroth, Todd A; Buening, Natalie R; Skillman, Katherine L; Berndt, Dawn


    We investigated nurse perceptions of smart infusion medication pumps to provide evidence-based insights on how to help reduce work around and improve compliance with patient safety policies. Specifically, we investigated the following 3 research questions: (1) What are nurses' current attitudes about smart infusion pumps? (2) What do nurses think are the causes of smart infusion pump work arounds? and (3) To whom do nurses turn for smart infusion pump training and troubleshooting? We surveyed a large number of nurses (N = 818) in 3 U.S.-based health care systems to address the research questions above. We assessed nurses' opinions about smart infusion pumps, organizational perceptions, and the reasons for work arounds using a voluntary and anonymous Web-based survey. Using qualitative research methods, we coded open-ended responses to questions about the reasons for work arounds to organize responses into useful categories. The nurses reported widespread satisfaction with smart infusion pumps. However, they reported numerous organizational, cultural, and psychological causes of smart pump work arounds. Of 1029 open-ended responses to the question "why do smart pump work arounds occur?" approximately 44% of the causes were technology related, 47% were organization related, and 9% were related to individual factors. Finally, an overwhelming majority of nurses reported seeking solutions to smart pump problems from coworkers and being trained primarily on the job. Hospitals may significantly improve adherence to smart pump safety features by addressing the nontechnical causes of work arounds and by providing more leadership and formalized training for resolving smart pump-related problems.

  9. Infusion-related reactions to infliximab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in a clinical practice setting: relationship to dose, antihistamine pretreatment, and infusion number. (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael J; Weber, Deborah A; Guthrie, Judith A; Bykerk, Vivian P; Lee, Peter; Keystone, Edward C


    We describe infusion-related reactions to infliximab (during infusion or within 1 hour postinfusion) in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated in a quaternary care center. We followed 113 patients for a mean of 60.6 +/- 28.9 weeks, obtaining 10.5 +/- 4.9 infusions per patient. We observed 1183 infusions resulting in 104 infusion reactions (8.8%). All reactions resolved within several hours following cessation of the infusion and none was serious enough to warrant hospitalization. Reactions included allergic reactions (pruritus, urticaria) in 4.2% of infusions, cardiopulmonary (hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia) in 3.0%, and miscellaneous reactions (headache, nausea, vomiting) in 2.0%. Reactions occurred in 8.0% of 3 mg/kg infusions and in 10.3% of 5 mg/kg infusions. Reactions occurred in 13.2% of infusions that involved antihistamine pretreatment compared to only 7.5% of infusions that involved no pretreatment. At both infliximab doses, there was a similar frequency of infusion reactions in patients pretreated due to a previous infusion (12.6%) compared to those pretreated strictly based on infusion number (14.7%). A number of the reactions involving antihistamine pretreatment may be explained by known side effects of diphenhydramine, including headache, dizziness, nausea, and palpitations. Infusion-related reactions to infliximab were infrequent, rarely severe, and easily manageable. The frequency of reactions was equivalent in patients treated with 3 mg/kg compared to 5 mg/kg. Reactions were significantly more frequent in infusions where patients were pretreated with the antihistamine diphenhydramine, compared to those not involving pretreatment.

  10. Symptomatic Tarlov Cysts: Surgical Treatment by Subcutaneous Infusion Port. (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhu, Tong; Lin, Hongyi; Li, Jing; Zeng, Tao; Lin, Jian


    The treatment of Tarlov cysts is challenging and difficult. The objective of our study was to describe the security and efficacy of the subcutaneous infusion port for drainage of symptomatic Tarlov cysts. The authors executed a retrospective review of data from 5 symptomatic Tarlov cysts patients who were treated using a subcutaneous infusion port from June 2014 to July 2017. Numerical Rating Scale scores and the Japanese Orthopedic Association scores of back pain were analyzed. Complications and adverse effects on postoperative days 1, 7, 14, and 28 were also analyzed. The mean follow-up was 12.6 months. Five adults (3 females and 2 males) who had been symptomatic received a subcutaneous infusion port. After treatment, all patients experienced pain relief and pain alleviation lasted from 1 day to 3 years without complications and adverse effects. A subcutaneous infusion port is a useful treatment option for symptomatic Tarlov cysts. When the patients' symptoms returned and the cysts repressurized, we quickly and simply drained the cysts by using the infusion port. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Resin infusion of large composite structures modeling and manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, A.C. [Michigan State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, East Lansing, MI (United States)


    The resin infusion processes resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI) and vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are cost effective techniques for the fabrication of complex shaped composite structures. The dry fibrous preform is placed in the mold, consolidated, resin impregnated and cured in a single step process. The fibrous performs are often constructed near net shape using highly automated textile processes such as knitting, weaving and braiding. In this paper, the infusion processes RTM, RFI and VARTM are discussed along with the advantages of each technique compared with traditional composite fabrication methods such as prepreg tape lay up and autoclave cure. The large number of processing variables and the complex material behavior during infiltration and cure make experimental optimization of the infusion processes costly and inefficient. Numerical models have been developed which can be used to simulate the resin infusion processes. The model formulation and solution procedures for the VARTM process are presented. A VARTM process simulation of a carbon fiber preform was presented to demonstrate the type of information that can be generated by the model and to compare the model predictions with experimental measurements. Overall, the predicted flow front positions, resin pressures and preform thicknesses agree well with the measured values. The results of the simulation show the potential cost and performance benefits that can be realized by using a simulation model as part of the development process. (au)

  12. Effects of adenosine infusion into renal interstitium on renal hemodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowska, D.; Granger, J.P.; Knox, F.G.


    This study was designed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of exogenous adenosine in the interstitium of the rat kidney. Adenosine or its analogues were infused into the renal interstitium by means of chronically implanted capsules. In fusion of adenosine decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 0.81 +/- 0.06 to 0.37 +/- 0.06 ml/min while having no effect on renal blood flow (RBF). The metabolically stable analogue, 2-chloradenosine (2-ClAdo), decreased GFR from 0.73 +/- 0.07 to 021 +/- 0.06 ml/min. Interstitial infusion of theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely abolished the effects of adenosine and 2-ClAdo on GFR. The distribution of adenosine, when infused into the renal interstitium, was determined using radiolabeled 5'-(N-ethyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a metabolically stable adenosine agonist. After continuous infusion, [ 3 H]NECA was distributed throughout the kidney. The effects of NECA to reduce GFR were similar to those of adenosine and 2-ClAdo. They conclude that increased levels of adenosine in the renal interstitium markedly decrease GFR without affecting RBF in steady-state conditions. The marked effects of adenosine agonists during their infusion into the renal interstitium and the complete blockade of these effects by theophylline suggest an extracellular action of adenosine

  13. Analog experiment of transarterial catheter hyperthermic infusion in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Shufeng Li Zheng; Gu Weizhong; Ru Fuming


    Objective: To investigate the factors related to the heating effect by transarterial catheter hyperthermic infusion with the evaluation of the feasibility in controlling the tumor temperature. Methods: Infusing 55-68 degree C liquid at the speed of 10-40 ml/min through 6F, 5F or 3F catheter with different length respectively under the similar clinical condition. The liquid temperature at the terminal exit of the catheter was measured with a digital thermometer. The factors related to the liquid temperature at the exit of the catheter were analyzed by multiple regression analysis. Results: The infusion temperature , rate and the catheter length were the main related factors to the liquid temperature at the exit of the catheter as the condition similar in clinical use. When 60-65 degree C liquid was infused at the rate of 20-40 ml/min through 5F catheter with length of 80 cm, the mean and 95% confident interval of the liquid temperature at the catheter exit were (47.55±0.44) degree C and 44.61-48.49 degree C respectively. Conclusions: The liquid temperature at the exit of infusion catheter can be regulated and controlled through adjusting the liquid perfusion temperature and speed. (authors)

  14. Effect of Intravenous Infusion Solutions on Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Yap, Jason; Rafii, Mahroukh; Azcue, Maria; Pencharz, Paul


    Bioelectrical impedance (BIA) is often used to measure body fluid spaces and thereby body composition. However, in acute animal studies, we found that impedance was driven by the saline content of intravenous (IV) fluids and not by the volume. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of 3 different fluids acutely administered on the change in impedance, specifically resistance (R). Nine healthy adults participated in 3 treatment (0.9% saline, 5% dextrose, and a mixture of 0.3% saline + 3.3% dextrose) experiments on nonconsecutive days. They all received 1 L of one of the treatments intravenously over a 1-hour period. Repeated BIA measurements were performed prior to IV infusion and then every 5 minutes for the 1-hour infusion period, plus 3 more measurements up to 15 minutes after the completion of the infusion. The change in R in the 0.9% saline infusion experiment was significantly lower than that of the glucose and mixture treatment ( P < .001). Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy and BIA measure salt rather than the volume changes over the infusion period. Hence, in patients receiving IV fluids, BIA of any kind (single frequency or multifrequency) cannot be used to measure body fluid spaces or body composition.

  15. Shifting Perspectives and Practices: Teacher Candidates’ Experiences of a First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Infusion in Mainstream Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Marilyn Fern Blimkie


    Full Text Available This exploratory case study shares teacher candidates’ perspectives and experiences of the First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Infusion at ABC University’s Faculty of Education field site in XYZ, Ontario. For this initiative, Aboriginal content and pedagogies were infused throughout placements and courses of the mainstream teacher education program. Teacher candidates shared that the Infusion prepared them to teach Aboriginal content in culturally respectful and meaningful ways by providing them with a foundation to build on and helping them to develop teaching practices inclusive of diverse ways of knowing and being in the world. These findings may be useful to other educators developing and implementing their own infusion initiatives.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSSV Prasad


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Awake craniotomy for removal of intracranial tumors is most challenging procedure. The critical aspect of awake craniotomy is to maintain adequate analgesia and sedation, hemodynamic stability, airway safety, while keeping the patient immobile for duration of surgery, cooperative for neurological testing. AIM OF THE STUDY: Dexmedetomidine is good analgesic, sedative and has anaesthetic-sparing properties without causing significant respiratory depression. [1] We are reporting cases series of awake craniotomy under monitored anesthesia care using dexmedetomidine infusion as an adjuvant to scalp block, titrating the sedation level by BIS monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: after careful patient selection and psychological preparation Monitored Anesthesia care(MAC was provided by continuous infusion of Dexmedetomidine at a rate of 0.2-0.5 mcg/kg/min titrating sedation level to a BIS value of 70-90%. Bilateral scalp block was administered using 0.5% bupivacaine. For dura mater incision, a pad with 2% lidocaine was applied for 3 minutes. The tumor removal was complete with no neurological deficiency. All the patients were discharged on 5th postoperative day without complications and with full patient satisfaction. CONCLUSION: We conclude that monitored anesthesia care with dexmedetomidine infusion and scalp block for awake craniotomy is a safe and efficacious. Absence of complications and high patient satisfaction score makes this technique close to an ideal technique for awake craniotomy.

  17. Intraosseous infusions: a review for the anesthesiologist with a focus on pediatric use. (United States)

    Tobias, Joseph D; Ross, Allison Kinder


    Intraosseous (IO) access is used most frequently for emergency care of critically ill infants and children when IV access cannot be rapidly achieved. Despite its efficacy in such situations, applications outside of the emergency room or resuscitation scenario have been limited. Furthermore, although the technique is emphasized in the teaching of those caring for critically ill infants and children in the emergency room or critical care setting, there is limited emphasis on its potential use in the perioperative setting. When peripheral venous access cannot be achieved in the operating room, alternative means of securing vascular access such as central line placement or surgical cutdown are generally successful; however, these techniques may be time consuming. Anyone providing anesthesia care for infants and children may want to become facile with the use of IO infusions for selected indications. We present the history of IO infusions, review the anatomy of the bone marrow space, discuss the potential role of IO infusions in the perioperative period, and analyze its adverse effect profile.

  18. The anger-infused Ultimatum Game: A reliable and valid paradigm to induce and assess anger. (United States)

    Gilam, Gadi; Abend, Rany; Shani, Hagai; Ben-Zion, Ziv; Hendler, Talma


    The Ultimatum Game (UG) is a canonical social decision-making task whereby a proposer divides a sum of money between himself and a responder who accepts or rejects the offer. Studies consistently demonstrate that unfair offers induce anger, and that rejecting such offers relates to aggression. Nevertheless, the UG is limited in interpersonal provocations common to real-life experiences of anger. Moreover, the psychometric properties of the UG as an anger-induction paradigm have yet to be evaluated. Here, to induce a more intense and genuine anger experience, we implemented a modified UG whereby short written provocations congruent with unfairness levels accompanied each offer. We aimed to test whether this anger-infused UG led to more anger and aggressive responses relative to the standard UG and to establish the reliability and validity of both versions. Participants performed either the anger-infused UG or a standard version, repeated twice, a week apart. They also performed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm, a reactive aggression paradigm, and completed emotion ratings and a trait anger inventory. Results indicate similar decreases in acceptance rates with increase in offer unfairness, and increases in reported anger, across both UG versions. Both versions demonstrated strong test-retest reliability. However, the anger-infused UG led to significantly stronger relations with reactive aggression and trait anger compared to the standard UG, providing evidence for better validity. The development of the anger-infused UG as a reliable and valid paradigm is pivotal for the induction and assessment of interpersonal anger and its aggressive expression in basic and clinical research settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Specially trained registered nurses can safely manage epidural analgesia infusion in laboring patients. (United States)

    Charles, Lenore A; Korejwa, Elise; Kent, Donna Curtis; Raniero, Debbie


    To discover evidence for defining the registered nurse's (RN's) role in the management of epidural analgesia in the labor and delivery setting. The Labor Epidural Nurse Safety (LENS) study consisted of two parts. The first part was a 10-year retrospective review of the outcomes of 2,568 laboring women for whom epidural catheters had been placed and verified by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist, then continuous epidural infusion initiated, and basal rate or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) dose increased, if needed, within specified parameters by specially trained labor and delivery RNs. The second part compared the outcomes of the neonates born to the 2,568 women in the first part of the study with neonates born to mothers who received PCEA with a continuous infusion initiated and managed exclusively by anesthesiologists and/or certified registered nurse anesthetists at two control sites. Maternal outcomes were quantified by incidences of clinically significant hypotension and sentinel events, such as respiratory distress, cardio/respiratory distress, loss of consciousness, and seizures. Evidence of neonatal outcomes was collected by comparing Apgar scores. No sentinel events occurred, and there was no increase in maternal hypotensive events in the RN-managed group. There were no statistically significant differences in Apgar scores between the experimental and control groups. Specially trained RNs can safely initiate continuous infusions and increase the basal rate of epidural analgesia infusions or PCEA doses administered to laboring women, after insertion and confirmation of correct catheter placement by a qualified anesthesia provider, without adversely affecting maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intracranial hemodynamics during intravenous infusion of glyceryl trinitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, H.K.; Holm, S.; Friberg, L.


    The mechanisms of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN)-induced headache are not fully elucidated. In this study we administered GTN 0.5 microg/kg/min i.v. for 20 min in six healthy volunteers. Before, during and 60 min after the infusion, we investigated regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood...... volume (CBV), both estimated with SPECT, and blood flow velocity (BFV) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), measured with transcranial Doppler. Headache was scored on a numerical verbal rating (0-10) scale. rCBF was unchanged, CBV was slightly increased (13%) during GTN infusion, whereas BFV decreased...... both during (20%) and 60 min (15%) after GTN. Headache was short-lived and maximal during infusion. This discrepancy of time-effect curves for the effect of GTN on headache and dilatation of MCA indicates that MCA is most likely not the primary source of pain in GTN-induced headache. The time...

  1. Plant Natural Products Calycosin and Gallic Acid Synergistically Attenuate Neutrophil Infiltration and Subsequent Injury in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction: A Possible Role for Leukotriene B4 12-Hydroxydehydrogenase? (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Tse, Hung Fat; Le, X. Chris; Rong, Jianhui


    Leukotriene B4 12-hydroxydehydrogenase (LTB4DH) catalyzes the oxidation of proinflammatory LTB4 into less bioactive 12-oxo-LTB4. We recently discovered that LTB4DH was induced by two different natural products in combination. We previously isolated gallic acid from Radix Paeoniae through a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that LTB4DH inducers may suppress neutrophil-mediated inflammation in myocardial infarction. We first isolated the active compound(s) from another plant, Radix Astragali, by the similar strategy. By evaluating LTB4DH induction, we identified calycosin and formononetin from Radix Astragali by HPLC-ESI-MS technique. We confirmed that gallic acid and commercial calycosin or formononetin could synergistically induce LTB4DH expression in HepG2 cells and human neutrophils. Moreover, calycosin and gallic acid attenuated the effects of LTB4 on the survival and chemotaxis of neutrophil cell culture. We further demonstrated that calycosin and gallic acid synergistically suppressed neutrophil infiltration and protected cardiac integrity in the isoproterenol-induced mice model of myocardial infarction. Calycosin and gallic acid dramatically suppressed isoproterenol-induced increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Collectively, our results suggest that LTB4DH inducers (i.e., calycosin and gallic acid) may be a novel combined therapy for the treatment of neutrophil-mediated myocardial injury. PMID:26265982

  2. Control of red cell volume and pH in trout: Effects of isoproterenol, transport inhibitors, and extracellular pH in bicarbonate/carbon dioxide-buffered media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    The effects of extracellular pH and beta-adrenergic stimula-tion on the volume and pH of rainbow. trout red cells were studied in HCO3-/ CO2 butfered media. A decrease in extracellular pH caused an increase in red cell volume and a decrease in intracellular pH. The pH-induced changes in cell volume......, and that the Na+/H+ exchanger is not activated by changes in intracellular pH alone. The adrenergic drug, isoproterenol, promoted cell swelling and proton extrusion even in the presence of 10 mM HCO3-, showing that the adrenergic response plays a significant role in the control of cytoplasmic pH. These responses...... were enhanced by a decrease in extracellular pH, showing that the adrenergic response is of benefit to stressed animals. DIDS markedly enhanced the effect of isoproterenol on the pHi, but abolished the increase in red cell volume. The effects of furosemide were similar to those of DIDS, suggesting...

  3. Composition of antioxidants and amino acids in Stevia leaf infusions. (United States)

    Periche, Angela; Koutsidis, Georgios; Escriche, Isabel


    Stevia, a non-caloric natural sweetener with beneficial properties and considerable antioxidants and amino acids, is increasingly consumed as an infusion. This work evaluates the influence of the conditions (temperature: 50, 70 or 90 °C and time: 1, 5, 20 or 40 min) applied to obtain Stevia infusions, on antioxidants (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) and amino acids. The total concentration of the eleven amino acids found was 11.70 mg/g in dried leaves and from 6.84 to 9.11 mg/g per gram of Stevia in infusions. However, infusions showed higher levels of certain amino acids (alanine, asparagine, leucine and proline), and greater values of the three antioxidant parameters in comparison with dry leaves. Temperature had more influence (minimum values at 50 °C and maximum at 90 °C) than time in the case of antioxidants. At 90 °C there were no important increases in the extraction of antioxidant compounds after 5 min; each gram of Stevia had 117 mg trolox (total antioxidant activity), 90 mg gallic acid (total phenols) and 56 mg catechin equivalents (flavonoids). Varying the temperature and time conditions no notable differences were observed in the concentrations of the majority of amino acids. However, the infusion treatment at 90 °C for 5 min was the best, as it gave the highest yield of 8 of the 11 amino acids. Therefore, with respect to the compounds analyzed in this study, the best way to obtain Stevia leaf infusions is the same as the domestic process, almost boiling water for a short time.

  4. Tolerance and diagnostic accuracy of an abbreviated adenosine infusion for myocardial scintigraphy: a randomized, prospective study. (United States)

    Treuth, M G; Reyes, G A; He, Z X; Cwajg, E; Mahmarian, J J; Verani, M S


    The objectives of this study were 2-fold: (1) to determine the tolerance of adenosine perfusion tomography with the use of an abbreviated (3-minute) infusion in comparison to the standard (6-minute) infusion, and (2) to assess the relative diagnostic accuracy of a 3-minute adenosine infusion in patients referred for arteriography. An abbreviated adenosine infusion may decrease the frequency and duration of side effects and be a more cost-effective alternative. We prospectively randomized 599 patients undergoing adenosine myocardial perfusion tomography to either a 3-minute or 6-minute adenosine infusion at 140 microg/kg per minute. Among the 599 enrolled patients, 142 subsequently underwent coronary angiography. Patients randomized to the 3-minute adenosine infusion tolerated the procedure better than those randomized to the standard infusion (P <.01). Flushing, headache, neck pain, and atrioventricular block were all significantly less frequent (P <.01) with the abbreviated infusion. Moreover, patients receiving the abbreviated infusion had less hypotension and tachycardia (P <.05). The sensitivity of the test for detection of coronary artery disease was 88% for both the 3- and 6-minute infusions. In patients with abnormal scan results, perfusion defect size was slightly larger in those receiving a 6-minute infusion versus those receiving a 3-minute infusion (P =.05). An abbreviated 3-minute adenosine infusion, in combination with perfusion tomography, has similar sensitivity for detection of coronary artery disease and is better tolerated than the standard 6-minute infusion.

  5. Using higher doses to compensate for tubing residuals in extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam. (United States)

    Lam, Wendy J; Bhowmick, Tanaya; Gross, Alan; Vanschooneveld, Trevor C; Weinstein, Melvin P


    To mathematically assess drug losses due to infusion line residuals and evaluate methods to compensate for drug loss due to residual volumes in intravenous pump tubing. Literature was accessed through Ovid MEDLINE (1996-February 2013), using combinations of the search terms tubing residuals, residual volume, residual medication, intravenous infusions, intravenous injections, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, β-lactams, equipment design, infusion pumps, extended infusion, extended administration, and prolonged infusion. In addition, select reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. All articles that involved extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam implementation strategies were included in the review. Infusion pump characteristics and tubing residuals can affect extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam dosing strategies. Two studies addressing tubing residuals were identified. Both studies recommended increasing infusion volumes to compensate for tubing residuals. One study also recommended decreasing infusion-line dead space by using alternative infusion pump systems. Study calculations suggest that higher doses of piperacillin-tazobactam may be used to account for medication left in tubing residuals if alternative infusion pump systems cannot be obtained, and increased infusion volumes are not an option. Extended-infusion piperacillin-tazobactam has been used as a method of maximizing pharmacodynamic target attainment. Use of higher doses of piperacillin-tazobactam may be a reasonable method to compensate for drug loss due to residual volumes in large-bore intravenous pump tubing.

  6. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Systems for SMD Mission Needs. Technology Infusion Study. (United States)

    Anderson, David


    Two presentations for SBAG and OPAG meetings: 1) Solar Electric Propulsion Systems for SMD Missions, and 2) Technology Infusion Study - Draft Findings Recommendation Small Bodies Assessment Group (SBAG) meeting is January 9th in Washington D.C., and the Outer Planets Assessment Group (OPAG) meeting is January 23-14 in Tucson, AZ. NASA sponsors these assessment groups, through the NRC, for the science community to assess and provide advice. These talks are to provide a status of 2 NASA activities, and to seek feedback from the respective science communities.

  7. Effects of methacholine infusion on desflurane pharmacokinetics in piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alf Kozian


    We measured airway pressures, pulmonary resistance, and mean paO2 as well as hemodynamic variables in all pigs before desflurane application and at plateau in both healthy state and during methacholine administration by infusion. By MIGET, fractional alveolar ventilation and pulmonary perfusion in relation to the V.A/Q. compartments, data of logSDQ̇ and logSDV̇ (the second moments describing global dispersion, i.e. heterogeneity of distribution were estimated prior to and after MCh infusion. The uptake and elimination of desflurane was determined by MMIMS.

  8. Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.; Hoborn, J.


    Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a steriliza......Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor...

  9. Equipment for a 'non-stop' water infusion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, J C


    This paper gives a definition of the non-stop infusion system (technique employed during the winning operation to prevent the emission of coal-dust). The system works at low-output and reduced pressure level; delivery and control is continuous. Explains the principles behind the MECANELEC flow regulator and the SCHLUMBERGER device to monitor correct operation. Describes a SCHLUMBERGER unit used in the Houilleres de Blanzy as well as a combined MECANELEC-SCHLUMBERGER installation in service at HBNPC. This combination allows water infusion to be carried out as required by the conditions. Possibility of introducing necessary improvements (such as a device to prevent leakage) is discussed.

  10. [Radiotherapy and implantable medical device: example of infusion pumps]. (United States)

    Abrous-Anane, S; Benhassine, S; Lopez, S; Cristina, K; Mazeron, J-J


    Indication for radiotherapy is often questioned for patients equipped with implantable medical devices like infusion pumps as the radiation tolerance is poor or not known. We report here on the case of a patient who we treated with pelvic radiotherapy for cervical cancer and who had an infusion pump in iliac fossa. We conducted a series of tests on five identical pumps that insured that the treatment protocol is harmless to the implanted device. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Subcutaneous drug infusions: a review of problems and solutions. (United States)

    Mitten, T


    Subcutaneous drug infusion using a portable syringe driver has had a significant impact on patient comfort in palliative care. It permits the continuous delivery of a range of drug therapies, so bypassing problems of dysphagia, weakness and the inability of many patients in the terminal phase to take oral medication. The devices are not problem-free, however. Mechanical problems, reactions at the infusion site and difficulties with the mixing of drugs in the syringe are all widely recognized. This article reviews some general issues with the operation of portable syringe drivers, and discusses a range of potential problems and their solutions.

  12. Continuous paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine with or without fentanyl for pain relief in unilateral multiple fractured ribs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Mohta


    Full Text Available Background: Continuous thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB provides effective analgesia for unilateral multiple fractured ribs (MFR. However, prolonged infusion of local anaesthetic (LA in high doses can predispose to risk of LA toxicity, which may be reduced by using safer drugs or drug combinations. This study was conducted to assess efficacy and safety of paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine and adrenaline with or without fentanyl to provide analgesia to patients with unilateral MFR. Methods: Thirty adults, having ≥3 unilateral MFR, with no significant trauma outside chest wall, were studied. All received bolus of 0.5% ropivacaine 0.3 ml/kg through paravertebral catheter, followed by either 0.1-0.2 ml/kg/hr infusion of ropivacaine 0.375% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml in group RA or ropivacaine 0.2% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml and fentanyl 2 μg/ml in group RAF. Rescue analgesia was provided by IV morphine. Results: Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired Student t-test, Chi-square test and repeated measures ANOVA. After TPVB, VAS scores, respiratory rate and PEFR improved in both groups with no significant inter-group differences. Duration of ropivacaine infusion, morphine requirements, length of ICU and hospital stay, incidence of pulmonary complications and opioid-related side-effects were similar in both groups. Ropivacaine requirement was higher in group RA than group RAF. No patient showed signs of LA toxicity. Conclusion: Continuous paravertebral infusion of ropivacaine 0.375% with adrenaline 5 μg/ml at 0.1-0.2 ml/kg/hr provided effective and safe analgesia to patients with unilateral MFR. Addition of fentanyl 2 μg/ml allowed reduction of ropivacaine concentration to 0.2% without decreasing efficacy or increasing opioid-related side-effects.

  13. Delivery interaction between co-infused medications: an in vitro modeling study of microinfusion. (United States)

    Tsao, Amy C; Lovich, Mark A; Parker, Michael J; Zheng, Hui; Peterfreund, Robert A


    To test the hypothesis that steady-state drug delivery by continuous infusion is predictably affected by a second drug infusion in the same lumen. Clinicians commonly administer two drugs by continuous infusion through one central venous catheter lumen (co-infusion). To limit fluid delivery, low flow rate carriers transport concentrated drug solutions; a method called microinfusion. How microinfusion delivery of one drug is affected by a second drug infusion has not been explored. Two water-soluble dyes, tartrazine and erioglaucine, infused at 3 ml · h(-1), modeled drug delivery through a four stopcock linear manifold and catheter lumen. A pump drove a carrier fluid (10 ml · h(-1)). After tartrazine reached steady-state delivery, erioglaucine entered downstream or upstream of the tartrazine infusion. Quantitative spectrophotometry measured dye delivery. Starting erioglaucine's infusion upstream of tartrazine's entry caused a transient tartrazine bolus (duration 10 min, peak drug delivery 20% higher than target levels). Starting erioglaucine's infusion downstream produced a similar amplitude, briefer, bolus. Stopping the erioglaucine infusion caused a transient reduction in tartrazine delivery. Measured delivery profiles were comparable to prediction models. We confirmed the hypothesis that delivery of one infused drug is transiently affected by starting or stopping a second drug infusion in the same line. The magnitude of the changes can be estimated quantitatively. The clinical impact depends on the drugs being co-infused and patient sensitivity, but could be clinically important; the findings have safety implications for infused medication delivery to critically ill or anesthetized children. We recommend minimizing infusion system dead volumes, connecting the most essential infusion(s) to the main fluid pathway as close as possible to the patient, and recognizing the potential for unintended alterations in delivery when multiple drugs co-infuse. © 2012

  14. An experimental study on the influence of infusion speed on the early mechanism of embolic effect of arterially infused absolute Ethanol in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Woo Ho; Lee, Byung Hee; Park, Kil Sun; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Chu Wan; Han, Man Chung


    In order to clarify the early mechanism of action of the tissue necrosis induced by intraarterially infused absolute ethanol, abdominal aortography and histopathologic examination after absolute ethanol infusion into aorta at fast (0.4ml/sec) and slow speed (0.04ml/sec) were performed on 22 rats (2 controls, 7 in fast infusion group, 7 in slow infusion group, 3 in fast and 3 in slow infusion groups during aorta compression, respectively). Histopathologic features under the light and scanning electron microscope were correlated with the angiographic findings within 30 minutes after ethanol infusion. The results are as follows : 1. In fast infusion group, histopathologic examination of the kidney showed severe glomerular and tubular damage. Extensive damage on endothelial and medial layer was noted in arteries, and fresh thrombi originated from the damaged arterial wall were seen. 2. Angiographic findings in the fast infusion group were luminal irregularity and early obstruction of large arteries. And circulation time was prolonged. 3. In slow infusion group, histopathologic examination of the kidney showed focal area of severe glomerular and tubular damage on relatively normal background. Endothelial and muscular damage was noted in arteries, but the degree of the damage was less severe than that of the fast infusion group. 4. Angiographic findings in the slow infusion group were focal perfusion defect of the kidney, delayed circulation time, and mild luminal irregularity, but obstruction of the major arteries was not seen

  15. Multiligand Metal-Phenolic Assembly from Green Tea Infusions. (United States)

    Rahim, Md Arifur; Björnmalm, Mattias; Bertleff-Zieschang, Nadja; Ju, Yi; Mettu, Srinivas; Leeming, Michael G; Caruso, Frank


    The synthesis of hybrid functional materials using the coordination-driven assembly of metal-phenolic networks (MPNs) is of interest in diverse areas of materials science. To date, MPN assembly has been explored as monoligand systems (i.e., containing a single type of phenolic ligand) where the phenolic components are primarily obtained from natural sources via extraction, isolation, and purification processes. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of MPNs from a readily available, crude phenolic source-green tea (GT) infusions. We employ our recently introduced rust-mediated continuous assembly strategy to prepare these GT MPN systems. The resulting hollow MPN capsules contain multiple phenolic ligands and have a shell thickness that can be controlled through the reaction time. These multiligand MPN systems have different properties compared to the analogous MPN systems reported previously. For example, the Young's modulus (as determined using colloidal-probe atomic force microscopy) of the GT MPN system presented herein is less than half that of MPN systems prepared using tannic acid and iron salt solutions, and the disassembly kinetics are faster (∼50%) than other, comparable MPN systems under identical disassembly conditions. Additionally, the use of rust-mediated assembly enables the formation of stable capsules under conditions where the conventional approach (i.e., using iron salt solutions) results in colloidally unstable dispersions. These differences highlight how the choice of phenolic ligand and its source, as well as the assembly protocol (e.g., using solution-based or solid-state iron sources), can be used to tune the properties of MPNs. The strategy presented herein expands the toolbox of MPN assembly while also providing new insights into the nature and robustness of metal-phenolic interfacial assembly when using solution-based or solid-state metal sources.

  16. [In vitro study of the flow duration of antibiotics solutions prepared in elastomeric infusion devices: effect of cold storage for 3 to 7days]. (United States)

    Grangeon-Chapon, C; Robein-Dobremez, M-J; Pin, I; Trouiller, P; Allenet, B; Foroni, L


    Within the cystic fibrosis patients' home care, EMERAA network ("Together against Cystic fibrosis in Rhone-Alpes and Auvergne") organizes parenteral antibiotics cures at home prepared in elastomeric infusion devices by hospital pharmacies. However, patients and nurses found that the durations of infusion with these devices were often longer than the nominal duration of infusion indicated by their manufacturer. This study aimed to identify the potential different causes in relation to these discordances. Three hundred and ninety devices of two different manufacturers are tested in different experimental conditions: three antibiotics each at two different doses, duration of cold storage (three days or seven days) or immediate tests without cold storage, preparation and storage of the solution in the device (protocol Device) or transfer in the device just before measurement (protocol Pocket). All tests highlighted a longer flow duration for devices prepared according to the protocol Device versus the protocol Pocket (P=0.004). Flow duration is increased in the case of high doses of antibiotics with high viscosity such as piperacilline/tazobactam. The results of this in vitro study showed the impact of: (1) the time between the filling of the device and the flow of the solution; (2) cold storage of elastomeric infusion devices; (3) concentration of antibiotics and therefore the viscosity of the solution to infuse. It is therefore essential that health care teams are aware of factors, which may lead to longer infusion durations with these infusion devices. When the additional time for infusion remain acceptable, it should be necessary to inform the patient and to relativize these lengthening compared to many benefits that these devices provide for home care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Digital Model-Based Engineering: Expectations, Prerequisites, and Challenges of Infusion (United States)

    Hale, J. P.; Zimmerman, P.; Kukkala, G.; Guerrero, J.; Kobryn, P.; Puchek, B.; Bisconti, M.; Baldwin, C.; Mulpuri, M.


    Digital model-based engineering (DMbE) is the use of digital artifacts, digital environments, and digital tools in the performance of engineering functions. DMbE is intended to allow an organization to progress from documentation-based engineering methods to digital methods that may provide greater flexibility, agility, and efficiency. The term 'DMbE' was developed as part of an effort by the Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) Infusion Task team to identify what government organizations might expect in the course of moving to or infusing MBSE into their organizations. The Task team was established by the Interagency Working Group on Engineering Complex Systems, an informal collaboration among government systems engineering organizations. This Technical Memorandum (TM) discusses the work of the MBSE Infusion Task team to date. The Task team identified prerequisites, expectations, initial challenges, and recommendations for areas of study to pursue, as well as examples of efforts already in progress. The team identified the following five expectations associated with DMbE infusion, discussed further in this TM: (1) Informed decision making through increased transparency, and greater insight. (2) Enhanced communication. (3) Increased understanding for greater flexibility/adaptability in design. (4) Increased confidence that the capability will perform as expected. (5) Increased efficiency. The team identified the following seven challenges an organization might encounter when looking to infuse DMbE: (1) Assessing value added to the organization. Not all DMbE practices will be applicable to every situation in every organization, and not all implementations will have positive results. (2) Overcoming organizational and cultural hurdles. (3) Adopting contractual practices and technical data management. (4) Redefining configuration management. The DMbE environment changes the range of configuration information to be managed to include performance and design models

  18. Hepatic profile of domestic cats anestetized with propofol in continuos infusion rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janh Carlo de Amorim Ferreira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ferreira J.C.A., Botelho G.G. & Acceta J.L. [Hepatic profile of domestic cats anestetized with propofol in continuos infusion rate.] Perfil hepático de gatos domésticos anestesiados com Propofol em infusão contínua. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:127-132, 2015. Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Departamento de Medicina e Cirurgia Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: This study was performed to evaluate the hepatic biochemical profile of cats when submitted to continuous infusion of propofol at a 0,3 mg/kg/min in dosage, for 90 minutes, and comparing to the results obtained from cats receiving continuous infusion of saline solution. Both groups were analyzed during a pre-determined period of time totalizing 12 hours of observation and analysis. The following enzymes activity levels were determined: Aspartate-Aminotransferase (AST, Alanina-Aminotransferase (ALT, Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT and Alkaline Phosphatase (AP; serum levels of Albumin (A, Total Bilirrubin (BT and Total Serum Proteins (sTP. Twenty healthy cats were analyzed on this study, their weights varying from two to four kg and ages between three to five years old, submitted to experimental procedures performed during the months of January and February, 2010. The analysis of these results showed a major difference (p<0,05 between the ALT serum activities at the following moments: T2 (30 minutes, T3 (60 minutes, and T5 (12 hours; AST and AP serum activities at T2. None of the animals presented averages of the results above parameters of normality. The other parameters examined did not present any significant differences, concluding that total intravenous anesthesia using continuous infusion of propofol was safe to hold cats for invasive surgical procedures, therefore providing more information regarding the safe use of this drug in this species.

  19. Hepatic profile of domestic cats anestetized with propofol in continuos infusion rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janh Carlo de Amorim Ferreira


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Ferreira J.C.A., Botelho G.G. & Accetta J.L. [Hepatic profile of domestic cats anestetized with propofol in continuos infusion rate.] Perfil hepático de gatos domésticos anestesiados com propofol em infusão contínua. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:116-120, 2014. Cirurgia e Anatomia Topográfica, UNIPLI/Anhanguera, Rua Visconde do Rio Branco, 137, Centro, Niterói, RJ 24020-001, Brasil. E-mail: This study was performed to monitor the hepatic biochemical profile of cats when submitted to continuous infusion of propofol at a 0.3 mg/kg/min dosage, for 90 minutes, and comparing to results obtained from cats who received continuous infusion of saline solution. Both groups were analyzed during a pre-determined period of time totalizing 12 hours of observation and analysis. The following enzymes activity levels were determined: Aspartate-Aminotransferase (AST, Alanina-Aminotransferase (ALT, Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT and Alkaline Fosfatasis (FA; serum levels of Albumin (A, Total Bilirrubin (BT and Total Serum Proteins (PT. Twenty healthy cats were analyzed on this study, their weights varying from two to four kg and ages between three to five years old, submitted to experimental procedures performed during the months of January and February, 2010. The analysis of these results showed a major difference (p<0.05 between the ALT serum activities at the following moments: T2 (30 minutes, T3 (60 minutes, and T5 (12 hours; AST and FA serum activities at T2. None of the animals presented averages of the results above parameters of normality. The other parameters examined did not present any significant differences, concluding that total intravenous anesthesia using continuous infusion of propofol was safe to hold cats for invasive surgical procedures, therefore providing more information regarding the safe use of this drug in this species.

  20. Doing Business with China: Curriculum Internationalisation through an Infusion Method (United States)

    Jin, Byoungho; Swinney, Jane; Cao, Huantian; Muske, Glenn; Nam, Jinhee; Kang, Ji Hye


    The US apparel and textiles industry operates within an interdependent global system, necessitating workforces competent for day-to-day operations. The US workforce lacks preparedness in working globally; this study tests an infusion method of curriculum internationalisation to enhance students' global understanding. Four cognitive and…

  1. Effects of Psidium guajava Leaf Infusion on Streptococci viridans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hing Yi Chen


    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is recognized as the most important oral burden. It is caused by the formation of lactate acid formed through reaction of bacteria and carbohydrates. Streptococci viridans has been proven as the primary etiologic agents for dental caries. Low accessibility in oral care services leads the Indonesian community to use plants in order to prevent dental caries. One of those plants is Psidium guajava (pink guava. The leaves were suggested to have antimicrobial effects on some gram-positive bacteria. When the organism is resistant to specific substance tested on media, a circular/inhibition zone around a disc containing antimicrobial substance was formed. The purpose of this study was to identify the presence of inhibition zones by infusion of Psidium guajava leaf on Streptococci viridians in vitro. Methods: This laboratory experiment was carried out in September to October 2014 at the Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Infusions of Psidium guajava leaf were made into four different concentrations (10%, 25%, 50% and 100%, respectively and the identification of inhibition zones on Streptococci viridans obtained from the laboratory was tested using modified disk diffusion test. Distilled water acted as negative control. The results were then interpreted after 24 hours of incubation. Every procedure was repeated three times. Results: All four concentrations of Psidium guajava leaf infusions have formed inhibition zones on the media, with the highest concentration (100% producing largest average diameter. Conclusions: The infusion of Psidium guajava leaf produces inhibition zones on Streptococci virdans in vitro.

  2. Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nood, Els; Vrieze, Anne; Nieuwdorp, Max; Fuentes, Susana; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; de Vos, Willem M.; Visser, Caroline E.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Bartelsman, Joep F. W. M.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Speelman, Peter; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G. W.; Keller, Josbert J.


    Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. We studied the effect of duodenal infusion of donor feces in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. We randomly assigned patients to receive one of three therapies: an initial

  3. Perisciatic infusion of ropivacaine and analgesia after hallux valgus repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaric, D; Jørgensen, B G; Laigaard, F


    Moderate to severe pain after hallux valgus repair can be successfully treated with a continuous popliteal sciatic nerve block in ambulatory patients. Different anesthesiologists use various infusion rates for this purpose. The aim of this study was to compare the analgesic efficacy of two infusi...... rates of ropivacaine 2 mg/ml: 5 and 8 ml/h....

  4. [Methods of preventing phlebitis induced by infusion of fosaprepitant]. (United States)

    Kohno, Emiko; Kanematsu, Sayaka; Okazaki, Satoshi; Ogata, Makoto; Kanemitsu, Meiko; Yamashita, Hiromi; Syuntou, Kaori; Sekita, Masako; Nishioka, Ryoko; Yoshida, Hideyuki


    At our hospital, we use aprepitant for nausea and vomiting when administering highly emetic anticancer agents, according to "Guidelines for the Appropriate Use of Antiemetic Agents" given by the Japan Society of Clinical Oncology. We initiated the intravenous administration of fosaprepitant for better compliance compared with aprepitant; however, we observed phlebitis after the infusion of fosaprepitant. Therefore, we investigated measures to reduce phlebitis associated with the infusion of fosaprepitant. For the first premedication, fosaprepitant (150 mg) was dissolved in 100 mL of saline and administered for 30 minutes; 1 of 2 patients showed grade 4 phlebitis. For the modified premedication, fosaprepitant, dexamethasone, and 5- HT(3) antagonist were dissolved in 100 mL of saline and administered for 30 minutes. The modified premedication was administered to a total of 27 patients; 5 patients developed mild phlebitis (grade 1), but infusion could be continued by treating their phlebitis with a hot pack. We used a combination of dexamethasone and 5-HT(3) antagonist with fosaprepitant as a modified premedication in order to avoid drug-induced vascular damage, which resulted in the pH decreasing to 6.20-7.55 (close to neutral) and a shorter infusion time.

  5. Continuous infusion in haemophilia: current practice in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batorova, A.; Holme, P.; Gringeri, A.; Richards, M.; Hermans, C.; Altisent, C.; Lopez-Fernández, M.; Fijnvandraat, K.


    . Continuous infusion (CI) of factor VIII (FVIII) is an effective method for replacement therapy in haemophilia. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding association of CI with the development of inhibitors. The aim of this study was to gain information on the current practices in Europe

  6. Infusing Creativity into Eastern Classrooms: Evaluations from Student Perspectives (United States)

    Cheng, Vivian M. Y.


    Infusing creativity elements into regular classroom was an important movement in recent Asian educational reforms. A large-scale research study was conducted in Hong Kong to explore the possibilities, outcomes and difficulties of this kind of curriculum change from students' perspectives. Based mainly on Western creativity literature, this study…

  7. The effects of incisional bupivacaine infusions on postoperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background: The aim of this study was to determine opioid requirements and pain intensity scores in patients after a total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) administered with a bupivacaine infusion for a 30-hour period, and then to compare the data with that of a control group. Method: This was a prospective, parallel, ...

  8. Unintentional Infusion of Phenylephrine into the Epidural Space. (United States)

    Townley, Kress R; Lane, Jason; Packer, Robyn; Gupta, Rajnish K


    We describe a patient who received an unintentionally prolonged epidural infusion of phenylephrine. The patient experienced no major morbidity. However, this case highlights the continuing problem of wrong-route drug administration and the urgent need to adopt route-specific connections.

  9. Residues and contaminants in tea and tea infusions: a review. (United States)

    Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Tosun, Alev; Shim, Jae-Han


    Consumers are very aware of contaminants that could pose potential health hazards. Most people drink tea as an infusion (adding hot water); however, in some countries, including India, China and Egypt, tea is drunk as a decoction (tea and water are boiled together). An infusion usually brings the soluble ingredients into solution, whereas a decoction brings all soluble and non-soluble constituents together. Therefore, a cup of tea may contain various kinds of contaminants. This review focuses on green and black tea because they are most commonly consumed. The target was to examine the transfer rate of contaminants - pesticides, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, microorganisms, toxic heavy metals, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) and plant growth regulators - from tea to infusion/brewing, factors contributing to the transfer potential and contaminants degradation, and residues in or on the spent leaves. It is concluded that most contaminants leaching into tea infusion are not detected or are detected at a level lower than the regulatory limits. However, the traditional practice of over-boiling tea leaves should be discouraged as there may be a chance for more transfer of contaminants from the tea to the brew.

  10. Online feedback-controlled renal constant infusion clearances in rats. (United States)

    Schock-Kusch, Daniel; Shulhevich, Yury; Xie, Qing; Hesser, Juergen; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Neudecker, Sabine; Friedemann, Jochen; Koenig, Stefan; Heinrich, Ralf; Hoecklin, Friederike; Pill, Johannes; Gretz, Norbert


    Constant infusion clearance techniques using exogenous renal markers are considered the gold standard for assessing the glomerular filtration rate. Here we describe a constant infusion clearance method in rats allowing the real-time monitoring of steady-state conditions using an automated closed-loop approach based on the transcutaneous measurement of the renal marker FITC-sinistrin. In order to optimize parameters to reach steady-state conditions as fast as possible, a Matlab-based simulation tool was established. Based on this, a real-time feedback-regulated approach for constant infusion clearance monitoring was developed. This was validated by determining hourly FITC-sinistrin plasma concentrations and the glomerular filtration rate in healthy and unilaterally nephrectomized rats. The transcutaneously assessed FITC-sinistrin fluorescence signal was found to reflect the plasma concentration. Our method allows the precise determination of the onset of steady-state marker concentration. Moreover, the steady state can be monitored and controlled in real time for several hours. This procedure is simple to perform since no urine samples and only one blood sample are required. Thus, we developed a real-time feedback-based system for optimal regulation and monitoring of a constant infusion clearance technique.

  11. Development of a Multidisciplinary Middle School Mathematics Infusion Model (United States)

    Russo, Maria; Hecht, Deborah; Burghardt, M. David; Hacker, Michael; Saxman, Laura


    The National Science Foundation (NSF) funded project "Mathematics, Science, and Technology Partnership" (MSTP) developed a multidisciplinary instructional model for connecting mathematics to science, technology and engineering content areas at the middle school level. Specifically, the model infused mathematics into middle school curriculum…

  12. Arts-Infused Learning in Middle Level Classrooms (United States)

    Lorimer, Maureen Reilly


    To address arts education disparities in middle level schools, this paper explores evidence that infusing the visual and performing arts into language arts, math, science, and history/social studies courses is a pedagogical approach that meets the developmental needs of early adolescents and fosters a relevant, challenging, integrative, and…

  13. Assessment of the effect of Artemisia annua leave extract infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 27, 2013 ... infusion pH under dark conditions on Staphylococcus ... Methodology and Results: A. annua leaves were collected in ... bacteria were isolated from the surface water (lotic hydrosystems) in .... Its climate is tropical and humid and ... used in this study. ... were first homogenized and then l 100 was taken and.

  14. Infusion and diffusion of African scientific information into Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the importance of knowledge as a prerequisite for sustainable development which is contingent on information, its value and ability to be produced, used, reused, and shared. The paper explains the opportunities of Open Access Initiatives (OA) as a tool for infusing and diffusing African scientific ...

  15. Using Cross-Curricular Ideas to Infuse Paralympic Sport (United States)

    Tepfer, Amanda T. S.; Lieberman, Lauren J.


    The Paralympic Games are the second largest sport event in the world. They occur two weeks after the Olympic Games in the same geographic location and sport venues. Despite the Paralympic Games' longevity, many Americans do not even know they exist. One way to meaningfully share information about this event with people of all ages is to infuse a…

  16. Enzymuria in neonates receiving continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Brygge, K; Brendstrup, L


    with non-treatment periods in the same newborn infant (33 infants). The same tendency applied to AAP. Newborn infants receiving continuous intravenous infusion of gentamicin were not found to be at greater risk of nephrotoxicity than those receiving intermittent gentamicin treatment, using NAG and AAP...

  17. Anaphylactic shock and cardiac arrest caused by thiamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob; Pareek, Manan; Langfrits, Christian Sigvald


    intoxication and developed cardiac arrest due to anaphylactic shock following intravenous thiamine infusion. The patient was successfully resuscitated after 15 min and repeated epinephrine administrations. He was discharged in good health after 14 days. This case report emphasises both the importance...

  18. Continuous infusion of vancomycin : Effective, efficient and safe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Maarseveen, E.; Touw, D.; Bouma, A.; Van Zanten, A.

    Aims: Vancomycin is an antibiotic which is used in (suspected or proven) bacteriaemia, peritonitis or osteomyelitis with grampositive micro-organisms. Currently in most Dutch hospitals vancomycin is administered as an intermittent infusion. As the killing of vancomycin is dependent of the AUC/MIC

  19. Prostacyclin infusion may prevent secondary damage in pericontusional brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinstrup, Peter; Nordström, Carl-Henrik


    Prostacyclin is a potent vasodilator, inhibitor of leukocyte adhesion, and platelet aggregation, and has been suggested as therapy for cerebral ischemia. A case of focal traumatic brain lesion that was monitored using intracerebral microdialysis, and bedside analysis and display is reported here........ When biochemical signs of cerebral ischemia progressed, i.v. infusion of prostacyclin was started....

  20. Current use of intraosseous infusion in Danish emergency departments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Rune; Hallas, Peter; Brabrand, Mikkel


    BACKGROUND: Intraosseous infusion (IOI) is recommended when intravenous access cannot be readily established in both pediatric and adult resuscitation. We evaluated the current use of IOI in Danish emergency departments (EDs). METHODS: An online questionnaire was e-mailed to the Heads of Department...

  1. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous ghrelin infusion in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup


    Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardio......Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied...... the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...... myocardial systolic velocity S′, tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S′ 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P

  2. A naturalistic glyceryl trinitrate infusion migraine model in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Roshni; Bhatt, Deepak Kumar; Ploug, Kenneth Beri


    Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) infusion is a reliable method to provoke migraine-like headaches in humans. Previous studies have simulated this human model in anaesthetized or in awake rodents using GTN doses 10,000 times higher than used in humans. The relevance of such toxicological doses to migraine...

  3. Continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion in patients with 'brittle' diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeVries, J H; Eskes, S A; Snoek, Frank J


    AIMS: To evaluate the effects of continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion (CIPII) using implantable pumps on glycaemic control and duration of hospital stay in poorly controlled 'brittle' Dutch diabetes patients, and to assess their current quality of life. METHODS: Thirty-three patients were...

  4. A theoretical alternative intraosseous infusion site in severely hypovolemic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkhensani Mogale


    Full Text Available Background: Studies have shown that the venous system tends to collapse during hypovolemic shock. The use of the bone marrow space for infusions is an effective alternative, with the tibial insertion site being the norm. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine a quick intraosseous infusion method that could be an alternative to the tibial route in neonates during emergency situations. Method: A sample of 30 neonatal cadavers was dissected to explore a possible alternative to the tibial insertion site. The needle was inserted in the superolateral aspect of the humerus. The needle infusion site was then dissected to determine possible muscular and neurovascular damage that might occur during the administration of this procedure, with the greatest concern being the posterior circumflex humeral artery and axillary nerve exiting the quadrangular space. The distance of the needle insertion site was measured in relation to the soft tissue aswell as to bony landmarks. Results: The calculated 95% confidence interval shows that the needle can be safely inserted into the intraosseous tissue at the greater tubercle of the humerus 9.5 mm – 11.1 mm from the acromion. This is about a little finger’s width from the acromioclavicular joint. Conclusion: Anatomically, the described site is suggested to offer a safe alternative access point for emergency infusion in severely hypovolemic newborns and infants, without the risk of damage to any anatomical structures.

  5. Infusing Multicultural Literature into Teacher Education Programs: Three Instructional Approaches (United States)

    Howlett, Kristina M.; Bowles, Freddie A.; Lincoln, Felicia


    Today's classrooms in the United States reflect the growing diversity of the changing world. In order to prepare high-quality multicultural educators, the authors of this article, three teacher educators at a large, mid-south, research-one university, collaborated to share successful strategies to infuse multicultural literature into the three…

  6. Temperature responses of exercizing dogs to infusion of electrolytes (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kozlowski, S.; Nazar, K.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Brzezinska, Z.


    The effect of infusions with solutions of various ionic and osmotic composition on exercise temperature responses was studied in dogs who do not regulate their temperature by sweating. The results suggest an association between plasma Na+ and Ca++ level within the normal physiological range and the control of body temperature during exercise.

  7. Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion for advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yu CAO


    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinical effects of chemotherapy via arterial infusion in treatment of advanced gastric cancer.Methods Forty-seven patients with advanced gastric cancer were given chemotherapy via arterial infusion.Chemotherapy plan was as follows: 5-Fluorouracil(Fu 500mg/m2,cyclophosphamide(MMX 10mg/m2,Hydroxycamptothecin(HPT 20mg/m2,once per week,2 weeks as a course,a total of 2-3 courses.Results After chemotherapy via arterial infusion,complete remission(CR was achieved in 1 case,partial remission(PR in 28 cases,stabilization of disease(SD in 16 cases,progression of disease(PD was found in 2 cases,and rate with response(CR+PR was 61.7%.Four of 28 PR patients underwent tumorectomy,the pathology revealed the presence of cancer cells around the vascular vessels,manifesting karyopyknosis,karyorrhexis,coagulation and necrosis of cytoplasm,intercellular edema,hyperplasia of fibroblasts,inflammatory cell infiltration,thickening of endothelium,and thrombosis.One,two and three-year survival rates were 70.2%,14.9% and 2.1%,respectively.The average survival period was 17.2 months.Conclusion Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion,as a part of the combined treatment,is beneficial to the patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer.

  8. [Research and application of microcontroller system for target controlled infusion]. (United States)

    Cheng, Yuke; Dou, Jianhong; Zhang, Xingan; Wang, Ruosong


    This paper presents a microcontroller system for target controlled infusion according to pharmacodynamic parameters of intravenous anesthetics. It can control the depth of anesthesia by adjusting the level of plasma concentrations. The system has the advantages of high precision, extending power and easy manipulation. It has been used in the clinical anesthesia.

  9. Animal model of rapid crystalloid infusion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Stillitano Orgaes


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe an animal model of rapid intravenous infusion with different volumes of crystalloid and discuss the clinical findings. METHODS: Fifty six male Wistar rats were used, divided randomly in seven groups (n = 8. The rats of groups 1 to 6 received lactated Ringer´s solution intravenously, in the rate of 25 ml/min, with different volumes proportional to blood volume (BV. The rats of group 0 were submitted to the same procedure, but did not receive the fluid (control group. The data included respiratory rate, heart rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen (SpO2 in two times (before and after the infusion, and upshots (respiratory arrest and death. Dunnett´s test and ANOVA were used. RESULTS: The clinical signs significantly changed in the 2, 2.5 and 3 fold BV groups. The respiratory arrest was observed in the 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 fold BV groups, but death was present only in 2.5 and 3 fold BV groups. CONCLUSIONS: The infusion of crystalloid in the same volume of blood volume did not cause significant variation in respiratory and heart rate, saturation of peripheral oxygen and did not induce respiratory arrest. The infusion of a volume of 3 fold blood volume was lethal to all animals.

  10. Intravenous Ketamine Infusions for Neuropathic Pain Management: A Promising Therapy in Need of Optimization. (United States)

    Maher, Dermot P; Chen, Lucy; Mao, Jianren


    Intravenous ketamine infusions have been used extensively to treat often-intractable neuropathic pain conditions. Because there are many widely divergent ketamine infusion protocols described in the literature, the variation in these protocols presents a challenge for direct comparison of one protocol with another and in discerning an optimal protocol. Careful examination of the published literature suggests that ketamine infusions can be useful to treat neuropathic pain and that certain characteristics of ketamine infusions may be associated with better clinical outcomes. Increased duration of relief from neuropathic pain is associated with (1) higher total infused doses of ketamine; (2) prolonged infusion durations, although the rate of infusion does not appear to be a factor; and (3) coadministration of adjunct medications such as midazolam and/or clonidine that mitigate some of the unpleasant psychomimetic side effects. However, there are few studies designed to optimize ketamine infusion protocols by defining what an effective infusion protocol entails with regard to a respective neuropathic pain condition. Therefore, despite common clinical practice, the current state of the literature leaves the use of ketamine infusions without meaningful guidance from high-quality comparative evidence. The objectives of this topical review are to (1) analyze the available clinical evidence related to ketamine infusion protocols and (2) call for clinical studies to identify optimal ketamine infusion protocols tailored for individual neuropathic pain conditions. The Oxford Center for Evidence-Based Medicine classification for levels of evidence was used to stratify the grades of clinical recommendation for each infusion variable studied.

  11. Infusing Real World Experiences into Engineering Education (United States)

    National Academies Press, 2012


    The aim of this report is to encourage enhanced richness and relevance of the undergraduate engineering education experience, and thus produce better-prepared and more globally competitive graduates, by providing practical guidance for incorporating real world experience in US engineering programs. The report, a collaborative effort of the…

  12. Comparison of the intracoronary continuous infusion method using a microcatheter and the intravenous continuous adenosine infusion method for inducing maximal hyperemia for fractional flow reserve measurement. (United States)

    Yoon, Myeong-Ho; Tahk, Seung-Jea; Yang, Hyoung-Mo; Park, Jin-Sun; Zheng, Mingri; Lim, Hong-Seok; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Choi, So-Yeon; Choi, Un-Jung; Hwang, Joung-Won; Kang, Soo-Jin; Hwang, Gyo-Seung; Shin, Joon-Han


    Inducing stable maximal coronary hyperemia is essential for measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR). We evaluated the efficacy of the intracoronary (IC) continuous adenosine infusion method via a microcatheter for inducing maximal coronary hyperemia. In 43 patients with 44 intermediate coronary lesions, FFR was measured consecutively by IC bolus adenosine injection (48-80 microg in left coronary artery, 36-60 microg in the right coronary artery) and a standard intravenous (IV) adenosine infusion (140 microg x min(-1) x kg(-1)). After completion of the IV infusion method, the tip of an IC microcatheter (Progreat Microcatheter System, Terumo, Japan) was positioned at the coronary ostium, and FFR was measured with increasing IC continuous adenosine infusion rates from 60 to 360 microg/min via the microcatheter. Fractional flow reserve decreased with increasing IC adenosine infusion rates, and no further decrease was observed after 300 microg/min. All patients were well tolerated during the procedures. Fractional flow reserves measured by IC adenosine infusion with 180, 240, 300, and 360 microg/min were significantly lower than those by IV infusion (P < .05). Intracoronary infusion at 180, 240, 300, and 360 microg/min was able to shorten the times to induction of optimal and steady-stable hyperemia compared to IV infusion (P < .05). Functional significances were changed in 5 lesions by IC infusion at 240 to 360 microg/min but not by IV infusion. The results of this study suggest that an IC adenosine continuous infusion method via a microcatheter is safe and effective in inducing steady-state hyperemia and more potent and quicker in inducing optimal hyperemia than the standard IV infusion method.

  13. Effect of glucose infusion on endurance performance after beta-adrenoceptor blocker administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Baak, M.A.; Mooij, J.M.


    Effect of glucose infusion on endurance performance after beta-adrenoceptor blocker administration. Van Baak MA, Mooij JM. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. To investigate the effect of glucose (Glc) infusion on endurance performance after

  14. Impact of infusion speed on the safety and effectiveness of prothrombin complex concentrate


    Pabinger , Ingrid; Tiede , Andreas; Kalina , Uwe; Knaub , Sigurd; Germann , Reinhard; Ostermann , Helmut


    Abstract Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) infusion is preferred for emergency reversal of coumarin therapy. Rapid infusion can potentially save crucial time; however, the possible impact of high infusion speed on PCC safety and effectiveness has not been delineated. In a prospective multinational clinical trial with 43 patients receiving PCC (Beriplex? P/N) for emergency reversal of coumarin therapy, infusion speeds were selected by the investigators. In a two-phase statistica...

  15. Infusing Reliability Techniques into Software Safety Analysis (United States)

    Shi, Ying


    Software safety analysis for a large software intensive system is always a challenge. Software safety practitioners need to ensure that software related hazards are completely identified, controlled, and tracked. This paper discusses in detail how to incorporate the traditional reliability techniques into the entire software safety analysis process. In addition, this paper addresses how information can be effectively shared between the various practitioners involved in the software safety analyses. The author has successfully applied the approach to several aerospace applications. Examples are provided to illustrate the key steps of the proposed approach.

  16. Haemolysis following rapid experimental red blood cell transfusion--an evaluation of two infusion pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Sprogøe-Jakobsen, U; Pedersen, C M


    The vast majority of infusion pumps used for rapid transfusion of large amounts of blood have never been properly examined regarding their influence on the quality of the red blood cells (RBCs) infused. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two different infusion pumps on the degree of RBC...

  17. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (United States)


    ... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion...

  18. Feasibility of bispectral index-guided propofol infusion for flexible bronchoscopy sedation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lun Lo

    Full Text Available There are safety issues associated with propofol use for flexible bronchoscopy (FB. The bispectral index (BIS correlates well with the level of consciousness. The aim of this study was to show that BIS-guided propofol infusion is safe and may provide better sedation, benefiting the patients and bronchoscopists.After administering alfentanil bolus, 500 patients were randomized to either propofol infusion titrated to a BIS level of 65-75 (study group or incremental midazolam bolus based on clinical judgment to achieve moderate sedation. The primary endpoint was safety, while the secondary endpoints were recovery time, patient tolerance, and cooperation.The proportion of patients with hypoxemia or hypotensive events were not different in the 2 groups (study vs. control groups: 39.9% vs. 35.7%, p = 0.340; 7.4% vs. 4.4%, p = 0.159, respectively. The mean lowest blood pressure was lower in the study group. Logistic regression revealed male gender, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status, and electrocautery were associated with hypoxemia, whereas lower propofol dose for induction was associated with hypotension in the study group. The study group had better global tolerance (p<0.001, less procedural interference by movement or cough (13.6% vs. 36.1%, p<0.001; 30.0% vs. 44.2%, p = 0.001, respectively, and shorter time to orientation and ambulation (11.7±10.2 min vs. 29.7±26.8 min, p<0.001; 30.0±18.2 min vs. 55.7±40.6 min, p<0.001, respectively compared to the control group.BIS-guided propofol infusion combined with alfentanil for FB sedation provides excellent patient tolerance, with fast recovery and less procedure interference.ClinicalTrials. gov NCT00789815.

  19. Patient Controlled Epidural Analgesia during Labour: Effect of Addition of Background Infusion on Quality of Analgesia & Maternal Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Srivastava


    Full Text Available Patient controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA is a well established technique for pain relief during labor. But the inclusion of continuous background infusion to PCEA is controversial. The aim of this study was to assess whether the use of continuous infusion along with PCEA was beneficial for laboring women with regards to quality of analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal outcome in comparison to PCEA alone. Fifty five parturients received epidural bolus of 10ml solution containing 0.125% bupivacaine +2 ì of fentanyl. For maintenance of analgesia the patients of Group PCEA self administered 8 ml bolus with lockout interval of 20 minutes of above solution on demand with no basal infusion. While the patients of Group PCEA + CI received continuous epidural infusion at the rate of 10 along with self administered boluses of 3 ml with lockout interval of 10 minutes of similar epidural solution. Patients of both groups were given rescue boluses by the anaesthetists for distressing pain. Verbal analogue pain scores, incidence of distressing pain, need of supplementary/rescue boluses, dose of bupivacaine consumed, maternal satisfaction and neonatal Apgar scores were recorded. No significant difference was observed between mean VAS pain scores during labor, maternal satisfaction, mode of delivery or neonatal Apgar scores. But more patients (n=8 required rescue boluses in PCEA group for distressing pain. The total volume consumed of bupivacaine and opioid was slightly more in PCEA + CI group. In both the techniques the highest sensory level, degree of motor block were comparable& prolongation of labor was not seen. It was concluded that both the techniques provided equivalent labor analgesia, maternal satisfaction and neonatal Apgar scores. PCEA along with continuous infusion at the rate of 10 ml/ hr resulted in lesser incidence of distressing pain and need for rescue analgesic. Although this group consumed higher dose of bupivacaine

  20. Methods for studying medical device technology and practitioner cognition: the case of user-interface issues with infusion pumps. (United States)

    Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Verhoeven, Fenne


    The aims of this study were to investigate how a variety of research methods is commonly employed to study technology and practitioner cognition. User-interface issues with infusion pumps were selected as a case because of its relevance to patient safety. Starting from a Cognitive Systems Engineering perspective, we developed an Impact Flow Diagram showing the relationship of computer technology, cognition, practitioner behavior, and system failure in the area of medical infusion devices. We subsequently conducted a systematic literature review on user-interface issues with infusion pumps, categorized the studies in terms of methods employed, and noted the usability problems found with particular methods. Next, we assigned usability problems and related methods to the levels in the Impact Flow Diagram. Most study methods used to find user interface issues with infusion pumps focused on observable behavior rather than on how artifacts shape cognition and collaboration. A concerted and theory-driven application of these methods when testing infusion pumps is lacking in the literature. Detailed analysis of one case study provided an illustration of how to apply the Impact Flow Diagram, as well as how the scope of analysis may be broadened to include organizational and regulatory factors. Research methods to uncover use problems with technology may be used in many ways, with many different foci. We advocate the adoption of an Impact Flow Diagram perspective rather than merely focusing on usability issues in isolation. Truly advancing patient safety requires the systematic adoption of a systems perspective viewing people and technology as an ensemble, also in the design of medical device technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Duodenal and ileal glucose infusions differentially alter gastrointestinal peptides, appetite response, and food intake: a tube feeding study. (United States)

    Poppitt, Sally D; Shin, Hyun Sang; McGill, Anne-Thea; Budgett, Stephanie C; Lo, Kim; Pahl, Malcolm; Duxfield, Janice; Lane, Mark; Ingram, John R


    Background: Activation of the ileal brake through the delivery of nutrients into the distal small intestine to promote satiety and suppress food intake provides a new target for weight loss. Evidence is limited, with support from naso-ileal lipid infusion studies. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether glucose infused into the duodenum and ileum differentially alters appetite response, food intake, and secretion of satiety-related gastrointestinal peptides. Design: Fourteen healthy male participants were randomly assigned to a blinded 4-treatment crossover, with each treatment of single-day duration. On the day before the intervention (day 0), a 380-cm multilumen tube (1.75-mm diameter) with independent port access to the duodenum and ileum was inserted, and position was confirmed by X-ray. Subsequently (days 1-4), a standardized breakfast meal was followed midmorning by a 90-min infusion of isotonic glucose (15 g, 235 kJ) or saline to the duodenum or ileum. Appetite ratings were assessed with the use of visual analog scales (VASs), blood samples collected, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) measured at lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner. Results: Thirteen participants completed the 4 infusion days. There was a significant effect of nutrient infused and site (treatment × time, P appetite, and decreased ad libitum EI at a subsequent meal. Although glucose to the duodenum also suppressed appetite ratings, eating behavior was not altered. This trial was registered at as ACTRN12612000429853. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Intravenous Dexmedetomidine Infusion Compared with that of Fentanyl in Patients Undergoing Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery under General Anesthesia. (United States)

    Abdel Hamid, Mona Hossam Eldin


    Anesthesia for arthroscopic shoulder surgery is challenging due to the need for oligaemic surgical field as well as a good postoperative recovery profile. The present study was prospective, randomized to evaluate the efficacy of dexmdetomidine infusion compared to that of fentanyl in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia. A total of 60 patients aged from thirty to fifty years, American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I/II of either sex for arthroscopic shoulder surgery, were included. The patients were divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Group I received dexmedetomidine loading 1 μg/kg over 10 min followed by maintenance 0.5 μg/kg/h and Group II Fentanyl loading 1 μg/kg followed by maintenance 0.5 μg/kg/h. Hemodynamic readings (Heart rate HR, and mean arterial blood pressure MAP) were recorded after the start of the study drug infusion (T1), after intubation (T2), then every 15 minutes till the end of surgery (T15, T30, T45, T60, T75, T90). In the PACU, MAP, and HR were recorded on arrival, after 30 min, 1 hr, and 2 hrs (R0, R30, R1 hr, R2 hr) Postoperative analgesia was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS), Modified Observers's Assessment of Alertness and Sedation OAA/S was recorded on arrival to PACU. This study showed that in the dexmedatomidine group there was statistically significant decrease of MAP and HR after drug infusion up to two hours in the recovery period, more sedation, better control of pain and surgeon satisfaction. Iv infusion of dexamedatomidine may be an attractive option during arthroscopic shoulder surgery as it provided a better hypotensive anesthesia by lowering MAP and HR which leads to better surgical field and surgeon satisfaction than iv infusion fentanyl along with a better postoperative VAS.

  3. Combined radiosensitizer infusion and irradiation of osteogenic sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goffinet, D.R.; Kaplan, H.S.; Donaldson, S.S.; Bagshaw, M.A.; Wilbur, J.R.


    Three children with osteogenic sarcomas which were either unresectable or whose parents refused permission to amputate were treated with combined intra-arterial 5'bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) infusion and high-dose-per-fraction megavoltage irradiation to the primary site. Pulsed, 48-hour BUdR infusions were performed prior to each 600-rad radiation therapy fraction, with a total radiation dose to the primary site of 4,200 to 4,800 rads in five weeks. Local control was obtained in all 3 children. One child is alive two years after treatment, another died with metastatic disease, and the third patient who received radiotherapy to the lungs for pulmonary metastases is without evidence of disease one year later. (auth)

  4. Drug withdrawal symptoms in children after continuous infusions of fentanyl. (United States)

    French, J P; Nocera, M


    The purpose of this research was to determine the extent to which critically ill infants exhibited signs and symptoms of narcotic withdrawal after receiving continuous infusions of fentanyl. The convenience sample consisted of 12 pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) patients under 25 months of age who received fentanyl infusions for at least 24 hours. Drug withdrawal symptoms were monitored using the Neonatal Abstinence Score Tool (NAST), which assigns a score to each behavior indicative of withdrawal. A score of 8 or greater indicates Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS). Scoring began 4 hours after discontinuation of fentanyl and was conducted once per hour for 8 hours. Six subjects had a NAST score exceeding 8; these infants frequently exhibited tremors with or without stimulation, increased muscle tone, insomnia, and increased respiratory rate and effort. There were significant correlations between fentanyl dosage and NAST score (r = .76, p observation protocol and a possible weaning regimen after fentanyl is discontinued.

  5. Assistance algorithm of nursing for amiodarone intravenous infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francimar Tinoco de Oliveira


    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying scientific publication on phlebitis caused by amiodarone and proposes a nursing care algorithm for interventions in intravenous amiodarone administration grounded in the Infusion Nursing Society and the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. It is a descriptive study mediated by integrative review in MedLine, LILACS, IBECS, BDENF, Cochrane Library and Scielo bases, published from 2006 to 2013. The sample consisted of nine articles. The evidence pointed the incidence of phlebitis due to the infusion of amiodarone and the need to control this event. The algorithm proposed shows the materials to be used and the procedure of drug administration in order to minimize injury. Besides subsidizing the development of future studies, this algorithm also promotes the incorporation of the best recommendation for the interventionist clinical practice.

  6. Effects of water infusions on mechanical properties of carboniferous rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavro, M; Chlebik, J


    Method of water infusion is used in the Ostrava-Karvina coal region in Czechoslovakia, where the roof of the extracted coal seam consists of thick rock layers (sandstone, Namurian B series) characterized by high resistance to compression, high coefficient of linear elasticity and high capacity of accumulating energy. When the resistance boundary is crossed and the rocks are disturbed this energy is suddenly released and transferred to the surrounding rock masses, coal seam and support system. On the basis of laboratory experiments the physico-mechanical and energy properties of carboniferous rocks together with calculation of their energy coefficient and other parameters are described and calculated. The results of research and theoretical solutions are presented. Practical use of water infusions to influence mechanical properties of sandstone in the roof of coal seams is described with the example of the Dukla coal mine. (5 refs.) (In Polish)

  7. [Continuous subcutaneous infusion in palliative care, an undervalued method]. (United States)

    van Marum, R J; de Vogel, E M; Zylicz, Z


    Three patients, 2 men aged 55 and 54 years and a woman aged 86 years, were admitted to hospital for treatment of symptoms resulting from terminal disease (pain, agitation, nausea etc.). In all three patients, continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSI) of medication was successfully used to control the symptoms. Compared with intravenous infusion, the technique of CSI is easy to learn and is associated with fewer complications. Its reliability and ease-of-use make it a technique that can be used not only in a hospital setting, but also in general practice and nursing homes. Medication used in palliative care (e.g. morphine, haloperidol, metoclopramide, levomepromazine, midazolam) can often be administered safely by CSI. In palliative care, where goals should be accomplished with minimal burden to the patient, CSI must be considered the technique of choice in patients who are unable to swallow their medication.

  8. Advanced Infusion Techniques with 3-D Printed Tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuttall, David [ORNL; Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL


    The manufacturing of tooling for large, contoured surfaces for fiber-layup applications requires significant effort to understand the geometry and then to subtractively manufacture the tool. Traditional methods for the auto industry use clay that is hand sculpted. In the marine pleasure craft industry, the exterior of the model is formed from a foam lay-up that is either hand cut or machined to create smooth lines. Engineers and researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (ORNL MDF) collaborated with Magnum Venus Products (MVP) in the development of a process for reproducing legacy whitewater adventure craft via digital scanning and large scale 3-D printed layup molds. The process entailed 3D scanning a legacy canoe form, converting that form to a CAD model, additively manufacturing (3-D Print) the mold tool, and subtractively finishing the mold s transfer surfaces. Future work will include applying a gelcoat to the mold transfer surface and infusing using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, or VARTM principles, to create a watertight vessel. The outlined steps were performed on a specific canoe geometry found by MVP s principal participant. The intent of utilizing this geometry is to develop an energy efficient and marketable process for replicating complex shapes, specifically focusing on this particular watercraft, and provide a finished product for demonstration to the composites industry. The culminating part produced through this agreement has been slated for public presentation and potential demonstration at the 2016 CAMX (Composites and Advanced Materials eXpo) exposition in Anaheim, CA. Phase I of this collaborative research and development agreement (MDF-15-68) was conducted under CRADA NFE-15-05575 and was initiated on May 7, 2015, with an introduction to the MVP product line, and concluded in March of 2016 with the printing of and processing of a canoe mold. The project partner Magnum Venous Products (MVP) is

  9. Paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erguen, E.L.; Caner, B.; Atalar, E.; Karanfil, A.; Tokgoezoglu, L.


    Dobutamine as a predominant beta-1 agonist increases heart rate and myocardial contractility and at sufficient high doses, it also increases systolic blood pressure. This study was undertaken to describe instances of paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT study and the relationship between scintigraphic findings and hypotension occurred during dobutamine infusion. Methods: In 201 consecutive patients unable to perform adequate exercise, dobutamine Tl-201 myocardial SPECT was performed. Dobutamine was infused starting from 10 μg/kg/min increasing to 40 μ/kg/min. Paradoxical hypotension was defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥ 20 mmHg compared with baseline study. Paradoxical hypotension was observed in 40 patients (Group A) out of 201 (19.9%) while no significant change in systolic blood pressure was detected in the remaining 161 patients (Group B). Mean maximum fall in systolic blood pressure was 39±18 mmHg (range: 20-90). In 33 of 40 patients (83%) with paradoxical hypotension, scintigraphy was normal compared to 131 (81%) of the remaining 161 patients. In patients of Group A, angiography, echocardiography and tilt table tests were performed in 13, 11 and 6 patients respectively. Nine of 13 angiographic evaluations (69%), 10 of 11 echocardiographic evaluations (91%), all of the tilt table tests were normal. Additionally, all of the patients of Group A were clinically followed up at least 6 months after the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. None of the patients had a cardiac event except one patient during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for myocardial scintigraphy is not an uncommon finding and up to 19.9% patients may develop such hypotension. To maximize test safety, precautions should be taken during dobutamine myocardial stress test, since remarkable decrease in systolic blood pressure may occur. Unlike hypotension occurring with exercise

  10. Quantitative assessment of haemolysis secondary to modern infusion pumps. (United States)

    Poder, T G; Boileau, J-C; Lafrenière, R; Thibault, L; Carrier, N; de Grandmont, M-J; Beauregard, P


    Although most studies have shown that little haemolysis is induced by infusion pumps, there are some notable exceptions. Only limited data are available on the actual infusion pumps that are most used in hospitals in Quebec and elsewhere, namely, the Infusomat ® Space (peristaltic), Plum A+™ (piston) and Colleague ® CXE (shuttle) pumps. Haemolysis and potassium levels were compared before and after the use of the three different infusion pumps. Using 135 units of packed red blood cells (RBCs) aged from 10 to 28 days, 27 measurements were taken for each pump at various flow rates (30, 60, 150, 300 and 450 ml/h) and were compared with measurements taken before using the pumps. The range of flow rates was chosen to cover those of paediatric and adult transfusions. The shuttle- and piston-type pumps resulted in low haemolysis levels. The peristaltic-type pump produced significantly more haemolysis, which worsened at low flow rates, but the absolute value of haemolysis remained within the range recommended by the regulatory agencies in North America and Europe. Approximately two-thirds of the haemolysis produced by the peristaltic-type pump seemed to be secondary to the use of an antisiphon valve (ASV) on the transfusion line recommended by the manufacturer. Potassium levels did not increase with the use of the pumps. Modern infusion pumps widely used in hospitals in Quebec and elsewhere produce non-threatening levels of haemolysis during the transfusion of packed RBCs aged from 10 to 28 days. ASVs appear to induce additional haemolysis, and we do not recommend using them for blood transfusion. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  11. Phytochemicals and bioactivity in wild German and Roman chamomiles infusions


    Guimarães, Rafaela; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Queiroz, Maria João R.P.; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.


    Natural matrices represent a rich source of biologically active compounds and are an example of molecular diversity, with recognized potential in drug discovery. In the present work, the infusions of Matricaria recutita L. (German chamomile) and Chamaemelum nobile L. (Roman chamomile) were submitted to an analysis of phenolic compounds and evaluation of bioactivity. Phenolic compounds were characterized by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode a...

  12. Infusing Technical Communication and Teamwork within the ECE Curriculum


    KEDROWICZ, By April; WATANABE, Sundy


    This paper highlights a unique approach to infusing formal training and practice in oral and written communication and teamwork development in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) at the University of Utah. Faculty and graduate (Ph.D.) students from the College of Humanities have teamed up with faculty from engineering to develop communication and teamwork instruction that is integrated into the existing engineering curriculum. These skills are used as a vehicle ...

  13. Intravenous Lidocaine Infusion to Treat Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy. (United States)

    Papapetrou, Peter; Kumar, Aashish J; Muppuri, Rudram; Chakrabortty, Shushovan


    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a debilitating side effect of chemotherapy, which manifests as paresthesias, dysesthesias, and numbness in the hands and feet. Numerous chemoprotective agents and treatments have been used with limited success to treat chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. We report a case in which a patient presenting with chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy received an IV lidocaine infusion over the course of 60 minutes with complete symptomatic pain relief for a prolonged period of 2 weeks.

  14. Quality-improvement analytics for intravenous infusion pumps. (United States)

    Skledar, Susan J; Niccolai, Cynthia S; Schilling, Dennis; Costello, Susan; Mininni, Nicolette; Ervin, Kelly; Urban, Alana


    The implementation of a smart-pump continuous quality-improvement (CQI) program across a large health system is described, with an emphasis on key metrics for outcomes analyses and program refinement. Three years ago, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center health system launched a CQI initiative to help ensure the safe use of 6000 smart pumps in its 14 inpatient facilities. A centralized team led by pharmacists is responsible for the retrieval and interpretation of smart-pump data, which is continuously transmitted to a main server. CQI findings are regularly posted on the health system's interdisciplinary intranet. Monitored metrics include rates of compliance with preprogrammed infusion limits, the top 20 drugs involved in alerts, drugs associated with alert-override rates of ≥90%, numbers of alerts by infusion type, nurse responses to alerts, and alert rate per drug library update. Based on the collected CQI data and site-specific requests, four systemwide updates of the smart-pump drug library were performed during the first 18 months of the program, reducing "nuisance alerts" by about 10% per update cycle and enabling targeted interventions to reduce rapid-infusion errors, other adverse drug events (ADEs), and pump-programming workarounds. Over one 12-month period, bedside alerts prompted nurses to reprogram or cancel continuous infusions an average of 400 times per month, potentially averting i.v. medication ADEs. A smart-pump CQI program is an effective tool for enhancing the safety of i.v. medication administration. The ongoing refinement of the drug library through the development and implementation of key interventions promotes the growth and sustainability of the smart-pump initiative systemwide.

  15. Nephroprotective Potential of Human Albumin Infusion: A Narrative Review


    Christian J. Wiedermann; Michael Joannidis


    Albumin infusion improves renal function in cirrhosis; however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In clinical practice, human albumin is used in various intensive care unit indications to deal with a wide range of problems, from volume replacement in hypovolemic shock, or sepsis, to treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Against the background of the results of recent studies on the use of human albumin in septic patients, the importance of the natural colloid in these c...

  16. Use of propofol infusion in alcohol withdrawal-induced refractory delirium tremens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Kristian; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Bendtsen, Asger Ole


    in case reports. We aimed to evaluate the treatment of delirium tremens with propofol infusion for 48 h. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was a single-centre retrospective cohort analysis of 15 patient journals covering the period from May 2012 to September 2013. RESULTS: Five women and ten men were...... and mechanically ventilated in the intensive care unit. The mean propofol infusion rate was 4.22 mg/kg/h. Thirteen patients received supplemental infusion of opioids, whereas seven required concomitant vasopressor infusion. Once propofol infusion was discontinued after 48 h, 12 patients had a long awakening...

  17. Mentoring and Argumentation in a Game-Infused Science Curriculum (United States)

    Gould, Deena L.; Parekh, Priyanka


    Engaging in argumentation from evidence is challenging for most middle school students. We report the design of a media-based mentoring system to support middle school students in engaging in argumentation in the context of a game-infused science curriculum. Our design emphasizes learners apprenticing with college student mentors around the socio-scientific inquiry of a designed video game. We report the results of a mixed-methods study examining the use of this media-based mentoring system with students ages 11 through 14. We observed that the discourse of groups of students that engaged with the game-infused science curriculum while interacting with college student mentors via a social media platform demonstrated statistically significant higher ratings of cognitive, epistemic, and social aspects of argumentation than groups of students that engaged with the social media platform and game-infused science curriculum without mentors. We further explored the differences between the Discourses of the mentored and non-mentored groups. This analysis showed that students in the mentored groups were invited, guided, and socialized into roles of greater agency than students in the non-mentored groups. This increased agency might explain why mentored groups demonstrated higher levels of scientific argumentation than non-mentored groups. Based on our analyses, we argue that media-based mentoring may be designed around a video game to support middle school students in engaging in argumentation from evidence.

  18. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase. (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan


    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Liposome distribution after intravenous and selective intraarterial infusion in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, K.C.; Kasi, L.P.; Jahns, M.S.; Hashimoto, S.; Wallace, S.


    In an effort to improve hepatic uptake of liposomes for drug delivery, empty vesicles were administered by means of selective arterial infusion. Negatively charged, multilamellar liposomes were labeled with technetium-99m and infused into healthy adult dogs. Each dog received 100 mg/m2 of lipid over 10 minutes at 2 mL/min. Liposomes were administered via the common hepatic artery after proximal occlusion of the gastroduodenal artery, via the cranial mesenteric artery, and via the cephalic vein. Distribution (liver, spleen, and lungs) was determined by computer-assisted external imaging techniques. On the average, after arterial infusion, 69.2% of the total activity was located in the liver, 3.6% in the spleen, 3.2% in the lungs, and 3.5% in the general circulation. Following venous injection, 50.7% of the radioactivity was found in the liver, 9.1% in the spleen, 8.6% in the lungs, and 6.7% in the peripheral blood. Once the liposomes entered the systemic circulation, they were cleared at the same rate (half-life beta = 21.5 hours) independent of their route of administration. Increased hepatic liposome uptake should translate into higher local and lower systemic liposomal drug levels

  20. Continuous quality improvement using intelligent infusion pump data analysis. (United States)

    Breland, Burnis D


    The use of continuous quality-improvement (CQI) processes in the implementation of intelligent infusion pumps in a community teaching hospital is described. After the decision was made to implement intelligent i.v. infusion pumps in a 413-bed, community teaching hospital, drug libraries for use in the safety software had to be created. Before drug libraries could be created, it was necessary to determine the epidemiology of medication use in various clinical care areas. Standardization of medication administration was performed through the CQI process, using practical knowledge of clinicians at the bedside and evidence-based drug safety parameters in the scientific literature. Post-implementation, CQI allowed refinement of clinically important safety limits while minimizing inappropriate, meaningless soft limit alerts on a few select agents. Assigning individual clinical care areas (CCAs) to individual patient care units facilitated customization of drug libraries and identification of specific CCA compliance concerns. Between June 2007 and June 2008, there were seven library updates. These involved drug additions and deletions, customization of individual CCAs, and alterations of limits. Overall compliance with safety software use rose over time, from 33% in November 2006 to over 98% in December 2009. Many potentially clinically significant dosing errors were intercepted by the safety software, prompting edits by end users. Only 4-6% of soft limit alerts resulted in edits. Compliance rates for use of infusion pump safety software varied among CCAs over time. Education, auditing, and refinement of drug libraries led to improved compliance in most CCAs.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Biofunctional Compounds Content from Different Herbal Infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca C. Fărcaş


    Full Text Available Tea is the most important non-alcoholic beverage in the world being appreciated for its stimulant properties and health benefits. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the content in caffeine, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activity of five different herbal infusion samples in oder to compare the amount of these bioactive compounds from traditional Romanian medicinal plants and Chinese tea plants. Green tea, black tea, linden (lime tea, mint, and St. John's wort were chosen as materials for the preparation of infusion and laboratory analyses. The caffeine was extracted with dichloromethane and then was quantified by measuring the absorbance of the extract at 260 nm. The quantification of total phenolic compounds was achieved by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the flavonoid content was determined using a chromogenic system of NaNO2-(Al(NO33-NaOH based on spectrophotometric method. The antioxidant capacity of each tea sample was assessed by evaluating their radical scavenging  activity on DPPH radical. The largest content in antioxidant compounds was found in green, but also in the mint infusion sample, while black tea has registered the highest caffeine content. Following the results obtained it can be stated that all the analysed samples contain remarkable amounts of biologically active compounds essential for the human body healt.

  2. Clinical and economic burden of infused iron chelation therapy in the United States. (United States)

    Payne, Krista A; Desrosiers, Marie-Pierre; Caro, J Jaime; Baladi, Jean-François; Lordan, Noreen; Proskorovsky, Irina; Ishak, Khajak; Rofail, Diana


    Patients requiring chronic blood transfusions are at risk for iron overload, which, if not treated by iron chelation therapy (ICT), can create serious organ damage and reduce life expectancy. Current ICT requires burdensome 8- to 12-hour infusions five to seven times per week. A naturalistic study of the burden of infused ICT was conducted in four US centers. Data from the initial and most recent years of ICT were collected from medical charts of consenting thalassemia (n = 40) and sickle cell disease (n = 9) patients. Quality of life (QoL), treatment satisfaction, and ICT-related resource utilization data were also collected from a patient interview. Mean serum ferritin levels during the initial (2519 +/- 1382 ng/mL) and most recent (2741 +/- 2532 ng/mL) years remained unacceptably high and increased over time (306 +/- 2200 ng/mL; mean of 20+/- years of therapy). Within 30 days before interview, 55 percent of patients suffered at least one ICT-related adverse event; 76 percent missed at least one dose. QoL, measured by the SF-36, and treatment satisfaction appear compromised in this cohort. Although total annual costs of ICT were estimated at USD $30,000 to $35,000, drug accounted for only 50 to 60 percent of this amount. Infused ICT may not provide adequate effectiveness in the real world. High ferritin levels seem to be associated with ICT noncompliance, likely in relation to the bothersome mode of administration and side effects. The total cost of ICT appears to well exceed that of drug alone.

  3. Improving the frequency of visual infusion phlebitis (VIP) scoring on an oncology ward (United States)

    Tzolos, Evangelos; Salawu, Abdulazeez


    Phlebitis from peripheral intravenous infusions is an important potential source of oncology patient morbidity. Important factors found to determine phlebitis incidence include the kind of infusion and dwell time of intravenous cannula. Early studies showed incidence rates of between 25–70% worldwide, and association with up to 10% of S. aureus bacteraemia. The introduction of the visual infusion phlebitis (VIP) score tool for assessment of the early signs of phlebitis, along with prompt removal of peripheral intravenous cannulas, has been very successful in reducing the incidence below the acceptable rate of 5%. However, achieving this goal depends on strict compliance with guidelines for cannula insertion, documentation, and assessment using the VIP tool. This study aimed to increase the use of VIP scoring tool to 100% on an oncology ward during a four to six month period in order to maximise its utility in phlebitis prevention. Three plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles were carried out, during which two major interventions were introduced. The first cycle aimed to improve junior doctors’ awareness of VIP scoring using presentations in induction meetings and posters. The second cycle ensured that ready access to the VIP tool was provided in the form of bedside intentional rounding charts. Proportions of intravenous cannulas with proper documentation and VIP assessment were measured before intervention and at nine subsequent bi-weekly time points. Pre-intervention, under 30% of cannulas were properly documented and assessed. This proportion rose to around 80% by the end of the second PDSA cycle and achieved 100% by the end of the third cycle. PMID:26734282

  4. Simulating Resin Infusion through Textile Reinforcement Materials for the Manufacture of Complex Composite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Pierce


    Full Text Available Increasing demand for weight reduction and greater fuel efficiency continues to spur the use of composite materials in commercial aircraft structures. Subsequently, as composite aerostructures become larger and more complex, traditional autoclave manufacturing methods are becoming prohibitively expensive. This has prompted renewed interest in out-of-autoclave processing techniques in which resins are introduced into a reinforcing preform. However, the success of these resin infusion methods is highly dependent upon operator skill and experience, particularly in the development of new manufacturing strategies for complex parts. Process modeling, as a predictive computational tool, aims to address the issues of reliability and waste that result from traditional trial-and-error approaches. Basic modeling attempts, many of which are still used in industry, generally focus on simulating fluid flow through an isotropic porous reinforcement material. However, recent efforts are beginning to account for the multiscale and multidisciplinary complexity of woven materials, in simulations that can provide greater fidelity. In particular, new multi-physics process models are able to better predict the infusion behavior through textiles by considering the effect of fabric deformation on permeability and porosity properties within the reinforcing material. In addition to reviewing previous research related to process modeling and the current state of the art, this paper highlights the recent validation of a multi-physics process model against the experimental infusion of a complex double dome component. By accounting for deformation-dependent flow behavior, the multi-physics process model was able to predict realistic flow behavior, demonstrating considerable improvement over basic isotropic permeability models.

  5. Infusion pressure and pain during microneedle injection into skin of human subjects (United States)

    Gupta, Jyoti; Park, Sohyun; Bondy, Brian; Felner, Eric I.; Prausnitz, Mark R.


    Infusion into skin using hollow microneedles offers an attractive alternative to hypodermic needle injections. However, the fluid mechanics and pain associated with injection into skin using a microneedle have not been studied in detail before. Here, we report on the effect of microneedle insertion depth into skin, partial needle retraction, fluid infusion flow rate and the co-administration of hyaluronidase on infusion pressure during microneedle-based saline infusion, as well as on associated pain in human subjects. Infusion of up to a few hundred microliters of fluid required pressures of a few hundred mmHg, caused little to no pain, and showed weak dependence on infusion parameters. Infusion of larger volumes up to 1 mL required pressures up to a few thousand mmHg, but still usually caused little pain. In general, injection of larger volumes of fluid required larger pressures and application of larger pressures cause more pain, although other experimental parameters also played a significant role. Among the intradermal microneedle groups, microneedle length had little effect; microneedle retraction lowered infusion pressure but increased pain; lower flow rate reduced infusion pressure and kept pain low; and use of hyaluronidase also lowered infusion pressure and kept pain low. We conclude that microneedles offer a simple method to infuse fluid into the skin that can be carried out with little to no pain. PMID:21684001

  6. Protocol for a randomised crossover trial to evaluate patient and nurse satisfaction with electronic and elastomeric portable infusion pumps for the continuous administration of antibiotic therapy in the home: the Comparing Home Infusion Devices (CHID) study. (United States)

    Hobbs, Jodie G; Ryan, Melissa K; Ritchie, Brett; Sluggett, Janet K; Sluggett, Andrew J; Ralton, Lucy; Reynolds, Karen J


    Previous studies comparing satisfaction with electronic and elastomeric infusion pumps are limited, and improvements in size and usability of electronic pumps have since occurred. The Comparing Home Infusion Devices (CHID) study plans to assess patient and nurse satisfaction with an elastomeric and electronic pump for delivering intravenous antibiotic treatment in the home. Secondary objectives are to determine pump-related complications and actual antibiotic dose administered, evaluate temperature variation and compare pump operating costs. The CHID study will be a randomised, crossover trial. A trained research nurse will recruit patients with infectious disease aged ≥18 years and prescribed ≥8 days of continuous intravenous antibiotic therapy from the Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH) (Adelaide, Australia). Patients will be randomised to receive treatment at home via an elastomeric (Baxter Infusor) or an electronic (ambIT Continuous) infusion pump for 4-7 days, followed by the other for a further 4-7 days. Patient satisfaction will be assessed by a 10-item survey to be completed at the end of each arm. Nurse satisfaction will be assessed by a single 24-item survey. Patient logbooks and case notes from clinic visits will be screened to identify complications. Pumps/infusion bags will be weighed to estimate the volume of solution delivered. Temperature sensors will record skin and ambient temperatures during storage and use of the pumps throughout the infusion period. Costs relating to pumps, consumables, antibiotics and servicing will be determined. Descriptive statistics will summarise study data. This study has been approved by the RAH Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/16/RAH/133 R20160420, version 6.0, 5 September 2016). Study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. The CHID study will provide key insights into patient and provider satisfaction with elastomeric and electronic infusion pumps and inform

  7. Effects of methacholine infusion on desflurane pharmacokinetics in piglets☆ (United States)

    Kozian, Alf; Kretzschmar, Moritz; Baumgardner, James E.; Schreiber, Jens; Hedenstierna, Göran; Larsson, Anders; Hachenberg, Thomas; Schilling, Thomas


    The data of a corresponding animal experiment demonstrates that nebulized methacholine (MCh) induced severe bronchoconstriction and significant inhomogeneous ventilation and pulmonary perfusion (V̇A/Q̇) distribution in pigs, which is similar to findings in human asthma. The inhalation of MCh induced bronchoconstriction and delayed both uptake and elimination of desflurane (Kretzschmar et al., 2015) [1]. The objective of the present data is to determine V̇A/Q̇ matching by Multiple Inert Gas Elimination Technique (MIGET) in piglets before and during methacholine- (MCh-) induced bronchoconstriction, induced by MCh infusion, and to assess the blood concentration profiles for desflurane (DES) by Micropore Membrane Inlet Mass Spectrometry (MMIMS). Healthy piglets (n=4) under general anesthesia were instrumented with arterial, central venous, and pulmonary artery lines. The airway was secured via median tracheostomy with an endotracheal tube, and animals were mechanically ventilated with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) with a FiO2 of 0.4, tidal volume (VT)=10 ml/kg and PEEP of 5cmH2O using an open system. The determination of V.A/Q. was done by MIGET: before desflurane application and at plateau in both healthy state and during MCh infusion. Arterial blood was sampled at 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min during wash-in and washout, respectively. Bronchoconstriction was established by MCH infusion aiming at doubling the peak airway pressure, after which wash-in and washout of the anesthetic gas was repeated. Anesthesia gas concentrations were measured by MMIMS. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, paired t-test, and by nonparametric Friedman׳s test and Wilcoxon׳s matched pairs test. We measured airway pressures, pulmonary resistance, and mean paO2 as well as hemodynamic variables in all pigs before desflurane application and at plateau in both healthy state and during methacholine administration by infusion. By MIGET, fractional alveolar ventilation and

  8. Venipuncture versus peripheral catheter: do infusions alter laboratory results? (United States)

    Hambleton, Victoria Lerma; Gómez, Ignacio Arribas; Andreu, Francisco A Bernabeu


    Our aim was to evaluate the equivalence between analytic parameters from blood samples obtained from a saline solution lock device used for the infusion of drugs and those from venipuncture. In our emergency department, patients bearing a saline solution lock device have blood extracted by venipuncture to avoid possible contamination of the sample. Adults from the emergency department with a saline solution lock device who required laboratory tests were selected as candidates for this cross-sectional observational study. Infusions were halted and flushed with 0.9% saline solution; 2 minutes later, 2 mL of blood was drawn and discarded, and the corresponding laboratory tubes were filled. Immediately after, another sample was withdrawn from the opposite extremity by venipuncture. Both samples were analyzed for hematology, biochemistry, venous blood gases, and coagulation parameters. Concordance was evaluated by use of the intraclass correlation coefficient with its 95% confidence intervals; Bland-Altman plots were used to illustrate the percentage of samples with differences exceeding 2 SDs. The mean differences were also checked to detect those exceeding the laboratory's systematic error. An intraclass correlation coefficient of over 0.9 was achieved for all parameters except for pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide, and partial pressure of oxygen. Differences of over 2 SDs were found in fewer than 10% of all parameters. None of them exceeded 3 SDs, except for pH and venous blood gases. All parameters showed differences below the laboratory's accepted systematic error except for pH and venous blood gases. Blood samples extracted from a peripheral catheter with or without drug infusions are valid for the analysis of hematology, biochemistry, and coagulation parameters but not for venous blood gases. Nurses should know the benefits of using an existing peripheral catheter for drawing blood samples for laboratory analysis even when infusing commonly used drugs

  9. Angiotensin II Infusion Induces Marked Diaphragmatic Skeletal Muscle Atrophy (United States)

    Rezk, Bashir M.; Yoshida, Tadashi; Semprun-Prieto, Laura; Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Delafontaine, Patrice


    Advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are characterized by increased angiotensin II (Ang II) levels and are often accompanied by significant skeletal muscle wasting that negatively impacts mortality and morbidity. Both CHF and CKD patients have respiratory muscle dysfunction, however the potential effects of Ang II on respiratory muscles are unknown. We investigated the effects of Ang II on diaphragm muscle in FVB mice. Ang II induced significant diaphragm muscle wasting (18.7±1.6% decrease in weight at one week) and reduction in fiber cross-sectional area. Expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1) and of the pro-apoptotic factor BAX was increased after 24 h of Ang II infusion (4.4±0.3 fold, 3.1±0.5 fold and 1.6±0.2 fold, respectively, compared to sham infused control) suggesting increased muscle protein degradation and apoptosis. In Ang II infused animals, there was significant regeneration of injured diaphragm muscles at 7 days as indicated by an increase in the number of myofibers with centralized nuclei and high expression of embryonic myosin heavy chain (E-MyHC, 11.2±3.3 fold increase) and of the satellite cell marker M-cadherin (59.2±22.2% increase). Furthermore, there was an increase in expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, 1.8±0.3 fold increase) in Ang II infused diaphragm, suggesting the involvement of IGF-1 in diaphragm muscle regeneration. Bone-marrow transplantation experiments indicated that although there was recruitment of bone-marrow derived cells to the injured diaphragm in Ang II infused mice (267.0±74.6% increase), those cells did not express markers of muscle stem cells or regenerating myofibers. In conclusion, Ang II causes marked diaphragm muscle wasting, which may be important for the pathophysiology of respiratory muscle dysfunction and cachexia in conditions such as CHF and CKD. PMID:22276172

  10. Angiotensin II infusion induces marked diaphragmatic skeletal muscle atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir M Rezk

    Full Text Available Advanced congestive heart failure (CHF and chronic kidney disease (CKD are characterized by increased angiotensin II (Ang II levels and are often accompanied by significant skeletal muscle wasting that negatively impacts mortality and morbidity. Both CHF and CKD patients have respiratory muscle dysfunction, however the potential effects of Ang II on respiratory muscles are unknown. We investigated the effects of Ang II on diaphragm muscle in FVB mice. Ang II induced significant diaphragm muscle wasting (18.7±1.6% decrease in weight at one week and reduction in fiber cross-sectional area. Expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1 and of the pro-apoptotic factor BAX was increased after 24 h of Ang II infusion (4.4±0.3 fold, 3.1±0.5 fold and 1.6±0.2 fold, respectively, compared to sham infused control suggesting increased muscle protein degradation and apoptosis. In Ang II infused animals, there was significant regeneration of injured diaphragm muscles at 7 days as indicated by an increase in the number of myofibers with centralized nuclei and high expression of embryonic myosin heavy chain (E-MyHC, 11.2±3.3 fold increase and of the satellite cell marker M-cadherin (59.2±22.2% increase. Furthermore, there was an increase in expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, 1.8±0.3 fold increase in Ang II infused diaphragm, suggesting the involvement of IGF-1 in diaphragm muscle regeneration. Bone-marrow transplantation experiments indicated that although there was recruitment of bone-marrow derived cells to the injured diaphragm in Ang II infused mice (267.0±74.6% increase, those cells did not express markers of muscle stem cells or regenerating myofibers. In conclusion, Ang II causes marked diaphragm muscle wasting, which may be important for the pathophysiology of respiratory muscle dysfunction and cachexia in conditions such as CHF and CKD.

  11. Reversal of behavioral depression by infusion of an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist into the locus coeruleus. (United States)

    Simson, P G; Weiss, J M; Hoffman, L J; Ambrose, M J


    This experiment demonstrated that behavioral depression produced by exposure of rats to strong uncontrollable shocks could be reversed by infusion of the alpha-2 adrenergic agonist clonidine into the region of the locus coeruleus (LC). A 20-min infusion, through bilateral cannulae, into the locus coeruleus of clonidine, piperoxane (alpha-2 antagonist) or inactive vehicle (0.85% saline), was given beginning 70 min after the animals were removed from the stress situation. The dose and volume of drug given in the infusion (0.16 microgram/microliter, 0.1 microliter/min) had been previously shown to produce effects specific to the locus coeruleus (Weiss, Simson, Hoffman, Ambrose, Cooper and Webster, 1986; Neuropharmacology 25: 367-384). At the conclusion of the infusion, active behavior of animals was measured in a 15-min swim test. Results showed that stressed animals infused with vehicle exhibited significantly less active behavior in the swim test than did non-stressed animals infused with vehicle, thereby showing the usual behavioral depression seen after exposure to an uncontrollable stress. Stressed animals infused with clonidine showed no difference in active behavior in comparison to non-stressed animals infused with vehicle and showed significantly more activity than did the stressed animals infused with vehicle. Stressed animals infused with piperoxane showed no significant difference in activity in comparison to the stressed animals infused with vehicle and were significantly less active than either the non-stressed animals infused with vehicle or the stressed animals infused with clonidine. Thus, infusion into the locus coeruleus of the alpha-2 agonist clonidine, but not the alpha-2 antagonist piperoxane, eliminated behavioral depression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Mixing in the human carotid artery during carotid drug infusion studied with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junck, L.; Koeppe, R.A.; Greenberg, H.S.


    The safety and efficacy of drug infusion into the carotid artery require adequate mixing of the infused solution with carotid blood. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we studied the mixing of solutions infused into the human carotid artery in seven patients by analyzing the distribution of [15O]H2O infused into the carotid artery and by vein. At four infusion rates ranging from 0.5 to 10 ml/min, the variability in distribution averaged 16.5-17.8% among the pixels in a large volume of interest, without dependence on the infusion rate. The overall correlation between [15O]H2O influx with arterial infusion and [15O]H2O influx with venous injection was 0.78-0.82 at the four infusion rates, with no trend toward higher correlations at the faster infusion rates. The distribution into the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral artery territories differed from distribution throughout the entire carotid territory by an average of 6.2-9.6% at the four infusion rates, with no trend toward smaller differences at the faster infusion rates. Infusions performed into a vinyl tube simulating the carotid artery indicated that at 0.5 ml/min, the velocity of fluid exiting the catheter makes no apparent contribution to mixing. We conclude that with infusions at the carotid bifurcation, mixing in the human carotid artery is complete or nearly complete over a wide range of infusion rates. The mixing appears to result from the patterns of blood flow within the artery, and not from jet effects at the catheter tip

  13. Alfaxalone for maintenance of anaesthesia in ponies undergoing field castration: continuous infusion compared with intravenous boluses. (United States)

    Deutsch, Julia; Ekiri, Abel; de Vries, Annemarie


    To compare alfaxalone as continuous intravenous (IV) infusion with intermittent IV injections for maintenance of anaesthesia in ponies undergoing castration. Prospective, randomized, 'blinded' clinical study. A group of 33 entire male Welsh ponies undergoing field castration. After preanaesthetic medication with IV detomidine (10 μg kg -1 ) and butorphanol (0.05 mg kg -1 ), anaesthesia was induced with IV diazepam (0.05 mg kg -1 ) followed by alfaxalone (1 mg kg -1 ). After random allocation, anaesthesia was maintained with either IV alfaxalone 2 mg kg -1  hour -1 (group A; n = 16) or saline administered at equal volume (group S; n = 17). When necessary, additional alfaxalone (0.2 mg kg -1 ) was administered IV. Ponies were breathing room air. Using simple descriptive scales, surgical conditions and anaesthesia recovery were scored. Total amount of alfaxalone, ponies requiring additional alfaxalone and time to administration, time from induction to end of infusion and end of infusion to standing were noted. Indirect arterial blood pressure, pulse and respiratory rates, end-expiratory carbon dioxide partial pressure and arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded every 5 minutes. Data were analysed using Student t, Mann-Whitney U and chi-square tests, where appropriate (p < 0.05). Total amount of alfaxalone administered after induction of anaesthesia (0.75 ± 0.27 versus 0.17 ± 0.23 mg kg -1 ; p < 0.0001) and time to standing (14.8 ± 4 versus 11.6 ± 4 minutes; p = 0.044) were higher in group A compared to group S. Ponies requiring additional alfaxalone boluses [four (group A) versus seven (group S)] and other measured variables were similar between groups; five ponies required oxygen supplementation [three (group A) versus two (group S)]. Continuous IV infusion and intermittent administration of alfaxalone provided similar anaesthesia quality and surgical conditions in ponies undergoing field castration. Less alfaxalone

  14. Low-dose ketamine infusion for labor analgesia: A double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Joel


    Full Text Available Background: Most primary and secondary level hospitals in developing countries provide inadequate labor analgesia due to various medical, technical and economic reasons. This clinical trial was an effort to study the efficacy, safety and feasibility of intravenous (IV ketamine to provide labor analgesia. Materials and Methods: A total of 70 parturients were consented and randomly assigned to receive either IV ketamine or 0.9% saline. A loading dose of ketamine (0.2 mg/kg was followed-by an infusion (0.2 mg/kg/h until the delivery of the neonate. Similar volume of saline was infused in the placebo-group. Intramuscular meperidine was the rescue analgesic in both groups. The pain score, hemodynamic parameters of mother and fetus and the anticipated side-effects of ketamine were observed for. The newborn was assessed by the Neonatologist. Results: The pain score showed a decreasing trend in the ketamine group and after the 1 st h more than 60% of women in the ketamine group had pain relief, which was statistically significant. There was no significant clinical change in the maternal hemodynamics and fetal heart rate. However, 17 (48.5% of them had transient light headedness in the ketamine group. All the neonates were breast fed and the umbilical cord blood pH was between 7.1 and 7.2. The overall satisfaction was significantly high in the intervention group (P = 0.028. Conclusion: A low-dose ketamine infusion (loading dose of 0.2 mg/kg delivered over 30 min, followed-by an infusion at 0.2 mg/kg/h could provide acceptable analgesia during labor and delivery.

  15. Associations between bolus infusion of hydrocortisone, glycemic variability and insulin infusion rate variability in critically Ill patients under moderate glycemic control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, Roosmarijn T. M.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Schultz, Marcus J.


    We retrospectively studied associations between bolus infusion of hydrocortisone and variability of the blood glucose level and changes in insulin rates in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. 'Glycemic variability' and 'insulin infusion rate variability' were calculated from and expressed as the

  16. The regulatory system for diabetes mellitus: Modeling rates of glucose infusions and insulin injections (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.


    Novel mathematical models with open and closed-loop control for type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus were developed to improve understanding of the glucose-insulin regulatory system. A hybrid impulsive glucose-insulin model with different frequencies of glucose infusions and insulin injections was analyzed, and the existence and uniqueness of the positive periodic solution for type 1 diabetes, which is globally asymptotically stable, was studied analytically. Moreover, permanence of the system for type 2 diabetes was demonstrated which showed that the glucose concentration level is uniformly bounded above and below. To investigate how to prevent hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia being caused by this system, we developed a model involving periodic intakes of glucose with insulin injections applied only when the blood glucose level reached a given critical glucose threshold. In addition, our numerical analysis revealed that the period, the frequency and the dose of glucose infusions and insulin injections are crucial for insulin therapies, and the results provide clinical strategies for insulin-administration practices.

  17. Innovations in science education: infusing social emotional principles into early STEM learning (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Gabitova, Nuria; Gupta, Anuradha; Wood, Thomas


    We report on the development of an after-school and summer-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics curriculum infused with the arts and social emotional learning content (STEAM SEL). Its design was motivated by theory and research that suggest that STEM education is well-suited for teaching empathy and other emotion-related skills. In this paper, we describe the activities associated with the development and design of the program and the curriculum. We provide expert-ratings of the STEAM and social emotional elements of the program and present instructor and participant feedback about the program's content and its delivery. Our results revealed that infusing the arts and social emotional learning content into science education created a holistic STEM-related curriculum that holds potential for enhancing young children's interest in and appreciation for science and its applications. The data also suggested that the program was well-developed and, generally well-executed. However, experts rated the STEAM elements of the program more positively than the SEL elements, especially with regard to sequencing of lessons and integration among the lessons and hands-on activities, indicating that program revisions are warranted.

  18. Thallium scintigraphy during dobutamine infusion: nonexercise-dependent screening test for coronary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, J.R.; Palac, R.T.; Freeman, M.L.; Virupannavar, S.; Loeb, H.S.; Kaplan, E.; Gunnar, R.M.


    Exercise thallium scintigraphy has proven to be a sensitive method for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD). However, early redistribution of thallium and inadequate exercise can reduce its sensitivity. In this study, dobutamine was infused in incremental doses (5, 10, 15, and 20 micrograms/kg/min) in 24 patients being evaluated for chest pain. Thallium scintigraphy was completed during the maximum dose of dobutamine tolerated and repeated 4 hours later. Significant CAD was present in 16 patients; the remaining eight had normal coronaries. Exercise ECG was obtained in 23 patients. During dobutamine thallium scintigraphy, reversible perfusion defects occurred in 15 of 16 CAD and in one of eight non-CAD patients, resulting in a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 87%. Exercise ECG had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 63%. We conclude that: (1) dobutamine thallium scintigraphy appears to be a sensitive method for detecting significant CAD and provided a more sensitive screening test than exercise ECG; (2) dobutamine thallium scintigraphy is especially useful in patients who cannot exercise; and (3) because imaging occurs during dobutamine infusion, the problem of early redistribution may be mitigated

  19. Infusing and sustaining aging content in social work education: findings from GeroRich projects. (United States)

    Hash, Kristina M; Gottlieb, Jody; Harper-Dorton, Karen V; Crawley-Woods, Geraldine; Shelek-Furbee, Katherine; Smith, John David; Brown, Rita


    This article presents findings from experiences of 67 projects involved in GeroRich, an initiative funded by the John A. Hartford Foundation designed to infuse, enrich and sustain aging content in BSW and MSW curricula. Thematic qualitative analysis was used to uncover themes in answers to open-ended questions contained in End-of-Year 2 project reports. Content areas addressed by open-ended answers were: (1) successes and innovations, and (2) challenges requiring responses. Primary successes and innovations identified were as follows: curriculum enrichment, faculty and student involvement, student-learning activities and community. Challenges to be responded to were identified as lack of faculty involvement, competing demands on faculty and programs, and sustainability of project efforts. Examples of strategies implemented to overcome these obstacles include providing teaching resources, instituting financial and other supports, and developing strategic plans for sustaining content infusion post-funding. Experiences of the GeroRich projects offer practical considerations for other social work programs that accept the challenge of attracting and preparing students to work with the increasing population of older adults.

  20. Hemodynamic effects of 6% hydroxyethyl starch infusion in sevoflurane-anesthetized thoroughbred horses. (United States)

    Ohta, Minoru; Kurimoto, Shinjiro; Tokushige, Hirotaka; Kuroda, Taisuke; Ishikawa, Yuhiro


    To determine hemodynamic effects of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) infusion during anesthesia in horses, incremental doses of 6% HES were administered to 6 healthy Thoroughbred horses. Anesthesia was induced with xylazine, guaifenesin and thiopental and maintained with sevoflurane at 2.8% of end-tidal concentration in all horses. The horses were positioned in right lateral recumbency and administered 3 intravenous dose of 6% HES (5 ml/kg) over 15 min with 15-min intervals in addition to constant infusion of lactated Ringer's solution at 10 ml/kg/hr. Hemodynamic parameters were measured before and every 15 min until 90 min after the administration of 6% HES. There was no significant change in heart rate and arterial blood pressures throughout the experiment. The HES administration produced significant increases in mean right atrial pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output (CO) and decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR) in a dose-dependent manner. There was no significant change in electrolytes (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-)) throughout the experiment, however, packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, and total protein and albumin concentrations decreased in a dose-dependent manner following the HES administration. In conclusion, the HES administration provides a dose-dependent increase in CO, but has no impact upon arterial blood pressures due to a simultaneous decrease in SVR.

  1. Ex Vivo Liver Experiment of Hydrochloric Acid-Infused and Saline-Infused Monopolar Radiofrequency Ablation: Better Outcomes in Temperature, Energy, and Coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xiong-ying; Gu, Yang-kui; Huang, Jin-hua, E-mail:; Gao, Fei; Zou, Ru-hai; Zhang, Tian-qi [Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China)


    ObjectiveTo compare temperature, energy, and coagulation between hydrochloric acid-infused radiofrequency ablation (HAIRFA) and normal saline-infused radiofrequency ablation (NSIRFA) in ex vivo porcine liver model.Materials and Methods30 fresh porcine livers were excised in 60 lesions, 30 with HAIRFA and the other 30 with NSIRFA. Both modalities used monopolar perfusion electrode connected to a RF generator set at 103 °C and 30 W. In each group, ablation time was set at 10, 20, or 30 min (10 lesions from each group at each time). We compared tissue temperatures (at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 cm away from the electrode tip), average power, deposited energy, deposited energy per coagulation volume (DEV), coagulation diameters, coagulative volume, and spherical ratio between the two groups.ResultsTemperature–time curves showed that HAIRFA provided progressively greater heating than that of NSIRFA. At 30 min, mean average power, deposited energy, coagulation volumes (113.67 vs. 12.28 cm{sup 3}) and diameters, and increasing in tissue temperature were much greater with HAIRFA (P < 0.001 for all), except DEV was lower (456 vs. 1396 J/cm{sup 3}, P < 0.001). The spherical ratio was closer to 1 with HAIRFA (1.23 vs. 1.46). Coagulation diameters, volume, and average power of HAIRFA increased significantly with longer ablation times. While with NSIRFA, these characteristics were stable till later 20 min, except the power decreased with longer ablation times.ConclusionsHAIRFA creates much larger and more spherical lesions by increasing overall energy deposition, modulating thermal conductivity, and transferring heat during ablation.

  2. Continuous Intravenous Sub-Dissociative Dose Ketamine Infusion for Managing Pain in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Drapkin


    Full Text Available Introduction: Our objective was to describe dosing, duration, and pre- and post-infusion analgesic administration of continuous intravenous sub-dissociative dose ketamine (SDK infusion for managing a variety of painful conditions in the emergency department (ED. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients aged 18 and older presenting to the ED with acute and chronic painful conditions who received continuous SDK infusion in the ED for a period over six years (2010–2016. Primary data analyses included dosing and duration of infusion, rates of pre- and post-infusion analgesic administration, and final diagnoses. Secondary data included pre- and post-infusion pain scores and rates of side effects. Results: A total of 104 patients were enrolled in the study. Average dosing of SDK infusion was 11.26 mg/hr, and the mean duration of infusion was 135.87 minutes. There was a 38% increase in patients not requiring post-infusion analgesia. The average decrease in pain score was 5.04. There were 12 reported adverse effects, with nausea being the most prevalent. Conclusion: Continuous intravenous SDK infusion has a role in controlling pain of various etiologies in the ED with a potential to reduce the need for co-analgesics or rescue analgesic administration. There is a need for more robust, prospective, randomized trials that will further evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of this modality across a wide range of pain syndromes and different age groups in the ED.

  3. Clinical assessment of first pass radionuclide ventriculography after dipyridamole infusion in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Tohru; Tono-oka, Ichiro; Satoh, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Yoshiko; Hoshi, Hikaru; Ikeda, Kozue; Tsuiki, Kai; Yasui, Shoji; Komatani, Akio


    First pass radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) was performed after dipyridamole (D) infusion in 33 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and 15 normal volunteers. RNV findings after D infusion were compared with those of conventional exercise RNV and body surface ECG mapping (MAP). For patients with multiple vessel disease, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly lower after D infusion than at rest. Wall motion abnormality (WMA) sites induced by D infusion were well coincident with those induced by exercise. Pressure rate product at exercise was significantly higher than that after D infusion, suggesting the different mechanism of the occurrence of WMA after D infusion and at exercise. The incidence of ischemic reaction tended to be higher after D infusion than at exercise in 25 patients with CAD. There was negative correlation between ST depression on MAP after D infusion and LVEF on RNV after D infusion. This RNV after D infusion can be used as a supplement tool to conventional exercise RNV in the evaluation of the degree of coronary artery lesions and preserved left ventricular function. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Is pomegranate peels infusion effective for disinfection of toothbrushes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Lima de Luna FREIRE

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Methods of decontamination or sanitization of toothbrushes have been questioned. Objective This study assessed the effectiveness of pomegranate peels infusion as a disinfectant of toothbrushes against Streptococcus mutans. Material and method A sample of 16 schoolchildren aged between 7 and 9 years performed brushing 5 days/week, with a careful brushing once a day. After each day of brushing, the toothbrushes were washed and sprayed with one disinfectant solution. This procedure was repeated for 4 weeks using one of the different solutions per week: distilled water (G1; negative control, pomegranate (Punica granatum Linn peels infusion (G2, 1% sodium hypochlorite (G3 and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate (G4. After the fifth day, toothbrushes were collected for laboratory analysis. Toothbrushes heads were subjected to agitation in saline dilution of 10–1, 10–2,10–3, and 25 μL of each dilution were seeded in mitis salivarius agar culture medium for S. mutans colony-forming unit (CFU counting. One calibrated examiner (Kappa = 0.91 performed the CFU (mL–1 × 104 counts. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn Multiple Comparison tests were used at a significance level of 5%. Result G1 presented the highest number of CFU (3.9 ± 8.4, followed by G2 (3.2 ± 4.0. No S. mutans growth was observed in G3 and G4. There was no statistically significant difference between G1 and G2 and between G3 and G4 (p>0.05. Conclusion Pomegranate infusion was completely ineffective for the disinfection of toothbrushes against S. mutans when compared with 1% sodium hypochlorite and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate solutions.

  5. Ames Infusion Stories for NASA Annual Technology Report (United States)

    Smith, Brandon; Jan, Darrell Leslie; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj


    These are short (2-page) high-level summaries of technologies that have been infused - i.e., taken the next level. For example, 3DMAT started off as a Center Innovation Fund (CIF) project and graduated to the Game-changing Program (GCD), where it is being prepared for use in Orion. The Nano Entry System similarly started as CIF and graduated to GCD. The High Tortuosity Carbon Dioxide Conversion Device also started off as CIF and then received an award for further development from the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts program (NIAC).

  6. The use of intraosseous infusions in the operating room. (United States)

    Joseph, Gayatri; Tobias, Joseph D


    The use of an intraosseous (IO) infusion during the anesthetic care of an 8-month-old, 5.4-kg infant with cyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD) is presented. Previous vascular access had resulted in thrombotic occlusion of the upper and lower venous systems. When intravenous access could not be achieved, an IO needle was placed and IO access was used during the surgical procedure. The role of the IO route in the perioperative period is discussed and its adverse effect profile is reviewed.

  7. Adverse events with continuous doxapram infusion against late postoperative hypoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Kristensen, P A; Pedersen, M H


    OBJECTIVE: A randomized double-blind controlled trial of doxapram versus placebo against late postoperative hypoxaemia was planned to include 40 patients (2 x 20). RESULTS: After inclusion of 18 patients a serious adverse event was encountered with development of a brain stem infarction in a 90-y...... promising, further studies on the effect of continuous nocturnal postoperative doxapram infusion on levels of arterial oxygen saturation should be postponed until more knowledge about the pharmacokinetics of doxapram in this particular clinical situation has been gathered....

  8. Leadership in Dental Hygiene Degree Completion Programs: A Pilot Study Comparing Stand-Alone Leadership Courses and Leadership-Infused Curricula. (United States)

    Smith, Michelle L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Farnsworth, Tracy J


    The aim of this study was to define the extent to which leadership and leadership skills are taught in dental hygiene degree completion programs by comparing stand-alone leadership courses/hybrid programs with programs that infuse leadership skills throughout the curricula. The study involved a mixed-methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course, a hybrid program, or leadership-infused courses in these programs. A quantitative comparison of course syllabi determined differences in the extent of leadership content and experiences between stand-alone leadership courses and leadership-infused curricula. Of the 53 U.S. dental hygiene programs that offer degree completion programs, 49 met the inclusion criteria, and 19 programs provided course syllabi. Of the program directors and faculty members who teach a stand-alone leadership course or leadership-infused curriculum, 16 participated in the interview portion of the study. The results suggested that competencies related to leadership were not clearly defined or measurable in current teaching. Reported barriers to incorporating a stand-alone leadership course included overcrowded curricula, limited qualified faculty, and lack of resources. The findings of this study provide a synopsis of leadership content and gaps in leadership education for degree completion programs. Suggested changes included defining a need for leadership competencies and providing additional resources to educators such as courses provided by the American Dental Education Association and the American Dental Hygienists' Association.

  9. Behaviour of homologous 125I fibrinogen after thrombin and ancrod infusion in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setter, R.


    The behaviour of radioactively labelled fibrinogen after infusion of thrombin or ancrod is investigated. Common factors and differences in the behaviour of fibrinogen after infusion of these two enzymes, which act proteolytically on the fibrinogen, are dealt with. Rabbits received an i.v. injection of homologous 125 I-fibrinogen 3 days before ancrod or thrombin infusion. On the day of the experiments, one group of animals received an ancrod infusion (1.5 U/kg body weight for 30 minutes), the other a thrombin infusion (600 U/kg body weight for 60 minutes). Intravenous ancrod and thrombin infusions lowered the fibrinogen level to 30% or 50% of the initial value due to intravascular coagulation. About 50% of the 125 I fibrinogen was transformed after ancrod exposure into a non-coagulating fraction of fibrinogen derivatives which produces no fibrinolytic decomposition products. (orig./AJ) [de

  10. Digital subtraction angiography of inferior gluteal artery through the infusion catheter of chemotherapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Satoru; Noguchi, Ryosuke; Kanoh, Shori; Shimazui, Toru; Uchida, Katsunori; Nemoto, Ryosuke; Koiso, Kenkichi


    More than fifty patients of invasive bladder cancer had been treated by selective intra-arterial chemotherapy through the inferior or superior gluteal arteries. The distribution of infused drugs had been evaluated by RI-angiography through a thin arterial infusion catheter. This time we performed digital subtraction angiography (DSA) through an infusion catheter in order to know the precise distribution of infused materials in seven patients with locally advanced bladder cancer. Pharmaco-DSA with norepinephrine was also done in four patients. Satisfactory spatial and contrast resolution were gained in four patients and pharmaco-DSA showed better quality. In our experience DSA through intra-arterial infusion catheter was a useful procedure in the evaluation of distribution of infused drugs. (author)

  11. Absorption of subcutaneously infused insulin: influence of the basal rate pulse interval. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, P; Birch, K; Jensen, B M; Kühl, C; Brange, J


    Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were given two constant infusions (each 1 IU/h) of 125I-labeled insulin into the abdominal subcutaneous tissue for about 12 h. Insulin was infused in pulses into one side of the abdomen in 6-min intervals (by means of an Auto-Syringe pump) and in the other side of the abdomen, insulin was infused in 1-h intervals (by means of a Medix pump). The size of the subcutaneous depots was continuously measured by counting the radioactivity at the infusion sites. After starting the infusions, the two depots were built up to steady-state levels at the same time and of the same size (approximately 3 IU) and with similar absorption rates. Thus, during basal rate insulin infusion, identical insulin absorption kinetics was achieved, irrespective of a 10-fold difference in the pulse rate.

  12. Does prolonged β-lactam infusions improve clinical outcomes compared to intermittent infusions? A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized, controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Arendonk Kyle J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of multi-drug resistant Gram-negatives (MDRGNs coupled with an alarming scarcity of new antibiotics has forced the optimization of the therapeutic potential of available antibiotics. To exploit the time above the minimum inhibitory concentration mechanism of β-lactams, prolonging their infusion may improve outcomes. The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to determine if prolonged β-lactam infusion resulted in decreased mortality and improved clinical cure compared to intermittent β-lactam infusion. Methods Relevant studies were identified from searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. Heterogeneity was assessed qualitatively, in addition to I2 and Chi-square statistics. Pooled relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using Mantel-Haenszel random-effects models. Results Fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. Prolonged infusion β-lactams were not associated with decreased mortality (n= 982; RR 0.92; 95% CI:0.61-1.37 or clinical cure (n = 1380; RR 1.00 95% CI:0.94-1.06 compared to intermittent infusions. Subgroup analysis for β-lactam subclasses and equivalent total daily β-lactam doses yielded similar results. Most studies had notable methodological flaws. Conclusions No clinical advantage was observed for prolonged infusion β-lactams. The limited number of studies with MDRGNs precluded evaluation of prolonged infusion of β-lactams for this subgroup. A large, multicenter RCT with critically ill patients infected with MDRGNs is needed.

  13. Hepatic artery infusion (HAI) for hepatic metastases in combination with hepatic resection and hepatic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrick, H.W.; Dobelbower, R.R.; Ringleint, J.F.; Skeel, R.T.


    Renewed interest in hepatic artery infusion has been stimulated by the development of a totally implantable pump which eliminates many of the problems encountered by the external pumps and catheters. As the potential benefit of hepatic artery infusion would be greater if either all gross disease were removed by prior resection, or alternatively, if non-resectable disease were irradiated in conjunction with hepatic artery infusion, the authors initiated a phase I-II trial to evaluate combined modality therapy

  14. Tranexamic Acid in Bolus Alone Vs Bolus and Continuous Infusion in Hip Arthroscopy


    Fatih Karaaslan; Roberto Seijas; Andrea Sallent; Oscar Ares; Wenceslao Espinosa; Pedro Alvarez; Ramón Cugat; Patricia Lopez


    AIM: the present study examines the effects of tranexamic acid (TXA) on reducing blood loss during hip arthroscopy, comparing two different methods of administration (bolus vs infusion). METHODS: a prospective study with 70 patients undergoing hip arthroscopy was carried out. The patients within the TXA infusion group (group A) received TXA an 2-g intravenous bolus 30 min before skin incision intravenously followed by 10 mg/kg/h infusion (continued during the entire surgery)...

  15. [How to promote the respect of good infusion practices by meeting health care professionals?]. (United States)

    Le Reste, C; Fiedler, A; Dubois, S; Dewailly, A; Le Du, I; Cogulet, V


    Health care professionals often forget that there are risks associated with infusion therapy even if it is a common care. In order to assess this practice and to draw potential improvement actions, an audit of local gravity-flow intravenous infusion practices was conducted. The audit, based on a grid including 66 items from the medical prescription to the end of the infusion therapy administration, was conducted in the 6 units which use the most gravity-flow intravenous infusion devices. A multidisciplinary working group was created to decide and organize priority corrective measures in order to improve infusion practices and quality of healthcare. The audit enabled to observe 90hours of nurse's practices (96 infusions) and highlighted heterogeneity in infusion, in some cases inappropriate infusion practices and misuse of infusion devices. We found 4 main issues: labelling infusion therapy, training of health care professionals on good practices, support the purchase of infusion pumps and standardize perfusion line. An interactive educational program for nurses (workshops) was organized to enhance the respect of good practices: infusion identification at any time, respect of hygiene rules, flow rate regulation by counting drops, appropriate use of pumps and flow rate regulators. The audit drew up work priorities. The workshops made easier exchanges between professionals and had a warm welcome that's why it is essential to carry on such training. This collaborative approach between pharmacists, nurses, hygienists and biomedical technicians contribute to drug management improvement and promote optimal patient care. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Establishment of donor Chimerism Using Allogeneic Bone Marrow with AMP Cell Co-infusion (United States)


    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0234 TITLE: Establishment of donor Chimerism Using Allogeneic Bone Marrow with AMP Cell Co-infusion PRINCIPAL...14/2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Establishment of donor Chimerism Using Allogeneic Bone Marrow with AMP Cell Co-infusion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...tolerance induction of all types of allografts. In this study, we investigate whether co-infusion of amnion- derived multipotent progenitor (AMP) cells

  17. Intraosseous infusion in elective and emergency pediatric anesthesia: when should we use it?


    Neuhaus, Diego


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW Difficulties to establish a venous access may also occur in routine pediatric anesthesia and lead to hazardous situations. Intraosseous infusion is a well tolerated and reliable but rarely used alternative technique in this setting. RECENT FINDINGS According to recent surveys, severe complications of intraosseous infusion stay a rare event. Minor complications and problems in getting an intraosseous infusion started on the other side seem to be more common than generally ...

  18. Intractable Polyuria Mimicking Diabetes Insipidus-Source Traced to Vecuronium Infusion. (United States)

    Haldar, Rudrashish; Samanta, Sukhen; Singla, Ankush


    Continuous infusion of vecuronium is a commonly used technique for patients requiring prolonged neuromuscular blockade for mechanical ventilation. As compared with older neuromuscular blocking agents, it confers the advantages of rapid excretion and intermediate duration of action. Prolongation of neuromuscular blockade and muscle weakness are the known complications of continuous vecuronium infusion. This report attempts to describe polyuria, as a hitherto unknown complication of vecuronium infusion, which can occur due to the mannitol present in commercially available preparation of vecuronium bromide.

  19. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in diabetes: patient populations, safety, efficacy, and pharmacoeconomics


    Pozzilli, Paolo; Battelino, Tadej; Danne, Thomas; Hovorka, Roman; Jarosz?Chobot, Przemyslawa; Renard, Eric


    Summary The level of glycaemic control necessary to achieve optimal short?term and long?term outcomes in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) typically requires intensified insulin therapy using multiple daily injections or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. For continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, the insulins of choice are the rapid?acting insulin analogues, insulin aspart, insulin lispro and insulin glulisine. The advantages of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion ...

  20. Continuous Intravenous Sub-Dissociative Dose Ketamine Infusion for Managing Pain in the Emergency Department


    Motov, Sergey; Drapkin, Jefferson; Likourezos, Antonios; Beals, Tyler; Monfort, Ralph; Fromm, Christian; Marshall, John


    Introduction: Our objective was to describe dosing, duration, and pre- and post-infusion analgesic administration of continuous intravenous sub-dissociative dose ketamine (SDK) infusion for managing a variety of painful conditions in the emergency department (ED).  Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients aged 18 and older presenting to the ED with acute and chronic painful conditions who received continuous SDK infusion in the ED for a pe...

  1. Drug selection principles in intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gefang; Cheng Yongde


    The intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy is an effective treatment for malignant tumors. The following ten principles should be taken into account when the choice of infusion medication is to be made. (1) The tumor-sensitive drugs should be selected. (2) Pay attention to the compatibility of medicines. (3) Select the type of drug compatibility and drug interactions. (4) Concentration-dependent drugs are the drugs of first choice. (5) Pay attention to side effects when anti-cancer drug compatibility is considered.(6) The perfusion anti-cancer drugs exert their killing effect on the tumor cells in their prototype. (7) Pay attention to the administration order of the drugs and the intervals of treatment. (8) The medication should be individualized as the physical condition and tumor's heterogeneity are different from patient to patient. It is one of the fundamental principles to formulate a specific scheme for every given patient. (9) Make full use of the pharmacokinetics features of the anti-cancer drugs in clinical practice. (10) To be familiar with commonly used drugs and common tumor chemotherapeutic formulae is a matter of cardinal significance. (authors)

  2. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of opiates at end-of-life. (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey L; Shreve, Scott T


    To review pertinent controlled trials using the continuous subcutaneous infusion of opioids (CSIO) at end-of-life and offer insight to pharmacists and clinicians into the appropriate use of this route of administration. A MEDLINE search for information regarding the subcutaneous administration of opioids in terminally ill patients (1975-December 2002) was conducted using the key words subcutaneous, narcotics, morphine, hydromorphone, fentanyl, pain, hospices, and palliative care. Additional references were located through review of bibliographies of the articles cited. Case reports and postsurgical studies were excluded. Searches were limited to English-language studies using humans. Experimental and observational studies were evaluated, using prospective trials as the evidence base for conclusions and including pertinent retrospective trials as they relate to the subcutaneous infusion of opioids at end-of-life. CSIO is effective and safe for use in terminal illness. Appropriate situations for consideration of CSIO are when difficulties arise in using the oral route, standard oral opiate therapy has failed adequate trials, the patient has limited intravenous access, adequate supervision of the CSIO is present, and CSIO will not unduly limit the functional activity of the patient. CSIO has a proven role in the management of pain at end-of-life. CSIO should not be considered the first route for administration of opiates, but does offer distinct advantages in the appropriate setting. CSIO continues to be a choice for end-of-life patients and is gradually becoming a standard practice in palliative medicine.

  3. L-ornithine-L-aspartate infusion efficacy in hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.


    To determine the efficacy of L-ornithine-L-aspartate in treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. Cirrhotic patients with hyperammonemia and overt hepatic encephalopathy were enrolled. Eighty patients were randomized to two treatment groups, L-ornithine-L-aspartate (20g/d) or placebo, both dissolved in 250mL of 5% dextrose water and infused intravenously for four hours a day for five consecutive days with 0.5 g/kg dietary protein intake at the end of daily treatment period. Outcome variables were postprandial blood ammonia and mental state grade. Adverse reactions and mortality were also determined. Both treatment groups were comparable regarding age, gender, etiology of cirrhosis, Child-Pugh class, mental state grade and blood ammonia at baseline. Although, improvement occurred in both groups, there was a greater improvement in L-ornithine-L-aspartate group with regard to both variables. Four patients in the placebo group and 2 in L-ornithine-L-aspartate group died. L-ornithine-L-aspartate infusions were found to be effective in cirrhotic patients with hepatic encephalopathy. (author)

  4. Vacuum infusion manufacturing and experimental characterization of Kevlar/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricciardi, M. R.; Giordano, M.; Antonucci, V.; Langella, A.; Nele, L.


    Epoxy/Kevlar composites have been manufactured by conventional Vacuum Infusion process and the Pulse Infusion technique. Pulse Infusion allows to control the pressure of the vacuum bag on the dry fiber reinforcement by using a proper designed pressure distributor that induces a pulsed transverse action and promotes the through thickness resin flow. The realized composite panel have been mechanically characterized by performing tensile and short beam shear tests according with the ASTM D3039 and ASTM D2344/D 2344M standard respectively in order to investigate the effect of Pulse Infusion on the tensile strength and ILSS





    Infusion supplies are an important thing that must be considered by the hospital in meeting the needs of patients. This study aims to predict the need for infusion of 0.9% 500 ml of NaCl and 5% 500 ml glucose infusion at Sanglah General Hospital (RSUP) Sanglah so that the hospital can estimate the many infusions needed for the next six months. The forecasting method used in this research is the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) time series method. The results of this study indi...

  6. Hippocampal Infusion of Zeta Inhibitory Peptide Impairs Recent, but Not Remote, Recognition Memory in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena B. Hales


    Full Text Available Spatial memory in rodents can be erased following the infusion of zeta inhibitory peptide (ZIP into the dorsal hippocampus via indwelling guide cannulas. It is believed that ZIP impairs spatial memory by reversing established late-phase long-term potentiation (LTP. However, it is unclear whether other forms of hippocampus-dependent memory, such as recognition memory, are also supported by hippocampal LTP. In the current study, we tested recognition memory in rats following hippocampal ZIP infusion. In order to combat the limited targeting of infusions via cannula, we implemented a stereotaxic approach for infusing ZIP throughout the dorsal, intermediate, and ventral hippocampus. Rats infused with ZIP 3–7 days after training on the novel object recognition task exhibited impaired object recognition memory compared to control rats (those infused with aCSF. In contrast, rats infused with ZIP 1 month after training performed similar to control rats. The ability to form new memories after ZIP infusions remained intact. We suggest that enhanced recognition memory for recent events is supported by hippocampal LTP, which can be reversed by hippocampal ZIP infusion.

  7. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl with subcutaneous infusion in palliative care patients. (United States)

    Miller, R S; Peterson, G M; Abbott, F; Maddocks, I; Parker, D; McLean, S


    1. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl were measured by g.c. in 20 patients (median age: 75 years and range: 54-86 years; eight females) in palliative care receiving the drug by continuous s.c. infusion (median rate: 1200 micrograms day-1 and range: 100-5000 micrograms day-1). 2. The infusion rate was significantly related to the duration of therapy (Spearman rho = 0.56, P Infusion rates and both total and unbound plasma concentrations of fentanyl were correlated (Spearman rho = 0.92, P infusion in the palliative care setting, which necessitates careful titration of dosage according to individual clinical response.

  8. An experimental study on renal arterial and parenchymal change caused by selective renal infusion of epinephrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Seok Chol; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung


    Selective infusion of the epinephrine into the renal artery has been used in the field of the diagnostic and the therapeutic radiology for correct diagnosis and effective treatment, respectively. However, administration of overdose of epinephrine may cause serious complication, renal infarction. The study was undertaken to evaluate the sequential change of renal arterial constrictive effect of selective infusion of epinephrine into renal artery and to determine the critical doses of epinephrine producing irreversible renal infarct. A total of 25 rabbits are used, which are divided into 5 groups. Under the general anesthesia is made the selective infusion of various doses of epinephrine into the right renal artery of the rabbits. At the various time interval during and after the epinephrine infusion, renal angiography was done, and 24 hrs. later, gross and microscopic findings of the kidney were observed. The results are as follows; 1. Vasoconstriction of renal artery occurred within 2 mins. infusion, and maximum effect within 5 mins. 2. It seems that there is correlation between the amount of infused epinephrine and the time taken to recover from constriction of renal artery. 3. When epinephrine is infused into the renal artery in the rate of 1 ug/min., renal infarct is not noticed below the level of 10 mins., but correlation between the amount of infused epinephrine and the frequency of renal infarct occurs above 20 mins. infusion

  9. Radiographic and Histologic Study After Infusion of Contrast Media into Rabbit Submandibular Gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nah, Kyung Soo; Park, Tae Won


    50 submandibular glands of rabbits were examined historadiologically after infusion with normal and over volumes of physiologic saline and 5 radiographic contrast media. The results were as follows: 1. All water soluble contrast media showed similar radiographic contrasts and absorbed about 5 minutes after infusion except Telebrix 30 which took 30 minutes in both normal and overfilled glands. 2. Lipid soluble medium, Lipiodol UF had excellent radiographic contrast and could be seen on the radiograms even after 24 hours after infusion. 3. Salivary glands infused with physiologic saline didn't show any histologic changes except slight duct dilation right after infusion. 4. Telebrix 30 caused mild to moderate duct dilation and inflammation at immediate and 24 hours after infusion which was more severe in overfilled glands. At 7 days after infusion, there were mild to moderate fibrosis of the gland and areas of necrosis was seen in overfilled glands. 5. Hypaque 60% showed similar histologic reactions to Telebrix 30 except more severe tissue destruction at 7 days after infusion. 6. Urografin 60% showed mildest histologic changes among the media used in the study. 7. Biliscopin had mild duct dilation which returned to normal after 7 days but there were moderate inflammation and tissue necrosis at that time. 8. Lipiodol UF showed severe duct dilation with numerous vacuoles and there were tissue fibrosis at 7 days after infusion but no tissue necrosis was seen.

  10. Clinical evaluation of preoperative arterial infusion chemotherapy and surgical operation for colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Jianhua; Zhao Zhongsheng; Deng Gaoli; Hu Tingyang; Yu Wenqiang; Chen Fanghong; Luo Zuyan; Ru Guoqing; Dong Quanjin; Tu Shiliang


    Objective: To investigate the clinical values of preoperative arterial infusion chemotherapy and surgical operation for colorectal carcinoma. Methods: 66 patients with colorectal carcinoma were subjected to percutaneous femoral artery catheterization by Seldinger's technique with infusion of anti-cancer drugs. The resection was performed 5-30 days after the arterial infusion (mean 12 days). In 50 surgical specimens of the 66 cases, histological findings were evaluated including the density and distribution of the apoptosis cells under the observation by DNA nick end labelling technique. Of which 22 specimens before arterial infusion chemotherapy (got from biopsy of preoperation) and 25 normal mucosa (got from normal surgical specimens) were used as controls. Results: The total histological response rate was 100% with grade I in 20 cases, grade II in 21 cases, grade III in 9 cases. The densities of the apoptosis cells were 31.47 ± 5.58 before arterial infusion chemotherapy, 76.69 ± 17.12 after arterial infusion chemotherapy and 8.01 ± 3.39 in normal mucosa. The density of the apoptosis cells after arterial infusion chemotherapy was significantly higher than that before arterial infusion chemotherapy (P 2 =4.696, P>0.30). There were no significant differences in the apoptosis of adenocarcinoma during different pathological stages (F=0.001376, P>0.05). Conclusions: Peroperative transcatheter arterial infusion chemotherapy resulting in apoptosis of adenocarcinoma, can raise the radical operation rate, and prolong survival rate for colorectal carcinoma patients

  11. Systemic, pulmonary and renal haemodynamic and renal morphologic effects of intravenously infused iodixanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunnegaardh, O.; Hietala, S.O.; Holtz, E.; Nycomed A/S, Oslo


    The systemic, pulmonary and renal haemodynamic effects following an intravenous infusion (1 ml/s, 4 ml/kg) of a non-ionic isoosmolar contrast medium (iodixanol) were investigated in 8 pigs. Histopathologic changes occurring after infusion of iodixanol were studied by repeated renal biopsies. Iodixanol caused a significant increase of cardiac output, mean right atrial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial pressure, mean pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure and mean arterial pressure. There was a decrease of the systemic and pulmonary vascular resistances. Most renal biopsies showed no pathologic findings after infusion of iodixanol but in 3 specimens proteinaceous content was observed 15 min after infusion. (orig.)

  12. Blood-brain barrier opening by isotonic saline infusion in normotensive and hypertensive animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapoport, S.I.


    The blood-brain barrier to intravascular Evans blue-albumin was opened in monkeys and rabbits by infusing isotonic saline for 15 s into the common carotid artery, when the external carotid was clamped temporarily and the lingual was catheterized for measuring pressure. Barrier opening correlated better with infusion pressure than with infusion rate, and occurred at carotid artery pressures above 170 mmHg. Systematic hypertension induced by Aramine increased barrier vulnerability by causing a higher net carotid artery pressure to be attained at a given infusion rate. (Auth.)

  13. Blood-brain barrier opening by isotonic saline infusion in normotensive and hypertensive animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapoport, S I [Baltimore City Hospitals, MD (USA)


    The blood-brain barrier to intravascular Evans blue-albumin was opened in monkeys and rabbits by infusing isotonic saline for 15 s into the common carotid artery, when the external carotid was clamped temporarily and the lingual was catheterized for measuring pressure. Barrier opening correlated better with infusion pressure than with infusion rate, and occurred at carotid artery pressures above 170 mmHg. Systematic hypertension induced by Aramine increased barrier vulnerability by causing a higher net carotid artery pressure to be attained at a given infusion rate.

  14. Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enemark JMD


    Full Text Available The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows. The concentration of the Na2EDTA solution was 0.134 mol/l and the flow rate was standardized at 1.2 ml/kg per hour. Involuntary recumbency occurred when ionised calcium dropped to 0.39 – 0.52 mmol/l due to chelation. An initial fast drop of ionized calcium was observed during the first 20 min of infusion followed by a fluctuation leading to a further drop until recumbency. Pre-infusion [Ca2+] between tests does not correlate with the amount of EDTA required to induce involuntary recumbence. Total calcium concentration measured by atomic absorption remained almost constant during the first 100 min of infusion but declined gradually when the infusion was prolonged. The concentration of inorganic phosphate declined gradually in a fluctuating manner until recumbency. Magnesium concentration remained constant during infusion. Such electrolyte responses during infusion were comparable to those in spontaneous milk fever. The standardized infusion technique might be useful in future experimental studies.

  15. Vacuum infusion manufacturing and experimental characterization of Kevlar/epoxy composites (United States)

    Ricciardi, M. R.; Giordano, M.; Langella, A.; Nele, L.; Antonucci, V.


    Epoxy/Kevlar composites have been manufactured by conventional Vacuum Infusion process and the Pulse Infusion technique. Pulse Infusion allows to control the pressure of the vacuum bag on the dry fiber reinforcement by using a proper designed pressure distributor that induces a pulsed transverse action and promotes the through thickness resin flow. The realized composite panel have been mechanically characterized by performing tensile and short beam shear tests according with the ASTM D3039 and ASTM D2344/D 2344M standard respectively in order to investigate the effect of Pulse Infusion on the tensile strength and ILSS.

  16. Rapid-Infusion Rituximab in Lymphoma Treatment: 2-Year Experience in a Single Institution (United States)

    Atay, Sevcan; Barista, Ibrahim; Gundogdu, Fatma; Akgedik, Kiymet; Arpaci, Afey


    Purpose: Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. We aimed to explore the safety and tolerability of rapid infusion rituximab, (over 90 minutes) in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at Hacettepe University Department of Medical Oncology. Patients and Methods: Adult patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who were to receive rituximab were included in the study. The schedule of administration for cycle 1 was unaltered and delivered according to the product monograph. All subsequent cycles were administered over a total infusion time of 90 minutes (20% of the dose in the first 30 minutes, then the remaining 80% over 60 minutes, total dose delivered in 500 mL). All patients were observed for infusion-related reactions during the rituximab infusion, and vital signs were recorded every 15 minutes. Results: From July 2006 to December 2008, 75 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with rituximab-based chemotherapy. A total of 372 infusions were administered. The majority of patients were treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, or rituximab only. The 90-minute rituximab infusion schedule was well tolerated, with no grade 3 or 4 infusion-related adverse events observed. Conclusion: A rapid infusion rituximab over 90 minutes is well tolerated and safe when administered as the second and subsequent infusions in the course of therapy. PMID:22942806

  17. Stabilization of a percutaneously implanted port catheter system for hepatic artery chemotherapy infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shindoh, Noboru; Ozaki, Yutaka; Kyogoku, Shinsuke; Yamana, Daigo; Sumi, Yukiharu; Katayama, Hitoshi


    A port catheter system for hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy was implanted percutaneously via the left subclavian artery in 41 patients for treatment of unresectable liver metastases. The catheter tip was inserted into the gastroduodenal artery (GDA), the end hole was occluded with a guidewire fragment, and a side-hole for infusion was positioned at the bifurcation of the proper hepatic artery and the GDA. The GDA was embolized with steel coils around the infusion catheter tip via a transfemoral catheter. This procedure is designed to reduce the incidence of hepatic artery occlusion and infusion catheter dislocation.

  18. Rapid-infusion rituximab in lymphoma treatment: 2-year experience in a single institution. (United States)

    Atay, Sevcan; Barista, Ibrahim; Gundogdu, Fatma; Akgedik, Kiymet; Arpaci, Afey


    Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. We aimed to explore the safety and tolerability of rapid infusion rituximab, (over 90 minutes) in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma at Hacettepe University Department of Medical Oncology. Adult patients diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma who were to receive rituximab were included in the study. The schedule of administration for cycle 1 was unaltered and delivered according to the product monograph. All subsequent cycles were administered over a total infusion time of 90 minutes (20% of the dose in the first 30 minutes, then the remaining 80% over 60 minutes, total dose delivered in 500 mL). All patients were observed for infusion-related reactions during the rituximab infusion, and vital signs were recorded every 15 minutes. From July 2006 to December 2008, 75 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with rituximab-based chemotherapy. A total of 372 infusions were administered. The majority of patients were treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone, or rituximab only. The 90-minute rituximab infusion schedule was well tolerated, with no grade 3 or 4 infusion-related adverse events observed. A rapid infusion rituximab over 90 minutes is well tolerated and safe when administered as the second and subsequent infusions in the course of therapy.

  19. The satiety effects of intragastric macronutrient infusions in fatty and lean Zucker rats. (United States)

    Maggio, C A; Greenwood, M R; Vasselli, J R


    To evaluate satiety in the hyperphagic, genetically obese Zucker "fatty" (fafa) rat, food-deprived fatty and lean (FaFa) control rats were given equicaloric intragastric infusions consisting largely of fat, carbohydrate, or protein. Relative to distilled water infusion, these infusions resulted in immediate reductions of food intake in both fatty and lean rats allowed to feed 20 min post-infusion. Cumulative food intakes remained reduced throughout the 2 hr period of observation. Thus, despite its hyperphagia, the fatty rat is responsive to the satiating effect of infused nutrients. However, the relative satiating effectiveness of the macronutrient infusions differed for the two genotypes. In lean rats, the different macronutrient infusions resulted in equivalent reductions of feeding. In contrast, in fatty rats, fat was the least satiating and protein was the most satiating macronutrient. Moreover, compared to lean rats, fatty rats displayed less initial suppression of feeding after fat infusion and greater overall suppression after protein infusion. These effects are consistent with the long-term feeding behavior of the fatty rat for the different macronutrients and may be related to pre- and postabsorptive metabolic alterations that have been documented in this animal.

  20. A low dose lipid infusion is sufficient to induce insulin resistance and a pro-inflammatory response in human subjects. (United States)

    Liang, Hanyu; Lum, Helen; Alvarez, Andrea; Garduno-Garcia, Jose de Jesus; Daniel, Benjamin J; Musi, Nicolas


    The root cause behind the low-grade inflammatory state seen in insulin resistant (obesity and type 2 diabetes) states is unclear. Insulin resistant subjects have elevations in plasma free fatty acids (FFA), which are ligands for the pro-inflammatory toll-like receptor (TLR)4 pathway. We tested the hypothesis that an experimental elevation in plasma FFA (within physiological levels) in lean individuals would upregulate TLR4 and activate downstream pathways (e.g., MAPK) in circulating monocytes. Twelve lean, normal glucose-tolerant subjects received a low dose (30 ml/h) 48 h lipid or saline infusion on two different occasions. Monocyte TLR4 protein level, MAPK phosphorylation, and expression of genes in the TLR pathway were determined before and after each infusion. The lipid infusion significantly increased monocyte TLR4 protein and phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK. Lipid-mediated increases in TLR4 and p38 phosphorylation directly correlated with reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity (M value). Lipid increased levels of multiple genes linked to inflammation, including several TLRs, CD180, MAP3K7, and CXCL10. Monocytes exposed in vivo to lipid infusion exhibited enhanced in vitro basal and LPS-stimulated IL-1β secretion. In lean subjects, a small increase in plasma FFA (as seen in insulin resistant subjects) is sufficient to upregulate TLR4 and stimulate inflammatory pathways (MAPK) in monocytes. Moreover, lipids prime monocytes to endotoxin. We provide proof-of-concept data in humans indicating that the low-grade inflammatory state characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes could be caused (at least partially) by pro-inflammatory monocytes activated by excess lipids present in these individuals.

  1. Glycemic increase induced by intravenous glucose infusion fails to affect hunger, appetite, or satiety following breakfast in healthy men. (United States)

    Schultes, Bernd; Panknin, Ann-Kristin; Hallschmid, Manfred; Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Wilms, Britta; de Courbière, Felix; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schmid, Sebastian M


    Meal-dependent fluctuations of blood glucose and corresponding endocrine signals such as insulin are thought to provide important regulatory input for central nervous processing of hunger and satiety. Since food intake also triggers the release of numerous gastrointestinal signals, the specific contribution of changes in blood glucose to appetite regulation in humans has remained unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that inducing glycemic fluctuations by intravenous glucose infusion is associated with concurrent changes in hunger, appetite, and satiety. In a single blind, counter-balanced crossover study 15 healthy young men participated in two experimental conditions on two separate days. 500 ml of a solution containing 50 g glucose or 0.9% saline, respectively, was intravenously infused over a 1-h period followed by a 1-h observation period. One hour before start of the respective infusion subjects had a light breakfast (284 kcal). Blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations as well as self-rated feelings of hunger, appetite, satiety, and fullness were assessed during the entire experiment. Glucose as compared to saline infusion markedly increased glucose and insulin concentrations (peak glucose level: 9.7 ± 0.8 vs. 5.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l; t(14) = -5.159, p hunger, appetite satiety, and fullness did not differ from the control condition throughout the experiment. These findings clearly speak against the notion that fluctuations in glycemia and also insulinemia represent major signals in the short-term regulation of hunger and satiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Remifentanil for labour analgesia: a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of maternal and neonatal effects of patient-controlled analgesia versus continuous infusion. (United States)

    Shen, M K; Wu, Z F; Zhu, A B; He, L L; Shen, X F; Yang, J J; Feng, S W


    This trial aimed to compare the maternal and neonatal effects of remifentanil given by patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or continuous infusion for labour analgesia. Patient controlled analgesia was administered using increasing stepwise boluses from 0.1 to 0.4 μ (0.1 μ increment, 2 min lockout, n = 30). Continuous infusion used rates from 0.05 to 0.2 μ .min(-1) (0.05 μ .min(-1) increment, n = 30). Dose increments were given on request. Women reported lowest pain scores (median (IQR [range]) of 3 (2-4 [2-5]) for PCA and 4 (3-5.25 [3-7]) for continuous infusion (p = 0.004) at 60 min after the beginning of analgesia. The mean (SD) remifentanil umbilical vein/maternal artery ratio in the PCA and infusion groups were 0.74 (0.45) vs 0.70 (0.52), respectively (p = 0.776). The mean (SD) umbilical artery/umbilical vein ratios were 0.31 (0.12) vs 0.26 (0.07), respectively (p = 0.088). Maternal and neonatal adverse reactions of remifentanil were similar between the two groups. The total remifentanil consumption (median (IQR [range]) during PCA administration was lower than continuous infusion, 1.34 (1.22-1.48 [0.89-1.69]) mg vs 1.49 (1.35-1.61 [1.12-1.70] mg; p = 0.011). The results suggest that remifentanil PCA provides better pain relief and similar placental transfer compared with continuous infusion. Anaesthesia © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Ketamine Infusion Associated with Improved Neurology in a Patient with NMDA Receptor Encephalitis

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    Michael MacMahon


    Full Text Available A young lady was ventilated on intensive care for a prolonged period with NMDA receptor encephalitis. She had undergone steroid, immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis with no evidence of recovery. Her main management issue was the control of severe orofacial and limb dyskinesia. Large doses of sedating agents had been used to control the dystonia but were ineffective, unless she was fully anaesthetised. The introduction of a ketamine infusion was associated with a dramatic improvement in her symptoms such that it was possible to remove her tracheostomy two days after commencement. She was discharged shortly after that and is making a good recovery. The successful use of ketamine has not previously been described in this context, and we hope this case report will provide some insight into the management of this rare but serious condition.

  4. [A Quantitative Verification for Operability of Three PCA Devices Attached to the Disposable Infusion Pumps]. (United States)

    Tadokoro, Takahiro; Fuchibe, Makoto; Odo, Yuichiro; Kakinohana, Manabu


    In this study using 3 different PCA devices (Baxter infuser LVBB +PCM 2 ml: Pump B, Coopdech Balloonjector +PCA 3 ml: Pump C, Rakuraku fuser +PCA 3 ml: Pump S), we investigated how easily PCA devices could be handled. In this study with 42 volunteers (14 elders and 28 nurses), we compared 3 PCA ejection volume and ejection rate among three PCA devices. PCA ejection rate was defined as the ratio of actual ejection volume to the maximum ejection volume (MEV) of each PCA device. Although not only elders but also nurses failed to produce accurate PCA ejection volume in the Pump B, Pump S could provide the MEV even by elders. In the Pump C, approximately 80% of MEV could be achieved by nurses, but 60% of MEV by elders (P PCA ejection volume might be dependent on PCA device.

  5. Chemotaxonomic markers of organic, natural, and genetically modified soybeans detected by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.S.; Catharino, R.R.; Eberlin, M.N.; Tsai, S.M.


    The crude methanolic extracts of a single bean from samples of organic, natural or genetically modified (GM) soybeans [Glycine max. (Merrill) L.] were analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). These extracts, containing the most polar natural products of soybeans (free aglycones, monoglucosides, diglucosides and esters including isoflavones and flavones) provide characteristic fingerprinting mass spectra owing to different proportions or sets of components. Spectra distinctiveness is confirmed by chemometric multivariate analysis of the ESIMS data, which place the three-types of beans into well-defined groups. When ESI-MS is applied, these polar components constitute therefore unique chemotaxonomic markers able to provide fast soybean typification. (author)

  6. Antinociceptive effects, metabolism and disposition of ketamine in ponies under target-controlled drug infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, M.; Portier, C.J.; Levionnois, O.L.; Theurillat, R.; Thormann, W.; Spadavecchia, C.; Mevissen, M.


    Ketamine is widely used as an anesthetic in a variety of drug combinations in human and veterinary medicine. Recently, it gained new interest for use in long-term pain therapy administered in sub-anesthetic doses in humans and animals. The purpose of this study was to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPk) model for ketamine in ponies and to investigate the effect of low-dose ketamine infusion on the amplitude and the duration of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR). A target-controlled infusion (TCI) of ketamine with a target plasma level of 1 μg/ml S-ketamine over 120 min under isoflurane anesthesia was performed in Shetland ponies. A quantitative electromyographic assessment of the NWR was done before, during and after the TCI. Plasma levels of R-/S-ketamine and R-/S-norketamine were determined by enantioselective capillary electrophoresis. These data and two additional data sets from bolus studies were used to build a PBPk model for ketamine in ponies. The peak-to-peak amplitude and the duration of the NWR decreased significantly during TCI and returned slowly toward baseline values after the end of TCI. The PBPk model provides reliable prediction of plasma and tissue levels of R- and S-ketamine and R- and S-norketamine. Furthermore, biotransformation of ketamine takes place in the liver and in the lung via first-pass metabolism. Plasma concentrations of S-norketamine were higher compared to R-norketamine during TCI at all time points. Analysis of the data suggested identical biotransformation rates from the parent compounds to the principle metabolites (R- and S-norketamine) but different downstream metabolism to further metabolites. The PBPk model can provide predictions of R- and S-ketamine and norketamine concentrations in other clinical settings (e.g. horses)

  7. Guaiphenesin-ketamine-xylazine infusion to maintain anesthesia in mules undergoing field castration. (United States)

    Vullo, Cecilia; Carluccio, Augusto; Robbe, Domenico; Meligrana, Marina; Petrucci, Linda; Catone, Giuseppe


    In order to determine whether a combination of guaiphenesin, ketamine and xylazine can induce safe and satisfactory anaesthesia in mules undergoing field castration, eight healthy adult intact male mules were employed. They were premedicated with intravenous (IV) xylazine (1.3 mg/kg); an additional dose of xylazine (0.3 mg/kg IV) was administered in case of inadequate depth of sedation. Anaesthesia was induced with IV thiopental (6 mg/kg). The quality of sedation and induction was recorded. Anaesthesia was maintained with an infusion of guaiphenesin (50 mg/mL), ketamine (2 mg/mL) and xylazine (1 mg/mL) (GKX). The spermatic cord of each testis was infiltrated with 5 mL of 2% lidocaine. During anaesthesia heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) and haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) were measured every 5 min. The data were analysed with simple one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). A P value anesthesia, time of surgery and time of recovery were recorded. Only one mule required an additional dose of xylazine to achieve a satisfactory depth of sedation. Thiopental at the dose of 6 mg/kg IV resulted in smooth induction and lateral recumbency in all animals. GKX provided adequate anaesthesia to perform castration in all mules. Muscle relaxation was deemed adequate and physiological variables remained stable and within references values during the anaesthesia and did not change in response to surgical stimulation. Time (mean ± standard deviation) from the end of the infusion to sternal recumbency and time from sternal recumbency to standing were 27.7 ± 4.6 and 30.1 ± 7.7 min, respectively. The combination of xylazine, thiopental and GKX provides satisfactory short-term anaesthesia in mules undergoing field castration.

  8. Transarterial Infusion Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin-Lipiodol Suspension With or Without Embolization for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Aikata, Hiroshi; Takaki, Shintaro; Katamura, Yoshio; Hiramatsu, Akira; Waki, Koji; Takahashi, Shoichi; Hieda, Masashi; Toyota, Naoyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki


    We evaluate the long-term prognosis and prognostic factors in patients treated with transarterial infusion chemotherapy using cisplatin-lipiodol (CDDP/LPD) suspension with or without embolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Study subjects were 107 patients with HCC treated with repeated transarterial infusion chemotherapy alone using CDDP/LPD (adjusted as CDDP 10mg/LPD 1ml). The median number of transarterial infusion procedures was two (range, one to nine), the mean dose of CDDP per transarterial infusion chemotherapy session was 30 mg (range, 5.0-67.5 mg), and the median total dose of transarterial infusion chemotherapy per patient was 60 mg (range, 10-390 mg). Survival rates were 86% at 1 year, 40% at 3 years, 20% at 5 years, and 16% at 7 years. For patients with >90% LPD accumulation after the first transarterial infusion chemotherapy, rates were 98% at 1 year, 60% at 3 years, and 22% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis identified >90% LPD accumulation after the first transarterial infusion chemotherapy (p = 0.001), absence of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT; p < 0.001), and Child-Pugh class A (p = 0.012) as independent determinants of survival. Anaphylactic shock was observed in two patients, at the fifth transarterial infusion chemotherapy session in one and the ninth in the other. In conclusion, transarterial infusion chemotherapy with CDDP/LPD appears to be a useful treatment option for patients with unresectable HCC without PVTT and in Child-Pugh class A. LPD accumulation after the first transarterial infusion chemotherapy is an important prognostic factor. Careful consideration should be given to the possibility of anaphylactic shock upon repeat infusion with CDDP/LPD.

  9. A Comprehensive Strategy to Evaluate Compatible Stability of Chinese Medicine Injection and Infusion Solutions Based on Chemical Analysis and Bioactivity Assay. (United States)

    Li, Jian-Ping; Liu, Yang; Guo, Jian-Ming; Shang, Er-Xin; Zhu, Zhen-Hua; Zhu, Kevin Y; Tang, Yu-Ping; Zhao, Bu-Chang; Tang, Zhi-Shu; Duan, Jin-Ao


    Stability of traditional Chinese medicine injection (TCMI) is an important issue related with its clinical application. TCMI is composed of multi-components, therefore, when evaluating TCMI stability, several marker compounds cannot represent global components or biological activities of TCMI. Till now, when evaluating TCMI stability, method involving the global components or biological activities has not been reported. In this paper, we established a comprehensive strategy composed of three different methods to evaluate the chemical and biological stability of a typical TCMI, Danhong injection (DHI). UHPLC-TQ/MS was used to analyze the stability of marker compounds (SaA, SaB, RA, DSS, PA, CA, and SG) in DHI, UHPLC-QTOF/MS was used to analyze the stability of global components (MW 80-1000 Da) in DHI, and cell based antioxidant capability assay was used to evaluate the bioactivity of DHI. We applied this strategy to assess the compatible stability of DHI and six infusion solutions (GS, NS, GNS, FI, XI, and DGI), which were commonly used in combination with DHI in clinic. GS was the best infusion solution for DHI, and DGI was the worst one based on marker compounds analysis. Based on global components analysis, XI and DGI were the worst infusion solutions for DHI. And based on bioactivity assay, GS was the best infusion solution for DHI, and XI was the worst one. In conclusion, as evaluated by the established comprehensive strategy, GS was the best infusion solution, however, XI and DGI were the worst infusion solutions for DHI. In the compatibility of DHI and XI or DGI, salvianolic acids in DHI would be degraded, resulting in the reduction of original composition and generation of new components, and leading to the changes of biological activities. This is the essence of instability compatibility of DHI and some infusion solutions. Our study provided references for choosing the reasonable infusion solutions for DHI, which could contribute the improvement of safety

  10. Comparison of Intravenous Infusion of Tramadol Alone with Combination of Tramadol and Paracetamol for Postoperative Pain after Major Abdominal Surgery in Children. (United States)

    Ali, Shayesta; Sofi, Khalid; Dar, Abdul Qayoom


    Pain is a common complaint after surgery and seems to be difficult to manage in children because of fear of complications of pain treatment or misconception that infants and small children do not feel pain at all or feel less pain. A survey reported that 40% of pediatric surgical patients experienced moderate or severe postoperative pain and that more than 75% had insufficient analgesia. Our study was carried to provide continuous infusion of intravenous (i.v.) tramadol alone using a dedicated infusion device Graseby 2100 syringe pump and compared it to a combination of i.v. tramadol infusion and per rectal paracetamol. A total of 124 children aged 1-8 years selected for the study were randomized into two groups using a table of random numbers. Power calculation had suggested a sample size of 62 in each group with a power of 80% and significance level of 5%. Group A comprising 62 children, received i.v. infusion of tramadol in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/h for 24 h postoperatively. Group B comprising 62 children, received i.v. infusion of tramadol in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg/h for 24 h postoperatively in addition to per rectal suppository of paracetamol in a dose of 90 mg/kg in 24 h (30 mg/kg as first dose followed by 20 mg/kg every 6 hourly for the next 18 h). Postoperatively, patients were observed for 24 h. A statistically significant difference ( P ≤ 0.001) in Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability pain scores was seen between two groups at 4, 6, and 8 h. Pain scores being less in Group B patients who had received infusion of tramadol and per rectal suppositories of paracetamol compared to Group A patients who received only infusion of tramadol. A statistically significant difference ( P < 0.05) was found in mean analgesic consumption during the first 24 h between the groups. Consumption was more in Group A as compared to Group B. In Group A, 13 patients (21%) required rescue analgesia as compared to only 4 patients (6.5%) in Group B. We recommend use of an infusion

  11. Donor lymphocyte infusion in bone marrow transplantation therapy Infusão de linfócitos de doador na terapia ao transplante de medula óssea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Mackinnon


    Full Text Available The dose escalation of chemo-radiotherapy that is achievable with stem cell transplantation is often insufficient to eradicate malignancy, and an associated immune-mediated graft-versus-malignancy effect may be equally important for many diseases. The most directly compelling evidence for its presence has been provided by the efficacy of donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI in generating anti-tumor responses, particularly for relapsed chronic-phase CML. Response rates and durability appear lower with myeloma and AML/MDS, and minimal with ALL. There is relatively little data on indolent lymphoid malignancies. Issues that remain to be resolved include the precise nature of the effector cells and their target antigens, the best strategies for separating graft-versus-malignancy from graft-versus-host disease (GVHD and their effect on the durability of responses, and the role of adjuvant chemotherapy/cytokines. Similar issues surround routine combination with nonmyeloablative transplantation protocols and preliminary data suggests that GVHD may continue to provide a major obstacle.A quimioterapia seqüencial e transplante de células progenitoras, habitualmente são insuficientes para erradicar a neoplástica e uma associação do efeito enxerto contra o tumor imune mediado pode ser importante para o controle de muitas doenças uma evidencia deste efeito é proporcionado pela eficácia da infusão de lifócitos de doadores com a finalidade de gerar respostas anti-tumoral particularmente na leucemia mielóide crônica. A freqüência de respostas, durabilidade aparentaram ser pequenas no mieloma e na LM1/SMD e mínima na LLA. Existem de dos insuficientes nos linfomas indolentes. Vários aspectos necessitam ser esclarecidos incluindo a natureza presença das células efetoras e os antígenos alvos, e as melhores estratégias para separar o enxerto-versus-tumor da doença enxerto contra o hospedeiro, e o seu efeito na durabilidade das respostas e o seu papel

  12. Hepatic metabolism of anaesthetized growing pigs during acute portal infusion of volatile fatty acids and hydroxy-methyl butyrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Bjerre-Harpøth, Vibeke


    ABSTRACT: The objective of the experiment was to study hepatic metabolism during infusion of volatile fatty acids (VFA) differing in amounts and composition or infusion of HMB. Three fasted (20 h) pigs (mean BW ± SE; 58 kg ± 1) were fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein......, respectively, for Inf2 and Inf3, or 65%, 20%, and 10% of acetate, propionate, and butyrate, respectively, for Inf4 and Inf5. In addition, for Inf5, HMB was infused at 2 mmol/h. Statistical analysis included fixed effects of infusion and interaction between infusion and samplings within infusion while...

  13. Effect of IOP based infusion system with and without balanced phaco tip on cumulative dissipated energy and estimated fluid usage in comparison to gravity fed infusion in torsional phacoemulsification. (United States)

    Malik, Praveen K; Dewan, Taru; Patidar, Arun Kr; Sain, Ekta


    To evaluate the effect of three different combinations of tip designs and infusion systems in torsional phacoemulsification (INFINITI and CENTURION) in patients with cataract. According to the manufacturer, two unique improvements in the Centurion are: active fluid dynamic management system and use of an intrepid balanced tip. The study specifically aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects, if any, of change in tip design and infusion system individually and in combination on both per-operative parameters as well as endothelial health over 6 months. One hundred and twenty six consenting patients of grade 4.0-6.9 senile cataract were randomized into three groups for phacoemulsification: Group A ( n  = 42): Gravity fed infusion system and 45 0 Kelman miniflared ABS phaco tip; Group B ( n  = 42): intraocular pressure (IOP) based infusion system and 45 0 Kelman miniflared ABS phaco tip; Group C ( n  = 42): IOP based infusion system and 45 0 Intrepid balanced phaco tip. The cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), estimated fluid usage (EFU) and total aspiration time (TAT) were compared peroperatively. The endothelial parameters were followed up postoperatively for six months. The three arms were matched for age ( p  = 0.525), gender ( p  = 0.96) and grade of cataract ( p  = 0.177). Group C was associated with significant reductions in CDE ( p  = 0.001), EFU ( p  < 0.0005) as well as TAT ( p  = 0.001) in comparison to the other groups. All three groups had comparable baseline endothelial cell density ( p  = 0.876) and central corneal thickness ( p  = 0.561). On post-operative evaluation, although all groups were comparable till 3 months, by 6 months, the percentage losses in endothelial cell density were significantly lower in group C as compared to the other groups. Use of an IOP based phacoemulsification system in association with use of the Intrepid balanced tip reduces the CDE, EFU and TAT in comparison to a gravity fed system with a mini flared

  14. A DFIG Islanding Detection Scheme Based on Reactive Power Infusion (United States)

    Wang, M.; Liu, C.; He, G. Q.; Li, G. H.; Feng, K. H.; Sun, W. W.


    A lot of research has been done on photovoltaic (the “PV”) power system islanding detection in recent years. As a comparison, much less attention has been paid to islanding in wind turbines. Meanwhile, wind turbines can work in islanding conditions for quite a long period, which can be harmful to equipments and cause safety hazards. This paper presents and examines a double fed introduction generation (the “DFIG”) islanding detection scheme based on feedback of reactive power and frequency and uses a trigger signal of reactive power infusion which can be obtained by dividing the voltage total harmonic distortion (the "THD") by the voltage THD of last cycle to avoid the deterioration of power quality. This DFIG islanding detection scheme uses feedback of reactive power current loop to amplify the frequency differences in islanding and normal conditions. Simulation results show that the DFIG islanding detection scheme is effective.

  15. Treatment of Severe Hypertriglyceridemia with Continuous Insulin Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesica Rodríguez Santana


    Full Text Available Severe hypertriglyceridemia (SH represents a therapeutic emergency because of the possibility of developing cardiovascular events and hyperlipemic acute pancreatitis (PA. Most patients with SH suffer primary or genetic abnormality in lipid metabolism in combination with a precipitating factor such as uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, and drug intake. The standard treatment of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG with omega 3 fatty acids and fibrates, along with dietary changes, has no effect on an emergency situation. There are no clinical guidelines to SH, but therapy with insulin, heparin, a combination of both, plasmapheresis, or octreotide have been tested succesfully. We report the case of a 10-year-old girl with clinical acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis debut, along with incidental finding of an SH, who had a good outcome after treatment with insulin intravenous infusion.

  16. Life-Threatening Thrombocytopenia Following Intravenous Contrast Media Infusion. (United States)

    Park, Mihwa; Kim, Minjeong; Park, Jisun; Cho, Jinhyun


    Radiocontrast media-induced acute severe thrombocytopenia is a very rare complication and potentially life-threatening. Here, we report the case of a 63-year-old male patient with severe acute thrombocytopenia following first exposure to intravenous non-ionic contrast media without immediate allergic reactions. His platelet count dropped from 107000/μL to 2000/μL after six hours of radiocontrast infusion. After administration of corticosteroid and transfusion of platelet concentrates, the platelet count returned gradually to normal within 5 days. To the best of our knowledge, non-ionic contrast media-induced isolated acute severe thrombocytopenia following no signs or symptoms of immediate allergic reaction has never been described. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  17. Infusing culture into oncology research on quality of life. (United States)

    Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie


    To review the literature relevant to understanding culturally informed oncology research, particularly as it relates to health-related quality of life. Published articles and books. A cultural perspective to the prevailing theory and research methods used in oncology research with respect to quality of life is imperative. A multidimensional and practical framework can be applied to increase cultural competence in research by addressing the purpose of the research, theoretical framework, and methodologic approaches. Culturally competent, multicultural research will help the scientific community better comprehend disparities that exist in health-related quality of life so that benefits can be experienced by all patients. Nursing practice and research must continue its leadership role to infuse cultural competence and reduce disparities in the healthcare system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almakaeva L.G.


    Full Text Available Application of fluoroquinolones covers by experience of treatment more than 800 million patients, and presently they are one of basic classes in the antimicrobial arsenal of practical medicine. Such achievements became possible after the clear understanding of intercommunication of structure and activity of molecules of this class of antibiotics. This knowledge became the basis for the synthesis of new derivatives with a wide range, powerful activity and improved pharmacokinetic profile for the best clinical outcome. Moxifloxacin is 8-methoxyfluoroquinolon of wide spectrum which interacts mainly with DNA gyrase of gram-negative and with topoisomerase of IV type of gram-positive bacteria. He has the extended activity against gram-positive cocci, however keeps activity against gram-negative bacteria. Moxifloxacin also has good activity against atypical respiratory pathogens (Legionella of pneumophila, Chlamydia of pneumoniae and Mycoplasma of pneumoniae. Another his feature is high anti-anaerobic activity. Therefore development of domestic medication with Moxifloxacin - a fluoroquinolone 4 generations - is actual. Materials and methods Research material was a substance of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride, produced by firm «Sansh Biotech Pvt. Ltd.», India, a dosage form on the basis of Moxifloxacin - solution for infusion. Qqualitative and quantitative control of samples of the drug were conducted on parameters which characterize stability: рН, content of active substance, transparency, colour, related impurities, mechanical inclusions on methods, which are described in SPhU. Results and Discussion Proposed the drug is antibiotic of wide spectrum of action of fluoroquinolone. Moxifloxacin hydrochloride is powder pale yellow with slightly hygroscopic nature. He moderately dissolve in water and methanol, poorly will dissolve in hydrochloric acid and ethanol, and practically will not dissolve in an acetone and toluene. рН 0,2 % solution is in a range

  19. Tea and herbal infusions: Their antioxidant activity and phenolic profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atoui, A.; Mansouri, A.; Panagiotis Kefalas; Boskou, G.


    Tea and herbal infusions have been studied for their polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity and phenolic profile. The total phenolics recovered by ethyl acetate from the water extract, were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and ranged from 88.1 ± 0.42 (Greek mountain tea) to 1216 ± 32.0 mg (Chinese green tea) GAE (Gallic acid equivalents)/cup. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by two methods, DPPH and chemiluminescence assays, using Trolox and quercetin as standards. The EC50 of herbal extracts ranged from 0.151 ± 0.002 mg extract/mg DPPH (0.38 quercetin equivalents and 0.57 Trolox equivalents), for Chinese green tea, to 0.77 ± 0.012 mg extract/mg DPPH (0.08 quercetin equivalents and 0.13 Trolox equivalents), for Greek mountain tea. Chemiluminescence assay results showed that the IC50 ranged from 0.17 ± 3.4 x 103 lg extract/ml of the final solution in the measuring cell (1.89 quercetin and 5.89 Trolox equivalents) for Chinese green tea, to 1.10 ± 1.86 x 102 g extract/ml of the final solution in the measuring cell (0.29 quercetin and 0.90 Trolox equivalents) for Greek mountain tea. The phenolic profile in the herbal infusions was investigated by LC-DAD-MS in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode. About 60 different flavo- noids, phenolic acids and their derivatives have been identified. (author)

  20. Continuous infusion of antibiotics in critically ill patients. (United States)

    Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Szałek, Edyta; Tomczak, Hanna; Grześkowiak, Edmund


    Antibiotics are the most commonly used drugs in intensive care unit patients and their supply should be based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic rules. The changes that occur in septic patients who are critically ill may be responsible for subtherapeutic antibiotic concentrations leading to poorer clinical outcomes. Evolving in time the disturbed pathophysiology in severe sepsis (high cardiac output, glomerular hyperfiltration) and therapeutic interventions (e.g. haemodynamically active drugs, mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy) alters antibiotic pharmacokinetics mainly through an increase in the volume of distribution and altered drug clearance. The lack of new and efficacious drugs and increased bacterial resistance are current problems of contemporary antibiotic therapy. Although intermittent administration is a standard clinical practice, alternative methods of antibiotic administration are sought, which may potentialise effects and reduce toxicity as well as contribute to inhibition of bacterial resistance. A wide range of studies prove that the application of continuous infusion of time-dependent antibiotics (beta-lactams, glycopeptides) is more rational than standard intermittent administration. However, there are also studies which do not confirm the advantage of one method over the other. In spite of controversy the continuous administration of this group of antibiotics is common practice, because the results of both studies point to the higher efficacy of this method in critically ill patients. Authors reviewed the literature to determine whether any clinical benefits exist for administration of time-dependent antibiotics by continuous infusion. Definite specification of the clinical advantage of administration this way over standard dosage requires a large-scale multi-centre randomised controlled trial.

  1. Physical and chemical stability of pemetrexed in infusion solutions. (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A


    Pemetrexed is a multitargeted, antifolate, antineoplastic agent that is indicated for single-agent use in locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer after prior chemotherapy and in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma not treatable by surgery. Currently, there is no information on the long-term stability of pemetrexed beyond 24 hours. To evaluate the longer-term physical and chemical stability of pemetrexed 2, 10, and 20 mg/mL in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags of dextrose 5% injection and NaCl 0.9% injection. Triplicate samples of pemetrexed were prepared in the concentrations and infusion solutions required. Evaluations for physical and chemical stability were performed initially and over 2 days at 23 degrees C protected from light and exposed to fluorescent light, and over 31 days of storage at 4 degrees C protected from light. Physical stability was assessed using turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual observation. Chemical stability was evaluated by HPLC. All pemetrexed solutions remained chemically stable, with little or no loss of pemetrexed over 2 days at 23 degrees C, protected from light and exposed to fluorescent light, and over 31 days of storage at 4 degrees C, protected from light. The room temperature samples were physically stable throughout the 48 hour test period. However, pemetrexed admixtures developed large numbers of microparticulates during refrigerated storage exceeding 24 hours. Pemetrexed is chemically stable for 2 days at room temperature and 31 days refrigerated in dextrose 5% injection and NaCl 0.9% injection. However, substantial numbers of microparticulates may form in pemetrexed diluted in the infusion solutions in PVC bags, especially during longer periods of refrigerated storage. Limiting the refrigerated storage period to the manufacturer-recommended 24 hours will limit particulate formation.

  2. Contrast infusion sonography in the post-Essure setting. (United States)

    Connor, Viviane


    To compare contrast infusion sonogram (CIS) to hysterosalpingogram (HSG) for use as a 3-month confirmation test after Essure. Pilot study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Healthy women in an academic multispecialty group. Seventeen women desiring permanent sterilization who had had successful bilateral Essure placement within 12 weeks. Contrast infusion sonography was performed and immediately followed by an HSG at the same appointment, between 1 and 12 weeks after Essure placement. To determine how well microinsert location and tubal status can be assessed with CIS, an adaptation of hysterosalpingo contrast sonography (HyCoSy), when compared with sequential HSG. Tubal occlusion rate within 4 to 8 weeks after Essure placement was also noted. All microinserts were readily identified with ultrasound, and location was accurately determined. In all patients (100%) with at least 1 tube patent on HSG, patency was also demonstrated on CIS by visualizing real-time flow in the tube or the presence of dye in the cul-de-sac or adnexa. There were no significant adverse events, and pain ratings were similar for both tests. The majority (88%) of patients felt strongly that they would prefer to have a 3-month confirmation test performed in the gynecologist's office rather than an unfamiliar radiologic facility. Tubal occlusion was noted on both CIS and HSG in 82% of patients before 12 weeks. Based on this pilot study with a small sample, CIS, an adaptation of HyCoSy, has comparable accuracy to HSG in the post-Essure setting. The safety, convenience, and comfort of an in-office test using ultrasound and a non-iodine-based dye would be a welcome alternative to HSG. There was also a high rate of bilateral fallopian tube occlusion noted on HSG at 4 weeks after Essure.

  3. Single-shot pectoral plane (PECs I and PECs II) blocks versus continuous local anaesthetic infusion analgesia or both after non-ambulatory breast-cancer surgery: a prospective, randomised, double-blind trial. (United States)

    O'Scanaill, P; Keane, S; Wall, V; Flood, G; Buggy, D J


    Pectoral plane blocks (PECs) are increasingly used in analgesia for patients undergoing breast surgery, and were recently found to be at least equivalent to single-shot paravertebral anaesthesia. However, there are no data comparing PECs with the popular practice of continuous local anaesthetic wound infusion (LA infusion) analgesia for breast surgery. Therefore, we compared the efficacy and safety of PECs blocks with LA infusion, or a combination of both in patients undergoing non-ambulatory breast-cancer surgery. This single-centre, prospective, randomised, double-blind trial analysed 45 women to receive either PECs blocks [levobupivacaine 0.25%, 10 ml PECs I and levobupivacaine 0.25%, 20 ml PECs II (PECs group); LA infusion catheter (levobupivacaine 0.1% at 10 ml h -1 for 24 h (LA infusion group); or both (PECs and LA infusion)]. The primary outcome measure was area under the curve of the pain verbal rating score whilst moving vs time (AUC) over 24 h. Secondary outcomes included total opioid consumption at 24 h. AUC moving was mean (SD) 71 (34) mm h -1 vs 58 (41) vs 23 (20) in PECs, LA infusion, and both, respectively; P=0.002. AUC at rest was also significantly lower in patients receiving both. The total 24 h opioid consumption [median (25-75%)] was 14 mg (9-26) vs 11 (8-24) vs 9 (5-11); P=0.4. No adverse events were observed. The combination of both pre-incisional PECs blocks and postoperative LA infusion provides better analgesia over 24 h than either technique alone after non-ambulatory breast-cancer surgery. NCT 03024697. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Septal co-infusions of glucose with the benzodiazepine agonist chlordiazepoxide impair memory, but co-infusions of glucose with the opiate morphine do not. (United States)

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L; Parent, Marise B


    We have found repeatedly that medial septal (MS) infusions of glucose impair memory when co-infused with the gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) agonist muscimol. The present experiments sought to determine whether the memory-impairing effects of this concentration of glucose would generalize to another GABA(A) receptor agonist and to an agonist from another neurotransmitter system that is known to impair memory. Specifically, we determined whether the dose of glucose that produces memory deficits when combined with muscimol in the MS would also impair memory when co-infused with the GABA(A) receptor modulator chlordiazepoxide (CDP) or the opiate morphine. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given MS co-infusions and then 15 min later tested for spontaneous alternation or given shock avoidance training (retention tested 48 h later). The results showed that MS infusions of the higher dose of glucose with morphine did not produce memory deficits, whereas, the performance of rats given MS co-infusions of CDP with glucose was impaired. These findings suggest that the memory-impairing effects of brain glucose administration may involve an interaction with the GABA(A) receptor. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Brain SPECT by intraarterial infusion of 99mTc-HMPAO for assessing the cerebral distribution of carotid artery infusions in patient with brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosuda, Shigeru; Kusano, Shoichi; Aoki, Shigeki


    In order to assess the cerebral distribution of intracarotid chemotherapy, 17 postoperative patients with brain tumor underwent brain SPECT obtrained by intraarterial infusion of 18.5 MBq of 99m Tc-d,l,-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO). Injection methods were continuous (5.0 ml/min) or pulsatile infusion with supra- or infraophthalmic catheterization. The findings obtained by brain SPECT were frequently different from those of angiography and/or DSA. In supraophthalmic catheterization with continuous infusion, only 2 of 10 studies (20%) had homogeneous distribution and 5 of them (50%) had maldistribution of 99m Tc-HMPAO which appears in association with laminar flow effect. The remaining 3 studies showed localized distribution (two: tumor localization, one: healthy brain localization). On the other hand, all of 5 studies with pulsatile infusion had homogeneous distribution of 99m Tc-HMPAO. In infraophthalmic catheterization, all but one of 5 studies had homogeneous distribution with continuous infusion. These results suggest that pulsatile infusion may be effective in eliminating maldistribution of 99m Tc-HMPAO in supraophthalmic catheterization. In conclusion, we are convinced that 99m Tc-HMPAO is a useful intraarterial agent for assessing cerebral distribution of intracarotid chemotherpay. (author)

  6. Aloe vera for prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis. (United States)

    Zheng, Guo Hua; Yang, Liu; Chen, Hai Ying; Chu, Jian Feng; Mei, Lijuan


    Up to 80% of hospitalised patients receive intravenous therapy at some point during their admission. About 20% to 70% of patients receiving intravenous therapy develop phlebitis. Infusion phlebitis has become one of the most common complications in patients with intravenous therapy. However, the effects of routine treatments such as external application of 75% alcohol or 50% to 75% magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) are unsatisfactory. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new methods to prevent and alleviate infusion phlebitis. To systematically assess the effects of external application of Aloe vera for the prevention and treatment of infusion phlebitis associated with the presence of an intravenous access device. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator (TSC) searched the Specialised Register (last searched February 2014) and CENTRAL (2014, Issue 1). In addition the TSC searched MEDLINE to week 5 January 2014, EMBASE to Week 6 2014 and AMED to February 2014. The authors searched the following Chinese databases until 28 February 2014: Chinese BioMedical Database; Traditional Chinese Medical Database System; China National Knowledge Infrastructure; Chinese VIP information; Chinese Medical Current Contents; Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database; and China Medical Academic Conference. Bibliographies of retrieved and relevant publications were searched. There were no restrictions on the basis of date or language of publication. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised controlled trials (qRCTs) were included if they involved participants receiving topical Aloe vera or Aloe vera-derived products at the site of punctured skin, with or without routine treatment at the same site. Two review authors independently extracted the data on the study characteristics, description of methodology and outcomes of the eligible trials, and assessed study quality. Data were analysed using RevMan 5

  7. Constant infusion transpulmonary thermodilution for the assessment of cardiac output in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Mortensen, Stefan; Munch, G D W


    To determine the accuracy and precision of constant infusion transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output (CITT-Q) assessment during exercise in humans, using indocyanine green (ICG) dilution and bolus transpulmonary thermodilution (BTD) as reference methods, cardiac output (Q) was determined......: 6.1-11.1%). In conclusion, cardiac output can be precisely and accurately determined with constant infusion transpulmonary thermodilution in exercising humans....

  8. Improved usability of a multi-infusion setup using a central control display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, Frank; Cnossen, Fokeltje; Dieperink, Willem; Bult, Wouter; Nijsten, Maarten W


    Infusion pumps are often associated with poor usability and an increased likelihood of medication errors [1]. Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) usually receive multiple infusions simultaneously, which increases the likelihood of pump-related errors. Furthermore, the ICU is

  9. Precision flow-controlled rubidium-82 generator for bolus and constant infusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Y.


    A unique flow rate controller and large reservoir pumping system have been developed for infusing rubidium-82 intravenously at bolus, constant, or variable infusion rates. Using rubidium-82 and the positron ring detector tomograph, extraction or flow information can be obtained in studies of the heart, head, or kidneys

  10. Analysing the Integration of Engineering in Science Lessons with the Engineering-Infused Lesson Rubric (United States)

    Peterman, Karen; Daugherty, Jenny L.; Custer, Rodney L.; Ross, Julia M.


    Science teachers are being called on to incorporate engineering practices into their classrooms. This study explores whether the Engineering-Infused Lesson Rubric, a new rubric designed to target best practices in engineering education, could be used to evaluate the extent to which engineering is infused into online science lessons. Eighty lessons…

  11. Responses to Starch Infusion on Milk Synthesis in Low Yield Lactating Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou


    Full Text Available The effect of starch infusion on production, metabolic parameters and relative mRNA abundance was investigated in low yield lactating cows from 86 days in milk. Six Holstein cows fitted with permanent ruminal cannulas were arranged into one of two complete 3×3 Latin squares and infused with a starch solution containing 800 grams starch for 16 days. The three treatments were: i ruminal and abomasal infusion with water (Control; ii ruminal infusion with cornstarch solution and abomasal infusion with water (Rumen; iii ruminal infusion with water and abomasal infusion with cornstarch solution (Abomasum. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 among the three treatments with low yield lactating cows in feed and energy intake, milk yield and composition, plasma metabolism, or even on gene expression. However, cows receiving starch through rumen performed better than directly through the abomasum during the glucose tolerance test procedure with a higher area under the curve (AUC; p = 0.08 and shorter half-time (t1/2; p = 0.11 of plasma insulin, therefore, it increased glucose disposal, which stated a lipid anabolism other than mobilization after energy supplementation. In conclusion, extra starch infusion at concentration of 800 g/d did not enhance energy supplies to the mammary gland and improve the lactating performance in low yield lactating cows.

  12. Use of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate-containing infusion systems increases the risk for cholestasis. (United States)

    von Rettberg, Heike; Hannman, Torsten; Subotic, Ulrike; Brade, Joachim; Schaible, Thomas; Waag, Karl Ludwig; Loff, Steffan


    Most polyvinylchloride infusion systems are plasticized with up to 60% of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). DEHP is easily extracted from the tubing by total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions and has been shown to have toxic effects on various organ systems including the liver in animals and humans. A role was postulated for DEHP in the development of hepatobiliary dysfunction in premature and newborn infants receiving parenteral nutrition, and the incidence of cholestasis was investigated after changing from polyvinylchloride infusion systems to polyvinylchloride-free infusion systems. Two 3-year periods from 1998 to 2004 were investigated retrospectively before and after changing from polyvinylchloride to polyvinylchloride-free infusion systems in our department. This resulted in 1 group of 30 patients treated with polyvinylchloride lines and a second group of 46 patients treated with polyvinylchloride-free lines. The 2 groups were examined for the incidence of cholestasis and other possible contributing factors. Statistics were performed by using SAS software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). After changing infusion systems, the incidence of cholestasis dropped from 50% to 13%. Using DEHP-plasticized polyvinylchloride infusion systems for TPN increased the risk for cholestasis by a factor of 5.6. The use of polyvinylchloride lines correlated strongly with the development of TPN-associated cholestasis (P = .0004). Using DEHP-containing polyvinylchloride infusions systems contributes to the development of cholestasis. Therefore, the use of DEHP-free infusion systems for TPN is recommended, especially in premature and newborn infants.

  13. The effect of tubing dwell time on insulin adsorption during intravenous insulin infusions. (United States)

    Thompson, Cecilia D; Vital-Carona, Jessica; Faustino, E Vincent S


    Insulin adsorbs to plastic tubing, which decreases the concentration of an insulin solution delivered from an intravenous infusion set. Dwelling insulin within tubing before starting the infusion decreases adsorption but delays treatment initiation and wastes time in infusion preparation. The lack of data on dwell time effects results in wide variability in practice. We aim to determine the effect of dwell time on insulin concentration from intravenous infusion tubing. In this in vitro study, we used insulin solutions with concentrations of 0.1 unit/mL, 1 unit/mL, and 10 units/mL. Each solution dwelled in intravenous infusion sets for 0, 15, 30, or 60 min. After the dwell, we measured insulin concentrations from the solution bags and tubing. We repeated each insulin concentration-dwell time combination five times. Comparisons were performed using analyses of variance. For each of the three insulin concentrations, the mean insulin concentrations from the tubing were not significantly different between dwell times. Duration of dwell time did not affect insulin adsorption in polypropylene intravenous infusion sets. We recommend that following a 20-mL flush, insulin infusions can be started without any dwell time. Removal of dwell times may improve clinical practice by minimizing preparation time and will allow faster initiation of insulin infusion therapy.

  14. Impact of healthcare design on patients' perception of a rheumatology outpatient infusion room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Gunhild; Tommerup, Anne Marie Munk; Madsen, Ole Rintek


    Evidence-based healthcare design is a concept aimed at reducing stress factors in the physical environment for the benefit of patients and the medical staff. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of room modifications on patients' perception of an outpatient infusion room used...... the potential to improve patients' perception of outpatient infusion rooms used for treating rheumatologic diseases....

  15. Effects of radiolabelled monoclonal antibody infusion on blood leukocytes in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gridley, D.S.; Slater, J.M.; Stickney, D.R.


    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a single infusion of radiolabelled murine monoclonal antibody (MAb) on peripheral blood leukocytes in cancer patients. Eleven patients with disseminated colon cancer, malignant melanoma, or lung adenocarcinoma were infused with 111In-labelled anti-ZCE 025, anti-p97 type 96.5c, or LA 20207 MAb, respectively. Blood samples were obtained before infusion, immediately after infusion (1 hr), and at 4 and 7 days postinfusion. Flow cytometry analysis of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD16+, and CD19+ lymphocytes showed increasing CD4:CD8 ratios in seven patients after infusion. This phenomenon was not restricted to antibody subclass or to type of cancer. Two of the remaining patients exhibited a marked post-infusion increase in CD8+ cells. In all three patients with malignant melanoma, decreasing levels of CD16+ lymphocytes were noted after infusion and natural killer cell cytotoxicity showed fluctuations which paralleled the changes in the CD16+ subpopulation. Oxygen radical production by phagocytic cells was markedly affected in three subjects. These results suggest that a single infusion of radiolabelled murine MAb may alter the balance of critical lymphocyte subpopulations and modulate other leukocyte responses in cancer patients

  16. Continuous infusion thermodilution for assessment of coronary flow: Theoretical background and in vitro validation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't M.; Geven, M.C.F.; Rutten, M.C.M.; Horst, van der A.; Aarnoudse, W.H.; Pijls, N.H.J.; Vosse, van de F.N.


    Direct volumetric assessment of coronary flow during cardiac catheterization has not been available so far. In the current study continuous infusion thermodilution, a method based on continuous infusion of saline into a selective coronary artery is evaluated. Theoretically, volumetric flow can be

  17. Infusing Financial Capability and Asset Building Content into a Community Organizing Class (United States)

    Doran, Joanna K.; Bagdasaryan, Sofya


    As social work's fight for social and economic justice returns to its historical attention to finances, faculty are called to infuse financial capability and asset building (FCAB) content into their classes. Given few published models, this study contributes a redesign that infuses FCAB in a community organization course, with additional attention…

  18. Responses of Blood Glucose, Insulin, Glucagon, and Fatty Acids to Intraruminal Infusion of Propionate in Hanwoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. K. Oh


    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of intraruminal infusion of propionate on ruminal fermentation characteristics and blood hormones and metabolites in Hanwoo (Korean cattle steers. Four Hanwoo steers (average body wt. 270 kg, 13 month of age equipped with rumen cannula were infused into rumens with 0.0 M (Water, C, 0.5 M (37 g/L, T1, 1.0 M (74 g/L, T2 and 1.5 M (111 g/L, T3 of propionate for 1 hour per day and allotted by 4×4 Latin square design. On the 5th day of infusion, samples of rumen and blood were collected at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 300 min after intraruminal infusion of propionate. The concentrations of serum glucose and plasma glucagon were not affected (p>0.05 by intraruminal infusion of propionate. The serum insulin concentration at 60 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05 higher in T3 than in C, while the concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA at 60 and 180 min after infusion was significantly (p<0.05 lower in the propionate treatments than in C. Hence, intraruminal infusion of propionate stimulates the secretion of insulin, and decreases serum NEFA concentration rather than the change of serum glucose concentration.

  19. Evaluating the Impact of Curriculum Infusion on US College Students' Alcohol Use and Academic Performance (United States)

    Samuolis, Jessica; Lazowski, Andrew; Kessler, Janice


    Objectives: This paper explores the extent to which curriculum infusion (CI) impacted undergraduate students' alcohol use, perceived peer alcohol use, use of protective behavioural strategies, academic performance and course engagement. Design: Two faculty members infused content on norms and protective behavioural strategies into selected…

  20. Anestesi Infus Gravimetrik Ketamin dan Propofol pada Anjing (THE GRAVIMETRIC INFUSION ANAESTHESIA WITH KETAMINE AND PROPOFOL IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ngurah Sudisma


    Full Text Available This study aim was to evaluate quality of anaesthesia by using gravimetric infusion anaesthesia withketamine and propofol in dogs. The quality of anaesthesia, duration of actions, and the physiological responsseof anaesthesia were evaluated in twenty domestic dogs. Anaesthesia was induced intramuscularly withatropine (0.03 mg/kg-xylazine (2 mg/kg (AX, intravenously ketamine-propofol (KP (4 mg/kg, andmaintained with continuous intravenous infusion with pre-mixed propofol (P and normal saline containing2 mg/ml of propofol and 2 mg/ml of ketamine (K. Domestic stray dogs were randomly divided into fivegroups. Groups AXKP-K2P2, AXKP-K4P4, and AXKP-K6P6 were treated with ketamine-propofol the dose0.2 mg/kg/minute, 0.4 and 0.6 mg/kg/minute respectively, while group AXKP-P4 was given propofol 0.4 mg/kg/minute and group AXKP-I was given isoflurane 1-2%. Heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR,electrocardiogram (ECG, blood oxygen saturation (SpO2, end tidal CO2 (ET CO2, and capillary refill time(CRT were measured. No significant difference (P>0.05 found between the groups in anaesthetion times.All groups showed rapid and smooth inductions, prolonged surgical stage, and rapid recovery. Groups AXKPK2P2and AXKP-K4P4 showed minimal physiological effect on the dogs. The HR, RR, ET CO2, SpO2, CRT,and ECG wave were stabl. Combination of AXKP-K6P6 induced SpO2 depression, increased and instabilityof HR, RR and ET CO2. Groups AXKP-P4 showed decreased of HR and respiratory depression. All anaestheticcombinations showed no significant influence (P>0.05 on the electricity of the dog’s heart. The combinationof ketamine-propofol at dose 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg/minute were found to be better as an application formaintaining anaesthesia by gravimetric continuous intravenous infusion. The method is a suitablealternative for inhalation anaesthesia in dogs.

  1. Analgesic efficacy, adverse effects, and safety of oxycodone administered as continuous intravenous infusion in patients after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olczak B


    Full Text Available Bogumił Olczak,1 Grzegorz Kowalski,1,2 Wojciech Leppert,2 Iwona Zaporowska-Stachowiak,3 Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis2 1Department of Anesthesiology, Józef Struś Multiprofile Municipal Hospital, 2Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 3Department of Pharmacology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poland Background: Total hip arthroplasty (THA causes extensive tissue damage and severe pain. This study aimed to assess the analgesic efficacy, adverse effects (AEs, and safety of continuous intravenous (iv oxycodone infusion with ketoprofen (injected into the iv line in patients after THA, and to assay serum oxycodone levels.Patients and methods: Fourteen patients, aged 59‒82 years with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA classification I or III, underwent THA with intrathecal analgesia and sedation induced by iv propofol. After the surgery, oxycodone (continuous iv infusion at a dose of 1 mg/h (five patients or 2 mg/h (nine patients with 100 mg ketoprofen (injected into the iv line was administered to each patient every 12 h. Pain was assessed using a numerical rating scale (NRS: 0 – no pain, 10 – the most severe pain at rest and during movement. AEs, including hemodynamic unsteadiness, nausea, vomiting, pruritus, cognitive impairment, and respiratory depression, were registered during the first 24 h after surgery.Results: Oxycodone (continuous iv infusion at a dose of 2 mg/h with ketoprofen (100 mg administered every 12 h provided satisfactory analgesia in all nine patients without the need of rescue analgesics within the first 24 h after THA. In three out of five patients, oxycodone at 1 mg/h was effective. Oxycodone did not induce drowsiness, vomiting, pruritus, respiratory depression, or changes in blood pressure. Bradycardia appeared in two patients, and nausea was observed in one patient.Conclusion: Oxycodone infusion with ketoprofen administered by iv is effective in patients after THA

  2. Boron biodistribution in Beagles after intravenous infusion of 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine-fructose complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulvik, M.E.; Vaehaetalo, J.K.; Benczik, J.; Snellman, M.; Laakso, J.; Hermans, R.; Jaerviluoma, E.; Rasilainen, M.; Faerkkilae, M.; Kallio, M.E.


    Boron biodistribution after intravenous infusion of 4-dihydroxyborylphenylalanine-fructose (BPA-F) complex was investigated in six dogs. Blood samples were evaluated during and following doses of 205 and 250 mg/kgbw BPA in a 30 min infusion, and 500 mg/kgbw in a 1 h infusion. Samples from whole blood, urine, brain and other organs were analysed for boron content after varying times following the onset of infusion. The whole blood boron concentrations declined from 27 to 8.4 ppm over the period of 39-165 min after the onset of infusion and the levels increased from 1.9 to 12 ppm in the grey matter of the brain over the same period. The boron concentrations in whole blood decreased steadily, whereas the boron values in brain tissue rose steadily with time. It was concluded that whole blood boron concentrations do not seem to reflect accurately the boron concentration in brain tissue at respective time points

  3. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic effect of ropivacaine during continuous epidural infusion for postoperative pain relief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, C J; Sjövall, J; Kehlet, H


    BACKGROUND: The pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of ropivacaine (2.5 mg/ml) during a 24-h continuous epidural infusion for postoperative pain relief in 20 patients scheduled for abdominal hysterectomy were characterized using an open-label, increasing-dose design. METHODS: Through an epidural...... catheter inserted at T10-T12, a test dose of 7.5 mg ropivacaine was given 3 min before a bolus dose of 42.5 mg and immediately followed by a 24-h continuous epidural infusion with either 10 or 20 mg/h. Peripheral venous plasma samples were collected up to 48 h after infusion, and urinary excretion...... plasma concentrations of ropivacaine increased markedly and consistently during the 24-h epidural infusion, in contrast to stable unbound concentrations. Both total and unbound plasma concentrations at the end of infusion were proportional to the total dose, although only the latter was proportional...

  4. [The treatment of Paget's disease of bone with second-generation bisphosphonates via intravenous infusion]. (United States)

    Arboleya, L; Sánchez, J; Iglesias, G; Arranz, J L


    We compared the biochemical effects and safety of pamidronate (30 mg a day for 3 consecutive days) versus clodronate (300 mg a day for 3 consecutive days) via intravenous infusion in 14 patients with Paget's disease of bone (PDB). Both drugs induced a decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase levels as well as the elimination of hydroxyproline from urine, an effect most marked in the group treated with pamidronate. The response was maintained for 6 months after the infusion in the majority of the patients. No relevant side effects were found, except post-infusion febricula and in one patient, self-limiting thrombopenia 6 months after the infusion. We conclude that the intravenous infusion of either of the two drugs may constitute a safe and effective alternative for treatment of PDB with marked biochemical activity or resistant to conventional therapy.

  5. Determination of 210Po in tea, mat and their infusions and its annual intake by Syrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Nashawati, A.; Amin, Y.; Al-Akel, B.


    Polonium-210 was determined in 34 kinds of imported tea and 9 kinds of mat collected from the Syrian local market. The 210 Po concentration was found to vary from 5.5 to 39 Bq x kg -1 and 47 to 82 Bq x kg -1 in tea and mat samples, respectively. In addition 210 Po was also determined in tea and mat infusions where different infusion conditions have been examined: amount, temperature and infusion time. The results have shown that the amount of 210 Po transferred from tea and mat leaves to the aqueous extract ranged from 9 to 21% and 3 to 15%, respectively. The annual intake of 210 Po by Syrians due to tea consumption and mat infusions was calculated and found to be 9 Bq and 151 Bq for tea and mat respectively: washing of mat with warm water is recommended before preparation the infusions to decrease the annual intake of 210 Po. (author)

  6. Successful intraosseous infusion in the critically ill patient does not require a medullary cavity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Gerard


    OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that successful intraosseous infusion in critically ill patients does not require bone that contains a medullary cavity. DESIGN: Infusion of methyl green dye via standard intraosseous needles into bones without medullary cavity-in this case calcaneus and radial styloid-in cadaveric specimens. SETTING: University department of anatomy. PARTICIPANTS: Two adult cadaveric specimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Observation of methyl green dye in peripheral veins of the limb in which the intraosseous infusion was performed. RESULTS: Methyl green dye was observed in peripheral veins of the chosen limb in five out of eight intraosseous infusions into bones without medullary cavity-calcaneus and radial styloid. CONCLUSIONS: Successful intraosseous infusion does not always require injection into a bone with a medullary cavity. Practitioners attempting intraosseous access on critically ill patients in the emergency department or prehospital setting need not restrict themselves to such bones. Calcaneus and radial styloid are both an acceptable alternative to traditional recommended sites.

  7. LPS infusion suppresses serum FGF21 levels in healthy adult volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Esben Stistrup; Rittig, Nikolaj; Bach, Ermina


    circulating levels of FGF21 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. DESIGN: Two randomized, single blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trials were used. SETTING: The studies were performed at a university hospital clinical research center. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Study 1 (LPS bolus): Eight young......, healthy, lean males were investigated two times: 1) after isotonic saline injection, and 2) after LPS injection (bolus of 1 ng/kg). Each study day lasted 4 hours. Study 2 (continuous LPS infusion): Eight, healthy males were investigated two times: 1) during continuously isotonic saline infusion, and 2......) during continuously LPS infusion (0.06 ng/kg/h). Each study day lasted 4 hours. Circulating FGF21 levels were quantified every second hour by an immunoassay. RESULTS: A LPS bolus resulted in a late suppression (t = 240 minutes) of serum FGF21 (P=0.035). Continuous LPS infusion revealed no significant...

  8. Natriuretic peptide infusion reduces myocardial injury during acute ischemia/reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Birgitte S.; Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed; Bisgaard, Line Stattau


    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether a natriuretic peptide infusion during reperfusion can reduce cardiomyocyte ischemia–reperfusion damage. Materials and methods: The effect of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity was assessed in vitro and in vivo: the cellular effect...... in apoptotic changes in the BNP-stimulated cells. Pigs tolerated the BNP and CD-NP (a CNP analogue) infusion well, with a decrease in systemic blood pressure (~15 mmHg) and increased diuresis compared with the controls. Left ventricular pressure decreased in the pigs that received BNP infusion compared...... with controls (P=0.02). A similar trend was observed in the pigs that received CD-NP infusion, although this was not significant (P=0.3). BNP and CD-NP infusion in pigs reduced total cardiac troponin T release by 46 and 40%, respectively (P=0.0015 and 0.0019), and were associated with improved RNA integrity...

  9. Natriuretic peptide infusion reduces myocardial injury during acute ischemia/reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Birgitte S.; Larsen, Jens Kjærgaard Rolighed; Bisgaard, Line Stattau


    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether a natriuretic peptide infusion during reperfusion can reduce cardiomyocyte ischemia–reperfusion damage. Materials and methods: The effect of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) activity was assessed in vitro and in vivo: the cellular effect...... in apoptotic changes in the BNP-stimulated cells. Pigs tolerated the BNP and CD-NP (a CNP analogue) infusion well, with a decrease in systemic blood pressure (∼15 mmHg) and increased diuresis compared with the controls. Left ventricular pressure decreased in the pigs that received BNP infusion compared...... with controls (P=0.02). A similar trend was observed in the pigs that received CD-NP infusion, although this was not significant (P=0.3). BNP and CD-NP infusion in pigs reduced total cardiac troponin T release by 46 and 40%, respectively (P=0.0015 and 0.0019), and were associated with improved RNA integrity...

  10. Long-term BPA infusions. Evaluation in the rat brain tumor and rat spinal cord models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Micca, P.L.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Joel, D.D.; Morris, G.M.


    In the BPA-based dose escalation clinical trial, the observations of tumor recurrence in areas of extremely high calculated tumor doses suggest that the BPA distribution is non-uniform. Longer (6-hour) i.v. infusions of BPA are evaluated in the rat brain tumor and spinal cord models to address the questions of whether long-term infusions are more effective against the tumor and whether long-term infusions are detrimental in the central nervous system. In the rat spinal cord, the 50% effective doses (ED 50 ) for myeloparesis were not significantly different after a single i.p. injection of BPA-fructose or a 6 hour i.v. infusion. In the rat 9L gliosarcoma brain tumor model, BNCT following 2-hr or 6-hr infusions of BPA-F produced similar levels of long term survival. (author)

  11. Insulin secretion and cellular glucose metabolism after prolonged low-grade intralipid infusion in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Holst, Jens J


    We examined the simultaneous effects of a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion on peripheral glucose disposal, intracellular glucose partitioning and insulin secretion rates in twenty young men, by 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [low insulin clamp (LI), 10 mU/m(2) x min; high insulin clamp...... Intralipid infusion. At LI, glucose oxidation decreased by 10%, whereas glucose disposal, glycolytic flux, glucose storage, and glucose production were not significantly altered. At HI, glucose disposal, and glucose oxidation decreased by 12% and 24%, respectively, during Intralipid infusion. Glycolytic flux......, glucose storage, and glucose production were unchanged. Insulin secretion rates increased in response to Intralipid infusion, but disposition indices (DI = insulin action.insulin secretion) were unchanged. In conclusion, a 24-h low-grade Intralipid infusion caused insulin resistance in the oxidative (but...

  12. EC infuses Serbian nuclear relic cleanup with critical donation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Full text: As part of the Vinca Institute Nuclear Decommissioning (VIND) Programme, the Serbian government and the IAEA recently signed an $8.63 million (EUR 5.46 million) framework agreement with the European Commission to help fund activities related to decommissioning of the aging Cold War-era nuclear reactor. The European donation is the largest in the project's history, and the infusion of funds is vital to complete a crucial stage of the decommissioning programme. 'Thanks to the impressive contribution by the European Commission, we're one step closer to completing this important and complex project,' said John J. Kelly, the IAEA's Special Programme Manager for VIND. 'With radioactive waste, disused sources, and leaking spent fuel that's almost 45 years old, the Vinca site presents huge radiological challenges.' The task at Vinca is a mammoth undertaking, and the work is split into three major projects. In the first and most expensive project, old Soviet fuel, some of which is high-enriched uranium (HEU) that could be converted to weapons-grade material, must be safely repackaged and then prepared and repatriated to Russia for reprocessing. Once completed, the VIND spent fuel shipment will comprise the largest shipment of spent research reactor fuel in the European theatre, and extra shipping casks have already been built for the project through funding received from the USA. In the second VIND project, thousands of containers of unprocessed radioactive waste and disused sealed radioactive sources must be removed from old, degraded storage buildings, conditioned and packaged for safe, secure storage, and placed into new storage facilities, The new storage facilities are currently under construction and should be ready later this year. The third VIND project focuses on decommissioning of the research reactor. The reactor's draft decommissioning plan is almost finished, and plans are in place to begin some decommissioning and dismantlement activities in 2009

  13. Mental Health Mobile Apps: From Infusion to Diffusion in the Mental Health Social System. (United States)

    East, Marlene Lynette; Havard, Byron C


    The roles of mental health educators and professionals in the diffusion of mental health mobile apps are addressed in this viewpoint article. Mental health mobile apps are emerging technologies that fit under the broad heading of mobile health (mHealth). mHealth, encompassed within electronic health (eHealth), reflects the use of mobile devices for the practice of public health. Well-designed mental health mobile apps that present content in interactive, engaging, and stimulating ways can promote cognitive learning, personal growth, and mental health enhancement. As key influencers in the mental health social system, counselor educators and professional associations may either help or hinder diffusion of beneficial mHealth technologies. As mental health mobile apps move towards ubiquity, research will continue to be conducted. The studies published thus far, combined with the potential of mental health mobile apps for learning and personal growth, offer enough evidence to compel mental health professionals to infuse these technologies into education and practice. Counselor educators and professional associations must use their influential leadership roles to train students and practitioners in how to research, evaluate, and integrate mental health mobile apps into practice. The objectives of this article are to (1) increase awareness of mHealth and mental health mobile apps, (2) demonstrate the potential for continued growth in mental health mobile apps based on technology use and acceptance theory, mHealth organizational initiatives, and evidence about how humans learn, (3) discuss evidence-based benefits of mental health mobile apps, (4) examine the current state of mHealth diffusion in the mental health profession, and (5) offer solutions for impelling innovation diffusion by infusing mental health mobile apps into education, training, and clinical settings. This discussion has implications for counselor educators, mental health practitioners, associations

  14. Albumin infusion in patients undergoing large-volume paracentesis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. (United States)

    Bernardi, Mauro; Caraceni, Paolo; Navickis, Roberta J; Wilkes, Mahlon M


    Albumin infusion reduces the incidence of postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction among patients with cirrhosis and tense ascites, as compared with no treatment. Treatment alternatives to albumin, such as artificial colloids and vasoconstrictors, have been widely investigated. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether morbidity and mortality differ between patients receiving albumin versus alternative treatments. The meta-analysis included randomized trials evaluating albumin infusion in patients with tense ascites. Primary endpoints were postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction, hyponatremia, and mortality. Eligible trials were sought by multiple methods, including computer searches of bibliographic and abstract databases and the Cochrane Library. Results were quantitatively combined under a fixed-effects model. Seventeen trials with 1,225 total patients were included. There was no evidence of heterogeneity or publication bias. Compared with alternative treatments, albumin reduced the incidence of postparacentesis circulatory dysfunction (odds ratio [OR], 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.55). Significant reductions in that complication by albumin were also shown in subgroup analyses versus each of the other volume expanders tested (e.g., dextran, gelatin, hydroxyethyl starch, and hypertonic saline). The occurrence of hyponatremia was also decreased by albumin, compared with alternative treatments (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39-0.87). In addition, mortality was lower in patients receiving albumin than alternative treatments (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.41-0.98). This meta-analysis provides evidence that albumin reduces morbidity and mortality among patients with tense ascites undergoing large-volume paracentesis, as compared with alternative treatments investigated thus far. Copyright © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  15. Efficacy and safety of dexmedetomidine infusion for patients undergoing awake craniotomy: An observational study. (United States)

    Mahajan, Charu; Rath, Girija Prasad; Singh, Gyaninder Pal; Mishra, Nitasha; Sokhal, Suman; Bithal, Parmod Kumar


    The goal of awake craniotomy is to maintain adequate sedation, analgesia, respiratory, and hemodynamic stability and also to provide a cooperative patient for neurologic testing. An observational study carried out to evaluate the efficacy of dexmedetomidine sedation for awake craniotomy. Adult patients with age >18 year who underwent awake craniotomy for intracranial tumor surgery were enrolled. Those who were uncooperative and had difficult airway were excluded from the study. In the operating room, the patients received a bolus dose of dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg followed by an infusion of 0.2-0.7 μg/kg/h (bispectral index target 60-80). Once the patients were sedated, scalp block was given with bupivacaine 0.25%. The data on hemodynamics at various stages of the procedure, intraoperative complications, total amount of fentanyl used, intravenous fluids required, blood loss and transfusion, duration of surgery, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and hospital stay were collected. The patients were assessed for Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) score and patient satisfaction score (PSS). A total of 27 patients underwent awake craniotomy during a period of 2 years. Most common intraoperative complication was seizures; observed in five patients (18.5%). None of these patients experienced any episode of desaturation. Two patients had tight brain for which propofol boluses were administered. The average fentanyl consumption was 161.5 ± 85.0 μg. The duration of surgery, ICU, and hospital stays were 231.5 ± 90.5 min, 14.5 ± 3.5 h, and 4.7 ± 1.5 days, respectively. The overall PSS was 8 and GOS was good in all the patients. The use of dexmedetomidine infusion with regional scalp block in patients undergoing awake craniotomy is safe and efficacious. The absence of major complications and higher PSS makes it close to an ideal agent for craniotomy in awake state.

  16. Desflurane reinforces the efficacy of propofol target-controlled infusion in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Nien Chen


    Full Text Available Whether low-concentration desflurane reinforces propofol-based intravenous anesthesia on maintenance of anesthesia for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether propofol-based anesthesia adding low-concentration desflurane is feasible for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Fifty-two patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in the prospective, randomized, clinical trial. Induction of anesthesia was achieved in all patients with fentanyl 2 μg/kg, lidocaine 1 mg/kg, propofol 2 mg/kg, and rocuronium 0.8 mg/kg to facilitate tracheal intubation and to initiate propofol target-controlled infusion (TCI to effect site concentration (Ce: 4 μg/mL with infusion rate 400 mL/h. The patients were then allocated into either propofol TCI based (group P or propofol TCI adding low-concentration desflurane (group PD for maintenance of anesthesia. The peri-anesthesia hemodynamic responses to stimuli were measured. The perioperative psychomotor test included p-deletion test, minus calculation, orientation, and alert/sedation scales. Group PD showed stable hemodynamic responses at CO2 inflation, initial 15 minutes of operation, and recovery from general anesthesia as compared with group P. There is no significant difference between the groups in operation time and anesthesia time, perioperative psychomotor functional tests, postoperative vomiting, and pain score. Based on our findings, the anesthetic technique combination propofol and desflurane for the maintenance of general anesthesia for laparoscopic cholecystectomy provided more stable hemodynamic responses than propofol alone. The combined regimen is recommended for patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  17. Evaluation of free radical scavenging activity of tea infusion of commercial tea products available in uae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessa, F.; Khan, S.A.


    In the present study, twenty four commercial tea samples were assayed to determine their free radical scavenging activity and polyphenolic contents based on the brewing/infusing period. Tea samples were infused/brewed in 200 mL boiled water at 120 degree C for 1, 2 and 5 min, respectively. The radical scavenging activities of tea infusion/brewing were measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay method. The results were ranged from 67.81-90.51% for black tea bags, 90.37-94.51% for green tea bags, 24.66-92.25% for black tea powder, 16.08-93.06% for green tea powder and 32.90- 45.54% for Camomile herbal infusion. The results showed that 1 or 2 min black tea bags infusion exhibited highest radical scavenging activity than 5 min infusion. Antioxidant activities of tea powders were variable with the amount of tea powder. It was observed that antioxidant activity increased with increasing boiling time for smaller amount of sample. In contrary, shorter boiling time was better for larger amount of sample. The polyphenol contents of tea infusion were determined and the results were expressed as milligram quercetin equivalent/200 mL of tea infusion. The polyphenol content was increased with increased brewing period. In contrary, brewing for longer time rendered extract less antiradical activity. This study suggests that infusing tea bag for 1 or 2 min is sufficient for getting infusion with maximum radical scavenging activity and in case of tea powder, shorter boiling time is better for larger amount of powder or small amount of powder should be boiled for minimum 5 min for rendering extract with maximum radical scavenging activity. (author)

  18. Systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of enalaprilat infusion in experimental normotensive sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rahal

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors have been shown to improve splanchnic perfusion in distinct shock states. We hypothesized that enalaprilat potentiates the benefits of early fluid resuscitation in severe experimental sepsis, particularly in the splanchnic region. Anesthetized and mechanically ventilated mongrel dogs received an intravenous infusion of live Escherichia coli over a period of 30 min. Thereafter, two interventions were performed: fluid infusion (normal saline, 32 mL/kg over 30 min and enalaprilat infusion (0.02 mg kg-1 min-1 for 60 min in randomized groups. The following groups were studied: controls (fluid infusion, N = 4, E1 (enalaprilat infusion followed by fluid infusion, N = 5 and E2 (fluid infusion followed by enalaprilat infusion, N = 5. All animals were observed for a 120 min after bacterial infusion. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output (CO, portal vein blood flow (PVBF, systemic and regional oxygen-derived variables, and lactate levels were measured. Rapid and progressive reductions in CO and PVBF were induced by the infusion of live bacteria, while minor changes were observed in mean arterial pressure. Systemic and regional territories showed a significant increase in oxygen extraction and lactate levels. Widening venous-arterial and portal-arterial pCO2 gradients were also detected. Fluid replacement promoted transient benefits in CO and PVBF. Enalaprilat after fluid resuscitation did not affect systemic or regional hemodynamic variables. We conclude that in this model of normotensive sepsis inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme did not interfere with the course of systemic or regional hemodynamic and oxygen-derived variables.

  19. Infusing Social Justice in Undergraduate Nursing Education: Fostering Praxis Through Simulation. (United States)

    Caldwell, Robyn; Cochran, Courtney

    Forensic clinical experiences are often inconsistent in undergraduate nursing education. Nursing students are not included in the process of forensic evidence collection, often because of the sensitive nature of the situation. Unfortunately, nursing students are forced to rely on theoretical knowledge provided by the nurse educator to understand the complexities of forensic nursing care. Nursing students must be able to identify and provide appropriate nursing care for individuals in all forensic situations. Comprehensive clinical laboratory experiences should be provided through active teaching-learning strategies, which replicate nursing care of the forensic patient. Simulated patient experiences provide a unique opportunity to explore the sensitive nature of sexual trauma in a safe learning environment. This strategy facilitates the application of theoretical forensic principles by utilizing live actors or high-fidelity manikins in laboratory settings. The application of theory to each simulated patient infuses conceptual knowledge at the point of care. Change in social consciousness begins at the bedside. The moral imperative of nursing continues to be the preparation of socially responsible, professional nurses who strive to end social injustices.

  20. Service-Learning Linking Family Child Care Providers, Community Partners, and Preservice Professionals (United States)

    Garner, Pamela W.; Parker, Tameka S.


    This article describes the implementation of a service-learning project, which was infused into a child development course. The project linked family child care providers, their licensing agency, and 39 preservice teachers in a joint effort to develop a parent handbook to be used by the providers in their child care businesses and to support…

  1. Comparative Dose Accuracy of Durable and Patch Insulin Infusion Pumps (United States)

    Jahn, Luis G.; Capurro, Jorge J.; Levy, Brian L.


    Background: As all major insulin pump manufacturers comply with the international infusion pump standard EN 60601-2-24:1998, there may be a general assumption that all pumps are equal in insulin-delivery accuracy. This research investigates single-dose and averaged-dose accuracy of incremental basal deliveries for one patch model and three durable models of insulin pumps. Method: For each pump model, discrete single doses delivered during 0.5 U/h basal rate infusion over a 20 h period were measured using a time-stamped microgravimetric system. Dose accuracy was analyzed by comparing single doses and time-averaged doses to specific accuracy thresholds (±5% to ±30%). Results: The percentage of single doses delivered outside accuracy thresholds of ±5%, ±10%, and ±20% were as follows: Animas OneTouch® Ping® (43.2%, 14.3%, and 1.8%, respectively), Roche Accu-Chek® Combo (50.6%, 24.4%, and 5.5%), Medtronic Paradigm® RevelTM/VeoTM (54.2%, 26.7%, and 6.6%), and Insulet OmniPod® (79.1%, 60.5%, and 34.9%). For 30 min, 1 h, and 2 h averaging windows, the percentage of doses delivered outside a ±15% accuracy were as follows: OneTouch Ping (1.0%, 0.4%, and 0%, respectively), Accu-Chek Combo (4.2%, 3.5%, and 3.1%), Paradigm Revel/Veo (3.9%, 3.1%, and 2.2%), and OmniPod (33.9%, 19.9%, and 10.3%). Conclusions: This technical evaluation demonstrates significant differences in single-dose and averaged-dose accuracy among the insulin pumps tested. Differences in dose accuracy were most evident between the patch pump model and the group of durable pump models. Of the pumps studied, the Animas OneTouch Ping demonstrated the best single-dose and averaged-dose accuracy. Further research on the clinical relevance of these findings is warranted. PMID:23911184

  2. Efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (United States)

    Baek, Yang Hyun; Kim, Kyoung Tae; Lee, Sung Wook; Jeong, Jin Sook; Park, Byeong Ho; Nam, Kyung Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Kim, Young Hoon; Roh, Young Hoon; Lee, Hyung Sik; Choi, Young Min; Han, Sang Young


    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) using floxuridine (FUDR) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) confined to the liver. METHODS: Thirty-four patients who had advanced HCC with unresectability or unsuccessful previous therapy in the absence of extrahepatic metastasis were treated with intra-arterial FUDR chemotherapy at our hospital between March 2005 and May 2008. Among the 34 patients, 9 patients were classified as Child class C, and 18 patients had portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT). One course of chemotherapy consisted of continuous infusion of FUDR (0.3 mg/kg during day 1-14) and dexamethasone (10 mg on day 1, 4, 7 and 11), and this treatment was repeated every 28 d. RESULTS: Two patients (5.9%) displayed a complete response, and 12 patients (35.3%) had a partial response. The tumor control rate was 61.8%. The median overall survival times were 15.3 mo, 12.4 mo and 4.3 mo for the patients who were classified as Child class A, Child class B and Child class C, respectively (P = 0.0392). The progression-free survival was 12.9 mo, 7.7 mo and 2.6 mo for the patients who were classified as Child class A, Child class B and Child class C, respectively (P = 0.0443). The cumulative survival differed significantly according to the Child-Pugh classification and the presence of PVTT. In addition to hepatic reserve capacity and PVTT, the extent of HCC was an independent factor in determining a poor prognosis. The most common adverse reactions to HAIC were mucositis, diarrhea and peptic ulcer disease, but most of these complications were improved by medical treatment and/or a delay of HAIC. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrates that intra-arterial FUDR chemotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for advanced HCC that is recalcitrant to other therapeutic modalities, even in patients with advanced cirrhosis. PMID:22807613

  3. Infusing Geoethics One Geoscience Course at a Time (United States)

    Cronin, V. S.


    Positive change is sometimes difficult to accomplish within a university. While it might be easy to get faculty members and administrators to agree that facilitating the development of students as ethical geoscientists is a desirable goal in the abstract, formally proposing concrete plans to achieve that goal might generate negative responses and even roadblocks. For example, it might be a challenge to pass a course in geoethics through a college curriculum committee, because ethics is a topic usually taught by the philosophy faculty. Although there are recognized subfields in engineering, medical, business, and legal ethics that are commonly taught by faculty members in those respective departments, geoethics is not yet recognized in this way. A more productive approach might be to begin with change that can be accomplished simply, within existing courses. Faculty members are usually granted broad discretionary authority to decide how material is to be presented in geoscience courses, including required core courses. My suggestion is to structure a course that presents all of the material normally expected under that course title, but in such a way that the ethical dimensions are intentionally and consistently highlighted. As with any change in the way we present course material, there is a startup cost to be borne by the teacher. One cost is the time needed to deepen our understanding of applied professional and scientific ethics; however, this is more of a personal and professional benefit than a cost in the long run. Infusing a course with an awareness of ethical issues also takes prior thought and planning to be successful. But, of course, that is no different from any other improvement in science education. Impressions from a semester's effort to include geoethics in a required core course in structural geology to about 25 students will be shared. The main course topic is not particularly relevant, because there are a number of ethical questions that students

  4. Tolerability of Shortened Infliximab Infusion Times in Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Diseases : A Single-Center Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breynaert, Christine; Ferrante, Marc; Fidder, Herma; Van Steen, Kristel; Noman, Maja; Ballet, Vera; Vermeire, Severine; Rutgeerts, Paul; Van Assche, Gert

    OBJECTIVES: Scheduled maintenance therapy with infliximab decreases the risk of infusion reactions. Many centers have accelerated infusion times to 1 h in selected patients who tolerate 5 mg/kg infliximab infusions. The aim of this study was to compare the tolerability of 1-h and 2-h infliximab

  5. Vascular effects of intravenous intralipid and dextrose infusions in obese subjects. (United States)

    Gosmanov, Aidar R; Smiley, Dawn D; Peng, Limin; Siquiera, Joselita; Robalino, Gonzalo; Newton, Christopher; Umpierrez, Guillermo E


    Hyperglycemia and elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Infusion of soy-bean oil-based lipid emulsion (Intralipid®) increases FFA levels and results in elevation of blood pressure (BP) and endothelial dysfunction in obese healthy subjects. The effects of combined hyperglycemia and high FFA on BP, endothelial function and carbohydrate metabolism are not known. Twelve obese healthy subjects received four random, 8-h IV infusions of saline, Intralipid 40 mL/h, Dextrose 10% 40 mL/h, or combined Intralipid and dextrose. Plasma levels of FFA increased by 1.03±0.34 mmol/L (p=0.009) after Intralipid, but FFAs remained unchanged during saline, dextrose, and combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations significantly increased after dextrose and combined Intralipid and dextrose (all, pdextrose infusion had neutral effects on BP and FMD. The co-administration of lipid and dextrose decreased FMD by 2.4%±2.1% (p=0.002) from baseline, but did not significantly increase systolic or diastolic BP. Short-term Intralipid infusion significantly increased FFA and BP; in contrast, FFA and BP were unchanged during combined infusion of Intralipid and dextrose. Combined Intralipid and dextrose infusion resulted in endothelial dysfunction similar to Intralipid alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Infusion and sampling site effects on two-pool model estimates of leucine metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helland, S.J.; Grisdale-Helland, B.; Nissen, S.


    To assess the effect of site of isotope infusion on estimates of leucine metabolism infusions of alpha-[4,5-3H]ketoisocaproate (KIC) and [U- 14 C]leucine were made into the left or right ventricles of sheep and pigs. Blood was sampled from the opposite ventricle. In both species, left ventricular infusions resulted in significantly lower specific radioactivities (SA) of [ 14 C]leucine and [ 3 H]KIC. [ 14 C]KIC SA was found to be insensitive to infusion and sampling sites. [ 14 C]KIC was in addition found to be equal to the SA of [ 14 C]leucine only during the left heart infusions. Therefore, [ 14 C]KIC SA was used as the only estimate for [ 14 C]SA in the equations for the two-pool model. This model eliminated the influence of site of infusion and blood sampling on the estimates for leucine entry and reduced the impact on the estimates for proteolysis and oxidation. This two-pool model could not compensate for the underestimation of transamination reactions occurring during the traditional venous isotope infusion and arterial blood sampling

  7. Glucagon infusion increases rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itakura, Mitsuo; Maeda, Noriaki; Tsuchiya, Masami; Yamashita, Kamejiro


    Based on the parallel increases of glucagon, the second peak of hepatic cAMP, and the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the prereplicative period in regenerating rate liver after a 70% hepatectomy, it was hypothesized that glucagon is responsible for the increased rate of purine synthesis de novo. To test this hypothesis, the effect of glucagon or dibutyryl cAMP infusion on the rate of purine synthesis de novo in rat liver was studied. Glucagon infusion but not insulin or glucose infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo, which was assayed by [ 14 C]glycine or [ 14 C]formate incorporation, by 2.7- to 4.3-fold. Glucagon infusion increased cAMP concentrations by 4.9-fold and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations by 1.5-fold in liver but did not change the specific activity of amidophosphoribosyltransferase or purine ribonucleotide concentrations. Dibutyryl cAMP infusion also increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo by 2.2- to 4.0-fold. Because glucagon infusion increased the rate of purine synthesis de novo in the presence of unchanged purine ribonucleotide concentrations, it is concluded that glucagon after infusion or in animals after a 70% hepatectomy is playing an anabolic role to increase the rate of purine synthesis de novo by increasing cAMP and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate concentrations

  8. Local Intraarterial Thrombolysis: In Vitro Comparison Between Automatic and Manual Pulse-Spray Infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froelich, Jens J.; Freymann, Christina; Hoppe, Martin; Thiel, Thomas; Wagner, H. Joachim; Barth, Klemens H.; Klose, Klaus J.


    Purpose: Manual and automatic pulse-spray infusion techniques are compared in vitro to evaluate the efficacy of thrombolysis and the distribution of urokinase and saline solution within thrombus using a pulse-spray catheter. Methods: A pulse-spray catheter was introduced into a human thrombus within a stenotic flow model. Automatic and manual pulsed infusion of urokinase and automatic pulsed infusion of saline solution were compared. To quantify the efficacy of thrombolysis, pressure gradients were recorded proximal and distal to the thrombus and during the course of infusion. Distribution of infused urokinase was assessed radiographically. Results: The fastest and most homogeneous dissolution of the thrombus was achieved with automatic pulsed infusion of urokinase, shown by decreasing transthrombotic pressure gradients (p < 0.001, Wilcoxon, matched pairs). Manual pulsed infusion of urokinase or saline solution resulted in inhomogeneous thrombus dissolution and delayed thrombolysis. Conclusion: Application of automatic pulse-spray injectors seems beneficial for more effective and homogeneous intraarterial pulse-spray thrombolysis when compared with conventional manual pulsed technique

  9. Value of infusion-DSA (Digital Subtraction Angiography) in diagnosis of primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jeong Mi; Kim, So Sun; Huh, Jin Do; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Joh, Young Duk


    In order to evaluate diagnostic effectiveness of the infusion-study, the authors prospectively evaluated hepatic digital subtraction angiography of bolus and infusion studies in 71 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast to Bolus-DSA, which involves a 2 second injection of 10cc of contrast medium, the Infusion-DSA uses a protracted (10sec) injection, a lower injection rate, and larger total dose of contrast medium (20cc). The information yield of arterial and capillary phases of Infusion-DSA was compared with that of Bolus-DSA and graded as 'improved(+)', 'equivalent( ± )', or 'poor(-)'. Also, the contribution of Infusion-DSA to the diagnosis was classified into one of five in a graded system. In 29 hepatocellular patients, the Infusion-DSA was helpful in detecting daughter nodules, fibrous capsule and arteriovenous shunt. Infusion-DSA is a useful complementary technique in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and was also helpful in determining the selection of the therapeutic modality of hepatocellular carcinoma

  10. Palliation of inoperable head and neck cancer: combined intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, A.L.; Meeker, W.R.


    Palliation of unresectable head and neck cancer remains a difficult problem. Because of excellent results reported by others with infusion of vinblastine, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil into the external carotid artery followed by irradiation before curative surgery, we applied this technic to 22 patients with advanced head and neck cancer. Fifteen patients from this group who had chemotherapy infusion followed by radiation therapy are compared with 21 patients who received radiation therapy alone. Both groups were similar in distribution of primary site, histology, and TNM stage. Of 15 patients, 14 (93%) had partial or complete tumor regression after both arterial chemotherapy infusion and irradiation, while 14 of 17 patients (82%) receiving primary irradiation had partial or complete response. Drug toxicity and complications related to infusion occurred in all patients. Most patients in both groups had short survivals (mean of 14.1 months in infusion chemotherapy and radiation vs 9.1 months in primary irradiation). One patient remains alive in the infusion group and two in the control group; however, all have recurrent disease. Results indicate a slight increase in survival time with the addition of infusion chemotherapy to irradiation in palliative treatment of head and neck cancer

  11. Venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after nitroglycerin infusion in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Emmeluth, C


    before and immediately (5-30 s) after 80 min infusion of NTG (glyceryl trinitrate) or saline in 12 healthy subjects. On two different days separated by at least 1 week, NTG in four different doses, 0.015, 0.25, 1.0, and 2.0 micrograms. kg-1. min-1, or placebo (isotonic saline) was infused successively...... for 20 min each dose. During the infusion blood pressure and heart rate were measured. NTG infusion significantly decreased systolic blood pressure from 112.4 to 103.4 mmHg and pulse pressure from 39.3 to 29.5 mmHg. Heart rate increased from 62.7 to 73.1 beats. min-1. No changes in endothelin-1 plasma...... levels were induced by NTG infusion (2.4 before NTG vs. 2.7 after NTG) and placebo infusion also did not affect plasma endothelin-1. It is concluded that venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after NTG infusion....

  12. Clinical experience with contrast infusion sonography as an Essure confirmation test. (United States)

    Connor, Viviane F


    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical experience, including the feasibility, safety, compliance, and efficacy, of contrast infusion sonography as an Essure (Conceptus Inc, Mountain View, CA) confirmation test. A retrospective chart review and telephone survey were conducted at an academic multispecialty group. The study participants were women with Essure intervention who underwent contrast infusion sonography, transvaginal sonography, and hysterosalpingography as Essure confirmation tests. The main outcome measures included the feasibility, safety, compliance, and efficacy of contrast infusion sonography as a first-line Essure confirmation test. A total of 118 women had successful bilateral Essure placement. Of the 63 who consented to contrast infusion sonography, 53 (84.1%) had proper bilateral placement and tubal occlusion and were encouraged to rely on Essure. Four were suspected of having unilateral tubal patency; hysterosalpingography in 2 confirmed bilateral tubal occlusion, and 2 were noncompliant with second-line hysterosalpingography. Three patients suspected of having unsatisfactory or uncertain placement on initial transvaginal sonography were encouraged to undergo hysterosalpingography in lieu of contrast infusion sonography, which confirmed unsatisfactory placement in 2 and proper placement and occlusion in 1. Three contrast infusion sonographic procedures could not be completed because of technical issues; therefore, contrast infusion sonography was feasible in 95.2% of the patients (60 of 63). No notable adverse events occurred. Only 17 patients were noncompliant with any confirmation test, yielding an overall compliance rate of 86% (101 of 118). No pregnancies occurred during 669 woman-months of follow-up. The average reimbursement for contrast infusion sonography was US$251.78. Preliminary clinical data suggest that contrast infusion sonography is a feasible, safe, and accurate Essure confirmation test, which is well accepted by

  13. Therapy Provider Phase Information (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  14. Treatment with acetaminophen/paracetamol or ibuprofen alleviates post-dose symptoms related to intravenous infusion with zoledronic acid 5 mg. (United States)

    Wark, J D; Bensen, W; Recknor, C; Ryabitseva, O; Chiodo, J; Mesenbrink, P; de Villiers, T J


    Patients treated with intravenous zoledronic acid 5 mg for osteoporosis may experience post-dose influenza-like symptoms. Oral acetaminophen/paracetamol or ibuprofen administered 4 h post-infusion reduced the proportion of patients with increased oral temperature and worsening post-infusion symptom scores vs. placebo, thus providing an effective strategy for the treatment of such symptoms. Once-yearly intravenous zoledronic acid 5 mg is a safe and effective treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study assessed whether transient influenza-like post-dose symptoms associated with intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid can be reduced by post-dose administration of acetaminophen/paracetamol or ibuprofen. In an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy parallel-group study, bisphosphonate-naïve postmenopausal women with osteopenia (n = 481) were randomized to receive zoledronic acid 5 mg + acetaminophen/paracetamol (n = 135), ibuprofen (n = 137) or placebo (n = 137), or placebo + placebo (n = 72). Acetaminophen/paracetamol and ibuprofen were administered every 6 h for 3 days beginning 4 h post-infusion. The proportion of patients with increased oral temperature (≥1°C above 37.5°C) and with worsening post-infusion symptom scores over 3 days was significantly lower in patients receiving ibuprofen (36.8% and 48.5%) or acetaminophen/paracetamol (37.3% and 46.3%) vs. those receiving placebo (63.5% and 75.9%, respectively; all p paracetamol or ibuprofen. Oral acetaminophen/paracetamol or ibuprofen effectively managed the transient influenza-like symptoms associated with zoledronic acid 5 mg.

  15. Psychopathology and Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rotella


    Full Text Available Aim. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII is used as an option in patients with diabetes failing to multiple daily injections (MDI. Psychological factors may play a relevant role in the failure to attain therapeutic goals in patients on MDI. This could lead to an overrepresentation of psychopathology in patients treated with CSII. Methods. A consecutive series of 100 patients with type 1 diabetes was studied, collecting main clinical parameters and assessing psychopathology with the self-reported questionnaire Symptom Checklist 90-revised. Patients on CSII were then compared with those on MDI. Results. Of the 100 enrolled patients, 44 and 56 were on CSII and MDI, respectively. Among men, those on CSII were younger than those on MDI; conversely, no difference in age was observed in women. Women on CSII showed higher scores on most Symptom Checklist 90 subscales than those on MDI, whereas no differences were observed in men. Conclusion. Women with type 1 diabetes treated with CSII display higher levels of psychopathology than those on MDI. This is probably the consequence of the fact that patients selected for CSII are those failing to MDI. Higher levels of psychopathology could represent a limit for the attainment and maintenance of therapeutic goals with CSII.

  16. A review of the security of insulin pump infusion systems. (United States)

    Paul, Nathanael; Kohno, Tadayoshi; Klonoff, David C


    Insulin therapy has enabled patients with diabetes to maintain blood glucose control to lead healthier lives. Today, rather than injecting insulin manually using syringes, a patient can use a device such as an insulin pump to deliver insulin programmatically. This allows for more granular insulin delivery while attaining blood glucose control. Insulin pump system features have increasingly benefited patients, but the complexity of the resulting system has grown in parallel. As a result, security breaches that can negatively affect patient health are now possible. Rather than focus on the security of a single device, we concentrate on protecting the security of the entire system. In this article, we describe the security issues as they pertain to an insulin pump system that includes an embedded system of components, which include the insulin pump, continuous glucose management system, blood glucose monitor, and other associated devices (e.g., a mobile phone or personal computer). We detail not only the growing wireless communication threat in each system component, but also describe additional threats to the system (e.g., availability and integrity). Our goal is to help create a trustworthy infusion pump system that will ultimately strengthen pump safety, and we describe mitigating solutions to address identified security issues. © 2011 Diabetes Technology Society.

  17. Infusion of solutions of pre-irradiated components in rats. (United States)

    Pappas, Georgina; Arnaud, Francoise; Haque, Ashraful; Kino, Tomoyuki; Facemire, Paul; Carroll, Erica; Auker, Charles; McCarron, Richard; Scultetus, Anke


    The objective of this study was to conduct a 14-day toxicology assessment for intravenous solutions prepared from irradiated resuscitation fluid components and sterile water. Healthy Sprague Dawley rats (7-10/group) were instrumented and randomized to receive one of the following Field IntraVenous Resuscitation (FIVR) or commercial fluids; Normal Saline (NS), Lactated Ringer's, 5% Dextrose in NS. Daily clinical observation, chemistry and hematology on days 1,7,14, and urinalysis on day 14 were evaluated for equivalence using a two sample t-test (p<0.05). A board-certified pathologist evaluated organ histopathology on day 14. Equivalence was established for all observation parameters, lactate, sodium, liver enzymes, creatinine, WBC and differential, and urinalysis values. Lack of equivalence for hemoglobin (p=0.055), pH (p=0.0955), glucose (p=0.0889), Alanine-Aminotransferase (p=0.1938), albumin (p=0.1311), and weight (p=0.0555, p=0.1896), was deemed not clinically relevant due to means within physiologically normal ranges. Common microscopic findings randomly distributed among animals of all groups were endocarditis/myocarditis and pulmonary lesions. These findings are consistent with complications due to long-term catheter use and suggest no clinically relevant differences in end-organ toxicity between animals infused with FIVR versus commercial fluids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Propofol drip infusion anesthesia for MRI scanning: two case reports. (United States)

    Sasao-Takano, Mami; Misumi, Kan; Suzuki, Masayuki; Kamiya, Yoko; Noguchi, Izumi; Kawahara, Hiroshi


    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) room is a special environment. The required intense magnetic fields create unique problems with the use of standard anesthesia machines, syringe pumps, and physiologic monitors. We have recently experienced 2 oral maxillofacial surgery cases requiring MRI: a 15-year-old boy with developmental disability and a healthy 5-year-old boy. The patients required complete immobilization during the scanning for obtaining high-quality images for the best diagnosis. Anesthesia was started in the MRI scanning room. An endotracheal intubation was performed after induction with intravenous administration of muscle relaxant. Total intravenous anesthesia via propofol drip infusion (4-7 mg/kg/h) was used during the scanning. Standard physiologic monitors were used during scan pauses, but special monitors were used during scanning. In MRI scanning for oral maxillofacial surgery, general anesthesia, with the added advantage of having a secured airway, is recommended as a safe alternative to sedation especially in cases of patients with disability and precooperative chidren.

  19. Changes in regional plasma extravasation in rats following endotoxin infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Lambalgen, A.A.; van den Bos, G.C.; Thijs, L.G.


    Regional differences in plasma extravasation during endotoxin shock in rats and a possible relationship with changes in regional blood flow were studied with radioactive isotopes ( 125 I-HSA, 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, microspheres) in anesthetized rats (pentobarbital). Shock was induced by intravenous infusion of endotoxin (Eschericia coli; 10 mg X kg-1) for 60 min (starting at t = 0); at t = 120 min, the experiments were terminated. These rats (n = 8) were compared with time-matched control rats (n = 8). A third group (rats killed 7.5 min after injection of 125 I-HSA, i.e., no extravasation; n = 8) served as baseline. The amount of plasma extravasated in 2 hr of endotoxin shock was significantly increased over control values in skin (by 67%), colon (88%), skeletal muscle (105%), stomach (230%), pancreas (300%), and diaphragm (1300%). Losses of 125 I-HSA into intestinal lumen and peritoneal cavity had also increased over control values by 146 and 380%, respectively. Blood flow was compromised in most organs except heart and diaphragm. Extravasation when normalized for total plasma supply was correlated with total blood supply; the more the blood supply decreased, the higher the normalized extravasation. In the diaphragm, however, blood supply and plasma leakage increased together. Decreased blood supply and plasma extravasation may be related but they could also be simultaneously occurring independent phenomena with a common origin

  20. Investigation of initial contamination for disposal medical infusion items and determination of sterilization dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jinhui; Xu Ziyan; Sun Naifeng; Yan Aoshuang; Gao Wei; Wang Binglin


    Statistical analyses on initial contamination of 624 disposal medical infusion items are made. The normal distribution of the initial contamination, the relation of initial contamination of inner and outer walls of disposal medical infusion items and the changes of initial contamination before irradiation are shown. The sterilized dose for disposal infusion is determined as 17.2 kGy using bioburden information. The SAL (sterility assurance level) dose is 10 6 . The SIP (device sample item proportion) is 1 and the average initial contamination is 7 CFU/item